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Sample records for critically ill patient

  1. Dependency in Critically Ill Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumei Yang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available By necessity, critically ill patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs have a high level of dependency, which is linked to a variety of negative feelings, such as powerlessness. However, the term dependency is not well defined in the critically ill patients. The concept of “dependency” in critically ill patients was analyzed using a meta-synthesis approach. An inductive process described by Deborah Finfgeld-Connett was used to analyze the data. Overarching themes emerged that reflected critically ill patients’ experience and meaning of being in dependency were (a antecedents: dependency in critically ill patients was a powerless and vulnerable state, triggered by a life-threatening crisis; (b attributes: the characteristic of losing “self” was featured by dehumanization and disembodiment, which can be alleviated by a “self”-restoring process; and (c outcomes: living with dependency and coping with dependency. The conceptual model explicated here may provide a framework for understanding dependency in critically ill patients.

  2. Oxygen supplementation for critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbateskovic, M; Schjørring, O L; Jakobsen, J C

    2018-01-01

    . The objective of this systematic review is to critically assess the evidence of randomised clinical trials on the effects of higher versus lower inspiratory oxygen fractions or targets of arterial oxygenation in critically ill adult patients. METHODS: We will search for randomised clinical trials in major......BACKGROUND: In critically ill patients, hypoxaemia is a common clinical manifestation of inadequate gas exchange in the lungs. Supplemental oxygen is therefore given to all critically ill patients. This can result in hyperoxaemia, and some observational studies have identified harms with hyperoxia...... in international guidelines despite lack of robust evidence of its effectiveness. To our knowledge, no systematic review of randomised clinical trials has investigated the effects of oxygen supplementation in critically ill patients. This systematic review will provide reliable evidence to better inform future...

  3. Pharmacokinetics of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in critically ill and non-critically ill AIDS patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Chin, T W; Vandenbroucke, A; Fong, I W

    1995-01-01

    Current dosage regimens of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole used to treat Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in AIDS patients have been based on data from healthy subjects or patients without AIDS. The clearance and absorption characteristics of the drugs may potentially be different between patients with and without AIDS. This study was conducted to assess the pharmacokinetics of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole in critically ill and non-critically ill AIDS patients treated for P. carinii pneumonia. P...

  4. Energy Requirements in Critically Ill Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    During the management of critical illness, optimal nutritional support is an important key for achieving positive clinical outcomes. Compared to healthy people, critically ill patients have higher energy expenditure, thereby their energy requirements and risk of malnutrition being increased. Assessing individual nutritional requirement is essential for a successful nutritional support, including the adequate energy supply. Methods to assess energy requirements include indirect calorimetry (IC) which is considered as a reference method, and the predictive equations which are commonly used due to the difficulty of using IC in certain conditions. In this study, a literature review was conducted on the energy metabolic changes in critically ill patients, and the implications for the estimation of energy requirements in this population. In addition, the issue of optimal caloric goal during nutrition support is discussed, as well as the accuracy of selected resting energy expenditure predictive equations, commonly used in critically ill patients.

  5. Energy Requirements in Critically Ill Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndahimana, Didace; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2018-04-01

    During the management of critical illness, optimal nutritional support is an important key for achieving positive clinical outcomes. Compared to healthy people, critically ill patients have higher energy expenditure, thereby their energy requirements and risk of malnutrition being increased. Assessing individual nutritional requirement is essential for a successful nutritional support, including the adequate energy supply. Methods to assess energy requirements include indirect calorimetry (IC) which is considered as a reference method, and the predictive equations which are commonly used due to the difficulty of using IC in certain conditions. In this study, a literature review was conducted on the energy metabolic changes in critically ill patients, and the implications for the estimation of energy requirements in this population. In addition, the issue of optimal caloric goal during nutrition support is discussed, as well as the accuracy of selected resting energy expenditure predictive equations, commonly used in critically ill patients.

  6. Nutritional requirements of the critically ill patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Daniel L

    2004-02-01

    The presence or development of malnutrition during critical illness has been unequivocally associated with increased morbidity and mortality in people. Recognition that malnutrition may similarly affect veterinary patients emphasizes the need to properly address the nutritional requirements of hospitalized dogs and cats. Because of a lack in veterinary studies evaluating the nutritional requirements of critically ill small animals, current recommendations for nutritional support of veterinary patients are based largely on sound clinical judgment and the best information available, including data from experimental animal models and human studies. This, however, should not discourage the veterinary practitioner from implementing nutritional support in critically ill patients. Similar to many supportive measures of critically ill patients, nutritional interventions can have a significant impact on patient morbidity and may even improve survival. The first step of nutritional support is to identify patients most likely to benefit from nutritional intervention. Careful assessment of the patient and appraisal of its nutritional needs provide the basis for a nutritional plan, which includes choosing the optimal route of nutritional support, determining the number of calories to provide, and determining the composition of the diet. Ultimately, the success of the nutritional management of critically ill dogs and cats will depend on close monitoring and frequent reassessment.

  7. [Medicines reconciliation in critically ill patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Martin, C; Aquerreta, I; Faus, V; Idoate, A

    2014-01-01

    Medicines reconciliation plays a key role in patient safety. However, there is limited data available on how this process affects critically ill patients. In this study, we evaluate a program of reconciliation in critically ill patients conducted by the Intensive Care Unit's (ICU) pharmacist. Prospective study about reconciliation medication errors observed in 50 patients. All ICU patients, excluding patients without regular treatment. Reconciliation process was carried out in the first 24h after ICU admission. Discrepancies were clarified with the doctor in charge of the patient. We analyzed the incidence of reconciliation errors, their characteristics and gravity, the interventions made by the pharmacist and their acceptance by physicians. A total of 48% of patients showed at least one reconciliation error. Omission of drugs accounted for 74% of the reconciliation errors, mainly involving antihypertensive drugs (33%). An amount of 58% of reconciliation errors detected corresponded to severity category D. Pharmacist made interventions in the 98% of patients with discrepancies. A total of 81% of interventions were accepted. The incidence and characteristics of reconciliation errors in ICU are similar to those published in non-critically ill patients, and they affect drugs with high clinical significance. Our data support the importance of the stablishment of medication reconciliation proceedings in critically ill patients. The ICU's pharmacist could carry out this procedure adequately. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of linezolid in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sazdanovic, Predrag; Jankovic, Slobodan M; Kostic, Marina; Dimitrijevic, Aleksandra; Stefanovic, Srdjan

    2016-06-01

    Linezolid is an oxazolidinone antibiotic active against Gram-positive bacteria, and is most commonly used to treat life-threatening infections in critically ill patients. The pharmacokinetics of linezolid are profoundly altered in critically ill patients, partly due to decreased function of vital organs, and partly because life-sustaining drugs and devices may change the extent of its excretion. This article is summarizes key changes in the pharmacokinetics of linezolid in critically ill patients. The changes summarized are clinically relevant and may serve as rationale for dosing recommendations in this particular population. While absorption and penetration of linezolid to tissues are not significantly changed in critically ill patients, protein binding of linezolid is decreased, volume of distribution increased, and metabolism may be inhibited leading to non-linear kinetics of elimination; these changes are responsible for high inter-individual variability of linezolid plasma concentrations, which requires therapeutic plasma monitoring and choice of continuous venous infusion as the administration method. Acute renal or liver failure decrease clearance of linezolid, but renal replacement therapy is capable of restoring clearance back to normal, obviating the need for dosage adjustment. More population pharmacokinetic studies are necessary which will identify and quantify the influence of various factors on clearance and plasma concentrations of linezolid in critically ill patients.

  9. Nitrogen Balance and Protein Requirements for Critically Ill Older Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland N. Dickerson

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Critically ill older patients with sarcopenia experience greater morbidity and mortality than younger patients. It is anticipated that unabated protein catabolism would be detrimental for the critically ill older patient. Healthy older subjects experience a diminished response to protein supplementation when compared to their younger counterparts, but this anabolic resistance can be overcome by increasing protein intake. Preliminary evidence suggests that older patients may respond differently to protein intake than younger patients during critical illness as well. If sufficient protein intake is given, older patients can achieve a similar nitrogen accretion response as younger patients even during critical illness. However, there is concern among some clinicians that increasing protein intake in older patients during critical illness may lead to azotemia due to decreased renal functional reserve which may augment the propensity towards worsened renal function and worsened clinical outcomes. Current evidence regarding protein requirements, nitrogen balance, ureagenesis, and clinical outcomes during nutritional therapy for critically ill older patients is reviewed.

  10. Glucose metabolism in critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Signe Tellerup; Krogh-Madsen, Rikke; Møller, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    glucose (BG). This is taken advantage of in the treatment of patients with T2DM, for whom GLP-1 analogs have been introduced during the recent years. Infusion of GLP-1 also lowers the BG level in critically ill patients without causing severe hypoglycemia. The T2DM and critical illness share similar......, stimulates insulin secretion and inhibits glucagon release both in healthy individuals and in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Compared to insulin, GLP-1 appears to be associated with a lower risk of severe hypoglycemia, probably because the magnitude of its insulinotropic action is dependent on blood...

  11. Should we mobilise critically ill patients? A review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Enda D

    2009-12-01

    Neuromuscular weakness, a frequent complication of prolonged bed rest and critical illness, is associated with morbidity and mortality. Mobilisation physiotherapy has widespread application in patients hospitalised with non-critical illness.

  12. Is refeeding syndrome relevant for critically ill patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koekkoek, Wilhelmina A C; Van Zanten, Arthur R H

    2018-03-01

    To summarize recent relevant studies regarding refeeding syndrome (RFS) in critically ill patients and provide recommendations for clinical practice. Recent knowledge regarding epidemiology of refeeding syndrome among critically ill patients, how to identify ICU patients at risk, and strategies to reduce the potential negative impact on outcome are discussed. RFS is a potentially fatal acute metabolic derangement that ultimately can result in marked morbidity and even mortality. These metabolic derangements in ICU patients differ from otherwise healthy patients with RFS, as there is lack of anabolism. This is because of external stressors inducing a hypercatabolic response among other reasons also reflected by persistent high glucagon despite initiation of feeding. Lack of a proper uniform definition complicates diagnosis and research of RFS. However, refeeding hypophosphatemia is commonly encountered during critical illness. The correlations between risk factors proposed by international guidelines and the occurrence of RFS in ICU patients remains unclear. Therefore, regular phosphate monitoring is recommended. Based on recent trials among critically ill patients, only treatment with supplementation of electrolytes and vitamins seems not sufficient. In addition, caloric restriction for several days and gradual increase of caloric intake over days is recommendable.

  13. Clinical use of lactate monitoring in critically ill patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Bakker (Jan); M.W.N. Nijsten (Maarten); T.C. Jansen (Tim)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIncreased blood lactate levels (hyperlactataemia) are common in critically ill patients. Although frequently used to diagnose inadequate tissue oxygenation, other processes not related to tissue oxygenation may increase lactate levels. Especially in critically ill patients, increased

  14. The optimal blood glucose level for critically ill adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Shaoning; Ross, Paul; Tori, Kathleen

    2017-09-01

    Glycaemic control is recognized as one of the important aspects in managing critically ill patients. Both hyperglycaemia and hypoglycaemia independently increase the risk of patient mortality. Hence, the identification of optimal glycaemic control is of paramount importance in the management of critically ill patients. The aim of this literature review is to examine the current status of glycaemic control in critically ill adult patients. This literature review will focus on randomized controlled trials comparing intensive insulin therapy to conventional insulin therapy, with an objective to identify optimal blood glucose level targets for critically ill adult patients. A literature review was conducted to identify large randomized controlled trials for the optimal targeted blood glucose level for critically ill adult patients published since 2000. A total of eight studies fulfilled the selection criteria of this review. With current human and technology resources, the results of the studies support commencing glycaemic control once the blood glucose level of critically ill patients reaches 10 mmol/L and maintaining this level between 8 mmol/L and 10 mmol/L. This literature review provides a recommendation for targeting the optimal blood glucose level for critically ill patients within moderate blood glucose level target range (8-10 mmol/L). The need for uniformed glucometrics for unbiased reporting and further research for optimal blood glucose target is required, especially in light of new technological advancements in closed-loop insulin delivery and monitoring devices. This literature review has revealed a need to call for consensus in the measurement and reporting of glycaemic control using standardized glucometrics. © 2017 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  15. Antithrombin III for critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allingstrup, Mikkel; Wetterslev, Jørn; Ravn, Frederikke B

    2016-01-01

    Background: Critical illness is associated with uncontrolled inflammation and vascular damage which can result in multiple organ failure and death. Antithrombin III (AT III) is an anticoagulant with anti-inflammatory properties but the efficacy and any harmful effects of AT III supplementation...... in critically ill patients are unknown. This review was published in 2008 and updated in 2015.  Objectives: To examine: 1. The effect of AT III on mortality in critically ill participants. 2. The benefits and harms of AT III. We investigated complications specific and not specific to the trial intervention......, bleeding events, the effect on sepsis and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) and the length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) and in hospital in general.  Search methods: We searched the following databases from inception to 27 August 2015: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials...

  16. Melatonin Secretion Pattern in Critically Ill Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyko, Yuliya; Holst, René; Jennum, Poul

    2017-01-01

    effect of remifentanil on melatonin secretion. We found that the risk of atypical sleep compared to normal sleep was significantly lower (p REM) sleep was only observed during the nonsedation period. We found preserved diurnal pattern of melatonin...... secretion in these patients. Remifentanil did not affect melatonin secretion but was associated with lower risk of atypical sleep pattern. REM sleep was only registered during the period of nonsedation.......Critically ill patients have abnormal circadian and sleep homeostasis. This may be associated with higher morbidity and mortality. The aims of this pilot study were (1) to describe melatonin secretion in conscious critically ill mechanically ventilated patients and (2) to describe whether melatonin...

  17. Advances in Biomarkers in Critical Ill Polytrauma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papurica, Marius; Rogobete, Alexandru F; Sandesc, Dorel; Dumache, Raluca; Cradigati, Carmen A; Sarandan, Mirela; Nartita, Radu; Popovici, Sonia E; Bedreag, Ovidiu H

    2016-01-01

    The complexity of the cases of critically ill polytrauma patients is given by both the primary, as well as the secondary, post-traumatic injuries. The severe injuries of organ systems, the major biochemical and physiological disequilibrium, and the molecular chaos lead to a high rate of morbidity and mortality in this type of patient. The 'gold goal' in the intensive therapy of such patients resides in the continuous evaluation and monitoring of their clinical status. Moreover, optimizing the therapy based on the expression of certain biomarkers with high specificity and sensitivity is extremely important because of the clinical course of the critically ill polytrauma patient. In this paper we wish to summarize the recent studies of biomarkers useful for the intensive care unit (ICU) physician. For this study the available literature on specific databases such as PubMed and Scopus was thoroughly analyzed. Each article was carefully reviewed and useful information for this study extracted. The keywords used to select the relevant articles were "sepsis biomarker", "traumatic brain injury biomarker" "spinal cord injury biomarker", "inflammation biomarker", "microRNAs biomarker", "trauma biomarker", and "critically ill patients". For this study to be carried out 556 original type articles were analyzed, as well as case reports and reviews. For this review, 89 articles with relevant topics for the present paper were selected. The critically ill polytrauma patient, because of the clinical complexity the case presents with, needs a series of evaluations and specific monitoring. Recent studies show a series of either tissue-specific or circulating biomarkers that are useful in the clinical status evaluation of these patients. The biomarkers existing today, with regard to the critically ill polytrauma patient, can bring a significant contribution to increasing the survival rate, by adapting the therapy according to their expressions. Nevertheless, the necessity remains to

  18. Preload assessment and optimization in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voga, Gorazd

    2010-01-01

    Preload assessment and optimization is the basic hemodynamic intervention in critically ill. Beside clinical assessment, non-invasive or invasive assessment by measurement of various pressure or volume hemodynamic variables, are helpful for estimation of preload and fluid responsiveness. The use of dynamic variables is useful in particular subgroup of critically ill patients. In patients with inadequate preload, fluid responsiveness and inadequate flow, treatment with crystalloids or colloids is mandatory. When rapid hemodynamic response is necessary colloids are preferred.

  19. Does gender influence outcomes in critically ill patients?

    OpenAIRE

    Angele, Martin K; Pratschke, Sebastian; Chaudry, Irshad H

    2012-01-01

    Investigators continue to debate whether gender plays any role in patient outcome following injury/critical illness. We submit that age and hormonal milieu at the time of injury, rather than gender, are the critical factors influencing patient outcome under those conditions.

  20. Oral hygiene care in critically ill patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-11-19

    Nov 19, 2007 ... conditions, treatment interventions, equipment, and the patient's inability to attend to his or her ... practices for a critically ill patient include assessment of the oral cavity, brushing the teeth, moisturising the lips and mouth and ...

  1. Antithrombin III for critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allingstrup, Mikkel; Wetterslev, Jørn; Ravn, Frederikke B

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Antithrombin III (AT III) is an anticoagulant with anti-inflammatory properties. We assessed the benefits and harms of AT III in critically ill patients. METHODS: We searched from inception to 27 August 2015 in CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CAB, BIOSIS and CINAHL. We included randomized...... participants). However, for all other outcome measures and analyses, the results did not reach statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: There is insufficient evidence to support AT III substitution in any category of critically ill participants including those with sepsis and DIC. AT III did not show an impact...

  2. The incretin effect in critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Signe Tellerup; Janum, Susanne; Krogh-Madsen, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Patients admitted to the intensive care unit often develop hyperglycaemia, but the underlying mechanisms have not been fully described. The incretin effect is reduced in patients with type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes and critical illness have phenotypical similarities, such as hyper...

  3. Predicting recovery from acute kidney injury in critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Itenov, Theis S; Berthelsen, Rasmus Ehrenfried; Jensen, Jens-Ulrik

    2018-01-01

    these patients. DESIGN: Observational study with development and validation of a risk prediction model. SETTING: Nine academic ICUs in Denmark. PARTICIPANTS: Development cohort of critically ill patients with AKI at ICU admission from the Procalcitonin and Survival Study cohort (n = 568), validation cohort.......1%. CONCLUSION: We constructed and validated a simple model that can predict the chance of recovery from AKI in critically ill patients....

  4. Proliferation and differentiation of adipose tissue in prolonged lean and obese critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goossens, Chloë; Vander Perre, Sarah; Van den Berghe, Greet; Langouche, Lies

    2017-12-01

    In prolonged non-obese critically ill patients, preservation of adipose tissue is prioritized over that of the skeletal muscle and coincides with increased adipogenesis. However, we recently demonstrated that in obese critically ill mice, this priority was switched. In the obese, the use of abundantly available adipose tissue-derived energy substrates was preferred and counteracted muscle wasting. These observations suggest that different processes are ongoing in adipose tissue of lean vs. overweight/obese critically ill patients. We hypothesize that to preserve adipose tissue mass during critical illness, adipogenesis is increased in prolonged lean critically ill patients, but not in overweight/obese critically ill patients, who enter the ICU with excess adipose tissue. To test this, we studied markers of adipogenesis in subcutaneous and visceral biopsies of matched lean (n = 24) and overweight/obese (n = 24) prolonged critically ill patients. Secondly, to further unravel the underlying mechanism of critical illness-induced adipogenesis, local production of eicosanoid PPARγ agonists was explored, as well as the adipogenic potential of serum from matched lean (n = 20) and overweight/obese (n = 20) critically ill patients. The number of small adipocytes, PPARγ protein, and CEBPB expression were equally upregulated (p ≤ 0.05) in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue biopsies of lean and overweight/obese prolonged critically ill patients. Gene expression of key enzymes involved in eicosanoid production was reduced (COX1, HPGDS, LPGDS, ALOX15, all p ≤ 0.05) or unaltered (COX2, ALOX5) during critical illness, irrespective of obesity. Gene expression of PLA2G2A and ALOX15B was upregulated in lean and overweight/obese patients (p ≤ 0.05), whereas their end products, the PPARγ-activating metabolites 15s-HETE and 9-HODE, were not increased in the adipose tissue. In vitro, serum of lean and overweight/obese prolonged critically ill

  5. Sleep disturbances in critically ill patients in ICU: how much do we know?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyko, Y.; Ording, H.; Jennum, Poul

    2012-01-01

    the underlying literature. There are no studies of level 1 evidence proving the positive impact of the tested interventions on the critically ill patients sleep pattern. Thus, disturbed sleep in critically ill patients with all the severe consequences remains an unresolved problem and needs further investigation.......Sleep disturbances in the intensive care unit (ICU) seem to lead to development of delirium, prolonged ICU stay, and increased mortality. That is why sufficient sleep is important for good outcome and recovery in critically ill patients. A variety of small studies reveal pathological sleep patterns...... in critically ill patients including abnormal circadian rhythm, high arousal and awakening index, reduced Slow Wave Sleep, and Rapid Eye Movement sleep. The purpose of this study is to summarise different aspects of sleep-awake disturbances, causes and handling methods in critically ill patients by reviewing...

  6. [Evaluation and treatment of the critically ill cirrhotic patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Javier; Aracil, Carles; Solà, Elsa; Soriano, Germán; Cinta Cardona, Maria; Coll, Susanna; Genescà, Joan; Hombrados, Manoli; Morillas, Rosa; Martín-Llahí, Marta; Pardo, Albert; Sánchez, Jordi; Vargas, Victor; Xiol, Xavier; Ginès, Pere

    2016-11-01

    Cirrhotic patients often develop severe complications requiring ICU admission. Grade III-IV hepatic encephalopathy, septic shock, acute-on-chronic liver failure and variceal bleeding are clinical decompensations that need a specific therapeutic approach in cirrhosis. The increased effectiveness of the treatments currently used in this setting and the spread of liver transplantation programs have substantially improved the prognosis of critically ill cirrhotic patients, which has facilitated their admission to critical care units. However, gastroenterologists and intensivists have limited knowledge of the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of these complications and of the prognostic evaluation of critically ill cirrhotic patients. Cirrhotic patients present alterations in systemic and splanchnic hemodynamics, coagulation and immune dysfunction what further increase the complexity of the treatment, the risk of developing new complications and mortality in comparison with the general population. These differential characteristics have important diagnostic and therapeutic implications that must be known by general intensivists. In this context, the Catalan Society of Gastroenterology and Hepatology requested a group of experts to draft a position paper on the assessment and treatment of critically ill cirrhotic patients. This article describes the recommendations agreed upon at the consensus meetings and their main conclusions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  7. Cytokines in chronically critically ill patients after activity and rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, Chris; Higgins, Patricia A; Chen, Yea Jyh Kathy; Levine, Alan D

    2007-04-01

    Inflammation, a common problem for patients in the intensive care unit (ICU), frequently is associated with serious and prolonged critical illnesses. To date, no study has examined whether physical activity influences inflammatory factors in critically ill adults. The objectives of this study were to (a) examine the relationships between type and duration of physical activity and serum levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), a proinflammatory cytokine; IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine; and their ratio and (b) determine if there are associations between cytokines or their ratio and activity or outcomes. This descriptive feasibility study investigated the approaches to measuring levels of physical activity and its relationship to serum levels of IL-6 and IL-10 and the ratio between them in patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation during periods of activity and rest. Measurements included serum IL-6 and IL-10 levels, direct observation and actigraphy, and prospective chart review. Ten critically ill patients who were mechanically ventilated for an average of 10 days in a large, urban, teaching hospital were enrolled. The average ratio of IL-6 to IL-10 improved after an average of 14.7 min of passive physical activity, typically multiple in-bed turns associated with hygiene. IL-6, IL-10, and their ratio were not associated with patient outcomes of weaning success or length of stay. High levels of IL-6 were associated with mortality. Cytokine balance may be improved by low levels of activity among patients with prolonged critical illness. The pattern of cytokines produced after activity may improve patients' recovery from prolonged critical illness and mechanical ventilation.

  8. Fluid and electrolyte disturbances in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jay Wook

    2010-12-01

    Disturbances in fluid and electrolytes are among the most common clinical problems encountered in the intensive care unit (ICU). Recent studies have reported that fluid and electrolyte imbalances are associated with increased morbidity and mortality among critically ill patients. To provide optimal care, health care providers should be familiar with the principles and practice of fluid and electrolyte physiology and pathophysiology. Fluid resuscitation should be aimed at restoration of normal hemodynamics and tissue perfusion. Early goal-directed therapy has been shown to be effective in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. On the other hand, liberal fluid administration is associated with adverse outcomes such as prolonged stay in the ICU, higher cost of care, and increased mortality. Development of hyponatremia in critically ill patients is associated with disturbances in the renal mechanism of urinary dilution. Removal of nonosmotic stimuli for vasopressin secretion, judicious use of hypertonic saline, and close monitoring of plasma and urine electrolytes are essential components of therapy. Hypernatremia is associated with cellular dehydration and central nervous system damage. Water deficit should be corrected with hypotonic fluid, and ongoing water loss should be taken into account. Cardiac manifestations should be identified and treated before initiating stepwise diagnostic evaluation of dyskalemias. Divalent ion deficiencies such as hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia and hypophosphatemia should be identified and corrected, since they are associated with increased adverse events among critically ill patients.

  9. Nutritional Support of the Critically Ill Pediatric Patient: Foundations and Controversies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván José Ardila Gómez

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Critically ill children require nutritional support that will give them nutritional and non-nutritional support to successfully deal with their disease. In the past few years, we have been able to better understand the pathophysiology of critical illness, which has made possible the establishment of nutritional strategies resulting in an improved nutritional status, thus optimizing the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU stay and decreasing morbidity and mortality. Critical illness is associated with significant metabolic stress. It is crucial to understand the physiological response to stress to create nutritional recommendations for critically ill pediatric patients in the PICU.

  10. Being a fellow patient to a critically ill patient leads to feelings of anxiety - An interview study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Jannie; Bonnevie Lundby, Trine; Danielsen, Anne Kjaergaard

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To explore in-patients’ experiences being a fellow patient to patients who become critically ill. Design The study was designed as a qualitative phenomenological study. Setting The study was conducted in a surgical ward of a hospital in Denmark. Subjects Fifteen fellow patients...... to patients, who became critically ill. Results Three key themes emerged from the analysis of the data: patients’ interaction, anxiety, and professional support. These findings demonstrated the importance of understanding how patients experienced being a fellow patient to patients, who become critically ill......, their views on interacting with such a patient, how the patients who become critically ill influenced them, and what kind of support they needed from the health professionals. Conclusion The findings highlighted the different emotions and feelings experienced by fellow patients. It showed how the impact...

  11. Early Glycemic Control in Critically Ill Emergency Department Patients: Pilot Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cohen, Jason

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Glycemic control in the critically ill intensive care unit (ICU patient has been shown to improve morbidity and mortality. We sought to investigate the effect of early glycemic control in critically ill emergency department (ED patients in a small pilot trial.Methods: Adult non-trauma, non-pregnant ED patients presenting to a university tertiary referral center and identified as critically ill were eligible for enrollment on a convenience basis. Critical illness was determined upon assignment for ICU admission. Patients were randomized to either ED standard care or glycemic control. Glycemic control involved use of an insulin drip to maintain blood glucose levels between 80-140 mg/dL. Glycemic control continued until ED discharge. Standard patients were managed at ED attending physician discretion. We assessed severity of illness by calculation of APACHE II score. The primary endpoint was in-hospital mortality. Secondary endpoints included vasopressor requirement, hospital length of stay, and mechanical ventilation requirement.Results: Fifty patients were randomized, 24 to the glycemic group and 26 to the standard care cohort. Four of the 24 patients (17% in the treatment arm did not receive insulin despite protocol requirements. While receiving insulin, three of 24 patients (13% had an episode of hypoglycemia. By chance, the patients in the treatment group had a trend toward higher acuity by APACHE II scores. Patient mortality and morbidity were similar despite the acuity difference.Conclusion: There was no difference in morbidity and mortality between the two groups. The benefit of glycemic control may be subject to source of illness and to degree of glycemic control, or have no effect. Such questions bear future investigation. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(1:20-23].

  12. The meaning of social support for the critically ill patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupcey, J E

    2001-08-01

    Social support has been shown to be important for the critically ill patient. However, what constitutes adequate support for these patients has not been investigated. Thus, the purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate patients' perceptions of their need for and adequacy of the social support received while they were critically ill. Thirty adult patients who were critical during some point of their stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) stay were interviewed, once stable. Interviews were tape-recorded and began with an open-ended question regarding the ICU experience. This was followed by open-ended focused questions regarding social support, such as 'Who were your greatest sources of social support while you were critically ill?' 'What did they do that was supportive or unsupportive?' Data were analyzed according to Miles and Huberman (1994). The categories that emerged were need for social support based on patient perceptions (not number of visitors), quality of support (based on perceptions of positive and negative behaviors of supporters) and lack of support. This study found that quality of support was more important than the actual number of visitors. Patients with few visitors may have felt supported, while those with numerous visitors felt unsupported. Patients who felt unsupported also were more critical of the staff and the care they received. Nurses need to individually assess patients regarding their need for support, and assist family/friends to meet these needs.

  13. Milrinone for cardiac dysfunction in critically ill adult patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koster, Geert; Bekema, Hanneke J; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Milrinone is an inotrope widely used for treatment of cardiac failure. Because previous meta-analyses had methodological flaws, we decided to conduct a systematic review of the effect of milrinone in critically ill adult patients with cardiac dysfunction. METHODS: This systematic...... trials were at high risk of bias, and none reported the primary composite outcome SAE. Fourteen trials with 1611 randomised patients reported mortality data at maximum follow-up (RR 0.96; 95% confidence interval 0.76-1.21). Milrinone did not significantly affect other patient-centred outcomes. All...... analyses displayed statistical and/or clinical heterogeneity of patients, interventions, comparators, outcomes, and/or settings and all featured missing data. DISCUSSION: The current evidence on the use of milrinone in critically ill adult patients with cardiac dysfunction suffers from considerable risks...

  14. Lateral positioning for critically ill adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Nicky; Bucknall, Tracey; Faraone, Nardene M

    2016-05-12

    Critically ill patients require regular body position changes to minimize the adverse effects of bed rest, inactivity and immobilization. However, uncertainty surrounds the effectiveness of lateral positioning for improving pulmonary gas exchange, aiding drainage of tracheobronchial secretions and preventing morbidity. In addition, it is unclear whether the perceived risk levied by respiratory and haemodynamic instability upon turning critically ill patients outweighs the respiratory benefits of side-to-side rotation. Thus, lack of certainty may contribute to variation in positioning practice and equivocal patient outcomes. To evaluate effects of the lateral position compared with other body positions on patient outcomes (mortality, morbidity and clinical adverse events) in critically ill adult patients. (Clinical adverse events include hypoxaemia, hypotension, low oxygen delivery and global indicators of impaired tissue oxygenation.) We examined single use of the lateral position (i.e. on the right or left side) and repeat use of the lateral position (i.e. lateral positioning) within a positioning schedule. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2015, Issue 5), MEDLINE (1950 to 23 May 2015), the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) (1937 to 23 May 2015), the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED) (1984 to 23 May 2015), Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) (1901 to 23 May 2015), Web of Science (1945 to 23 May 2015), Index to Theses in Great Britain and Ireland (1950 to 23 May 2015), Trove (2009 to 23 May 2015; previously Australasian Digital Theses Program (1997 to December 2008)) and Proquest Dissertations and Theses (2009 to 23 May 2015; previously Proquest Digital Dissertations (1980 to 23 May 2015)). We handsearched the reference lists of potentially relevant reports and two nursing journals. We included randomized and quasi-randomized trials examining effects of

  15. Causes of death in critically ill multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamyan, A; Brandtner, H; Grinzinger, S; Chroust, V; Bacher, C; Otto, F; Reisp, M; Hauer, L; Sellner, J

    2017-10-01

    Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience higher mortality rates as compared to the general population. While the risk of intensive care unit (ICU) admission is also reported to be higher, little is known about causes of death CoD in critically ill MS patients. To study the causes of death (CoD) in the series of critically ill patients with MS verified by autopsy. We reviewed hospital electronic charts of MS patients treated at the neurological ICU of a tertiary care hospital between 2000 and 2015. We compared clinical and pathological CoD for those who were autopsied. Overall, 10 patients were identified (seven female; median age at death 65 years, range 27-80), and six of them were autopsied. The median MS duration prior to ICU admission was 27.5 years (range 1-50), and the median EDSS score at the time of ICU admission was 9 (range 5-9.5). The median length of ICU stay was 3 days (range 2-213). All the individuals in our series had experienced respiratory insufficiency during their ICU stay. The autopsy examination of brain tissue did not reveal evidences of MS lesions in one patient. In another patient, Lewy bodies were found on brain immunohistochemistry. Mortality in critically ill MS patients is largely driven by respiratory complications. Sporadic disparities between clinical and pathological findings can be expected. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Haloperidol for delirium in critically ill patients - protocol for a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barbateskovic, M; Kraus, S R; Collet, M O

    2018-01-01

    , relatives, and societies is considerable. The objective of this systematic review was to critically access the evidence of randomised clinical trials on the effects of haloperidol vs. placebo or any other agents for delirium in critically ill patients. METHODS: We will search for randomised clinical trials...... decision makers on the use of or future trials with haloperidol for the management of delirium in critically ill patients....

  17. Nosocomial pneumonia in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandagi Girish

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The care of critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU is a primary component of modern medicine. ICUs create potential for recovery in patients who otherwise may not have survived. However, they may suffer from problems associated with of nosocomial infections. Nosocomial infections are those which manifest in patients 48 hours after admission to hospital. Nosocomial infections are directly related to diagnostic, interventional or therapeutic procedures a patient undergoes in hospital, and are also influenced by the bacteriological flora prevailing within a particular unit or hospital. Urinary tract infections are the most frequent nosocomial infection, accounting for more than 40% of all nosocomial infections. Critical care units increasingly use high technology medicine for patient care, hemodynamic monitoring, ventilator support, hemodialysis, parenteral nutrition, and a large battery of powerful drugs, particularly antibiotics to counter infection. It is indeed a paradox that the use of high-tech medicine has brought in its wake the dangerous and all too frequent complication of nosocomial infections

  18. Temporary Decompression in Critically Ill Patients: Retrospective Comparison of Ileostomy and Colostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhi-Liang; Yu, Wen-Kui; Shi, Jia-Liang; Chen, Qi-Yi; Tan, Shan-Jun; Li, Ning

    2014-05-01

    In critically ill patients, gastrointestinal function plays an important role in multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Patients suffering from acute lower gastrointestinal dysfunction need to be performed a temporary fecal diversion after the failure of conservative treatment. This study aims to determine which type of fecal diversion is associated with better clinical outcomes in critically ill patients. Data of critically ill patients requiring surgical decompression following acute lower gastrointestinal dysfunction between January 2008 and June 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. Comparison was made between ileostomy group and colostomy group regarding the stoma-related complications and the recovery after stoma creation. 63 patients consisted of temporary ileostomy group (n = 35) and temporary colostomy group (n = 28) were included in this study. First bowel movement and length of enteral nutrition intolerance after fecal diversion were both significantly shorter in the ileostomy group than in the colostomy group (1.70 ± 0.95 vs. 3.04 ± 1.40; p colostomy group. Both procedures provide an effective defunctioning of the distant gastrointestinal tract with a low complication incidence. We prefer a temporary ileostomy to temporary colostomy for acute lower gastrointestinal dysfunction in critically ill patients.

  19. Rhabdomyolysis in Critically Ill Surgical Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmanovska, Biljana; Cvetkovska, Emilija; Kuzmanovski, Igor; Jankulovski, Nikola; Shosholcheva, Mirjana; Kartalov, Andrijan; Spirovska, Tatjana

    2016-07-27

    Rhabdomyolysis is a syndrome of injury of skeletal muscles associated with myoglobinuria, muscle weakness, electrolyte imbalance and often, acute kidney injury as severe complication. of this study is to detect the incidence of rhabdomyolysis in critically ill patients in the surgical intensive care unit (ICU), and to raise awareness of this medical condition and its treatment among the clinicians. A retrospective review of all surgical and trauma patients admitted to surgical ICU of the University Surgical Clinic "Mother Teresa" in Skopje, Macedonia, from January 1 st till December 31 st 2015 was performed. Patients medical records were screened for available serum creatine kinase (CK) with levels > 200 U/l, presence of myoglobin in the serum in levels > 80 ng/ml, or if they had a clinical diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis by an attending doctor. Descriptive statistical methods were used to analyze the collected data. Out of totally 1084 patients hospitalized in the ICU, 93 were diagnosed with rhabdomyolysis during the course of one year. 82(88%) patients were trauma patients, while 11(12%) were surgical non trauma patients. 7(7.5%) patients diagnosed with rhabdomyolysis developed acute kidney injury (AKI) that required dialysis. Average values of serum myoglobin levels were 230 ng/ml, with highest values of > 5000 ng/ml. Patients who developed AKI had serum myoglobin levels above 2000 ng/ml. Average values of serum CK levels were 400 U/l, with highest value of 21600 U/l. Patients who developed AKI had serum CK levels above 3000 U/l. Regular monitoring and early detection of elevated serum CK and myoglobin levels in critically ill surgical and trauma patients is recommended in order to recognize and treat rhabdomyolysis in timely manner and thus prevent development of AKI.

  20. Gastric residual volume in critically ill patients: a dead marker or still alive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elke, Gunnar; Felbinger, Thomas W; Heyland, Daren K

    2015-02-01

    Early enteral nutrition (EN) is consistently recommended as first-line nutrition therapy in critically ill patients since it favorably alters outcome, providing both nutrition and nonnutrition benefits. However, critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation are at risk for regurgitation, pulmonary aspiration, and eventually ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). EN may increase these risks when gastrointestinal (GI) dysfunction is present. Gastric residual volume (GRV) is considered a surrogate parameter of GI dysfunction during the progression of enteral feeding in the early phase of critical illness and beyond. By monitoring GRV, clinicians may detect patients with delayed gastric emptying earlier and intervene with strategies that minimize or prevent VAP as one of the major risks of EN. The value of periodic GRV measurements with regard to risk reduction of VAP incidence has frequently been questioned in the past years. Increasing the GRV threshold before interrupting gastric feeding results in marginal increases in EN delivery. More recently, a large randomized clinical trial revealed that abandoning GRV monitoring did not negatively affect clinical outcomes (including VAP) in mechanically ventilated patients. The results have revived the discussion on the role of GRV monitoring in critically ill, mechanically ventilated patients receiving early EN. This review summarizes the most recent clinical evidence on the use of GRV monitoring in critically ill patients. Based on the clinical evidence, it discusses the pros and cons and further addresses whether GRV is a dead marker or still alive for the nutrition management of critically ill patients. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  1. Procalcitonin-guided antibiotic treatment in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohn, Andreas; Heising, Bernhard; Schütte, Jan-Karl; Schroeder, Olaf; Schröder, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    In critically ill patients, length of antibiotic treatment can be effectively guided by procalcitonin (PCT) protocols. International sepsis guidelines and guidelines on antibiotic stewardship strategies recommend PCT as helpful laboratory marker for a rational use of antibiotics. A number of studies and meta-analyses have confirmed the effectiveness of PCT-protocols for shortening antibiotic treatment without compromising clinical outcome in critically ill patients. But in clinical practice, there is still uncertainty how to interpret PCT levels and how to adjust antibiotic treatment in various infectious situations, especially in the perioperative period. This narrative review gives an overview on the application of PCT-protocols in critically ill patients with severe bacterial infections on the basis of 5 case reports and the available literature. Beside strengths and limitations of this biomarker, also varying kinetics and different maximum values with regard to the infectious focus and pathogens are discussed. PCT-guided antibiotic treatment appears to be safe and effective. Most of the studies revealed a shorter antibiotic treatment without negative clinical outcomes. Cost effectiveness is still a matter of debate and effects on bacterial resistance due to shorter treatments, possible lower rates of drug-related adverse events, or decreased rates of Clostridium difficile infections are not yet evaluated. Guidance of antibiotic treatment can effectively be supported by PCT-protocols. However, it is important to consider the limitations of this biomarker and to use PCT protocols along with antibiotic stewardship programmes and regular clinical rounds together with infectious diseases specialists.

  2. Hyperglycemia and mortality in critically ill patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezvanfar, M.R.; Dalvandy, M.; Emami, A.R.; Rafiee, M.; Eshratee, B.

    2009-01-01

    To analyze the relation between serum glucose concentration and hospital outcome across the critically ill patients. A single-centre, retrospective study was performed at surgical and medical intensive care unit. Admission glucose, mean morning glucose, mean glucose, maximal glucose and time-averaged glucose levels were calculated for each patient. The time-averaged hyperglycemia was defined as the area under the curve above the upper limit of normal, divided by the total length of stay. Of 300 patients with a median stay of 16 days, the mortality rate was 32%. Mean fasting glucose was 121 mg/dl in survivors versus 160 mg/dl in non survivors (P=0.001). Mean admission glucose was 127 mg/dl in survivors versus 142 mg/dl in non survivors (0.03). Median time-averaged hyperglycemia was 4 mg/dl in survivors versus 17.5 mg/dl in non survivors (P < 0.006). The area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.59 for time-averaged glucose and 0.73 for mean fasting glucose. Whereas time-averaged hyperglycemia is a useful assessment for glucose control in critically ill patients, it has no priority to admission glucose and mean fasting glucose for outcome prediction. (author)

  3. Tracheostomy in special groups of critically ill patients: Who, when, and where?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longworth, Aisling; Veitch, David; Gudibande, Sandeep; Whitehouse, Tony; Snelson, Catherine; Veenith, Tonny

    2016-01-01

    Tracheostomy is one of the most common procedures undertaken in critically ill patients. It offers many theoretical advantages over translaryngeal intubation. Recent evidence in a heterogeneous group of critically ill patients, however, has not demonstrated a benefit for tracheostomy, in terms of mortality, length of stay in Intensive Care Unit (ICU), or incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia. It may be a beneficial intervention in articular subsets of ICU patients. In this article, we will focus on the evidence for the timing of tracheostomy and its effect on various subgroups of patients in critical care. PMID:27275076

  4. Vitamin D deficiency is independently associated with mortality among critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Barberena Moraes

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Studies suggest an association between vitamin D deficiency and morbidity/mortality in critically ill patients. Several issues remain unexplained, including which vitamin D levels are related to morbidity and mortality and the relevance of vitamin D kinetics to clinical outcomes. We conducted this study to address the association of baseline vitamin D levels and vitamin D kinetics with morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. METHOD: In 135 intensive care unit (ICU patients, vitamin D was prospectively measured on admission and weekly until discharge from the ICU. The following outcomes of interest were analyzed: 28-day mortality, mechanical ventilation, length of stay, infection rate, and culture positivity. RESULTS: Mortality rates were higher among patients with vitamin D levels 12 ng/mL (32.2% vs. 13.2%, with an adjusted relative risk of 2.2 (95% CI 1.07-4.54; p< 0.05. There were no differences in the length of stay, ventilation requirements, infection rate, or culture positivity. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that low vitamin D levels on ICU admission are an independent risk factor for mortality in critically ill patients. Low vitamin D levels at ICU admission may have a causal relationship with mortality and may serve as an indicator for vitamin D replacement among critically ill patients.

  5. Providing care for critically ill surgical patients: challenges and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisherman, Samuel A; Kaplan, Lewis; Gracias, Vicente H; Beilman, Gregory J; Toevs, Christine; Byrnes, Matthew C; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2013-07-01

    Providing optimal care for critically ill and injured surgical patients will become more challenging with staff shortages for surgeons and intensivists. This white paper addresses the historical issues behind the present situation, the need for all intensivists to engage in dedicated critical care per the intensivist model, and the recognition that intensivists from all specialties can provide optimal care for the critically ill surgical patient, particularly with continuing involvement by the surgeon of record. The new acute care surgery training paradigm (including trauma, surgical critical care, and emergency general surgery) has been developed to increase interest in trauma and surgical critical care, but the number of interested trainees remains too few. Recommendations are made for broadening the multidisciplinary training and practice opportunities in surgical critical care for intensivists from all base specialties and for maintaining the intensivist model within acute care surgery practice. Support from academic and administrative leadership, as well as national organizations, will be needed.

  6. Low but Sufficient Anidulafungin Exposure in Critically Ill Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wanrooy, Marjolijn J. P.; Rodgers, Michael G. G.; Uges, Donald R. A.; Arends, Jan P.; Zijlstra, Jan G.; Werf, van der Tjip S.; Kosterink, Jos G. W.; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem C.

    The efficacy of anidulafungin is driven by the area under the concentration-time curve (AUC)/MIC ratio. Patients in intensive care may be at risk for underexposure. In critically ill patients with an invasive Candida infection, the anidulafungin exposure and a possible correlation with disease

  7. Enteral nutrition therapy for critically ill adult patients; critical review and algorithm creation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo-Junqueira, L; De-Souza, Daurea A

    2012-01-01

    Undernutrition directly affects critically ill patient's clinical outcome and mortality rates. Interdisciplinar algorithm creation aiming to optimize the enteral nutrition therapy for critically ill adult patients. Pubmed, SciELO, Scholar Google, Web of Science, Scopus, with research of these key words: protocols, enteral nutrition, nutritional support, critical care, undernutrition, fasting. Intensive Care Unit, Hospital de Clínicas, Federal University of Uberlándia, MG, Brazil. Were established in the algorithm a following sequential steps: After a clinical-surgical diagnosis, including the assessment of hemodynamic stability, were requested passage of a feeding tube in post-pyloric position and a drainage tube in gastric position. After hemodynamic stability it should be done the nutritional status diagnosis, calculated nutritional requirements, as well as chosen formulation of enteral feeding. Unless contraindicated, aiming to increase tolerance was started infusion with small volumes (15 ml/h) of a semi-elemental diet, normocaloric, hypolipidic (also hyperproteic, with addition of glutamine). To ensure infusion of the diet, as well as the progressive increase of infusion rates, the patient was monitored for moderate or severe intestinal intolerance. The schedule and infusion rates were respected and diet was not routinely suspended for procedures and diagnostic tests, unless indicated by the medical team. For nutrition therapy success it is essential routine monitoring and extensive interaction between the professionals involved. Nutritional conducts should be reevaluated and improved, seeking complete and specialized care to the critically ill patients. Adherence to new practices is challenging, though instruments such as protocols and algorithms help making information more accessible and comprehensible.

  8. Endocrine emergencies in critically ill patients: Challenges in diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhminder Jit Singh Bajwa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine emergencies pose unique challenges for the attending intensivist while managing critically ill patients. Besides taking care of primary disease state, one has to divert an equal attention to the possible associated endocrinopathies also. One of the common reasons for inability to timely diagnose an endocrinal failure in critically ill patients being the dominance of other severe systemic diseases and their clinical presentation. The timely diagnosis and administration of therapeutic interventions for these endocrine disorders can improve the outcome in critically ill patients. The timely diagnosis and administration of timely therapeutics in common endocrine disorders like severe thyroid disease, acute adrenal insufficiency and diabetic ketoacidosis significantly influence the outcome and prognosis. Careful evaluation of clinical history and a high degree of suspicion are the corner stone to diagnose such problems. Aggressive management of the patient is equally important as the complications are devastating and can prove highly fatal. The present article is an attempt to review some of the common endocrine emergencies in intensive care unit and the challenges associated with their diagnosis and management.

  9. Procalcitonin increase in early identification of critically ill patients at high risk of mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Ulrik; Heslet, Lars; Jensen, Tom Hartvig

    2006-01-01

    To investigate day-by-day changes in procalcitonin and maximum obtained levels as predictors of mortality in critically ill patients.......To investigate day-by-day changes in procalcitonin and maximum obtained levels as predictors of mortality in critically ill patients....

  10. Comparison of 2 intravenous insulin protocols: Glycemia variability in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Garrido, Marta; Rodilla-Fiz, Ana M; Girón-Lacasa, María; Rodríguez-Rubio, Laura; Martínez-Blázquez, Anselmo; Martínez-López, Fernando; Pardo-Ibáñez, María Dolores; Núñez-Marín, Juan M

    2017-05-01

    Glycemic variability is an independent predictor of mortality in critically ill patients. The objective of this study was to compare two intravenous insulin protocols in critically ill patients regarding the glycemic variability. This was a retrospective observational study performed by reviewing clinical records of patients from a Critical Care Unit for 4 consecutive months. First, a simpler Scale-Based Intravenous Insulin Protocol (SBIIP) was reviewed and later it was compared for the same months of the following year with a Sliding Scale-Based Intravenous Insulin Protocol (SSBIIP). All adult patients admitted to the unit during the referred months were included. Patients in whom the protocol was not adequately followed were excluded. A total of 557 patients were reviewed, of whom they had needed intravenous insulin 73 in the first group and 52 in the second group. Four and two patients were excluded in each group respectively. Glycemic variability for both day 1 (DS1) and total stay (DST) was lower in SSBIIP patients compared to SBIIP patients: SD1 34.88 vs 18.16 and SDT 36.45 vs 23.65 (P<.001). A glycemic management protocol in critically ill patients based on sliding scales decreases glycemic variability. Copyright © 2017 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Infections in critically ill burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, F; Mas, D; Rubio, M; Garcia-Hierro, P

    2016-04-01

    Severe burn patients are one subset of critically patients in which the burn injury increases the risk of infection, systemic inflammatory response and sepsis. The infections are usually related to devices and to the burn wound. Most infections, as in other critically ill patients, are preceded by colonization of the digestive tract and the preventative measures include selective digestive decontamination and hygienic measures. Early excision of deep burn wound and appropriate use of topical antimicrobials and dressings are considered of paramount importance in the treatment of burns. Severe burn patients usually have some level of systemic inflammation. The difficulty to differentiate inflammation from sepsis is relevant since therapy differs between patients with and those without sepsis. The delay in prescribing antimicrobials increases morbidity and mortality. Moreover, the widespread use of antibiotics for all such patients is likely to increase antibiotic resistance, and costs. Unfortunately the clinical usefulness of biomarkers for differential diagnosis between inflammation and sepsis has not been yet properly evaluated. Severe burn injury induces physiological response that significantly alters drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. These alterations impact antimicrobials distribution and excretion. Nevertheless the current available literature shows that there is a paucity of information to support routine dose recommendations. Copyright © 2016. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  12. Healthcare disparities in critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Graciela J; Martin, Greg S; Gong, Michelle Ng

    2013-12-01

    To summarize the current literature on racial and gender disparities in critical care and the mechanisms underlying these disparities in the course of acute critical illness. MEDLINE search on the published literature addressing racial, ethnic, or gender disparities in acute critical illness, such as sepsis, acute lung injury, pneumonia, venous thromboembolism, and cardiac arrest. Clinical studies that evaluated general critically ill patient populations in the United States as well as specific critical care conditions were reviewed with a focus on studies evaluating factors and contributors to health disparities. Study findings are presented according to their association with the prevalence, clinical presentation, management, and outcomes in acute critical illness. This review presents potential contributors for racial and gender disparities related to genetic susceptibility, comorbidities, preventive health services, socioeconomic factors, cultural differences, and access to care. The data are organized along the course of acute critical illness. The literature to date shows that disparities in critical care are most likely multifactorial involving individual, community, and hospital-level factors at several points in the continuum of acute critical illness. The data presented identify potential targets as interventions to reduce disparities in critical care and future avenues for research.

  13. Time to look beyond one-year mortality in critically ill hematological patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moors, Ine; Benoit, Dominique D

    2014-02-11

    The spectacular improvement in long-term prognosis of patients with hematological malignancies since the 1980s, coupled with the subsequent improvement over the past decade in short- and mid-term survival in cases of critical illness, resulted in an increasing referral of such patients to the ICU. A remaining question, however, is how these patients perform in the long term with regard to survival and quality of life. Here we discuss the present multicenter study on survival beyond 1 year in critically ill patients with hematological malignancies. We conclude with suggestions on how we can further improve the long-term outcome of these patients.

  14. Iatrogenic Opioid Withdrawal in Critically Ill Patients: A Review of Assessment Tools and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Ada W; Contreras, Sofia; Mehta, Sangeeta; Korman, Jennifer; Perreault, Marc M; Williamson, David R; Burry, Lisa D

    2017-12-01

    To (1) provide an overview of the epidemiology, clinical presentation, and risk factors of iatrogenic opioid withdrawal in critically ill patients and (2) conduct a literature review of assessment and management of iatrogenic opioid withdrawal in critically ill patients. We searched MEDLINE (1946-June 2017), EMBASE (1974-June 2017), and CINAHL (1982-June 2017) with the terms opioid withdrawal, opioid, opiate, critical care, critically ill, assessment tool, scale, taper, weaning, and management. Reference list of identified literature was searched for additional references as well as www.clinicaltrials.gov . We restricted articles to those in English and dealing with humans. We identified 2 validated pediatric critically ill opioid withdrawal assessment tools: (1) Withdrawal Assessment Tool-Version 1 (WAT-1) and (2) Sophia Observation Withdrawal Symptoms Scale (SOS). Neither tool differentiated between opioid and benzodiazepine withdrawal. WAT-1 was evaluated in critically ill adults but not found to be valid. No other adult tool was identified. For management, we identified 5 randomized controlled trials, 2 prospective studies, and 2 systematic reviews. Most studies were small and only 2 studies utilized a validated assessment tool. Enteral methadone, α-2 agonists, and protocolized weaning were studied. We identified 2 validated assessment tools for pediatric intensive care unit patients; no valid tool for adults. Management strategies tested in small trials included methadone, α-2 agonists, and protocolized sedation/weaning. We challenge researchers to create validated tools assessing specifically for opioid withdrawal in critically ill children and adults to direct management.

  15. Feasibility and safety of virtual-reality-based early neurocognitive stimulation in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turon, Marc; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Sol; Jodar, Mercè; Gomà, Gemma; Montanya, Jaume; Hernando, David; Bailón, Raquel; de Haro, Candelaria; Gomez-Simon, Victor; Lopez-Aguilar, Josefina; Magrans, Rudys; Martinez-Perez, Melcior; Oliva, Joan Carles; Blanch, Lluís

    2017-12-01

    Growing evidence suggests that critical illness often results in significant long-term neurocognitive impairments in one-third of survivors. Although these neurocognitive impairments are long-lasting and devastating for survivors, rehabilitation rarely occurs during or after critical illness. Our aim is to describe an early neurocognitive stimulation intervention based on virtual reality for patients who are critically ill and to present the results of a proof-of-concept study testing the feasibility, safety, and suitability of this intervention. Twenty critically ill adult patients undergoing or having undergone mechanical ventilation for ≥24 h received daily 20-min neurocognitive stimulation sessions when awake and alert during their ICU stay. The difficulty of the exercises included in the sessions progressively increased over successive sessions. Physiological data were recorded before, during, and after each session. Safety was assessed through heart rate, peripheral oxygen saturation, and respiratory rate. Heart rate variability analysis, an indirect measure of autonomic activity sensitive to cognitive demands, was used to assess the efficacy of the exercises in stimulating attention and working memory. Patients successfully completed the sessions on most days. No sessions were stopped early for safety concerns, and no adverse events occurred. Heart rate variability analysis showed that the exercises stimulated attention and working memory. Critically ill patients considered the sessions enjoyable and relaxing without being overly fatiguing. The results in this proof-of-concept study suggest that a virtual-reality-based neurocognitive intervention is feasible, safe, and tolerable, stimulating cognitive functions and satisfying critically ill patients. Future studies will evaluate the impact of interventions on neurocognitive outcomes. Trial registration Clinical trials.gov identifier: NCT02078206.

  16. Phenytoin pharmacokinetics in critically ill trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, B A; Rodman, J H; Jaresko, G S; Rasmussen, S N; Watridge, C B; Fabian, T C

    1988-12-01

    Preliminary data have suggested that phenytoin systemic clearance may increase during initial therapy in critically ill patients. The objectives for this study were to model the time-variant phenytoin clearance and evaluate concomitant changes in protein binding and urinary metabolite elimination. Phenytoin was given as an intravenous loading dose of 15 mg/kg followed by an initial maintenance dose of 6 mg/kg/day in 10 adult critically ill trauma patients. Phenytoin bound and unbound plasma concentrations were determined in 10 patients and urinary excretion of the metabolite p-hydroxyphenyl phenylhydantoin (p-HPPH) was measured in seven patients for 7 to 14 days. A Michaelis-Menten one-compartment model incorporating a time-variant maximal velocity (Vmax) was sufficient to describe the data and superior to a conventional time-invariant Michaelis-Menten model. Vmax for the time-variant model was defined as V'max + Vmax delta (1 - e(-kindt)). Vmax infinity is the value for Vmax when t is large. The median values (ranges) for the parameters were Km = 4.8 (2.6 to 20) mg/L, Vmax infinity = 1348 (372 to 4741) mg/day, and kind = 0.0115 (0.0045 to 0.132) hr-1. Phenytoin free fraction increased in a majority of patients during the study period, with a binding ratio inversely related to albumin. Measured urinary p-HPPH data were consistent with the proposed model. A loading and constant maintenance dose of phenytoin frequently yielded a substantial, clinically significant fall in plasma concentrations with a pattern of apparently increasing clearance that may be a consequence of changes in protein binding, induction of metabolism, or the influence of stress on hepatic metabolic capacity.

  17. Changes in circulating blood volume after infusion of hydroxyethyl starch 6% in critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P; Andersson, J; Rasmussen, S E

    2001-01-01

    The cardiovascular response to a volume challenge with hydroxyethyl starch (HES) (200/0.5) 6% depends on the relation between the volume of HES 6% infused and the expansion of the blood volume in critically ill patients. However, only relatively limited data exist on the plasma expanding effect...... of infusion of HES 6% in critically ill patients. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the variation in the expansion of the circulating blood volume (CBV) in critically ill patients after infusion of 500 ml of colloid (HES (200/0.5) 6%) using the carbon monoxide method....

  18. Clinical outcome of critically ill, not fully recompensated, patients undergoing MitraClip therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolph, Volker; Huntgeburth, Michael; von Bardeleben, Ralph Stephan

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: As periprocedural risk is low, MitraClip implantation is often performed in critically ill, not fully recompensated patients, who are in NYHA functional class IV at the time of the procedure, to accelerate convalescence. We herein sought to evaluate the procedural and 30-day outcome.......3%. CONCLUSION: MitraClip therapy is feasible and safe even in critically ill, not fully recompensated patients and leads to symptomatic improvement in over two-thirds of these patients; however, it is associated with an elevated 30-day mortality....

  19. Relatives to Critically Ill Patients Have No Sense of Coherence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Jannie; Andresen, Kristoffer; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    shown that relatives do not always receive the attention they need from health professionals. There is a lack of studies that focus on relatives' satisfaction and involvement during their family members' hospitalization. Design. A mixed methods design was chosen. Methods. A quantitative study...... of the dissatisfaction, a qualitative approach was used and the in-depth interviews revealed three themes: lack of continuity and structure, responsibility of coordination, and relatives feeling left on their own with no guiding and support. Conclusion. Health professionals' key role in relation to relatives must......Aims and Objective. To investigate the relatives' satisfaction and involvement on a general surgery ward regarding the critically ill patient. Introduction. Relatives to critically ill patients are affected both physically and mentally during the hospitalization of a family member. Research has...

  20. Brain computer tomography in critically ill patients - a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purmer, Ilse M.; van Iperen, Erik P.; Beenen, Ludo F. M.; Kuiper, Michael J.; Binnekade, Jan M.; Vandertop, Peter W.; Schultz, Marcus J.; Horn, Janneke

    2012-01-01

    Background: Brain computer tomography (brain CT) is an important imaging tool in patients with intracranial disorders. In ICU patients, a brain CT implies an intrahospital transport which has inherent risks. The proceeds and consequences of a brain CT in a critically ill patient should outweigh

  1. Transfusion in critically ill children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, E L; Stensballe, J; Afshari, A

    2013-01-01

    Transfusion of blood products is a cornerstone in managing many critically ill children. Major improvements in blood product safety have not diminished the need for caution in transfusion practice. In this review, we aim to discuss the interplay between benefits and potential adverse effects...... of transfusion in critically ill children by including 65 papers, which were evaluated based on previously agreed selection criteria. Current practice on transfusing critically ill children is mainly founded on the basis of adult studies, common practices with cut-off values, and expert opinions, rather than...... evidence-based medicine. Paediatric patients have explicit physiological challenges and requirements to be addressed. Critically ill children often suffer from anaemia, have substantial iatrogenic blood loss with subsequent transfusions, and are at a higher risk of complications, often due to human errors...

  2. Doripenem pharmacokinetics in critically ill patients receiving continuous hemodiafiltration (CHDF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Seigo; Goto, Koji; Hagiwara, Satoshi; Iwasaka, Hideo; Noguchi, Takayuki

    2010-01-01

    Objectives of the prospective, open-label study were to investigate pharmacokinetics of doripenem and determine appropriate doripenem regimens during continuous hemodiafiltration (CHDF) in critically ill patients with renal failure (creatinine clearance times during one dosing interval were measured in order to calculate pharmacokinetic parameters and clearance via hemodiafiltration. Mean half-life (+/-standard deviation) of doripenem was 7.9+/-3.7 hours. Total body clearance of doripenem was 58.0+/-12.7 ml/min, including clearance of 13.5+/-1.6 ml/min via CHDF. An IV dose of 250 mg of doripenem every 12 hours during CHDF provided adequate plasma concentrations for critically ill patients with renal failure, without resulting in accumulation upon steady-state. Thus, under the conditions tested, CHDF appeared to have little effect on doripenem clearance. Therefore, the blood level of doripenem can be satisfactorily controlled by adjustment of doripenem dose and dosing interval, in accordance with residual renal function in patients receiving CHDF.

  3. Ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill African patients on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Stress ulcer prophylaxis is an integral part of the care of the critically ill. Agents that alter gastric pH may predispose these patients to gastric colonisation, with subsequent pneumonia and/or sepsis. Cytoprotective agents such as sucralfate preserve gastric acidity and may be protective. Objective: To determine ...

  4. Setting the vision: applied patient-reported outcomes and smart, connected digital healthcare systems to improve patient-centered outcomes prediction in critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysham, Nicholas G; Abernethy, Amy P; Cox, Christopher E

    2014-10-01

    Prediction models in critical illness are generally limited to short-term mortality and uncommonly include patient-centered outcomes. Current outcome prediction tools are also insensitive to individual context or evolution in healthcare practice, potentially limiting their value over time. Improved prognostication of patient-centered outcomes in critical illness could enhance decision-making quality in the ICU. Patient-reported outcomes have emerged as precise methodological measures of patient-centered variables and have been successfully employed using diverse platforms and technologies, enhancing the value of research in critical illness survivorship and in direct patient care. The learning health system is an emerging ideal characterized by integration of multiple data sources into a smart and interconnected health information technology infrastructure with the goal of rapidly optimizing patient care. We propose a vision of a smart, interconnected learning health system with integrated electronic patient-reported outcomes to optimize patient-centered care, including critical care outcome prediction. A learning health system infrastructure integrating electronic patient-reported outcomes may aid in the management of critical illness-associated conditions and yield tools to improve prognostication of patient-centered outcomes in critical illness.

  5. Patient-important outcomes in randomized controlled trials in critically ill patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudry, Stéphane; Messika, Jonathan; Ricard, Jean-Damien; Guillo, Sylvie; Pasquet, Blandine; Dubief, Emeline; Boukertouta, Tanissia; Dreyfuss, Didier; Tubach, Florence

    2017-12-01

    Intensivists' clinical decision making pursues two main goals for patients: to decrease mortality and to improve quality of life and functional status in survivors. Patient-important outcomes are gaining wide acceptance in most fields of clinical research. We sought to systematically review how well patient-important outcomes are reported in published randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in critically ill patients. Literature search was conducted to identify eligible trials indexed from January to December 2013. Articles were eligible if they reported an RCT involving critically ill adult patients. We excluded phase II, pilot and physiological crossover studies. We assessed study characteristics. All primary and secondary outcomes were collected, described and classified using six categories of outcomes including patient-important outcomes (involving mortality at any time on the one hand and quality of life, functional/cognitive/neurological outcomes assessed after ICU discharge on the other). Of the 716 articles retrieved in 2013, 112 RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Most common topics were mechanical ventilation (27%), sepsis (19%) and nutrition (17%). Among the 112 primary outcomes, 27 (24%) were patient-important outcomes (mainly mortality, 21/27) but only six (5%) were patient-important outcomes besides mortality assessed after ICU discharge (functional disability = 4; quality of life = 2). Among the 598 secondary outcomes, 133 (22%) were patient-important outcomes (mainly mortality, 92/133) but only 41 (7%) were patient-important outcomes besides mortality assessed after ICU discharge (quality of life = 20, functional disability = 14; neurological/cognitive performance = 5; handicap = 1; post-traumatic stress = 1). Seventy-three RCTs (65%) reported at least one patient-important outcome but only 11 (10%) reported at least one patient-important outcome besides mortality assessed after ICU discharge. Patient-important outcomes are rarely primary

  6. Relatives perception of writing diaries for critically ill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Højager; Angel, Sanne

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diaries written by nurses for the critically ill patient help the relatives cope and support the patient. Relatives may participate in writing a diary for the critically ill and when they do this is appreciated by the patients. However, the relative's perception of writing a diary has...... not previously been explored. AIM: To explore how relatives perceive writing a diary for the critically ill patient. METHOD: In a phenomenological-hermeneutic study building on the theory of Ricoeur interviews with seven relatives were conducted and interpreted. FINDINGS: When relatives wrote a diary...

  7. Diaphragm Dysfunction in Critical Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supinski, Gerald S; Morris, Peter E; Dhar, Sanjay; Callahan, Leigh Ann

    2018-04-01

    The diaphragm is the major muscle of inspiration, and its function is critical for optimal respiration. Diaphragmatic failure has long been recognized as a major contributor to death in a variety of systemic neuromuscular disorders. More recently, it is increasingly apparent that diaphragm dysfunction is present in a high percentage of critically ill patients and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. In these patients, diaphragm weakness is thought to develop from disuse secondary to ventilator-induced diaphragm inactivity and as a consequence of the effects of systemic inflammation, including sepsis. This form of critical illness-acquired diaphragm dysfunction impairs the ability of the respiratory pump to compensate for an increased respiratory workload due to lung injury and fluid overload, leading to sustained respiratory failure and death. This review examines the presentation, causes, consequences, diagnosis, and treatment of disorders that result in acquired diaphragm dysfunction during critical illness. Copyright © 2017 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Fluid and Electrolyte Disturbances in Critically Ill Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jay Wook

    2010-01-01

    Disturbances in fluid and electrolytes are among the most common clinical problems encountered in the intensive care unit (ICU). Recent studies have reported that fluid and electrolyte imbalances are associated with increased morbidity and mortality among critically ill patients. To provide optimal care, health care providers should be familiar with the principles and practice of fluid and electrolyte physiology and pathophysiology. Fluid resuscitation should be aimed at restoration of normal...

  9. Association between illness severity and timing of initial enteral feeding in critically ill patients: a retrospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Hsiu-Hua

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early enteral nutrition is recommended in cases of critical illness. It is unclear whether this recommendation is of most benefit to extremely ill patients. We aim to determine the association between illness severity and commencement of enteral feeding. Methods One hundred and eight critically ill patients were grouped as “less severe” and “more severe” for this cross-sectional, retrospective observational study. The cut off value was based on Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score 20. Patients who received enteral feeding within 48 h of medical intensive care unit (ICU admission were considered early feeding cases otherwise they were assessed as late feeding cases. Feeding complications (gastric retention/vomiting/diarrhea/gastrointestinal bleeding, length of ICU stay, length of hospital stay, ventilator-associated pneumonia, hospital mortality, nutritional intake, serum albumin, serum prealbumin, nitrogen balance (NB, and 24-h urinary urea nitrogen data were collected over 21 days. Results There were no differences in measured outcomes between early and late feedings for less severely ill patients. Among more severely ill patients, however, the early feeding group showed improved serum albumin (p = 0.036 and prealbumin (p = 0.014 but worsened NB (p = 0.01, more feeding complications (p = 0.005, and prolonged ICU stays (p = 0.005 compared to their late feeding counterparts. Conclusions There is a significant association between severity of illness and timing of enteral feeding initiation. In more severe illness, early feeding was associated with improved nutritional outcomes, while late feeding was associated with reduced feeding complications and length of ICU stay. However, the feeding complications of more severely ill early feeders can be handled without significantly affecting nutritional intake and there is no eventual difference in length of hospital stay or mortality

  10. Predictors of maternal mortality among critically ill obstetric patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    et al.,15 that absence of prenatal care was a predictor of maternal mortality in critically ill obstetric patients, the booking status in this study was not a predictor of mortality. This could be because the delay in recognition of the need for ICU care and delays in presentation could have removed the otherwise expected beneficial ...

  11. Diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin in critically ill immunocompromised patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Legriel Stéphane

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recognizing infection is crucial in immunocompromised patients with organ dysfunction. Our objective was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin (PCT in critically ill immunocompromised patients. Methods This prospective, observational study included patients with suspected sepsis. Patients were classified into one of three diagnostic groups: no infection, bacterial sepsis, and nonbacterial sepsis. Results We included 119 patients with a median age of 54 years (interquartile range [IQR], 42-68 years. The general severity (SAPSII and organ dysfunction (LOD scores on day 1 were 45 (35-62.7 and 4 (2-6, respectively, and overall hospital mortality was 32.8%. Causes of immunodepression were hematological disorders (64 patients, 53.8%, HIV infection (31 patients, 26%, and solid cancers (26 patients, 21.8%. Bacterial sepsis was diagnosed in 58 patients and nonbacterial infections in nine patients (7.6%; 52 patients (43.7% had no infection. PCT concentrations on the first ICU day were higher in the group with bacterial sepsis (4.42 [1.60-22.14] vs. 0.26 [0.09-1.26] ng/ml in patients without bacterial infection, P 0.5 ng/ml had 100% sensitivity but only 63% specificity for diagnosing bacterial sepsis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was 0.851 (0.78-0.92. In multivariate analyses, PCT concentrations > 0.5 ng/ml on day 1 independently predicted bacterial sepsis (odds ratio, 8.6; 95% confidence interval, 2.53-29.3; P = 0.0006. PCT concentrations were not significantly correlated with hospital mortality. Conclusion Despite limited specificity in critically ill immunocompromised patients, PCT concentrations may help to rule out bacterial infection.

  12. Diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin in critically ill immunocompromised patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bele, Nicolas; Darmon, Michael; Coquet, Isaline; Feugeas, Jean-Paul; Legriel, Stéphane; Adaoui, Nadir; Schlemmer, Benoît; Azoulay, Elie

    2011-08-24

    Recognizing infection is crucial in immunocompromised patients with organ dysfunction. Our objective was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin (PCT) in critically ill immunocompromised patients. This prospective, observational study included patients with suspected sepsis. Patients were classified into one of three diagnostic groups: no infection, bacterial sepsis, and nonbacterial sepsis. We included 119 patients with a median age of 54 years (interquartile range [IQR], 42-68 years). The general severity (SAPSII) and organ dysfunction (LOD) scores on day 1 were 45 (35-62.7) and 4 (2-6), respectively, and overall hospital mortality was 32.8%. Causes of immunodepression were hematological disorders (64 patients, 53.8%), HIV infection (31 patients, 26%), and solid cancers (26 patients, 21.8%). Bacterial sepsis was diagnosed in 58 patients and nonbacterial infections in nine patients (7.6%); 52 patients (43.7%) had no infection. PCT concentrations on the first ICU day were higher in the group with bacterial sepsis (4.42 [1.60-22.14] vs. 0.26 [0.09-1.26] ng/ml in patients without bacterial infection, P 0.5 ng/ml had 100% sensitivity but only 63% specificity for diagnosing bacterial sepsis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.851 (0.78-0.92). In multivariate analyses, PCT concentrations > 0.5 ng/ml on day 1 independently predicted bacterial sepsis (odds ratio, 8.6; 95% confidence interval, 2.53-29.3; P = 0.0006). PCT concentrations were not significantly correlated with hospital mortality. Despite limited specificity in critically ill immunocompromised patients, PCT concentrations may help to rule out bacterial infection.

  13. Fungal Peritonitis: Underestimated Disease in Critically Ill Patients with Liver Cirrhosis and Spontaneous Peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmer, Tobias; Brandl, Andreas; Rasch, Sebastian; Schmid, Roland M; Huber, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous peritonitis, especially spontaneous fungal peritonitis (SFP), is an important and potentially fatal complication in patients with endstage liver disaese. We evaluated potential risk factors, microbiological findings, and outcome of patients with SFP compared to spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) in critically ill patients. Retrospective analyses of critically ill patients with suspected spontaneous peritonitis. Out of 205 patients, 20 (10%) had SFP, 28 (14%) had SBP, 48 (24%) had peritonitis without microbiological findings (SP) and 109 (52%) had no-peritonitis (NP). APACHE II and SOFA score were significantly higher in patients with SFP (26; 22-28; pperitonitis could be significantly more often found in patients with SFP (65%; pperitonitis was significantly more often in patients with SFP (85%; pperitonitis.

  14. Worldwide audit of blood transfusion practice in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Jean-Louis; Jaschinski, Ulrich; Wittebole, Xavier; Lefrant, Jean-Yves; Jakob, Stephan M; Almekhlafi, Ghaleb A; Pellis, Tommaso; Tripathy, Swagata; Rubatto Birri, Paolo N; Sakr, Yasser

    2018-04-19

    The aim was to describe transfusion practice in critically ill patients at an international level and evaluate the effects of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion on outcomes in these patients. This was a pre-planned sub-study of the Intensive Care Over Nations audit, which involved 730 ICUs in 84 countries and included all adult patients admitted between 8 May and 18 May 2012, except admissions for routine postoperative surveillance. ICU and hospital outcomes were recorded. Among the 10,069 patients included in the audit, data related to transfusion had been completed for 9553 (mean age 60 ± 18 years, 60% male); 2511 (26.3%) of these had received a transfusion, with considerable variation among geographic regions. The mean lowest hemoglobin on the day of transfusion was 8.3 ± 1.7 g/dL, but varied from 7.8 ± 1.4 g/dL in the Middle East to 8.9 ± 1.9 g/dL in Eastern Europe. Hospital mortality rates were higher in transfused than in non-transfused patients (30.0% vs. 19.6%, p < 0.001) and increased with increasing numbers of transfused units. In an extended Cox proportional hazard analysis, the relative risk of in-hospital death was slightly lower after transfusion in the whole cohort (hazard ratio 0.98, confidence interval 0.96-1.00, p = 0.048). There was a stepwise decrease in the hazard ratio for mortality after transfusion with increasing admission severity scores. More than one fourth of critically ill patients are transfused during their ICU stay, with considerable variations in transfusion practice among geographic regions. After adjustment for confounders, RBC transfusions were associated with a slightly lower relative risk of in-hospital death, especially in the most severely ill patients, highlighting the importance of taking the severity of illness into account when making transfusion decisions.

  15. Simulator-based crew resource management training for interhospital transfer of critically ill patients by a mobile ICU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Droogh, Joep M; Kruger, H. L.; Ligtenberg, Jack J M; Zijlstra, Jan G

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transporting critically ill ICU patients by standard ambulances, with or without an accompanying physician, imposes safety risks. In 2007 the Dutch Ministry of Public Health required that all critically ill patients transferred between ICUs in different hospitals be transported by a

  16. Management Issues in Critically Ill Pediatric Patients with Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Omar Z; Burd, Randall S

    2017-10-01

    The management of critically ill pediatric patients with trauma poses many challenges because of the infrequency and diversity of severe injuries and a paucity of high-level evidence to guide care for these uncommon events. This article discusses recent recommendations for early resuscitation and blood component therapy for hypovolemic pediatric patients with trauma. It also highlights the specific types of injuries that lead to severe injury in children and presents challenges related to their management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Quality indicators on the use of antimicrobials in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, P; Palomar, M; Álvarez-Lerma, F

    2014-12-01

    Quality indicators have been applied to many areas of health care in recent years, including intensive care. However, they have not been specifically developed and validated for antimicrobial use in critically ill patients. Antimicrobials play a key role in intensive care units not only in the prognosis of each individual patient, but also in the development of resistance and changes in the flora in this setting. Evaluating the use of these agents is complex in the intensive care unit, however, because the indications vary greatly and antimicrobial treatment is often changed during admission. We designed and developed specific quality indicators regarding the use of antimicrobials in critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit. These indicators are proposed as a tool for application in intensive care units to detect problems in the use of antimicrobials. Future trials are needed, however, to validate these indicators in a large population over time. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  18. Novel, Family-Centered Intervention to Improve Nutrition in Patients Recovering From Critical Illness: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Andrea P; Lemieux, Margot; Dhaliwal, Rupinder; Seyler, Hilda; MacEachern, Kristen N; Heyland, Daren K

    2017-06-01

    Critically ill patients are at increased risk of developing malnutrition-related complications because of physiological changes, suboptimal delivery, and reduced intake. Strategies to improve nutrition during critical illness recovery are required to prevent iatrogenic underfeeding and risk of malnutrition. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a novel family-centered intervention to improve nutrition in critically ill patients. A 3-phase, prospective cohort feasibility study was conducted in 4 intensive care units (ICUs) across 2 countries. Intervention feasibility was determined by patient eligibility, recruitment, and retention rates. The acceptability of the intervention was assessed by participant perspectives collected through surveys. Participants included family members of the critically ill patients and ICU and ward healthcare professionals (HCPs). A total of 75 patients and family members, as well as 56 HCPs, were enrolled. The consent rate was 66.4%, and 63 of 75 (84%) of family participants completed the study. Most family members (53/55; 98.1%) would recommend the nutrition education program to others and reported improved ability to ask questions about nutrition (16/20; 80.0%). Family members viewed nutrition care more positively in the ICU. HCPs agreed that families should partner with HCPs to achieve optimal nutrition in the ICU and the wards. Health literacy was identified as a potential barrier to family participation. The intervention was feasible and acceptable to families of critically ill patients and HCPs. Further research to evaluate intervention impact on nutrition intake and patient-centered outcomes is required.

  19. Clinical review: optimizing enteral nutrition for critically ill patients - a simple data-driven formula

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    In modern critical care, the paradigm of 'therapeutic nutrition' is replacing traditional 'supportive nutrition'. Standard enteral formulas meet basic macro- and micronutrient needs; therapeutic enteral formulas meet these basic needs and also contain specific pharmaconutrients that may attenuate hyperinflammatory responses, enhance the immune responses to infection, or improve gastrointestinal tolerance. Choosing the right enteral feeding formula may positively affect a patient's outcome; targeted use of therapeutic formulas can reduce the incidence of infectious complications, shorten lengths of stay in the ICU and in the hospital, and lower risk for mortality. In this paper, we review principles of how to feed (enteral, parenteral, or both) and when to feed (early versus delayed start) patients who are critically ill. We discuss what to feed these patients in the context of specific pharmaconutrients in specialized feeding formulations, that is, arginine, glutamine, antioxidants, certain ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids, hydrolyzed proteins, and medium-chain triglycerides. We summarize current expert guidelines for nutrition in patients with critical illness, and we present specific clinical evidence on the use of enteral formulas supplemented with anti-inflammatory or immune-modulating nutrients, and gastrointestinal tolerance-promoting nutritional formulas. Finally, we introduce an algorithm to help bedside clinicians make data-driven feeding decisions for patients with critical illness. PMID:22136305

  20. Complication rates of open surgical versus percutaneous tracheostomy in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Obaseki, Stephanie; Veljkovic, Andrea; Javidnia, Hedyeh

    2016-11-01

    In the setting of critical care, the most common indications for tracheostomy include: prolonged intubation, to facilitate weaning from mechanical ventilation, and for pulmonary toileting. In this setting, tracheostomy can be performed either via open surgical or percutaneous technique. Advantages for percutaneous dilatational tracheostomy (PDT) include: simplicity, smaller incision, less tissue trauma, lower incidence of wound infection, lower incidence of peristomal bleeding, decreased morbidity from patient transfer, and cost-effectiveness. Despite many studies comparing surgical tracheostomy (ST) versus PDT, there remains no consensus on which of these techniques minimizes complications in critically ill patients. To provide an updated meta-analysis to answer the following question: Is there a difference in complication rates between ST and PDT in the setting of critically ill patients? Our secondary outcome of interest was to examine the difference in procedure time in the ST versus PDT groups. We conducted a literature search using the following databases: Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Studies from 1985 until October 2014 published in French or English languages in peer-reviewed journals were included. With regard to rates of mortality, intraoperative hemorrhage, and postoperative hemorrhage, there was no statistically significant difference between the two techniques. Evaluation of infections rates and operative time, however, revealed a statistically significant difference, favoring PDT over ST. In critically ill patients, PDT appears to be a safe and efficient alternative to open ST. NA Laryngoscope, 126:2459-2467, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  1. Argatroban versus Lepirudin in critically ill patients (ALicia): a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treschan, Tanja A; Schaefer, Maximilian S; Geib, Johann; Bahlmann, Astrid; Brezina, Tobias; Werner, Patrick; Golla, Elisabeth; Greinacher, Andreas; Pannen, Benedikt; Kindgen-Milles, Detlef; Kienbaum, Peter; Beiderlinden, Martin

    2014-10-25

    Critically ill patients often require renal replacement therapy accompanied by thrombocytopenia. Thrombocytopenia during heparin anticoagulation may be due to heparin-induced thrombocytopenia with need for alternative anticoagulation. Therefore, we compared argatroban and lepirudin in critically ill surgical patients. Following institutional review board approval and written informed consent, critically ill surgical patients more than or equal to 18 years with suspected heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, were randomly assigned to receive double-blind argatroban or lepirudin anticoagulation targeting an activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (aPTT) of 1.5 to 2 times baseline. In patients requiring continuous renal replacement therapy we compared the life-time of hemodialysis filters. We evaluated in all patients the incidence of bleeding and thrombembolic events. We identified 66 patients with suspected heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, including 28 requiring renal replacement therapy. Mean filter lifetimes did not differ between groups (argatroban 32 ± 25 hours (n = 12) versus lepirudin 27 ± 21 hours (n = 16), mean difference 5 hours, 95% CI -13 to 23, P = 0.227). Among all 66 patients, relevant bleeding occurred in four argatroban- versus eleven lepirudin-patients (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.1 to 14.0, P = 0.040). In the argatroban-group, three thromboembolic events occurred compared to two in the lepirudin group (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.1 to 4.4, P = 0.639). The incidence of confirmed heparin-induced thrombocytopenia was 23% (n = 15) in our study population. This first randomized controlled double-blind trial comparing two direct thrombin inhibitors showed comparable effectiveness for renal replacement therapy, but suggests fewer bleeds in surgical patients with argatroban anticoagulation. Clinical Trials.gov NCT00798525. Registered 25 November 2008.

  2. The impact of transport of critically ill pediatric patients on rural emergency departments in Manitoba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Gregory; Beer, Darcy L; Vallance, Jeff K

    2017-01-01

    Although the interfacility transport (IFT) of critically ill pediatric patients from rural to tertiary health centres may improve outcomes, the impact of IFTs on the rural referring centre is not known. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the IFT of critically ill children affects staffing and functionality of rural emergency departments (EDs) in Manitoba. In 2015, surveys were emailed to the medical directors of all 15 regional EDs within 2 hours' travel time from a tertiary pediatric hospital. The survey consisted of 9 questions that addressed baseline characteristics of the regional EDs and duration of ED staffing changes or closures due to IFT of critically ill pediatric patients. Ten surveys were received (67% response rate); a regional ED catchment population of about 130 000 people was represented. Interfacility transport caused most EDs (60%, with an average catchment population of 15 000) to close or to alter their staffing to a registered nurse only. These temporary changes lasted a cumulative total of 115 hours. Interfacility transport of critically ill pediatric patients resulted in ED closures and staffing changes in rural Manitoba. These findings suggest that long-term sustainable solutions are required to improve access to emergency care.

  3. Antioxidant Vitamins and Trace Elements in Critical Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koekkoek, W A C Kristine; van Zanten, Arthur R H

    2016-08-01

    This comprehensive narrative review summarizes relevant antioxidant mechanisms, the antioxidant status, and effects of supplementation in critically ill patients for the most studied antioxidant vitamins A, C, and E and the enzyme cofactor trace elements selenium and zinc. Over the past 15 years, oxidative stress-mediated cell damage has been recognized to be fundamental to the pathophysiology of various critical illnesses such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and multiorgan dysfunction in sepsis. Related to these conditions, low plasma levels of antioxidant enzymes, vitamins, and trace elements have been frequently reported, and thus supplementation seems logical. However, low antioxidant plasma levels per se may not indicate low total body stores as critical illness may induce redistribution of antioxidants. Furthermore, low antioxidant levels may even be beneficial as pro-oxidants are essential in bacterial killing. The reviewed studies in critically ill patients show conflicting results. This may be due to different patient populations, study designs, timing, dosing regimens, and duration of the intervention and outcome measures evaluated. Therefore, at present, it remains unclear whether supplementation of antioxidant micronutrients has any clinical benefit in critically ill patients as some studies show clear benefits, whereas others demonstrate neutral outcomes and even harm. Combination therapy of antioxidants seems logical as they work in synergy and function as elements of the human antioxidant network. Further research should focus on defining the normal antioxidant status for critically ill patients and to study optimal supplement combinations either by nutrition enrichment or by enteral or parenteral pharmacological interventions. © 2016 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  4. The Role of Time-Limited Trials in Dialysis Decision Making in Critically Ill Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Jennifer S; Holley, Jean L

    2016-02-05

    Technologic advances, such as continuous RRT, provide lifesaving therapy for many patients. AKI in the critically ill patient, a fatal diagnosis in the past, is now often a survivable condition. Dialysis decision making for the critically ill patient with AKI is complex. What was once a question solely of survival now is nuanced by an individual's definition of quality of life, personal values, and short- and long-term prognoses. Clinical evaluation of AKI in the critically ill is multifaceted. Treatment decision making requires consideration of the natural evolution of the patient's AKI within the context of the global prognosis. Situations are often marked by prognostic uncertainty and clinical unknowns. In the face of these uncertainties, establishment of patient-directed therapies is imperative. A time-limited trial of continuous RRT in this setting is often appropriate but difficult to execute. Using patient preferences as a clinical guide, a proper time-limited trial requires assessment of prognosis, elicitation of patient values, strong communication skills, clear documentation, and often, appropriate integration of palliative care services. A well conducted time-limited trial can avoid interprofessional conflict and provide support for the patient, family, and staff. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  5. Clinical Pharmacology Studies in Critically Ill Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakkar, Nilay; Salerno, Sara; Hornik, Christoph P.; Gonzalez, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Developmental and physiological changes in children contribute to variation in drug disposition with age. Additionally, critically ill children suffer from various life-threatening conditions that can lead to pathophysiological alterations that further affect pharmacokinetics (PK). Some factors that can alter PK in this patient population include variability in tissue distribution caused by protein binding changes and fluid shifts, altered drug elimination due to organ dysfunction, and use of medical interventions that can affect drug disposition (e.g., extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and continuous renal replacement therapy). Performing clinical studies in critically ill children is challenging because there is large inter-subject variability in the severity and time course of organ dysfunction; some critical illnesses are rare, which can affect subject enrollment; and critically ill children usually have multiple organ failure, necessitating careful selection of a study design. As a result, drug dosing in critically ill children is often based on extrapolations from adults or non-critically ill children. Dedicated clinical studies in critically ill children are urgently needed to identify optimal dosing of drugs in this population. This review will summarize the effect of critical illness on pediatric PK, the challenges associated with performing studies in this vulnerable subpopulation, and the clinical PK studies performed to date for commonly used drugs. PMID:27585904

  6. Efficacy and pharmacokinetics of intravenous paracetamol in the critically ill patient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samson, A.D.; Hunfeld, N.G.; Touw, D.J.; Melief, P.H.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Paracetamol (PCM) is a drug with analgesic and antipyretic properties. Despite its frequent use, little is known about its efficacy and pharmacokinetics (PK) when intravenously administered in the critically ill patient. A previous study suggests that therapeutic concentrations are not

  7. Continuous infusion of antibiotics in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smuszkiewicz, Piotr; Szałek, Edyta; Tomczak, Hanna; Grześkowiak, Edmund

    2013-02-01

    Antibiotics are the most commonly used drugs in intensive care unit patients and their supply should be based on pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic rules. The changes that occur in septic patients who are critically ill may be responsible for subtherapeutic antibiotic concentrations leading to poorer clinical outcomes. Evolving in time the disturbed pathophysiology in severe sepsis (high cardiac output, glomerular hyperfiltration) and therapeutic interventions (e.g. haemodynamically active drugs, mechanical ventilation, renal replacement therapy) alters antibiotic pharmacokinetics mainly through an increase in the volume of distribution and altered drug clearance. The lack of new and efficacious drugs and increased bacterial resistance are current problems of contemporary antibiotic therapy. Although intermittent administration is a standard clinical practice, alternative methods of antibiotic administration are sought, which may potentialise effects and reduce toxicity as well as contribute to inhibition of bacterial resistance. A wide range of studies prove that the application of continuous infusion of time-dependent antibiotics (beta-lactams, glycopeptides) is more rational than standard intermittent administration. However, there are also studies which do not confirm the advantage of one method over the other. In spite of controversy the continuous administration of this group of antibiotics is common practice, because the results of both studies point to the higher efficacy of this method in critically ill patients. Authors reviewed the literature to determine whether any clinical benefits exist for administration of time-dependent antibiotics by continuous infusion. Definite specification of the clinical advantage of administration this way over standard dosage requires a large-scale multi-centre randomised controlled trial.

  8. Variability of linezolid concentrations after standard dosing in critically ill patients: a prospective observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Severe infections in intensive care patients show high morbidity and mortality rates. Linezolid is an antimicrobial drug frequently used in critically ill patients. Recent data indicates that there might be high variability of linezolid serum concentrations in intensive care patients receiving standard doses. This study was aimed to evaluate whether standard dosing of linezolid leads to therapeutic serum concentrations in critically ill patients. Methods In this prospective observational study, 30 critically ill adult patients with suspected infections received standard dosing of 600 mg linezolid intravenously twice a day. Over 4 days, multiple serum samples were obtained from each patient, in order to determine the linezolid concentrations by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results A high variability of serum linezolid concentrations was observed (range of area under the linezolid concentration time curve over 24 hours (AUC24) 50.1 to 453.9 mg/L, median 143.3 mg*h/L; range of trough concentrations (Cmin) linezolid concentrations over 24 hours and at single time points (defined according to the literature as AUC24  400 mg*h/L and Cmin > 10 mg/L) were observed for 7 of the patients. Conclusions A high variability of linezolid serum concentrations with a substantial percentage of potentially subtherapeutic levels was observed in intensive care patients. The findings suggest that therapeutic drug monitoring of linezolid might be helpful for adequate dosing of linezolid in critically ill patients. Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01793012. Registered 24 January 2013. PMID:25011656

  9. The diagnostic value of troponin in critically ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voga, Gorazd

    2010-01-01

    Troponin T and I are sensitive and specific markers of myocardial necrosis. They are used for the routine diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome. In critically ill patients they are basic diagnostic tool for diagnosis of myocardial necrosis due to myocardial ischemia. Moreover, the increase of troponin I and T is related with adverse outcome in many subgroups of critically ill patients. The new, high sensitivity tests which have been developed recently allow earlier and more accurate diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome. The use of the new tests has not been studied in critically ill patients, but they will probably replace the old tests and will be used on the routine basis.

  10. Understanding Response Rates to Surveys About Family Members' Psychological Symptoms After Patients' Critical Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Ann C; Downey, Lois; Engelberg, Ruth A; Nielsen, Elizabeth; Ciechanowski, Paul; Curtis, J Randall

    2017-07-01

    Achieving adequate response rates from family members of critically ill patients can be challenging, especially when assessing psychological symptoms. To identify factors associated with completion of surveys about psychological symptoms among family members of critically ill patients. Using data from a randomized trial of an intervention to improve communication between clinicians and families of critically ill patients, we examined patient-level and family-level predictors of the return of usable surveys at baseline, three months, and six months (n = 181, 171, and 155, respectively). Family-level predictors included baseline symptoms of psychological distress, decisional independence preference, and attachment style. We hypothesized that family with fewer symptoms of psychological distress, a preference for less decisional independence, and secure attachment style would be more likely to return questionnaires. We identified several predictors of the return of usable questionnaires. Better self-assessed family member health status was associated with a higher likelihood and stronger agreement with a support-seeking attachment style with a lower likelihood, of obtaining usable baseline surveys. At three months, family-level predictors of return of usable surveys included having usable baseline surveys, status as the patient's legal next of kin, and stronger agreement with a secure attachment style. The only predictor of receipt of surveys at six months was the presence of usable surveys at three months. We identified several predictors of the receipt of surveys assessing psychological symptoms in family of critically ill patients, including family member health status and attachment style. Using these characteristics to inform follow-up mailings and reminders may enhance response rates. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The Effects of Homocysteine Level in the Critically Ill Patient. A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedreag Ovidiu Horea

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Increased levels of homocysteine (HCYS represent a risk factor for a series of physiopathological conditions: mental retardation, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease, depression, osteoporosis, endothelial dysfunction and inhibition of cell proliferation. This paper aims to present the pathophysiological implications of HCYS and the correlation of hyperhomocysteinemia (H-HCYS with critical condition in the intensive care unit (ICU. Hypovitaminosis B and folate deficiency is directly involved in the inhibition of HCYS metabolism and the accumulation of HCYS in the plasma and tissues. Critically ill patients are more prone to H-HCYS due to hypermetabolism and accelerated synthesis produced by reactive oxygen species (ROS. In conclusion it can be affirmed that the determination and monitoring of HCYS plasma levels may be of interest in optimizing the therapy for critically ill patients. Moreover, by controlling HCYS levels, and implicitly the essential cofactors that intervene in the specific biochemical pathways, such as vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and folic acid can provide a diversified and personalized treatment for each patient.

  12. [Fish oil containing lipid emulsions in critically ill patients: Critical analysis and future perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanares, W; Langlois, P L

    2016-01-01

    Third-generation lipid emulsions (LE) are soybean oil sparing strategies with immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory effects. Current evidence supporting the use of intravenous (i.v) fish oil (FO) LE in critically ill patients requiring parenteral nutrition or receiving enteral nutrition (pharmaconutrient strategy) mainly derives from small phase ii clinical trials in heterogenous intensive care unit patient's population. Over the last three years, there have been published different systematic reviews and meta-analyses evaluating the effects of FO containing LE in the critically ill. Recently, it has been demonstrated that i.v FO based LE may be able to significantly reduce the incidence of infections as well as mechanical ventilation days and hospital length of stay. Nonetheless, more robust evidence is required before giving a definitive recommendation. Finally, we strongly believe that a dosing study is required before new phase iii clinical trials comparing i.v FO containing emulsions versus other soybean oil strategies can be conducted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  13. Constipation and its implications in the critically ill patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, S M; Bhandari, S; Ritchie, G; Gratton, N; Wenstone, R

    2003-12-01

    Motility of the lower gut has been little studied in intensive care patients. We prospectively studied constipation in an intensive care unit of a university hospital, and conducted a national survey to assess the generalizability of our findings. Constipation occurred in 83% of the patients. More constipated patients (42.5%) failed to wean from mechanical ventilation than non-constipated patients (0%), Pconstipated than non-constipated patients (10 vs 6.5 days and 27.5 vs 12.5%, respectively (NS)). The survey found similar observations in other units. Delays in weaning from mechanical ventilation and enteral feeding were reported by 28 and 48% of the units surveyed, respectively. Constipation has implications for the critically ill.

  14. Nutritional risk assessment in critically ill cancer patients: systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruchtenicht, Ana Valéria Gonçalves; Poziomyck, Aline Kirjner; Kabke, Geórgia Brum; Loss, Sérgio Henrique; Antoniazzi, Jorge Luiz; Steemburgo, Thais; Moreira, Luis Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Objective To systematically review the main methods for nutritional risk assessment used in critically ill cancer patients and present the methods that better assess risks and predict relevant clinical outcomes in this group of patients, as well as to discuss the pros and cons of these methods according to the current literature. Methods The study consisted of a systematic review based on analysis of manuscripts retrieved from the PubMed, LILACS and SciELO databases by searching for the key words “nutritional risk assessment”, “critically ill” and “cancer”. Results Only 6 (17.7%) of 34 initially retrieved papers met the inclusion criteria and were selected for the review. The main outcomes of these studies were that resting energy expenditure was associated with undernourishment and overfeeding. The high Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment score was significantly associated with low food intake, weight loss and malnutrition. In terms of biochemical markers, higher levels of creatinine, albumin and urea were significantly associated with lower mortality. The worst survival was found for patients with worse Eastern Cooperative Oncologic Group - performance status, high Glasgow Prognostic Score, low albumin, high Patient-Generated Subjective Global Assessment score and high alkaline phosphatase levels. Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index values < 87 were significantly associated with mortality. A high Prognostic Inflammatory and Nutritional Index score was associated with abnormal nutritional status in critically ill cancer patients. Among the reviewed studies that examined weight and body mass index alone, no significant clinical outcome was found. Conclusion None of the methods reviewed helped to define risk among these patients. Therefore, assessment by a combination of weight loss and serum measurements, preferably in combination with other methods using scores such as Eastern Cooperative Oncologic Group - performance status, Glasgow Prognostic

  15. Early enteral nutrition in critically ill patients with hemodynamic instability: an evidence-based review and practical advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shuofei; Wu, Xingjiang; Yu, Wenkui; Li, Jieshou

    2014-02-01

    Early enteral nutrition (EEN) in critically ill patients is associated with significant benefit as well as elevated risk of complications. Concomitant use of EEN with vasopressors has been associated with nonocclusive bowel necrosis in critically ill patients with hemodynamic instability. The decision when to initiate enteral nutrition in hemodynamically unstable patients that require vasoactive substances remains a clinical dilemma. This review summarizes the effect of EEN and vasoactive agents on gastrointestinal blood flow and perfusion in critically ill patients, based on current evidence. Animal and clinical data involving simultaneous administration of EEN and vasoactive agents for hemodynamic instability are reviewed, and the factors related to the safety and effectiveness of EEN support in this patient population are analyzed. Moreover, practical recommendations are provided. Additional randomized clinical trials are warranted to provide cutting-edge evidence-based guidance about this issue for practitioners of critical care.

  16. Percutaneous cholecystostomy in critically ill patients with acute cholecystitis: Complications and late outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atar, E.; Bachar, G.N.; Berlin, S.; Neiman, C.; Bleich-Belenky, E.; Litvin, S.; Knihznik, M.; Belenky, A.; Ram, E.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the outcome of percutaneous cholecystostomy in critically ill patients with acute cholecystitis. Materials and methods: The study group included critically ill patients who underwent percutaneous cholecystostomy for acute cholecystitis at a tertiary medical centre in 2007–2011. Data on complications, morbidities, surgical outcome, and imaging findings were collected from the medical files and radiology information system. Results: There were 48 women (59.3%) and 33 men (40.7%), with a median age of 82 years (range 47–99 years). Seventy-one (88%) had calculous cholecystitis and 10 (12%), acalculous cholecystitis. The drain was successfully inserted in all cases with no immediate major procedural complications. Fifteen patients (18.5%) died in-hospital within 30 days, mainly (93%) due to septic shock (14/15), another 20 patients (24.7%) died during the study period of unrelated co-morbidities. Of the remaining 46 patients, 36 (78.2%) had surgical cholecystectomies. In patients with acalculous cholecystitis, the drain was removed after cessation of symptoms. Transcystic cholangiography identified five patients with additional stones in the common bile duct. They were managed by pushing the stones into the duodenum via the cystostomy access, sparing them the need for surgical exploration. Conclusions: Early percutaneous gallbladder drainage is safe and effective in critically ill patients in the acute phase of cholecystitis, with a high technical success rate. Surgical results in survivors are better than reported in patients treated surgically without drainage. Bile duct stones can be eliminated without creating an additional access

  17. Low skeletal muscle area is a risk factor for mortality in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients

    OpenAIRE

    Weijs, Peter JM; Looijaard, Wilhelmus GPM; Dekker, Ingeborg M; Stapel, Sandra N; Girbes, Armand R; Straaten, Heleen M Oudemans-van; Beishuizen, Albertus

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Higher body mass index (BMI) is associated with lower mortality in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients. However, it is yet unclear which body component is responsible for this relationship. Methods This retrospective analysis in 240 mechanically ventilated critically ill patients included adult patients in whom a computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen was made on clinical indication between 1 day before and 4 days after admission to the intensive care unit. CT s...

  18. Physiotherapy for adult patients with critical illness: recommendations of the European Respiratory Society and European Society of Intensive Care Medicine Task Force on Physiotherapy for Critically Ill Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselink, R; Bott, J; Johnson, M; Dean, E; Nava, S; Norrenberg, M; Schönhofer, B; Stiller, K; van de Leur, H; Vincent, J L

    2008-07-01

    The Task Force reviewed and discussed the available literature on the effectiveness of physiotherapy for acute and chronic critically ill adult patients. Evidence from randomized controlled trials or meta-analyses was limited and most of the recommendations were level C (evidence from uncontrolled or nonrandomized trials, or from observational studies) and D (expert opinion). However, the following evidence-based targets for physiotherapy were identified: deconditioning, impaired airway clearance, atelectasis, intubation avoidance, and weaning failure. Discrepancies and lack of data on the efficacy of physiotherapy in clinical trials support the need to identify guidelines for physiotherapy assessments, in particular to identify patient characteristics that enable treatments to be prescribed and modified on an individual basis. There is a need to standardize pathways for clinical decision-making and education, to define the professional profile of physiotherapists, and increase the awareness of the benefits of prevention and treatment of immobility and deconditioning for critically ill adult patients.

  19. Characteristics of critically ill patients in ICUs in mainland China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Bin; An, Youzhong; Kang, Yan; Yu, Xiangyou; Zhao, Mingyan; Ma, Xiaochun; Ai, Yuhang; Xu, Yuan; Wang, Yushan; Qian, Chuanyun; Wu, Dawei; Sun, Renhua; Li, Shusheng; Hu, Zhenjie; Cao, Xiangyuan; Zhou, Fachun; Jiang, Li; Lin, Jiandong; Chen, Erzhen; Qin, Tiehe; He, Zhenyang; Zhou, Lihua

    2013-01-01

    We sought to describe the demographics, case mix, interventions, and clinical outcome of critically ill patients admitted to ICUs in Mainland China. A 2-month (July 1, 2009, to August 31, 2009) prospective, observational cohort study. Twenty-two ICUs in Mainland China. Adult patients admitted to participating ICUs during the study period with an ICU length of stay >24 hrs. None. Patient characteristics, including demographics, underlying diseases, severity of illness, admission status, complications, intervention and treatment during ICU stay, and clinical outcome were recorded in case report form. The primary outcome measure was all-cause hospital mortality. Independent predictors for hospital mortality were determined with multivariate logistic regression analysis. One thousand two hundred ninety-seven patients met the inclusion criteria for the study, 821 (63.3%) were male, and mean age was 58.5 ± 19.2 yrs. Mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score was 18.0 ± 8.1, and mean Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score was 6.5 ± 3.8. One third of the patients were postoperative ICU admissions. Seven hundred sixty-five patients (59.0%) developed infections, followed by severe sepsis or septic shock (484, 37.3%), acute kidney injury (398, 30.7%), and acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome (351, 27.1%). Mechanical ventilation was used in almost three fourths of the patients, whereas any type of renal replacement therapy was used in 173 patients (13.3%). Hospital mortality was 20.3%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis found that Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, solid tumor, severe sepsis/septic shock, acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome, and acute kidney injury were independent risk factors for hospital mortality. Critically ill patients in ICUs in Mainland China exhibited a case mix similar to those of Western countries, although there are significant differences in intensive care unit

  20. Inferior vena cava collapsibility detects fluid responsiveness among spontaneously breathing critically-ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corl, Keith A; George, Naomi R; Romanoff, Justin; Levinson, Andrew T; Chheng, Darin B; Merchant, Roland C; Levy, Mitchell M; Napoli, Anthony M

    2017-10-01

    Measurement of inferior vena cava collapsibility (cIVC) by point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) has been proposed as a viable, non-invasive means of assessing fluid responsiveness. We aimed to determine the ability of cIVC to identify patients who will respond to additional intravenous fluid (IVF) administration among spontaneously breathing critically-ill patients. Prospective observational trial of spontaneously breathing critically-ill patients. cIVC was obtained 3cm caudal from the right atrium and IVC junction using POCUS. Fluid responsiveness was defined as a≥10% increase in cardiac index following a 500ml IVF bolus; measured using bioreactance (NICOM™, Cheetah Medical). cIVC was compared with fluid responsiveness and a cIVC optimal value was identified. Of the 124 participants, 49% were fluid responders. cIVC was able to detect fluid responsiveness: AUC=0.84 [0.76, 0.91]. The optimum cutoff point for cIVC was identified as 25% (LR+ 4.56 [2.72, 7.66], LR- 0.16 [0.08, 0.31]). A cIVC of 25% produced a lower misclassification rate (16.1%) for determining fluid responsiveness than the previous suggested cutoff values of 40% (34.7%). IVC collapsibility, as measured by POCUS, performs well in distinguishing fluid responders from non-responders, and may be used to guide IVF resuscitation among spontaneously breathing critically-ill patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Metabolic control in the critically ill patient an update: hyperglycemia, glucose variability hypoglycemia and relative hypoglycemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Calatayud, Ángel Augusto; Guillén-Vidaña, Ariadna; Fraire-Félix, Irving Santiago; Anica-Malagón, Eduardo Daniel; Briones Garduño, Jesús Carlos; Carrillo-Esper, Raúl

    Metabolic changes of glucose in critically ill patients increase morbidity and mortality. The appropriate level of blood glucose has not been established so far and should be adjusted for different populations. However concepts such as glucose variability and relative hypoglycemia of critically ill patients are concepts that are changing management methods and achieving closer monitoring. The purpose of this review is to present new data about the management and metabolic control of patients in critical areas. Currently glucose can no longer be regarded as an innocent element in critical patients; both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia increase morbidity and mortality of patients. Protocols and better instruments for continuous measurement are necessary to achieve the metabolic control of our patients. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  2. A Retrospective study of Pressure ulcers in critically ill patients in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Retrospective study of Pressure ulcers in critically ill patients in a ... reduced tissue perfusion, neurologic deficits, faecal or urinary incontinence. This study determined the prevalence and risk factors for the development of pressure ulcer in ...

  3. Clinical course teaching in transport of critically ill patients: Small group methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Taghi Beigmohammadi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Critically ill patient transfer is potentially risky and may be lead to morbidity and mortality. Physicians' skill is very important for safe transport. We want to evaluate the effect of clinical course teaching on the promotion of physicians' abilities in the transport of critically ill patients. In an interventional study, 320 interns, male and female, were taught about patient transfer in two groups include in one day clinical course as the small group system (n=160 and other group the lecture base learning (n=160. In the clinical course, each participant under observation of an anesthesiologist in the operation room and ICU was acquainted with mask ventilation, intubation and learned to work with a defibrillator, infusion pump, portable ventilator and pulse oximeter. In lecture group, the anesthesiologist explained the topics by video and dummy. At the end of education course, the interns’ abilities were evaluated based on checklist method and scored by the project colleague in all educational items. Three hundred twenty interns, 122 males, and 198 females; were enrolled, two groups. The clinical course training caused improvements in the interns’ knowledge and abilities in intubation and use of the defibrillator and portable ventilator vs.lecture group significantly (P<0.005. The males were better than females in laryngoscopy, but the progress of the females was significantly better than males (P=0.003. The rate of adverse events was reduced significantly after clinical course teaching (P=0.041 Clinical course teaching could promote interns' clinical competencies in the transport of critically ill patients.

  4. Procalcitonin increase in early identification of critically ill patients at high risk of mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens Ulrik; Heslet, L; Jensen, TH

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate day-by-day changes in procalcitonin and maximum obtained levels as predictors of mortality in critically ill patients. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study. SETTING:: Multidisciplinary intensive care unit at Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital......, a tertiary reference hospital in Denmark. PATIENTS: Four hundred seventy-two patients with diverse comorbidity and age admitted to this intensive care unit. INTERVENTIONS: Equal in all patient groups: antimicrobial treatment adjusted according to the procalcitonin level. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Daily...... in the intensive care unit and in a 30-day follow-up period. A total of 3,642 procalcitonin measurements were evaluated in 472 critically ill patients. We found that a high maximum procalcitonin level and a procalcitonin increase for 1 day were independent predictors of 90-day all-cause mortality...

  5. Use of Intravenous Fat Emulsions in Adult Critically Ill Patients: Does ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-08-09

    Aug 9, 2017 ... estimated to range from 20% to 60%, with approximately ... This literature review focuses on the administration of different lipid emulsions, ... including the ideal method of assessing energy and protein ... published guidelines for lipid intake in critically ill patients ..... In adults, fat accumulation more often ...

  6. Quality of interhospital transport of critically ill patients: a prospective audit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligtenberg, JJM; Arnold, LG; Stienstra, Y; van der Werf, TS; Tulleken, JE; Zijlstra, JG; Meertens, John H. J. M.

    Introduction The aim of transferring a critically ill patient to the intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary referral centre is to improve prognosis. The transport itself must be as safe as possible and should not pose additional risks. We performed a prospective audit of the quality of

  7. [Prevention and management of refeeding syndrome in patients with chronic critical illness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Fan, Chaogang

    2016-07-01

    Nutritional support is an important means to treat the patients with chronic critical illness for commonly associated malnutrition. Refeeding syndrome is a serious complication during the process, mainly manifested as severe electrolyte with hypophosphataemia being the most common. Refeeding syndrome is not uncommon but it is often ignored. In our future clinical work, we need to recognize this chinical situation and use preventative and treatment measures. According to NICE clinical nutrition guideline, we discussed the risk factors, treatment methods and preventive measures of refeeding syndrome in patients with chronic critical illness. We argued that for patients with high risk refeeding syndrome, nutritional support treatment should be initially low calorie and slowly increased to complete requirement. Circulation capacity should be recovered, fluid balance must be closely monitored and supplement of vitamins, microelement, electrolytes should be noted. After the emergence of refeeding syndrome, we should reduce or even stop the calorie intake, give an active treatment for electrolyte disorder, provide vitamin B, and maintain the functions of multiple organs.

  8. Hypophosphatemia and duration of respiratory failure and mortality in critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federspiel, C K; Itenov, T S; Thormar, K

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypophosphatemia has been associated with prolonged duration of respiratory failure and increased mortality in critically ill patients, but there is very limited evidence supporting the negative effects of low phosphate. We examined the association between hypophosphatemia at ICU...

  9. Blood glucose response to rescue dextrose in hypoglycemic, critically ill patients receiving an insulin infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Manasa S; Duby, Jeremiah J; Parker, Patricia L; Durbin-Johnson, Blythe P; Roach, Denise M; Louie, Erin L

    2015-08-01

    There is inadequate guidance for clinicians on selection of the optimal dextrose 50% (D50W) dose for hypoglycemia correction in critically ill patients. The purpose of this study was to determine the blood glucose (BG) response to D50W in critically ill patients. A retrospective analysis was conducted of critically ill patients who received D50W for hypoglycemia (BG 150 mg/dL), resulting in a 6.8% rate of overcorrection; 49% of hypoglycemic episodes (230/470) corrected to a BG >100 mg/dL. A multivariable GEE analysis showed a significantly higher BG response in participants with diabetes (0.002) but a lower response in those with recurrent hypoglycemia (P = 0.049). The response to D50W increased with increasinginsulin infusion rate (P = 0.022). Burn patients experienced a significantly larger BG response compared with cardiac, medical, neurosurgical, or surgical patients. The observed median effect of D50W on BG was approximately 4 mg/dL per gram of D50W administered. Application of these data may aid in rescue protocol development that may reduce glucose variability associated with hypoglycemic episodes and the correction. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. INTRA-ABDOMINAL HYPERTENSION AS A RISK FACTOR FOR ACUTE KIDNEY INJURY IN CRITICALLY ILL PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreelatha

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS Increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP, also referred to as intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH, affects organ function in critically ill patients. The prevalence of IAH is between 32% - 65% in intensive care units. Normal IAP is ≈ 5–7 mmHg. According to WSACS definition, IAH = IAP ≥12 mmHg and is divided into 4 grades. They are Grade I (12-15 mmHg, Grade II (16-20 mmHg, Grade III (21-25 mmHg, Grade IV (>25 mmHg. Transvesical measurement of IAP currently is the most popular technique. Several systems with or without the need for electronic equipment are available that allow IAP measurement. The aim is to study the incidence of IAH in critically ill patients, to assess the risk factors for development of IAH, to study the role of IAH as a risk factor for Acute Kidney Injury (AKI, to assess the role of IAH as a risk factor for increased (Intensive Care Unit ICU mortality. SUBJECTS AND METHODS This is a prospective observational study. Study period was six months. The study included 52 patients admitted to Medical ICU in Government Medical College, Kozhikode, Kerala. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION There was a very high incidence of intra-abdominal hypertension in critically ill patients. IAH was significantly associated with risk factors like sepsis, mechanical ventilation, pancreatitis, capillary leak, ascites, cumulative fluid balance and cirrhosis. IAH is an independent risk factor for development of acute kidney injury. IAH is an independent predictor of mortality in critically ill patients.

  11. Iron metabolism in critically ill patients developing anemia of inflammation: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshuizen, Margit; Binnekade, Jan M; Nota, Benjamin; van de Groep, Kirsten; Cremer, Olaf L; Tuinman, Pieter R; Horn, Janneke; Schultz, Marcus J; van Bruggen, Robin; Juffermans, Nicole P

    2018-05-02

    Anemia occurring as a result of inflammatory processes (anemia of inflammation, AI) has a high prevalence in critically ill patients. Knowledge on changes in iron metabolism during the course of AI is limited, hampering the development of strategies to counteract AI. This case control study aimed to investigate iron metabolism during the development of AI in critically ill patients. Iron metabolism in 30 patients who developed AI during ICU stay was compared with 30 septic patients with a high Hb and 30 non-septic patients with a high Hb. Patients were matched on age and sex. Longitudinally collected plasma samples were analyzed for levels of parameters of iron metabolism. A linear mixed model was used to assess the predictive values of the parameters. In patients with AI, levels of iron, transferrin and transferrin saturation showed an early decrease compared to controls with a high Hb, already prior to the development of anemia. Ferritin, hepcidin and IL-6 levels were increased in AI compared to controls. During AI development, erythroferrone decreased. Differences in iron metabolism between groups were not influenced by APACHE IV score. The results show that in critically ill patients with AI, iron metabolism is already altered prior to the development of anemia. Levels of iron regulators in AI differ from septic controls with a high Hb, irrespective of disease severity. AI is characterized by high levels of hepcidin, ferritin and IL-6 and low levels of iron, transferrin and erythroferrone.

  12. Pharmacokinetic properties of micafungin in critically ill patients diagnosed with invasive candidiasis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, J M; van der Elst, K C; Veringa, A; Jongedijk, E M; Brüggemann, R J; Koster, R A; Kampinga, G A; Kosterink, J G; van der Werf, T S; Zijlstra, J G; Touw, D J; Alffenaar, J W C

    2017-01-01

    Background: The estimated attributable mortality rate for invasive candidiasis (IC) in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) setting varies from 30-40%. Physiological changes in critically ill patients may affect the distribution and elimination of micafungin and therefore dosing adjustments might be

  13. Diaphragm Muscle Fiber Weakness and Ubiquitin-Proteasome Activation in Critically Ill Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijman, P.E.; Beishuizen, A.; Witt, C.C.; de Waard, M.C.; Girbes, A.R.J.; Spoelstra-de Man, A.M.E.; Niessen, H.W.; Manders, E.; van Hees, H.W.H.; van den Brom, C.E.; Silderhuis, V.; Lawlor, M.W.; Labeit, S.; Stienen, G.J.M.; Hartemink, K.J.; Paul, M.A.; Heunks, L.M.A.; Ottenheijm, C.A.C.

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE: The clinical significance of diaphragm weakness in critically ill patients is evident: it prolongs ventilator dependency, and increases morbidity and duration of hospital stay. To date, the nature of diaphragm weakness and its underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms are poorly understood.

  14. Comparison of sedation strategies for critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutton, Brian; Burry, Lisa D.; Kanji, Salmaan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sedatives and analgesics are administered to provide sedation and manage agitation and pain in most critically ill mechanically ventilated patients. Various sedation administration strategies including protocolized sedation and daily sedation interruption are used to mitigate drug...... their efficacy and safety for mechanically ventilated patients. Methods: We will search the following from 1980 to March 2016: Ovid MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, PsycINFO, and Web of Science. We will also search the Cochrane Library, gray literature, and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. We...... of interest include duration of mechanical ventilation, time to first extubation, ICU and hospital length of stay, re-intubation, tracheostomy, mortality, total sedative and opioid exposure, health-related quality of life, and adverse events. To inform our NMA, we will first conduct conventional pair...

  15. Trigger mechanisms of secondary sclerosing cholangitis in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Silke; Veltzke-Schlieker, Wilfried; Adler, Andreas; Schott, Eckart; Hetzer, Roland; Schaffartzik, Walter; Tryba, Michael; Neuhaus, Peter; Seehofer, Daniel

    2015-03-31

    In recent years the development of secondary sclerosing cholangitis in critically ill patients (SSC-CIP) has increasingly been perceived as a separate disease entity. About possible trigger mechanisms of SSC-CIP has been speculated, systematic investigations on this issue are still lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and influence of promoting factors. Temporality, consistency and biological plausibility are essential prerequisites for causality. In this study, we investigated the temporality and consistency of possible triggers of SSC-CIP in a large case series. Biological plausibility of the individual triggers is discussed in a scientific context. SSC-CIP cases were recruited retrospectively from 2633 patients who underwent or were scheduled for liver transplantation at the University Hospital Charité, Berlin. All patients who developed secondary sclerosing cholangitis in association with intensive care treatment were included. Possible trigger factors during the course of the initial intensive care treatment were recorded. Sixteen patients (68% males, mean age 45.87 ± 14.64 years) with a confirmed diagnosis of SSC-CIP were identified. Of the 19 risk factors investigated, particularly severe hypotension with a prolonged decrease in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) to <65 mmHg and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) were established as possible triggers of SSC-CIP. The occurrence of severe hypotension appears to be the first and most significant step in the pathogenesis. It seems that severe hypotension has a critical effect on the blood supply of bile ducts when it occurs together with additional microcirculatory disturbances. In critically ill patients with newly acquired cholestasis the differential diagnosis of SSC-CIP should be considered when they have had an episode of haemodynamic instability with a prolonged decrease in MAP, initial need for large amounts of blood transfusions or colloids, and early

  16. Changes in case-mix and outcomes of critically ill patients in an Australian tertiary intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, T A; Ho, K M; Dobb, G J; Finn, J C; Knuiman, M W; Webb, S A R

    2010-07-01

    Critical care service is expensive and the demand for such service is increasing in many developed countries. This study aimed to assess the changes in characteristics of critically ill patients and their effect on long-term outcome. This cohort study utilised linked data between the intensive care unit database and state-wide morbidity and mortality databases. Logistic and Cox regression was used to examine hospital survival and five-year survival of 22,298 intensive care unit patients, respectively. There was a significant increase in age, severity of illness and Charlson Comorbidity Index of the patients over a 16-year study period. Although hospital mortality and median length of intensive care unit and hospital stay remained unchanged, one- and five-year survival had significantly improved with time, after adjusting for age, gender; severity of illness, organ failure, comorbidity, 'new' cancer and diagnostic group. Stratified analyses showed that the improvement in five-year survival was particularly strong among patients admitted after cardiac surgery (P = 0.001). In conclusion, although critical care service is increasingly being provided to patients with a higher severity of acute and chronic illnesses, long-term survival outcome has improved with time suggesting that critical care service may still be cost-effectiveness despite the changes in case-mix.

  17. Pharmacokinetics of Intravenous Posaconazole in Critically Ill Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sime, Fekade B; Stuart, Janine; Butler, Jenie; Starr, Therese; Wallis, Steven C; Pandey, Saurabh; Lipman, Jeffrey; Roberts, Jason A

    2018-06-01

    To date, there is no information on the intravenous (i.v.) posaconazole pharmacokinetics for intensive care unit (ICU) patients. This prospective observational study aimed to describe the pharmacokinetics of a single dose of i.v. posaconazole in critically ill patients. Patients with no history of allergy to triazole antifungals and requiring systemic antifungal therapy were enrolled if they were aged ≥18 years, central venous access was available, they were not pregnant, and they had not received prior posaconazole or drugs interacting with posaconazole. A single dose of 300 mg posaconazole was administered over 90 min. Total plasma concentrations were measured from serial plasma samples collected over 48 h, using a validated chromatographic method. The pharmacokinetic data set was analyzed by noncompartmental methods. Eight patients (7 male) were enrolled with the following characteristics: median age, 46 years (interquartile range [IQR], 40 to 51 years); median weight, 68 kg (IQR, 65 to 82 kg); and median albumin concentration, 20 g/liter (IQR, 18 to 24 g/liter). Median (IQR) pharmacokinetic parameter estimates were as follows: observed maximum concentration during sampling period ( C max ), 1,702 ng/ml (1,352 to 2,141 ng/ml); area under the concentration-time curve from zero to infinity (AUC 0-∞ ), 17,932 ng · h/ml (13,823 to 27,905 ng · h/ml); clearance (CL), 16.8 liters/h (11.1 to 21.7 liters/h); and volume of distribution ( V ), 529.1 liters (352.2 to 720.6 liters). The V and CL were greater than 2-fold and the AUC 0-∞ was 39% of the values reported for heathy volunteers. The AUC 0-∞ was only 52% of the steady-state AUC 0-24 reported for hematology patients. The median of estimated average steady-state concentrations was 747 ng/ml (IQR, 576 to 1,163 ng/ml), which is within but close to the lower end of the previously recommended therapeutic range of 500 to 2,500 ng/ml. In conclusion, we observed different pharmacokinetics of i.v. posaconazole in

  18. Air Transportation of Critically Ill Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. P. Rodionov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available During the Napoleonic wars, balloon evacuation of the wounded was the first to be made in the history when Paris was being defended. In the USA, casualty helicopters are being used in 20% of cases on evacuating the victims from the accident scene and in 80% during interhospital transportation. Russia also shows an ambiguous approach to employing air medical service — from the wide use of air transportation in the country’s regions that are difficult of access to its almost complete refusal in the regions with the well-developed transportation system. Long-distance transportation of critically ill patients by chartered or commercial planes is the reality of our time. In each region, continuing specialized teams of qualified medical workers who have a good knowledge of altitude pathophysiology and handle the obligatorily certified equipment should be created on the basis of large-scale medical centers.

  19. Endogenous glutamine production in critically ill patients: the effect of exogenous glutamine supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Maiko; Rooyackers, Olav; Smedberg, Marie; Tjäder, Inga; Norberg, Ake; Wernerman, Jan

    2014-04-14

    Glutamine rate of appearance (Ra) may be used as an estimate of endogenous glutamine production. Recently a technique employing a bolus injection of isotopically labeled glutamine was introduced, with the potential to allow for multiple assessments of the glutamine Ra over time in critically ill patients, who may not be as metabolically stable as healthy individuals. Here the technique was used to evaluate the endogenous glutamine production in critically ill patients in the fed state with and without exogenous glutamine supplementation intravenously. Mechanically ventilated patients (n = 11) in the intensive care unit (ICU) were studied on two consecutive days during continuous parenteral feeding. To allow the patients to be used as their own controls, they were randomized for the reference measurement during basal feeding without supplementation, before or after the supplementation period. Glutamine Ra was determined by a bolus injection of 13C-glutamine followed by a period of frequent sampling to establish the decay-curve for the glutamine tracer. Exogenous glutamine supplementation was given by intravenous infusion of a glutamine containing dipeptide, L-alanyl-L-glutamine, 0.28 g/kg during 20 hours. A 14% increase of endogenous glutamine Ra was seen at the end of the intravenous supplementation period as compared to the basal measurements (P = 0.009). The bolus injection technique to measure glutamine Ra to estimate the endogenous production of glutamine in critically ill patients was demonstrated to be useful for repetitive measurements. The hypothesized attenuation of endogenous glutamine production during L-alanyl-L-glutamine infusion given as a part of full nutrition was not seen.

  20. Remifentanil in critically ill cardiac patients

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    Ruggeri Laura

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Remifentanil has a unique pharmacokinetic profile, with a rapid onset and offset of action and a plasmatic metabolism. Its use can be recommended even in patients with renal impairment, hepatic dysfunction or poor cardiovascular function. A potential protective cardiac preconditioning effect has been suggested. Drug-related adverse effects seem to be comparable with other opioids. In cardiac surgery, many randomized controlled trials demonstrated that the potential benefits of the use of remifentanil not only include a profound protection against intraoperative stressful stimuli, but also rapid postoperative recovery, early weaning from mechanical ventilation, and extubation. Remifentanil shows ideal properties of sedative agents being often employed for minimally invasive cardiologic techniques, such as transcatheter aortic valve implantation and radio frequency treatment of atrial flutter, or diagnostic procedures such as transesophageal echocardiography. In intensive care units remifentanil is associated with a reduction in the time to tracheal extubation after cessation of the continuous infusion; other advantages could be more evident in patients with organ dysfunction. Effective and safe analgesia can be provided in case of short and painful procedures (i.e. chest drain removal. In conclusion, thanks to its peculiar properties, remifentanil will probably play a major role in critically ill cardiac patients.

  1. Outcome and prognostic factors of critically ill patients with acute renal failure requiring continuous renal replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldawood Abdulaziz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT has proved to be beneficial for the treatment of critically ill patients with acute renal failure (ARF. The aim of this study is to determine the outcome and identify the predictors of mortality of critically ill patients treated with CRRT for ARF in the intensive care unit (ICU. This prospective cohort study of critically ill patients with ARF requiring CRRT admitted to the ICU was carried out at a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia from 2002 to 2008. A total of 644 of 7173 patients with ARF required CRRT were studied. About 9% of the ARF patients required CRRT and comprised mainly those with medical causes, carrying a mortality of 64%. Multivariate analysis found high serum creatinine as an independent factor for better outcome and requirement of mechanical ventilation (MV as an independent factor for worse outcome. In our cohort study, ARF requiring CRRT in the ICU was associated with a high mortality.

  2. Acute psychological trauma in the critically ill: Patient and family perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziadzko, Volha; Dziadzko, Mikhail A; Johnson, Margaret M; Gajic, Ognjen; Karnatovskaia, Lioudmila V

    2017-07-01

    Post-intensive care syndrome (PICS), which encompasses profound psychological morbidity, affects many survivors of critical illness. We hypothesize that acute psychological stress during the intensive care unit (ICU) confinement likely contributes to PICS. In order to develop strategies that mitigate PICS associated psychological morbidity, it is paramount to first characterize acute ICU psychological stress and begin to understand its causative and protective factors. A structured interview study was administered to adult critical illness survivors who received ≥48h of mechanical ventilation in medical and surgical ICUs of a tertiary care center, and their families. Fifty patients and 44 family members were interviewed following ICU discharge. Patients reported a high level of psychological distress. The families' perception of patient's stress level correlated with the patient's self-estimated stress level both in daily life (rho=0.59; ptherapy/walking (14%) were perceived to be important mitigating factors. Clinicians' actions that were perceived to be very constructive included reassurance (54%), explanations (32%) and physical touch (8%). Fear, hallucinations, and the inability to communicate, are identified as central contributors to psychological stress during an ICU stay; the presence of family, and physician's attention are categorized as important mitigating factors. Patients and families identified several practical recommendations which may help assuage the psychological burden of the ICU stay. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. in Critically Ill Patients: Success and Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Mariano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrate anticoagulation has risen in interest so it is now a real alternative to heparin in the ICUs practice. Citrate provides a regional anticoagulation virtually restricted to extracorporeal circuit, where it acts by chelating ionized calcium. This issue is particularly true in patients ongoing CRRT, when the “continuous” systemic anticoagulation treatment is per se a relevant risk of bleeding. When compared with heparin most of studies with citrate reported a longer circuit survival, a lower rate of bleeding complications, and transfused packed red cell requirements. As anticoagulant for CRRT, the infusion of citrate is prolonged and it could potentially have some adverse effects. When citrate is metabolized to bicarbonate, metabolic alkalosis may occur, or for impaired metabolism citrate accumulation leads to acidosis. However, large studies with dedicated machines have indeed demonstrated that citrate anticoagulation is well tolerated, safe, and an easy to handle even in septic shock critically ill patients.

  4. Reduced Cortisol Metabolism during Critical Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonen, Eva; Vervenne, Hilke; Meersseman, Philippe; Andrew, Ruth; Mortier, Leen; Declercq, Peter E.; Vanwijngaerden, Yoo-Mee; Spriet, Isabel; Wouters, Pieter J.; Perre, Sarah Vander; Langouche, Lies; Vanhorebeek, Ilse; Walker, Brian R.; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Critical illness is often accompanied by hypercortisolemia, which has been attributed to stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. However, low corticotropin levels have also been reported in critically ill patients, which may be due to reduced cortisol metabolism. METHODS In a total of 158 patients in the intensive care unit and 64 matched controls, we tested five aspects of cortisol metabolism: daily levels of corticotropin and cortisol; plasma cortisol clearance, metabolism, and production during infusion of deuterium-labeled steroid hormones as tracers; plasma clearance of 100 mg of hydrocortisone; levels of urinary cortisol metabolites; and levels of messenger RNA and protein in liver and adipose tissue, to assess major cortisol-metabolizing enzymes. RESULTS Total and free circulating cortisol levels were consistently higher in the patients than in controls, whereas corticotropin levels were lower (PCortisol production was 83% higher in the patients (P=0.02). There was a reduction of more than 50% in cortisol clearance during tracer infusion and after the administration of 100 mg of hydrocortisone in the patients (P≤0.03 for both comparisons). All these factors accounted for an increase by a factor of 3.5 in plasma cortisol levels in the patients, as compared with controls (Pcortisol clearance also correlated with a lower cortisol response to corticotropin stimulation. Reduced cortisol metabolism was associated with reduced inactivation of cortisol in the liver and kidney, as suggested by urinary steroid ratios, tracer kinetics, and assessment of liver-biopsy samples (P≤0.004 for all comparisons). CONCLUSIONS During critical illness, reduced cortisol breakdown, related to suppressed expression and activity of cortisol-metabolizing enzymes, contributed to hypercortisolemia and hence corticotropin suppression. The diagnostic and therapeutic implications for critically ill patients are unknown. (Funded by the Belgian

  5. Validity and reliability of The Johns Hopkins Adapted Cognitive Exam for critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, John J; LeDroux, Shannon N; Shermock, Kenneth M; Thompson, Carol B; Goodwin, Haley E; Mirski, Erin A; Gill, Randeep S; Mirski, Marek A

    2012-01-01

    To validate The Johns Hopkins Adapted Cognitive Exam designed to assess and quantify cognition in critically ill patients. Prospective cohort study. Neurosciences, surgical, and medical intensive care units at The Johns Hopkins Hospital. One hundred six adult critically ill patients. One expert neurologic assessment and four measurements of the Adapted Cognitive Exam (all patients). Four measurements of the Folstein Mini-Mental State Examination in nonintubated patients only. Adapted Cognitive Exam and Mini-Mental State Examination were performed by 76 different raters. One hundred six patients were assessed, 46 intubated and 60 nonintubated, resulting in 424 Adapted Cognitive Exam and 240 Mini-Mental State Examination measurements. Criterion validity was assessed by comparing Adapted Cognitive Exam with a neurointensivist's assessment of cognitive status (ρ = 0.83, p validity was assessed by comparing Adapted Cognitive Exam with Mini-Mental State Examination in nonintubated patients (ρ = 0.81, p validity was assessed by surveying raters who used both the Adapted Cognitive Exam and Mini-Mental State Examination and indicated the Adapted Cognitive Exam was an accurate reflection of the patient's cognitive status, more sensitive a marker of cognition than the Mini-Mental State Examination, and easy to use. The Adapted Cognitive Exam demonstrated excellent interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.997; 95% confidence interval 0.997-0.998) and interitem reliability of each of the five subscales of the Adapted Cognitive Exam and Mini-Mental State Examination (Cronbach's α: range for Adapted Cognitive Exam = 0.83-0.88; range for Mini-Mental State Examination = 0.72-0.81). The Adapted Cognitive Exam is the first valid and reliable examination for the assessment and quantification of cognition in critically ill patients. It provides a useful, objective tool that can be used by any member of the interdisciplinary critical care team to support

  6. [Tissue oxygen saturation in the critically ill patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruartmoner, G; Mesquida, J; Baigorri, F

    2014-05-01

    Hemodynamic resuscitation seeks to correct global macrocirculatory parameters of pressure and flow. However, current evidence has shown that despite the normalization of these global parameters, microcirculatory and regional perfusion alterations can persist, and these alterations have been independently associated with a poorer patient prognosis. This in turn has lead to growing interest in new technologies for exploring regional circulation and microcirculation. Near infra-red spectroscopy allows us to monitor tissue oxygen saturation, and has been proposed as a noninvasive, continuous and easy-to-obtain measure of regional circulation. The present review aims to summarize the existing evidence on near infra-red spectroscopy and its potential clinical role in the resuscitation of critically ill patients in shock. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  7. The incidence of ocular candidiasis and evaluation of routine opthalmic examination in critically ill patients with candidaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluck, S; Headdon, W G; Tang, Dws; Bastian, I B; Goggin, M J; Deane, A M

    2015-11-01

    Despite a paucity of data regarding both the incidence of ocular candidiasis and the utility of ophthalmic examination in critically ill patients, routine ophthalmic examination is recommended for critically ill patients with candidaemia. The objectives were to estimate the incidence of ocular candidiasis and evaluate whether ophthalmic examination influenced subsequent management of these patients. We conducted a ten-year retrospective observational study. Data were extracted for all ICU patients who were blood culture positive for fungal infection. Risk factors for candidaemia and eye involvement were quantified and details regarding ophthalmic examination were reviewed. Candida species were cultured in 93 patients. Risk factors for ocular candidiasis were present in 57% of patients. Forty-one percent of patients died prior to ophthalmology examination and 2% of patients were discharged before candidaemia was identified. During examination, signs of ocular candidiasis were only present in one (2.9%) patient, who had a risk factor for ocular candidiasis. Based on these findings, the duration of antifungal treatment for this patient was increased. Ocular candidiasis occurs rarely in critically ill patients with candidaemia, but because treatment regimens may be altered when diagnosed, routine ophthalmic examination is still indicated.

  8. Guidelines for specialized nutritional and metabolic support in the critically-ill patient: update. Consensus SEMICYUC-SENPE: neurocritical patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta Escribano, J; Herrero Meseguer, I; Conejero García-Quijada, R

    2011-11-01

    Neurocritical patients require specialized nutritional support due to their intense catabolism and prolonged fasting. The preferred route of nutrient administration is the gastrointestinal route, especially the gastric route. Alternatives are the transpyloric route or mixed enteral-parenteral nutrition if an effective nutritional volume of more than 60% cannot be obtained. Total calorie intake ranges from 20-30 kcal/kg/day, depending on the period of the clinical course, with protein intake higher than 20% of total calories (hyperproteic diet). Nutritional support should be initiated early. The incidence of gastrointestinal complications is generally higher to other critically-ill patients, the most frequent complication being an increase in gastric residual volume. As in other critically-ill patients, glycemia should be closely monitored and maintained below 150 mg/dL.

  9. Caloric requirement of the critically ill septic patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shizgal, H.M.; Martin, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    The caloric requirement of the critically ill septic patient was determined by measuring body composition, by multiple isotope dilution, before and at 2-wk intervals while receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN) in 86 septic and 57 nonseptic malnourished patients. All patients received a TPN solution containing 25% dextrose and 2.75% crystalline amino acids. The body composition of the nonseptic patients, who received 51.9 +/- 1.5 kcal/kg.day, improved significantly, while that of the septic patients, receiving 46.8 +/- 1.1 kcal/kg.day was only maintained. The relationship between caloric intake and the restoration of a malnourished body cell mass (BCM) was determined for each group by correlating, using multiple linear regression, the mean daily change in the BCM with the caloric intake and the nutritional state, as determined by body composition. According to the resultant regressions, an intake of 35.1 and 50.7 kcal/kg.day was required to maintain the BCM of the septic and nonseptic patients, respectively. To restore a depleted BCM, caloric intakes in excess of this amount are required

  10. Flucytosine Pharmacokinetics in a Critically Ill Patient Receiving Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunka, Megan E; Cady, Elizabeth A; Woo, Heejung C; Thompson Bastin, Melissa L

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. A case report evaluating flucytosine dosing in a critically ill patient receiving continuous renal replacement therapy. Summary. This case report outlines an 81-year-old male who was receiving continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) for acute renal failure and was being treated with flucytosine for the treatment of disseminated Cryptococcus neoformans infection. Due to patient specific factors, flucytosine was empirically dose adjusted approximately 50% lower than intermittent hemodialysis (iHD) recommendations and approximately 33% lower than CRRT recommendations. Peak and trough levels were obtained, which were supratherapeutic, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. The patient experienced thrombocytopenia, likely due to elevated flucytosine levels, and flucytosine was ultimately discontinued. Conclusion. Despite conservative flucytosine dosing for a patient receiving CVVH, peak and trough serum flucytosine levels were supratherapeutic (120 μg/mL at 2 hours and 81 μg/mL at 11.5 hours), which increased drug-related adverse effects. The results indicate that this conservative dosing regimen utilizing the patient's actual body weight was too aggressive. This case report provides insight into flucytosine dosing in CVVH, a topic that has not been investigated previously. Further pharmacokinetic studies of flucytosine dosing in critically ill patients receiving CVVH are needed in order to optimize pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters while avoiding toxic flucytosine exposure.

  11. Brain computer tomography in critically ill patients - a prospective cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purmer, Ilse M; Iperen, Erik P van; Beenen, Ludo F M; Kuiper, Michael J; Binnekade, Jan M; Vandertop, Peter W; Schultz, Marcus J; Horn, Janneke

    2012-01-01

    Brain computer tomography (brain CT) is an important imaging tool in patients with intracranial disorders. In ICU patients, a brain CT implies an intrahospital transport which has inherent risks. The proceeds and consequences of a brain CT in a critically ill patient should outweigh these risks. The aim of this study was to critically evaluate the diagnostic and therapeutic yield of brain CT in ICU patients. In a prospective observational study data were collected during one year on the reasons to request a brain CT, expected abnormalities, abnormalities found by the radiologist and consequences for treatment. An “expected abnormality” was any finding that had been predicted by the physician requesting the brain CT. A brain CT was “diagnostically positive”, if the abnormality found was new or if an already known abnormality was increased. It was “diagnostically negative” if an already known abnormality was unchanged or if an expected abnormality was not found. The treatment consequences of the brain CT, were registered as “treatment as planned”, “treatment changed, not as planned”, “treatment unchanged”. Data of 225 brain CT in 175 patients were analyzed. In 115 (51%) brain CT the abnormalities found were new or increased known abnormalities. 115 (51%) brain CT were found to be diagnostically positive. In the medical group 29 (39%) of brain CT were positive, in the surgical group 86 (57%), p 0.01. After a positive brain CT, in which the expected abnormalities were found, treatment was changed as planned in 33%, and in 19% treatment was changed otherwise than planned. The results of this study show that the diagnostic and therapeutic yield of brain CT in critically ill patients is moderate. The development of guidelines regarding the decision rules for performing a brain CT in ICU patients is needed

  12. Life after critical illness: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattray, Janice

    2014-03-01

    To illustrate the potential physical and psychological problems faced by patients after an episode of critical illness, highlight some of the interventions that have been tested and identify areas for future research. Recovery from critical illness is an international problem and as an issue is likely to increase. For some, recovery from critical illness is prolonged, subject to physical and psychological problems that may negatively impact upon health-related quality of life. The literature accessed for this review includes the work of a number of key researchers in the field of critical care research. These were identified from a number of sources include (1) personal knowledge of the research field accumulated over the last decade and (2) using the search engine 'The Knowledge Network Scotland'. Fatigue and weakness are significant problems for critical care survivors and are common in patients who have been in ICU for more than one week. Psychological problems include anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress, delirium and cognitive impairment. Prevalence of these problems is difficult to establish for a number of methodological reasons that include the use of self-report questionnaires, the number of different questionnaires used and the variation in administration and timing. Certain subgroups of ICU survivors especially those at the more severe end of the illness severity spectrum are more at risk and this has been demonstrated for both physical and psychological problems. Findings from international studies of a range of potential interventions are presented. However, establishing effectiveness for most of these still has to be empirically demonstrated. What seems clear is the need for a co-ordinated, multidisciplinary, designated recovery and rehabilitation pathway that begins as soon as the patient is admitted into an intensive care unit. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Early Prediction of Sepsis Incidence in Critically Ill Patients Using Specific Genetic Polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Vlad Laurentiu; Ercisli, Muhammed Furkan; Rogobete, Alexandru Florin; Boia, Eugen S; Horhat, Razvan; Nitu, Razvan; Diaconu, Mircea M; Pirtea, Laurentiu; Ciuca, Ioana; Horhat, Delia; Horhat, Florin George; Licker, Monica; Popovici, Sonia Elena; Tanasescu, Sonia; Tataru, Calin

    2017-06-01

    Several diagnostic methods for the evaluation and monitoring were used to find out the pro-inflammatory status, as well as incidence of sepsis in critically ill patients. One such recent method is based on investigating the genetic polymorphisms and determining the molecular and genetic links between them, as well as other sepsis-associated pathophysiologies. Identification of genetic polymorphisms in critical patients with sepsis can become a revolutionary method for evaluating and monitoring these patients. Similarly, the complications, as well as the high costs associated with the management of patients with sepsis, can be significantly reduced by early initiation of intensive care.

  14. Accuracy of bedside glucose measurement from three glucometers in critically ill patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedemaekers, C.W.E.; Klein Gunnewiek, J.M.T.; Prinsen, M.A.; Willems, J.L.; Hoeven, J.G. van der

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Implementation of strict glucose control in most intensive care units has resulted in increased use of point-of-care glucose devices in the intensive care unit. The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of point-of-care testing glucose meters among critically ill patients

  15. Current clinical nutrition practices in critically ill patients in Latin America: a multinational observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejo, Karin Papapietro; Martínez, Carolina Méndez; Matos Adames, Alfredo A; Fuchs-Tarlovsky, Vanessa; Nogales, Guillermo Carlos Contreras; Paz, Roger Enrique Riofrio; Perman, Mario Ignacio; Correia, Maria Isabel Toulson Davisson; Waitzberg, Dan Linetzky

    2017-08-25

    Malnutrition in critically ill adults in the intensive care unit (ICU) is associated with a significantly elevated risk of mortality. Adequate nutrition therapy is crucial to optimise outcomes. Currently, there is a paucity of such data in Latin America. Our aims were to characterise current clinical nutrition practices in the ICU setting in Latin America and evaluate whether current practices meet caloric and protein requirements in critically ill patients receiving nutrition therapy. We conducted a cross-sectional, retrospective, observational study in eight Latin American countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Panama, and Peru). Eligible patients were critically ill adults hospitalised in the ICU and receiving enteral nutrition (EN) and/or parenteral nutrition (PN) on the Screening Day and the previous day (day -1). Caloric and protein balance on day -1, nutritional status, and prescribed nutrition therapy were recorded. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent predictors of reaching daily caloric and protein targets. The analysis included 1053 patients from 116 hospitals. Evaluation of nutritional status showed that 74.1% of patients had suspected/moderate or severe malnutrition according to the Subjective Global Assessment. Prescribed nutrition therapy included EN alone (79.9%), PN alone (9.4%), and EN + PN (10.7%). Caloric intake met >90% of the daily target in 59.7% of patients on day -1; a caloric deficit was present in 40.3%, with a mean (±SD) daily caloric deficit of -688.8 ± 455.2 kcal. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that combined administration of EN + PN was associated with a statistically significant increase in the probability of meeting >90% of daily caloric and protein targets compared with EN alone (odds ratio, 1.56; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-2.39; p = 0.038). In the ICU setting in Latin America, malnutrition was highly prevalent and caloric

  16. Activated protein synthesis and suppressed protein breakdown signaling in skeletal muscle of critically ill patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob G Jespersen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Skeletal muscle mass is controlled by myostatin and Akt-dependent signaling on mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR, glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β and forkhead box O (FoxO pathways, but it is unknown how these pathways are regulated in critically ill human muscle. To describe factors involved in muscle mass regulation, we investigated the phosphorylation and expression of key factors in these protein synthesis and breakdown signaling pathways in thigh skeletal muscle of critically ill intensive care unit (ICU patients compared with healthy controls. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: ICU patients were systemically inflamed, moderately hyperglycemic, received insulin therapy, and showed a tendency to lower plasma branched chain amino acids compared with controls. Using Western blotting we measured Akt, GSK3β, mTOR, ribosomal protein S6 kinase (S6k, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1, and muscle ring finger protein 1 (MuRF1; and by RT-PCR we determined mRNA expression of, among others, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1, FoxO 1, 3 and 4, atrogin1, MuRF1, interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α and myostatin. Unexpectedly, in critically ill ICU patients Akt-mTOR-S6k signaling was substantially higher compared with controls. FoxO1 mRNA was higher in patients, whereas FoxO3, atrogin1 and myostatin mRNAs and MuRF1 protein were lower compared with controls. A moderate correlation (r2=0.36, p<0.05 between insulin infusion dose and phosphorylated Akt was demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We present for the first time muscle protein turnover signaling in critically ill ICU patients, and we show signaling pathway activity towards a stimulation of muscle protein synthesis and a somewhat inhibited proteolysis.

  17. Acute and long-term survival in chronically critically ill surgical patients: a retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, Wolfgang H; Wolf, Hilde; Schneider, Christian P; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Jauch, Karl-Walter

    2007-01-01

    Various cohort studies have shown that acute (short-term) mortality rates in unselected critically ill patients may have improved during the past 15 years. Whether these benefits also affect acute and long-term prognosis in chronically critically ill patients is unclear, as are determinants relevant to prognosis. We conducted a retrospective analysis of data collected from March 1993 to February 2005. A cohort of 390 consecutive surgical patients requiring intensive care therapy for more than 28 days was analyzed. The intensive care unit (ICU) survival rate was 53.6%. Survival rates at one, three and five years were 61.8%, 44.7% and 37.0% among ICU survivors. After adjustment for relevant covariates, acute and long-term survival rates did not differ significantly between 1993 to 1999 and 1999 to 2005 intervals. Acute prognosis was determined by disease severity during ICU stay and by primary diagnosis. However, only the latter was independently associated with long-term prognosis. Advanced age was an independent prognostic determinant of poor short-term and long-term survival. Acute and long-term prognosis in chronically critically ill surgical patients has remained unchanged throughout the past 12 years. After successful surgical intervention and intensive care, long-term outcome is reasonably good and is mainly determined by age and underlying disease.

  18. Micafungin versus anidulafungin in critically ill patients with invasive candidiasis: A retrospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. van der Geest (Patrick); N.G.M. Hunfeld (Nicola); S.E. Ladage (Sophie E.); A.B.J. Groeneveld (Johan)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstract_Background:_ In critically ill patients the incidence of invasive fungal infections caused by Candida spp. has increased remarkably. Echinocandins are recommended as initial treatment for invasive fungal infections. The safety and efficacy of micafungin compared to caspofungin is

  19. Neutrophils in critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Braedon

    2018-03-01

    During critical illness, dramatic alterations in neutrophil biology are observed including abnormalities of granulopoeisis and lifespan, cell trafficking and antimicrobial effector functions. As a result, neutrophils transition from powerful antimicrobial protectors into dangerous mediators of tissue injury and organ dysfunction. In this article, the role of neutrophils in the pathogenesis of critical illness (sepsis, trauma, burns and others) will be explored, including pathological changes to neutrophil function during critical illness and the utility of monitoring aspects of the neutrophil phenotype as biomarkers for diagnosis and prognostication. Lastly, we review findings from clinical trials of therapies that target the harmful effects of neutrophils, providing a bench-to-bedside perspective on neutrophils in critical illness.

  20. Impact of caloric intake in critically ill patients with, and without, refeeding syndrome: A retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olthof, Laura E; Koekkoek, W A C Kristine; van Setten, Coralien; Kars, Johannes C N; van Blokland, Dick; van Zanten, Arthur R H

    2017-08-10

    Refeeding syndrome comprises metabolic disturbances that occur after the reintroduction of feeding after prolonged fasting. Standard care consists of correcting fluid and electrolytes imbalances. Energy intake during refeeding syndrome is heavily debated. This study addresses the effect of caloric intake on outcome during the management of refeeding syndrome. A retrospective study among critically ill invasive mechanically ventilated patients admitted for >7 days to a medical-surgical ICU. Refeeding syndrome was diagnosed by the occurrence of new onset hypophosphatemia (refeeding syndrome were compared and subgroup analysis on energy intake within the refeeding population was performed for the duration of survival. Of 337 enrolled patients, 124 (36.8%) developed refeeding syndrome and 213 patients (63.2%) maintained normal serum phosphate levels. Between the two groups, no statistical significant differences in clinical outcomes were observed. Within the refeeding syndrome group, a reduced 6-month mortality risk for low caloric intake (Refeeding syndrome is common among prolonged mechanically ventilated critically ill patients, however not predictable by baseline characteristics. Among patients that develop refeeding syndrome low caloric intake was associated with a reduction in 6-month mortality risk. This effect was not seen in patients without refeeding syndrome. Findings support caloric restriction in refeeding syndrome during critical illness. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Critical illness induces alternative activation of M2 macrophages in adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langouche, Lies; Marques, Mirna B; Ingels, Catherine; Gunst, Jan; Derde, Sarah; Vander Perre, Sarah; D'Hoore, André; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2011-01-01

    We recently reported macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue of critically ill patients. Classically activated macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue is a known feature of obesity, where it is linked with increasing insulin resistance. However, the characteristics of adipose tissue macrophage accumulation in critical illness remain unknown. We studied macrophage markers with immunostaining and gene expression in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue from healthy control subjects (n = 20) and non-surviving prolonged critically ill patients (n = 61). For comparison, also subcutaneous in vivo adipose tissue biopsies were studied from 15 prolonged critically ill patients. Subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue biopsies from non-surviving prolonged critically ill patients displayed a large increase in macrophage staining. This staining corresponded with elevated gene expression of "alternatively activated" M2 macrophage markers arginase-1, IL-10 and CD163 and low levels of the "classically activated" M1 macrophage markers tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS). Immunostaining for CD163 confirmed positive M2 macrophage staining in both visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies from critically ill patients. Surprisingly, circulating levels and tissue gene expression of the alternative M2 activators IL-4 and IL-13 were low and not different from controls. In contrast, adipose tissue protein levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), a nuclear receptor required for M2 differentiation and acting downstream of IL-4, was markedly elevated in illness. In subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue biopsies from surviving critically ill patients, we could confirm positive macrophage staining with CD68 and CD163. We also could confirm elevated arginase-1 gene expression and elevated PPARγ protein levels. Unlike obesity, critical illness evokes adipose tissue accumulation of alternatively activated M2

  2. [Establishment of comprehensive prediction model of acute gastrointestinal injury classification of critically ill patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Jianrong; Liu, Weiwei; Zhang, Guangliang

    2018-03-25

    To develop the comprehensive prediction model of acute gastrointestinal injury (AGI) grades of critically ill patients. From April 2015 to November 2015, the binary channel gastrointestinal sounds (GIS) monitor system which has been developed and verified by the research group was used to gather and analyze the GIS of 60 consecutive critically ill patients who were admitted in Critical Care Medicine of Chinese PLA General Hospital. Also, the AGI grades (Grande I(-IIII(, the higher the level, the heavier the gastrointestinal dysfunction) were evaluated. Meanwhile, the clinical data and physiological and biochemical indexes of included patients were collected and recorded daily, including illness severity score (APACHE II( score, consisting of the acute physiology score, age grade and chronic health evaluation), sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA score, including respiration, coagulation, liver, cardioascular, central nervous system and kidney) and Glasgow coma scale (GCS); body mass index, blood lactate and glucose, and treatment details (including mechanical ventilation, sedatives, vasoactive drugs, enteral nutrition, etc.) Then principal component analysis was performed on the significantly correlated GIS (five indexes of gastrointestinal sounds were found to be negatively correlated with AGI grades, which included the number, percentage of time, mean power, maximum power and maximum time of GIS wave from the channel located at the stomach) and clinical factors after standardization. The top 5 post-normalized main components were selected for back-propagation (BP) neural network training, to establish comprehensive AGI grades models of critically ill patients based on the neural network model. The 60 patients aged 19 to 98 (mean 54.6) years and included 42 males (70.0%). There were 22 cases of multiple fractures, 15 cases of severe infection, 7 cases of cervical vertebral fracture, 7 cases of aortic repair, 5 cases of post-toxicosis and 4 cases of cerebral

  3. A novel evaluation of microvascular damage in critically ill polytrauma patients by using circulating microRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bedreag Ovidiu Horea

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The management of the critically ill polytrauma patient is complex due to the multiple complications and biochemical and physiopathological imbalances. This happened due to the direct traumatic injury, or due to the post-traumatic events. One of the most complex physiopathology associated to the multiple traumas is represented by microvascular damage, subsequently responsible for a series of complications induced through the imbalance of the redox status, severe molecular damage, reduction of the oxygen delivery to the cell and tissues, cell and mitochondrial dead, augmentation of the inflammatory response and finally the installation of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in this type of patients. A gold goal in the intensive care units is represented by the evaluation and intense monitoring of the molecular and physiopathological dysfunctions of the critically ill patients. Recently, it was intensely researched the use of microRNAs as biomarkers for the specific physiopathological dysfunctions. In this paper we wish to present a series of microRNAs that can serve as biomarkers for the evaluation of microvascular damage, as well as for the evaluation of other specific physiopathology for the critically ill polytrauma patient.

  4. [Nutritional support response in critically ill patients; differences between medical and surgical patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora Elson, M; Serón Arbeloa, C; Labarta Monzón, L; Garrido Ramírez de Arellano, I; Lander Azcona, A; Marquina Lacueva, M I; López Claver, J C; Escós Orta, J

    2012-01-01

    To assess the nutritional response of a group of critically ill patients, as well as the differences in the response to nutritional support between medical and surgical patients. One-year long retrospective study including critically ill patients on artificial nutrition for 7 days. Throughout the first week, three nutritional biochemical controls were done that included albumin, prealbumin, transferrin, cholesterol, and electrolytes. Other data gathered were: nutritional risk index, age, gender, weight, height, APACHE, delay of onset of nutritional support, access route, predicted and real caloric intake, medical or surgical patient, hospital stay, duration of the central venous catheter, urinary tube, and/or mechanical ventilation, incidence and density of incidence of nosocomial infections. Sixty-three patients were studied, 30 (47%) medical and 33 (53%) surgical/trauma patients, with a usage of EN higher among medical patients (16/30, 53% vs. 5/33, 15%), PN higher among surgical patients (25/33, 76%), and mixed nutrition similar in both groups (5 medical and 3 surgical patients) (p = 0.001). There were no differences between medical and surgical patients regarding: both predicted and real caloric and nitrogenous intake, APACHE, delay of onset of nutrition, phosphorus, magnesium or glucose levels, mortality and incidence of nosocomial infections. There were no differences either in hospital stay or use of mechanical ventilation, although these tended to be lower in surgical patients. The baseline biochemical parameters did not show differences between both groups, although they were worse among surgical patients. These patients presented during the study period steady albumin levels with improvement in the remaining parameters, whereas medical patients showed a decrease in albumin and transferrin levels, steady prealbumin levels, and slightly improvement in cholesterol levels. We have observed higher usage of PN among surgical patients, which showed worse

  5. Resting energy expenditure in critically ill patients: Evaluation methods and clinical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Soncini Sanches

    Full Text Available Summary Patients on intensive care present systemic, metabolic, and hormonal alterations that may adversely affect their nutritional condition and lead to fast and important depletion of lean mass and malnutrition. Several factors and medical conditions can influence the energy expenditure (EE of critically ill patients, such as age, gender, surgery, serious infections, medications, ventilation modality, and organ dysfunction. Clinical conditions that can present with EE change include acute kidney injury, a complex disorder commonly seen in critically ill patients with manifestations that can range from minimum elevations in serum creatinine to renal failure requiring dialysis. The nutritional needs of this population are therefore complex, and determining the resting energy expenditure is essential to adjust the nutritional supply and to plan a proper diet, ensuring that energy requirements are met and avoiding complications associated with overfeeding and underfeeding. Several evaluation methods of EE in this population have been described, but all of them have limitations. Such methods include direct calorimetry, doubly labeled water, indirect calorimetry (IC, various predictive equations, and, more recently, the rule of thumb (kcal/kg of body weight. Currently, IC is considered the gold standard.

  6. Oxygen in the critically ill: friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, Elisa; Donati, Abele; Girardis, Massimo

    2018-04-01

    To examine the potential harmful effects of hyperoxia and summarize the results of most recent clinical studies evaluating oxygen therapy in critically ill patients. Excessive oxygen supplementation may have detrimental pulmonary and systemic effects because of enhanced oxidative stress and inflammation. Hyperoxia-induced lung injury includes altered surfactant protein composition, reduced mucociliary clearance and histological damage, resulting in atelectasis, reduced lung compliance and increased risk of infections. Hyperoxemia causes vasoconstriction, reduction in coronary blood flow and cardiac output and may alter microvascular perfusion. Observational studies showed a close relationship between hyperoxemia and increased mortality in several subsets of critically ill patients. In absence of hypoxemia, the routine use of oxygen therapy in patients with myocardial infarction, stroke, traumatic brain injury, cardiac arrest and sepsis, showed no benefit but rather it seems to be harmful. In patients admitted to intensive care unit, a conservative oxygen therapy aimed to maintain arterial oxygenation within physiological range has been proved to be well tolerated and may improve outcome. Liberal O2 use and unnecessary hyperoxia may be detrimental in critically ill patients. The current evidence supports the use of a conservative strategy in O2 therapy to avoid patient exposure to unnecessary hyperoxemia.

  7. Psychiatric diagnoses and psychoactive medication use among nonsurgical critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wunsch, Hannah; Christiansen, Christian Fynbo; Johansen, Martin B

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: The relationship between critical illness and psychiatric illness is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To assess psychiatric diagnoses and medication prescriptions before and after critical illness. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Population-based cohort study in Denmark of critically ill patien...

  8. Surrogate decision makers' perspectives on preventable breakdowns in care among critically ill patients: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Kimberly A; Ahmad, Sumera; Jackson, Madeline; Mazor, Kathleen M

    2016-10-01

    To describe surrogate decision makers' (SDMs) perspectives on preventable breakdowns in care among critically ill patients. We screened 70 SDMs of critically ill patients for those who identified a preventable breakdown in care, defined as an event where the SDM believes something "went wrong", that could have been prevented, and resulted in harm. In-depth interviews were conducted with SDMs who identified an eligible event. 32 of 70 participants (46%) identified at least one preventable breakdown in care, with a total of 75 discrete events. Types of breakdowns involved medical care (n=52), communication (n=59), and both (n=40). Four additional breakdowns were related to problems with SDM bedside access to the patient. Adverse consequences of breakdowns included physical harm, need for additional medical care, emotional distress, pain, suffering, loss of trust, life disruption, impaired decision making, and financial expense. 28 of 32 SDMs raised their concerns with clinicians, yet only 25% were satisfactorily addressed. SDMs of critically ill patients frequently identify preventable breakdowns in care which result in harm. An in-depth understanding of the types of events SDMs find problematic and the associated harms is an important step towards improving the safety and patient-centeredness of healthcare. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Meal Disturbance Effect on Control of Blood Glucose Level for Critically-ill Patients using In-silico Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, N. F. M.; Som, A. M.; Ali, S. A.; Azman, N. H.

    2018-05-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of meal disturbance on blood glucose level of the critically ill patients and to simulate the control algorithm previously developed using in-silico works. The study is significant so as to reduce the mortality rate of critically ill patients who usually encounter hyperglycaemia or/and hypoglycaemia while in treatment. The meal intake is believed to affect the blood glucose regulation and causes the hyperglycaemia to occur. Critically ill patients receive their meal through parenteral and enteral nutrition. Furthermore, by using in-silico works, time consumed and resources needed for clinical evaluation of the patients can be reduced. Hovorka model was employed in which the simulation study was carried out using MATLAB on the virtual patient and it was being compared with actual patient in which the data were provided by Institut Jantung Negara (IJN). Based on the simulation, the disturbance on enteral glucose supplied had affected the blood glucose level of the patient; however, it remained unchanged for the parental glucose. To reduce the occurrence of hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemia, the patient was injected with 30 g/hr and 10 g/hr of enteral glucose, respectively. In conclusion, the disturbance of meal received can be controlled through in-silico works.

  10. Flucytosine Pharmacokinetics in a Critically Ill Patient Receiving Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan E. Kunka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. A case report evaluating flucytosine dosing in a critically ill patient receiving continuous renal replacement therapy. Summary. This case report outlines an 81-year-old male who was receiving continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH for acute renal failure and was being treated with flucytosine for the treatment of disseminated Cryptococcus neoformans infection. Due to patient specific factors, flucytosine was empirically dose adjusted approximately 50% lower than intermittent hemodialysis (iHD recommendations and approximately 33% lower than CRRT recommendations. Peak and trough levels were obtained, which were supratherapeutic, and pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. The patient experienced thrombocytopenia, likely due to elevated flucytosine levels, and flucytosine was ultimately discontinued. Conclusion. Despite conservative flucytosine dosing for a patient receiving CVVH, peak and trough serum flucytosine levels were supratherapeutic (120 μg/mL at 2 hours and 81 μg/mL at 11.5 hours, which increased drug-related adverse effects. The results indicate that this conservative dosing regimen utilizing the patient’s actual body weight was too aggressive. This case report provides insight into flucytosine dosing in CVVH, a topic that has not been investigated previously. Further pharmacokinetic studies of flucytosine dosing in critically ill patients receiving CVVH are needed in order to optimize pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters while avoiding toxic flucytosine exposure.

  11. Activated protein synthesis and suppressed protein breakdown signaling in skeletal muscle of critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Jakob G; Nedergaard, Anders; Reitelseder, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Skeletal muscle mass is controlled by myostatin and Akt-dependent signaling on mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) and forkhead box O (FoxO) pathways, but it is unknown how these pathways are regulated in critically ill human muscle. To describe factors invol...... involved in muscle mass regulation, we investigated the phosphorylation and expression of key factors in these protein synthesis and breakdown signaling pathways in thigh skeletal muscle of critically ill intensive care unit (ICU) patients compared with healthy controls....

  12. Activated protein synthesis and suppressed protein breakdown signaling in skeletal muscle of critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Jakob G; Nedergaard, Anders; Reitelseder, Søren

    2011-01-01

    Skeletal muscle mass is controlled by myostatin and Akt-dependent signaling on mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), glycogen synthase kinase 3ß (GSK3ß) and forkhead box O (FoxO) pathways, but it is unknown how these pathways are regulated in critically ill human muscle. To describe factors invol...... involved in muscle mass regulation, we investigated the phosphorylation and expression of key factors in these protein synthesis and breakdown signaling pathways in thigh skeletal muscle of critically ill intensive care unit (ICU) patients compared with healthy controls....

  13. Treatment of Chryseobacterium indologenes ventilator-associated pneumonia in a critically ill trauma patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteen, Megan R; Ponnapula, Supriya; Wood, G Christopher; Croce, Martin A; Swanson, Joseph M; Boucher, Bradley A; Fabian, Timothy C

    2013-12-01

    To report a case of Chryseobacterium indologenes ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in a critically ill trauma patient. This report describes a 66-year-old critically ill trauma patient who developed VAP, which was caused by C indologenes. The patient was injured in a riding lawn mower accident that trapped him underwater in a pond. The patient required surgery for intra-abdominal injuries and was mechanically ventilated in the trauma intensive care unit. On hospital day 5, the patient developed signs and symptoms of VAP. A diagnosis of C indologenes VAP was confirmed based on a quantitative culture from a bronchoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage. The patient's infection was successfully treated with moxifloxacin for 2 days followed by cefepime for 7 days. Formally known as Flavobacterium indologenes, C indologenes is a Gram-negative bacillus normally found in plants, soil, foodstuffs, and fresh and marine water sources. Recently, worldwide reports of C indologenes infections in humans have been increasing, though reports from the United States are still rare. Bacteremia and pneumonia are the most commonly reported infections, and most patients are immunocompromised. The current case differs from most previous reports because this patient was in the United States and did not have any traditional immunocompromised states (eg, transplant, cancer, HIV/AIDS, or corticosteroid use). This case report demonstrates that C indologenes can cause VAP in a trauma ICU patient.

  14. Early lactate clearance for predicting active bleeding in critically ill patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Tomoki; Hagiwara, Akiyoshi; Uemura, Tatsuki; Yahagi, Naoki; Kimura, Akio

    2016-08-01

    Not all patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) require emergency endoscopy. Lactate clearance has been suggested as a parameter for predicting patient outcomes in various critical care settings. This study investigates whether lactate clearance can predict active bleeding in critically ill patients with UGIB. This single-center, retrospective, observational study included critically ill patients with UGIB who met all of the following criteria: admission to the emergency department (ED) from April 2011 to August 2014; had blood samples for lactate evaluation at least twice during the ED stay; and had emergency endoscopy within 6 h of ED presentation. The main outcome was active bleeding detected with emergency endoscopy. Classification and regression tree (CART) analyses were performed using variables associated with active bleeding to derive a prediction rule for active bleeding in critically ill UGIB patients. A total of 154 patients with UGIB were analyzed, and 31.2 % (48/154) had active bleeding. In the univariate analysis, lactate clearance was significantly lower in patients with active bleeding than in those without active bleeding (13 vs. 29 %, P bleeding is derived, and includes three variables: lactate clearance; platelet count; and systolic blood pressure at ED presentation. The rule has 97.9 % (95 % CI 90.2-99.6 %) sensitivity with 32.1 % (28.6-32.9 %) specificity. Lactate clearance may be associated with active bleeding in critically ill patients with UGIB, and may be clinically useful as a component of a prediction rule for active bleeding.

  15. Parenteral nutrition in the critically ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunst, Jan; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2017-04-01

    Feeding guidelines have recommended early, full nutritional support in critically ill patients to prevent hypercatabolism and muscle weakness. Early enteral nutrition was suggested to be superior to early parenteral nutrition. When enteral nutrition fails to meet nutritional target, it was recommended to administer supplemental parenteral nutrition, albeit with a varying starting point. Sufficient amounts of amino acids were recommended, with addition of glutamine in subgroups. Recently, several large randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have yielded important new insights. This review summarizes recent evidence with regard to the indication, timing, and dosing of parenteral nutrition in critically ill patients. One large RCT revealed no difference between early enteral nutrition and early parenteral nutrition. Two large multicenter RCTs showed harm by early supplementation of insufficient enteral nutrition with parenteral nutrition, which could be explained by feeding-induced suppression of autophagy. Several RCTs found either no benefit or harm with a higher amino acid or caloric intake, as well as harm by administration of glutamine. Although unanswered questions remain, current evidence supports accepting low macronutrient intake during the acute phase of critical illness and does not support use of early parenteral nutrition. The timing when parenteral nutrition can be initiated safely and effectively is unclear.

  16. [The association between early blood glucose fluctuation and prognosis in critically ill patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jian; Gu, Qin

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the association between early blood glucose level fluctuation and prognosis of critically ill patients. A retrospective study involving 95 critically ill patients in intensive care unit (ICU) was conducted. According to the 28-day outcome after admission to ICU, the patients were divided into nonsurvivors (43 cases) and survivors (52 cases), and the blood glucose level in them was monitored in the first 72 hours. Blood glucose concentration at admission (BGadm), mean blood glucose level (MBG), hyperglycemia index (HGI), glycemic lability index (GLI), incidence of hypoglycemia and total dosage of intravenous insulin for each patient were compared. The index as an independent risk factor of mortality was determined by multivariate logistic regression analysis and the predictor value by comparing the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC curve, AUC) of each index. The BGadm (mmol/L), MBG (mmol/L), HGI and the incidence of hypoglycemia showed no significant differences between nonsurvivors and survivors [BGadm: 9.87 ± 4.48 vs. 9.26 ± 3.07, MBG: 8.59 ± 1.23 vs. 8.47 ± 1.01, HGI(6.0): 2.45 ± 0.94 vs. 1.68 ± 1.05, HGI(8.3): 0.84 ± 0.70 vs. 0.68 ± 0.51, the incidence of hypoglycemia: 9.30% vs. 5.77%, all P > 0.05], but acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II ) score, GLI and the total dosage of intravenous insulin (U) were significantly higher in nonsurvivors than survivors [APACHE II score: 23 ± 6 vs. 19 ± 6, GLI: 56.96 (65.43) vs. 23.87 (41.62), the total dosage of intravenous insulin: 65.5 (130.5) vs. 12.5 (90.0), all P curve was plotted, the AUC of APACHE II score and GLI was respectively 0.69 and 0.71, and there was no significant difference (P > 0.05). Early fluctuation of blood glucose is a significant independent risk factor of mortality in critically ill patients. Control the early fluctuation of blood glucose concentration might improve the patients' outcome.

  17. Effects of levosimendan for low cardiac output syndrome in critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koster, Geert; Wetterslev, Jørn; Gluud, Christian

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the benefits and harms of levosimendan for low cardiac output syndrome in critically ill patients. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses (TSA) of randomised clinical trials comparing levosimendan with any type of control. Two...... in the systematic review and 49 trials (6,688 patients) in the meta-analysis. One trial had low risk of bias and nine trials (2,490 patients) were considered lower risk of bias. Trials compared levosimendan with placebo, control interventions, and other inotropes. Pooling all trials including heterogenous...

  18. Understanding and Reducing Disability in Older Adults Following Critical Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummel, N.E.; Balas, M.C.; Morandi, A.; Ferrante, L.E.; Gill, T.M.; Ely, E.W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To review how disability can develop in older adults with critical illness and to explore ways to reduce long-term disability following critical illness. Data Sources Review of the literature describing post-critical illness disability in older adults and expert opinion. Results We identified 19 studies evaluating disability outcomes in critically ill patients age 65 years and older. Newly acquired disability in activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living and mobility activities was commonplace among older adults who survived a critical illness. Incident dementia and less-severe cognitive impairment was also highly prevalent. Factors related to the acute critical illness, intensive care unit practices such as heavy sedation, physical restraints and immobility as well as aging physiology and coexisting geriatric conditions can combine to result in these poor outcomes. Conclusion Older adults who survive critical illness suffer physical and cognitive declines resulting in disability at greater rates than hospitalized, non-critically ill and community dwelling older adults. Interventions derived from widely available geriatric care models in use outside of the ICU, which address modifiable risk factors including immobility and delirium, are associated with improved functional and cognitive outcomes and can be used to complement ICU-focused models such as the ABCDEs. PMID:25756418

  19. Association of Gender With Outcome and Host Response in Critically Ill Sepsis Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vught, Lonneke A; Scicluna, Brendon P; Wiewel, Maryse A; Hoogendijk, Arie J; Klein Klouwenberg, Peter M C; Ong, David S Y; Cremer, Olaf L; Horn, Janneke; Franitza, Marek; Toliat, Mohammad R; Nürnberg, Peter; Bonten, Marc M J; Schultz, Marcus J; van der Poll, Tom

    2017-11-01

    To determine the association of gender with the presentation, outcome, and host response in critically ill patients with sepsis. A prospective observational cohort study in the ICU of two tertiary hospitals between January 2011 and January 2014. All consecutive critically ill patients admitted with sepsis, involving 1,815 admissions (1,533 patients). The host response was evaluated on ICU admission by measuring 19 plasma biomarkers reflecting organ systems implicated in sepsis pathogenesis (1,205 admissions) and by applying genome-wide blood gene expression profiling (582 admissions). Sepsis patients admitted to the ICU were more frequently males (61.0%; p < 0.0001 vs females). Baseline characteristics were not different between genders. Urosepsis was more common in females; endocarditis and mediastinitis in men. Disease severity was similar throughout ICU stay. Mortality was similar up to 1 year after ICU admission, and gender was not associated with 90-day mortality in multivariate analyses in a variety of subgroups. Although plasma proteome analyses (including systemic inflammatory and cytokine responses, and activation of coagulation) were largely similar between genders, females showed enhanced endothelial cell activation; this difference was virtually absent in patients more than 55 years old. More than 80% of the leukocyte blood gene expression response was similar in male and female patients. The host response and outcome in male and female sepsis patients requiring ICU admission are largely similar.

  20. Long term psychological effects of a no sedation protocol in critically ill Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroem, Thomas; Stylsvig, Mette; Toft, Palle

    2011-01-01

    interviewed (13 from each group). No difference was found with respect to quality of life (SF-36). Both mental and physical components were non-significant. Becks depression index was low in both groups (1 patient in intervention group vs. 3 patients in the control group were depressed, P=0.32). Evaluated...... applied to critically ill patients undergoing mechanical ventilation does not increase the risk of long term psychological sequelae after intensive care compared to standard treatment with sedation....

  1. [Is plasma selenium correlated to transthyretin levels in critically ill patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Renata G B O N; Nogueira, Roberto Jose Negrão; Cozzolino, Silvia Maria Franciscato; Vasques, Ana Carolina Junqueira; Ferreira, Matthew Thomas; Hessel, Gabriel

    2017-06-05

    Selenium is an essential trace element, but critically ill patients using total parenteral nutrition (PN) do not receive selenium because this mineral is not commonly offered. Threfore, the eval uation of plasma selenium levels is very important for treating or preventing this deficiency. Recent studies have shown that transthyretin may reflect the selenium intake and could be considered a biomarker. However, this issue is still little explored in the literature. This study aims to investigate the correlation of transthyretin with the plasma selenium of critically ill patients receiving PN. This was a prospective cohort study with 44 patients using PN without selenium. Blood samples were carried out in 3 stages: initial, 7th and 14th day of PN. In order to evaluate the clinical condition and the inflammatory process, albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP), transthyretin, creatinine and HDL cholesterol levels were observed. To assess the selenium status, plasma selenium and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in whole blood were measured. Descriptive analyses were performed and the ANOVA, Mann-Whitney and Spearman's coefficient tests were conducted; we assumed a significance level of 5%. A positive correlation of selenium with the GPx levels (r = 0.46; p = 0.03) was identified. During two weeks, there was a positive correlation of transthyretin with plasma selenium (r = 0.71; p = 0.05) regardless of the CRP values. Transthyretin may have reflected plasma selenium, mainly because the correlation was verified after the acute phase.

  2. Effectiveness of haloperidol prophylaxis in critically ill patients with a high risk of delirium: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Eduardo; Cardoso, Daniela; Neves, Hugo; Cunha, Madalena; Rodrigues, Manuel; Apóstolo, João

    2017-05-01

    Delirium is associated with increased intensive care unit and hospital length of stay, prolonged duration of mechanical ventilation, unplanned removal of tubes and catheters, and increased morbidity and mortality. Prophylactic treatment with low-dose haloperidol may have beneficial effects for critically ill patients with a high risk of delirium. To identify the effectiveness of haloperidol prophylaxis in critically ill patients with a high risk for delirium. Patients with a predicted high risk of delirium, aged 18 years or over, and in intensive care units. Patients with a history of concurrent antipsychotic medication use were excluded. Haloperidol prophylaxis for preventing delirium. Experimental and epidemiological study designs. Primary outcome is the incidence of delirium. Secondary outcomes are duration of mechanical ventilation, incidence of re-intubation, incidence of unplanned/accidental removal of tubes/lines and catheters, intensive care unit and hospital length of stay, and re-admissions to both settings. An initial search of MEDLINE and CINAHL was undertaken, followed by a second search for published and unpublished studies from January 1967 to September 2015 in major healthcare-related electronic databases. Studies in English, Spanish and Portuguese were included. Two independent reviewers assessed the methodological quality of five studies using the standardized critical appraisal instrument from the Joanna Briggs Institute Meta-Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument. There was general agreement among the reviewers to exclude one relevant study due to methodological quality. Data were extracted using the JBI data extraction form for experimental studies and included details about the interventions, populations, study methods and outcomes of significance to the review questions. Significant differences were found between participants, interventions, outcome measures (clinical heterogeneity) and designs (methodological heterogeneity

  3. Methods to measure target site penetration of antibiotics in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwameis, Richard; Zeitlinger, Markus

    2013-02-01

    While several tools are necessary to repair a car, the engineer knows exactly which instrument he has to utilize at different parts of the broken machine. Likewise, depending on the information we are interested in, we have to choose different tools to investigate and consecutively understand the multiple aspects that are involved in pharmacokinetics of antimicrobial agents in critically ill patients. Some techniques, like blood sampling, microdialysis or positrons emission tomography (PET) will allow for obtaining continues concentration time profiles while others like bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), biopsy or surgical tissue samples can only be used a limited number of times per subject. PET and methods based on tissue homogenization will deliver an average of the actual concentrations in intra - and extracellular compartments while investigations in isolated blood cells or microdialysis allow for more distinguished allocation of a concentration to a defined compartment. The present review aims at discussing the advantages and disadvantages of the various methods used for assessing pharmacokinetics in critically ill patients with regard to specific aspects of pharmacokinetic research and further reviews data of selected antibiotics as examples for applications of the individual techniques.

  4. Patient outcomes for the chronically critically ill: special care unit versus intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudy, E B; Daly, B J; Douglas, S; Montenegro, H D; Song, R; Dyer, M A

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a low-technology environment of care and a nurse case management case delivery system (special care unit, SCU) with the traditional high-technology environment (ICU) and primary nursing care delivery system on the patient outcomes of length of stay, mortality, readmission, complications, satisfaction, and cost. A sample of 220 chronically critically ill patients were randomly assigned to either the SCU (n = 145) or the ICU (n = 75). Few significant differences were found between the two groups in length of stay, mortality, or complications. However, the findings showed significant cost savings in the SCU group in the charges accrued during the study period and in the charges and costs to produce a survivor. The average total cost of delivering care was $5,000 less per patient in the SCU than in the traditional ICU. In addition, the cost to produce a survivor was $19,000 less in the SCU. Results from this 4-year clinical trial demonstrate that nurse case managers in a SCU setting can produce patient outcomes equal to or better than those in the traditional ICU care environment for long-term critically ill patients.

  5. Challenges and Potential Solutions – Individualised Antibiotic Dosing at the Bedside for Critically Ill Patients: a structured review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jason A.; Aziz, Mohd Hafiz Abdul; Lipman, Jeffrey; Mouton, Johan W.; Vinks, Alexander A.; Felton, Timothy W.; Hope, William W.; Farkas, Andras; Neely, Michael N.; Schentag, Jerome J.; Drusano, George; Frey, Otto R.; Theuretzbacher, Ursula; Kuti, Joseph L.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Infections in critically ill patients are associated with persistently poor clinical outcomes. These patients have severely altered and variable antibiotic pharmacokinetics and are infected by less susceptible pathogens. Antibiotic dosing that does not account for these features is likely to result in sub-optimal outcomes. In this paper, we review the patient- and pathogen-related challenges that contribute to inadequate antibiotic dosing and discuss how a process for individualised antibiotic therapy, that increases the accuracy of dosing, can be implemented to further optimise care for the critically ill patient. The process for optimised antibiotic dosing firstly requires determination of the physiological derangements in the patient that can alter antibiotic concentrations including altered fluid status, microvascular failure, serum albumin concentrations as well as altered renal and hepatic function. Secondly, knowledge of the susceptibility of the infecting pathogen should be determined through liaison with the microbiology laboratory. The patient and pathogen challenges can then be solved by combining susceptibility data with measured antibiotic concentration data (where possible) into a clinical dosing software. Such software uses pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) models from critically ill patients to accurately predict the dosing requirements for the individual patient with the aim of optimising antibiotic exposure and maximising effectiveness. PMID:24768475

  6. Patients' Perceptions of an Exercise Program Delivered Following Discharge From Hospital After Critical Illness (the Revive Trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Kathryn; Bradley, Judy M; McAuley, Daniel F; Blackwood, Bronagh; O'Neill, Brenda

    2017-01-01

    The REVIVE randomized controlled trial (RCT) investigated the effectiveness of an individually tailored (personalized) exercise program for patients discharged from hospital after critical illness. By including qualitative methods, we aimed to explore patients' perceptions of engaging in the exercise program. Patients were recruited from general intensive care units in 6 hospitals in Northern Ireland. Patients allocated to the exercise intervention group were invited to participate in this qualitative study. Independent semistructured interviews were conducted at 6 months after randomization. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and content analysis used to explore themes arising from the data. Of 30 patients allocated to the exercise group, 21 completed the interviews. Patients provided insight into the physical and mental sequelae they experienced following critical illness. There was a strong sense of patients' need for the exercise program and its importance for their recovery following discharge home. Key facilitators of the intervention included supervision, tailoring of the exercises to personal needs, and the exercise manual. Barriers included poor mental health, existing physical limitations, and lack of motivation. Patients' views of outcome measures in the REVIVE RCT varied. Many patients were unsure about what would be the best way of measuring how the program affected their health. This qualitative study adds an important perspective on patients' attitude to an exercise intervention following recovery from critical illness, and provides insight into the potential facilitators and barriers to delivery of the program and how programs should be evolved for future trials.

  7. A RATIONAL BASIS FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF FREE PHENYTOIN CONCENTRATION IN CRITICALLY ILL TRAUMA PATIENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZIELMANN, S; MIELCK, F; KAHL, R; KAZMAIER, S; SYDOW, M; KOLK, J; BURCHARDI, H

    Phenytoin binding to serum proteins and factors influencing protein binding were investigated in 38 critically ill trauma patients. In 24% of these patients, the free fraction of phenytoin was less-than-or-equal-to 10%, whereas in 76%, the free phenytoin fraction was increased >10%-up to 24%.

  8. [The development of a portable life support device for transporting pre-hospital critically ill patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhen-xing; Wu, Tai-hu; Meng, Xing-ju; Lu, Heng-zhi; Zheng, Jie-wen; Wang, Hai-tao

    2012-06-01

    To describe a portable life support device for transportation of pre-hospital patients with critical illness. The characteristics and requirements for urgent management during transportation of critically ill patients to a hospital were analyzed. With adoption of the original equipment, with the aid of staple of the art soft ware, the overall structure, its installation, fixation, freedom from interference, operational function were studied, and the whole system of life support and resuscitation was designed. The system was composed by different modules, including mechanical ventilation, transfusion, aspiration, critical care, oxygen supply and power supply parts. The system could be fastened quickly to a stretcher to form portable intensive care unit (ICU), and it could be carried by different size vehicles to provide nonstop treatment by using power supply of the vehicle, thus raising the efficiency of urgent care. With characteristics of its small size, lightweight and portable, the device is particularly suitable for narrow space and extreme environment.

  9. Linezolid extracorporeal removal during haemodialysis with high cut-off membrane in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Gianluca; Cassetta, Maria Iris; Tofani, Lorenzo; Valente, Serafina; Chelazzi, Cosimo; Falsini, Silvia; De Gaudio, Angelo Raffaele; Novelli, Andrea; Ronco, Claudio; Adembri, Chiara

    2015-10-01

    Continuous venovenous haemodialysis with high cut-off membrane (HCO-CVVHD) is often used in critically ill septic patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) to sustain renal function and to remove circulating inflammatory mediators. The aim of this study was to analyse the extracorporeal removal of linezolid and related alterations in pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) parameters during HCO-CVVHD. Three critically ill septic patients with AKI, treated with linezolid and HCO-CVVHD, were prospectively observed. To calculate the extracorporeal clearance of linezolid and the PK parameters, effluent, pre-filter and post-filter samples were contemporaneously collected before linezolid infusion, just after 1-h infusion (maximum serum concentration; C(max)), at 3 h and 6 h after dosing, and before the next dose (trough serum concentration; C(min)). Linezolid C(max) and C(min) (pre-filter) ranged from 10.4-23.5 mg/L and from 2.9-10.3 mg/L. The dialysate saturation coefficient was 0.66-0.85 and the extracorporeal clearance with a diffusive dose of 35 m L/kg/h ranged from 2.1-2.5 L/h. Total linezolid clearance was between 1.7 L/h and 6.3 L/h. The total area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-∞) ranged from 95.1 mgh/L to 352.9 mgh/L, in accordance with the different clinical conditions. AUCfree/MIC ratios were always linezolid total clearance, the clinical features of critically ill septic patients appear to be mainly responsible for the high variability of linezolid serum concentrations. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. How do we approach thrombocytopenia in critically ill patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thachil, Jecko; Warkentin, Theodore E

    2017-04-01

    A low platelet count is a frequently encountered haematological abnormality in patients treated in intensive treatment units (ITUs). Although severe thrombocytopenia (platelet count classical view for thrombocytopenia in this setting is consumption associated with thrombin-mediated platelet activation, but other concepts, including platelet adhesion to endothelial cells and leucocytes, platelet aggregation by increased von Willebrand factor release, red cell damage and histone release, and platelet destruction by the complement system, have recently been described. The management of severe thrombocytopenia is platelet transfusion in the presence of active bleeding or invasive procedure, but the risk-benefit of prophylactic platelet transfusions in this setting is uncertain. In this review, the incidence and mechanisms of thrombocytopenia in patients with ITU, its prognostic significance and the impact on organ function is discussed. A practical approach based on the authors' experience is described to guide management of a critically ill patient who develops thrombocytopenia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Impact of supplementation with amino acids or their metabolites on muscle wasting in patients with critical illness or other muscle wasting illness: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandrag, L; Brett, S J; Frost, G; Hickson, M

    2015-08-01

    Muscle wasting during critical illness impairs recovery. Dietary strategies to minimise wasting include nutritional supplements, particularly essential amino acids. We reviewed the evidence on enteral supplementation with amino acids or their metabolites in the critically ill and in muscle wasting illness with similarities to critical illness, aiming to assess whether this intervention could limit muscle wasting in vulnerable patient groups. Citation databases, including MEDLINE, Web of Knowledge, EMBASE, the meta-register of controlled trials and the Cochrane Collaboration library, were searched for articles from 1950 to 2013. Search terms included 'critical illness', 'muscle wasting', 'amino acid supplementation', 'chronic obstructive pulmonary disease', 'chronic heart failure', 'sarcopenia' and 'disuse atrophy'. Reviews, observational studies, sport nutrition, intravenous supplementation and studies in children were excluded. One hundred and eighty studies were assessed for eligibility and 158 were excluded. Twenty-two studies were graded according to standardised criteria using the GRADE methodology: four in critical care populations, and 18 from other clinically relevant areas. Methodologies, interventions and outcome measures used were highly heterogeneous and meta-analysis was not appropriate. Methodology and quality of studies were too varied to draw any firm conclusion. Dietary manipulation with leucine enriched essential amino acids (EAA), β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate and creatine warrant further investigation in critical care; EAA has demonstrated improvements in body composition and nutritional status in other groups with muscle wasting illness. High-quality research is required in critical care before treatment recommendations can be made. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  12. Using operations research to plan improvement of the transport of critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Awasthi, Anjali; Shechter, Steven; Atkins, Derek; Lemke, Linda; Fisher, Les; Dodek, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Operations research is the application of mathematical modeling, statistical analysis, and mathematical optimization to understand and improve processes in organizations. The objective of this study was to illustrate how the methods of operations research can be used to identify opportunities to reduce the absolute value and variability of interfacility transport intervals for critically ill patients. After linking data from two patient transport organizations in British Columbia, Canada, for all critical care transports during the calendar year 2006, the steps for transfer of critically ill patients were tabulated into a series of time intervals. Statistical modeling, root-cause analysis, Monte Carlo simulation, and sensitivity analysis were used to test the effect of changes in component intervals on overall duration and variation of transport times. Based on quality improvement principles, we focused on reducing the 75th percentile and standard deviation of these intervals. We analyzed a total of 3808 ground and air transports. Constraining time spent by transport personnel at sending and receiving hospitals was projected to reduce the total time taken by 33 minutes with as much as a 20% reduction in standard deviation of these transport intervals in 75% of ground transfers. Enforcing a policy of requiring acceptance of patients who have life- or limb-threatening conditions or organ failure was projected to reduce the standard deviation of air transport time by 63 minutes and the standard deviation of ground transport time by 68 minutes. Based on findings from our analyses, we developed recommendations for technology renovation, personnel training, system improvement, and policy enforcement. Use of the tools of operations research identifies opportunities for improvement in a complex system of critical care transport.

  13. Modified Augmented Renal Clearance Score Predicts Rapid Piperacillin and Tazobactam Clearance in Critically Ill Surgery and Trauma Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-24

    collision; VAP , ventilator-associated pneumonia. TABLE 2. PK Parameter Estimates for Free Piperacillin and Tazobactam in Patients Stratified by ARC Score...SOFA score are typically generated during routine care of the most severely ill patients . Positive screening test results (high ARC scores) can be...Modified Augmented Renal Clearance score predicts rapid piperacillin and tazobactam clearance in critically ill surgery and trauma patients Kevin S

  14. Effect of a Probiotic Preparation (VSL#3 on Cardiovascular Risk Parameters in Critically-Ill Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvin Sanaie

    2013-07-01

    Conclusion: Administration of probiotics in critically ill patients reduced the levels of TG and hs-CRP and increased HDL-C levels. However, no significant change was detected in levels of total cholesterol or LDL-C.

  15. Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate Correlates Poorly with Four-Hour Creatinine Clearance in Critically Ill Patients with Acute Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Kirwan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. RIFLE and AKIN provide a standardised classification of acute kidney injury (AKI, but their categorical rather than continuous nature restricts their use to a research tool. A more accurate real-time description of renal function in AKI is needed, and some published data suggest that equations based on serum creatinine that estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR can provide this. In addition, incorporating serum cystatin C concentration into estimates of GFR may improve their accuracy, but no eGFR equations are validated in critically ill patients with AKI. Aim. This study tests whether creatinine or cystatin-C-based eGFR equations, used in patients with CKD, offer an accurate representation of 4-hour creatinine clearance (4CrCl in critically ill patients with AKI. Methods. Fifty-one critically ill patients with AKI were recruited. Thirty-seven met inclusion criteria, and the performance of eGFR equations was compared to 4CrCl. Results. eGFR equations were better than creatinine alone at predicting 4CrCl. Adding cystatin C to estimates did not improve the bias or add accuracy. The MDRD 7 eGFR had the best combination of correlation, bias, percentage error and accuracy. None were near acceptable standards quoted in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Conclusions. eGFR equations are not sufficiently accurate for use in critically ill patients with AKI. Incorporating serum cystatin C does not improve estimates. eGFR should not be used to describe renal function in patients with AKI. Standards of accuracy for validating eGFR need to be set.

  16. Physiotherapy in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ambrosino

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged stay in Intensive Care Unit (ICU can cause muscle weakness, physical deconditioning, recurrent symptoms, mood alterations and poor quality of life.Physiotherapy is probably the only treatment likely to increase in the short- and long-term care of the patients admitted to these units. Recovery of physical and respiratory functions, coming off mechanical ventilation, prevention of the effects of bed-rest and improvement in the health status are the clinical objectives of a physiotherapy program in medical and surgical areas. To manage these patients, integrated programs dealing with both whole-body physical therapy and pulmonary care are needed.There is still limited scientific evidence to support such a comprehensive approach to all critically ill patients; therefore we need randomised studies with solid clinical short- and long-term outcome measures. Resumo: Uma estadia prolongada na Unidade de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI pode causar fraqueza muscular, descondicionamento físico, sintomas recorrentes, alterações de humor e má qualidade de vida.A fisioterapia é, provavelmente, o único tratamento com potencial para aumentar nos cuidados a curto e longo prazo aos pacientes internados nestas unidades. A recuperação das funções físicas e respiratórias, retirar a ventilação mecânica, prevenção de efeitos do repouso na cama e melhoria do estado de saúde são objectivos clínicos de um programa de fisioterapia nas áreas médicas e cirúrgicas. Para tratar estes pacientes, são necessários programas integrados que englobem tanto a fisioterapia global como os cuidados respiratórios necessários.A evidência científica para apoiar esta abordagem abrangente para todos os doentes críticos é ainda limitada; portanto, são necessários estudos aleatorizados com medidas de resultados a curto e longo prazo. Keywords: Rehabilitation, Mechanical ventilation, Physiotherapy, Weaning, Palavras-chave: Reabilitação, Ventilação mec

  17. Predictors of Inadequate Linezolid Concentrations after Standard Dosing in Critically Ill Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubert, Max; Zoller, Michael; Maier, Barbara; Frechen, Sebastian; Scharf, Christina; Holdt, Lesca-Miriam; Frey, Lorenz; Vogeser, Michael; Fuhr, Uwe; Zander, Johannes

    2016-09-01

    Adequate linezolid blood concentrations have been shown to be associated with an improved clinical outcome. Our goal was to assess new predictors of inadequate linezolid concentrations often observed in critically ill patients. Fifty-two critically ill patients with severe infections receiving standard dosing of linezolid participated in this prospective observational study. Serum samples (median, 32 per patient) were taken on four consecutive days, and total linezolid concentrations were quantified. Covariates influencing linezolid pharmacokinetics were identified by multivariate analysis and a population pharmacokinetic model. Target attainment (area under the concentration-time curve over 12 h [AUC12]/MIC ratio of >50; MIC = 2 mg/liter) was calculated for both the study patients and a simulated independent patient group (n = 67,000). Target attainment was observed for only 36% of the population on both days 1 and 4. Independent covariates related to significant decreases of linezolid concentrations included higher weight, creatinine clearance rates, and fibrinogen and antithrombin concentrations, lower concentrations of lactate, and the presence of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Linezolid clearance was increased in ARDS patients (by 82%) and in patients with elevated fibrinogen or decreased lactate concentrations. In simulated patients, most covariates, including fibrinogen and lactate concentrations and weight, showed quantitatively minor effects on target attainment (difference of ≤9% between the first and fourth quartiles of the respective parameters). In contrast, the presence of ARDS had the strongest influence, with only ≤6% of simulated patients reaching this target. In conclusion, the presence of ARDS was identified as a new and strong predictor of insufficient linezolid concentrations, which might cause treatment failure. Insufficient concentrations might also be a major problem in patients with combined alterations of other covariate

  18. Successful intraosseous infusion in the critically ill patient does not require a medullary cavity.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCarthy, Gerard

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate that successful intraosseous infusion in critically ill patients does not require bone that contains a medullary cavity. DESIGN: Infusion of methyl green dye via standard intraosseous needles into bones without medullary cavity-in this case calcaneus and radial styloid-in cadaveric specimens. SETTING: University department of anatomy. PARTICIPANTS: Two adult cadaveric specimens. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Observation of methyl green dye in peripheral veins of the limb in which the intraosseous infusion was performed. RESULTS: Methyl green dye was observed in peripheral veins of the chosen limb in five out of eight intraosseous infusions into bones without medullary cavity-calcaneus and radial styloid. CONCLUSIONS: Successful intraosseous infusion does not always require injection into a bone with a medullary cavity. Practitioners attempting intraosseous access on critically ill patients in the emergency department or prehospital setting need not restrict themselves to such bones. Calcaneus and radial styloid are both an acceptable alternative to traditional recommended sites.

  19. [The Intentions Affecting the Medical Decision-Making Behavior of Surrogate Decision Makers of Critically Ill Patients and Related Factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Szu-Huei; Wu, Li-Min

    2018-04-01

    The severity of diseases and high mortality rates that typify the intensive care unit often make it difficult for surrogate decision makers to make decisions for critically ill patients regarding whether to continue medical treatments or to accept palliative care. To explore the behavioral intentions that underlie the medical decisions of surrogate decision makers of critically ill patients and the related factors. A cross-sectional, correlation study design was used. A total of 193 surrogate decision makers from six ICUs in a medical center in southern Taiwan were enrolled as participants. Three structured questionnaires were used, including a demographic datasheet, the Family Relationship Scale, and the Behavioral Intention of Medical Decisions Scale. Significantly positive correlations were found between the behavioral intentions underlying medical decisions and the following variables: the relationship of the participant to the patient (Eta = .343, p = .020), the age of the patient (r = .295, p medical decisions of the surrogate decision makers, explaining 13.9% of the total variance. In assessing the behavioral intentions underlying the medical decisions of surrogate decision makers, health providers should consider the relationship between critical patients and their surrogate decision makers, patient age, the length of ICU stay, and whether the patient has a pre-signed advance healthcare directive in order to maximize the effectiveness of medical care provided to critically ill patients.

  20. Low plasma leptin level at admission predicts delirium in critically ill patients: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guicheng; Lei, Xiaobao; Ai, Chenmu; Li, Tao; Chen, Zhongqing

    2017-07-01

    The pathophysiology of delirium remains poorly understood. Low leptin level has been associated with features leading to delirium such as dysregulated immune functions and loss of neuroprotective effects. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between plasma leptin level at intensive care unit (ICU) entry and subsequent occurrence of delirium in critically ill patients. This single-center prospective cohort study in China allocated 336 critically ill patients admitted to ICU between 05/2015 and 05/2016 into a delirium group (n=102) and non-delirium group (n=234) based on whether delirium occurred during their stay at the ICU. Patients were examined at least twice daily and delirium was diagnosed using the Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU (CAM-ICU). Blood samples were obtained after ICU entry. Plasma leptin concentrations were measured by ELISA. Delirium occurred in 30.4% (102/336) of patients. Patients who developed delirium showed significantly lower leptin level at ICU entry than those who did not (6.1±3.2 vs. 9.2±5.9ng/mL; Pdelirium (OR, 0.865; 95%CI, 0.802-0.934; Pdelirium included increasing age (OR, 1.050; 95%CI, 1.020-1.080; P=0.001) and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation-II (APACHE-II) score (OR, 1.148; 95%CI, 1.092-1.208; Pdelirium had a prolonged duration of ICU stay and higher mortality. Low plasma leptin level at ICU entry was associated with the occurrence of delirium in critically ill patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Tracheal intubation in critically ill patients: a comprehensive systematic review of randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrini, Luca; Landoni, Giovanni; Baiardo Radaelli, Martina; Saleh, Omar; Votta, Carmine D; Fominskiy, Evgeny; Putzu, Alessandro; Snak de Souza, Cézar Daniel; Antonelli, Massimo; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Pelosi, Paolo; Zangrillo, Alberto

    2018-01-20

    We performed a systematic review of randomized controlled studies evaluating any drug, technique or device aimed at improving the success rate or safety of tracheal intubation in the critically ill. We searched PubMed, BioMed Central, Embase and the Cochrane Central Register of Clinical Trials and references of retrieved articles. Finally, pertinent reviews were also scanned to detect further studies until May 2017. The following inclusion criteria were considered: tracheal intubation in adult critically ill patients; randomized controlled trial; study performed in Intensive Care Unit, Emergency Department or ordinary ward; and work published in the last 20 years. Exclusion criteria were pre-hospital or operating theatre settings and simulation-based studies. Two investigators selected studies for the final analysis. Extracted data included first author, publication year, characteristics of patients and clinical settings, intervention details, comparators and relevant outcomes. The risk of bias was assessed with the Cochrane Collaboration's Risk of Bias tool. We identified 22 trials on use of a pre-procedure check-list (1 study), pre-oxygenation or apneic oxygenation (6 studies), sedatives (3 studies), neuromuscular blocking agents (1 study), patient positioning (1 study), video laryngoscopy (9 studies), and post-intubation lung recruitment (1 study). Pre-oxygenation with non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and/or high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) showed a possible beneficial role. Post-intubation recruitment improved oxygenation , while ramped position increased the number of intubation attempts and thiopental had negative hemodynamic effects. No effect was found for use of a checklist, apneic oxygenation (on oxygenation and hemodynamics), videolaryngoscopy (on number and length of intubation attempts), sedatives and neuromuscular blockers (on hemodynamics). Finally, videolaryngoscopy was associated with severe adverse effects in multiple trials. The limited available

  2. Low skeletal muscle area is a risk factor for mortality in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijs, Peter J M; Looijaard, Wilhelmus G P M; Dekker, Ingeborg M; Stapel, Sandra N; Girbes, Armand R; Oudemans-van Straaten, H M; Beishuizen, Albertus

    2014-01-13

    Higher body mass index (BMI) is associated with lower mortality in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients. However, it is yet unclear which body component is responsible for this relationship. This retrospective analysis in 240 mechanically ventilated critically ill patients included adult patients in whom a computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen was made on clinical indication between 1 day before and 4 days after admission to the intensive care unit. CT scans were analyzed at the L3 level for skeletal muscle area, expressed as square centimeters. Cutoff values were defined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis: 110 cm2 for females and 170 cm2 for males. Backward stepwise regression analysis was used to evaluate low-muscle area in relation to hospital mortality, with low-muscle area, sex, BMI, Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, and diagnosis category as independent variables. This study included 240 patients, 94 female and 146 male patients. Mean age was 57 years; mean BMI, 25.6 kg/m2. Muscle area for females was significantly lower than that for males (102 ± 23 cm2 versus 158 ± 33 cm2; P muscle area was observed in 63% of patients for both females and males. Mortality was 29%, significantly higher in females than in males (37% versus 23%; P = 0.028). Low-muscle area was associated with higher mortality compared with normal-muscle area in females (47.5% versus 20%; P = 0.008) and in males (32.3% versus 7.5%; P muscle area, sex, and APACHE II score, whereas BMI and admission diagnosis were not. Odds ratio for low-muscle area was 4.3 (95% confidence interval, 2.0 to 9.0, P muscle mass appeared as primary predictor, not sex. Low skeletal muscle area, as assessed by CT scan during the early stage of critical illness, is a risk factor for mortality in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients, independent of sex and APACHE II score. Further analysis suggests muscle mass as primary predictor, not

  3. Continuous oscillation: outcome in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traver, G A; Tyler, M L; Hudson, L D; Sherrill, D L; Quan, S F

    1995-09-01

    To compare turning by an oscillating bed to standard 2-hour turning. Outcomes were survival, length of stay (LOS), duration of mechanical ventilation, and incidence of pneumonia. One hundred and three intensive care patients were randomly assigned to standard turning or turning by an oscillating bed. Data, collected at baseline, daily for 7 days, and then three times weekly until study discharge, included demographics, initial Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) score, ventilatory/gas exchange parameters, indicators of pneumonia, nursing measures, and chest roentgenograph. There were no significant differences for LOS, duration of ventilation, nor incidence of pneumonia. Higher survival for subjects on the oscillating bed reached borderline significance (P = .056) for subjects with APACHE II greater than or equal to 20. Longitudinal data were analyzed using the random effects model. No differences in ventilatory or gas exchange parameters were identified. Among subjects who developed pneumonia there was a significantly higher respiratory score (nursing acuity scale) for subjects on the oscillating bed. In selected critically ill patients oscillating therapy may improve survival and improve airway clearance. The frequency and degree of turning needed to prevent complications and improve outcome remains unclear. These newer beds should be used with discrimination so as to not increase hospital costs unnecessarily.

  4. The relation of near-infrared spectroscopy with changes in peripheral circulation in critically ill patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lima, Alexandre; van Bommel, Jasper; Sikorska, Karolina; van Genderen, Michel; Klijn, Eva; Lesaffre, Emmanuel; Ince, Can; Bakker, Jan

    2011-01-01

    We conducted this observational study to investigate tissue oxygen saturation during a vascular occlusion test in relationship with the condition of peripheral circulation and outcome in critically ill patients. Prospective observational study. Multidisciplinary intensive care unit in a university

  5. Cumulative radiation dose caused by radiologic studies in critically ill trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Patrick K; Gracias, Vicente H; Maidment, Andrew D A; O'Shea, Michael; Reilly, Patrick M; Schwab, C William

    2004-09-01

    Critically ill trauma patients undergo many radiologic studies, but the cumulative radiation dose is unknown. The purpose of this study was to estimate the cumulative effective dose (CED) of radiation resulting from radiologic studies in critically ill trauma patients. The study group was composed of trauma patients at an urban Level I trauma center with surgical intensive care unit length of stay (LOS) greater than 30 days. The radiology records were reviewed. A typical effective dose per study for each type of plain film radiograph, computed tomographic scan, fluoroscopic study, and nuclear medicine study was used to calculate CED. Forty-six patients met criteria. The mean surgical intensive care unit and hospital LOS were 42.7 +/- 14.0 and 59.5 +/- 28.5 days, respectively. The mean Injury Severity Score was 32.2 +/- 15.0. The mean number of studies per patient was 70.1 +/- 29.0 plain film radiographs, 7.8 +/- 4.1 computed tomographic scans, 2.5 +/- 2.6 fluoroscopic studies, and 0.065 +/- 0.33 nuclear medicine study. The mean CED was 106 +/- 59 mSv per patient (range, 11-289 mSv; median, 104 mSv). Among age, mechanism, Injury Severity Score, and LOS, there was no statistically significant predictor of high CED. The mean CED in the study group was 30 times higher than the average yearly radiation dose from all sources for individuals in the United States. The theoretical additional morbidity attributable to radiologic studies was 0.78%. From a radiobiologic perspective, risk-to-benefit ratios of radiologic studies are favorable, given the importance of medical information obtained. Current practice patterns regarding use of radiologic studies appear to be acceptable.

  6. 'Intensive care unit survivorship' - a constructivist grounded theory of surviving critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kean, Susanne; Salisbury, Lisa G; Rattray, Janice; Walsh, Timothy S; Huby, Guro; Ramsay, Pamela

    2017-10-01

    To theorise intensive care unit survivorship after a critical illness based on longitudinal qualitative data. Increasingly, patients survive episodes of critical illness. However, the short- and long-term impact of critical illness includes physical, psychological, social and economic challenges long after hospital discharge. An appreciation is emerging that care needs to extend beyond critical illness to enable patients to reclaim their lives postdischarge with the term 'survivorship' being increasingly used in this context. What constitutes critical illness survivorship has, to date, not been theoretically explored. Longitudinal qualitative and constructivist grounded theory. Interviews (n = 46) with 17 participants were conducted at four time points: (1) before discharge from hospital, (2) four to six weeks postdischarge, (3) six months and (4) 12 months postdischarge across two adult intensive care unit setting. Individual face-to-face interviews. Data analysis followed the principles of Charmaz's constructivist grounded theory. 'Intensive care unit survivorship' emerged as the core category and was theorised using concepts such as status passages, liminality and temporality to understand the various transitions participants made postcritical illness. Intensive care unit survivorship describes the unscheduled status passage of falling critically ill and being taken to the threshold of life and the journey to a life postcritical illness. Surviving critical illness goes beyond recovery; surviving means 'moving on' to life postcritical illness. 'Moving on' incorporates a redefinition of self that incorporates any lingering intensive care unit legacies and being in control of one's life again. For healthcare professionals and policymakers, it is important to realise that recovery and transitioning through to survivorship happen within an individual's time frame, not a schedule imposed by the healthcare system. Currently, there are no care pathways or policies in

  7. Bilateral Diaphragmatic Paralysis in a Patient With Critical Illness Polyneuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsuan-Yu; Chen, Hung-Chen; Lin, Meng-Chih; Liaw, Mei-Yun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis (BDP) manifests as respiratory muscle weakness, and its association with critical illness polyneuropathy (CIP) was rarely reported. Here, we present a patient with BDP related to CIP, who successfully avoided tracheostomy after diagnosis and management. A 71-year-old male presented with acute respiratory failure after sepsis adequately treated. Repeated intubation occurred because of carbon dioxide retention after each extubation. After eliminating possible factors, septic shock-induced respiratory muscle weakness was suspected. Physical examination, a nerve conduction study, and chest ultrasound confirmed our impression. Pulmonary rehabilitation and reconditioning exercises were arranged, and the patient was discharged with a diagnosis of BDP. The diagnosis of BDP is usually delayed, and there are only sporadic reports on its association with polyneuropathy, especially in patients with preserved limb muscle function. Therefore, when physicians encounter patients that are difficult to wean from mechanical ventilation, CIP associated with BDP should be considered in the differential diagnosis. PMID:26252301

  8. Intensive care diaries reduce new onset post traumatic stress disorder following critical illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Christina; Bäckman, Carl; Capuzzo, Maurizia

    2010-01-01

    Patients recovering from critical illness have been shown to be at risk of developing Post Traumatic Stress disorder (PTSD). This study was to evaluate whether a prospectively collected diary of a patient's intensive care unit (ICU) stay when used during convalescence following critical illness...

  9. Immune-modulating interventions in critically ill septic patients: pharmacological options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Palle; Tønnesen, Else

    2011-01-01

    Critically ill patients with severe sepsis and septic shock are characterized by a systemic inflammatory response consisting of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators. Owing to the high mortality of severe sepsis, great efforts have been undertaken within the last 30 years to develop an immune...... insulin therapy have been shown to improve survival in septic patients. However, in later studies, it has been difficult to reproduce these beneficial effects. There appears to be a discrepancy between the promising effects of immune-modulating interventions in animal studies and the effects seen......-modulating therapy to improve survival. Relatively few pharmacological immune-modulating interventions have demonstrated a beneficial impact on survival, while other studies have shown a detrimental effect of such interventions. Among the immune-modulating interventions tested, activated protein C and intensive...

  10. Pressure ulcers in critically ill patients - Preventable by non-sedation? A substudy of the NONSEDA-trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedergaard, Helene K; Haberlandt, Trine; Toft, Palle; Jensen, Hanne Irene

    2018-02-01

    Pressure ulcers still pose a significant clinical challenge to critically ill patients. This study is a substudy of the multicenter NONSEDA-trial, where critically ill patients were randomised to sedation or non-sedation during mechanical ventilation. The objective of this substudy was to assess if non-sedation affected the occurrence of pressure ulcers. Retrospective assessment of data from a single NONSEDA-trial site. Mixed intensive care unit. The occurrence of pressure ulcers, described by grade and location. 205 patients were included. Patients with pressure ulcers in the two groups were comparable with regards to baseline data. There were 44 ulcers in 32 patients in the sedated group and 31 ulcers in 25 patients in the non-sedated group (p=0.08). 64% of the ulcers in sedated patients were located on sacrum and heels, whereas 68% of the ulcers in non-sedated patients were related to equipment (p=0.03). Non-sedation did not significantly reduce the number of pressure ulcers. Non-sedation significantly affected the location of ulcers: non-sedated patients mainly had ulcers related to equipment, whereas sedated patients mainly had ulcers on the sacrum and heels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Bedside intravascular ultrasound-guided inferior vena cava filter placement in medical-surgical intensive care critically-ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A. Abusedera

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: Bedside IVUS-guided filter placement in medical-surgical critically ill patient in intensive care unit is a feasible, safe and reliable technique for IVC interruption. IVUS may be the most appropriate tool to guide filter insertion in obese patient.

  12. Acute kidney injury in critically ill child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jboor, Wejdan; Almardini, Reham; Al Bderat, Jwaher; Frehat, Mahdi; Al Masri, Hazem; Alajloni, Mohammad Saleh

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and serious complication in patients in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). We conducted this study to estimate the incidence and the mortality rate of AKI in critically ill children as well as to describe some other related factors. A retrospective study was conducted at PICU of Queen Rania Abdulla Children Hospital, Amman, Jordan for the period extending from May 2011 to June 2013. The medical records of all patients admitted during this period, and their demographic data were reviewed. Patients with AKI were identified, and management and outcomes were reviewed and analyzed. AKI was evaluated according to modified RIFLE criteria. Of the 372 patients admitted to PICU, 64 (17.2%) patients developed AKI. Of these 64 patients who had AKI, 28 (43.7%) patients reached RIFLE max of risk, 21 (32.8%) patients reached injury, and 15 (23.4%) reached failure. Mean Pediatric Risk of Mortality II score at admission was significantly higher in patients with AKI than those without P <0.001. The age ranged between one month and 14 years with the median age as 5.4 year. Thirty-five (54.7%) were males. Sepsis was the most common cause of AKI. The mortality rate in critically ill children without AKI was 58.7%, whereas increased in children with AKI to 73.4%. The mortality rate in patients who received renal replacement therapy was 71.4% and was higher (81.5%) in patients who received mechanical ventilation (95%, [confidence interval (CI)] 79.3-83.4%) and was significantly higher in patients with multi-organ system dysfunction 90.3% (95%, [CI] 88.7-92.5%). The incidence of AKI in critically ill children is high and increased their mortality rate and higher mortality seen in the younger age group, especially those below one year. High mortality rate was associated with multi-organ system dysfunction and the need for mechanical ventilation.

  13. [Experts consensus on the management of the right heart function in critically ill patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X T; Liu, D W; Zhang, H M; Long, Y; Guan, X D; Qiu, H B; Yu, K J; Yan, J; Zhao, H; Tang, Y Q; Ding, X; Ma, X C; Du, W; Kang, Y; Tang, B; Ai, Y H; He, H W; Chen, D C; Chen, H; Chai, W Z; Zhou, X; Cui, N; Wang, H; Rui, X; Hu, Z J; Li, J G; Xu, Y; Yang, Y; Ouyan, B; Lin, H Y; Li, Y M; Wan, X Y; Yang, R L; Qin, Y Z; Chao, Y G; Xie, Z Y; Sun, R H; He, Z Y; Wang, D F; Huang, Q Q; Jiang, D P; Cao, X Y; Yu, R G; Wang, X; Chen, X K; Wu, J F; Zhang, L N; Yin, M G; Liu, L X; Li, S W; Chen, Z J; Luo, Z

    2017-12-01

    To establish the experts consensus on the right heart function management in critically ill patients. The panel of consensus was composed of 30 experts in critical care medicine who are all members of Critical Hemodynamic Therapy Collaboration Group (CHTC Group). Each statement was assessed based on the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) principle. Then the Delphi method was adopted by 52 experts to reassess all the statements. (1) Right heart function is prone to be affected in critically illness, which will result in a auto-exaggerated vicious cycle. (2) Right heart function management is a key step of the hemodynamic therapy in critically ill patients. (3) Fluid resuscitation means the process of fluid therapy through rapid adjustment of intravascular volume aiming to improve tissue perfusion. Reversed fluid resuscitation means reducing volume. (4) The right ventricle afterload should be taken into consideration when using stroke volume variation (SVV) or pulse pressure variation (PPV) to assess fluid responsiveness.(5)Volume overload alone could lead to septal displacement and damage the diastolic function of the left ventricle. (6) The Starling curve of the right ventricle is not the same as the one applied to the left ventricle,the judgement of the different states for the right ventricle is the key of volume management. (7) The alteration of right heart function has its own characteristics, volume assessment and adjustment is an important part of the treatment of right ventricular dysfunction (8) Right ventricular enlargement is the prerequisite for increased cardiac output during reversed fluid resuscitation; Nonetheless, right heart enlargement does not mandate reversed fluid resuscitation.(9)Increased pulmonary vascular resistance induced by a variety of factors could affect right heart function by obstructing the blood flow. (10) When pulmonary hypertension was detected in clinical scenario, the differentiation of

  14. Right-Sided Pleural Effusion in a Critically Ill Stroke Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Bautista MD

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Pleural fluid collections are common in those critically ill. We report the case of a left middle cerebral artery stroke patient who developed respiratory distress and required intubation and mechanical ventilation. Although the patient’s clinical status and oxygenation improved, there was persistence of right-sided opacity in the chest radiograph. Further workup proved a right-sided pleural effusion, which was drained and managed. Following extubation, a swallow study was ordered, which led to a fluoroscopic examination that demonstrated esophageal perforation. Thoracic surgery was consulted and did a primary repair of perforation and noted non–small cell carcinoma on the perforated site.

  15. Acute and long-term dysphagia in critically ill patients with severe sepsis: results of a prospective controlled observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielske, Joerg; Bohne, Silvia; Brunkhorst, Frank M; Axer, Hubertus; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando

    2014-11-01

    Dysphagia is a major risk factor for morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients treated in intensive care units (ICUs). Structured otorhinolaryngological data on dysphagia in ICU survivors with severe sepsis are missing. In a prospective study, 30 ICU patients with severe sepsis and thirty without sepsis as control group were examined using bedside fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing after 14 days in the ICU (T1) and 4 months after onset of critical illness (T2). Swallowing dysfunction was assessed using the Penetration-Aspiration Scale (PAS). The Functional Oral Intake Scale was applied to evaluate the diet needed. Primary endpoint was the burden of dysphagia defined as PAS score >5. At T1, 19 of 30 severe sepsis patients showed aspiration with a PAS score >5, compared to 7 of 30 in critically ill patients without severe sepsis (p = 0.002). Severe sepsis and tracheostomy were independent risk factors for severe dysphagia with aspiration (PAS > 5) at T1 (p = 0.042 and 0.006, respectively). 4-month mortality (T2) was 57 % in severe sepsis patients compared to 20 % in patients without severe sepsis (p = 0.006). At T2, more severe sepsis survivors were tracheostomy-dependent and needed more often tube or parenteral feeding (p = 0.014 and p = 0.040, respectively). Multivariate analysis revealed tracheostomy at T1 as independent risk factor for severe dysphagia at T2 (p = 0.030). Severe sepsis appears to be a relevant risk factor for long-term dysphagia. An otorhinolaryngological evaluation of dysphagia at ICU discharge is mandatory for survivors of severe critical illness to plan specific swallowing rehabilitation programs.

  16. Effect of Emergency Department and ICU Occupancy on Admission Decisions and Outcomes for Critically Ill Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Kusum S; Durst, Matthew S; Vargas-Torres, Carmen; Olson, Ashley D; Mazumdar, Madhu; Richardson, Lynne D

    2018-05-01

    ICU admission delays can negatively affect patient outcomes, but emergency department volume and boarding times may also affect these decisions and associated patient outcomes. We sought to investigate the effect of emergency department and ICU capacity strain on ICU admission decisions and to examine the effect of emergency department boarding time of critically ill patients on in-hospital mortality. A retrospective cohort study. Single academic tertiary care hospital. Adult critically ill emergency department patients for whom a consult for medical ICU admission was requested, over a 21-month period. None. Patient data, including severity of illness (Mortality Probability Model III on Admission), outcomes of mortality and persistent organ dysfunction, and hourly census reports for the emergency department, for all ICUs and all adult wards were compiled. A total of 854 emergency department requests for ICU admission were logged, with 455 (53.3%) as "accept" and 399 (46.7%) as "deny" cases, with median emergency department boarding times 4.2 hours (interquartile range, 2.8-6.3 hr) and 11.7 hours (3.2-20.3 hr) and similar rates of persistent organ dysfunction and/or death 41.5% and 44.6%, respectively. Those accepted were younger (mean ± SD, 61 ± 17 vs 65 ± 18 yr) and more severely ill (median Mortality Probability Model III on Admission score, 15.3% [7.0-29.5%] vs 13.4% [6.3-25.2%]) than those denied admission. In the multivariable model, a full medical ICU was the only hospital-level factor significantly associated with a lower probability of ICU acceptance (odds ratio, 0.55 [95% CI, 0.37-0.81]). Using propensity score analysis to account for imbalances in baseline characteristics between those accepted or denied for ICU admission, longer emergency department boarding time after consult was associated with higher odds of mortality and persistent organ dysfunction (odds ratio, 1.77 [1.07-2.95]/log10 hour increase). ICU admission decisions for

  17. Gastrointestinal dysmotility disorders in critically ill dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, KimMi; Cortes, Yonaira; Eirmann, Laura

    2016-01-01

    To review the human and veterinary literature regarding gastrointestinal (GI) dysmotility disorders in respect to pathogenesis, patient risk factors, and treatment options in critically ill dogs and cats. GI dysmotility is a common sequela of critical illness in people and small animals. The most common GI motility disorders in critically ill people and small animals include esophageal dysmotility, delayed gastric emptying, functional intestinal obstruction (ie, ileus), and colonic motility abnormalities. Medical conditions associated with the highest risk of GI dysmotility include mechanical ventilation, sepsis, shock, trauma, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and multiple organ failure. The incidence and pathophysiology of GI dysmotility in critically ill small animals is incompletely understood. A presumptive diagnosis of GI dysmotility is often made in high-risk patient populations following detection of persistent regurgitation, vomiting, lack of tolerance of enteral nutrition, abdominal pain, and constipation. Definitive diagnosis is established via radioscintigraphy; however, this diagnostic tool is not readily available and is difficult to perform on small animals. Other diagnostic modalities that have been evaluated include abdominal ultrasonography, radiographic contrast, and tracer studies. Therapy is centered at optimizing GI perfusion, enhancement of GI motility, and early enteral nutrition. Pharmacological interventions are instituted to promote gastric emptying and effective intestinal motility and prevention of complications. Promotility agents, including ranitidine/nizatidine, metoclopramide, erythromycin, and cisapride are the mainstays of therapy in small animals. The development of complications related to GI dysmotility (eg, gastroesophageal reflux and aspiration) have been associated with increased mortality risk. Institution of prophylaxic therapy is recommended in high-risk patients, however, no consensus exists regarding optimal

  18. Rethinking platelet function: thrombocytopenia induced immunodeficiency in critical illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, Sisse R; Johansson, Per Ingemar

    2011-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia in critical illness predicts a poor clinical outcome. Apart from its role in microvascular thrombus formation, it is widely anticipated that this association is indirect rather than causal. Emerging evidence however indicates that platelets are also immune competent cells. Like...... per se results in immunodeficiency through loss of platelet-mediated immune functions, and propose that thrombocytopenia induced immunodeficiency in critical illness in part explain the negative predictive value of low or declining platelet count. We propose that rethinking the risks...... of thrombocytopenia to include not only bleeding but also immunodeficiency and immune dysregulation along with the conduct of studies investigating mechanisms contributing to thrombocytopenia induced poor non-hemorrhagic outcome in critical illness, may be means to improve outcome in these patients through...

  19. Antibiotic dosing in critically ill patients receiving CRRT: underdosing is overprevalent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Susan J; Mueller, Bruce A

    2014-01-01

    Published CRRT drug dosing algorithms and other dosing guidelines appear to result in underdosed antibiotics, leading to failure to attain pharmacodynamic targets. High mortality rates persist with inadequate antibiotic therapy as the most important risk factor for death. Reasons for unintended antibiotic underdosing in patients receiving CRRT are many. Underdosing may result from lack of the recognition that better hepatic function in AKI patients yields higher nonrenal antibiotic clearance compared to ESRD patients. Other factors include the variability in body size and fluid composition of patients, the serious consequence of delayed achievement of antibiotic pharmacodynamic targets in septic patients, potential subtherapeutic antibiotic concentrations at the infection site, and the influence of RRT intensity on antibiotic concentrations. Too often, clinicians weigh the benefits of overcautious antibiotic dosing to avoid antibiotic toxicity too heavily against the benefits of rapid attainment of therapeutic antibiotic concentrations in critically ill patients receiving CRRT. We urge clinicians to prescribe antibiotics aggressively for these vulnerable patients. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Single induction dose of etomidate versus other induction agents for endotracheal intubation in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruder, Eric A; Ball, Ian M; Ridi, Stacy; Pickett, William; Hohl, Corinne

    2015-01-08

    The use of etomidate for emergency airway interventions in critically ill patients is very common. In one large registry trial, etomidate was the most commonly used agent for this indication. Etomidate is known to suppress adrenal gland function, but it remains unclear whether or not this adrenal gland dysfunction affects mortality. The primary objective was to assess, in populations of critically ill patients, whether a single induction dose of etomidate for emergency airway intervention affects mortality.The secondary objectives were to address, in populations of critically ill patients, whether a single induction dose of etomidate for emergency airway intervention affects adrenal gland function, organ dysfunction, or health services utilization (as measured by intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS), duration of mechanical ventilation, or vasopressor requirements).We repeated analyses within subgroups defined by the aetiologies of critical illness, timing of adrenal gland function measurement, and the type of comparator drug used. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; CINAHL; EMBASE; LILACS; International Pharmaceutical Abstracts; Web of Science; the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE); and ISI BIOSIS Citation index(SM) on 8 February 2013. We reran the searches in August 2014. We will deal with any studies of interest when we update the review.We also searched the Scopus database of dissertations and conference proceedings and the US Food and Drug Administration Database. We handsearched major emergency medicine, critical care, and anaesthesiology journals.We handsearched the conference proceedings of major emergency medicine, anaesthesia, and critical care conferences from 1990 to current, and performed a grey literature search of the following: Current Controlled Trials; National Health Service - The National Research Register; ClinicalTrials.gov; NEAR website. We included randomized controlled

  1. Selenium supplementation for critically ill adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allingstrup, Mikkel; Afshari, Arash

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Selenium is a trace mineral essential to health and has an important role in immunity, defence against tissue damage and thyroid function. Improving selenium status could help protect against overwhelming tissue damage and infection in critically ill adults. This Cochrane review...... was originally published in 2004 updated in 2007 and again 2015. OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to examine the effect of nutrition supplemented with selenium or ebselen on mortality in critically ill patients.The secondary objective was to examine the relationship between selenium or ebselen...... supplementation and number of infections, duration of mechanical ventilation, length of intensive care unit stay and length of hospital stay. SEARCH METHODS: In this update, we searched the current issue of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, the Cochrane Library (2014, Issue 5); MEDLINE (Ovid SP...

  2. Role of Glucagon in Catabolism and Muscle Wasting of Critical Illness and Modulation by Nutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiessen, Steven E; Derde, Sarah; Derese, Inge

    2017-01-01

    of glucagon and its metabolic role during critical illness is lacking. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether macronutrient infusion can suppress plasma glucagon during critical illness and study the role of illness-induced glucagon abundance in the disturbed glucose, lipid, and amino acid homeostasis and in muscle...... wasting during critical illness. METHODS: In human and mouse studies, we infused macronutrients and manipulated glucagon availability up and down to investigate its acute and chronic metabolic role during critical illness. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: In critically ill patients, infusing glucose...

  3. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation for preventing skeletal-muscle weakness and wasting in critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maffiuletti, Nicola A.; Roig, Marc; Karatzanos, Eleftherios

    2013-01-01

    ill patients, in comparison with usual care. Methods: We searched PubMed, CENTRAL, CINAHL, Web of Science, and PEDro to identify randomized controlled trials exploring the effect of NMES in critically ill patients, which had a well-defined NMES protocol, provided outcomes related to skeletal......-muscle strength and/or mass, and for which full text was available. Two independent reviewers extracted data on muscle-related outcomes (strength and mass), and participant and intervention characteristics, and assessed the methodological quality of the studies. Owing to the lack of means and standard deviations...... yielded 8 eligible studies involving 172 patients. The methodological quality of the studies was moderate to high. Five studies reported an increase in strength or better preservation of strength with NMES, with one study having a large effect size. Two studies found better preservation of muscle mass...

  4. Intravenous glucose intake independently related to intensive care unit and hospital mortality : an argument for glucose toxicity in critically ill patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Voort, PHJ; Feenstra, RA; Bakker, AJ; de Heide, L; Boerma, EC; van der Horst, ICC

    Objective It is assumed that the toxic effects of glucose play a role in the outcome of critically ill patients. We studied the impact of the amount of infused glucose as a determinant of mortality. Design A retrospective cohort study design was used as blood glucose levels in critically ill

  5. Discontinuing treatment in children with chronic, critical illnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, M M; Deatrick, J A; McKnight, H J; Mohr, W K

    2000-03-01

    Decisions about optimal treatment for critically ill children are qualitatively different from those related to adults. Technological advances over the past several decades have resulted in myriad treatment options that leave many children chronically, critically ill. These children are often technology dependent. With new technologies and new patient populations comes the responsibility to understand how, when, and why these technologies are applied and when technology should not be used or should be withdrawn. Much has been written about ethical decision making in the care of chronically, critically ill adults and newborns. In this article, relevant factors about the care of children older than neonates are described: standards, decision makers, age of the child, and pain management. A case study is used as a mechanism to explore these issues. Dimensions of futility, discontinuing aggressive treatment, and a consideration of benefits and burdens are integrated throughout the discussion to inform nurse practitioner practice.

  6. The role of nutritional support in the physical and functional recovery of critically ill patients: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bear, Danielle E; Wandrag, Liesl; Merriweather, Judith L; Connolly, Bronwen; Hart, Nicholas; Grocott, Michael P W

    2017-08-26

    The lack of benefit from randomised controlled trials has resulted in significant controversy regarding the role of nutrition during critical illness in terms of long-term recovery and outcome. Although methodological caveats with a failure to adequately appreciate biological mechanisms may explain these disappointing results, it must be acknowledged that nutritional support during early critical illness, when considered alone, may have limited long-term functional impact.This narrative review focuses specifically on recent clinical trials and evaluates the impact of nutrition during critical illness on long-term physical and functional recovery.Specific focus on the trial design and methodological limitations has been considered in detail. Limitations include delivery of caloric and protein targets, patient heterogeneity, short duration of intervention, inappropriate clinical outcomes and a disregard for baseline nutritional status and nutritional intake in the post-ICU period.With survivorship at the forefront of critical care research, it is imperative that nutrition studies carefully consider biological mechanisms and trial design because these factors can strongly influence outcomes, in particular long-term physical and functional outcome. Failure to do so may lead to inconclusive clinical trials and consequent rejection of the potentially beneficial effects of nutrition interventions during critical illness.

  7. The role of infection models and PK/PD modelling for optimising care of critically ill patients with severe infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tängdén, T; Ramos Martín, V; Felton, T W; Nielsen, E I; Marchand, S; Brüggemann, R J; Bulitta, J B; Bassetti, M; Theuretzbacher, U; Tsuji, B T; Wareham, D W; Friberg, L E; De Waele, J J; Tam, V H; Roberts, Jason A

    2017-07-01

    Critically ill patients with severe infections are at high risk of suboptimal antimicrobial dosing. The pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of antimicrobials in these patients differ significantly from the patient groups from whose data the conventional dosing regimens were developed. Use of such regimens often results in inadequate antimicrobial concentrations at the site of infection and is associated with poor patient outcomes. In this article, we describe the potential of in vitro and in vivo infection models, clinical pharmacokinetic data and pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic models to guide the design of more effective antimicrobial dosing regimens. Individualised dosing, based on population PK models and patient factors (e.g. renal function and weight) known to influence antimicrobial PK, increases the probability of achieving therapeutic drug exposures while at the same time avoiding toxic concentrations. When therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is applied, early dose adaptation to the needs of the individual patient is possible. TDM is likely to be of particular importance for infected critically ill patients, where profound PK changes are present and prompt appropriate antibiotic therapy is crucial. In the light of the continued high mortality rates in critically ill patients with severe infections, a paradigm shift to refined dosing strategies for antimicrobials is warranted to enhance the probability of achieving drug concentrations that increase the likelihood of clinical success.

  8. Prediction of critical illness in elderly outpatients using elder risk assessment: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biehl M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Michelle Biehl,1 Paul Y Takahashi,2 Stephen S Cha,3 Rajeev Chaudhry,2 Ognjen Gajic,1 Bjorg Thorsteinsdottir2 1Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, 2Division of Primary Care Internal Medicine, 3Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA Rationale: Identifying patients at high risk of critical illness is necessary for the development and testing of strategies to prevent critical illness. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between high elder risk assessment (ERA score and critical illness requiring intensive care and to see if the ERA can be used as a prediction tool to identify elderly patients at the primary care visit who are at high risk of critical illness. Methods: A population-based historical cohort study was conducted in elderly patients (age >65 years identified at the time of primary care visit in Rochester, MN, USA. Predictors including age, previous hospital days, and comorbid health conditions were identified from routine administrative data available in the electronic medical record. The main outcome was critical illness, defined as sepsis, need for mechanical ventilation, or death within 2 years of initial visit. Patients with an ERA score of 16 were considered to be at high risk. The discrimination of the ERA score was assessed using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Results: Of the 13,457 eligible patients, 9,872 gave consent for medical record review and had full information on intensive care unit utilization. The mean age was 75.8 years (standard deviation ±7.6 years, and 58% were female, 94% were Caucasian, 62% were married, and 13% were living in nursing homes. In the overall group, 417 patients (4.2% suffered from critical illness. In the 1,134 patients with ERA >16, 154 (14% suffered from critical illness. An ERA score ≥16 predicted critical illness (odds ratio 6.35; 95% confidence interval 3.51–11.48. The area under the

  9. Blood tranfusion in critically ill patients: state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjar, Ludhmila Abrahão; Auler Junior, Jose Otávio Costa; Santos, Luciana; Galas, Filomena

    2007-08-01

    Anemia is one of the most common abnormal findings in critically ill patients, and many of these patients will receive a blood transfusion during their intensive care unit stay. However, the determinants of exactly which patients do receive transfusions remains to be defined and have been the subject of considerable debate in recent years. Concerns and doubts have emerged regarding the benefits and safety of blood transfusion, in part due to the lack of evidence of better outcomes resulting from randomized studies and in part related to the observations that transfusion may increase the risk of infection. As a result of these concerns and of several studies suggesting better or similar outcomes with a lower transfusion trigger, there has been a general tendency to decrease the transfusion threshold from the classic 10 g/dL to lower values. In this review, we focus on some of the key studies providing insight into current transfusion practices and fueling the current debate on the ideal transfusion trigger.

  10. Critically Ill Patients With the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome: A Multicenter Retrospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabi, Yaseen M; Al-Omari, Awad; Mandourah, Yasser; Al-Hameed, Fahad; Sindi, Anees A; Alraddadi, Basem; Shalhoub, Sarah; Almotairi, Abdullah; Al Khatib, Kasim; Abdulmomen, Ahmed; Qushmaq, Ismael; Mady, Ahmed; Solaiman, Othman; Al-Aithan, Abdulsalam M; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa; Ragab, Ahmed; Al Mekhlafi, Ghaleb A; Al Harthy, Abdulrahman; Kharaba, Ayman; Ahmadi, Mashael Al; Sadat, Musharaf; Mutairi, Hanan Al; Qasim, Eman Al; Jose, Jesna; Nasim, Maliha; Al-Dawood, Abdulaziz; Merson, Laura; Fowler, Robert; Hayden, Frederick G; Balkhy, Hanan H

    2017-10-01

    To describe patient characteristics, clinical manifestations, disease course including viral replication patterns, and outcomes of critically ill patients with severe acute respiratory infection from the Middle East respiratory syndrome and to compare these features with patients with severe acute respiratory infection due to other etiologies. Retrospective cohort study. Patients admitted to ICUs in 14 Saudi Arabian hospitals. Critically ill patients with laboratory-confirmed Middle East respiratory syndrome severe acute respiratory infection (n = 330) admitted between September 2012 and October 2015 were compared to consecutive critically ill patients with community-acquired severe acute respiratory infection of non-Middle East respiratory syndrome etiology (non-Middle East respiratory syndrome severe acute respiratory infection) (n = 222). None. Although Middle East respiratory syndrome severe acute respiratory infection patients were younger than those with non-Middle East respiratory syndrome severe acute respiratory infection (median [quartile 1, quartile 3] 58 yr [44, 69] vs 70 [52, 78]; p < 0.001), clinical presentations and comorbidities overlapped substantially. Patients with Middle East respiratory syndrome severe acute respiratory infection had more severe hypoxemic respiratory failure (PaO2/FIO2: 106 [66, 160] vs 176 [104, 252]; p < 0.001) and more frequent nonrespiratory organ failure (nonrespiratory Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score: 6 [4, 9] vs 5 [3, 7]; p = 0.002), thus required more frequently invasive mechanical ventilation (85.2% vs 73.0%; p < 0.001), oxygen rescue therapies (extracorporeal membrane oxygenation 5.8% vs 0.9%; p = 0.003), vasopressor support (79.4% vs 55.0%; p < 0.001), and renal replacement therapy (48.8% vs 22.1%; p < 0.001). After adjustment for potential confounding factors, Middle East respiratory syndrome was independently associated with death compared to non-Middle East respiratory syndrome severe acute respiratory

  11. Incidence, timing and outcome of AKI in critically ill patients varies with the definition used and the addition of urine output criteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeze, J.; Keus, F.; Dieperink, W.; van der Horst, I. C. C.; Zijlstra, J. G.; van Meurs, M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a serious complication of critical illness with both attributed morbidity and mortality at short-term and long-term. The incidence of AKI reported in critically ill patients varies substantially with the population evaluated and the definitions used. We aimed

  12. Long-term consequences of an intensive care unit stay in older critically ill patients: design of a longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hantikainen Virpi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modern methods in intensive care medicine often enable the survival of older critically ill patients. The short-term outcomes for patients treated in intensive care units (ICUs, such as survival to hospital discharge, are well documented. However, relatively little is known about subsequent long-term outcomes. Pain, anxiety and agitation are important stress factors for many critically ill patients. There are very few studies concerned with pain, anxiety and agitation and the consequences in older critically ill patients. The overall aim of this study is to identify how an ICU stay influences an older person's experiences later in life. More specific, this study has the following objectives: (1 to explore the relationship between pain, anxiety and agitation during ICU stays and experiences of the same symptoms in later life; and (2 to explore the associations between pain, anxiety and agitation experienced during ICU stays and their effect on subsequent health-related quality of life, use of the health care system (readmissions, doctor visits, rehabilitation, medication use, living situation, and survival after discharge and at 6 and 12 months of follow-up. Methods/Design A prospective, longitudinal study will be used for this study. A total of 150 older critically ill patients in the ICU will participate (ICU group. Pain, anxiety, agitation, morbidity, mortality, use of the health care system, and health-related quality of life will be measured at 3 intervals after a baseline assessment. Baseline measurements will be taken 48 hours after ICU admission and one week thereafter. Follow-up measurements will take place 6 months and 12 months after discharge from the ICU. To be able to interpret trends in scores on outcome variables in the ICU group, a comparison group of 150 participants, matched by age and gender, recruited from the Swiss population, will be interviewed at the same intervals as the ICU group. Discussion Little

  13. Prospective analysis of skin findings in surgical critically Ill patients intensive care unit

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    Suzan Demir Pektas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Intensive Care Units (ICUs are places where critically ill patients are managed. Aim: We aimed to investigate skin disorders that developed in critically ill surgical patients during their stay in the ICU. Methods: The prevalence of dermatological disorders and factors affecting their clinical features was prospectively analyzed in surgical ICU patients. We recorded age, sex, type of ICU, comorbidities, skin disorders, time to consultation, duration of ICU stay, and mortality rate. Results: Our study included 605 patients (mean age of 60.1 ± 20.2 years; 56.4% males. Seventy-three (12.1% patients were consulted with the Dermatology Department, among which 28.8% had infectious dermatological lesions, 26% dermatoses, and 45.2% drug reactions. The most common infectious dermatological disorder was wound infection (55.6%, the most common drug reaction was maculopapular drug eruption (75.8%, and the most common dermatosis was frictional blisters (47.4%. Multiple comorbidities, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, Parkinson disease, and stroke increased dermatological disorders (P < 0.05. The consulted patients had a median ICU stay of 7 days (range 2–53 days; consultation was significantly more common when it exceeded 10 days (74% vs. 26%, P < 0.05. The consulted patients died more commonly (P < 0.05. Infectious dermatological disorders and dermatoses were more common in patients older and younger than 50 years, respectively (P < 0.05. Dermatoses were more common among women (P < 0.05. The median time to consultation was 6 (2–30 days; it was longest for dermatological infections and shortest for dermatoses (P < 0.05. Infectious dermatological disorders were significantly more common among the deceased patients (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Multiple factors including multiple comorbidities, duration of ICU stay, time to consultation, and mortality increase dermatological disorders among surgical ICU patients.

  14. [Vitamin D deficiency and morbimortality in critically ill paediatric patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Soler, Patricia; Morales-Martínez, Antonio; Rosa-Camacho, Vanessa; Lillo-Muñoz, Juan Antonio; Milano-Manso, Guillermo

    2017-08-01

    To determine the prevalence and risks factors of vitamin D deficiency, as well as its relationship with morbidity and mortality in a PICU. An observational prospective study in a tertiary children's University Hospital PICU conducted in two phases: i: cohorts study, and ii: prevalence study. The study included 340 critically ill children with ages comprising 6 months to 16 years old. Chronic kidney disease, known parathyroid disorders, and vitamin D supplementation. Total 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] was measured in the first 48hours of admission to a PICU. Parathormone, calcium, phosphate, blood gases, blood count, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin were also analysed. A record was also made of demographic features, characteristics of the episode, and complications during the PICU stay. The overall prevalence rate of vitamin D deficiency was 43.8%, with a mean of 22.28 (95% CI 21.15-23.41) ng/ml. Patients with vitamin D deficiency were older (61 vs 47 months, P=.039), had parents with a higher level of academic studies (36.5% vs 20%, P=.016), were admitted more often in winter and spring, had a higher PRISM-III (6.8 vs 5.1, P=.037), a longer PICU stay (3 vs 2 days, P=.001), and higher morbidity (61.1% vs 30.4%, P<001) than the patients with sufficient levels of 25(OH)D. Patients who died had lower levels of 25(OH)D (14±8.81ng/ml versus 22.53±10.53ng/ml, P=.012). Adjusted OR for morbidity was 5.44 (95%CI; 2.5-11.6). Vitamin D deficiency is frequent in critically ill children, and it is related to both morbidity and mortality, although it remains unclear whether it is a causal relationship or it is simply a marker of severity in different clinical situations. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Would you be surprised if this patient died?: Preliminary exploration of first and second year residents' approach to care decisions in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armstrong John D

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background How physicians approach decision-making when caring for critically ill patients is poorly understood. This study aims to explore how residents think about prognosis and approach care decisions when caring for seriously ill, hospitalized patients. Methods Qualitative study where we conducted structured discussions with first and second year internal medicine residents (n = 8 caring for critically ill patients during Medical Intensive Care Unit Ethics and Discharge Planning Rounds. Residents were asked to respond to questions beginning with "Would you be surprised if this patient died?" Results An equal number of residents responded that they would (n = 4 or would not (n = 4 be surprised if their patient died. Reasons for being surprised included the rapid onset of an acute illness, reversible disease, improving clinical course and the patient's prior survival under similar circumstances. Residents reported no surprise with worsening clinical course. Based on the realization that their patient might die, residents cited potential changes in management that included clarifying treatment goals, improving communication with families, spending more time with patients and ordering fewer laboratory tests. Perceived or implied barriers to changes in management included limited time, competing clinical priorities, "not knowing" a patient, limited knowledge and experience, presence of diagnostic or prognostic uncertainty and unclear treatment goals. Conclusions These junior-level residents appear to rely on clinical course, among other factors, when assessing prognosis and the possibility for death in severely ill patients. Further investigation is needed to understand how these factors impact decision-making and whether perceived barriers to changes in patient management influence approaches to care.

  16. Nutritional support for critically ill children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Ari; Anton, Natalie; Lequier, Laurance; Vandermeer, Ben; Tjosvold, Lisa; Larsen, Bodil; Hartling, Lisa

    2016-05-27

    Nutritional support in the critically ill child has not been well investigated and is a controversial topic within paediatric intensive care. There are no clear guidelines as to the best form or timing of nutrition in critically ill infants and children. This is an update of a review that was originally published in 2009. . The objective of this review was to assess the impact of enteral and parenteral nutrition given in the first week of illness on clinically important outcomes in critically ill children. There were two primary hypotheses:1. the mortality rate of critically ill children fed enterally or parenterally is different to that of children who are given no nutrition;2. the mortality rate of critically ill children fed enterally is different to that of children fed parenterally.We planned to conduct subgroup analyses, pending available data, to examine whether the treatment effect was altered by:a. age (infants less than one year versus children greater than or equal to one year old);b. type of patient (medical, where purpose of admission to intensive care unit (ICU) is for medical illness (without surgical intervention immediately prior to admission), versus surgical, where purpose of admission to ICU is for postoperative care or care after trauma).We also proposed the following secondary hypotheses (a priori), pending other clinical trials becoming available, to examine nutrition more distinctly:3. the mortality rate is different in children who are given enteral nutrition alone versus enteral and parenteral combined;4. the mortality rate is different in children who are given both enteral feeds and parenteral nutrition versus no nutrition. In this updated review we searched: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2016, Issue 2); Ovid MEDLINE (1966 to February 2016); Ovid EMBASE (1988 to February 2016); OVID Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews; ISI Web of Science - Science Citation Index Expanded (1965 to February 2016); Web

  17. Pyridoxal-5'-phosphate deficiency is associated with hyperhomocysteinemia regardless of antioxidant, thiamine, riboflavin, cobalamine, and folate status in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-López, Jorge; Florea, Daniela; Quintero-Osso, Bartolomé; de la Cruz, Antonio Pérez; Rodríguez-Elvira, Manuel; Del Pozo, Elena Planells

    2016-06-01

    Critically ill patients develop severe stress, inflammation and a clinical state that may raise the utilization and metabolic replacement of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate decreasing their body reserves. This study was designed to assess the nutritional pyridoxal-5'-phosphate status in critical care patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome, comparing them with a group of healthy people, and studying it's association with factors involved in the pyridoxine and other B vitamins metabolism, as the total antioxidant capacity and Hcy as cardiovascular risk biomarker. Prospective, multicentre, comparative, observational and analytic study. One hundred and three critically ill patients from different hospitals, and eighty four healthy subjects from Granada, Spain, all with informed consent. Data from daily nutritional assessment, ICU severity scores, clinical and nutritional parameters, antioxidant status and homocysteine levels was taken at admission and at the seventh day of the ICU stay. Thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxine and folate status proved deficient in a large number of patients, being significantly lower in comparison with control group, and significantly decreased at 7th day of ICU stay. Higher homocysteine was observed in patients compared with control group (p < 0.05) where 31.5 and 26.8 percent of subjects presented hyperhomocysteinemia at initial and final of study, respectively. Antioxidant status was lower than control group in two periods analysed, and decreased at 7th day of ICU stay (p < 0.05) being associated with PLP deficiency. PLP deficiency was also correlated with hyperhomocysteinemia at two times measured (r. -0.73, p < 0.001; r. -0.69, p < 0.001, respectively), showing at day 7 an odds ratio of 6.62 in our multivariate model. Critically ill patients with SIRS show deficient B vitamin and low antioxidant statuses. Despite association found between PLP deficiency and low antioxidant status in critically ill patients, PLP deficiency

  18. Activity in the chronically critically ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelman, Chris; Higgins, Patricia A; Chen, Yea-Jyh Kathy

    2005-01-01

    Although therapeutic activity prevents functional decline and reduces mortality, little is known about typical levels of activity among intensive care unit (ICU) patients. This report of a preliminary study describes typical therapeutic activity and compares the use of two measures of activity in a small sample of chronically critically ill adults. Type, frequency, and duration of therapeutic activity were measured simultaneously with direct observation and actigraphy. The only consistent activity documented was turning (frequency: 3 turns/8 hours; duration: mean average of 11 minutes). Analysis demonstrated acceptable agreement between the two measures of activity for both frequency and duration of therapeutic but not for type of activity. Congruence between measures for duration of activity was also supported. This study provides information for investigators and practitioners who are interested in measuring or implementing therapeutic activity in selected critically ill adults.

  19. Superficial Temporal Artery Pseudoaneurysm: A Conservative Approach in a Critically Ill Patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasso, Rosario Francesco; Quattrocchi, Carlo Cosimo; Crucitti, Pierfilippo; Carboni, Giampiero; Coppola, Roberto; Zobel, Bruno Beomonte

    2007-01-01

    A 71-year-old man affected by cardio- and cerebrovascular disease experienced an accidental fall and trauma to the fronto-temporal area of the head. A few weeks later a growing mass appeared on his scalp. A diagnosis of superficial temporal artery pseudoaneurysm was made following CT and color Doppler ultrasound. His clinical condition favoured a conservative approach by ultrasound-guided compression and subsequent surgical resection. A conservative approach should be considered the treatment of choice in critically ill patients affected by superficial temporal artery pseudoaneurysm

  20. Reversible acute adrenal insufficiency caused by fluconazole in a critically ill patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, S G Santhana; Cobbs, R K

    2006-01-01

    A 38 year old man with history of obstructive sleep apnea and polycythaemia presented with hypercapnic respiratory failure that required intubation. He developed fever with infiltrates on chest radiography that required empiric antifungal therapy with fluconazole along with broad spectrum antibiotics. He developed acute adrenal insufficiency that recovered after fluconazole was stopped. It is believed that this complication of adrenal suppression attributable to fluconazole is underrecognised and it may be prudent to monitor all critically ill patients who are given fluconazole for this complication. PMID:16954446

  1. Arterial carboxyhemoglobin level and outcome in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melley, Daniel D; Finney, Simon J; Elia, Androula; Lagan, Anna L; Quinlan, Gregory J; Evans, Timothy W

    2007-08-01

    Arterial carboxyhemoglobin is elevated in patients with critical illness. It is an indicator of the endogenous production of carbon monoxide by the enzyme heme oxygenase, which modulates the response to oxidant stress. The objective was to explore the hypothesis that arterial carboxyhemoglobin level is associated with inflammation and survival in patients requiring cardiothoracic intensive care. Prospective, observational study. A cardiothoracic intensive care unit. All patients admitted over a 15-month period. None. Arterial carboxyhemoglobin, bilirubin, and standard biochemical, hematologic, and physiologic markers of inflammation were measured in 1,267 patients. Associations were sought between levels of arterial carboxyhemoglobin, markers of the inflammatory response, and clinical outcome. Intensive care unit mortality was associated with lower minimum and greater maximal carboxyhemoglobin levels (p carboxyhemoglobin was associated with an increased risk of death from all causes (odds risk of death, 0.391; 95% confidence interval, 0.190-0.807; p = .011). Arterial carboxyhemoglobin correlated with markers of the inflammatory response. Both low minimum and high maximum levels of arterial carboxyhemoglobin were associated with increased intensive care mortality. Although the heme oxygenase system is protective, excessive induction may be deleterious. This suggests that there may be an optimal range for heme oxygenase-1 induction.

  2. The role of infection models and PK/PD modelling for optimising care of critically ill patients with severe infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tangden, T.; Martin, V.; Felton, T.W.; Nielsen, E.I.; Marchand, S.; Bruggemann, R.J.M.; Bulitta, J.B.; Bassetti, M.; Theuretzbacher, U.; Tsuji, B.T.; Wareham, D.W.; Friberg, L.E.; Waele, J.J. De; Tam, V.H.; Roberts, J.A.

    2017-01-01

    Critically ill patients with severe infections are at high risk of suboptimal antimicrobial dosing. The pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of antimicrobials in these patients differ significantly from the patient groups from whose data the conventional dosing regimens were developed.

  3. Blood glucose control and monitoring in the critically ill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hooijdonk, R.T.M.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis deals with blood glucose control and blood glucose monitoring in intensive care unit (ICU) patients: two important aspects of care for and monitoring of critically ill patients. While the precise targets of blood glucose control in ICU patients remain a matter of debate, currently many,

  4. Delirium and Catatonia in Critically Ill Patients: The Delirium and Catatonia Prospective Cohort Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jo E; Carlson, Richard; Duggan, Maria C; Pandharipande, Pratik; Girard, Timothy D; Wang, Li; Thompson, Jennifer L; Chandrasekhar, Rameela; Francis, Andrew; Nicolson, Stephen E; Dittus, Robert S; Heckers, Stephan; Ely, E Wesley

    2017-11-01

    Catatonia, a condition characterized by motor, behavioral, and emotional changes, can occur during critical illness and appear as clinically similar to delirium, yet its management differs from delirium. Traditional criteria for medical catatonia preclude its diagnosis in delirium. Our objective in this investigation was to understand the overlap and relationship between delirium and catatonia in ICU patients and determine diagnostic thresholds for catatonia. Convenience cohort, nested within two ongoing randomized trials. Single academic medical center in Nashville, TN. We enrolled 136 critically ill patients on mechanical ventilation and/or vasopressors, randomized to two usual care sedation regimens. Patients were assessed for delirium and catatonia by independent and masked personnel using Confusion Assessment Method for the ICU and the Bush Francis Catatonia Rating Scale mapped to Diagnostic Statistical Manual 5 criterion A for catatonia. Of 136 patients, 58 patients (43%) had only delirium, four (3%) had only catatonia, 42 (31%) had both, and 32 (24%) had neither. In a logistic regression model, more catatonia signs were associated with greater odds of having delirium. For example, patient assessments with greater than or equal to three Diagnostic Statistical Manual 5 symptoms (75th percentile) had, on average, 27.8 times the odds (interquartile range, 12.7-60.6) of having delirium compared with patient assessments with zero Diagnostic Statistical Manual 5 criteria (25th percentile) present (p delirium, these data prompt reconsideration of Diagnostic Statistical Manual 5 criteria for "Catatonic Disorder Due to Another Medical Condition" that preclude diagnosing catatonia in the presence of delirium.

  5. Identification of risk factors for enteral feeding intolerance screening in critically ill patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Wang, Ting; Chen, Ting; Yang, Wen-Qun; Liang, Ze-Ping; Zhu, Jing-Ci

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To identify risk factors for enteral feeding intolerance screening in critically ill patients, thereby, provide some reference for healthcare staff to assess the risk of feeding intolerance, and lay the foundation for future scale development. Methods: This study used a mixed methodology, including a literature review, semi-structured interviews, the Delphi technique, and the analytic hierarchy process. We used the literature review and semi-structured interviews (n=22) to draft a preliminarily item pool for feeding intolerance, Delphi technique (n=30) to screen and determine the items, and the analytic hierarchy process to calculate the weight of each item. The study was conducted between June 2014 and September 2015 in Daping Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China. Results: Twenty-three risk factors were selected for the scale, including 5 dimensions. We assigned a weight to each item according to their impact on the feeding intolerance, with a higher score indicating a greater impact. The weight of each dimension was decreasing as follows: patient conditions, weight score equals 42; general conditions, weight score equals 23; gastrointestinal functions, weight score equals 15; biochemical indexes, weight score equals 14; and treatment measures, weight score equals 6. Conclusion: Developed list of risk factors based on literature review, survey among health care professionals and expert consensus should provide a basis for future studies assessing the risk of feeding intolerance in critically ill patients. PMID:28762434

  6. Pharmacoeconomics of parenteral nutrition in surgical and critically ill patients receiving structured triglycerides in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guo Hao; Ehm, Alexandra; Bellone, Marco; Pradelli, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    A prior meta-analysis showed favorable metabolic effects of structured triglyceride (STG) lipid emulsions in surgical and critically ill patients compared with mixed medium-chain/long-chain triglycerides (MCT/LCT) emulsions. Limited data on clinical outcomes precluded pharmacoeconomic analysis. We performed an updated meta-analysis and developed a cost model to compare overall costs for STGs vs MCT/LCTs in Chinese hospitals. We searched Medline, Embase, Wanfang Data, the China Hospital Knowledge Database, and Google Scholar for clinical trials comparing STGs to mixed MCT/LCTs in surgical or critically ill adults published between October 10, 2013 and September 19, 2015. Newly identified studies were pooled with the prior studies and an updated meta-analysis was performed. A deterministic simulation model was used to compare the effects of STGs and mixed MCT/LCT's on Chinese hospital costs. The literature search identified six new trials, resulting in a total of 27 studies in the updated meta-analysis. Statistically significant differences favoring STGs were observed for cumulative nitrogen balance, pre- albumin and albumin concentrations, plasma triglycerides, and liver enzymes. STGs were also associated with a significant reduction in the length of hospital stay (mean difference, -1.45 days; 95% confidence interval, -2.48 to -0.43; p=0.005) versus mixed MCT/LCTs. Cost analysis demonstrated a net cost benefit of ¥675 compared with mixed MCT/LCTs. STGs are associated with improvements in metabolic function and reduced length of hospitalization in surgical and critically ill patients compared with mixed MCT/LCT emulsions. Cost analysis using data from Chinese hospitals showed a corresponding cost benefit.

  7. Central and peripheral venous lines-associated blood stream infections in the critically ill surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugas, Mohamed Ali; Cho, Hyongyu; Trilling, Gregory M; Tahir, Zainab; Raja, Humaera Farrukh; Ramadan, Sami; Jerjes, Waseem; Giannoudis, Peter V

    2012-09-04

    Critically ill surgical patients are always at increased risk of actual or potentially life-threatening health complications. Central/peripheral venous lines form a key part of their care. We review the current evidence on incidence of central and peripheral venous catheter-related bloodstream infections in critically ill surgical patients, and outline pathways for prevention and intervention. An extensive systematic electronic search was carried out on the relevant databases. Articles were considered suitable for inclusion if they investigated catheter colonisation and catheter-related bloodstream infection. Two independent reviewers engaged in selecting the appropriate articles in line with our protocol retrieved 8 articles published from 1999 to 2011. Outcomes on CVC colonisation and infections were investigated in six studies; four of which were prospective cohort studies, one prospective longitudinal study and one retrospective cohort study. Outcomes relating only to PICCs were reported in one prospective randomised trial. We identified only one study that compared CVC- and PICC-related complications in surgical intensive care units. Although our search protocol may not have yielded an exhaustive list we have identified a key deficiency in the literature, namely a paucity of studies investigating the incidence of CVC- and PICC-related bloodstream infection in exclusively critically ill surgical populations. In summary, the diverse definitions for the diagnosis of central and peripheral venous catheter-related bloodstream infections along with the vastly different sample size and extremely small PICC population size has, predictably, yielded inconsistent findings. Our current understanding is still limited; the studies we have identified do point us towards some tentative understanding that the CVC/PICC performance remains inconclusive.

  8. The performance of flash glucose monitoring in critically ill patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancona, Paolo; Eastwood, Glenn M; Lucchetta, Luca; Ekinci, Elif I; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Mårtensson, Johan

    2017-06-01

    Frequent glucose monitoring may improve glycaemic control in critically ill patients with diabetes. We aimed to assess the accuracy of a novel subcutaneous flash glucose monitor (FreeStyle Libre [Abbott Diabetes Care]) in these patients. We applied the FreeStyle Libre sensor to the upper arm of eight patients with diabetes in the intensive care unit and obtained hourly flash glucose measurements. Duplicate recordings were obtained to assess test-retest reliability. The reference glucose level was measured in arterial or capillary blood. We determined numerical accuracy using Bland- Altman methods, the mean absolute relative difference (MARD) and whether the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute Point of Care Testing (CLSI POCT) criteria were met. Clarke error grid (CEG) and surveillance error grid (SEG) analyses were used to determine clinical accuracy. We compared 484 duplicate flash glucose measurements and observed a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.97 and a coefficient of repeatability of 1.6 mmol/L. We studied 185 flash readings paired with arterial glucose levels, and 89 paired with capillary glucose levels. Using the arterial glucose level as the reference, we found a mean bias of 1.4 mmol/L (limits of agreement, -1.7 to 4.5 mmol/L). The MARD was 14% (95% CI, 12%-16%) and the proportion of measurements meeting ISO and CLSI POCT criteria was 64.3% and 56.8%, respectively. The proportions of values within a low-risk zone on CEG and SEG analyses were 97.8% and 99.5%, respectively. Using capillary glucose levels as the reference, we found that numerical and clinical accuracy were lower. The subcutaneous FreeStyle Libre blood glucose measurement system showed high test-retest reliability and acceptable accuracy when compared with arterial blood glucose measurement in critically ill patients with diabetes.

  9. Prevention of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in critically ill Chinese patients: a randomized, double-blind study evaluating esomeprazole and cimetidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Wenhui; Xia, Ying; Xiang, Peng; Zhang, Liangqing; Yu, Xiangyou; Lim, Sam; Xu, Mo; Zhao, Lina; Rydholm, Hans; Traxler, Barry; Qin, Xinyu

    2018-04-20

    To assess the efficacy and safety of esomeprazole in preventing upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in critically ill Chinese patients, using cimetidine as an active comparator. A pre-specified non-inferiority limit (5%) was used to compare rates of significant upper GI bleeding in this randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, phase 3 study across 27 intensive care units in China. Secondary endpoints included safety and tolerability measures. Patients required mechanical ventilation and had at least one additional risk factor for stress ulcer bleeding. Patients were randomized to receive either active esomeprazole 40 mg, as a 30-min intravenous (IV) infusion twice daily, and an IV placebo cimetidine infusion or active cimetidine 50 mg/h, as a continuous infusion following an initial bolus of 300 mg, and placebo esomeprazole injections, given up to 14 days. Patients were blinded using this double-dummy technique. Of 274 patients, 2.7% with esomeprazole and 4.6% with cimetidine had significant upper GI bleeding (bright red blood in the gastric tube not clearing after lavage or persistent Gastroccult-positive "coffee grounds" material). Non-inferiority of esomeprazole to cimetidine was demonstrated. The safety profiles of both drugs were similar and as expected in critically ill patients. Esomeprazole is effective in preventing upper GI bleeding in critically ill Chinese patients, as demonstrated by the non-inferiority analysis using cimetidine as an active control. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02157376.

  10. Metformin: An Old Taboo yet a New Friend for Targeted Glucose Control in Critically Ill Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvi Sanaie

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Glucose management in critically ill adults and children has always been controversial. A few recent studies mention that the use of any drug other than insulin for glucose control in intensive care unit is not recommended anymore1. Increased levels of counter-regulatory hormones and insulin resistance at organ levels contribute immensely to the emergence of hyperglycemia in these patients. Consequently, in some patients higher doses of insulin are required for the maintenance of normoglycemia and in such scenarios incidence of hypoglycemia becomes a real concern. Moreover, insulin therapy might lead to hypokalaemia and hypomagnesaemia which in turns promote insulin resistance and higher blood glucose level (BGL. All these events make insulin administration unavoidable; thereby, beginning a vicious cycle with adverse outcomes. One of therapeutic options in this scenario is using insulin sensitizing agents as an adjunct therapy for glycemic control in critically ill patients. Different studies have shown that metformin, similar to insulin, is of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties, improves lipid profile, decreases nursing workload and lowers the incidence of adverse effects related to high-dose insulin therapy without being associated with the increased risk of lactic acidosis or hypoglycemia2-4. Panahi et al., in their study, showed that metformin therapy in hyperglycemic critically ill patients resulted in similar outcomes with insulin thersapy5. Also, there are some studies reporting that metformin limits ischemia reperfusion injury, modulates inflammation; it consequently contributes to the survival benefits probably through increasing adenosine receptor stimulation6-8. In sepsis, there is a biphasic inflammatory response; Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS, as an initial hyperinflammatory phase, and Counterregulatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome as a later hypoactive phase. Therefore, anti-inflammatory drugs like

  11. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic evaluation of linezolid for the treatment of staphylococcal infections in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Haiyan; Xie, Jiao; Wang, Taotao; Chen, Lihong; Zeng, Xiaoyan; Sun, Jinyao; Wang, Xue; Dong, Yalin

    2016-09-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that the ideal therapeutic effect of linezolid cannot be achieved in critically ill patients with the recommended standard dosing regimen of 600 mg every 12 h (q12h). Moreover, the optimal strategy for successful treatment is still lacking. This study analysed factors influencing the efficacy of linezolid treatment and determined the target for successful treatment by logistic regression in 27 critically ill patients with staphylococcal infection who received linezolid 600 mg q12h. The results showed that only the 24-h area under the concentration-time curve to minimum inhibitory concentration (AUC24/MIC) ratio was significantly associated with staphylococcal eradication. Reaching 80% bacterial eradication required an AUC24/MIC of 120.5, defining the therapeutic target. Different dosing regimens were evaluated using Monte Carlo simulation to determine the optimal dosage strategy for linezolid. Although the probability of target attainment (PTA) was high (>99.9%) for the standard dosing regimen at MIC ≤ 1 mg/L, the PTA was almost 0 at MIC = 2 mg/L, thus the dosing regimen required adjustment. In addition, if the dosing regimen was adjusted to 600 mg every 8 h or 600 mg every 6 h, the major staphylococci (except for MRSA and MSSA) exhibited a cumulative fraction of response of >80%, showing a higher treatment success. These findings indicate that a strategy of high linezolid dosage may be needed to increase the probability of successful treatment at MIC > 1 mg/L. The role of therapeutic drug monitoring should be encouraged for optimising linezolid exposure in critically ill patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  12. Prospective implementation of an algorithm for bedside intravascular ultrasound-guided filter placement in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingsworth, Christopher D; Taylor, Steven M; Patterson, Mark A; Weinberg, Jordan A; McGwin, Gerald; Melton, Sherry M; Reiff, Donald A; Kerby, Jeffrey D; Rue, Loring W; Jordan, William D; Passman, Marc A

    2010-05-01

    Although contrast venography is the standard imaging method for inferior vena cava (IVC) filter insertion, intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging is a safe and effective option that allows for bedside filter placement and is especially advantageous for immobilized critically ill patients by limiting resource use, risk of transportation, and cost. This study reviewed the effectiveness of a prospectively implemented algorithm for IVUS-guided IVC filter placement in this high-risk population. Current evidence-based guidelines were used to create a clinical decision algorithm for IVUS-guided IVC filter placement in critically ill patients. After a defined lead-in phase to allow dissemination of techniques, the algorithm was prospectively implemented on January 1, 2008. Data were collected for 1 year using accepted reporting standards and a quality assurance review performed based on intent-to-treat at 6, 12, and 18 months. As defined in the prospectively implemented algorithm, 109 patients met criteria for IVUS-directed bedside IVC filter placement. Technical feasibility was 98.1%. Only 2 patients had inadequate IVUS visualization for bedside filter placement and required subsequent placement in the endovascular suite. Technical success, defined as proper deployment in an infrarenal position, was achieved in 104 of the remaining 107 patients (97.2%). The filter was permanent in 21 (19.6%) and retrievable in 86 (80.3%). The single-puncture technique was used in 101 (94.4%), with additional dual access required in 6 (5.6%). Periprocedural complications were rare but included malpositioning requiring retrieval and repositioning in three patients, filter tilt >/=15 degrees in two, and arteriovenous fistula in one. The 30-day mortality rate for the bedside group was 5.5%, with no filter-related deaths. Successful placement of IVC filters using IVUS-guided imaging at the bedside in critically ill patients can be established through an evidence-based prospectively

  13. Special populations: care of the critically ill and injured during pandemics and disasters: CHEST consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dries, David; Reed, Mary Jane; Kissoon, Niranjan; Christian, Michael D; Dichter, Jeffrey R; Devereaux, Asha V; Upperman, Jeffrey S

    2014-10-01

    Past disasters have highlighted the need to prepare for subsets of critically ill, medically fragile patients. These special patient populations require focused disaster planning that will address their medical needs throughout the event to prevent clinical deterioration. The suggestions in this article are important for all who are involved in large-scale disasters or pandemics with multiple critically ill or injured patients, including frontline clinicians, hospital administrators, and public health or government officials. Key questions regarding the care of critically ill or injured special populations during disasters or pandemics were identified, and a systematic literature review (1985-2013) was performed. No studies of sufficient quality were identified. Therefore, the panel developed expert opinion-based suggestions using a modified Delphi process. The panel did not include pediatrics as a separate special population because pediatrics issues are embedded in each consensus document. Fourteen suggestions were formulated regarding the care of critically ill and injured patients from special populations during pandemics and disasters. The suggestions cover the following areas: defining special populations for mass critical care, special population planning, planning for access to regionalized service for special populations, triage and resource allocation of special populations, therapeutic considerations, and crisis standards of care for special populations. Chronically ill, technologically dependent, and complex critically ill patients present a unique challenge to preparing and implementing mass critical care. There are, however, unique opportunities to engage patients, primary physicians, advocacy groups, and professional organizations to lessen the impact of disaster on these special populations.

  14. Correlation between the severity of critically ill patients and clinical predictors of bronchial aspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Medeiros, Gisele Chagas; Sassi, Fernanda Chiarion; Zambom, Lucas Santos; de Andrade, Claudia Regina Furquim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether the severity of non-neurological critically ill patients correlates with clinical predictors of bronchial aspiration. Methods: We evaluated adults undergoing prolonged orotracheal intubation (> 48 h) and bedside swallowing assessment within the first 48 h after extubation. We collected data regarding the risk of bronchial aspiration performed by a speech-language pathologist, whereas data regarding the functional level of swallowing were collected with the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association National Outcome Measurement System (ASHA NOMS) scale and those regarding health status were collected with the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA). Results: The study sample comprised 150 patients. For statistical analyses, the patients were grouped by ASHA NOMS score: ASHA1 (levels 1 and 2), ASHA2 (levels 3 to 5); and ASHA3 (levels 6 and 7). In comparison with the other patients, those in the ASHA3 group were significantly younger, remained intubated for fewer days, and less severe overall clinical health status (SOFA score). The clinical predictors of bronchial aspiration that best characterized the groups were abnormal cervical auscultation findings and cough after swallowing. None of the patients in the ASHA 3 group presented with either of those signs. Conclusions: Critically ill patients 55 years of age or older who undergo prolonged orotracheal intubation (≥ 6 days), have a SOFA score ≥ 5, have a Glasgow Coma Scale score ≤ 14, and present with abnormal cervical auscultation findings or cough after swallowing should be prioritized for a full speech pathology assessment. PMID:27167432

  15. Physical rehabilitation interventions for adult patients during critical illness: an overview of systematic reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Bronwen; O'Neill, Brenda; Salisbury, Lisa; Blackwood, Bronagh

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical rehabilitation interventions aim to ameliorate the effects of critical illness-associated muscle dysfunction in survivors. We conducted an overview of systematic reviews (SR) evaluating the effect of these interventions across the continuum of recovery. Methods Six electronic databases (Cochrane Library, CENTRAL, DARE, Medline, Embase, and Cinahl) were searched. Two review authors independently screened articles for eligibility and conducted data extraction and quality appraisal. Reporting quality was assessed and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach applied to summarise overall quality of evidence. Results Five eligible SR were included in this overview, of which three included meta-analyses. Reporting quality of the reviews was judged as medium to high. Two reviews reported moderate-to-high quality evidence of the beneficial effects of physical therapy commencing during intensive care unit (ICU) admission in improving critical illness polyneuropathy/myopathy, quality of life, mortality and healthcare utilisation. These interventions included early mobilisation, cycle ergometry and electrical muscle stimulation. Two reviews reported very low to low quality evidence of the beneficial effects of electrical muscle stimulation delivered in the ICU for improving muscle strength, muscle structure and critical illness polyneuropathy/myopathy. One review reported that due to a lack of good quality randomised controlled trials and inconsistency in measuring outcomes, there was insufficient evidence to support beneficial effects from physical rehabilitation delivered post-ICU discharge. Conclusions Patients derive short-term benefits from physical rehabilitation delivered during ICU admission. Further robust trials of electrical muscle stimulation in the ICU and rehabilitation delivered following ICU discharge are needed to determine the long-term impact on patient care. This overview provides recommendations for

  16. Pharmacologic management of constipation in the critically ill patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patanwala, Asad E; Abarca, Jacob; Huckleberry, Yvonne; Erstad, Brian L

    2006-07-01

    To compare the effectiveness of common laxatives in producing a bowel movement in patients admitted to a medical intensive care unit (MICU). Retrospective medical record review. MICU of an academic medical center. Ninety-five patients admitted to the MICU from July 1-October 31, 2004. Fifty patients satisfied the inclusion criteria. Patient-specific data such as age, weight, sex, length of MICU stay, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, dietary intake, opioid intake, laxative intake, and bowel movements were recorded during the first 96 hours of admission. Logistic regression analysis was used to compare patients who did and did not have a bowel movement. Of the 50 patients, 25 did not have a bowel movement during the first 96 hours of MICU admission. Patients given a stimulant laxative (senna, bisacodyl) and/or an osmotic laxative (lactulose, milk of magnesia) were more likely to have a bowel movement (odds ratio [OR] 26.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.2-221, p=0.002). Opioid intake, expressed as logarithmic morphine equivalents, was negatively associated with occurrence of a bowel movement (OR 0.76, 95% CI 0.59-0.97, p=0.027). Disease severity, as determined by APACHE II score, was also negatively associated with a bowel movement (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.7-0.99, p=0.04). Critically ill patients have a high frequency of constipation, and opioid therapy is a significant risk factor. Routine administration of stimulant or osmotic laxatives should be considered for this patient population.

  17. DALI: Defining Antibiotic Levels in Intensive care unit patients: a multi-centre point of prevalence study to determine whether contemporary antibiotic dosing for critically ill patients is therapeutic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Jason A; De Waele, Jan J; Dimopoulos, George; Koulenti, Despoina; Martin, Claude; Montravers, Philippe; Rello, Jordi; Rhodes, Andrew; Starr, Therese; Wallis, Steven C; Lipman, Jeffrey

    2012-07-06

    The clinical effects of varying pharmacokinetic exposures of antibiotics (antibacterials and antifungals) on outcome in infected critically ill patients are poorly described. A large-scale multi-centre study (DALI Study) is currently underway describing the clinical outcomes of patients achieving pre-defined antibiotic exposures. This report describes the protocol. DALI will recruit over 500 patients administered a wide range of either beta-lactam or glycopeptide antibiotics or triazole or echinocandin antifungals in a pharmacokinetic point-prevalence study. It is anticipated that over 60 European intensive care units (ICUs) will participate. The primary aim will be to determine whether contemporary antibiotic dosing for critically ill patients achieves plasma concentrations associated with maximal activity. Secondary aims will compare antibiotic pharmacokinetic exposures with patient outcome and will describe the population pharmacokinetics of the antibiotics included. Various subgroup analyses will be conducted to determine patient groups that may be at risk of very low or very high concentrations of antibiotics. The DALI study should inform clinicians of the potential clinical advantages of achieving certain antibiotic pharmacokinetic exposures in infected critically ill patients.

  18. How diaries written for critically ill influence the relatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Højager; Angel, Sanne

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Diaries written by nurses for the critically ill patient helps relatives cope and support the patient. When relatives participate in writing a diary for the critically ill, patients appreciate it. Furthermore, the diary may reduce post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety and depression......-selected articles. Finally, 10 articles were included in this review structured by the Matrix method. INCLUSION CRITERIA: (a) Original scientific work, (b) relatives participation and experience of the diary as subject and (c) diaries studied in an intensive care unit setting. FINDINGS: Relatives were given...... instructions on how to write in the diary. They expressed strong feelings in the diary in a very different way than health care staff. The relatives used the diary themselves to gain understanding and to cope. The diary has been shown to prevent post-traumatic stress symptoms. CONCLUSION: The relatives express...

  19. Age of red blood cells and mortality in the critically ill

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pettila, Ville

    2011-04-15

    Abstract Introduction In critically ill patients, it is uncertain whether exposure to older red blood cells (RBCs) may contribute to mortality. We therefore aimed to evaluate the association between the age of RBCs and outcome in a large unselected cohort of critically ill patients in Australia and New Zealand. We hypothesized that exposure to even a single unit of older RBCs may be associated with an increased risk of death. Methods We conducted a prospective, multicenter observational study in 47 ICUs during a 5-week period between August 2008 and September 2008. We included 757 critically ill adult patients receiving at least one unit of RBCs. To test our hypothesis we compared hospital mortality according to quartiles of exposure to maximum age of RBCs without and with adjustment for possible confounding factors. Results Compared with other quartiles (mean maximum red cell age 22.7 days; mortality 121\\/568 (21.3%)), patients treated with exposure to the lowest quartile of oldest RBCs (mean maximum red cell age 7.7 days; hospital mortality 25\\/189 (13.2%)) had an unadjusted absolute risk reduction in hospital mortality of 8.1% (95% confidence interval = 2.2 to 14.0%). After adjustment for Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation III score, other blood component transfusions, number of RBC transfusions, pretransfusion hemoglobin concentration, and cardiac surgery, the odds ratio for hospital mortality for patients exposed to the older three quartiles compared with the lowest quartile was 2.01 (95% confidence interval = 1.07 to 3.77). Conclusions In critically ill patients, in Australia and New Zealand, exposure to older RBCs is independently associated with an increased risk of death.

  20. The critically ill injured patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cereda, Maurizio; Weiss, Yoram G; Deutschman, Clifford S

    2007-03-01

    Patients admitted to the ICU after severe trauma require frequent procedures in the operating room, particularly in cases where a damage control strategy is used. The ventilatory management of these patients in the operating room can be particularly challenging. These patients often have severely impaired respiratory mechanics because of acute lung injury and abdominal compartment syndrome. Consequently, the pressure and flow generation capabilities of standard anesthesia ventilators may be inadequate to support ventilation and gas exchange. This article presents the problems that may be encountered in patients who have severe abdominal and lung injuries, and the current management concepts used in caring for these patients in the critical care setting, to provide guidelines for the anesthetist faced with these patients in the operating room.

  1. Patient outcomes after critical illness: a systematic review of qualitative studies following hospital discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashem, Mohamed D; Nallagangula, Aparna; Nalamalapu, Swaroopa; Nunna, Krishidhar; Nausran, Utkarsh; Robinson, Karen A; Dinglas, Victor D; Needham, Dale M; Eakin, Michelle N

    2016-10-26

    There is growing interest in patient outcomes following critical illness, with an increasing number and different types of studies conducted, and a need for synthesis of existing findings to help inform the field. For this purpose we conducted a systematic review of qualitative studies evaluating patient outcomes after hospital discharge for survivors of critical illness. We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and CENTRAL databases from inception to June 2015. Studies were eligible for inclusion if the study population was >50 % adults discharged from the ICU, with qualitative evaluation of patient outcomes. Studies were excluded if they focused on specific ICU patient populations or specialty ICUs. Citations were screened in duplicate, and two reviewers extracted data sequentially for each eligible article. Themes related to patient outcome domains were coded and categorized based on the main domains of the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) framework. A total of 2735 citations were screened, and 22 full-text articles were eligible, with year of publication ranging from 1995 to 2015. All of the qualitative themes were extracted from eligible studies and then categorized using PROMIS descriptors: satisfaction with life (16 studies), including positive outlook, acceptance, gratitude, independence, boredom, loneliness, and wishing they had not lived; mental health (15 articles), including symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, anxiety, depression, and irritability/anger; physical health (14 articles), including mobility, activities of daily living, fatigue, appetite, sensory changes, muscle weakness, and sleep disturbances; social health (seven articles), including changes in friends/family relationships; and ability to participate in social roles and activities (six articles), including hobbies and disability. ICU survivors may experience positive emotions and life satisfaction; however, a wide range of mental

  2. Initiation of nutritional support is delayed in critically ill obese patients: a multicenter cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borel, Anne-Laure; Schwebel, Carole; Planquette, Benjamin; Vésin, Aurélien; Garrouste-Orgeas, Maité; Adrie, Christophe; Clec'h, Christophe; Azoulay, Elie; Souweine, Bertrand; Allaouchiche, Bernard; Goldgran-Toledano, Dany; Jamali, Samir; Darmon, Michael; Timsit, Jean-François

    2014-09-01

    A high catabolic rate characterizes the acute phase of critical illness. Guidelines recommend an early nutritional support, regardless of the previous nutritional status. We aimed to assess whether the nutritional status of patients, which was defined by the body mass index (BMI) at admission in an intensive care unit (ICU), affected the time of nutritional support initiation. We conducted a cohort study that reported a retrospective analysis of a multicenter ICU database (OUTCOMEREA) by using data prospectively entered from January 1997 to October 2012. Patients who needed orotracheal intubation within the first 72 h and >3 d were included. Data from 3257 ICU stays were analyzed. The delay before feeding was different according to BMI groups (P = 0.035). The delay was longer in obese patients [BMI (in kg/m²) ≥30; n = 663] than in other patients with either low weight (BMI nutritional status and a delay in nutrition initiation was independent of potential confounding factors such as age, sex, and diabetes or other chronic diseases. In comparison with normal weight, the adjusted RR (95% CI) associated with a delayed nutrition initiation was 0.92 (0.86, 0.98) for patients with low weight, 1.00 (0.94, 1.05) for overweight patients, and 1.06 (1.00, 1.12) for obese patients (P = 0.004). The initiation of nutritional support was delayed in obese ICU patients. Randomized controlled trials that address consequences of early compared with delayed beginnings of nutritional support in critically ill obese patients are needed. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Detecting critical illness outside the ICU: the role of track and trigger systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Jan O; Cuthbertson, Brian H

    2010-06-01

    Critical illness is often preceded by physiological deterioration. Track and trigger systems are intended to facilitate the timely recognition of patients with potential or established critical illness outside critical care areas. The aim of this article is to review the evidence for the use of such systems. Existing track and trigger systems have low sensitivity, low positive predictive values, and high specificity. They often fail to identify patients who need additional care and have not been shown to improve outcomes. The development of such systems must be based on robust methodological and statistical principles. At present, few track and trigger systems meet these standards. Although track and trigger systems, combined with appropriate response algorithms, have the potential to improve the recognition and management of critical illness, further work is required to validate their utility.

  4. Accounting for vulnerability to illness and social disadvantage in pandemic critical care triage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaposy, Chris

    2010-01-01

    In a pandemic situation, resources in intensive care units may be stretched to the breaking point, and critical care triage may become necessary. In such a situation, I argue that a patient's combined vulnerability to illness and social disadvantage should be a justification for giving that patient some priority for critical care. In this article I present an example of a critical care triage protocol that recognizes the moral relevance of vulnerability to illness and social disadvantage, from the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.

  5. Supplemental parenteral nutrition in critically ill patients: a study protocol for a phase II randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Emma J; Davies, Andrew R; Parke, Rachael; Bailey, Michael; McArthur, Colin; Gillanders, Lyn; Cooper, David J; McGuinness, Shay

    2015-12-24

    Nutrition is one of the fundamentals of care provided to critically ill adults. The volume of enteral nutrition received, however, is often much less than prescribed due to multiple functional and process issues. To deliver the prescribed volume and correct the energy deficit associated with enteral nutrition alone, parenteral nutrition can be used in combination (termed "supplemental parenteral nutrition"), but benefits of this method have not been firmly established. A multi-centre, randomised, clinical trial is currently underway to determine if prescribed energy requirements can be provided to critically ill patients by using a supplemental parenteral nutrition strategy in the critically ill. This prospective, multi-centre, randomised, stratified, parallel-group, controlled, phase II trial aims to determine whether a supplemental parenteral nutrition strategy will reliably and safely increase energy intake when compared to usual care. The study will be conducted for 100 critically ill adults with at least one organ system failure and evidence of insufficient enteral intake from six intensive care units in Australia and New Zealand. Enrolled patients will be allocated to either a supplemental parenteral nutrition strategy for 7 days post randomisation or to usual care with enteral nutrition. The primary outcome will be the average energy amount delivered from nutrition therapy over the first 7 days of the study period. Secondary outcomes include protein delivery for 7 days post randomisation; total energy and protein delivery, antibiotic use and organ failure rates (up to 28 days); duration of ventilation, length of intensive care unit and hospital stay. At both intensive care unit and hospital discharge strength and health-related quality of life assessments will be undertaken. Study participants will be followed up for health-related quality of life, resource utilisation and survival at 90 and 180 days post randomisation (unless death occurs first). This trial

  6. Factors Associated with the Incidence and Severity of New-Onset Atrial Fibrillation in Adult Critically Ill Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péricles A. D. Duarte

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acute Atrial Fibrillation (AF is common in critically ill patients, with significant morbidity and mortality; however, its incidence and severity in Intensive Care Units (ICUs from low-income countries are poorly studied. Additionally, impact of vasoactive drugs on its incidence and severity is still not understood. This study aimed to assess epidemiology and risk factors for acute new-onset AF in critically ill adult patients and the role of vasoactive drugs. Method. Cohort performed in seven general ICUs (including cardiac surgery in three cities in Paraná State (southern Brazil for 45 days. Patients were followed until hospital discharge. Results. Among 430 patients evaluated, the incidence of acute new-onset AF was 11.2%. Patients with AF had higher ICU and hospital mortality. Vasoactive drugs use (norepinephrine and dobutamine was correlated with higher incidence of AF and higher mortality in patients with AF; vasopressin (though used in few patients had no effect on development of AF. Conclusions. In general ICU patients, incidence of new-onset AF was 11.2% with a high impact on morbidity and mortality, particularly associated with the presence of Acute Renal Failure. The use of vasoactive drugs (norepinephrine and dobutamine could lead to a higher incidence of new-onset AF-associated morbidity and mortality.

  7. Delirium in the Critically Ill Child: Assessment and Sequelae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, Rebecca S; Kenardy, Justin A; De Young, Alexandra C; Dow, Belinda L; Long, Debbie A

    2017-01-01

    Delirium is a common and serious neuropsychiatric complication in critically ill patients of all ages. In the context of critical illness, delirium may emerge as a result of a cascade of underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms and signals organ failure of the brain. Awareness of the clinical importance of delirium in adults is growing as emerging research demonstrates that delirium represents a serious medical problem with significant sequelae. However, our understanding of delirium in children lags significantly behind the adult literature. In particular, our knowledge of how to assess delirium is complicated by challenges in recognizing symptoms of delirium in pediatric patients especially in critical and intensive care settings, and our understanding of its impact on acute and long-term functioning remains in its infancy. This paper focuses on (a) the challenges associated with assessing delirium in critically ill children, (b) the current literature on the outcomes of delirium including morbidity following discharge from PICU, and care-giver well-being, and (c) the importance of assessment in determining impact of delirium on outcome. Current evidence suggests that delirium is a diagnostic challenge for clinicians and may play a detrimental role in a child's recovery after discharge from the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Recommendations are proposed for how our knowledge and assessment of delirium in children could be improved.

  8. Short- and long-term impact of critical illness on relatives: literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Fiona; Rattray, Janice

    2008-05-01

    This paper is a report of a literature review undertaken to identify the short- and long-term impact of critical illness on relatives. Patients in intensive care can experience physical and psychological consequences, and their relatives may also experience such effects. Although it is recognized that relatives have specific needs, it is not clear whether these needs are always met and whether further support is required, particularly after intensive care. The following databases were searched for the period 1950-2007: Medline, British Nursing Index and Archive, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and EMB Reviews--Cochrane Central Register of Clinical Trials. Search terms focused on adult relatives of critically ill adult patients during and after intensive care. Recurrent topics were categorized to structure the review, i.e. 'relatives needs', 'meeting relatives' needs', 'interventions', 'satisfaction', 'psychological outcomes' and 'coping'. Studies have mainly identified relatives' immediate needs using the Critical Care Family Needs Inventory. There are few studies of interventions to meet relatives' needs and the short- and long-term effects of critical illness on relatives. Despite widespread use of the Critical Care Family Needs Inventory, factors such as local or cultural differences may influence relatives' needs. Relatives may also have unidentified needs, and these needs should be explored. Limited research has been carried out into interventions to meet relatives' needs and the effects of critical illness on their well-being, yet some relatives may experience negative psychological consequences far beyond the acute phase of the illness.

  9. Community-acquired pneumonia caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in critically-ill patients: systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Carballo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Despite methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA having often been associated with nosocomial pneumonia, the condition of some MRSA CAP patients is severe enough to warrant their being admitted to ICU. Objective: The purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic review of the literature on antibiotic treatment of MRSA CAP in critically-ill patients. Material and methods: An online search was conducted for locating articles on MRSA CAP in critically ill patients. Relevant publications were identified in PUBMED, the BestPractice database, UpToDate database and the Cochrane Library for articles published in English within the December 2001 - April 2016 time frame. Results: A total of 70 articles were found to have been published, 13 (18.8% having been included and 57 (81.4% excluded. Cohort studies were predominant, having totaled 16 in number (20.7% as compared to one sole cross-sectional study (3.5%. Conclusions: The experience in the treatment of MRSA CAP in patients requiring admission to ICU is quite limited. Vancomycin or linezolid seem to be the treatments of choice for MRSA CAP, although there not be any specific recommendation in this regard. It may be useful to use alternative routes, such as administration via aerosolized antibiotics, continuous infusion or in association with other antibiotics.

  10. Monitoring of argatroban and lepirudin anticoagulation in critically ill patients by conventional laboratory parameters and rotational thromboelastometry - a prospectively controlled randomized double-blind clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiderlinden, Martin; Werner, Patrick; Bahlmann, Astrid; Kemper, Johann; Brezina, Tobias; Schäfer, Maximilian; Görlinger, Klaus; Seidel, Holger; Kienbaum, Peter; Treschan, Tanja A

    2018-02-09

    Argatroban or lepirudin anticoagulation therapy in patients with heparin induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) or HIT suspect is typically monitored using the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). Although aPTT correlates well with plasma levels of argatroban and lepirudin in healthy volunteers, it might not be the method of choice in critically ill patients. However, in-vivo data is lacking for this patient population. Therefore, we studied in vivo whether ROTEM or global clotting times would provide an alternative for monitoring the anticoagulant intensity effects in critically ill patients. This study was part of the double-blind randomized trial "Argatroban versus Lepirudin in critically ill patients (ALicia)", which compared critically ill patients treated with argatroban or lepirudin. Following institutional review board approval and written informed consent, for this sub-study blood of 35 critically ill patients was analysed. Before as well as 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after initiation of argatroban or lepirudin infusion, blood was analysed for aPTT, aPTT ratios, thrombin time (TT), INTEM CT,INTEM CT ratios, EXTEM CT, EXTEM CT ratios and maximum clot firmness (MCF) and correlated with the corresponding plasma concentrations of the direct thrombin inhibitor. To reach a target aPTT of 1.5 to 2 times baseline, median [IQR] plasma concentrations of 0.35 [0.01-1.2] μg/ml argatroban and 0.17 [0.1-0.32] μg/ml lepirudin were required. For both drugs, there was no significant correlation between aPTT and aPTT ratios and plasma concentrations. INTEM CT, INTEM CT ratios, EXTEM CT, EXTEM CT ratios, TT and TT ratios correlated significantly with plasma concentrations of both drugs. Additionally, agreement between argatroban plasma levels and EXTEM CT and EXTEM CT ratios were superior to agreement between argatroban plasma levels and aPTT in the Bland Altman analysis. MCF remained unchanged during therapy with both drugs. In critically ill patients, TT and ROTEM parameters

  11. Evaluation of the i-STAT point-of-care analyzer in critically ill adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinfelder-Visscher, Jacoline; Teerenstra, Steven; Gunnewiek, Jacqueline M T Klein; Weerwind, Patrick W

    2008-03-01

    Point-of-care analyzers may benefit therapeutic decision making by reducing turn-around-time for samples. This is especially true when biochemical parameters exceed the clinical reference range, in which acute and effective treatment is essential. We therefore evaluated the analytical performance of the i-STAT point-of-care analyzer in two critically ill adult patient populations. During a 3-month period, 48 blood samples from patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and 42 blood samples from non-cardiac patients who needed intensive care treatment were analyzed on both the i-STAT analyzer (CPB and non-CPB mode, respectively) and our laboratory analyzers (RapidLab 865/Sysmex XE-2100 instrument). The agreement analysis for quantitative data was used to compare i-STAT to RapidLab for blood gas/electrolytes and for hematocrit with the Sysmex instrument. Point-of-care electrolytes and blood gases had constant deviation, except for pH, pO2, and hematocrit. A clear linear trend in deviation of i-STAT from RapidLab was noticed for pH during CPB (r = 0.32, p = .03) and for pO2 > 10 kPa during CPB (r = -0.59, p pO2 pO2 pO2 range (10.6 pO2 range below 25% (n = 11) using the i-STAT. The i-STAT analyzer is suitable for point-of-care testing of electrolytes and blood gases in critically ill patients, except for high pO2. However, the discrepancy in hematocrit bias shows that accuracy established in one patient population cannot be automatically extrapolated to other patient populations, thus stressing the need for separate evaluation.

  12. Alternative to Blood Replacement in the Critically Ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolich, Deborah J; McCoy, Kelly

    2017-09-01

    This article reviews treatments and strategies that can be used to reduce, or as adjuncts to, blood transfusion to manage blood volumes in patients who are critically ill. Areas addressed include iatrogenic anemia, fluid management, pharmaceutical agents, hemostatic agents, hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers, and management of patients for whom blood is not an option. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Interobserver agreement of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for classifying infections in critically ill patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein Klouwenberg, Peter M. C.; Ong, David S. Y.; Bos, Lieuwe D. J.; de Beer, Friso M.; van Hooijdonk, Roosmarijn T. M.; Huson, Mischa A.; Straat, Marleen; van Vught, Lonneke A.; Wieske, Luuk; Horn, Janneke; Schultz, Marcus J.; van der Poll, Tom; Bonten, Marc J. M.; Cremer, Olaf L.

    2013-01-01

    Correct classification of the source of infection is important in observational and interventional studies of sepsis. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria are most commonly used for this purpose, but the robustness of these definitions in critically ill patients is not known. We

  14. Prevention of nosocomial infections in critically ill patients with lactoferrin (PREVAIL study): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscedere, John; Maslove, David; Boyd, John Gordon; O'Callaghan, Nicole; Lamontagne, Francois; Reynolds, Steven; Albert, Martin; Hall, Rick; McGolrick, Danielle; Jiang, Xuran; Day, Andrew G

    2016-09-29

    Nosocomial infections remain an important source of morbidity, mortality, and increased health care costs in hospitalized patients. This is particularly problematic in intensive care units (ICUs) because of increased patient vulnerability due to the underlying severity of illness and increased susceptibility from utilization of invasive therapeutic and monitoring devices. Lactoferrin (LF) and the products of its breakdown have multiple biological effects, which make its utilization of interest for the prevention of nosocomial infections in the critically ill. This is a phase II randomized, multicenter, double-blinded trial to determine the effect of LF on antibiotic-free days in mechanically ventilated, critically ill, adult patients in the ICU. Eligible, consenting patients will be randomized to receive either LF or placebo. The treating clinician will remain blinded to allocation during the study; blinding will be maintained by using opaque syringes and containers. The primary outcome will be antibiotic-free days, defined as the number of days alive and free of antibiotics 28 days after randomization. Secondary outcomes will include: antibiotic utilization, adjudicated diagnosis of nosocomial infection (longer than 72 h of admission to ICU), hospital and ICU length of stay, change in organ function after randomization, hospital and 90-day mortality, incidence of tracheal colonization, changes in gastrointestinal permeability, and immune function. Outcomes to inform the conduct of a larger definitive trial will also be evaluated, including feasibility as determined by recruitment rates and protocol adherence. The results from this study are expected to provide insight into a potential novel therapeutic use for LF in critically ill adult patients. Further, analysis of study outcomes will inform a future, large-scale phase III randomized controlled trial powered on clinically important outcomes related to the use of LF. The trial was registered at www

  15. The validity and reliability of the portuguese versions of three tools used to diagnose delirium in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitri Gusmao-Flores

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study are to compare the sensitivity and specificity of three diagnostic tools for delirium (the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist, the Confusion Assessment Method for Intensive Care Units and the Confusion Assessment Method for Intensive Care Units Flowsheet in a mixed population of critically ill patients, and to validate the Brazilian Portuguese Confusion Assessment Method for Intensive Care Units. METHODS: The study was conducted in four intensive care units in Brazil. Patients were screened for delirium by a psychiatrist or neurologist using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Patients were subsequently screened by an intensivist using Portuguese translations of the three tools. RESULTS: One hundred and nineteen patients were evaluated and 38.6% were diagnosed with delirium by the reference rater. The Confusion Assessment Method for Intensive Care Units had a sensitivity of 72.5% and a specificity of 96.2%; the Confusion Assessment Method for Intensive Care Units Flowsheet had a sensitivity of 72.5% and a specificity of 96.2%; the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist had a sensitivity of 96.0% and a specificity of 72.4%. There was strong agreement between the Confusion Assessment Method for Intensive Care Units and the Confusion Assessment Method for Intensive Care Units Flowsheet (kappa coefficient = 0.96 CONCLUSION: All three instruments are effective diagnostic tools in critically ill intensive care unit patients. In addition, the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Confusion Assessment Method for Intensive Care Units is a valid and reliable instrument for the assessment of delirium among critically ill patients.

  16. DALI: Defining Antibiotic Levels in Intensive care unit patients: a multi-centre point of prevalence study to determine whether contemporary antibiotic dosing for critically ill patients is therapeutic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Jason A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clinical effects of varying pharmacokinetic exposures of antibiotics (antibacterials and antifungals on outcome in infected critically ill patients are poorly described. A large-scale multi-centre study (DALI Study is currently underway describing the clinical outcomes of patients achieving pre-defined antibiotic exposures. This report describes the protocol. Methods DALI will recruit over 500 patients administered a wide range of either beta-lactam or glycopeptide antibiotics or triazole or echinocandin antifungals in a pharmacokinetic point-prevalence study. It is anticipated that over 60 European intensive care units (ICUs will participate. The primary aim will be to determine whether contemporary antibiotic dosing for critically ill patients achieves plasma concentrations associated with maximal activity. Secondary aims will compare antibiotic pharmacokinetic exposures with patient outcome and will describe the population pharmacokinetics of the antibiotics included. Various subgroup analyses will be conducted to determine patient groups that may be at risk of very low or very high concentrations of antibiotics. Discussion The DALI study should inform clinicians of the potential clinical advantages of achieving certain antibiotic pharmacokinetic exposures in infected critically ill patients.

  17. Outcomes of Protocol-Driven Care of Critically Ill Severely Anemic Patients for Whom Blood Transfusion Is Not an Option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shander, Aryeh; Javidroozi, Mazyar; Gianatiempo, Carmine; Gandhi, Nisha; Lui, John; Califano, Frank; Kaufman, Margit; Naqvi, Sajjad; Syed, Faraz; Aregbeyen, Oshuare

    2016-06-01

    To compare the outcomes of severely anemic critically ill patients for whom transfusion is not an option ("bloodless" patients) with transfused patients. Cohort study with propensity score matching. ICU of a referral center. One hundred seventy-eight bloodless and 441 transfused consecutive severely anemic, critically ill patients, admitted between May 1996 and April 2011, and having at least one hemoglobin level less than or equal to 8 g/dL within 24 hours of ICU admission. Patients with diagnosis of brain injury, acute myocardial infarction, or status postcardiac surgery were excluded. Allogeneic RBC transfusion during ICU stay. Primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Other outcomes were ICU mortality, readmission to ICU, new electrocardiographic or cardiac enzyme changes suggestive of cardiac ischemia or injury, and new positive blood culture result. Transfused patients were older, had higher hemoglobin level at admission, and had higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score. Hospital mortality rates were 24.7% in bloodless and 24.5% in transfused patients (odds ratio, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.68-1.52; p = 0.95). Adjusted odds ratio of hospital mortality was 1.52 (95% CI, 0.95-2.43; p = 0.08). No significant difference in ICU readmission or positive blood culture results was observed. Analysis of propensity score-matched cohorts provided similar results. Overall risk of mortality in severely anemic critically ill bloodless patients appeared to be comparable with transfused patients, albeit the latter group had older age and higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score. Use of a protocol to manage anemia in these patients in a center with established patient blood management and bloodless medicine and surgery programs is feasible and likely to contribute to improved outcome, whereas more studies are needed to better delineate the impact of such programs.

  18. Association of body temperature and antipyretic treatments with mortality of critically ill patients with and without sepsis: multi-centered prospective observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Fever is frequently observed in critically ill patients. An independent association of fever with increased mortality has been observed in non-neurological critically ill patients with mixed febrile etiology. The association of fever and antipyretics with mortality, however, may be different between infective and non-infective illness. Methods We designed a prospective observational study to investigate the independent association of fever and the use of antipyretic treatments with mortality in critically ill patients with and without sepsis. We included 1,425 consecutive adult critically ill patients (without neurological injury) requiring > 48 hours intensive care admitted in 25 ICUs. We recorded four-hourly body temperature and all antipyretic treatments until ICU discharge or 28 days after ICU admission, whichever occurred first. For septic and non-septic patients, we separately assessed the association of maximum body temperature during ICU stay (MAXICU) and the use of antipyretic treatments with 28-day mortality. Results We recorded body temperature 63,441 times. Antipyretic treatment was given 4,863 times to 737 patients (51.7%). We found that treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or acetaminophen independently increased 28-day mortality for septic patients (adjusted odds ratio: NSAIDs: 2.61, P = 0.028, acetaminophen: 2.05, P = 0.01), but not for non-septic patients (adjusted odds ratio: NSAIDs: 0.22, P = 0.15, acetaminophen: 0.58, P = 0.63). Application of physical cooling did not associate with mortality in either group. Relative to the reference range (MAXICU 36.5°C to 37.4°C), MAXICU ≥ 39.5°C increased risk of 28-day mortality in septic patients (adjusted odds ratio 8.14, P = 0.01), but not in non-septic patients (adjusted odds ratio 0.47, P = 0.11). Conclusions In non-septic patients, high fever (≥ 39.5°C) independently associated with mortality, without association of administration of NSAIDs or

  19. Temporal Trends in the Use of Parenteral Nutrition in Critically Ill Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Jeremy M.; Wunsch, Hannah

    2014-01-01

    Background: Clinical practice guidelines recommend enteral over parenteral nutrition in critical illness and do not recommend early initiation. Few data are available on parenteral nutrition use or timing of initiation in the ICU or how this use may have changed over time. Methods: We used the Project IMPACT database to evaluate temporal trends in parenteral nutrition use (total and partial parenteral nutrition and lipid supplementation) and timing of initiation in adult ICU admissions from 2001 to 2008. We used χ2 tests and analysis of variance to examine characteristics of patients receiving parenteral nutrition and multilevel multivariate logistic regression models to assess parenteral nutrition use over time, in all patients and in specific subgroups. Results: Of 337,442 patients, 20,913 (6.2%) received parenteral nutrition. Adjusting for patient characteristics, the use of parenteral nutrition decreased modestly over time (adjusted probability, 7.2% in 2001-2002 vs 5.5% in 2007-2008, P nutrition use increased simultaneously (adjusted probability, 11.5% in 2001-2002 vs 15.3% in 2007-2008, P parenteral nutrition declined most rapidly in emergent surgical patients, patients with moderate illness severity, patients in the surgical ICU, and patients admitted to an academic facility (P ≤ .01 for all interactions with year). When used, parenteral nutrition was initiated a median of 2 days (interquartile range, 1-3), after ICU admission and > 90% of patients had parenteral nutrition initiated within 7 days; timing of initiation of parenteral nutrition did not change from 2001 to 2008. Conclusions: Use of parenteral nutrition in US ICUs declined from 2001 through 2008 in all patients and in all examined subgroups, with the majority of parenteral nutrition initiated within the first 7 days in ICU; enteral nutrition use coincidently increased over the same time period. PMID:24233390

  20. Interventions to reduce cognitive impairments following critical illness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, H K; Jensen, H I; Toft, P

    2017-01-01

    and sleep quality improvement. Data were synthesized to provide an overview of interventions, quality, follow-up assessments and neuropsychological outcomes. CONCLUSION: None of the interventions had significant positive effects on cognitive impairments following critical illness. Quality was negatively......BACKGROUND: Critical illness is associated with cognitive impairments. Effective treatment or prevention has not been established. The aim of this review was to create a systematic summary of the current evidence concerning clinical interventions during intensive care admission to reduce cognitive...... impairments after discharge. METHODS: Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central, PsycInfo and Cinahl were searched. Inclusion criteria were studies assessing the effect of interventions during intensive care admission on cognitive function in adult patients. Studies were excluded if they were reviews or reported...

  1. Insulin requirements in non-critically ill hospitalized patients with diabetes and steroid-induced hyperglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanakis, Elias K; Shah, Nina; Malhotra, Keya; Kemmerer, Terri; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh; Golden, Sherita Hill

    2014-04-01

    Steroid-induced hyperglycemia is common in hospitalized patients with diabetes mellitus. Guidelines for glucose management in this setting are lacking. We conducted a retrospective chart review of non-critically ill patients with diabetes receiving steroids, hospitalized from January 2009 to October 2012. Fifty-eight patients were identified from 247 consults. Multivariable linear regression was used to assess median daily insulin requirements of normoglycemic patients compared with hyperglycemic patients. Of the 58 total patients included in our study, 20 achieved normoglycemia during admission (patient-day weighted mean blood glucose [PDWMBG] level = 154 ± 16 mg/dL) and 38 remained hyperglycemic (PDWMBG level = 243 ± 39 mg/dL; P < 0.001). There were no differences between the 2 patient groups in age, sex, race, body weight, renal function, HbA1c level, glucose-altering medications, diabetes type, or disease duration. Following multivariable adjustment, compared with hyperglycemic patients, normoglycemic patients required similar units of basal insulin (median interquartile range [IQR])(23.6 [17.9, 31.2] vs 20.1 [16.5, 24.4]; P = 0.35); higher units of nutritional insulin (45.5 [34.2, 60.4] vs 20.1 [16.4, 24.5]; P < 0.001]; and lower units of correctional insulin (5.8 [4.1, 8.1] vs 13.0 [10.2, 16.5]; P < 0.001]). Patients achieving normoglycemia required a significantly lower percentage of correction insulin (total daily dose [TDD]: 7.4% vs 23.4%; P < 0.001) and a higher percentage of nutritional insulin (TDD: 58.1% vs 36.2%; P <0.001) than hyperglycemic patients. There was no difference in the TDD per kilogram, TDD per milligram hydrocortisone dose, or TDD per milligram hydrocortisone dose per kilogram weight between the 2 groups. The data suggest that non-critically ill patients with hyperglycemia receiving steroids require a higher percentage of TDD insulin therapy as nutritional insulin to achieve normoglycemia.

  2. [End-of-life decisions and practices in critically ill patients in the cardiac intensive care unit. A nationwide survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimmer, C; Hamouda, K; Oezkur, M; Sommer, S-P; Leistner, M; Leyh, R

    2016-03-01

    Ethical and medical criteria in the decision-making process of withholding or withdrawal of life support therapy in critically ill patients present a great challenge in intensive care medicine. The purpose of this work was to assess medical and ethical criteria that influence the decision-making process for changing the aim of therapy in critically ill cardiac surgery patients. A questionnaire was distributed to all German cardiac surgery centers (n = 79). All clinical directors, intensive care unit (ICU) consultants and ICU head nurses were asked to complete questionnaires (n = 237). In all, 86 of 237 (36.3 %) questionnaires were returned. Medical reasons which influence the decision-making process for changing the aim of therapy were cranial computed tomography (cCT) with poor prognosis (91.9 %), multi-organ failure (70.9 %), and failure of assist device therapy (69.8 %). Concerning ethical reasons, poor expected quality of life (48.8 %) and the presumed patient's wishes (40.7 %) were reported. There was a significant difference regarding the perception of the three different professional groups concerning medical and ethical criteria as well as the involvement in the decision-making process. In critically ill cardiac surgery patients, medical reasons which influence the decision-making process for changing the aim of therapy included cCT with poor prognosis, multi-organ failure, and failure of assist device therapy. Further studies are mandatory in order to be able to provide adequate answers to this difficult topic.

  3. A retrospective evaluation of critically ill patients infected with H1N1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    partment of Uludag University Hospital on the 12th of. November 2009, and then admitted ..... Mexico. JAMA 2009;302(17):1880-1887. 8. Kumar A, Zarychanski R, Pinto R et al. Critically ill ... za-like illnesses. http:// www.who.int /csr/resources/.

  4. Feasibility of a multiple-choice mini mental state examination for chronically critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguélez, Marta; Merlani, Paolo; Gigon, Fabienne; Verdon, Mélanie; Annoni, Jean-Marie; Ricou, Bara

    2014-08-01

    Following treatment in an ICU, up to 70% of chronically critically ill patients present neurocognitive impairment that can have negative effects on their quality of life, daily activities, and return to work. The Mini Mental State Examination is a simple, widely used tool for neurocognitive assessment. Although of interest when evaluating ICU patients, the current version is restricted to patients who are able to speak. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of a visual, multiple-choice Mini Mental State Examination for ICU patients who are unable to speak. The multiple-choice Mini Mental State Examination and the standard Mini Mental State Examination were compared across three different speaking populations. The interrater and intrarater reliabilities of the multiple-choice Mini Mental State Examination were tested on both intubated and tracheostomized ICU patients. Mixed 36-bed ICU and neuropsychology department in a university hospital. Twenty-six healthy volunteers, 20 neurological patients, 46 ICU patients able to speak, and 30 intubated or tracheostomized ICU patients. None. Multiple-choice Mini Mental State Examination results correlated satisfactorily with standard Mini Mental State Examination results in all three speaking groups: healthy volunteers: intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.43 (95% CI, -0.18 to 0.62); neurology patients: 0.90 (95% CI, 0.82-0.95); and ICU patients able to speak: 0.86 (95% CI, 0.70-0.92). The interrater and intrarater reliabilities were good (0.95 [0.87-0.98] and 0.94 [0.31-0.99], respectively). In all populations, a Bland-Altman analysis showed systematically higher scores using the multiple-choice Mini Mental State Examination. Administration of the multiple-choice Mini Mental State Examination to ICU patients was straightforward and produced exploitable results comparable to those of the standard Mini Mental State Examination. It should be of interest for the assessment and monitoring of the neurocognitive

  5. Quality indicators for enteral and parenteral nutrition therapy: application in critically ill patients "at nutritional risk".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira Filho, Ronaldo Sousa; Ribeiro, Lia Mara Kauchi; Caruso, Lucia; Lima, Patricia Azevedo; Damasceno, Náglia Raquel Teixeira; García Soriano, Francisco

    2016-09-20

    Quality Indicators for Nutritional Therapy (QINT) allow a practical assessment of nutritional therapy (NT) quality. To apply and monitor QINT for critically ill patients at nutritional risk. Cross sectional study including critically ill patients > 18 years old, at nutritional risk, on exclusive enteral (ENT) or parenteral nutritional therapy (PNT) for > 72 hours. After three consecutive years, 9 QINT were applied and monitored. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS version 17.0. A total of 145 patients were included, 93 patients were receiving ENT, among then 65% were male and the mean age was 55.7 years (± 17.4); 52 patients were receiving PNT, 67% were male and the mean age was 58.1 years (± 17.4). All patients (ENT and PNT) were nutritionally screened at admission and their energy and protein needs were individually estimated. Only ENT was early initiated, more than 70% of the prescribed ENT volume was infused and there was a reduced withdrawal of enteral feeding tube. The frequency of diarrhea episodes and digestive fasting were not adequate in ENT patients. The proper supply of energy was contemplated only for PNT patients and there was an expressive rate of oral intake recovery in ENT patients. After three years of research, the percentage of QINT adequacy varied between 55%-77% for ENT and 60%-80% for PNT. The results were only made possible by the efforts of a multidisciplinary team and the continuous re-evaluation of the procedures in order to maintain the nutritional assistance for patients at nutritional risk.

  6. Anidulafungin Pharmacokinetics in Ascites Fluid and Pleural Effusion of Critically Ill Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welte, R; Eller, P; Lorenz, I; Joannidis, M; Bellmann, R

    2018-04-01

    Anidulafungin concentrations were quantified with high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and UV detection of the ascites fluid and pleural effusion of 10 adult critically ill patients. Samples were collected from ascites fluid and from pleural drains or during paracentesis and thoracentesis, respectively. Anidulafungin levels in ascites fluid (0.12 to 0.99 μg/ml) and in pleural effusion (0.32 to 2.02 μg/ml) were below the simultaneous levels in plasma (1.04 to 7.70 and 2.48 to 13.36 μg/ml, respectively) and below the MIC values for several pathogenic Candida strains. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Microbiology.

  7. Functional adrenal insufficiency among critically ill patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hyponatremia, hypoglycemia, hyperkalemia, postural hypotension and the use of ketoconazole were not associated with FAI in this study. Conclusion: The diagnosis of FAI should be considered in severely ill patients with stage IV HIV disease using rifampicin or those found to have unexplained eosinophilia. Further studies ...

  8. Bypassing non-adherence via PEG in a critically ill HIV-1-infected patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipe, J; Hueber, A J; Rech, J; Harrer, T

    2008-08-01

    This case study describes a 44-year-old, chronically non-adherent, HIV-infected male with relapsing, life threatening toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) and other recurring opportunistic infections. Non-adherence resulted in critical illness, suppressed CD4 lymphocyte count and elevated viral load. In order to bypass the patient's complete psychological aversion to taking medication, and after exhausting various psychological interventions, a percutaneous endoscopic gastronomy (PEG) tube was inserted for delivery of indispensable medication. During the 15-month follow-up the patient was adherent, exhibiting a consistently undetectable viral load, high CD4 count and a remission of the opportunistic infections. This is an interesting case study demonstrating life-saving and long-term benefit of PEG in an exceptional setting, which has implications for future research and treatment of non-adherent HIV-infected patients.

  9. Critical Illness Polyneuromyopathy Developing After Diabetic Ketoacidosis in an Intensive Care Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Salih Sevdi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Critical illness polyneuromyopathy (CIPNM is a primary axonal-degenerative condition that occurs in sensory and motor fibers after the onset of a critical illness. It is thought that it develops due to tissue damage due to hypoxia/ischemia. When 24-year-old female patient was followed in the intensive care unit (ICU due to diabetic ketoacidosis, she was extubated on the second day. She was reintubated on the third day because of respiratory acidosis. Sedation was withdrawn on the fifth day, however the patient could not recover consciousness until the 14th day and tetraplegia was found during her neurological examination. Motor peripheral nerve-transmission response in the upper-and lower-extremity was evaluated to be of low amplitude in the conducted needle electroneuromyography. The patient was weaned from mechanical ventilation on the 23rd day. The neuromuscular symptoms developing as a result of critical illnesses reflect themselves as an increase in the hospitalization duration in the ICU, a difficulty in separation from the mechanical ventilator and an extension of rehabilitation.

  10. Hospital-Based Physicians' Intubation Decisions and Associated Mental Models when Managing a Critically and Terminally Ill Older Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haliko, Shannon; Downs, Julie; Mohan, Deepika; Arnold, Robert; Barnato, Amber E

    2018-04-01

    Variation in the intensity of acute care treatment at the end of life is influenced more strongly by hospital and provider characteristics than patient preferences. We sought to describe physicians' mental models (i.e., thought processes) when encountering a simulated critically and terminally ill older patient, and to compare those models based on whether their treatment plan was patient preference-concordant or preference-discordant. Seventy-three hospital-based physicians from 3 academic medical centers engaged in a simulated patient encounter and completed a mental model interview while watching the video recording of their encounter. We used an "expert" model to code the interviews. We then used Kruskal-Wallis tests to compare the weighted mental model themes of physicians who provided preference-concordant treatment with those who provided preference-discordant treatment. Sixty-six (90%) physicians provided preference-concordant treatment and 7 (10%) provided preference-discordant treatment (i.e., they intubated the patient). Physicians who intubated the patient were more likely to emphasize the reversible and emergent nature of the patient situation (z = -2.111, P = 0.035), their own comfort (z = -2.764, P = 0.006), and rarely focused on explicit patient preferences (z = 2.380, P = 0.017). Post-decisional interviewing with audio/video prompting may induce hindsight bias. The expert model has not yet been validated and may not be exhaustive. The small sample size limits generalizability and power. Hospital-based physicians providing preference-discordant used a different mental model for decision making for a critically and terminally ill simulated case. These differences may offer targets for future interventions to promote preference-concordant care for seriously ill patients.

  11. Population Pharmacokinetics of Fentanyl in the Critically Ill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Leena; Ferrell, Benjamin A; Vasilevskis, Eduard E; Pandharipande, Pratik P; Heltsley, Rebecca; Ely, E Wesley; Stein, C Michael; Girard, Timothy D

    2016-01-01

    Objective To characterize fentanyl population pharmacokinetics in patients with critical illness and identify patient characteristics associated with altered fentanyl concentrations. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Medical and surgical ICUs in a large tertiary care hospital in the United States. Patients Patients with acute respiratory failure and/or shock who received fentanyl during the first five days of their ICU stay. Measurements and Main Results We collected clinical and hourly drug administration data and measured fentanyl concentrations in plasma collected once daily for up to five days after enrollment. Among 337 patients, the mean duration of infusion was 58 hours at a median rate of 100 µg/hr. Using a nonlinear mixed-effects model implemented by NONMEM, we found fentanyl pharmacokinetics were best described by a two-compartment model in which weight, severe liver disease, and congestive heart failure most affected fentanyl concentrations. For a patient population with a mean weight of 92 kg and no history of severe liver disease or congestive heart failure, the final model, which performed well in repeated 10-fold cross-validation, estimated total clearance (CL), intercompartmental clearance (Q), and volumes of distribution for the central (V1) and peripheral compartments (V2) to be 35 (95% confidence interval: 32 to 39) L/hr, 55 (42 to 68) L/hr, 203 (140 to 266) L, and 523 (428 to 618) L, respectively. Severity of illness was marginally associated with fentanyl pharmacokinetics but did not improve the model fit after liver and heart disease were included. Conclusions In this study, fentanyl pharmacokinetics during critical illness were strongly influenced by severe liver disease, congestive heart failure, and weight, factors that should be considered when dosing fentanyl in the ICU. Future studies are needed to determine if data-driven fentanyl dosing algorithms can improve outcomes for ICU patients. PMID:26491862

  12. Update on metabolism and nutrition therapy in critically ill burn patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, E; Burghi, G; Manzanares, W

    Major burn injury triggers severe oxidative stress, a systemic inflammatory response, and a persistent hypermetabolic and hypercatabolic state with secondary sarcopenia, multiorgan dysfunction, sepsis and an increased mortality risk. Calorie deficit, negative protein balance and antioxidant micronutrient deficiency after thermal injury have been associated to poor clinical outcomes. In this context, personalized nutrition therapy with early enteral feeding from the start of resuscitation are indicated. Over the last four decades, different nutritional and pharmacological interventions aimed at modulating the immune and metabolic responses have been evaluated. These strategies have been shown to be able to minimize acute malnutrition, as well as modulate the immunoinflammatory response, and improve relevant clinical outcomes in this patient population. The purpose of this updating review is to summarize the most current evidence on metabolic response and nutrition therapy in critically ill burn patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  13. Ethics research in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estella, A

    2018-05-01

    Research in critical care patients is an ethical obligation. The ethical conflicts of intensive care research arise from patient vulnerability, since during ICU admission these individuals sometimes lose all or part of their decision making capacity and autonomy. We therefore must dedicate effort to ensure that neither treatment (sedation or mechanical ventilation) nor the disease itself can affect the right to individual freedom of the participants in research, improving the conditions under which informed consent must be obtained. Fragility, understood as a decrease in the capacity to tolerate adverse effects derived from research must be taken into account in selecting the participants. Research should be relevant, not possible to carry out in non-critical patients, and a priori should offer potential benefits that outweigh the risks that must be known and assumable, based on principles of responsibility. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  14. A comparison of critical care research funding and the financial burden of critical illness in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopersmith, Craig M; Wunsch, Hannah; Fink, Mitchell P; Linde-Zwirble, Walter T; Olsen, Keith M; Sommers, Marilyn S; Anand, Kanwaljeet J S; Tchorz, Kathryn M; Angus, Derek C; Deutschman, Clifford S

    2012-04-01

    To estimate federal dollars spent on critical care research, the cost of providing critical care, and to determine whether the percentage of federal research dollars spent on critical care research is commensurate with the financial burden of critical care. The National Institutes of Health Computer Retrieval of Information on Scientific Projects database was queried to identify funded grants whose title or abstract contained a key word potentially related to critical care. Each grant identified was analyzed by two reviewers (three if the analysis was discordant) to subjectively determine whether it was definitely, possibly, or definitely not related to critical care. Hospital and total costs of critical care were estimated from the Premier Database, state discharge data, and Medicare data. To estimate healthcare expenditures associated with caring for critically ill patients, total costs were calculated as the combination of hospitalization costs that included critical illness as well as additional costs in the year after hospital discharge. Of 19,257 grants funded by the National Institutes of Health, 332 (1.7%) were definitely related to critical care and a maximum of 1212 (6.3%) grants were possibly related to critical care. Between 17.4% and 39.0% of total hospital costs were spent on critical care, and a total of between $121 and $263 billion was estimated to be spent on patients who required intensive care. This represents 5.2% to 11.2%, respectively, of total U.S. healthcare spending. The proportion of research dollars spent on critical care is lower than the percentage of healthcare expenditures related to critical illness.

  15. The hemodynamic tolerability and feasibility of sustained low efficiency dialysis in the management of critically ill patients with acute kidney injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisenbaum Rosane

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Minimization of hemodynamic instability during renal replacement therapy (RRT in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI is often challenging. We examined the relative hemodynamic tolerability of sustained low efficiency dialysis (SLED and continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT in critically ill patients with AKI. We also compared the feasibility of SLED administration with that of CRRT and intermittent hemodialysis (IHD. Methods This cohort study encompassed four critical care units within a single university-affiliated medical centre. 77 consecutive critically ill patients with AKI who were treated with CRRT (n = 30, SLED (n = 13 or IHD (n = 34 and completed at least two RRT sessions were included in the study. Overall, 223 RRT sessions were analyzed. Hemodynamic instability during a given session was defined as the composite of a > 20% reduction in mean arterial pressure or any escalation in pressor requirements. Treatment feasibility was evaluated based on the fraction of the prescribed therapy time that was delivered. An interrupted session was designated if Results Hemodynamic instability occurred during 22 (56.4% SLED and 43 (50.0% CRRT sessions (p = 0.51. In a multivariable analysis that accounted for clustering of multiple sessions within the same patient, the odds ratio for hemodynamic instability with SLED was 1.20 (95% CI 0.58-2.47, as compared to CRRT. Session interruption occurred in 16 (16.3, 30 (34.9 and 11 (28.2 of IHD, CRRT and SLED therapies, respectively. Conclusions In critically ill patients with AKI, the administration of SLED is feasible and provides comparable hemodynamic control to CRRT.

  16. [Thromboprophylaxis in critically ill children in Spain and Portugal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Núñez, A; Fonte, M; Faustino, E V S

    2015-03-01

    Although critically ill children may be at risk from developing deep venous thrombosis (DVT), data on its incidence and effectiveness of thromboprophylaxis are lacking. To describe the use of thromboprophylaxis in critically ill children in Spain and Portugal, and to compare the results with international data. Secondary analysis of the multinational study PROTRACT, carried out in 59 PICUs from 7 developed countries (4 from Portugal and 6 in Spain). Data were collected from patients less than 18 years old, who did not receive therapeutic thromboprophylaxis. A total of 308 patients in Spanish and Portuguese (Iberian) PICUS were compared with 2176 admitted to international PICUs. Risk factors such as femoral vein (P=.01), jugular vein central catheter (P<.001), cancer (P=.03), and sepsis (P<.001), were more frequent in Iberian PICUs. The percentage of patients with pharmacological thromboprophylaxis was similar in both groups (15.3% vs. 12.0%). Low molecular weight heparin was used more frequently in Iberian patients (P<.001). In treated children, prior history of thrombosis (P=.02), femoral vein catheter (P<.001), cancer (P=.02) and cranial trauma or craniectomy (P=.006), were more frequent in Iberian PICUs. Mechanical thromboprophylaxis was used in only 6.8% of candidates in Iberian PICUs, compared with 23.8% in the international PICUs (P<.001). Despite the presence of risk factors for DVT in many patients, thromboprophylaxis is rarely prescribed, with low molecular weight heparin being the most used drug. Passive thromboprophylaxis use is anecdotal. There should be a consensus on guidelines of thromboprophylaxis in critically ill children. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  17. Predictors of post-traumatic stress disorder following critical illness: A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, Ceri E; James, Karen; Bromfield, Tom; Temblett, Paul

    2017-11-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder has been reported in survivors of critical illness. The aim of this study was to investigate the predictors of post-traumatic stress disorder in survivors of critical illness. Patients attending the intensive care unit (ICU) follow-up clinic completed the UK-Post-Traumatic Stress Syndrome 14-Questions Inventory and data was collected from their medical records. Predictors investigated included age, gender, Apache II score, ICU length of stay, pre-illness psychopathology; delirium and benzodiazepine administration during ICU stay and delusional memories of the ICU stay following discharge. A total of 198 patients participated, with 54 (27%) patients suffering with post-traumatic stress disorder. On multivariable logistic regression, the significant predictors of post-traumatic stress disorder were younger age, lower Apache II score, pre-illness psychopathology and delirium during the ICU stay. The predictors of post-traumatic stress disorder in this study concur with previous research however a lower Apache II score has not been previously reported.

  18. Nutritional status plays a crucial role in the mortality of critically ill patients with acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiyan; Zhang, Xiaodong; Dong, Lei

    2018-02-01

    We aimed to clarify associations between nutritional status and mortality in patients with acute renal failure. De-identified data were obtained from the Medical Information Mart for Intensive Care III database comprising more than 40,000 critical care patients treated at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Centerbetween 2001 and 2012. Weight loss and body mass index criteria were used to define malnutrition. Data of 193 critically ill patients with acute renal failure were analyzed, including demographics, nutrition intervention, laboratory results, and disease severity. Main outcomes were in-hospital and 1-year mortality. The 1-year mortality was significantly higher in those with malnutrition than in those without malnutrition (50.0% vs 29.3%, p=0.010), but differences in in-hospital survival were not significant (p=0.255). Significant differences in mortality were found between those with malnutrition and without starting at the 52nd day after intensive care unit (ICU) discharge (p=0.036). No significant differences were found between men and women with malnutrition in in-hospital mortality (p=0.949) and 1-year mortality (p=0.051). Male patients requiring intervention with blood products/colloid supplements had greater risk of 1-year mortality, but without statistical significance. Nutritional status is a predictive factor for mortality among critically ill patients with acute renal failure, particularly 1-year mortality after ICU discharge. © American Federation for Medical Research (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Red blood cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate concentration and in vivo P50 during early critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ezz el din S; McLellan, Stuart A; Walsh, Timothy S

    2005-10-01

    To measure red blood cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (RBC 2,3-DPG) concentrations in early critical illness; to investigate factors associated with high or low RBC 2,3-DPG levels; to calculate in vivo P50 in patients with early critical illness; and to explore the relationship between RBC 2,3-DPG and intensive care mortality. Prospective cohort study. General medical-surgical intensive care unit (ICU) of a major Scottish teaching hospital. One-hundred eleven critically ill patients during the first 24 hrs in the ICU with no history of chronic hematologic disorders or RBC transfusion within 24 hrs and 34 age- and sex-matched healthy reference subjects. None. We measured RBC 2,3-DPG concentration, plasma biochemistry values, and arterial blood gas parameters. On average, RBC 2,3-DPG was lower among critically ill patients than controls (mean [sd], 14.1 [6.3] vs. 16.7 [3.7] mumol/g hemoglobin; p = .004) and had a wider range of values (patients, 3.2-32.5 mumol/g hemoglobin; reference group, 9.1-24.3). Regression analysis indicated a strong independent association between plasma pH and RBC 2,3-DPG (B, 32.15 [95% confidence interval, 19.07-46.22], p level was normal (3.8 kPa) but varied widely among patients (range, 2.0-5.5 kPa). RBC 2,3-DPG concentration was similar for ICU survivors and nonsurvivors. RBC 2,3-DPG concentrations vary widely among critically ill patients. Acidosis is associated with lower RBC 2,3-DPG concentrations, but anemia is not associated with a compensatory increase in RBC 2,3-DPG early in critical illness. Lower RBC 2,3-DPG concentrations during the first 24 hrs of intensive care are not associated with higher ICU mortality.

  20. Efficacy of basal-bolus insulin regimens in the inpatient management of non-critically ill patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Merete B.; Gotfredsen, Anders; Nørgaard, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    Hyperglycemia during hospitalization is associated with increased rates of complications and longer hospital stays. Various insulin regimens are used in the inpatient diabetes management of non-critically ill patients. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we aimed to assess the efficacy...... with SSI therapy in hospitalized non-critically ill patients with type 2 diabetes. Primary outcome was mean daily blood glucose (BG) during admission. Secondary outcomes were incidence of hypoglycemia and length of hospital stay. Results of included randomized controlled trials (RCT) were pooled and meta......-analysed to provide estimates of the efficacy of BBI therapy. Five RCTs and seven observational studies were included in the review. Meta-analysis of RCTs showed significantly lower mean daily BG with BBI than SSI. Mean difference in daily BG between the two regimens ranged from 14 to 29 mg/dl. BBI therapy...

  1. Long-Term Impact of Acute, Critical Illness and Admission to an Intensive Care Unit. Perspectives of Patients and Partners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ågård, Anne Sophie

    2013-01-01

    of the critical illness trajectory. Recovery after critical illness and admission to an ICU entailed a dynamic, reciprocal process requiring substantial efforts from both parties as individuals and as a couple. The findings contribute to the existing body of knowledge about recovery after discharge from an ICU...... and rehabilitation pro-fessionals in hospitals and community-based services to consider the best content, timing, and organization of supportive measures aimed at assisting spouses in their support of recovering patients. To broaden the overall insight into the recovery of the heterogeneous population of ICU......ENGLISH SUMMARY The focus of the study was to describe post-ICU recovery as seen from the perspective of ICU survivors and their spouses in a Danish setting. The aims were to describe the trajectories of the participating patients and spouses and generate theoretical accounts of their main concerns...

  2. Emergency team calls for critically ill non-trauma patients in the emergency department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Marker; Do, Hien Quoc; Rasmussen, Søren W.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Handling critically ill patients is a complex task for Emergency Department (ED) personnel. Initial treatment is of major importance and requires adequately experienced ED doctors to initiate and decide for the right medical or surgical treatment. Our aim was, with regard to clinical...... the study period. RESULTS: A total of 109 emergency team calls were triggered (79 orange and 30 red), comprising 66 (60.6 %) men and 43 women, with a median age of 64 years. Patients presented with: 4 Airway, 27 Breathing, 41 Circulation, 31 Disability, 2 Exposure and 4 Other problems. Overall, 58/109 (53.......2 %) patients were admitted to the ICU, while 20/109 (18.3 %) patients were deemed ineligible for ICU admission. 30-day mortality was 34/109 (31.2 %), and circulatory problems were the most frequent cause of death (61.8 %, p = 0.02). Patients who died were significantly older than those who survived (p = 0...

  3. Strategies for the optimal timing to start renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagshaw, Sean M; Wald, Ron

    2017-05-01

    Renal replacement therapy (RRT) is increasingly utilized to support critically ill patients with severe acute kidney injury (AKI). The question of whether and when to start RRT for a critically ill patient with AKI has long troubled clinicians. When severe complications of AKI develop, the need to commence RRT is unambiguous. In the absence of such complications but in the presence of severe AKI, the optimal time and thresholds for starting RRT are uncertain. The majority of existing data have largely been derived from observational studies. These have been limited due to confounding by indication, considerable heterogeneity in case mix and illness severity, and variably applied definitions for both AKI and for how "timing" was anchored relative to starting RRT. It is unclear whether a preemptive or earlier strategy of RRT initiation aimed largely at avoiding complications related to AKI or a more conservative strategy where RRT is started in response to developing complications leads to better patient-centered outcomes and health services use. This question has been the focus of 2 recently completed randomized trials. In this review, we provide an appraisal of available evidence, discuss existing knowledge gaps, and provide perspective on future research that will better inform the optimal timing of RRT initiation in AKI. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Use of virtual reality gaming systems for children who are critically ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, Yasser; Elokda, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Children who are critically ill are frequently viewed as "too sick" to tolerate physical activity. As a result, these children often fail to develop strength or cardiovascular endurance as compared to typically developing children. Previous reports have shown that early participation in physical activity in is safe and feasible for patients who are critically ill and may result in a shorter length of stay and improved functional outcomes. The use of the virtual reality gaming systems has become a popular form of therapy for children with disabilities and has been supported by a growing body of evidence substantiating its effectiveness with this population. The use of the virtual reality gaming systems in pediatric rehabilitation provides the children with opportunity to participate in an exercise program that is fun, enjoyable, playful, and at the same time beneficial. The integration of those systems in rehabilitation of children who are critically ill is appealing and has the potential to offer the possibility of enhancing physical activities. The lack of training studies involving children who are critically ill makes it difficult to set guidelines on the recommended physical activities and virtual reality gaming systems that is needed to confer health benefits. Several considerations should be taken into account before recommended virtual reality gaming systems as a training program for children who are critically ill. This article highlighted guidelines, limitations and challenges that need to be considered when designing exercise program using virtual reality gaming systems for critically ill children. This information is helpful given the popular use of virtual reality gaming systems in rehabilitation, particularly in children who are critically ill.

  5. Ontogeny of methionine utilization and splanchnic uptake in critically ill children

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the rates of methionine splanchnic uptake and utilization in critically ill pediatric patients, we used two kinetic models: the plasma methionine enrichment,and the "intracellular" homocysteine enrichment. Twenty-four patients, eight infants, eight children, and eight adolescents, were ...

  6. Secondary sclerosing cholangitis in critically ill patients: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudnason HO

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Hafsteinn O Gudnason,1 Einar S Björnsson1,2 1Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Landspitali, University Hospital of Iceland, 2Faculty of Medicine, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland Abstract: Secondary sclerosing cholangitis (SSC is a term used for a group of chronic cholestatic disease affecting the intra- and/or extrahepatic biliary tree with inflammation and progressive stricture formation, which can lead to biliary cirrhosis. A newly recognized form of SSC is secondary sclerosing cholangitis in critically ill patients (SSC-CIP. Pathogenesis is believed to involve ischemic injury of intrahepatic bile ducts associated with prolonged hypotension, vasopressors administration, and/or mechanical ventilation in patients treated in the intensive care unit (ICU. Patients diagnosed with SSC-CIP have no prior history of liver disease and no known pathologic process or injury responsible for bile duct obstruction prior to ICU treatment. Reasons leading to ICU treatment are many including multitrauma, burn injury, cardiac surgery, severe pneumonia, other infections, or bleeding after abdominal surgery. Patients have in common prolonged ICU admission. SSC-CIP is associated with rapid progression to liver cirrhosis and poor survival with limited treatment options except a liver transplantation. Transplant-free survival is around 17–40 months, which is lower than in other SSC patients. During the initial stages of the disease, the clinical symptoms and biochemical profile are not specific and easily missed. Biliary casts formation may be considered pathognomonic for SSC-CIP since most patients have them in early stages of the disease. Increased awareness and early detection of the disease and its complications is considered to be crucial to improve the poor prognosis. Keywords: secondary sclerosing cholangitis, SSC-CIP, chronic cholestatic disease, sclerosing cholangitis

  7. Effect of vitamin D on stress-induced hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, N; Khalili, H; Mohammadi, M; Abdollahi, A; Ala, S

    2016-05-01

    Effects of vitamin D supplementation on the glycaemic indices and insulin resistance in diabetic and non-diabetic patients were studied. In this study, effects of vitamin D supplementation on stress-induced hyperglycaemia and insulin resistance were evaluated in non-diabetic surgical critically ill patients. Adult surgical patients with stress-induced hyperglycaemia within the first 24 h of admission to the ICU were recruited. The patients randomly assigned to receive either vitamin D or placebo. Patients in the vitamin D group received a single dose of 600,000 IU vitamin D3 as intramuscular injection at time of recruitment. Besides demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients, plasma glucose, insulin, 25(OH) D and adiponectin levels were measured at the time of ICU admission and day 7. Homoeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and homestasis model assessment adiponectin (HOMA-AD) ratio were considered at the times of assessment. Comparing with the baseline, plasma 25(OH) D level significantly increased in the subjects who received vitamin D (p = 0.04). Improvement in fasting plasma glucose levels was detected in day 7 of the study compared with the baseline status in both groups. HOMA-IR showed a decrement pattern in vitamin D group (p = 0.09). Fasting plasma adiponectin levels increased significantly in the vitamin D group (p = 0.007), but not in the placebo group (p = 0.38). Finally, changes in HOMA-AD ratio were not significant in the both groups. Vitamin D supplementation showed positive effect on plasma adiponectin level, as a biomarker of insulin sensitivity in surgical critically ill patients with stress-induced hyperglycaemia. However, effects of vitamin D supplementation on HOMA-IR and HOMA-AD as indicators of insulin resistance were not significant. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Clinical examination, critical care ultrasonography and outcomes in the critically ill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hiemstra, Bart; Eck, Ruben J; Koster, Geert

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: In the Simple Intensive Care Studies-I (SICS-I), we aim to unravel the value of clinical and haemodynamic variables obtained by physical examination and critical care ultrasound (CCUS) that currently guide daily practice in critically ill patients. We intend to (1) measure all available...... patient used for guiding diagnostics, prognosis and interventions. Repeated evaluations of these sets of variables are needed for continuous improvement of the diagnostic and prognostic models. Future plans include: (1) more advanced imaging; (2) repeated clinical and haemodynamic measurements; (3...... clinical and haemodynamic variables, (2) train novices in obtaining values for advanced variables based on CCUS in the intensive care unit (ICU) and (3) create an infrastructure for a registry with the flexibility of temporarily incorporating specific (haemodynamic) research questions and variables...

  9. Physical rehabilitation interventions for adult patients with critical illness across the continuum of recovery: an overview of systematic reviews protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Bronwen; O'Neill, Brenda; Salisbury, Lisa; McDowell, Kathryn; Blackwood, Bronagh

    2015-09-29

    Patients admitted to the intensive care unit with critical illness often experience significant physical impairments, which typically persist for many years following resolution of the original illness. Physical rehabilitation interventions that enhance restoration of physical function have been evaluated across the continuum of recovery following critical illness including within the intensive care unit, following discharge to the ward and beyond hospital discharge. Multiple systematic reviews have been published appraising the expanding evidence investigating these physical rehabilitation interventions, although there appears to be variability in review methodology and quality. We aim to conduct an overview of existing systematic reviews of physical rehabilitation interventions for adult intensive care patients across the continuum of recovery. This protocol has been developed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocol (PRISMA-P) guidelines. We will search the Cochrane Systematic Review Database, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, Excerpta Medica Database and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature databases. We will include systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials of adult patients, admitted to the intensive care unit and who have received physical rehabilitation interventions at any time point during their recovery. Data extraction will include systematic review aims and rationale, study types, populations, interventions, comparators, outcomes and quality appraisal method. Primary outcomes of interest will focus on findings reflecting recovery of physical function. Quality of reporting and methodological quality will be appraised using the PRISMA checklist and the Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews tool. We anticipate the findings from this novel overview of systematic reviews will contribute to the

  10. Extracorporeal circulatory systems in the interhospital transfer of critically ill patients: experience of a single institution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haneya, Assad; Philipp, Alois; Foltan, Maik; Camboni, Daniele; Rupprecht, Leopold; Puehler, Thomas; Hirt, Stephan; Hilker, Michael; Kobuch, Reinhard; Schmid, Christof; Arlt, Matthias; Mueller, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Critically ill patients with acute circulatory failure cannot be moved to other institutions unless stabilized by mechanical support systems. Extracorporeal heart and lung assist systems are increasingly used as a bridge to end-organ recovery or transplantation, and as an ultimate rescue tool in cardiopulmonary resuscitation. From July 2001 to April 2008, we had 38 requests for extracorporeal support for interhospital transfer carried out by the air medical service. Respiratory failure was present in 29 patients, who were provided with pumpless extracorporeal lung assist (PECLA) or veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Cardiac failure dominated in 9 patients, who underwent implantation of extracorporeal life support (ECLS). Underlying diseases were acute respiratory distress syndrome in 15 patients, pneumonia in 7, prior lung transplant status in 4, cardiogenic shock in 7, and septic shock in 4. All assist systems were connected via peripheral vessels by the Seldinger technique. Transport was uneventful in all cases with no technical failures. On arrival at the specialized care hospital, two patients had leg ischemia and underwent relocation of the arterial cannula. After a mean (SD) support of 5.1 (3.0) days for PECLA, 3.5 (2.9) days for ECLS, and 7.3 (5.8) days for ECMO, 60%, 66%, and 66% of patients, respectively, could be successfully weaned from the systems. Discharge rates were 45% for PECLA, 44% for ECLS, and 56% for ECMO. Our experience proves that minimized extracorporeal assist devices allow safe assistance of patients with isolated or combined heart and lung failure in need of interhospital transfer. Critically ill patients get a chance to reach a center of maximum medical care. (author)

  11. Long-term sequelae of severe acute kidney injury in the critically ill patient without comorbidity: a retrospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijs Fortrie

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI necessitating renal replacement therapy (RRT is associated with high mortality and increased risk for end stage renal disease. However, it is unknown if this applies to patients with a preliminary unremarkable medical history. The purpose of this study was to describe overall and renal survival in critically ill patients with AKI necessitating RRT stratified by the presence of comorbidity.A retrospective cohort study was performed, between 1994 and 2010, including all adult critically ill patients with AKI necessitating RRT, stratified by the presence of comorbidity. Logistic regression, survival curve and cox proportional hazards analyses were used to evaluate overall and renal survival. Standardized mortality rate (SMR analysis was performed to compare long-term survival to the predicted survival in the Dutch population.Of the 1067 patients included only 96(9.0% had no comorbidity. Hospital mortality was 56.6% versus 43.8% in patients with and without comorbidity, respectively. In those who survived hospitalization 10-year survival was 45.0% and 86.0%, respectively. Adjusted for age, sex and year of treatment, absence of comorbidity was not associated with hospital mortality (OR=0.74, 95%-CI=0.47-1.15, while absence of comorbidity was associated with better long-term survival (adjusted HR=0.28, 95%-CI = 0.14-0.58. Compared to the Dutch population, patients without comorbidity had a similar mortality risk (SMR=1.6, 95%-CI=0.7-3.2, while this was increased in patients with comorbidity (SMR=4.8, 95%-CI=4.1-5.5. Regarding chronic dialysis dependency, 10-year renal survival rates were 76.0% and 92.9% in patients with and without comorbidity, respectively. Absence of comorbidity was associated with better renal survival (adjusted HR=0.24, 95%-CI=0.07-0.76.While hospital mortality remains excessively high, the absence of comorbidity in critically ill patients with RRT-requiring AKI is associated with a relative good long

  12. Clinical effectiveness of a silicone foam dressing for the prevention of heel pressure ulcers in critically ill patients: Border II Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaria, N; Gerdtz, M; Liu, W; Rakis, S; Sage, S; Ng, A W; Tudor, H; McCann, J; Vassiliou, T; Morrow, F; Smith, K; Knott, J; Liew, D

    2015-08-01

    Critically ill patients are at high risk of developing pressure ulcers (PU), with the sacrum and heels being highly susceptible to pressure injuries. The objective of our study was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of a new multi-layer, self-adhesive soft silicone foam heel dressing to prevent PU development in trauma and critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). A cohort of critically ill patients were enrolled at the Royal Melbourne Hospital. Each patient had the multi-layer soft silicone foam dressing applied to each heel on admission to the emergency department. The dressings were retained with a tubular bandage for the duration of the patients' stay in the ICU. The skin under the dressings was examined daily and the dressings were replaced every three days. The comparator for our cohort study was the control group from the recently completed Border Trial. Of the 191 patients in the initial cohort, excluding deaths, loss to follow-up and transfers to another ward, 150 patients were included in the final analysis. There was no difference in key demographic or physiological variables between the cohorts, apart from a longer ICU length of stay for our current cohort. No PUs developed in any of our intervention cohort patients compared with 14 patients in the control cohort (n=152; p<0.001) who developed a total of 19 heel PUs. We conclude, based on our results, that the multi-layer soft silicone foam dressing under investigation was clinically effective in reducing ICU-acquired heel PUs. The findings also support previous research on the clinical effectiveness of multi-layer soft silicone foam dressings for PU prevention in the ICU.

  13. Corticosteroid Therapy in Critical Illness due to Seasonal and Pandemic Influenza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Yale

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Survey data suggest that Canadian intensivists administer corticosteroids to critically ill patients primarily in response to airway obstruction, perceived risk for adrenal insufficiency and hemodynamic instability.

  14. Laxation of critically ill patients with lactulose or polyethylene glycol : a two-center randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Spoel, Johan I; Oudemans-van Straaten, Heleen M; Kuiper, Michael A; van Roon, Eric N; Zandstra, Durk F; van der Voort, Peter H J

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study whether lactulose or polyethylene glycol is effective to promote defecation in critically ill patients, whether either of the two is superior, and whether the use of enteral laxatives is related to clinical outcome. DESIGN: Double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study.

  15. Non-sedation versus sedation with a daily wake-up trial in critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation (NONSEDA Trial)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Palle; Olsen, Hanne Tanghus; Jørgensen, Helene Korvenius

    2014-01-01

    comparing sedation with no sedation, a priori powered to have all-cause mortality as primary outcome.The objective is to assess the benefits and harms of non-sedation versus sedation with a daily wake-up trial in critically ill patients. METHODS: The non-sedation (NONSEDA) trial is an investigator......-sedation supplemented with pain management during mechanical ventilation.Control intervention is sedation with a daily wake-up trial.The primary outcome will be all cause mortality at 90 days after randomization. Secondary outcomes will be: days until death throughout the total observation period; coma- and delirium...... in mortality with a type I error risk of 5% and a type II error risk of 20% (power at 80%). DISCUSSION: The trial investigates potential benefits of non-sedation. This might have large impact on the future treatment of mechanically ventilated critically ill patients.Trial register: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT...

  16. Early enteral nutrition compared to outcome in critically ill trauma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: The benefit of an early enteral nutrition start in critical ill patients is widely accepted. However, limited published data focus on trauma patients. This study aimed to investigate the effect of early enteral nutrition initiation on length of stay and mortality in an intensive care unit (ICU), as well as explore if enteral ...

  17. Expression of NK cell and monocyte receptors in critically ill patients - potential biomarkers of sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, A G; Nielsen, Jeppe Sylvest; Tønnesen, Else

    2015-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Sepsis is characterized by activation of both the innate and adaptive immune systems as a response to infection. During sepsis, the expression of surface receptors expressed on immune competent cells, such as NKG2D and NKp30 on NK cells and TLR4 and CD14 on monocytes, is partly...... regulated by pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators. In this observational study, we aimed to explore whether the expression of these receptors could be used as diagnostic and/or prognostic biomarkers in sepsis. Patients with severe sepsis or septic shock (n = 21) were compared with critically ill non...... were higher in the septic patients compared with the non-septic patients (P sepsis...

  18. Magnesium supplementation and the potential association with mortality rates among critically ill non-cardiac patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabbagh, Ousama C.; Al-Dawood, Abdulaziz S.; Arabi, Yaseen M.; Lone, Nazir A.; Brits, R.; Pillay, M.

    2006-01-01

    Recent literature showed that development of hypomagnesaemia is associated with higher mortality. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of magnesium supplementation on mortality rates of critically ill patients. All patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of King Abadole-Aziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia since September 2003 were included. We recorded the demographics data, APACHE score, daily magnesium levels and magnesium supplementation. We collected the data for 30 days or until discharge from ICU. Statistical analysis was performed using the student t-test for continuous data and the Fischers exact test for categorical data. Nothing was carried out to influence the behavior of intensivists in replacing magnesium. During the study period, 71 patients (45 males and 26 females) were admitted to the ICU, the mean age was 54 +/- 18 years for males and 56 +/- 19.2 years for females. The mean magnesium level on admission was 0.78 +/- 0.2 mmol/L and the majority of the patients were medical admissions. Approximately 39.4% had hypomagnesaemia on admission and the overall mortality rate was 31%. In able to standardize the supplementation of magnesium among groups, the daily magnesium supplementation index (DMSI = total magnesium supplement in grams/length of stay in days) was calculated. The mortality rates for DMSI with 1 grm/day (high group) (43.5% versus 17%, p=0.035). There was no statistically significant differences between magnesium levels of both groups of DMSI except at admission where DMSI group had higher magnesium levels (<1 grm/day). Daily magnesium supplementation index higher than 1 grm/day is associated with lower mortality rates for critically ill patients. This effect was not found to be independent and may be related to severity of illness. Given that magnesium levels were similar between the 2 groups of DMSI at almost all points of the study, magnesium supplementation per se may be beneficial in lowering mortality

  19. The illness/non-illness model: hypnotherapy for physically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navon, Shaul

    2014-07-01

    This article proposes a focused, novel sub-set of the cognitive behavioral therapy approach to hypnotherapy for physically ill patients, based upon the illness/non-illness psychotherapeutic model for physically ill patients. The model is based on three logical rules used in differentiating illness from non-illness: duality, contradiction, and complementarity. The article discusses the use of hypnotic interventions to help physically ill and/or disabled patients distinguish between illness and non-illness in their psychotherapeutic themes and attitudes. Two case studies illustrate that patients in this special population group can be taught to learn the language of change and to use this language to overcome difficult situations. The model suggests a new clinical mode of treatment in which individuals who are physically ill and/or disabled are helped in coping with actual motifs and thoughts related to non-illness or non-disability.

  20. A comparison of early versus late initiation of renal replacement therapy in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karvellas, Constantine J; Farhat, Maha R; Sajjad, Imran

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Our aim was to investigate the impact of early versus late initiation of renal replacement therapy (RRT) on clinical outcomes in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). Methods: Systematic review and meta-analysis were used in this study. PUBMED, EMBASE, SCOPUS, Web ...

  1. Ventilation with lower tidal volumes for critically ill patients without the acute respiratory distress syndrome: a systematic translational review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serpa Neto, Ary; Nagtzaam, Liselotte; Schultz, Marcus J.

    2014-01-01

    There is convincing evidence for benefit from lung-protective mechanical ventilation with lower tidal volumes in patients with the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). It is uncertain whether this strategy benefits critically ill patients without ARDS as well. This manuscript systematically

  2. Relationship of energy and protein adequacy with 60-day mortality in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients: A prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Zheng-Yii; Noor Airini, Ibrahim; Barakatun-Nisak, Mohd-Yusof

    2017-05-19

    The effect of provision of full feeding or permissive underfeeding on mortality in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) is still controversial. This study investigated the relationship of energy and protein intakes with 60-day mortality, and the extent to which ICU length of stay and nutritional risk status influenced this relationship. This is a prospective observational study conducted among critically ill patients aged ≥18 years, intubated and mechanically ventilated within 48 h of ICU admission and stayed in the ICU for at least 72 h. Information on baseline characteristics and nutritional risk status (the modified Nutrition Risk in Critically ill [NUTRIC] score) was collected on day 1. Nutritional intake was recorded daily until death, discharge, or until the twelfth evaluable days. Mortality status was assessed on day 60 based on the patient's hospital record. Patients were divided into 3 groups a) received energy and protein (both energy and protein (both ≥2/3) and c) either energy or protein received were ≥2/3 of prescribed (either ≥2/3). The relationship between the three groups with 60-day mortality was examined by using logistic regression with adjustment for potential confounders. Sensitivity analysis was performed to examine the influence of ICU length of stay (≥7 days) and nutritional risk status. Data were collected from 154 mechanically ventilated patients (age, 51.3 ± 15.7 years; body mass index, 26.5 ± 6.7 kg/m 2 ; 54% male). The mean modified NUTRIC score was 5.7 ± 1.9, with 56% of the patients at high nutritional risk. The patients received 64.5 ± 21.6% of the amount of energy and 56.4 ± 20.6% of the amount of protein prescribed. Provision of energy and protein at ≥2/3 compared with energy and protein provision at either ≥2/3 compared with Energy and protein adequacy of ≥2/3 of the prescribed amounts were associated with a trend towards increased 60-day mortality among

  3. Acute renal failure in critically ill patients: a multinational, multicenter study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uchino, Shigehiko; Kellum, John A.; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Doig, Gordon S.; Morimatsu, Hiroshi; Morgera, Stanislao; Schetz, Miet; Tan, Ian; Bouman, Catherine; Macedo, Ettiene; Gibney, Noel; Tolwani, Ashita; Ronco, Claudio

    2005-01-01

    Although acute renal failure (ARF) is believed to be common in the setting of critical illness and is associated with a high risk of death, little is known about its epidemiology and outcome or how these vary in different regions of the world. To determine the period prevalence of ARF in intensive

  4. The Gut as the Motor of Multiple Organ Dysfunction in Critical Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingensmith, Nathan J; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2016-04-01

    All elements of the gut - the epithelium, the immune system, and the microbiome - are impacted by critical illness and can, in turn, propagate a pathologic host response leading to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that this can occur by release of toxic gut-derived substances into the mesenteric lymph where they can cause distant damage. Further, intestinal integrity is compromised in critical illness with increases in apoptosis and permeability. There is also increasing recognition that microbes alter their behavior and can become virulent based upon host environmental cues. Gut failure is common in critically ill patients; however, therapeutics targeting the gut have proven to be challenging to implement at the bedside. Numerous strategies to manipulate the microbiome have recently been used with varying success in the ICU. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Predictors of agitation in critically ill adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Ruth S; Grap, Mary Jo; Munro, Cindy L; Schubert, Christine M; Sessler, Curtis N

    2014-09-01

    Agitation in critically ill adults is a frequent complication of hospitalization and results in multiple adverse outcomes. Potential causes of agitation are numerous; however, data on factors predictive of agitation are limited. To identify predictors of agitation by examining demographic and clinical characteristics of critically ill patients. A medical record review was performed. Documentation of agitation was indicated by scores on the Richmond Agitation-Sedation Scale or the use of an agitation keyword. Records of 200 patients from 1 medical and 1 surgical intensive care unit were used for the study. Risk factors were determined for 2 points in time: admission to the intensive care unit and within 24 hours before the first episode of agitation. Data on baseline demographics, preadmission risk factors, and clinical data were collected and were evaluated by using logistic multivariable regression to determine predictors of agitation. Predictors of agitation on admission to intensive care were history of use of illicit substances, height, respiratory and central nervous system subscores on the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, and use of restraints. Predictors of agitation within 24 hours before the onset of agitation were history of psychiatric diagnosis, height, score on the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, ratio of Pao2 to fraction of inspired oxygen less than 200, serum pH, percentage of hours with restraints, percentage of hours of mechanical ventilation, pain, and presence of genitourinary catheters. Predictors of agitation on admission and within 24 hours before the onset of agitation were primarily clinical variables. ©2014 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  6. Utility of Volume Assessment Using Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis in Critically Ill Patients Receiving Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy: A Prospective Observational Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Hyun Park

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Fluid overload prior to continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT is an important prognostic factor. Thus, precise evaluation of fluid status is necessary to treat such patients. In this study, we investigated whether fluid assessment using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA can predict outcomes in critically ill patients requiring CRRT. Methods A prospective observational study was performed in patients who were admitted to the intensive care unit and who required CRRT. BIA was conducted before CRRT; then, the ratio of extracellular water to total body water (ECW/TBW was derived to estimate volume status. Results A total of 31 patients treated with CRRT were included. There were 18 men (58.1%, and the median age was 67 years (interquartile range, 51 to 78 years. Fourteen patients (45.2% died within 28 days after CRRT initiation. Patients were divided into 16 with ECW/TBW ≥0.41 and 15 with ECW/TBW <0.41. Survival rate within 28 days was different between the two groups (P = 0.044. Cox regression analysis revealed a relationship between ECW/TBW ≥0.41 and 28-day mortality, but it was not statistically significant (hazard ratio, 3.0; 95% confidence interval, 0.9 to 9.8; P = 0.061. Lastly, the area under the curve of ECW/TBW for 28-day mortality was analyzed. The area under the curve of ECW/TBW was 0.73 (95% confidence interval, 0.54 to 0.92, and this was significant (P = 0.037. Conclusions Fluid status can be assessed using BIA in critically ill patients requiring CRRT, and BIA can predict mortality. Further large trials are needed to confirm the usefulness of BIA in critically ill patients.

  7. Evidence-based guidelines for the use of tracheostomy in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Néstor; Vial, Macarena R; Calleja, José; Quintero, Agamenón; Cortés, Albán; Celis, Edgar; Pacheco, Clara; Ugarte, Sebastián; Añón, José M; Hernández, Gonzalo; Vidal, Erick; Chiappero, Guillermo; Ríos, Fernando; Castilleja, Fernando; Matos, Alfredo; Rodriguez, Enith; Antoniazzi, Paulo; Teles, José Mario; Dueñas, Carmelo; Sinclair, Jorge; Martínez, Lorenzo; von der Osten, Ingrid; Vergara, José; Jiménez, Edgar; Arroyo, Max; Rodríguez, Camilo; Torres, Javier; Fernandez-Bussy, Sebastián; Nates, Joseph L

    2017-04-01

    To provide evidence-based guidelines for tracheostomy in critically ill adult patients and identify areas needing further research. A taskforce composed of representatives of 10 member countries of the Pan-American and Iberic Federation of Societies of Critical and Intensive Therapy Medicine and of the Latin American Critical Care Trial Investigators Network developed recommendations based on the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. The group identified 23 relevant questions among 87 issues that were initially identified. In the initial search, 333 relevant publications were identified, of which 226 publications were chosen. The taskforce generated a total of 19 recommendations, 10 positive (1B, 3; 2C, 3; 2D, 4) and 9 negative (1B, 8; 2C, 1). A recommendation was not possible in 6 questions. Percutaneous techniques are associated with a lower risk of infections compared with surgical tracheostomy. Early tracheostomy only seems to reduce the duration of ventilator use but not the incidence of pneumonia, the length of stay, or the long-term mortality rate. The evidence does not support the use of routine bronchoscopy guidance or laryngeal masks during the procedure. Finally, proper prior training is as important or even a more significant factor in reducing complications than the technique used. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The impact of intensivists' base specialty of training on care process and outcomes of critically ill trauma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, Kazuhide; Goldwasser, Eleanor R; Schaefer, Eric W; Armen, Scott B; Indeck, Matthew C

    2013-09-01

    The care of the critically ill trauma patients is provided by intensivists with various base specialties of training. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of intensivists' base specialty of training on the disparity of care process and patient outcome. We performed a retrospective review of an institutional trauma registry at an academic level 1 trauma center. Two intensive care unit teams staffed by either board-certified surgery or anesthesiology intensivists were assigned to manage critically ill trauma patients. Both teams provided care, collaborating with a trauma surgeon in house. We compared patient characteristics, care processes, and outcomes between surgery and anesthesiology groups using Wilcoxon tests or chi-square tests, as appropriate. We identified a total of 620 patients. Patient baseline characteristics including age, sex, transfer status, injury type, injury severity score, and Glasgow coma scale were similar between groups. We found no significant difference in care processes and outcomes between groups. In a logistic regression model, intensivists' base specialty of training was not a significant factor for mortality (odds ratio, 1.46; 95% confidence interval; 0.79-2.80; P = 0.22) and major complication (odds ratio, 1.11; 95% confidence interval, 0.73-1.67; P = 0.63). Intensive care unit teams collaborating with trauma surgeons had minimal disparity of care processes and similar patient outcomes regardless of intensivists' base specialty of training. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Mitochondrial Function in an In Vitro Model of Skeletal Muscle of Patients With Protracted Critical Illness and Intensive Care Unit-Acquired Weakness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiroutková, Kateřina; Krajčová, Adéla; Žiak, Jakub; Fric, Michal; Gojda, Jan; Džupa, Valér; Kalous, Martin; Tůmová, Jana; Trnka, Jan; Duška, František

    2017-09-01

    Functional mitochondria in skeletal muscle of patients with protracted critical illness and intensive care unit-acquired weakness are depleted, but remaining mitochondria have increased functional capacities of respiratory complexes II and III. This can be an adaptation to relative abundancy of fatty acid over glucose caused by insulin resistance. We hypothesized that the capacity of muscle mitochondria to oxidize fatty acid is increased in protracted critical illness. We assessed fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and mitochondrial functional indices in vitro by using extracellular flux analysis in cultured myotubes obtained by isolating and culturing satellite cells from vastus lateralis muscle biopsy samples from patients with ICU-acquired weakness (n = 6) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 7). Bioenergetic measurements were performed at baseline and after 6 days of exposure to free fatty acids (FFAs). Mitochondrial density in myotubes from ICU patients was 69% of healthy controls ( P = .051). After adjustment to mitochondrial content, there were no differences in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis or the capacity and coupling of the respiratory chain. FAO capacity in ICU patients was 157% of FAO capacity in controls ( P = .015). In myotubes of ICU patients, unlike healthy controls, the exposure to FFA significantly ( P = .009) increased maximum respiratory chain capacity. In an in vitro model of skeletal muscle of patients with protracted critical illness, we have shown signs of adaptation to increased FAO. Even in the presence of glucose and insulin, elevation of FFAs in the extracellular environment increased maximal capacity of the respiratory chain.

  10. Risk Factors for Development of Acute Kidney Injury in Critically Ill Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Cartin-Ceba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Acute kidney injury (AKI is a frequent complication of critically ill patients. The impact of different risk factors associated with this entity in the ICU setting is unknown. Objectives. The purpose of this research was to assess the risk factors associated with the development of AKI in critically ill patients by meta-analyses of observational studies. Data Extraction. Two reviewers independently and in duplicate used a standardized form to collect data from published reports. Authors were contacted for missing data. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale assessed study quality. Data Synthesis. Data from 31 diverse studies that enrolled 504,535 critically ill individuals from a wide variety of ICUs were included. Separate random-effects meta-analyses demonstrated a significantly increased risk of AKI with older age, diabetes, hypertension, higher baseline creatinine, heart failure, sepsis/systemic inflammatory response syndrome, use of nephrotoxic drugs, higher severity of disease scores, use of vasopressors/inotropes, high risk surgery, emergency surgery, use of intra-aortic balloon pump, and longer time in cardiopulmonary bypass pump. Conclusion. The best available evidence suggests an association of AKI with 13 different risk factors in subjects admitted to the ICU. Predictive models for identification of high risk individuals for developing AKI in all types of ICU are required.

  11. [Prediabetes as a riskmarker for stress-induced hyperglycemia in critically ill adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gallegos, Diego Jesús; Luis-López, Eliseo

    2017-01-01

    It is not known if patients with prediabetes, a subgroup of non-diabetic patients that usually present hyperinsulinemia, have higher risk to present stress-induced hyperglycemia. The objective was to determine if prediabetes is a risk marker to present stress-induced hyperglycemia. Analytic, observational, prospective cohort study of non-diabetic critically ill patients of a third level hospital. We determined plasmatic glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) at admission to diagnose stress-induced hyperglycemia (glucose ≥ 140 mg/dL) and prediabetes (HbA1c between 5.7 and 6.4%), respectively. We examined the proportion of non-prediabetic and prediabetic patients that developed stress hyperglycemia with contingence tables and Fisher's exact test for nominal scales. Of 73 patients studied, we found a proportion of stress-induced hyperglycemia in 6.6% in those without prediabetes and 61.1% in those with prediabetes. The Fisher's exact test value was 22.46 (p Prediabetes is a risk marker for stress-induced hyperglycemia in critically ill adults.

  12. Telemedicine as a tool to provide family conferences and palliative care consultations in critically ill patients at rural health care institutions: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Prema R; Stapleton, Renee D; McVeigh, Ursula; Rabinowitz, Terry

    2015-06-01

    Many critically ill patients who transfer from rural hospitals to tertiary care centers (TCCs) have poor prognoses, and family members are unable to discuss patient prognosis and goals of care with TCC providers until after transfer. Our TCC conducted teleconferences prior to transfer to facilitate early family discussions. We conducted a retrospective review of these telemedicine family conferences among critically ill patients requested for transfer which occurred from December 2008 to December 2009 at our TCC. Outcomes for each patient and detailed descriptions of the conference content were obtained. We also assessed limitations and attitudes and satisfaction with this intervention among clinicians. During the 12-month period, 12 telemedicine consultations were performed. Of these patients, 10 (83%) died in the 30 days following the request for transfer. After the telemedicine consultation, 8 (67%) patients were transferred to our TCC from their respective hospitals, while 4 (33%) patients continued care at their regional hospital and did not transfer. Of the patients who transferred to TCC, 7 (88% of those transferred) returned to their community after a stay at the TCC. This study demonstrates that palliative care consultations can be provided via telemedicine for critically ill patients and that adequate preparation and technical expertise are essential. Although this study is limited by the nature of the retrospective review, it is evident that more research is needed to further assess its applicability, utility, and acceptability. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Suvorexant is associated with a low incidence of delirium in critically ill patients: a retrospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuyama, Tomoyuki; Sanui, Masamitsu; Yoshida, Naoto; Iizuka, Yusuke; Ogi, Kunio; Yagihashi, Satoko; Nagatomo, Kanae; Sasabuchi, Yusuke; Lefor, Alan K

    2018-02-08

    Benzodiazepine use is a risk factor for the development of delirium in adult intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Suvorexant is an alternative to benzodiazepines to induce sleep, but the incidence of delirium in critically ill patients is unknown. We undertook this retrospective study to investigate the incidence of delirium in patients who receive suvorexant in the ICU. This retrospective cohort study was conducted in a closed 12-bed ICU at a tertiary teaching hospital. Patients admitted to the ICU for 72 h or longer between January and June 2015 were evaluated for delirium using the Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit tool. We evaluated the incidence of delirium in patients who received suvorexant and those who did not. To adjust for confounding factors, multivariable logistic regression analysis was conducted. Study subjects included 118 patients, with a median age of 72 years and a median Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score of 18 points. Eighty-two patients (69.5%) were admitted after cardiovascular surgery. In the suvorexant group, there were fewer post-cardiovascular surgical patients and more medical patients. The duration of mechanical ventilation during ICU stay was longer in the suvorexant group, and sedatives and sleep inducers other than suvorexant were used more frequently in the suvorexant group. The incidence of delirium was 43.8% in the suvorexant group and 58.8% in the non-suvorexant group (P = 0.149). After adjustment for risk factors using multivariable logistic regression analysis, suvorexant was associated with a lower incidence of delirium (odds ratio = 0.23, 95% confidence interval: 0.07-0.73; P = 0.012). Suvorexant was associated with decreased odds of transitioning to delirium in critically ill patients. The use of suvorexant may lower the incidence of delirium in ICU patients. Future prospective studies are warranted. © 2018 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  14. Thromboprophylaxis using combined intermittent pneumatic compression and pharmacologic prophylaxis versus pharmacologic prophylaxis alone in critically ill patients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabi, Yaseen M; Alsolamy, Sami; Al-Dawood, Abdulaziz; Al-Omari, Awad; Al-Hameed, Fahad; Burns, Karen E A; Almaani, Mohammed; Lababidi, Hani; Al Bshabshe, Ali; Mehta, Sangeeta; Al-Aithan, Abdulsalam M; Mandourah, Yasser; Almekhlafi, Ghaleb; Finfer, Simon; Abdukahil, Sheryl Ann I; Afesh, Lara Y; Dbsawy, Maamoun; Sadat, Musharaf

    2016-08-03

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) remains a common problem in critically ill patients. Pharmacologic prophylaxis is currently the standard of care based on high-level evidence from randomized controlled trials. However, limited evidence exists regarding the effectiveness of intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) devices. The Pneumatic compREssion for preventing VENous Thromboembolism (PREVENT trial) aims to determine whether the adjunct use of IPC with pharmacologic prophylaxis compared to pharmacologic prophylaxis alone in critically ill patients reduces the risk of VTE. The PREVENT trial is a multicenter randomized controlled trial, which will recruit 2000 critically ill patients from over 20 hospitals in three countries. The primary outcome is the incidence of proximal lower extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT) within 28 days after randomization. Radiologists interpreting the scans are blinded to intervention allocation, whereas the patients and caregivers are unblinded. The trial has 80 % power to detect a 3 % absolute risk reduction in proximal DVT from 7 to 4 %. The first patient was enrolled in July 2014. As of May 2015, a total of 650 patients have been enrolled from 13 centers in Saudi Arabia, Canada and Australia. The first interim analysis is anticipated in July 2016. We expect to complete recruitment by 2018. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT02040103 (registered on 3 November 2013). Current controlled trials: ISRCTN44653506 (registered on 30 October 2013).

  15. Prediction of chronic critical illness in a general intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio H. Loss

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence, costs, and mortality associated with chronic critical illness (CCI, and to identify clinical predictors of CCI in a general intensive care unit. METHODS: This was a prospective observational cohort study. All patients receiving supportive treatment for over 20 days were considered chronically critically ill and eligible for the study. After applying the exclusion criteria, 453 patients were analyzed. RESULTS: There was an 11% incidence of CCI. Total length of hospital stay, costs, and mortality were significantly higher among patients with CCI. Mechanical ventilation, sepsis, Glasgow score < 15, inadequate calorie intake, and higher body mass index were independent predictors for cci in the multivariate logistic regression model. CONCLUSIONS: CCI affects a distinctive population in intensive care units with higher mortality, costs, and prolonged hospitalization. Factors identifiable at the time of admission or during the first week in the intensive care unit can be used to predict CCI.

  16. Augmented Renal Clearance in Critical Illness: An Important Consideration in Drug Dosing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherif Hanafy Mahmoud

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Augmented renal clearance (ARC is a manifestation of enhanced renal function seen in critically ill patients. The use of regular unadjusted doses of renally eliminated drugs in patients with ARC might lead to therapy failure. The purpose of this scoping review was to provide and up-to-date summary of the available evidence pertaining to the phenomenon of ARC. A literature search of databases of available evidence in humans, with no language restriction, was conducted. Databases searched were MEDLINE (1946 to April 2017, EMBASE (1974 to April 2017 and the Cochrane Library (1999 to April 2017. A total of 57 records were included in the present review: 39 observational studies (25 prospective, 14 retrospective, 6 case reports/series and 12 conference abstracts. ARC has been reported to range from 14–80%. ARC is currently defined as an increased creatinine clearance of greater than 130 mL/min/1.73 m2 best measured by 8–24 h urine collection. Patients exhibiting ARC tend to be younger (<50 years old, of male gender, had a recent history of trauma, and had lower critical illness severity scores. Numerous studies have reported antimicrobials treatment failures when using standard dosing regimens in patients with ARC. In conclusion, ARC is an important phenomenon that might have significant impact on outcome in critically ill patients. Identifying patients at risk, using higher doses of renally eliminated drugs or use of non-renally eliminated alternatives might need to be considered in ICU patients with ARC. More research is needed to solidify dosing recommendations of various drugs in patients with ARC.

  17. Opening the Door: The Experience of Chronic Critical Illness in a Long-Term Acute Care Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamas, Daniela J; Owens, Robert L; Nace, R Nicholas; Massaro, Anthony F; Pertsch, Nathan J; Gass, Jonathon; Bernacki, Rachelle E; Block, Susan D

    2017-04-01

    Chronically critically ill patients have recurrent infections, organ dysfunction, and at least half die within 1 year. They are frequently cared for in long-term acute care hospitals, yet little is known about their experience in this setting. Our objective was to explore the understanding and expectations and goals of these patients and surrogates. We conducted semi-structured interviews with chronically critically ill long-term acute care hospital patients or surrogates. Conversations were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed. One long-term acute care hospital. Chronically critically ill patients, defined by tracheotomy for prolonged mechanical ventilation, or surrogates. Semi-structured conversation about quality of life, expectations, and planning for setbacks. A total of 50 subjects (30 patients and 20 surrogates) were enrolled. Thematic analyses demonstrated: 1) poor quality of life for patients; 2) surrogate stress and anxiety; 3) optimistic health expectations; 4) poor planning for medical setbacks; and 5) disruptive care transitions. Nearly 80% of patient and their surrogate decision makers identified going home as a goal; 38% were at home at 1 year. Our study describes the experience of chronically critically ill patients and surrogates in an long-term acute care hospital and the feasibility of patient-focused research in this setting. Our findings indicate overly optimistic expectations about return home and unmet palliative care needs, suggesting the need for integration of palliative care within the long-term acute care hospital. Further research is also needed to more fully understand the challenges of this growing population of ICU survivors.

  18. Stewart analysis of apparently normal acid-base state in the critically ill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moviat, M.; Boogaard, M. van den; Intven, F.; Voort, P. van der; Hoeven, H. van der; Pickkers, P.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aimed to describe Stewart parameters in critically ill patients with an apparently normal acid-base state and to determine the incidence of mixed metabolic acid-base disorders in these patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective, observational multicenter study of

  19. Restrictive versus liberal transfusion strategies for older mechanically ventilated critically ill patients: a randomized pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Timothy S; Boyd, Julia A; Watson, Douglas; Hope, David; Lewis, Steff; Krishan, Ashma; Forbes, John F; Ramsay, Pamela; Pearse, Rupert; Wallis, Charles; Cairns, Christopher; Cole, Stephen; Wyncoll, Duncan

    2013-10-01

    To compare hemoglobin concentration (Hb), RBC use, and patient outcomes when restrictive or liberal blood transfusion strategies are used to treat anemic (Hb≤90 g/L) critically ill patients of age≥55 years requiring≥4 days of mechanical ventilation in ICU. Parallel-group randomized multicenter pilot trial. Six ICUs in the United Kingdom participated between August 2009 and December 2010. One hundred patients (51 restrictive and 49 liberal groups). Patients were randomized to a restrictive (Hb trigger, 70 g/L; target, 71-90 g/L) or liberal (90 g/L; target, 91-110 g/L) transfusion strategy for 14 days or the remainder of ICU stay, whichever was longest. Baseline comorbidity rates and illness severity were high, notably for ischemic heart disease (32%). The Hb difference among groups was 13.8 g/L (95% CI, 11.5-16.0 g/L); pdisease, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, and total non-neurologic Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score at baseline (hazard ratio, 0.54 [95% CI, 0.28-1.03]; p=0.061). A large trial of transfusion strategies in older mechanically ventilated patients is feasible. This pilot trial found a nonsignificant trend toward lower mortality with restrictive transfusion practice.

  20. Extra Physiotherapy in Critical Care (EPICC) Trial Protocol: a randomised controlled trial of intensive versus standard physical rehabilitation therapy in the critically ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kirsty; Wright, Stephen E; Watson, Gillian; Baker, Catherine; Stafford, Victoria; Wade, Clare; Chadwick, Thomas J; Mansfield, Leigh; Wilkinson, Jennifer; Shen, Jing; Deverill, Mark; Bonner, Stephen; Hugill, Keith; Howard, Philip; Henderson, Andrea; Roy, Alistair; Furneval, Julie; Baudouin, Simon V

    2015-05-25

    Patients discharged from Critical Care suffer from excessive longer term morbidity and mortality. Physical and mental health measures of quality of life show a marked and immediate fall after admission to Critical Care with some recovery over time. However, physical function is still significantly reduced at 6 months. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence clinical guideline on rehabilitation after critical illness, identified the need for high-quality randomised controlled trials to determine the most effective rehabilitation strategy for critically ill patients at risk of critical illness-associated physical morbidity. In response to this, we will conduct a randomised controlled trial, comparing physiotherapy aimed at early and intensive patient mobilisation with routine care. We hypothesise that this intervention will improve physical outcomes and the mental health and functional well-being of survivors of critical illness. 308 adult patients who have received more than 48 h of non-invasive or invasive ventilation in Critical Care will be recruited to a patient-randomised, parallel group, controlled trial, comparing two intensities of physiotherapy. Participants will be randomised to receive either standard or intensive physiotherapy for the duration of their Critical Care admission. Outcomes will be recorded on Critical Care discharge, at 3 and 6 months following initial recruitment to the study. The primary outcome measure is physical health at 6 months, as measured by the SF-36 Physical Component Summary. Secondary outcomes include assessment of mental health, activities of daily living, delirium and ventilator-free days. We will also include a health economic analysis. The trial has ethical approval from Newcastle and North Tyneside 2 Research Ethics Committee (11/NE/0206). There is a Trial Oversight Committee including an independent chair. The results of the study will be submitted for publication in peer-reviewed journals and

  1. Four hour creatinine clearance is better than plasma creatinine for monitoring renal function in critically ill patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Acute kidney injury (AKI) diagnosis is based on an increase in plasma creatinine, which is a slowly changing surrogate of decreased glomerular filtration rate. We investigated whether serial creatinine clearance, a direct measure of the glomerular filtration rate, provided more timely and accurate information on renal function than serial plasma creatinine in critically ill patients. Methods Serial plasma creatinine and 4-hour creatinine clearance were measured 12-hourly for 24 hours and then daily in 484 patients. AKI was defined either as > 50% increase in plasma creatinine from baseline, or > 33.3% decrease in creatinine clearance. The diagnostic and predictive performance of the two AKI definitions were compared. Results Creatinine clearance decrease diagnosed AKI in 24% of those not diagnosed by plasma creatinine increase on entry. These patients entered the ICU sooner after insult than those diagnosed with AKI by plasma creatinine elevation (P = 0.0041). Mortality and dialysis requirement increased with the change in creatinine clearance-acute kidney injury severity class (P = 0.0021). Amongst patients with plasma creatinine creatinine clearance improved the prediction of AKI considerably (Net Reclassification Improvement 83%, Integrated Discrimination Improvement 0.29). On-entry, creatinine clearance associated with AKI severity and duration (P 33.3% decrease in creatinine clearance over the first 12 hours was associated with a 2.0-fold increased relative risk of dialysis or death. Conclusions Repeated 4-hour creatinine clearance measurements in critically ill patients allow earlier detection of AKI, as well as progression and recovery compared to plasma creatinine. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN012606000032550. PMID:22713519

  2. Device-related infections in critically ill patients. Part II: Prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia and urinary tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Filippo, A; De Gaudio, A R

    2003-12-01

    Device utilization in critically ill patients is responsible for a high risk of complications such as catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI), ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and urinary tract infections (UTI). In this article we will review the current status of data regarding the prevention of VAP and UTI. The results of the more recent (5 years) randomized controlled trials are reviewed and discussed. General recommendations include staff education and use of a surveillance program with a restrictive antibiotic policy. Adequate time must be allowed for hand washing and barrier precautions must always be used during device manipulation. Specific measures for VAP prevention are: 1) use of multi-use, closed-system suction catheters; 2) no routine change of the breathing circuit; 3) lubrication of the cuff of the endotracheal tube (ET) with a water-soluble gel; 4) maintenance of patient in semi-recumbent position to improve chest physiotherapy in intubated patients. Specific measures for UTI prevention include: 1) use of a catheter-valve instead of a standard drainage system; 2) use of a silver-alloy, hydro gel-coated latex urinary catheter instead of uncoated catheters. Biofilm represents a new variable: the capacity of bacteria to organize a biofilm on a device surface can explain the difficulty in preventing and eradicating an infection in a critically ill patient. More clinical trials are needed to verify the efficacy of prevention measures of ICU infections.

  3. Characterization of the etiological structure and genotypically determined phenotypic resistance to carbapenems of infectious complications leading pathogens in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Nazarchuk

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to investigate the genotypically determined phenotypic resistance to carbapenems of gram-negative microorganisms isolated from patients with critical states. Material and methods. Microbiological etiology of infectious complications in critically ill patients (n = 726 was investigated. In total, during the years 2011–2016, 933 clinical strains of infectious complications pathogens from patients with severe burns (n = 435 and from patients treated in intensive care units (n = 291 were isolated and identified. The sensitivity of microorganisms clinical isolates to antibiotics was investigated by means of the standard microbiological methods. In gram-negative bacteria resistant to carbapenems, a molecular genetic study of mechanisms of resistance, determined by the presence of VIM genes, was carried out using the method of real-time polymerase chain reaction. Results. Studies have shown that gram-negative microorganisms (Acinetobacter spp. – 36.3 %, P. aeruginosa – 31.7 %, Enterobacter spp. – 13.5 %, Proteus spp. – 7.9 %, E. coli – 3.8 %; K. pneumoniae – 3.6 %, etc. account for a significant part of infectious complications pathogens structure in critically ill patients. A. baumannii strains (67 % have expressed phenotypic resistance to most antibiotics, in particular to carbapenems (up to 63.2 %. Poly-antibiotic resistance was also found in P. aeruginosa (72 %, and above one the 3rd part of strains of this pathogen was found to have phenotypic resistance to carbapenems. In-depth study of molecular genetic determinants of the resistance mechanism to β-lactam antibiotics among clinical strains of gram-negative bacteria there was proved VIM-induced resistance to carbapenems in A. baumannii, P. aeruginosa, P. mirabilis. Conclusions. Enterobacteriaceae and non-fermenting gram-negative microorganisms (P. aeruginosa, P. mirabilis, A. baumannii, which are the leading causative agents of infectious complications in patients with

  4. Recombinant human erythropoietin therapy in critically ill Jehovah's Witnesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Amanda M; Winstead, P Shane

    2008-11-01

    Blood transfusions and blood products are often given as a life-saving measure in patients with critical illness. However, some patients, such as Jehovah's Witnesses, may refuse their administration due to religious beliefs. Jehovah's Witnesses accept most available medical treatments, but not blood transfusions or blood products due to their religion's interpretation of several passages from the Bible. Since recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) became available, several cases have been reported in which rHuEPO was successfully administered to critically ill Jehovah's Witnesses. Administration of rHuEPO in combination with other blood conservation techniques has been shown to increase hemoglobin levels and survival in patients who experienced trauma, burns, general surgery, or gastrointestinal hemorrhage. We performed a literature search of the MEDLINE and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts databases of rHuEPO therapy in the Jehovah's Witness population. Fourteen cases were identified in which rHuEPO was administered to Jehovah's Witnesses who required the drug for critical care resuscitation as an alternative to blood products. In each clinical situation, rHuEPO enhanced erythropoiesis; however, time to the start of treatment, dosages, route of administration, and treatment duration varied widely. Supplementation with adjunctive agents, such as iron, folic acid, and vitamin B12, was also beneficial. Use of rHuEPO in Jehovah's Witnesses may provide an alternative to blood transfusions or blood products. Other alternatives, such as hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers and perfluorocarbons, are also being explored.

  5. Therapeutic Plasma Exchange in Critically Ill Children Requiring Intensive Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortina, Gerard; McRae, Rosemary; Chiletti, Roberto; Butt, Warwick

    2018-02-01

    To characterize the clinical indications, procedural safety, and outcome of critically ill children requiring therapeutic plasma exchange. Retrospective observational study based on a prospective registry. Tertiary and quaternary referral 30-bed PICU. Forty-eight critically ill children who received therapeutic plasma exchange during an 8-year period (2007-2014) were included in the study. Therapeutic plasma exchange. A total of 48 patients underwent 244 therapeutic plasma exchange sessions. Of those, therapeutic plasma exchange was performed as sole procedure in 193 (79%), in combination with continuous renal replacement therapy in 40 (16.4%) and additional extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in 11 (4.6%) sessions. The most common admission diagnoses were hematologic disorders (30%), solid organ transplantation (20%), neurologic disorders (20%), and rheumatologic disorders (15%). Complications associated with the procedure occurred in 50 (21.2%) therapeutic plasma exchange sessions. Overall, patient survival from ICU was 82%. Although patients requiring therapeutic plasma exchange alone (n = 31; 64%) had a survival rate of 97%, those with additional continuous renal replacement therapy (n = 13; 27%) and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (n = 4; 8%) had survival rates of 69% and 50%, respectively. Factors associated with increased mortality were lower Pediatric Index of Mortality 2 score, need for mechanical ventilation, higher number of failed organs, and longer ICU stay. Our results indicate that, in specialized centers, therapeutic plasma exchange can be performed relatively safely in critically ill children, alone or in combination with continuous renal replacement therapy and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Outcome in children requiring therapeutic plasma exchange alone is excellent. However, survival decreases with the number of failed organs and the need for continuous renal replacement therapy and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

  6. [Antibiotics in the critically ill].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolak, Radmila R

    2010-01-01

    Antibiotics are one the most common therapies administered in the intensive care unit setting. This review outlines the strategy for optimal use of antimicrobial agents in the critically ill. In severely ill patients, empirical antimicrobial therapy should be used when a suspected infection may impair the outcome. It is necessary to collect microbiological documentation before initiating empirical antimicrobial therapy. In addition to antimicrobial therapy, it is recommended to control a focus of infection and to modify factors that promote microbial growth or impair the host's antimicrobial defence. A judicious choice of antimicrobial therapy should be based on the host characteristics, the site of injection, the local ecology, and the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of antibiotics. This means treating empirically with broad-spectrum antimicrobials as soon as possible and narrowing the spectrum once the organism is identified (de-escalation), and limiting duration of therapy to the minimum effective period. Despite theoretical advantages, a combined antibiotic therapy is nor more effective than a mono-therapy in curing infections in most clinical trials involving intensive care patients. Nevertheless, textbooks and guidelines recommend a combination for specific pathogens and for infections commonly caused by these pathogens. Avoiding unnecessary antibiotic use and optimizing the administration of antimicrobial agents will improve patient outcomes while minimizing risks for the development of bacterial resistance. It is important to note that each intensive care unit should have a program in place which monitors antibiotic utilisation and its effectiveness. Only in this way can the impact of interventions aimed at improving antibiotic use be evaluated at the local level.

  7. Milrinone for cardiac dysfunction in critically ill adult patients: a systematic review of randomised clinical trials with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koster, Geert; Bekema, Hanneke J; Wetterslev, Jørn; Gluud, Christian; Keus, Frederik; van der Horst, Iwan C C

    2016-09-01

    Milrinone is an inotrope widely used for treatment of cardiac failure. Because previous meta-analyses had methodological flaws, we decided to conduct a systematic review of the effect of milrinone in critically ill adult patients with cardiac dysfunction. This systematic review was performed according to The Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Searches were conducted until November 2015. Patients with cardiac dysfunction were included. The primary outcome was serious adverse events (SAE) including mortality at maximum follow-up. The risk of bias was evaluated and trial sequential analyses were conducted. The quality of evidence was assessed by the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation criteria. A total of 31 randomised clinical trials fulfilled the inclusion criteria, of which 16 provided data for our analyses. All trials were at high risk of bias, and none reported the primary composite outcome SAE. Fourteen trials with 1611 randomised patients reported mortality data at maximum follow-up (RR 0.96; 95% confidence interval 0.76-1.21). Milrinone did not significantly affect other patient-centred outcomes. All analyses displayed statistical and/or clinical heterogeneity of patients, interventions, comparators, outcomes, and/or settings and all featured missing data. The current evidence on the use of milrinone in critically ill adult patients with cardiac dysfunction suffers from considerable risks of both bias and random error and demonstrates no benefits. The use of milrinone for the treatment of critically ill patients with cardiac dysfunction can be neither recommended nor refuted. Future randomised clinical trials need to be sufficiently large and designed to have low risk of bias.

  8. Determination of the energy requirements in mechanically ventilated critically ill elderly patients in different BMI groups using the Harris–Benedict equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pi-Hui Hsu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to studies on calorie requirement in mechanically ventilated critically ill elderly patients are few, and indirect calorimetry (IC is not available in every intensive care unit (ICU. The aim of this study was to compare IC and Harris–Benedict (HB predictive equation in different BMI groups. Methods: A total of 177 mechanically ventilated critically ill elderly patients (≧65 years old underwent IC for measured resting energy expenditure (MREE. Estimated calorie requirement was calculated by the HB equation, using actual body weight (ABW and ideal body weight (IBW separately. Patients were divided into four BMI groups. One-way ANOVA and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used for statistical analyses. Results: The mean MREE was 1443.6 ± 318.2 kcal/day, HB(ABW was 1110.9 ± 177.0 kcal/day and HB(IBW was 1101.5 ± 113.1 kcal/day. The stress factor (SFA = MREE ÷ HB(ABW was 1.43 ± 0.26 for the underweight, 1.30 ± 0.27 for the normal weight, 1.20 ± 0.19 for the overweight, and 1.20 ± 0.31 for the obese. The SFI (SFI = MREE ÷ HB(IBW was 1.24 ± 0.24 for the underweight, 1.31 ± 0.26 for the normal weight, 1.36 ± 0.21 for the overweight, and 1.52 ± 0.39 for the obese. MREE had significant correlation both with REE(ABW = HB(ABW × SFA (r = 0.46; P < 0.0001 and REE(IBW = HB(IBW × SFI (r = 0.43; P < 0.0001. Conclusion: IC is the best accurate method for assessing calorie requirement of mechanically ventilated critically ill elderly patients. When IC is not available, using the predictive HB equation is an alternative choice. Calorie requirement can be predicted by HB(ABW × 1.20–1.43 for critically ill elderly patients according to different BMI groups, or using HB(IBW × 1.24–1.52 for patients with edema, ascites or no available body weight data. Keywords: Body Mass Index, Elderly critical care, Harris–Benedict equation, Indirect calorimetry

  9. Reduction of self-perceived discomforts in critically ill patients in French intensive care units: study protocol for a cluster-randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalfon, Pierre; Mimoz, Olivier; Loundou, Anderson; Geantot, Marie-Agnès; Revel, Nathalie; Villard, Isabelle; Amour, Julien; Azoulay, Elie; Garrouste-Orgeas, Maïté; Martin, Claude; Sharshar, Tarek; Baumstarck, Karine; Auquier, Pascal

    2016-02-16

    It is now well documented that critically ill patients are exposed to stressful conditions and experience discomforts from multiple sources. Improved identification of the discomforts of patients in intensive care units (ICUs) may have implications for managing their care, including consideration of ethical issues, and may assist clinicians in choosing the most appropriate interventions. The primary objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a multicomponent program of discomfort reduction in critically ill patients. The secondary objectives were to assess the sustainability of the impact of the program and the potential seasonality effect. We conducted a multicenter, cluster-randomized, controlled, single (patient)-blind study involving 34 French adult ICUs. The experimental intervention was a 6-month period during which the multicomponent program was implemented in the ICU and included the following steps: identification of discomforts, immediate feedback to the healthcare team, and implementation of targeted interventions. The control intervention was a 6-month period during which any program was implemented. The primary endpoint was the monthly overall score of self-reported discomfort from the French questionnaire on discomforts in ICU patients (IPREA). The secondary endpoints were the scores of the discomfort items of IPREA. The sample size was 660 individuals to obtain 80% power to detect a 25% difference in the overall discomfort score of IPREA between the two groups (design effect: 2.9). The results of this cluster-randomized controlled study are expected to confirm that a multicomponent program of discomfort reduction may be a new strategy in the management of care for critically ill patients. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02442934, registered 11 May 2015.

  10. Development of a Prognostic Score Using the Complete Blood Cell Count for Survival Prediction in Unselected Critically Ill Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Chongliang, Fang; Yuzhong, Li; Qian, Shi; Xiliang, Liu; Hui, Liu

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to develop a new prognostic scoring system for critically ill patients using the simple complete blood cell count (CBC). Methods. CBC measurements in samples from 306 patients in an intensive care unit were conducted with automated analyzers, including levels of neutrophils, lymphocytes, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, and platelets. The time of sampling and the time of death were recorded. Z values were calculated according to the measured values, reference...

  11. Efficacy of Intravenous Haloperidol on the duration of Delirium and Coma in Critically Ill Patients (Hope-ICU): a Randomised, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Valerie J; Ely, E Wesley; Gates, Simon; Zhao, Xiao Bei; Alce, Timothy; Shintani, Ayumi; Jackson, Jim; Perkins, Gavin D; McAuley, Daniel F

    2016-01-01

    Background Delirium is frequently diagnosed in critically ill patients and is associated with poor clinical outcomes. Haloperidol is the most commonly used drug for delirium despite little evidence of its effectiveness. The aim of this study was to establish whether early treatment with haloperidol would decrease the time that survivors of critical illness spent in delirium or in coma. Methods We did this double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised trial in a general adult intensive care unit (ICU). Critically ill patients (≥18 years) needing mechanical ventilation within 72 of admission were enrolled. Patients were randomised (by an independent nurse, in 1:1 ratio, with permuted block size of four and six, using a centralised, secure web-based randomisation service) to receive haloperidol 2·5mgs or 0·9% saline placebo intravenously every 8 h irrespective of coma or delirium status. Study drug was discontinued on ICU discharge, once delirium-free and coma-free for 2 consecutive days, or after a maximum of 14 days treatment, which ever came first. Delirium was assessed using the confusion assessment method - for the ICU (CAM-ICU). The primary outcome was delirium-free and coma-free days, defined as the number of days in the first 14 days after randomisation during which the patient was alive without delirium and not in coma from any cause. Patients who died within the 14-day study period were recorded as having 0 days free of delirium and coma. ICU clinical and research staff and patients were masked to treatment throughout the study. Analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered with the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Registry, number ISRCTN83567338. Findings 142 patients were randomised, 141 were included in the final analysis (71 haloperidol, 70 placebo). Patients in the haloperidol group spent about the same number of days alive, without delirium, and without coma as did patients in the placebo group (median 5 days [IQR 0

  12. Management of critically ill patients receiving noninvasive and invasive mechanical ventilation in the emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose L

    2012-03-01

    and invasively ventilated patients are discussed, with a particular emphasis on initiation and ongoing monitoring priorities focused on maintaining patient safety and improving patient outcomes.Keywords: mechanical ventilation, emergency department, noninvasive ventilation, critical illness, acute respiratory failure

  13. Polypharmacy and Delirium in Critically Ill Older Adults: Recognition and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garpestad, Erik; Devlin, John W

    2017-05-01

    Among older adults, polypharmacy is a sequelae of admission to the intensive care unit and is associated with increased medication-associated adverse events, drug interactions, and health care costs. Delirium is prevalent in critically ill geriatric patients and medications remain an underappreciated modifiable risk for delirium in this setting. This article reviews the literature on polypharmacy and delirium, with a focus on highlighting the relationships between polypharmacy and delirium in critically ill, older adults. Discussed are clinician strategies on how to recognize and reduce medication-associated delirium and recommendations that help prevent polypharmacy when interventions to reduce the burden of delirium in this vulnerable population are being formulated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Four hour creatinine clearance is better than plasma creatinine for monitoring renal function in critically ill patients

    OpenAIRE

    Pickering, John W; Frampton, Christopher M; Walker, Robert J; Shaw, Geoffrey M; Endre, Zolt?n H

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Acute kidney injury (AKI) diagnosis is based on an increase in plasma creatinine, which is a slowly changing surrogate of decreased glomerular filtration rate. We investigated whether serial creatinine clearance, a direct measure of the glomerular filtration rate, provided more timely and accurate information on renal function than serial plasma creatinine in critically ill patients. Methods Serial plasma creatinine and 4-hour creatinine clearance were measured 12-hourly for 24 h...

  15. Influence of Factor V Leiden on susceptibility to and outcome from critical illness: a genetic association study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benfield, Thomas; Ejrnæs, Karen; Juul, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Disturbance of the pro-coagulatant and anti-coagulant balance is associated with a poor outcome from critical illness. The objective of this study is to determine whether the Factor V Leiden (FVL) mutation is associated with susceptibility to or death from critical illness....... METHODS: A genetic association study involving four case cohorts comprising two Gram negative sepsis, one invasive pneumococcal disease and one intensive care unit cohort with a total of 1,249 patients. Controls were derived from a population-based cohort study (N = 8,147). DNA from patients and controls...... not appear to increase the risk of admission due to severe invasive infections. Nevertheless, in the subgroup of patients admitted to intensive care an increased risk and a poorer long-term outcome for individuals with critical illness were observed for FVL mutation carriers....

  16. Off-line breath acetone analysis in critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturney, S C; Storer, M K; Shaw, G M; Shaw, D E; Epton, M J

    2013-09-01

    Analysis of breath acetone could be useful in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) setting to monitor evidence of starvation and metabolic stress. The aims of this study were to examine the relationship between acetone concentrations in breath and blood in critical illness, to explore any changes in breath acetone concentration over time and correlate these with clinical features. Consecutive patients, ventilated on controlled modes in a mixed ICU, with stress hyperglycaemia requiring insulin therapy and/or new pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiograph were recruited. Once daily, triplicate end-tidal breath samples were collected and analysed off-line by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS). Thirty-two patients were recruited (20 males), median age 61.5 years (range 26-85 years). The median breath acetone concentration of all samples was 853 ppb (range 162-11 375 ppb) collected over a median of 3 days (range 1-8). There was a trend towards a reduction in breath acetone concentration over time. Relationships were seen between breath acetone and arterial acetone (rs = 0.64, p acetone concentration over time corresponded to changes in arterial acetone concentration. Some patients remained ketotic despite insulin therapy and normal arterial glucose concentrations. This is the first study to look at breath acetone concentration in ICU patients for up to 8 days. Breath acetone concentration may be used as a surrogate for arterial acetone concentration, which may in future have a role in the modulation of insulin and feeding in critical illness.

  17. Stress Induced Hyperglycemia and the Subsequent Risk of Type 2 Diabetes in Survivors of Critical Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Mark P.; Finnis, Mark E.; Phillips, Liza K.; Kar, Palash; Bihari, Shailesh; Biradar, Vishwanath; Moodie, Stewart; Horowitz, Michael; Shaw, Jonathan E.; Deane, Adam M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Stress induced hyperglycemia occurs in critically ill patients who have normal glucose tolerance following resolution of their acute illness. The objective was to evaluate the association between stress induced hyperglycemia and incident diabetes in survivors of critical illness. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting All adult patients surviving admission to a public hospital intensive care unit (ICU) in South Australia between 2004 and 2011. Patients Stress induced hyperglycemia was defined as a blood glucose ≥ 11.1 mmol/L (200 mg/dL) within 24 hours of ICU admission. Prevalent diabetes was identified through ICD-10 coding or prior registration with the Australian National Diabetes Service Scheme (NDSS). Incident diabetes was identified as NDSS registration beyond 30 days after hospital discharge until July 2015. The predicted risk of developing diabetes was described as sub-hazard ratios using competing risk regression. Survival was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression. Main Results Stress induced hyperglycemia was identified in 2,883 (17%) of 17,074 patients without diabetes. The incidence of type 2 diabetes following critical illness was 4.8% (821 of 17,074). The risk of diabetes in patients with stress induced hyperglycemia was approximately double that of those without (HR 1.91 (95% CI 1.62, 2.26), phyperglycemia identifies patients at subsequent risk of incident diabetes. PMID:27824898

  18. Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 Levels Associate with AKI and Death in Critical Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leaf, David E; Jacob, Kirolos A; Srivastava, Anand; Chen, Margaret E; Christov, Marta; Jüppner, Harald; Sabbisetti, Venkata S; Martin, Aline; Wolf, Myles; Waikar, Sushrut S

    2017-06-01

    Elevated plasma levels of the osteocyte-derived hormone fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) have emerged as a powerful biomarker of cardiovascular disease and death in patients with CKD. Whether elevated urinary or plasma FGF23 levels are prospectively associated with AKI and death in critically ill patients is unknown. We therefore conducted a prospective cohort study of 350 critically ill patients admitted to intensive care units at an academic medical center to investigate whether higher urinary FGF23 levels associate with the composite end point of AKI or in-hospital mortality (AKI/death). We measured urinary FGF23 levels within 24 hours of admission to the intensive care unit. In a subcohort ( n =131) we also measured plasma levels of FGF23, calcium, phosphate, parathyroid hormone, and vitamin D metabolites. Urinary and plasma FGF23 levels, but not other mineral metabolites, significantly associated with AKI/death. In multivariate analyses, patients in the highest compared with the lowest quartile of urinary FGF23 had a 3.9 greater odds (95% confidence interval, 1.6 to 9.5) of AKI/death. Higher urinary FGF23 levels also independently associated with greater hospital, 90-day, and 1-year mortality; longer length of stay; and several other important adverse outcomes. In conclusion, elevated FGF23 levels measured in the urine or plasma may be a promising novel biomarker of AKI, death, and other adverse outcomes in critically ill patients. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  19. Sodium Bicarbonate Versus Sodium Chloride for Preventing Contrast-Associated Acute Kidney Injury in Critically Ill Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valette, Xavier; Desmeulles, Isabelle; Savary, Benoit; Masson, Romain; Seguin, Amélie; Sauneuf, Bertrand; Brunet, Jennifer; Verrier, Pierre; Pottier, Véronique; Orabona, Marie; Samba, Désiré; Viquesnel, Gérald; Lermuzeaux, Mathilde; Hazera, Pascal; Dutheil, Jean-Jacques; Hanouz, Jean-Luc; Parienti, Jean-Jacques; du Cheyron, Damien

    2017-04-01

    To test whether hydration with bicarbonate rather than isotonic sodium chloride reduces the risk of contrast-associated acute kidney injury in critically ill patients. Prospective, double-blind, multicenter, randomized controlled study. Three French ICUs. Critically ill patients with stable renal function (n = 307) who received intravascular contrast media. Hydration with 0.9% sodium chloride or 1.4% sodium bicarbonate administered with the same infusion protocol: 3 mL/kg during 1 hour before and 1 mL/kg/hr during 6 hours after contrast medium exposure. The primary endpoint was the development of contrast-associated acute kidney injury, as defined by the Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria, 72 hours after contrast exposure. Patients randomized to the bicarbonate group (n = 151) showed a higher urinary pH at the end of the infusion than patients randomized to the saline group (n = 156) (6.7 ± 2.1 vs 6.2 ± 1.8, respectively; p 0.99) were also similar between the saline and bicarbonate groups, respectively. Except for urinary pH, none of the outcomes differed between the two groups. Among ICU patients with stable renal function, the benefit of using sodium bicarbonate rather than isotonic sodium chloride for preventing contrast-associated acute kidney injury is marginal, if any.

  20. Sensitivity and Specificity of the Comfort Scale to Assess Pain in Ventilated Critically Ill Adult Patients in Intensive Care Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyuningsih, Indah Sri; Prasetyo, Awal; Utami, Reni Sulung

    2017-01-01

    Background: Pain is a common phenomenon experienced by ventilated and critically ill adult patients. It is urgent to measure the pain among these patients since they are unable to report their pain verbally. Comfort Scale is one of the instruments used to measure pain in adult patients. The scale is used to measure pain among children patients with fairly high sensitivity and specificity.Purpose: This study aimed to examine the sensitivity and specificity of the Comfort Scale to measure pain ...

  1. Guidelines for the Provision and Assessment of Nutrition Support Therapy in the Pediatric Critically Ill Patient: Society of Critical Care Medicine and American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Nilesh M; Skillman, Heather E; Irving, Sharon Y; Coss-Bu, Jorge A; Vermilyea, Sarah; Farrington, Elizabeth Anne; McKeever, Liam; Hall, Amber M; Goday, Praveen S; Braunschweig, Carol

    2017-07-01

    This document represents the first collaboration between 2 organizations-the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition and the Society of Critical Care Medicine-to describe best practices in nutrition therapy in critically ill children. The target of these guidelines is intended to be the pediatric critically ill patient (>1 month and 2-3 days in a PICU admitting medical, surgical, and cardiac patients. In total, 2032 citations were scanned for relevance. The PubMed/MEDLINE search resulted in 960 citations for clinical trials and 925 citations for cohort studies. The EMBASE search for clinical trials culled 1661 citations. In total, the search for clinical trials yielded 1107 citations, whereas the cohort search yielded 925. After careful review, 16 randomized controlled trials and 37 cohort studies appeared to answer 1 of the 8 preidentified question groups for this guideline. We used the GRADE criteria (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation) to adjust the evidence grade based on assessment of the quality of study design and execution. These guidelines are not intended for neonates or adult patients. The guidelines reiterate the importance of nutrition assessment-particularly, the detection of malnourished patients who are most vulnerable and therefore may benefit from timely intervention. There is a need for renewed focus on accurate estimation of energy needs and attention to optimizing protein intake. Indirect calorimetry, where feasible, and cautious use of estimating equations and increased surveillance for unintended caloric underfeeding and overfeeding are recommended. Optimal protein intake and its correlation with clinical outcomes are areas of great interest. The optimal route and timing of nutrient delivery are areas of intense debate and investigations. Enteral nutrition remains the preferred route for nutrient delivery. Several strategies to optimize enteral nutrition during critical illness have emerged. The

  2. Long term mortality in critically ill burn survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzschke, Stephanie; Offodile, Anaeze C; Cauley, Ryan P; Frankel, Jason E; Beam, Andrew; Elias, Kevin M; Gibbons, Fiona K; Salim, Ali; Christopher, Kenneth B

    2017-09-01

    Little is known about long term survival risk factors in critically ill burn patients who survive hospitalization. We hypothesized that patients with major burns who survive hospitalization would have favorable long term outcomes. We performed a two center observational cohort study in 365 critically ill adult burn patients who survived to hospital discharge. The exposure of interest was major burn defined a priori as >20% total body surface area burned [TBSA]. The modified Baux score was determined by age + %TBSA+ 17(inhalational injury). The primary outcome was all-cause 5year mortality based on the US Social Security Administration Death Master File. Adjusted associations were estimated through fitting of multivariable logistic regression models. Our final model included adjustment for inhalational injury, presence of 3rd degree burn, gender and the acute organ failure score, a validated ICU risk-prediction score derived from age, ethnicity, surgery vs. medical patient type, comorbidity, sepsis and acute organ failure covariates. Time-to-event analysis was performed using Cox proportional hazard regression. Of the cohort patients studied, 76% were male, 29% were non white, 14% were over 65, 32% had TBSA >20%, and 45% had inhalational injury. The mean age was 45, 92% had 2nd degree burns, 60% had 3rd degree burns, 21% received vasopressors, and 26% had sepsis. The mean TBSA was 20.1%. The mean modified Baux score was 72.8. Post hospital discharge 5year mortality rate was 9.0%. The 30day hospital readmission rate was 4%. Patients with major burns were significantly younger (41 vs. 47 years) had a significantly higher modified Baux score (89 vs. 62), and had significantly higher comorbidity, acute organ failure, inhalational injury and sepsis (all Pburns. In the multivariable logistic regression model, major burn was associated with a 3 fold decreased odds of 5year post-discharge mortality compared to patients with TBSAburn, gender and the acute organ failure score

  3. Feasibility and safety of early combined cognitive and physical therapy for critically ill medical and surgical patients: the Activity and Cognitive Therapy in ICU (ACT-ICU) trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummel, N.E.; Girard, T.D.; Ely, E.W.; Pandharipande, P.P.; Morandi, A.; Hughes, C.G.; Graves, A.J.; Shintani, A.K.; Murphy, E.; Work, B.; Pun, B.T.; Boehm, L.; Gill, T.M.; Dittus, R.S.; Jackson, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Cognitive impairment after critical illness is common and debilitating. We developed a cognitive therapy program for critically ill patients and assessed the feasibility and safety of administering combined cognitive and physical therapy early during a critical illness. METHODS We randomized 87 medical and surgical ICU patients with respiratory failure and/or shock in a 1:1:2 manner to three groups: usual care, early once-daily physical therapy, or early once-daily physical therapy plus a novel, progressive, twice-daily cognitive therapy protocol. Cognitive therapy included orientation, memory, attention, and problem solving exercises, and other activities. We assessed feasibility outcomes of the early cognitive plus physical therapy intervention. At 3-months, we also assessed cognitive, functional and health-related quality of life outcomes. Data are presented as median [interquartile range] or frequency (%). RESULTS Early cognitive therapy was a delivered to 41/43 (95%) of cognitive plus physical therapy patients on 100% [92–100%] of study days beginning 1.0 [1.0–1.0] day following enrollment. Physical therapy was received by 17/22 (77%) of usual care patients, by 21/22 (95%) of physical therapy only patients and 42/43 (98%) of cognitive plus physical therapy patients on 17% [10–26%], 67% [46–87%] and 75% [59–88%] of study days, respectively. Cognitive, functional and health-related quality of life outcomes did not differ between groups at 3-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS This pilot study demonstrates that early rehabilitation can be extended beyond physical therapy to include cognitive therapy. Future work to determine optimal patient selection, intensity of treatment and benefits of cognitive therapy in the critically ill is needed. PMID:24257969

  4. Cumulative total effective whole-body radiation dose in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohner, Deborah J; Bennett, Suzanne; Samaratunga, Chandrasiri; Jewell, Elizabeth S; Smith, Jeffrey P; Gaskill-Shipley, Mary; Lisco, Steven J

    2013-11-01

    Uncertainty exists about a safe dose limit to minimize radiation-induced cancer. Maximum occupational exposure is 20 mSv/y averaged over 5 years with no more than 50 mSv in any single year. Radiation exposure to the general population is less, but the average dose in the United States has doubled in the past 30 years, largely from medical radiation exposure. We hypothesized that patients in a mixed-use surgical ICU (SICU) approach or exceed this limit and that trauma patients were more likely to exceed 50 mSv because of frequent diagnostic imaging. Patients admitted into 15 predesignated SICU beds in a level I trauma center during a 30-day consecutive period were prospectively observed. Effective dose was determined using Huda's method for all radiography, CT imaging, and fluoroscopic examinations. Univariate and multivariable linear regressions were used to analyze the relationships between observed values and outcomes. Five of 74 patients (6.8%) exceeded exposures of 50 mSv. Univariate analysis showed trauma designation, length of stay, number of CT scans, fluoroscopy minutes, and number of general radiographs were all associated with increased doses, leading to exceeding occupational exposure limits. In a multivariable analysis, only the number of CT scans and fluoroscopy minutes remained significantly associated with increased whole-body radiation dose. Radiation levels frequently exceeded occupational exposure standards. CT imaging contributed the most exposure. Health-care providers must practice efficient stewardship of radiologic imaging in all critically ill and injured patients. Diagnostic benefit must always be weighed against the risk of cumulative radiation dose.

  5. Morphine-augmented cholescintigraphy and acute a calculous cholecystitis in critically ill patients: interest and new way of interpreting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emptaz, A.; Prevot, N.; Dubois, F.; Mahul, P.; Mariat, G.; Jospe, R.; Auboyer, C.; Cuilleron, M.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) is a serious disease, difficult to diagnose in critically ill patients. The aim of the study was to evaluate the diagnostic performances of abdominal ultrasonography (US) and morphine-augmented cholescintigraphy (MC) and to improve diagnostic strategy in patients of intensive care unit (ICU) with suspected AA C. Methods: We retrospectively studied 82 consecutive ICU patients with suspected AA C. US was positive if the triad of gallbladder distension, gallbladder wall thickening and sludge was found. MC was positive if the gallbladder remained non-visualized after morphine injection. In a second time, other scintigraphic criteria of interpretation were tested, according to the visualization of the gallbladder before or after morphine administration. Treatment was decided on the basis of clinical, laboratory and imaging data. Results: The diagnosis of AAC was retained in 34 patients. US and MC had respectively for the diagnosis of AAC a sensitivity of 20.6 and 70.6%, and a specificity of 95.8 and 100%. Interpreting the MC as positive if the gallbladder remains non-visualized after morphine, as negative if it appears before, and as non-conclusive if visualized after, makes it possible to define respectively patients with high probability (100%), with low probability (7.5%) or with intermediate probability (39%) of AAC. Conclusions: MC is better than US for diagnosing AAC in critically ill patients, having in particular excellent specificity using the classical criteria of interpretation. MC must be thus performed in patients at risk for AAC, determined with clinical, laboratory and eventually echographic findings. To decrease false negative rate of MC, a probability categorical classification is proposed to improve patients' care. (author)

  6. Successful treatment of severe Clostridium difficile infection by administration of crushed fidaxomicin via a nasogastric tube in a critically ill patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arends, Sven; Defosse, Jerome; Diaz, Cori; Wappler, Frank; Sakka, Samir G

    2017-02-01

    To report the successful use of crushed fidaxomicin via a nasogastric tube for treatment of a severe Clostridium difficile infection in a critically ill patient. Clinical observation of a patient, images of abdominal computed tomography, antimicrobial therapy and course of infection parameters. Relevant information contained in the medical observation of the patient and selection of image and laboratory parameters performed in the patient. We report a case of a 79-year old patient who developed septic shock with an increasing need for norepinephrine and acute renal failure due to a severe Clostridium difficile infection. Antimicrobial therapy with vancomycin via a nasogastric tube and metronidazole i.v. did not lead to improvement, infection parameters further increased, and the clinical condition became increasingly impaired. After 10 days, antimicrobial therapy was changed to fidaxomicin, crushed and administered via nasogastric tube. Within 24hours, infection parameters decreased. Further diarrhoea ceased and stool samples were negative for Clostridium difficile antigen. Our case confirms that administration of fidaxomicin via a nasogastric tube was safe and effective in this patient. Further studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy of this strategy in critically ill patients systematically. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Reconciling patient and provider priorities for improving the care of critically ill patients: A consensus method and qualitative analysis of decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Emily; Potestio, Melissa L; Boyd, Jamie M; Niven, Daniel J; Brundin-Mather, Rebecca; Bagshaw, Sean M; Stelfox, Henry T

    2017-12-01

    Providers have traditionally established priorities for quality improvement; however, patients and their family members have recently become involved in priority setting. Little is known about how to reconcile priorities of different stakeholder groups into a single prioritized list that is actionable for organizations. To describe the decision-making process for establishing consensus used by a diverse panel of stakeholders to reconcile two sets of quality improvement priorities (provider/decision maker priorities n=9; patient/family priorities n=19) into a single prioritized list. We employed a modified Delphi process with a diverse group of panellists to reconcile priorities for improving care of critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU). Proceedings were audio-recorded, transcribed and analysed using qualitative content analysis to explore the decision-making process for establishing consensus. Nine panellists including three providers, three decision makers and three family members of previously critically ill patients. Panellists rated and revised 28 priorities over three rounds of review and reached consensus on the "Top 5" priorities for quality improvement: transition of patient care from ICU to hospital ward; family presence and effective communication; delirium screening and management; early mobilization; and transition of patient care between ICU providers. Four themes were identified as important for establishing consensus: storytelling (sharing personal experiences), amalgamating priorities (negotiating priority scope), considering evaluation criteria and having a priority champion. Our study demonstrates the feasibility of incorporating families of patients into a multistakeholder prioritization exercise. The approach described can be used to guide consensus building and reconcile priorities of diverse stakeholder groups. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Implementation of subcutaneous insulin protocol for non-critically ill hospitalized patients in andalusian tertiary care hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Brocca, María Asunción; Morales, Cristóbal; Rodríguez-Ortega, Pilar; González-Aguilera, Beatriz; Montes, Cristina; Colomo, Natalia; Piédrola, Gonzalo; Méndez-Muros, Mariola; Serrano, Isabel; Ruiz de Adana, Maria Soledad; Moreno, Alberto; Fernández, Ignacio; Aguilar, Manuel; Acosta, Domingo; Palomares, Rafael

    2015-02-01

    In 2009, the Andalusian Society of Endocrinology and Nutrition designed a protocol for subcutaneous insulin treatment in hospitalized non-critically ill patients (HIP). To analyze implementation of HIP at tertiary care hospitals from the Andalusian Public Health System. A descriptive, multicenter study conducted in 8 tertiary care hospitals on a random sample of non-critically ill patients with diabetes/hyperglycemia (n=306) hospitalized for ≥48 hours in 5 non-surgical (SM) and 2 surgical (SQ) departments. Type 1 and other specific types of diabetes, pregnancy and nutritional support were exclusion criteria. 288 patients were included for analysis (62.5% males; 70.3±10.3 years; 71.5% SM, 28.5% SQ). A scheduled subcutaneous insulin regimen based on basal-bolus-correction protocol was started in 55.9% (95%CI: 50.5-61.2%) of patients, 63.1% SM vs. 37.8% SQ (P<.05). Alternatives to insulin regimen based on basal-bolus-correction included sliding scale insulin (43.7%), diet (31.3%), oral antidiabetic drugs (17.2%), premixed insulin (1.6%), and others (6.2%). For patients previously on oral antidiabetic drugs, in-hospital insulin dose was 0.32±0.1 IU/kg/day. In patients previously on insulin, in-hospital insulin dose was increased by 17% [-13-53], and in those on insulin plus oral antidiabetic drugs, in-hospital insulin dose was increased by 26.4% [-6-100]. Supplemental insulin doses used for<40 IU/day and 40-80 IU/day were 72.2% and 56.7% respectively. HbA1c was measured in 23.6% of patients (95CI%: 18.8-28.8); 27.7% SM vs. 13.3% SQ (P<.05). Strategies are needed to improve implementation of the inpatient subcutaneous insulin protocol, particularly in surgical departments. Sliding scale insulin is still the most common alternative to insulin regimen based on basal-bolus-correction scheduled insulin. Metabolic control assessment during hospitalization should be encouraged. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Health-promoting conversations-A novel approach to families experiencing critical illness in the ICU environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollman Frisman, Gunilla; Wåhlin, Ingrid; Orvelius, Lotti; Ågren, Susanna

    2018-02-01

    To identify and describe the outcomes of a nurse-led intervention, "Health-promoting conversations with families," regarding family functioning and well-being in families with a member who was critically ill. Families who have a critically ill family member in an intensive care unit face a demanding situation, threatening the normal functioning of the family. Yet, there is a knowledge gap regarding family members' well-being during and after critical illness. The study used a qualitative inductive-descriptive design. Eight families participated in health-promoting conversations aimed to create a context for change related to the families' identified problems and resources. Fifteen qualitative interviews were conducted with 18 adults who participated in health-promoting conversations about a critical illness in the family. Eight participants were patients (six men, two women) and 10 were family members (two male partners, five female partners, one mother, one daughter, one female grandchild). The interviews were analysed by conventional content analysis. Family members experienced strengthened togetherness, a caring attitude and confirmation through health-promoting conversations. The caring and calming conversations were appreciated despite the reappearance of exhausting feelings. Working through the experience and being confirmed promoted family well-being. Health-promoting conversations were considered to be healing, as the family members take part in sharing each other's feelings, thoughts and experiences with the critical illness. Health-promoting conversations could be a simple and effective nursing intervention for former intensive care patients and their families in any cultural context. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Protein nutrition and exercise survival kit for critically ill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijs, Peter J.M.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Protein delivery as well as exercise of critically ill in clinical practice is still a highly debated issue. Here we discuss only the most recent updates in the literature concerning protein nutrition and exercise of the critically ill. RECENT FINDINGS: By lack of randomized

  11. Intensive insulin treatment improves forearm blood flow in critically ill patients: a randomized parallel design clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žuran, Ivan; Poredos, Pavel; Skale, Rafael; Voga, Gorazd; Gabrscek, Lucija; Pareznik, Roman

    2009-01-01

    Intensive insulin treatment of critically ill patients was seen as a promising method of treatment, though recent studies showed that reducing the blood glucose level below 6 mmol/l had a detrimental outcome. The mechanisms of the effects of insulin in the critically ill are not completely understood. The purpose of the study was to test the hypothesis that intensive insulin treatment may influence forearm blood flow independently of global hemodynamic indicators. The study encompassed 29 patients of both sexes who were admitted to the intensive care unit due to sepsis and required artificial ventilation as the result of acute respiratory failure. 14 patients were randomly selected for intensive insulin treatment (Group 1; blood glucose concentration 4.4-6.1 mmol/l), and 15 were selected for conventional insulin treatment (Group 2; blood glucose level 7.0 mmol/l-11.0 mmol/l). At the start of the study (t0, beginning up to 48 hours after admittance and the commencement of artificial ventilation), at 2 hours (t1), 24 hours (t2), and 72 hours (t3) flow in the forearm was measured for 60 minutes using the strain-gauge plethysmography method. Student's t-test of independent samples was used for comparisons between the two groups, and Mann-Whitney's U-test where appropriate. Linear regression analysis and the Pearson correlation coefficient were used to determine the levels of correlation. The difference in 60-minute forearm flow at the start of the study (t0) was not statistically significant between groups, while at t2 and t3 significantly higher values were recorded in Group 1 (t2; Group 1: 420.6 +/- 188.8 ml/100 ml tissue; Group 2: 266.1 +/- 122.2 ml/100 ml tissue (95% CI 30.9-278.0, P = 0.02); t3; Group 1: 369.9 +/- 150.3 ml/100 ml tissue; Group 2: 272.6 +/- 85.7 ml/100 ml tissue (95% CI 5.4-190.0, P = 0.04). At t1 a trend towards significantly higher values in Group 1 was noted (P = 0.05). The level of forearm flow was related to the amount of insulin infusion (r

  12. Peripheral Edema, Central Venous Pressure, and Risk of AKI in Critical Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kenneth P.; Cavender, Susan; Lee, Joon; Feng, Mengling; Mark, Roger G.; Celi, Leo Anthony; Mukamal, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Although venous congestion has been linked to renal dysfunction in heart failure, its significance in a broader context has not been investigated. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Using an inception cohort of 12,778 critically ill adult patients admitted to an urban tertiary medical center between 2001 and 2008, we examined whether the presence of peripheral edema on admission physical examination was associated with an increased risk of AKI within the first 7 days of critical illness. In addition, in those with admission central venous pressure (CVP) measurements, we examined the association of CVPs with subsequent AKI. AKI was defined using the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes criteria. Results Of the 18% (n=2338) of patients with peripheral edema on admission, 27% (n=631) developed AKI, compared with 16% (n=1713) of those without peripheral edema. In a model that included adjustment for comorbidities, severity of illness, and the presence of pulmonary edema, peripheral edema was associated with a 30% higher risk of AKI (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.15 to 1.46; Pedema was not significantly related to risk. Peripheral edema was also associated with a 13% higher adjusted risk of a higher AKI stage (95% CI, 1.07 to 1.20; Pedema were associated with 34% (95% CI, 1.10 to 1.65), 17% (95% CI, 0.96 to 1.14), 47% (95% CI, 1.18 to 1.83), and 57% (95% CI, 1.07 to 2.31) higher adjusted risk of AKI, respectively, compared with edema-free patients. In the 4761 patients with admission CVP measurements, each 1 cm H2O higher CVP was associated with a 2% higher adjusted risk of AKI (95% CI, 1.00 to 1.03; P=0.02). Conclusions Venous congestion, as manifested as either peripheral edema or increased CVP, is directly associated with AKI in critically ill patients. Whether treatment of venous congestion with diuretics can modify this risk will require further study. PMID:26787777

  13. Pattern of acid base abnormalities in critically ill patinets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, T.M.; Mehmood, A.; Malik, T.M.

    2015-01-01

    To find out the pattern of acid base abnormalities in critically ill patients in a tertiary care health facility. Study Design: A descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the department of pathology, Combined Military Hospital Kharian from January 2013 to June 2013. Patients and Methods: Two hundred and fifty patients suffering from various diseases and presenting with exacerbation of their clinical conditions were studied. These patients were hospitalized and managed in acute care units of the hospital. Arterial blood gases were analysed to detect acid base status and their correlation with their clinical condition. Concomitant analysis of electrolytes was carried out. Tests related to concurrent illnesses e.g. renal and liver function tests, cardiac enzymes and plasma glucose were assayed by routine end point and kinetic methods. Standard reference materials were used to ensure internal quantify control of analyses. Results: Two hundred and fifteen patients out of 250 studied suffered from acid base disorders. Gender distribution showed a higher percentage of male patients and the mean age was 70.5 ± 17.4 years. Double acid base disorders were the commonest disorders (34%) followed by metabolic acidosis (30%). Anion gap was calculated to further stratify metabolic acidosis and cases of diabetic ketoacidosis were the commonest in this category (47%). Other simple acid base disorders were relatively less frequent. Delta bicarbonate was calculated to unmask the superimposition of respiratory alkalosis or acidosis with metabolic acidosis and metabolic alkalosis. Though triple acid base disorders were noted in a small percentage of cases (05%), but were found to be the most complicated and challenging. Mixed acid base disorders were associated with high mortality. Conclusion: A large number of critically ill patients manifested acid base abnormalities over the full spectrum of these disorders. Mixed acid base disorders were

  14. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and high-sensitivity troponin T exhibit additive prognostic value for the outcome of critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Max; Krychtiuk, Konstantin A; Goliasch, Georg; Distelmaier, Klaus; Wojta, Johann; Heinz, Gottfried; Speidl, Walter S

    2018-04-01

    Patients treated at medical intensive care units suffer from various pathologies and often present with elevated troponin T (TnT) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels. Both markers may reflect different forms of cardiac involvement in critical illness. Therefore, the aim of our study was to examine the synergistic prognostic potential of NT-proBNP and high-sensitivity TnT (hs)TnT in unselected critically ill patients. We included all consecutive patients admitted to our intensive care unit within one year, excluding those suffering from acute myocardial infarction or undergoing cardiac surgery and measured NT-proBNP and TnT plasma levels on the day of admission and 72 hours thereafter. Of the included 148 patients, 52% were male, mean age was of 64.2 ± 16.8 years and 30-day mortality was 33.2%. Non-survivors showed significantly higher NT-proBNP and TnT plasma levels as compared with survivors ( pvalue. This might be attributed to a difference in underlying pathomechanisms and an assessment of synergistic risk factors.

  15. Early intra-intensive care unit psychological intervention promotes recovery from post traumatic stress disorders, anxiety and depression symptoms in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peris, Adriano; Bonizzoli, Manuela; Iozzelli, Dario; Migliaccio, Maria Luisa; Zagli, Giovanni; Bacchereti, Alberto; Debolini, Marta; Vannini, Elisetta; Solaro, Massimo; Balzi, Ilaria; Bendoni, Elisa; Bacchi, Ilaria; Trevisan, Monica; Giovannini, Valtere; Belloni, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Critically ill patients who require intensive care unit (ICU) treatment may experience psychological distress with increasing development of psychological disorders and related morbidity. Our aim was to determine whether intra-ICU clinical psychologist interventions decrease the prevalence of anxiety, depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after 12 months from ICU discharge. Our observational study included critical patients admitted before clinical psychologist intervention (control group) and patients who were involved in a clinical psychologist program (intervention group). The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Impact of Event Scale-Revised questionnaires were used to assess the level of posttraumatic stress, anxiety and depression symptoms. The control and intervention groups showed similar demographic and clinical characteristics. Patients in the intervention group showed lower rates of anxiety (8.9% vs. 17.4%) and depression (6.5% vs. 12.8%) than the control group on the basis of HADS scores, even if the differences were not statistically significant. High risk for PTSD was significantly lower in patients receiving early clinical psychologist support than in the control group (21.1% vs. 57%; P < 0.0001). The percentage of patients who needed psychiatric medications at 12 months was significantly higher in the control group than in the patient group (41.7% vs. 8.1%; P < 0.0001). Our results suggest that that early intra-ICU clinical psychologist intervention may help critically ill trauma patients recover from this stressful experience.

  16. Impact of a multifaceted educational intervention including serious games to improve the management of invasive candidiasis in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, R; Zaragoza, R; Llinares, P; Maseda, E; Rodríguez, A; Quindós, G

    Infections caused by Candida species are common in critically ill patients and contribute to significant morbidity and mortality. The EPICO Project (Epico 1 and Epico 2.0 studies) recently used a Delphi approach to elaborate guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of this condition in critically ill adult patients. We aimed to evaluate the impact of a multifaceted educational intervention based on the Epico 1 and Epico 2.0 recommendations. Specialists anonymously responded to two online surveys before and after a multifaceted educational intervention consisting of 60-min educational sessions, the distribution of slide kits and pocket guides with the recommendations, and an interactive virtual case presented at a teleconference and available for online consultation. A total of 74 Spanish hospitals. Specialists of the Intensive Care Units in the participating hospitals. Specialist knowledge and reported practices evaluated using a survey. The McNemar test was used to compare the responses in the pre- and post-intervention surveys. A total of 255 and 248 specialists completed both surveys, in both periods, respectively. The pre-intervention surveys showed many specialists to be unaware of the best approach for managing invasive candidiasis. After both educational interventions, specialist knowledge and reported practices were found to be more in line with nearly all the recommendations of the Epico 1 and Epico 2.0 guidelines, except as regards de-escalation from echinocandins to fluconazole in Candida glabrata infections (p=0.055), and the duration of antifungal treatment in both candidemia and peritoneal candidiasis. This multifaceted educational intervention based on the Epico Project recommendations improved specialist knowledge of the management of invasive candidiasis in critically ill patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score and the Glasgow Coma Scale in predicting mortality in critically ill patients*.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijdicks, Eelco F M; Kramer, Andrew A; Rohs, Thomas; Hanna, Susan; Sadaka, Farid; O'Brien, Jacklyn; Bible, Shonna; Dickess, Stacy M; Foss, Michelle

    2015-02-01

    Impaired consciousness has been incorporated in prediction models that are used in the ICU. The Glasgow Coma Scale has value but is incomplete and cannot be assessed in intubated patients accurately. The Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score may be a better predictor of mortality in critically ill patients. Thirteen ICUs at five U.S. hospitals. One thousand six hundred ninety-five consecutive unselected ICU admissions during a six-month period in 2012. Glasgow Coma Scale and Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score were recorded within 1 hour of admission. Baseline characteristics and physiologic components of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation system, as well as mortality were linked to Glasgow Coma Scale/Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score information. None. We recruited 1,695 critically ill patients, of which 1,645 with complete data could be linked to data in the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation system. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of predicting ICU mortality using the Glasgow Coma Scale was 0.715 (95% CI, 0.663-0.768) and using the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score was 0.742 (95% CI, 0.694-0.790), statistically different (p = 0.001). A similar but nonsignificant difference was found for predicting hospital mortality (p = 0.078). The respiratory and brainstem reflex components of the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score showed a much wider range of mortality than the verbal component of Glasgow Coma Scale. In multivariable models, the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score was more useful than the Glasgow Coma Scale for predicting mortality. The Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score might be a better prognostic tool of ICU mortality than the Glasgow Coma Scale in critically ill patients, most likely a result of incorporating brainstem reflexes and respiration into the Full Outline of UnResponsiveness score.

  18. [Respiratory infections caused by Aspergillus spp. in critically ill patients admitted to the intensive care units].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez Lerma, F; Olaechea Astigarraga, P; Palomar Martínez, M; Rodríguez Carvajal, M; Machado Casas, J F; Jiménez Quintana, M M; Esteve Urbano, F; Ballesteros Herráez, J C; Zavala Zegarra, E

    2015-04-01

    The presence of respiratory fungal infection in the critically ill patient is associated with high morbidity and mortality. To assess the incidence of respiratory infection caused by Aspergillus spp. independently of the origin of infection in patients admitted to Spanish ICUs, as well as to describe the rates, characteristics, outcomes and prognostic factors in patients with this type of infection. An observational, retrospective, open-label and multicenter study was carried out in a cohort of patients with respiratory infection caused by Aspergillus spp. admitted to Spanish ICUs between 2006 and 2012 (months of April, May and June), and included in the ENVIN-HELICS registry (108,244 patients and 825,797 days of ICU stay). Variables independently related to in-hospital mortality were identified by multiple logistic regression analysis. A total of 267 patients from 79 of the 198 participating ICUs were included (2.46 cases per 1000 ICU patients and 3.23 episodes per 10,000 days of ICU stay). From a clinical point of view, infections were classified as ventilator-associated pneumonia in 93 cases (34.8%), pneumonia unrelated to mechanical ventilation in 120 cases (44.9%), and tracheobronchitis in 54 cases (20.2%). The study population included older patients (mean 64.8±17.1 years), with a high severity level (APACHE II score 22.03±7.7), clinical diseases (64.8%) and prolonged hospital stay before the identification of Aspergillus spp. (median 11 days), transferred to the ICU mainly from hospital wards (58.1%) and with high ICU (57.3%) and hospital (59.6%) mortality rates, exhibiting important differences depending on the type of infection involved. Independent mortality risk factors were previous admission to a hospital ward (OR=7.08, 95%CI: 3.18-15.76), a history of immunosuppression (OR=2.52, 95%CI: 1.24-5.13) and severe sepsis or septic shock (OR=8.91, 95%CI: 4.24-18.76). Respiratory infections caused by Aspergillus spp. in critically ill patients admitted to

  19. Skeletal Muscle Oxygen Saturation (StO2 Measured by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in the Critically Ill Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mesquida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to current critical care management guidelines, the overall hemodynamic optimization process seeks to restore macrocirculatory oxygenation, pressure, and flow variables. However, there is increasing evidence demonstrating that, despite normalization of these global parameters, microcirculatory and regional perfusion alterations might occur, and persistence of these alterations has been associated with worse prognosis. Such observations have led to great interest in testing new technologies capable of evaluating the microcirculation. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS measures tissue oxygen saturation (StO2 and has been proposed as a noninvasive system for monitoring regional circulation. The present review aims to summarize the existing evidence on NIRS and its potential clinical utility in different scenarios of critically ill patients.

  20. Influenza A (H1N1pdm09)-Related Critical Illness and Mortality in Mexico and Canada, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez-Cherit, Guillermo; De la Torre, Alethse; Rishu, Asgar; Pinto, Ruxandra; Ñamendys-Silva, Silvio A; Camacho-Ortiz, Adrián; Silva-Medina, Marco Antonio; Hernández-Cárdenas, Carmen; Martínez-Franco, Michel; Quesada-Sánchez, Alejandro; López-Gallegos, Guadalupe Celia; Mosqueda-Gómez, Juan L; Rivera-Martinez, Norma E; Campos-Calderón, Fernando; Rivero-Sigarroa, Eduardo; Hernández-Gilsoul, Thierry; Espinosa-Pérez, Lourdes; Macías, Alejandro E; Lue-Martínez, Dolores M; Buelna-Cano, Christian; Ramírez-García Luna, Ana-Sofía; Cruz-Ruiz, Nestor G; Poblano-Morales, Manuel; Molinar-Ramos, Fernando; Hernandez-Torre, Martin; León-Gutiérrez, Marco Antonio; Rosaldo-Abundis, Oscar; Baltazar-Torres, José Ángel; Stelfox, Henry T; Light, Bruce; Jouvet, Philippe; Reynolds, Steve; Hall, Richard; Shindo, Nikki; Daneman, Nick; Fowler, Robert A

    2016-10-01

    The 2009-2010 influenza A (H1N1pdm09) pandemic caused substantial morbidity and mortality among young patients; however, mortality estimates have been confounded by regional differences in eligibility criteria and inclusion of selected populations. In 2013-2014, H1N1pdm09 became North America's dominant seasonal influenza strain. Our objective was to compare the baseline characteristics, resources, and treatments with outcomes among critically ill patients with influenza A (H1N1pdm09) in Mexican and Canadian hospitals in 2014 using consistent eligibility criteria. Observational study and a survey of available healthcare setting resources. Twenty-one hospitals, 13 in Mexico and eight in Canada. Critically ill patients with confirmed H1N1pdm09 during 2013-2014 influenza season. None. The main outcome measures were 90-day mortality and independent predictors of mortality. Among 165 adult patients with H1N1pdm09-related critical illness between September 2013 and March 2014, mean age was 48.3 years, 64% were males, and nearly all influenza was community acquired. Patients were severely hypoxic (median PaO2-to-FIO2 ratio, 83 mm Hg), 97% received mechanical ventilation, with mean positive end-expiratory pressure of 14 cm H2O at the onset of critical illness and 26.7% received rescue oxygenation therapy with prone ventilation, extracorporeal life support, high-frequency oscillatory ventilation, or inhaled nitric oxide. At 90 days, mortality was 34.6% (13.9% in Canada vs 50.5% in Mexico, p Mexico (odds ratio, 7.76 [95% CI, 2.02-27.35]). ICUs in Canada generally had more beds, ventilators, healthcare personnel, and rescue oxygenation therapies. Influenza A (H1N1pdm09)-related critical illness still predominantly affects relatively young to middle-aged patients and is associated with severe hypoxemic respiratory failure. The local critical care system and available resources may be influential determinants of patient outcome.

  1. Simulator-based crew resource management training for interhospital transfer of critically ill patients by a mobile ICU.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droogh, Joep M; Kruger, Hanneke L; Ligtenberg, Jack J M; Zijlstra, Jan G

    2012-12-01

    Transporting critically ill ICU patients by standard ambulances, with or without an accompanying physician, imposes safety risks. In 2007 the Dutch Ministry of Public Health required that all critically ill patients transferred between ICUs in different hospitals be transported by a mobile ICU (MICU). Since March 2009 a specially designed MICU and a retrieval team have served the region near University Medical Center Groningen, in the northeastern region of the Netherlands. The MICU transport program includes simulator-based crew resource management (CRM) training for the intensivists and ICU nurses, who, with the drivers, constitute the MICU crews. Training entails five pivotal aspects: (1) preparation, (2) teamwork, (3) new equipment, (4) mobility, and (5) safety. For example, the training accustoms participants to working in the narrow, moving ambulance and without benefit of additional manpower. The scenario-based team training, which takes about four hours, occurs in a training facility, with its reconstructed ICU, and then in the MICU itself. A "wireless" patient simulator that is able to mimic hemodynamic and respiratory patterns and to simulate lung and heart sounds is used. All scenarios can be adjusted to simulate medical, logistic, or technical problems. Since the start of MICU training in 2009, more than 70 training sessions, involving 100 team members, have been conducted. Quality issues identified include failure to anticipate possible problems (such as failing to ask for intubation of a respiratory-compromised patient at intake); late responses to alarms of the ventilator, perfusor pump, or monitor; and not anticipating a possible shortage of medication. Setting up and implementing simulator-based CRM training provides feasible and helpful preparation for an MICU team.

  2. The effect of a natural food based tube feeding in minimizing diarrhea in critically ill neurological patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Simone B; Kulig, Willibald; Winter, Ralph; Vasold, Antje S; Knoll, Anette E; Rollnik, Jens D

    2018-01-09

    Diarrhea has negative consequences for patients, health care staff and health care costs when neurological patients are fed enterally over long periods. We examined the effect of tube feeding with natural foods in reducing the number of fluid stool evacuations and diarrhea in critically ill neurological patients. A multicenter, prospective, open-label and randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted at facilities in Germany specializing in early rehabilitation after neurological damage. Patients of the INTERVENTION group were fed by tube using a commercially available product based on real foods such as milk, meat, carrots, whereas CONTROL patients received a standard tube-feed made of powdered raw materials. All received enteral nutrition over a maximum of 30 days. The number of defecations and the consistency of each stool according to the Bristol Stool Chart (BSC) were monitored. In addition, daily calories, liquids and antibiotic-use were recorded. 118 Patients who had suffered ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage, traumatic brain injury or hypoxic brain damage and requiring enteral nutrition were enrolled; 59 were randomized to receive the intervention and 59 control feed. There were no significant differences in clinical screening data, age, sex, observation period or days under enteral nutrition between the groups. Patients in both groups received equivalent amount of calories and fluids. In both groups antibiotics were frequently prescribed (69.5% in the INTERVENTION group and 75.7% in the CONTROL group) for 10-11 days on average. In comparison to the CONTROL group, patients in the INTERVENTION group had a significant reduction of the number of watery stool evacuations (type 7 BSC) (minus 61%, IRR = 0.39, p natural based food was effective in reducing the number of watery defecations and diarrhea in long term tube-fed critically ill neurological patients, compared to those fed with standard tube feeding. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published

  3. Colistin Population Pharmacokinetics after Application of a Loading Dose of 9 MU Colistin Methanesulfonate in Critically Ill Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Karaiskos, Ilias; Friberg, Lena E.; Pontikis, Konstantinos; Ioannidis, Konstantinos; Tsagkari, Vasiliki; Galani, Lamprini; Kostakou, Eirini; Baziaka, Fotini; Paskalis, Charalambos; Koutsoukou, Antonia; Giamarellou, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Colistin has been revived, in the era of extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Gram-negative infections, as the last-resort treatment in critically ill patients. Recent studies focusing on the optimal dosing strategy of colistin have demonstrated the necessity of a loading dose at treatment initiation (D. Plachouras, M. Karvanen, L. E. Friberg, E. Papadomichelakis, A. Antoniadou, I. Tsangaris, I. Karaiskos, G. Poulakou, F. Kontopidou, A. Armaganidis, O. Cars, and H. Giamarellou, Antimicrob Agents ...

  4. Role of blood culture systems in the evaluation of epidemiological features of coagulase-negative staphylococcal bloodstream infection in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, L; Krimerman, S; Salam, N; Srugo, I

    1999-12-01

    The impact of blood culture systems on the detection of coagulase-negative staphylococcal bloodstream infections in critically ill patients prior to and following the introduction of the Bactec 9240 blood culture system (Becton Dickinson Diagnostic Instrument Systems, USA), which replaced the Bactec NR 730 (Becton Dickinson Diagnostic Instrument Systems), was investigated over a 3-year period. Following the introduction of the new culture system, the incidence of bloodstream infections doubled (P<0.001). Patient demographics, severity of illness, and mortality remained unchanged, while the annual standardized mortality ratio decreased significantly. These data suggest that blood culture systems may have a major impact on the perceived incidence of coagulase-negative staphylococcal bloodstream infections in this population.

  5. Microbiological analysis of bile and its impact in critically ill patients with secondary sclerosing cholangitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigtländer, Torsten; Leuchs, Ensieh; Vonberg, Ralf-Peter; Solbach, Philipp; Manns, Michael P; Suerbaum, Sebastian; Lankisch, Tim O

    2015-05-01

    Secondary sclerosing cholangitis in critically ill patients (SSC-CIP) is an emerging disease entity with unfavourable outcome. Our aim was to analyze the microbial spectrum in bile of patients with SSC-CIP and to evaluate the potential impact on the empiric antibiotic treatment in these patients. 169 patients (72 patients with SSC-CIP and 97 patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC)) were included in a prospective observational study between 2010 and 2013. Bile was obtained during endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC) and microbiologically analyzed. Patients with SSC displayed a significantly different microbiological profile in bile. Enterococcus faecium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and non-albicans species of Candida were more frequent in SSC compared to patients with PSC (p bile (p = 0.001). The antimicrobial therapy was adjusted in 64% of patients due to resistance or presence of microorganisms not covered by the initial therapy regimen. Patients with SSC-CIP have a distinct microbial profile in bile. Difficult to treat organisms are frequent and an ERC with bile fluid collection for microbiological analysis should be considered in case of insufficient antimicrobial treatment. Copyright © 2015 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Malnutrition in the acutely ill patient: is it more than just protein and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Review Article: Malnutrition in the acutely ill patient: is it more than just protein and energy? 2011;24(3) ... illness/injury, significant mortality occurs after critically ill patients are discharged from ... a manner similar to that of administering an antibiotic or drug. .... delivery (median of 0.8 g/kg/day protein (after day 3) for the study.

  7. Diabetic status and the relation of the three domains of glycemic control to mortality in critically ill patients: an international multicenter cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinsley, James S; Egi, Moritoki; Kiss, Alex; Devendra, Amin N; Schuetz, Philipp; Maurer, Paula M; Schultz, Marcus J; van Hooijdonk, Roosmarijn T M; Kiyoshi, Morita; Mackenzie, Iain M J; Annane, Djillali; Stow, Peter; Nasraway, Stanley A; Holewinski, Sharon; Holzinger, Ulrike; Preiser, Jean-Charles; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Bellomo, Rinaldo

    2013-03-01

    Hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, and increased glycemic variability have each been independently associated with increased risk of mortality in critically ill patients. The role of diabetic status on modulating the relation of these three domains of glycemic control with mortality remains uncertain. The purpose of this investigation was to determine how diabetic status affects the relation of hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, and increased glycemic variability with the risk of mortality in critically ill patients. This is a retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data involving 44,964 patients admitted to 23 intensive care units (ICUs) from nine countries, between February 2001 and May 2012. We analyzed mean blood glucose concentration (BG), coefficient of variation (CV), and minimal BG and created multivariable models to analyze their independent association with mortality. Patients were stratified according to the diagnosis of diabetes. Among patients without diabetes, mean BG bands between 80 and 140 mg/dl were independently associated with decreased risk of mortality, and mean BG bands>or=140 mg/dl, with increased risk of mortality. Among patients with diabetes, mean BG from 80 to 110 mg/dl was associated with increased risk of mortality and mean BG from 110 to 180 mg/dl with decreased risk of mortality. An effect of center was noted on the relation between mean BG and mortality. Hypoglycemia, defined as minimum BGor=20%, was independently associated with increased risk of mortality only among patients without diabetes. Derangements of more than one domain of glycemic control had a cumulative association with mortality, especially for patients without diabetes. Although hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, and increased glycemic variability is each independently associated with mortality in critically ill patients, diabetic status modulates these relations in clinically important ways. Our findings suggest that patients with diabetes may benefit from higher glucose

  8. Role of renal function in risk assessment of target non-attainment after standard dosing of meropenem in critically ill patients: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehmann, Lisa; Zoller, Michael; Minichmayr, Iris K; Scharf, Christina; Maier, Barbara; Schmitt, Maximilian V; Hartung, Niklas; Huisinga, Wilhelm; Vogeser, Michael; Frey, Lorenz; Zander, Johannes; Kloft, Charlotte

    2017-10-21

    Severe bacterial infections remain a major challenge in intensive care units because of their high prevalence and mortality. Adequate antibiotic exposure has been associated with clinical success in critically ill patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the target attainment of standard meropenem dosing in a heterogeneous critically ill population, to quantify the impact of the full renal function spectrum on meropenem exposure and target attainment, and ultimately to translate the findings into a tool for practical application. A prospective observational single-centre study was performed with critically ill patients with severe infections receiving standard dosing of meropenem. Serial blood samples were drawn over 4 study days to determine meropenem serum concentrations. Renal function was assessed by creatinine clearance according to the Cockcroft and Gault equation (CLCR CG ). Variability in meropenem serum concentrations was quantified at the middle and end of each monitored dosing interval. The attainment of two pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic targets (100%T >MIC , 50%T >4×MIC ) was evaluated for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 2 mg/L and 8 mg/L and standard meropenem dosing (1000 mg, 30-minute infusion, every 8 h). Furthermore, we assessed the impact of CLCR CG on meropenem concentrations and target attainment and developed a tool for risk assessment of target non-attainment. Large inter- and intra-patient variability in meropenem concentrations was observed in the critically ill population (n = 48). Attainment of the target 100%T >MIC was merely 48.4% and 20.6%, given MIC values of 2 mg/L and 8 mg/L, respectively, and similar for the target 50%T >4×MIC . A hyperbolic relationship between CLCR CG (25-255 ml/minute) and meropenem serum concentrations at the end of the dosing interval (C 8h ) was derived. For infections with pathogens of MIC 2 mg/L, mild renal impairment up to augmented renal function was

  9. ICU-acquired weakness: what is preventing its rehabilitation in critically ill patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Christie M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICUAW has been recognized as an important and persistent complication in survivors of critical illness. The absence of a consistent nomenclature and diagnostic criteria for ICUAW has made research in this area challenging. Although many risk factors have been identified, the data supporting their direct association have been controversial. Presently, there is a growing body of literature supporting the utility and benefit of early mobility in reducing the morbidity from ICUAW, but few centers have adopted this into their ICU procedures. Ultimately, the implementation of such a strategy would require a shift in the knowledge and culture within the ICU, and may be facilitated by novel technology and patient care strategies. The purpose of this article is to briefly review the diagnosis, risk factors, and management of ICUAW, and to discuss some of the barriers and novel treatments to improve outcomes for our ICU survivors.

  10. Is prolonged infusion of piperacillin/tazobactam and meropenem in critically ill patients associated with improved pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic and patient outcomes? An observation from the Defining Antibiotic Levels in Intensive care unit patients (DALI) cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Aziz, Mohd H; Lipman, Jeffrey; Akova, Murat; Bassetti, Matteo; De Waele, Jan J; Dimopoulos, George; Dulhunty, Joel; Kaukonen, Kirsi-Maija; Koulenti, Despoina; Martin, Claude; Montravers, Philippe; Rello, Jordi; Rhodes, Andrew; Starr, Therese; Wallis, Steven C; Roberts, Jason A

    2016-01-01

    We utilized the database of the Defining Antibiotic Levels in Intensive care unit patients (DALI) study to statistically compare the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic and clinical outcomes between prolonged-infusion and intermittent-bolus dosing of piperacillin/tazobactam and meropenem in critically ill patients using inclusion criteria similar to those used in previous prospective studies. This was a post hoc analysis of a prospective, multicentre pharmacokinetic point-prevalence study (DALI), which recruited a large cohort of critically ill patients from 68 ICUs across 10 countries. Of the 211 patients receiving piperacillin/tazobactam and meropenem in the DALI study, 182 met inclusion criteria. Overall, 89.0% (162/182) of patients achieved the most conservative target of 50% fT>MIC (time over which unbound or free drug concentration remains above the MIC). Decreasing creatinine clearance and the use of prolonged infusion significantly increased the PTA for most pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic targets. In the subgroup of patients who had respiratory infection, patients receiving β-lactams via prolonged infusion demonstrated significantly better 30 day survival when compared with intermittent-bolus patients [86.2% (25/29) versus 56.7% (17/30); P = 0.012]. Additionally, in patients with a SOFA score of ≥9, administration by prolonged infusion compared with intermittent-bolus dosing demonstrated significantly better clinical cure [73.3% (11/15) versus 35.0% (7/20); P = 0.035] and survival rates [73.3% (11/15) versus 25.0% (5/20); P = 0.025]. Analysis of this large dataset has provided additional data on the niche benefits of administration of piperacillin/tazobactam and meropenem by prolonged infusion in critically ill patients, particularly for patients with respiratory infections. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e

  11. Psychometric analysis of subjective sedation scales used for critically ill paediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xiaohua; Zhang, Tingting; Zhou, Lingling

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric properties of subjective sedation scales using one psychometric scoring system to identify the appropriate scale that is most suitable for clinical care practice. A number of published sedation assessment scales for paediatric patients are currently used to attempt to achieve a moderate depth of sedation to avoid the undesirable effects caused by over- or undersedation. However, there has been no systematic review of these scales. We searched the Cochrane Library, PubMed, EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, etc., to obtain relevant articles. The quality of the selected studies was evaluated according to the Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments checklist. Articles that had been published or were in press and discussed the psychometric properties of sedation scales were included. The population comprised critically ill infants and non-verbal children ranging in age from 0 to 18 years who underwent sedation in an intensive care unit. Data were independently extracted by two investigators using a standard data extraction checklist: 43 articles were included in this review, and 13 sedation scales were examined. The quality of the psychometric evidence for the Comfort Scale and Comfort Behaviour Scale was 'very good', with the Comfort Scale having a higher quality (total weighted scores, Comfort Scale = 17·3 and Comfort Behaviour Scale = 15·5). We suggest that the scales be systematically and comprehensively tested in terms of development method, reliability, validation, feasibility and correlation with clinical outcome. The Comfort Scale and Comfort Behaviour Scale are useful tools for measuring sedation in paediatric patients. Nursing staff should choose one subjective sedation scale that is suitable for assessing paediatric patients' depth of sedation. We recommend the Comfort Scale and Comfort Behaviour Scale as optimal choices if the clinical

  12. Redefining the gut as the motor of critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Rohit; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2014-04-01

    The gut is hypothesized to play a central role in the progression of sepsis and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Critical illness alters gut integrity by increasing epithelial apoptosis and permeability and by decreasing epithelial proliferation and mucus integrity. Additionally, toxic gut-derived lymph induces distant organ injury. Although the endogenous microflora ordinarily exist in a symbiotic relationship with the gut epithelium, severe physiological insults alter this relationship, leading to induction of virulence factors in the microbiome, which, in turn, can perpetuate or worsen critical illness. This review highlights newly discovered ways in which the gut acts as the motor that perpetuates the systemic inflammatory response in critical illness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Psychotropic Drug Use in Physically Restrained, Critically Ill Adults Receiving Mechanical Ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenette, Melanie; Burry, Lisa; Cheung, Alexandra; Farquharson, Tara; Traille, Marlene; Mantas, Ioanna; Mehta, Sangeeta; Rose, Louise

    2017-09-01

    Restraining therapies (physical or pharmacological) are used to promote the safety of both patients and health care workers. Some guidelines recommend nonpharmacological or pharmacological interventions be used before physical restraints in critically ill patients. To characterize psychotropic drug interventions before and after use of physical restraints in critically ill adults receiving mechanical ventilation. A single-center, prospective, observational study documenting psychotropic drug use and Sedation-Agitation Scale (SAS) scores in the 2 hours before and the 6 hours after application of physical restraints. Ninety-three patients were restrained for a median of 21 hours (interquartile range, 9-70 hours). Thirty percent of patients did not receive a psychotropic drug or had a drug stopped or decreased before physical restraints were applied. More patients received a psychotropic drug intervention after use of physical restraints than before (86% vs 56%, P = .001). Administration of opioids was more common after the use of physical restraints (54% vs 20% of patients, P = .001) and accounted for more drug interventions (45% vs 29%, P = .001). Fifty patients had SAS scores from both time periods; 16% remained oversedated, 24% were appropriately sedated, and 16% remained agitated in both time periods. Patients became oversedated (20%), more agitated (10%), less agitated (8%), and less sedated (6%) after restraint use. Psychotropic drug interventions (mostly using opioids) were more common after use of physical restraints. Some patients may be physically restrained for anticipated treatment interference without consideration of pharmacological options and without documented agitation. ©2017 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  14. Hemodynamic monitoring in the critically ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voga, G

    1995-06-01

    Monitoring of vital functions is one of the most important and essential tools in the management of critically ill patients in the ICU. Today it is possible to detect and analyze a great variety of physiological signals by various noninvasive and invasive techniques. An intensivist should be able to select and perform the most appropriate monitoring method for the individual patient considering risk-benefit ratio of the particular monitoring technique and the need for immediate therapy, specific diagnosis, continuous monitoring and evaluation of morphology should be included. Despite rapid development of noninvasive monitoring techniques, invasive hemodynamic monitoring in still one of the most basic ICU procedures. It enables monitoring of pressures, flow and saturation, pressures in the systemic and pulmonary circulation, estimation of cardiac performance and judgment of the adequacy of the cardiocirculatory system. Carefully and correctly obtained information are basis for proper hemodynamic assessment which usually effects the therapeutic decisions.

  15. Skeletal muscle oxygen pressure fields in artificially ventilated, critically ill patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, N.; Jorfeldt, L.; Lewis, D.H.; Oedman, S.

    1980-01-01

    The MDO (Mehrdraht Dostmund Oberflaeche) oxygen electrode was used in a study of skeletal muscle oxygen pressure fields, presented as histograms, in critically ill patients artificially ventilated with gas mixtures of different oxygen concentrations. The histograms were compared with forearm blood flow measurements performed with strain gauge plethysmography. Local blood flow and permeability-surface area product (PS) were also studied by the simultaneous clearances of 133 xenon and 51 Cr-EDTA. The histogram distribution type was normal, i.e. approximately Gaussian, at arterial oxygen pressure levels between 10 and 18 kPa. At arterial oxygen pressures outside this range the histogram distribution types were abnormal, i.e. they showed a non-symmetrical distribution of oxygen pressure values, but their mean was approximately the same as in the normal histogram. However, there were significantly higher tissue oxygen pressure mean values in the patients (3.43 kPa) than in a group of healthy human volunteers (2.25 kPa). Mean forearm blood flow and the clearances of 133 xenon and 51 Cr-EDTA showed marked variations during the measurements both intraindividually and interindividually. Mean forearm blood flow and mean clearances of 133 xenon showed opposite trends compared with arterial oxygen pressures. Mean clearances of 51 Cr-EDTA and mean PS showed minor variations at the different arterial oxygen pressure levels. (author)

  16. Effect of intravenous haloperidol on the duration of delirium and coma in critically ill patients (Hope-ICU): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Valerie J; Ely, E Wesley; Gates, Simon; Zhao, Xiao Bei; Alce, Timothy; Shintani, Ayumi; Jackson, Jim; Perkins, Gavin D; McAuley, Daniel F

    2013-09-01

    Delirium is frequently diagnosed in critically ill patients and is associated with poor clinical outcomes. Haloperidol is the most commonly used drug for delirium despite little evidence of its effectiveness. The aim of this study was to establish whether early treatment with haloperidol would decrease the time that survivors of critical illness spent in delirium or coma. We did this double-blind, placebo-controlled randomised trial in a general adult intensive care unit (ICU). Critically ill patients (≥18 years) needing mechanical ventilation within 72 h of admission were enrolled. Patients were randomised (by an independent nurse, in 1:1 ratio, with permuted block size of four and six, using a centralised, secure web-based randomisation service) to receive haloperidol 2.5 mg or 0.9% saline placebo intravenously every 8 h, irrespective of coma or delirium status. Study drug was discontinued on ICU discharge, once delirium-free and coma-free for 2 consecutive days, or after a maximum of 14 days of treatment, whichever came first. Delirium was assessed using the confusion assessment method for the ICU (CAM-ICU). The primary outcome was delirium-free and coma-free days, defined as the number of days in the first 14 days after randomisation during which the patient was alive without delirium and not in coma from any cause. Patients who died within the 14 day study period were recorded as having 0 days free of delirium and coma. ICU clinical and research staff and patients were masked to treatment throughout the study. Analyses were by intention to treat. This trial is registered with the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Registry, number ISRCTN83567338. 142 patients were randomised, 141 were included in the final analysis (71 haloperidol, 70 placebo). Patients in the haloperidol group spent about the same number of days alive, without delirium, and without coma as did patients in the placebo group (median 5 days [IQR 0-10] vs 6 days [0-11] days; p=0

  17. Targeted full energy and protein delivery in critically ill patients: a study protocol for a pilot randomised control trial (FEED Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Fetterplace

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current guidelines for the provision of protein for critically ill patients are based on incomplete evidence, due to limited data from randomised controlled trials. The present pilot randomised controlled trial is part of a program of work to expand knowledge about the clinical effects of protein delivery to critically ill patients. The primary aim of this pilot study is to determine whether an enteral feeding protocol using a volume target, with additional protein supplementation, delivers a greater amount of protein and energy to mechanically ventilated critically ill patients than a standard nutrition protocol. The secondary aims are to evaluate the potential effects of this feeding strategy on muscle mass and other patient-centred outcomes. Methods This prospective, single-centred, pilot, randomised control trial will include 60 participants who are mechanically ventilated and can be enterally fed. Following informed consent, the participants receiving enteral nutrition in the intensive care unit (ICU will be allocated using a randomisation algorithm in a 1:1 ratio to the intervention (high-protein daily volume-based feeding protocol, providing 25 kcal/kg and 1.5 g/kg protein or standard care (hourly rate-based feeding protocol providing 25 kcal/kg and 1 g/kg protein. The co-primary outcomes are the average daily protein and energy delivered to the end of day 15 following randomisation. The secondary outcomes include change in quadriceps muscle layer thickness (QMLT from baseline (prior to randomisation to ICU discharge and other nutritional and patient-centred outcomes. Discussion This trial aims to examine whether a volume-based feeding protocol with supplemental protein increases protein and energy delivery. The potential effect of such increases on muscle mass loss will be explored. These outcomes will assist in formulating larger randomised control trials to assess mortality and morbidity. Trial registration

  18. Comparison and relationship of thyroid hormones, IL-6, IL-10 and albumin as mortality predictors in case-mix critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe E, Álvaro; Li, Xiang-Min; Yi, Hong

    2016-05-01

    To compare the ability of thyroid hormones, IL-6, IL-10, and albumin to predict mortality, and to assess their relationship in case-mix acute critically ill patients. APACHE II scores and serum thyroid hormones (FT3, FT4, and TSH), IL-6, IL-10, and albumin were obtained at EICU admission for 79 cases of mix acute critically ill patients without previous history of thyroid disease. Patients were followed for 28 days with patient's death as the primary outcome. All mean values were compared, correlations assessed with Pearson' test, and mortality prediction assessed by multivariate logistic regression and ROC. Non survivors were older, with higher APACHE II score (p=0.000), IL-6 (p<0.05), IL-10 (p=0.000) levels, and lower albumin (p=0.000) levels compared to survivors at 28 days. IL-6 and IL-10 had significant negative correlation with albumin (p=0.001) and FT3 (p ⩽ 0.05) respectively, while low albumin had a direct correlation with FT3 (p<0.05). In the mortality prediction assessment, IL-10, albumin and APACHE II were independent morality predictors and showed to have a good (0.70-0.79) AUC-ROC (p<0.05). Despite that the entire cohort showed low FT3 serum levels (p=0.000), there was not statistical difference between survivors and non-survivors; neither showed any significance as mortality predictor. IL-6 and IL-10 are correlated with Low FT3 and hypoalbuminemia. Thyroid hormones assessed at EICU admission did not have any predictive value in our study. And finally, high levels of IL-6 and IL-10 in conjunction with albumin could improve our ability to evaluate disease's severity and predict mortality in the critically ill patients. When use in combination with APACHE II scores, our model showed improved mortality prediction. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Tricuspid Annular Plane Systolic Excursion and Its Association with Mortality in Critically Ill Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajanana, Deepakraj; Seetha Rammohan, Harish; Alli, Oluseun; Romero-Corral, Abel; Purushottam, Bhaskar; Ponamgi, Shiva; Figueredo, Vincent M; Pressman, Gregg S

    2015-08-01

    Transient left ventricular dysfunction can occur under conditions of extreme emotional or physiological stress. There is little data on right ventricular function in such situations. One hundred twenty patients admitted to an ICU with a noncardiac illness were studied. Those with documented coronary disease, ejection fraction <40%, sepsis, or intracranial hemorrhage were excluded. Echocardiograms were performed within 24 hours of admission. Tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE) was measured to assess right ventricular systolic function. Plasma catecholamines (norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine) were measured on admission. Clinical and demographic data were collected, along with data on ICU length of stay (LOS), hospital LOS, and in-hospital and long-term mortality. TAPSE was tested for correlation with adverse outcomes and length of stay. Mean TAPSE for the group was 2.05 ± 0.66 cm. Based on area under the ROC curve analysis, TAPSE <2.4 cm was the best cutoff for predicting in-hospital and long-term mortality. There were 13 in-hospital deaths, 12 in the group with TAPSE <2.4 cm and one among those with TAPSE ≥2.4 cm. On multivariate analysis, TAPSE <2.4 cm was a significant predictor of in-hospital mortality (χ(2)  = 4.6, P = 0.03). When tested against hospital LOS, an inverse correlation was found (P = 0.04). No association was found between TAPSE and catecholamine levels. Right ventricular systolic function, as assessed by TAPSE, has important prognostic value in critically ill patients. Mean values were lower in patients who died in-hospital versus those who survived to discharge. In addition, patients with TAPSE <2.4 cm had a longer hospital length of stay. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Inclusion and definition of acute renal dysfunction in critically ill patients in randomized controlled trials: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Hora Passos, Rogerio; Ramos, Joao Gabriel Rosa; Gobatto, André; Caldas, Juliana; Macedo, Etienne; Batista, Paulo Benigno

    2018-04-24

    In evidence-based medicine, multicenter, prospective, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are the gold standard for evaluating treatment benefits and ensuring the effectiveness of interventions. Patient-centered outcomes, such as mortality, are most often the preferred evaluated outcomes. While there is currently agreement on how to classify renal dysfunction in critically ill patients , the application frequency of this new classification system in RCTs has not previously been evaluated. In this study, we aim to assess the definition of renal dysfunction in multicenter RCTs involving critically ill patients that included mortality as a primary endpoint. A comprehensive search was conducted for publications reporting multicenter randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving adult patients in intensive care units (ICUs) that included mortality as a primary outcome. MEDLINE and PUBMED were queried for relevant articles in core clinical journals published between May 2004 and December 2017. Of 418 articles reviewed, 46 multicenter RCTs with a primary endpoint related to mortality were included. Thirty-six (78.3%) of the trial reports provided information on renal function in the participants. Only seven articles (15.2%) included mean or median serum creatinine levels, mean creatinine clearance or estimated glomerular filtration rates. Sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score was the most commonly used definition of renal dysfunction (20 studies; 43.5%). Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-stage renal disease (RIFLE), Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) and Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) criteria were used in five (10.9%) trials. In thirteen trials (28.3%), no renal dysfunction criteria were reported. Only one trial excluded patients with renal dysfunction, and it used urinary output or need for renal replacement therapy (RRT) as criteria for this diagnosis. The presence of renal dysfunction was included as a baseline patient characteristic in

  1. Computed tomography to estimate cardiac preload and extravascular lung water. A retrospective analysis in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmid Roland M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In critically ill patients intravascular volume status and pulmonary edema need to be quantified as soon as possible. Many critically ill patients undergo a computed tomography (CT-scan of the thorax after admission to the intensive care unit (ICU. This study investigates whether CT-based estimation of cardiac preload and pulmonary hydration can accurately assess volume status and can contribute to an early estimation of hemodynamics. Methods Thirty medical ICU patients. Global end-diastolic volume index (GEDVI and extravascular lung water index (EVLWI were assessed using transpulmonary thermodilution (TPTD serving as reference method (with established GEDVI/EVLWI normal values. Central venous pressure (CVP was determined. CT-based estimation of GEDVI/EVLWI/CVP by two different radiologists (R1, R2 without analyzing software. Primary endpoint: predictive capabilities of CT-based estimation of GEDVI/EVLWI/CVP compared to TPTD and measured CVP. Secondary endpoint: interobserver correlation and agreement between R1 and R2. Results Accuracy of CT-estimation of GEDVI ( 800 mL/m2 was 33%(R1/27%(R2. For R1 and R2 sensitivity for diagnosis of low GEDVI (2 was 0% (specificity 100%. Sensitivity for prediction of elevated GEDVI (> 800 mL/m2 was 86%(R1/57%(R2 with a specificity of 57%(R1/39%(R2 (positive predictive value 38%(R1/22%(R2; negative predictive value 93%(R1/75%(R2. Estimated CT-GEDVI and TPTD-GEDVI were significantly different showing an overestimation of GEDVI by the radiologists (R1: mean difference ± standard error (SE: 191 ± 30 mL/m2, p 2, p 10 mL/kg was 30% for R1 and 40% for R2. CT-EVLWI and TPTD-EVLWI were significantly different (R1: mean difference ± SE: 3.3 ± 1.2 mL/kg, p = 0.013; R2: mean difference ± SE: 2.8 ± 1.1 mL/kg, p = 0.021. Again ccc was low with -0.02 (R1; 95% CI: -0.20 to +0.13, BCF = 0.44 and +0.14 (R2; 95% CI: -0.05 to +0.32, BCF = 0.53. GEDVI, EVLWI and CVP estimations of R1 and R2 showed a poor

  2. Cholecystectomy vs. percutaneous cholecystostomy for the management of critically ill patients with acute cholecystitis: a protocol for a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambe, Peter C; Kaptanis, Sarantos; Papadakis, Marios; Weber, Sebastian A; Zirngibl, Hubert

    2015-05-30

    Acute cholecystitis is a common diagnosis. However, the heterogeneity of presentation makes it difficult to standardize management. Although surgery is the mainstay of treatment, critically ill patients have been managed via percutaneous cholecystostomy. However, the role of percutaneous cholecystostomy in the management of such patients has not been clearly established. This systematic review will compare the outcomes of critically ill patients with acute cholecystitis managed with percutaneous cholecystostomy to those of similar patients managed with cholecystectomy. Systematic searches will be conducted across relevant health databases including the Cochrane Library, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), MEDLINE, Embase, and Scopus using the following keywords: (acute cholecystitis OR severe cholecystitis OR cholecystitis) AND (cholecystectomy OR laparoscopic cholecystectomy OR open cholecystectomy) AND (Cholecystostomy OR percutaneous cholecystectomy OR gallbladder drain OR gallbladder tube OR transhepatic gallbladder drain OR transhepatic gallbladder tube OR cholecystostomy tube). The reference lists of eligible articles will be hand searched. Articles from 2000-2014 will be identified using the key terms "acute cholecystitis, cholecystectomy, and percutaneous cholecystostomy". Studies including both interventions will be included. Relevant data will be extracted from eligible studies using a specially designed data extraction sheet. The Newcastle-Ottawa scale will be used to assess the quality of non-randomized studies. Central tendencies will be reported in terms of means and standard deviations where necessary, and risk ratios will be calculated where possible. All calculations will be performed with a 95 % confidence interval. Furthermore, the Fisher's exact test will be used for the calculation of significance, which will be set at p < 0.05. Pooled estimates will be presented after consideration of both clinical and

  3. Prophylactic use of laxative for constipation in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masri Yasser

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : This study was designed to evaluate the use of laxative prophylaxis for constipation in intensive care unit (ICU and the impact of early versus late bowel movement on patient′s outcome. Methods : The study was a prospective, randomized controlled trial in critically ill ventilated adult patients, who were expected to stay on ventilator for >72 h. Control group did not receive any intervention for bowel movement for the first 72 h, whereas interventional group received prophylactic dose of lactulose 20 cc enterally every 12 h for the first 72 h. The parameters measured during the study were admission diagnosis, age, gender, comorbid conditions, admission Simplified Acute Physiologic Score (SAPS II, sedative and narcotic agents with doses and duration, timing and tolerance of nutrition, daily assessment of bowel movement, total use of prokinetic, doses of suppositories, and enema for first bowel movement, total number of days on ventilator, weaning failures, extubation or tracheostomy, ICU length of stay, and death or discharge. Results : A total of 100 patients were enrolled, 50 patients in each control and interventional group. Mean age was 38.8 years, and both groups had male predominance. Mean SAPS II score for both was 35. Mean dose of Fentanyl (323.8 ± 108.89 mcg/h in control and 345.83 ± 94.43 mcg/h in interventional group and mean dose of Midazolam (11.1 ± 4.04 mg/h in control and 12.4 ± 3.19 mg/h in interventional group. There were only two (4% patients in control, while nine (18% patients in interventional group who had bowel movement in <72 h (P < 0.05. Mean ventilator days were 16.19, and 17.36 days in control and interventional groups, respectively. Subgroup analysis showed that the patients who moved bowel in <5 days in both groups had mean ventilator days of 18.5, whereas it was 15.88 days for the patients who moved bowel after 5 days in both groups (P< 0.05. Mean ICU days for control was 21.15 ± 10.44 and 20

  4. Efficacy and safety of procalcitonin guidance in reducing the duration of antibiotic treatment in critically ill patients : a randomised, controlled, open-label trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Evelien; van Oers, Jos A; Beishuizen, Albertus; Vos, Piet; Vermeijden, Wytze J; Haas, Lenneke E; Loef, Bert G; Dormans, Tom; van Melsen, Gertrude C; Kluiters, Yvette C; Kemperman, Hans; van den Elsen, Maarten J; Schouten, Jeroen A; Streefkerk, Jörn O; Krabbe, Hans G; Kieft, Hans; Kluge, Georg H; van Dam, Veerle C; van Pelt, Joost; Bormans, Laura; Otten, Martine Bokelman; Reidinga, Auke C; Endeman, Henrik; Twisk, Jos W; van de Garde, Ewoudt M W; de Smet, Anne Marie G A; Kesecioglu, Jozef; Girbes, Armand R; Nijsten, Maarten W; de Lange, Dylan W

    BACKGROUND: In critically ill patients, antibiotic therapy is of great importance but long duration of treatment is associated with the development of antimicrobial resistance. Procalcitonin is a marker used to guide antibacterial therapy and reduce its duration, but data about safety of this

  5. Milrinone for cardiac dysfunction in critically ill adult patients : a systematic review of randomised clinical trials with meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, Geert; Bekema, Hanneke J.; Wetterslev, Jorn; Gluud, Christian; Keus, Frederik; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.

    Milrinone is an inotrope widely used for treatment of cardiac failure. Because previous meta-analyses had methodological flaws, we decided to conduct a systematic review of the effect of milrinone in critically ill adult patients with cardiac dysfunction. This systematic review was performed

  6. Decision support tool for early differential diagnosis of acute lung injury and cardiogenic pulmonary edema in medical critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmickl, Christopher N; Shahjehan, Khurram; Li, Guangxi; Dhokarh, Rajanigandha; Kashyap, Rahul; Janish, Christopher; Alsara, Anas; Jaffe, Allan S; Hubmayr, Rolf D; Gajic, Ognjen

    2012-01-01

    At the onset of acute hypoxic respiratory failure, critically ill patients with acute lung injury (ALI) may be difficult to distinguish from those with cardiogenic pulmonary edema (CPE). No single clinical parameter provides satisfying prediction. We hypothesized that a combination of those will facilitate early differential diagnosis. In a population-based retrospective development cohort, validated electronic surveillance identified critically ill adult patients with acute pulmonary edema. Recursive partitioning and logistic regression were used to develop a decision support tool based on routine clinical information to differentiate ALI from CPE. Performance of the score was validated in an independent cohort of referral patients. Blinded post hoc expert review served as gold standard. Of 332 patients in a development cohort, expert reviewers (κ, 0.86) classified 156 as having ALI and 176 as having CPE. The validation cohort had 161 patients (ALI = 113, CPE = 48). The score was based on risk factors for ALI and CPE, age, alcohol abuse, chemotherapy, and peripheral oxygen saturation/Fio(2) ratio. It demonstrated good discrimination (area under curve [AUC] = 0.81; 95% CI, 0.77-0.86) and calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow [HL] P = .16). Similar performance was obtained in the validation cohort (AUC = 0.80; 95% CI, 0.72-0.88; HL P = .13). A simple decision support tool accurately classifies acute pulmonary edema, reserving advanced testing for a subset of patients in whom satisfying prediction cannot be made. This novel tool may facilitate early inclusion of patients with ALI and CPE into research studies as well as improve and rationalize clinical management and resource use.

  7. Association of Periodic and Rhythmic Electroencephalographic Patterns With Seizures in Critically Ill Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Ruiz, Andres; Vlachy, Jan; Lee, Jong Woo; Gilmore, Emily J; Ayer, Turgay; Haider, Hiba Arif; Gaspard, Nicolas; Ehrenberg, J Andrew; Tolchin, Benjamin; Fantaneanu, Tadeu A; Fernandez, Andres; Hirsch, Lawrence J; LaRoche, Suzette

    2017-02-01

    Periodic and rhythmic electroencephalographic patterns have been associated with risk of seizures in critically ill patients. However, specific features that confer higher seizure risk remain unclear. To analyze the association of distinct characteristics of periodic and rhythmic patterns with seizures. We reviewed electroencephalographic recordings from 4772 critically ill adults in 3 academic medical centers from February 2013 to September 2015 and performed a multivariate analysis to determine features associated with seizures. Continuous electroencephalography. Association of periodic and rhythmic patterns and specific characteristics, such as pattern frequency (hertz), Plus modifier, prevalence, and stimulation-induced patterns, and the risk for seizures. Of the 4772 patients included in our study, 2868 were men and 1904 were women. Lateralized periodic discharges (LPDs) had the highest association with seizures regardless of frequency and the association was greater when the Plus modifier was present (58%; odds ratio [OR], 2.00, P rhythmic delta activity (LRDA) were associated with seizures in a frequency-dependent manner (1.5-2 Hz: GPDs, 24%,OR, 2.31, P = .02; LRDA, 24%, OR, 1.79, P = .05; ≥ 2 Hz: GPDs, 32%, OR, 3.30, P rhythmic delta activity compared with no periodic or rhythmic pattern (13%, OR, 1.18, P = .26). Higher prevalence of LPDs and GPDs also conferred increased seizure risk (37% frequent vs 45% abundant/continuous, OR, 1.64, P = .03 for difference; 8% rare/occasional vs 15% frequent, OR, 2.71, P = .03, vs 23% abundant/continuous, OR, 1.95, P = .04). Patterns associated with stimulation did not show an additional risk for seizures from the underlying pattern risk (P > .10). In this study, LPDs, LRDA, and GPDs were associated with seizures while generalized rhythmic delta activity was not. Lateralized periodic discharges were associated with seizures at all frequencies with and without Plus modifier, but LRDA and GPDs were associated with

  8. Persistent Delirium in Chronic Critical Illness as a Prodrome Syndrome before Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForest, Anna; Blinderman, Craig D

    2017-05-01

    Chronic critical illness (CCI) patients have poor functional outcomes, high risk of mortality, and significant sequelae, including delirium and cognitive dysfunction. The prognostic significance of persistent delirium in patients with CCI has not been well described. We report a case of a patient with CCI following major cardiac surgery who was hemodynamically stable following a long course in the cardiothoracic intensive care unit (CTICU), but had persistent and unremitting delirium. Despite both pharmacological and nonpharmacological approaches to improve his delirium, the patient ultimately continued to have symptoms of delirium and subsequently died in the CTICU. Efforts to reconsider the goals of care, given his family's understanding of his values, were met with resistance as his cardiothoracic surgeon believed that he had a reasonable chance of recovery since his organs were not in failure. This case description raises the question of whether we should consider persistent delirium as a prodrome syndrome before death in patients with CCI. Study and analysis of a case of a patient with CCI following major cardiothoracic surgery who was hemodynamically stable with persistent delirium. Further studies of the prevalence and outcomes of prolonged or persistent agitated delirium in patients with chronic critical illness are needed to provide prognostic information that can assist patients and families in receiving care that accords with their goals and values.

  9. Assessment of the worldwide burden of critical illness: the Intensive Care Over Nations (ICON) audit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vincent, J.L.; Marshall, J.C.; Namendys-Silva, S.A.; Francois, B.; Martin-Loeches, I.; Lipman, J.; Reinhart, K.; Antonelli, M.; Pickkers, P.; Njimi, H.; Jimenez, E.; Sakr, Y.; investigators, I.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Global epidemiological data regarding outcomes for patients in intensive care units (ICUs) are scarce, but are important in understanding the worldwide burden of critical illness. We, therefore, did an international audit of ICU patients worldwide and assessed variations between

  10. The critically ill obstetric patient - Recent concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjan Trikha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstetric patients admitted to an Intensive Care Unit (ICU present a challenge to an intensivist because of normal physiological changes associated with pregnancy and puerperium, the specific medical diseases peculiar to pregnancy and the need to take care of both the mother and the foetus. Most common causes of admission to an ICU for obstetric patients are eclampsia, severe preeclampsia, haemorrhage, congenital and valvular heart disease, septic abortions, severe anemia, cardiomyopathy and non-obstetric sepsis. The purpose of this review is to present the recent concepts in critical care management of obstetric patients with special focus mainly on ventilatory strategies, treatment of shock and nutrition. The details regarding management of individual diseases would not be discussed as these would be beyond the purview of this article. In addition, some specific issues of importance while managing such patients would also be highlighted.

  11. Comparison of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions to prevent delirium in critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burry, L. D.; Hutton, Brian; Guenette, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Delirium is characterized by acute changes in mental status including inattention, disorganized thinking, and altered level of consciousness, and is highly prevalent in critically ill adults. Delirium has adverse consequences for both patients and the healthcare system; however...... systematic review will synthesize all existing data using network meta-analysis, a powerful statistical approach that enables synthesis of both direct and indirect evidence.  Methods: We will search Ovid MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, PsycINFO, and Web of Science from 1980 to March 2016. We will search...... the PROSPERO registry for protocols and the Cochrane Library for published systematic reviews. We will examine reference lists of pertinent reviews and search grey literature and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for unpublished studies and ongoing trials. We will include randomized and quasi...

  12. Statistical analysis plan for the Adjunctive Corticosteroid Treatment in Critically Ill Patients with Septic Shock (ADRENAL) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billot, Laurent; Venkatesh, Balasubramanian; Myburgh, John

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Adjunctive Corticosteroid Treatment in Critically Ill Patients with Septic Shock (ADRENAL) trial, a 3800-patient, multicentre, randomised controlled trial, will be the largest study to date of corticosteroid therapy in patients with septic shock. OBJECTIVE: To describe a statistical...... and statisticians and approved by the ADRENAL management committee. All authors were blind to treatment allocation and to the unblinded data produced during two interim analyses conducted by the Data Safety and Monitoring Committee. The data shells were produced from a previously published protocol. Statistical...... analyses are described in broad detail. Trial outcomes were selected and categorised into primary, secondary and tertiary outcomes, and appropriate statistical comparisons between groups are planned and described in a way that is transparent, available to the public, verifiable and determined before...

  13. [Prospective assessment of medication errors in critically ill patients in a university hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar L, Nicole; Jirón A, Marcela; Escobar O, Leslie; Tobar, Eduardo; Romero, Carlos

    2011-11-01

    Critically ill patients are especially vulnerable to medication errors (ME) due to their severe clinical situation and the complexities of their management. To determine the frequency and characteristics of ME and identify shortcomings in the processes of medication management in an Intensive Care Unit. During a 3 months period, an observational prospective and randomized study was carried out in the ICU of a university hospital. Every step of patient's medication management (prescription, transcription, dispensation, preparation and administration) was evaluated by an external trained professional. Steps with higher frequency of ME and their therapeutic groups involved were identified. Medications errors were classified according to the National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention. In 52 of 124 patients evaluated, 66 ME were found in 194 drugs prescribed. In 34% of prescribed drugs, there was at least 1 ME during its use. Half of ME occurred during medication administration, mainly due to problems in infusion rates and schedule times. Antibacterial drugs had the highest rate of ME. We found a 34% rate of ME per drug prescribed, which is in concordance with international reports. The identification of those steps more prone to ME in the ICU, will allow the implementation of an intervention program to improve the quality and security of medication management.

  14. Sarcopenia and critical illness: a deadly combination in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Joseph S

    2015-03-01

    Sarcopenia is the age-associated loss of lean skeletal muscle mass. It is the result of multiple physiologic derangements, ultimately resulting in an insidious functional decline. Frailty, the clinical manifestation of sarcopenia and physical infirmity, is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in the elderly population. The underlying pathology results in a disruption of the individual's ability to tolerate internal and external stressors such as injury or illness. This infirmity results in a markedly increased risk of falls and subsequent morbidity and mortality from the resulting traumatic injury, as well as an inability to recover from medical insults, resulting in critical illness. The increasing prevalence of sarcopenia and critical illness in the elderly has resulted in a deadly intersection of disease processes. The lethality of this combination appears to be the result of altered muscle metabolism, decreased mitochondrial energetics needed to survive critical illness, and a chronically activated catabolic state likely mediated by tumor necrosis factor-α. Furthermore, these underlying derangements are independently associated with an increased incidence of critical illness, resulting in a progressive downward spiral. Considerable evidence has been gathered supporting the role of aggressive nutrition support and physical therapy in improving outcomes. Critical care practitioners must consider sarcopenia and the resulting frailty phenotype a comorbid condition so that the targeted interventions can be instituted and research efforts focused. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  15. Simple motor tasks independently predict extubation failure in critically ill neurological patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutchak, Fernanda Machado; Rieder, Marcelo de Mello; Victorino, Josué Almeida; Meneguzzi, Carla; Poersch, Karla; Forgiarini, Luiz Alberto; Bianchin, Marino Muxfeldt

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of simple motor tasks such as hand grasping and tongue protrusion as predictors of extubation failure in critically ill neurological patients. This was a prospective cohort study conducted in the neurological ICU of a tertiary care hospital in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil. Adult patients who had been intubated for neurological reasons and were eligible for weaning were included in the study. The ability of patients to perform simple motor tasks such as hand grasping and tongue protrusion was evaluated as a predictor of extubation failure. Data regarding duration of mechanical ventilation, length of ICU stay, length of hospital stay, mortality, and incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia were collected. A total of 132 intubated patients who had been receiving mechanical ventilation for at least 24 h and who passed a spontaneous breathing trial were included in the analysis. Logistic regression showed that patient inability to grasp the hand of the examiner (relative risk = 1.57; 95% CI: 1.01-2.44; p commands is predictive of extubation failure in critically ill neurological patients. Hand grasping and tongue protrusion on command might be quick and easy bedside tests to identify neurocritical care patients who are candidates for extubation. Avaliar a utilidade de tarefas motoras simples, tais como preensão de mão e protrusão da língua, para predizer extubação malsucedida em pacientes neurológicos críticos. Estudo prospectivo de coorte realizado na UTI neurológica de um hospital terciário em Porto Alegre (RS). Pacientes adultos que haviam sido intubados por motivos neurológicos e que eram candidatos ao desmame foram incluídos no estudo. O estudo avaliou se a capacidade dos pacientes de realizar tarefas motoras simples como apertar as mãos do examinador e pôr a língua para fora seria um preditor de extubação malsucedida. Foram coletados dados referentes ao tempo de ventilação mecânica, tempo de internação na

  16. EPICO 4.0. 'Total quality' in the management of invasive candidiasis in critically ill patients by analysing the integrated process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaragoza, Rafael; Ferrer, Ricard; Llinares, Pedro; Maseda, Emilio; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Grau, Santiago; Quindós, Guillermo

    A high quality integrated process in the clinical setting of non-neutropenic critically ill patients at risk for invasive candidiasis is a necessary tool to improve the management of these patients. To identify the key points on invasive candidiasis in order to develop a set of recommendations with a high level of consensus required for the creation of a total quality integrated process for the management of non-neutropenic critically ill patients at risk of invasive candidiasis. After a thorough review of the literature of the previous five years, a Spanish prospective questionnaire, which measured consensus by the Delphi technique, was anonymously conducted by e-mail, including 31 national multidisciplinary experts with extensive experience in invasive fungal infections, from six national scientific societies. The experts included a specialist in intensive care medicine, anesthetists, microbiologists, pharmacologists, and specialists in infectious diseases that responded 27 questions prepared by the coordination group. The educational objectives considered six processes that included knowledge of the local epidemiology, the creation and development of multidisciplinary teams, the definitions of the process, protocols, and indicators (KPI), an educational phase, hospital implementation, and the measurement of outcomes. The level of agreement among experts in each category to be selected should exceed 70%. In a second phase, after drawing up the recommendations of the selected processes, a face to face meeting with more than 60 specialists was held. The specialists were asked to validate the pre-selected recommendations. Firstly, 20 recommendations from all the sections were pre-selected: Knowledge of local epidemiology (3 recommendations), creation and development of multidisciplinary teams (3), definition of the process, protocols and indicators (1), educational phase (3), hospital implementation (3), and measurement of outcomes (7). After the second phase, 18

  17. Introduction and executive summary: care of the critically ill and injured during pandemics and disasters: CHEST consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Michael D; Devereaux, Asha V; Dichter, Jeffrey R; Rubinson, Lewis; Kissoon, Niranjan

    2014-10-01

    Natural disasters, industrial accidents, terrorism attacks, and pandemics all have the capacity to result in large numbers of critically ill or injured patients. This supplement provides suggestions for all of those involved in a disaster or pandemic with multiple critically ill patients, including front-line clinicians, hospital administrators, professional societies, and public health or government officials. The current Task Force included a total of 100 participants from nine countries, comprised of clinicians and experts from a wide variety of disciplines. Comprehensive literature searches were conducted to identify studies upon which evidence-based recommendations could be made. No studies of sufficient quality were identified. Therefore, the panel developed expert-opinion-based suggestions that are presented in this supplement using a modified Delphi process. The ultimate aim of the supplement is to expand the focus beyond the walls of ICUs to provide recommendations for the management of all critically ill or injured adults and children resulting from a pandemic or disaster wherever that care may be provided. Considerations for the management of critically ill patients include clinical priorities and logistics (supplies, evacuation, and triage) as well as the key enablers (systems planning, business continuity, legal framework, and ethical considerations) that facilitate the provision of this care. The supplement also aims to illustrate how the concepts of mass critical care are integrated across the spectrum of surge events from conventional through contingency to crisis standards of care.

  18. Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Therapy in Critically Ill Polytrauma Patients with Severe Head Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Loredana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI is one of the leading causes of death among critically ill patients from the Intensive Care Units (ICU. After primary traumatic injuries, secondary complications occur, which are responsible for the progressive degradation of the clinical status in this type of patients. These include severe inflammation, biochemical and physiological imbalances and disruption of the cellular functionality. The redox cellular potential is determined by the oxidant/antioxidant ratio. Redox potential is disturbed in case of TBI leading to oxidative stress (OS. A series of agression factors that accumulate after primary traumatic injuries lead to secondary lesions represented by brain ischemia and hypoxia, inflammatory and metabolic factors, coagulopathy, microvascular damage, neurotransmitter accumulation, blood-brain barrier disruption, excitotoxic damage, blood-spinal cord barrier damage, and mitochondrial dysfunctions. A cascade of pathophysiological events lead to accelerated production of free radicals (FR that further sustain the OS. To minimize the OS and restore normal oxidant/antioxidant ratio, a series of antioxidant substances is recommended to be administrated (vitamin C, vitamin E, resveratrol, N-acetylcysteine. In this paper we present the biochemical and pathophysiological mechanism of action of FR in patients with TBI and the antioxidant therapy available.

  19. Clinical review: Helmet and non-invasive mechanical ventilation in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquinas Rodriguez, Antonio M; Papadakos, Peter J; Carron, Michele; Cosentini, Roberto; Chiumello, Davide

    2013-04-25

    Non-invasive mechanical ventilation (NIV) has proved to be an excellent technique in selected critically ill patients with different forms of acute respiratory failure. However, NIV can fail on account of the severity of the disease and technical problems, particularly at the interface. The helmet could be an alternative interface compared to face mask to improve NIV success. We performed a clinical review to investigate the main physiological and clinical studies assessing the efficacy and related issues of NIV delivered with a helmet. A computerized search strategy of MEDLINE/PubMed (January 2000 to May 2012) and EMBASE (January 2000 to May 2012) was conducted limiting the search to retrospective, prospective, nonrandomized and randomized trials. We analyzed 152 studies from which 33 were selected, 12 physiological and 21 clinical (879 patients). The physiological studies showed that NIV with helmet could predispose to CO₂ rebreathing and increase the patients' ventilator asynchrony. The main indications for NIV were acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema, hypoxemic acute respiratory failure (community-acquired pneumonia, postoperative and immunocompromised patients) and hypercapnic acute respiratory failure. In 9 of the 21 studies the helmet was compared to a face mask during either continous positive airway pressure or pressure support ventilation. In eight studies oxygenation was similar in the two groups, while the intubation rate was similar in four and lower in three studies for the helmet group compared to face mask group. The outcome was similar in six studies. The tolerance was better with the helmet in six of the studies. Although these data are limited, NIV delivered by helmet could be a safe alternative to the face mask in patients with acute respiratory failure.

  20. Administration of fenoldopam in critically ill small animal patients with acute kidney injury: 28 dogs and 34 cats (2008-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lindsey K; Bracker, Kiko; Price, Lori Lyn

    2015-01-01

    To describe the clinical features and outcomes of critically ill dogs and cats with acute kidney injury (AKI) receiving fenoldopam infusions compared to patients with AKI that did not receive fenoldopam. Retrospective clinical study from May 1, 2008 until June 1, 2012. Private emergency and specialty referral hospital. Client-owned dogs (28) and cats (34) with AKI that received fenoldopam compared with similar patients with AKI (30 dogs and 30 cats) that did not. None. The medical records of 62 critically ill dogs and cats with AKI that received fenoldopam were reviewed. Presenting clinical signs, physical examination findings, and primary and secondary disease processes were identified in all patients. The mean number of days on fenoldopam was 1.5 days (range 0.3-4.0 days) for dogs and 1.9 days (range 1.0-4.0 days) for cats. Eleven of 28 (39%) dogs survived to discharge and 13 of 34 (38%) of the cats survived to discharge. Of the animals in the group receiving fenoldopam that died, the majority (84%) were euthanized. Potential adverse reactions were evaluated, with hypotension being the most commonly encountered adverse effect (7% of fenoldopam group [FG] dogs and 23% of FG cats). When compared with patients with AKI that did not receive fenoldopam, no significant differences were found between the groups with regards to survival, length of hospital stay, adverse effects, or changes in creatinine, BUN, or sodium concentrations except that patients receiving fenoldopam were significantly more likely to have received other renally active medications. In this study of patients with AKI, fenoldopam administration at 0.8 μg/kg/min in dogs and 0.5 μg/kg/min in cats appeared relatively safe but was not associated with improvement in survival to discharge, length of hospital stay, or improvement in renal biochemical parameters when compared to patients with AKI not receiving fenoldopam. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2015.

  1. [Aeromedical evacuation of critically ill patients in developing countries A retrospective study on 244 patients in Djibouti].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordes, J; Loheas, D; Benois, A

    2015-01-01

    The pratice of intensive care in Africa is marked by a wide variety of health care delivery. Only a few centers offer specialized intensive care units, as cardiac or neurological units. That may explain the need for aeromedical evacuations for patients whose condition exceeds local capacity. Our objective was to assess whether the proportion of patients admitted to intensive care and evacuated had increased between 1997 and 2013 in a developing country, Djibouti. We examined the activity register of Bouffard Hospital intensive care unit in Djibouti to determine the number and characteristics of patients evacuated by air ambulance during a 16 years period. From January 1997 to December 2013, a total of 244 patients were evacuated. The evacuation rate was 5.74ù of the patients admitted to the entire duration of the study. The rate of patients evacuated was not different between 1997 and 2013 (5,69ù versus 8,33ù respectively, p = 0,269). However, the rate of djiboutian evacuated patients was statistically different between 1997 and 2013 (0,96ù versus 4,46ù, p = 0,02). The main causes were severe trauma injuries, cardiovascular diseases and neurological diseases. The aeromedical evacuation of a critically ill patient in a developing country is a process requiring heavy logistics and depending on the medical skills available in the area, and financial resources that can be implemented for the patient. Our study shows that medical evacuations in favor of Djiboutian patients are marginal but are increasing over the past decade.

  2. Therapeutic evaluation of prolonged infusions of β-lactam antibiotics in the treatment and management of critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge S. Amador

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Context: Critically ill patients has a large number of pathophysiological changes product of commitment and organ systems. Therefore, knowledge of the pharmacological properties of antimicrobials is essential to choose the best treatment. In order to optimize the response of antibiotic therapy and these drugs, new strategies have been proposed dosage, the most used drug application of the model, called: Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics (PK/PD. In the case of β-lactam antibiotics, the PK/PD model is known as time-dependent on the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (Time > MIC. For optimal concentrations in β-lactam antibiotics, prolonged or continuous infusions, thus exposing the drug on the pathogen is achieved in a longer optimal concentrations through are used. Aims: To evaluate the therapeutic response of β-lactam antibiotics in critically ill patients with prolonged infusions by applying the model PK/ PD. Methods: Prospective observational study (concurrent cohort, taking as a control non-concurrent historic cohort, conducted for a period of seven months in the intensive care unit of the Hospital Clínico San Borja Arriarán (HCSBA, Santiago, Chile. Results: It was found a significant difference in number of days of hospitalization in ICU for the group bolus versus infusion group (12.5 ± 5.4 vs. 18 ± 9.7 days, IC: 1.5-9.5; p = 0.009. Conclusions: This study suggests that there would be a therapeutic advantage in the use of prolonged infusion in ICU stay duration.

  3. Ventilator-associated pneumonia management in critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertos, Raquel; Caralt, Berta; Rello, Jordi

    2011-03-01

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a frequent adverse event in the intensive care unit.We review recent publications about the management and prevention of VAP. The latest care bundles introduced standard interventions to facilitate implementation of evidence-based clinical guidelines and to improve the outcome of patients. Recent studies find that prevention management of ventilated patients decreases the risk of VAP. Enteral feeding, considered a risk factor for VAP, currently has been recommended, with appropriate administration, for all critical ill patients if no contraindications exist. In view of the recently available data, it can be concluded that the implementation of care bundles on the general management of ventilated patients in daily practice has reduced the VAP rates. The main pharmacological measures to prevent VAP are proper hands hygiene, high nurse-to-patient ratio, avoid unnecessary transfer of ventilated patients, use of noninvasive mechanical ventilation, shortening weaning period, avoid the use of nasal intubation, prevent bio-film deposition in endotracheal tube, aspiration of subglottic secretions, maintenance of adequate pressure of endotracheal cuffs, avoid manipulation of ventilator circuits, semi-recumbent position and adequate enteral feeding.In addition, updated guidelines incorporate more comprehensive diagnostic protocols to the evidence-based management of VAP.

  4. A new device for the prevention of pulmonary embolism in critically ill patients: Results of the European Angel Catheter Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taccone, Fabio S; Bunker, Nicholas; Waldmann, Carl; De Backer, Daniel; Brohi, Karim; Jones, Robert G; Vincent, Jean-Louis

    2015-09-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a potentially life-threatening complication of critical illness. In trauma and neurosurgical patients with contraindications to anticoagulation, inferior vena cava (IVC) filters have been used to prevent PE, but their associated long-term complication rates and difficulties associated with filter removal have limited their use. The Angel catheter is a temporary device, which combined an IVC filter with a triple-lumen central venous catheter (IVC filter-catheter) and is intended for bedside placement and removal when no longer indicated. This study presents data from a European Registry of 60 critically ill patients in whom the IVC filter-catheter was used to prevent PE. The patients were all at high risk of PE development or recurrence and had contraindications to anticoagulation. The primary end points of this study were to evaluate the safety (in particular, the presence of infectious or thrombotic events) and effectiveness (the numbers of PEs and averted PEs) of the IVC filter-catheter. The main diagnosis before catheter insertion was major trauma in 33 patients (55%), intracerebral hemorrhage or stroke in 9 (15%), a venous thromboembolic event in 9 (15%), and active bleeding in 6 (10%). The IVC filter-catheter was placed as prophylaxis in 51 patients (85%) and as treatment in the 9 patients (15%) with venous thromboembolic event. The devices were inserted at the bedside without fluoroscopic guidance in 54 patients (90%) and within a median of 4 days after hospital admission. They were left in place for a mean of 6 days (4-8 days). One patient developed a PE, without hemodynamic compromise; two PEs were averted. No serious adverse events were reported. Early bedside placement of an IVC filter-catheter is possible, and our results suggest that this is a safe, effective alternative to short-term PE prophylaxis for high-risk patients with contraindications to anticoagulation. Therapeutic study, level V.

  5. 807: melatonin secretion pattern in critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyko, Yuliya; Holst, René; Jennum, Poul Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    in over 100 patients from 0% to 54%. The project is ongoing as part of the Society of Critical Care Medicine’s ICU Liberation Collaborative. Conclusions: A multidisciplinary team based initiative to reinforce education, audit and feedback resulted in increased documentation of CAM-ICU screening rates...

  6. Diaphragm atrophy and weakness in the absence of mitochondrial dysfunction in the critically Ill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Berg, Marloes; Hooijman, Pleuni E.; Beishuizen, Albertus; De Waard, Monique C.; Paul, Marinus A.; Hartemink, Koen J.; Van Hees, Hieronymus W.H.; Lawlor, Michael W.; Brocca, Lorenza; Bottinelli, Roberto; Pellegrino, Maria A.; Stienen, Ger J.M.; Heunks, Leo M.A.; Wüst, Rob C.I.; Ottenheijm, Coen A.C.

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: The clinical significance of diaphragm weakness in critically ill patients is evident: it prolongs ventilator dependency and increases morbidity, duration of hospital stay, and health care costs. The mechanisms underlying diaphragm weakness are unknown, but might include mitochondrial

  7. Considerations in the construction of an instrument to assess attitudes regarding critical illness gene variation research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Bradley D; Kennedy, Carie R; Bolcic-Jankovic, Dragana; Eastman, Alexander; Iverson, Ellen; Shehane, Erica; Celious, Aaron; Barillas, Jennifer; Clarridge, Brian

    2012-02-01

    Clinical studies conducted in intensive care units are associated with logistical and ethical challenges. Diseases investigated are precipitous and life-threatening, care is highly technological, and patients are often incapacitated and decision-making is provided by surrogates. These investigations increasingly involve collection of genetic data. The manner in which the exigencies of critical illness impact attitudes regarding genetic data collection is unstudied. Given interest in understanding stakeholder preferences as a foundation for the ethical conduct of research, filling this knowledge gap is timely. The conduct of opinion research in the critical care arena is novel. This brief report describes the development of parallel patient/surrogate decision-maker quantitative survey instruments for use in this environment. Future research employing this instrument or a variant of it with diverse populations promises to inform research practices in critical illness gene variation research.

  8. Stress and coping of Hong Kong Chinese family members during a critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Winter Y-Y; Chan, Sally W-C

    2007-02-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the stress and coping strategies of Hong Kong Chinese families during a critical illness and to examine the relationships between stress and coping. Admissions to intensive care unit are usually an unanticipated event, which imposes stress on the family. Family's wellness is one of the significant factors affecting patient's well-beings. Much work has been conducted in Western societies. Stress and coping in Chinese families of critically ill patients have rarely been discussed. Structured face-to-face interviews were conducted, using the Impact of Events Scale and the Family Crisis Oriented Personal Evaluation Scales. A convenience sample of 133 participants was recruited from a regional hospital in Hong Kong. Many were patients' children with age between 30 and 49. A total of 39.1% (n = 52) of the participants were males and 60.9% (n = 81) were females. The participants experienced high level of stress (mean = 25.1, SD = 8.3). Higher level of stress were experienced by female (t = -4.6; d.f. = 1, 131; P = 0.00), those with lower educational attainment (F = 3.0; d.f. = 2, 130; P = 0.05) and those whose relatives were admitted to the intensive care unit unexpectedly (t = -2.2; d.f. = 1; P = 0.03). Patients' length of stay in the unit was significantly correlated with levels of stress (r = 0.5, P stress had significant correlation with coping strategies utilization (r = 0.5, P stress-coping pattern 'fatalistic voluntarism'. This study contributes to the understanding of Hong Kong Chinese families' stress and coping during a critical illness. Comprehensive assessments of family members' psychosocial needs are important to plan appropriate interventions to alleviate their stress and strengthen their coping skills. The findings will serve as guidance for nurses in delivering culturally sensitive and competent interventions.

  9. Manual muscle testing: a method of measuring extremity muscle strength applied to critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesla, Nancy; Dinglas, Victor; Fan, Eddy; Kho, Michelle; Kuramoto, Jill; Needham, Dale

    2011-04-12

    Survivors of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and other causes of critical illness often have generalized weakness, reduced exercise tolerance, and persistent nerve and muscle impairments after hospital discharge. Using an explicit protocol with a structured approach to training and quality assurance of research staff, manual muscle testing (MMT) is a highly reliable method for assessing strength, using a standardized clinical examination, for patients following ARDS, and can be completed with mechanically ventilated patients who can tolerate sitting upright in bed and are able to follow two-step commands. (7, 8) This video demonstrates a protocol for MMT, which has been taught to ≥ 43 research staff who have performed >800 assessments on >280 ARDS survivors. Modifications for the bedridden patient are included. Each muscle is tested with specific techniques for positioning, stabilization, resistance, and palpation for each score of the 6-point ordinal Medical Research Council scale. Three upper and three lower extremity muscles are graded in this protocol: shoulder abduction, elbow flexion, wrist extension, hip flexion, knee extension, and ankle dorsiflexion. These muscles were chosen based on the standard approach for evaluating patients for ICU-acquired weakness used in prior publications. (1,2).

  10. Violent victimization of adult patients with severe mental illness: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latalova, Klara; Kamaradova, Dana; Prasko, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this paper are to review data on the prevalence and correlates of violent victimization of persons with severe mental illness, to critically evaluate the literature, and to explore possible approaches for future research. PubMed/MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases were searched using several terms related to severe mental illness in successive combinations with terms describing victimization. The searches identified 34 studies. Nine epidemiological studies indicate that patients with severe mental illness are more likely to be violently victimized than other community members. Young age, comorbid substance use, and homelessness are risk factors for victimization. Victimized patients are more likely to engage in violent behavior than other members of the community. Violent victimization of persons with severe mental illness has long-term adverse consequences for the course of their illness, and further impairs the quality of lives of patients and their families. Victimization of persons with severe mental illness is a serious medical and social problem. Prevention and management of victimization should become a part of routine clinical care for patients with severe mental illness.

  11. Timing of the initiation of parenteral nutrition in critically ill children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Lissette; Mehta, Nilesh M; Duggan, Christopher P

    2017-05-01

    To review the current literature evaluating clinical outcomes of early and delayed parenteral nutrition initiation among critically ill children. Nutritional management remains an important aspect of care among the critically ill, with enteral nutrition generally preferred. However, inability to advance enteral feeds to caloric goals and contraindications to enteral nutrition often leads to reliance on parenteral nutrition. The timing of parenteral nutrition initiation is varied among critically ill children, and derives from an assessment of nutritional status, energy requirements, and physiologic differences between adults and children, including higher nutrient needs and lower body reserves. A recent randomized control study among critically ill children suggests improved clinical outcomes with avoiding initiation of parenteral nutrition on day 1 of admission to the pediatric ICU. Although there is no consensus on the optimal timing of parenteral nutrition initiation among critically ill children, recent literature does not support the immediate initiation of parenteral nutrition on pediatric ICU admission. A common theme in the reviewed literature highlights the importance of accurate assessment of nutritional status and energy expenditure in deciding when to initiate parenteral nutrition. As with all medical interventions, the initiation of parenteral nutrition should be considered in light of the known benefits of judiciously provided nutritional support with the known risks of artificial, parenteral feeding.

  12. An Evaluation of Ciprofloxacin Pharmacokinetics in Critically Ill Patients undergoing Continuous Veno-venous Haemodiafiltration

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Spooner, Almath M

    2011-08-04

    Abstract Background The study aimed to investigate the pharmacokinetics of intravenous ciprofloxacin and the adequacy of 400 mg every 12 hours in critically ill Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients on continuous veno-venous haemodiafiltration (CVVHDF) with particular reference to the effect of achieved flow rates on drug clearance. Methods This was an open prospective study conducted in the intensive care unit and research unit of a university teaching hospital. The study population was seven critically ill patients with sepsis requiring CVVHDF. Blood and ultrafiltrate samples were collected and assayed for ciprofloxacin by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to calculate the model independent pharmacokinetic parameters; total body clearance (TBC), half-life (t1\\/2) and volume of distribution (Vd). CVVHDF was performed at prescribed dialysate rates of 1 or 2 L\\/hr and ultrafiltration rate of 2 L\\/hr. The blood flow rate was 200 ml\\/min, achieved using a Gambro blood pump and Hospal AN69HF haemofilter. Results Seventeen profiles were obtained. CVVHDF resulted in a median ciprofloxacin t1\\/2 of 13.8 (range 5.15-39.4) hr, median TBC of 9.90 (range 3.10-13.2) L\\/hr, a median Vdss of 125 (range 79.5-554) L, a CVVHDF clearance of 2.47+\\/-0.29 L\\/hr and a clearance of creatinine (Clcr) of 2.66+\\/-0.25 L\\/hr. Thus CVVHDF, at an average flow rate of ~3.5 L\\/hr, was responsible for removing 26% of ciprofloxacin cleared. At the dose rate of 400 mg every 12 hr, the median estimated Cpmax\\/MIC and AUC0-24\\/MIC ratios were 10.3 and 161 respectively (for a MIC of 0.5 mg\\/L) and exceed the proposed criteria of >10 for Cpmax\\/MIC and > 100 for AUC0-24\\/MIC. There was a suggestion towards increased ciprofloxacin clearance by CVVHDF with increasing effluent flow rate. Conclusions Given the growing microbial resistance to ciprofloxacin our results suggest that a dose rate of 400 mg every 12 hr, may be necessary to achieve the desired pharmacokinetic

  13. Differences in pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of colistimethate sodium (CMS) and colistin between three different CMS dosage regimens in a critically ill patient infected by a multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque, Sònia; Grau, Santiago; Valle, Marta; Sorlí, Luisa; Horcajada, Juan Pablo; Segura, Concha; Alvarez-Lerma, Francisco

    2013-08-01

    Use of colistin has re-emerged for the treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacteria, but information on its pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics is limited, especially in critically ill patients. Recent data from pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) population studies have suggested that this population could benefit from administration of higher than standard doses of colistimethate sodium (CMS), but the relationship between administration of incremental doses of CMS and corresponding PK/PD parameters as well as its efficacy and toxicity have not yet been investigated in a clinical setting. The objective was to study the PK/PD differences of CMS and colistin between three different CMS dosage regimens in the same critically ill patient. A critically ill patient with nosocomial pneumonia caused by a MDR Acinetobacter baumannii received incremental doses of CMS. During administration of the different CMS dosage regimens, CMS and colistin plasma concentrations were determined and PK/PD indexes were calculated. With administration of the highest CMS dose once daily (720 mg every 24h), the peak plasma concentration of CMS and colistin increased to 40.51 mg/L and 1.81 mg/L, respectively, and the AUC0-24/MIC of colistin was 184.41. This dosage regimen was efficacious, and no nephrotoxicity or neurotoxicity was observed. In conclusion, a higher and extended-interval CMS dosage made it possible to increase the exposure of CMS and colistin in a critically ill patient infected by a MDR A. baumannii and allowed a clinical and microbiological optimal response to be achieved without evidence of toxicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  14. Early versus Late Parenteral Nutrition in Critically Ill Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fivez, Tom; Kerklaan, Dorian; Mesotten, Dieter; Verbruggen, Sascha; Wouters, Pieter J; Vanhorebeek, Ilse; Debaveye, Yves; Vlasselaers, Dirk; Desmet, Lars; Casaer, Michael P; Garcia Guerra, Gonzalo; Hanot, Jan; Joffe, Ari; Tibboel, Dick; Joosten, Koen; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2016-03-24

    Recent trials have questioned the benefit of early parenteral nutrition in adults. The effect of early parenteral nutrition on clinical outcomes in critically ill children is unclear. We conducted a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial involving 1440 critically ill children to investigate whether withholding parenteral nutrition for 1 week (i.e., providing late parenteral nutrition) in the pediatric intensive care unit (ICU) is clinically superior to providing early parenteral nutrition. Fluid loading was similar in the two groups. The two primary end points were new infection acquired during the ICU stay and the adjusted duration of ICU dependency, as assessed by the number of days in the ICU and as time to discharge alive from ICU. For the 723 patients receiving early parenteral nutrition, parenteral nutrition was initiated within 24 hours after ICU admission, whereas for the 717 patients receiving late parenteral nutrition, parenteral nutrition was not provided until the morning of the 8th day in the ICU. In both groups, enteral nutrition was attempted early and intravenous micronutrients were provided. Although mortality was similar in the two groups, the percentage of patients with a new infection was 10.7% in the group receiving late parenteral nutrition, as compared with 18.5% in the group receiving early parenteral nutrition (adjusted odds ratio, 0.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.35 to 0.66). The mean (±SE) duration of ICU stay was 6.5±0.4 days in the group receiving late parenteral nutrition, as compared with 9.2±0.8 days in the group receiving early parenteral nutrition; there was also a higher likelihood of an earlier live discharge from the ICU at any time in the late-parenteral-nutrition group (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.37). Late parenteral nutrition was associated with a shorter duration of mechanical ventilatory support than was early parenteral nutrition (P=0.001), as well as a smaller proportion of patients

  15. Illness perception of dropout patients followed up at bipolar outpatient clinic, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oflaz, Serap; Guveli, Hulya; Kalelioglu, Tevfik; Akyazı, Senem; Yıldızhan, Eren; Kılıc, Kasım Candas; Basyigit, Sehnaz; Ozdemiroglu, Filiz; Akyuz, Fatma; Gokce, Esra; Bag, Sevda; Kurt, Erhan; Oral, Esat Timucin

    2015-06-01

    Dropout is a common problem in the treatment of psychiatric illnesses including bipolar disorders (BD). The aim of the present study is to investigate illness perceptions of dropout patients with BD. A cross sectional study was done on the participants who attended the Mood Disorder Outpatient Clinic at least 3 times from January 2003 through June 2008, and then failed to attend clinic till to the last one year, 2009, determined as dropout. Thirty-nine dropout patients and 39 attendent patients with BD were recruited for this study. A sociodemographic form and brief illness perception questionnaire were used to capture data. The main reasons of patients with BD for dropout were difficulties of transport (31%), to visit another doctor (26%), giving up drugs (13%) and low education level (59%) is significant for dropout patients. The dropout patients reported that their illness did not critically influence their lives, their treatment had failed to control their illnesses, they had no symptoms, and that their illness did not emotionally affect them. In conclusion, the nonattendance of patients with serious mental illness can result in non-compliance of therapeutic drug regimens, and a recurrence of the appearance symptoms. The perception of illness in dropout patients with BD may be important for understanding and preventing nonattendance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Mesenteric blood flow, glucose absorption and blood pressure responses to small intestinal glucose in critically ill patients older than 65 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Jennifer A; Horowitz, M; Summers, M J; Trahair, L G; Goud, R S; Zaknic, A V; Hausken, T; Fraser, J D; Chapman, M J; Jones, K L; Deane, A M

    2013-02-01

    To compare nutrient-stimulated changes in superior mesenteric artery (SMA) blood flow, glucose absorption and glycaemia in individuals older than 65 years with, and without, critical illness. Following a 1-h 'observation' period (t (0)-t (60)), 0.9 % saline and glucose (1 kcal/ml) were infused directly into the small intestine at 2 ml/min between t (60)-t (120), and t (120)-t (180), respectively. SMA blood flow was measured using Doppler ultrasonography at t (60) (fasting), t (90) and t (150) and is presented as raw values and nutrient-stimulated increment from baseline (Δ). Glucose absorption was evaluated using serum 3-O-methylglucose (3-OMG) concentrations during, and for 1 h after, the glucose infusion (i.e. t (120)-t (180) and t (120)-t (240)). Mean arterial pressure was recorded between t (60)-t (240). Data are presented as median (25th, 75th percentile). Eleven mechanically ventilated critically ill patients [age 75 (69, 79) years] and nine healthy volunteers [70 (68, 77) years] were studied. The magnitude of the nutrient-stimulated increase in SMA flow was markedly less in the critically ill when compared with healthy subjects [Δt (150): patients 115 (-138, 367) versus health 836 (618, 1,054) ml/min; P = 0.001]. In patients, glucose absorption was reduced during, and for 1 h after, the glucose infusion when compared with health [AUC(120-180): 4.571 (2.591, 6.551) versus 11.307 (8.447, 14.167) mmol/l min; P AUC(120-240): 26.5 (17.7, 35.3) versus 40.6 (31.7, 49.4) mmol/l min; P = 0.031]. A close relationship between the nutrient-stimulated increment in SMA flow and glucose absorption was evident (3-OMG AUC(120-180) and ∆SMA flow at t (150): r (2) = 0.29; P 65 years, stimulation of SMA flow by small intestinal glucose infusion may be attenuated, which could account for the reduction in glucose absorption.

  17. Oral hygiene care for critically ill patients to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Fang; Xie, Huixu; Worthington, Helen V; Furness, Susan; Zhang, Qi; Li, Chunjie

    2016-10-25

    Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is defined as pneumonia developing in people who have received mechanical ventilation for at least 48 hours. VAP is a potentially serious complication in these patients who are already critically ill. Oral hygiene care (OHC), using either a mouthrinse, gel, toothbrush, or combination, together with aspiration of secretions, may reduce the risk of VAP in these patients. To assess the effects of oral hygiene care on incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation in hospital intensive care units (ICUs). We searched the following electronic databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 17 December 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library, 2015, Issue 11), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 17 December 2015), Embase Ovid (1980 to 17 December 2015), LILACS BIREME Virtual Health Library (1982 to 17 December 2015), CINAHL EBSCO (1937 to 17 December 2016), Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (1978 to 14 January 2013), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (1994 to 14 January 2013), Wan Fang Database (January 1984 to 14 January 2013) and VIP Database (January 2012 to 4 May 2016). We searched ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials to 17 December 2015. We placed no restrictions on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effects of OHC (mouthrinse, swab, toothbrush or combination) in critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilation for at least 48 hours. At least two review authors independently assessed search results, extracted data and assessed risk of bias in included studies. We contacted study authors for additional information. We pooled data from trials with similar interventions and outcomes. We reported risk ratio (RR) for dichotomous

  18. Noninvasive hemoglobin monitoring in critically ill pediatric patients at risk of bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Soler, P; Camacho Alonso, J M; González-Gómez, J M; Milano-Manso, G

    2017-05-01

    To determine the accuracy and usefulness of noninvasive continuous hemoglobin (Hb) monitoring in critically ill patients at risk of bleeding. An observational prospective study was made, comparing core laboratory Hb measurement (LabHb) as the gold standard versus transcutaneous hemoglobin monitoring (SpHb). Pediatric Intensive Care Unit of a tertiary University Hospital. Patients weighing >3kg at risk of bleeding. SpHb was measured using the Radical7 pulse co-oximeter (Masimo Corp., Irvine, CA, USA) each time a blood sample was drawn for core laboratory analysis (Siemens ADVIA 2120i). Sociodemographic characteristics, perfusion index (PI), pleth variability index, heart rate, SaO 2 , rectal temperature, low signal quality and other events that can interfere with measurement. A total of 284 measurements were made (80 patients). Mean LabHb was 11.7±2.05g/dl. Mean SpHb was 12.32±2g/dl (Pearson 0.72, R 2 0.52). The intra-class correlation coefficient was 0.69 (95%CI 0.55-0.78)(p<0.001). Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean difference of 0.07 ±1.46g/dl. A lower PI and higher temperature independently increased the risk of low signal quality (OR 0.531 [95%CI 0.32-0.88] and 0.529 [95%CI 0.33-0.85], respectively). SpHb shows a good overall correlation to LabHb, though with wide limits of agreement. Its main advantage is continuous monitoring of patients at risk of bleeding. The reliability of the method is limited in cases with poor peripheral perfusion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinical Validation of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Imipenem in Spent Effluent in Critically Ill Patients Receiving Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Aiping; Li, Zhe; Yu, Junxian; Li, Ren; Cheng, Sheng; Duan, Meili; Bai, Jing

    2016-01-01

    The primary objective of this pilot study was to investigate whether the therapeutic drug monitoring of imipenem could be performed with spent effluent instead of blood sampling collected from critically ill patients under continuous renal replacement therapy. A prospective open-label study was conducted in a real clinical setting. Both blood and effluent samples were collected pairwise before imipenem administration and 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 h after imipenem administration. Plasma and effluent imipenem concentrations were determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters of blood and effluent samples were calculated. Eighty-three paired plasma and effluent samples were obtained from 10 patients. The Pearson correlation coefficient of the imipenem concentrations in plasma and effluent was 0.950 (Pimipenem concentration ratio was 1.044 (95% confidence interval, 0.975 to 1.114) with Bland-Altman analysis. No statistically significant difference was found in the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters tested in paired plasma and effluent samples with Wilcoxon test. Spent effluent of continuous renal replacement therapy could be used for therapeutic drug monitoring of imipenem instead of blood sampling in critically ill patients.

  20. Stress ulcer prophylaxis with a proton pump inhibitor versus placebo in critically ill patients (SUP-ICU trial)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Mette; Perner, Anders; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Critically ill patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are at risk of clinically important gastrointestinal bleeding, and acid suppressants are frequently used prophylactically. However, stress ulcer prophylaxis may increase the risk of serious adverse events and, additionally......, the quantity and quality of evidence supporting the use of stress ulcer prophylaxis is low. The aim of the SUP-ICU trial is to assess the benefits and harms of stress ulcer prophylaxis with a proton pump inhibitor in adult patients in the ICU. We hypothesise that stress ulcer prophylaxis reduces the rate...... of gastrointestinal bleeding, but increases rates of nosocomial infections and myocardial ischaemia. The overall effect on mortality is unpredictable. METHODS/DESIGN: The SUP-ICU trial is an investigator-initiated, pragmatic, international, multicentre, randomised, blinded, parallel-group trial of stress ulcer...

  1. Metabolic self-destruction in critically ill patients: origins, mechanisms and therapeutic principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartl, Wolfgang H; Jauch, Karl-Walter

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the evolution and nature of self-destructive metabolic responses observed in critically ill patients, and to analyze therapeutic principles on how best to avoid or diminish these responses. We electronically identified articles through a search of PubMed and Google Scholar. Metabolic reactions associated with surgical injury or infections comprise hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, increased hepatic glucose production, and muscle protein breakdown. From an evolutionary perspective, these responses have been necessary and successful to overcome spontaneously survivable insults (minor surgical trauma). If prolonged and exaggerated, however, these reactions may become self-destructive, causing secondary metabolic damage. There is overwhelming evidence that extreme metabolic responses have not been selected by evolution, but are brought about by modern medicine enabling survival of severe, otherwise lethal insults and giving patients the chance to develop such exaggerated self-destructive metabolic reactions. Poorly adapted metabolic responses to severe insults, however, may have persisted because of unavoidable evolutionary constraints. Self-destructive metabolic responses cannot be prevented by adjuvant therapies such as artificial nutrition, which may only help to ameliorate secondary metabolic damage. Minor surgical trauma is associated with a beneficial adaptive metabolic response. After a severe insult, however, emergence of self-destructive responses will be unavoidable if the patient survives the acute phase. Effective treatment is only possible by an aggressive therapy of underlying pathologies (such as shock, trauma or infection) thereby interrupting secondary metabolic trigger mechanisms at an early stage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Diagnostic value of combined esophageal multi-channel intraluminal impedance and pH monitoring for gastroesophageal reflux in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi JIN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To compare the diagnostic value of using 24-hour combined esophageal multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH monitoring (MII-pH in the diagnosis of gastro-esophageal reflux (GER and pH monitoring alone in critically ill patients. Methods  A prospective observational study was performed including 116 critically ill adult patients admitted to ICU of Peking Haidian Hospital from Jul. 2013 to Dec. 2014. All the patients underwent 24-hour combined MⅡ-pH monitoring. GER episodes were recorded and its pH was recorded (acidic, weakly acidic and weakly alkaline and its composition was recorded (liquid, mixed and gas reflux. The results of the MⅡ-pH and the pH were monitored and compared. The demographic characteristics and clinical information were recorded. Results  MⅡ-pH was monitored for 5024 episodes of GER in 115 of 116(99.1% patients, with a mean of 43.28±3.96 episodes per patient (median, 34 episodes; range, 0-196 episodes. The pH monitoring detected 1868 episodes (100% acid in only 54 of 116(46.6% patients, with a mean of 7.66±1.65 episodes per patient (median, 0 episodes; range, 0-81 episodes. The number of episode of all reflux and liquid reflux diagnosed by pH monitoring alone was less than those diagnosed by MⅡ-pH monitoring (P=0.000, and there was no correlation in the episodes number of all reflux and liquid reflux between the two techniques (r=0.119, 0.231. Only a moderate correlation was found in the number of episodes of acidic reflux between the two techniques (r=0.656. Conclusion  MⅡ-pH monitoring is more sensitive than pH monitoring alone for establishing the diagnosis of GER. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.05.12

  3. Effectiveness of pharmacist dosing adjustment for critically ill patients receiving continuous renal replacement therapy: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang SP

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sai-Ping Jiang,1 Zheng-Yi Zhu,2 Xiao-Liang Wu,3 Xiao-Yang Lu,1 Xing-Guo Zhang,1 Bao-Hua Wu1 1Department of Pharmacy, the First Affiliated Hospital, 2Department of Pharmacy, Children’s Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 3Intensive Care Unit, the First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China Background: The impact of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT on drug removal is complicated; pharmacist dosing adjustment for these patients may be advantageous. This study aims to describe the development and implementation of pharmacist dosing adjustment for critically ill patients receiving CRRT and to examine the effectiveness of pharmacist interventions. Methods: A comparative study was conducted in an intensive care unit (ICU of a university-affiliated hospital. Patients receiving CRRT in the intervention group received specialized pharmacy dosing service from pharmacists, whereas patients in the no-intervention group received routine medical care without pharmacist involvement. The two phases were compared to evaluate the outcome of pharmacist dosing adjustment. Results: The pharmacist carried out 233 dosing adjustment recommendations for patients receiving CRRT, and 212 (90.98% of the recommendations were well accepted by the physicians. Changes in CRRT-related variables (n=144, 61.81% were the most common risk factors for dosing errors, whereas antibiotics (n=168, 72.10% were the medications most commonly associated with dosing errors. Pharmacist dosing adjustment resulted in a US$2,345.98 ICU cost savings per critically ill patient receiving CRRT. Suspected adverse drug events in the intervention group were significantly lower than those in the preintervention group (35 in 27 patients versus [vs] 18 in eleven patients, P<0.001. However, there was no significant difference between length of ICU stay and mortality after pharmacist dosing adjustment, which

  4. Immediate interruption of sedation compared with usual sedation care in critically ill postoperative patients (SOS-Ventilation): a randomised, parallel-group clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanques, Gerald; Conseil, Matthieu; Roger, Claire; Constantin, Jean-Michel; Prades, Albert; Carr, Julie; Muller, Laurent; Jung, Boris; Belafia, Fouad; Cissé, Moussa; Delay, Jean-Marc; de Jong, Audrey; Lefrant, Jean-Yves; Futier, Emmanuel; Mercier, Grégoire; Molinari, Nicolas; Jaber, Samir

    2017-10-01

    Avoidance of excessive sedation and subsequent prolonged mechanical ventilation in intensive care units (ICUs) is recommended, but no data are available for critically ill postoperative patients. We hypothesised that in such patients stopping sedation immediately after admission to the ICU could reduce unnecessary sedation and improve patient outcomes. We did a randomised, parallel-group, clinical trial at three ICUs in France. Stratified randomisation with minimisation (1:1 via a restricted web platform) was used to assign eligible patients (aged ≥18 years, admitted to an ICU after abdominal surgery, and expected to require at least 12 h of mechanical ventilation because of a critical illness defined by a Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score >1 for any organ, but without severe acute respiratory distress syndrome or brain injury) to usual sedation care provided according to recommended practices (control group) or to immediate interruption of sedation (intervention group). The primary outcome was the time to successful extubation (defined as the time from randomisation to the time of extubation [or tracheotomy mask] for at least 48 h). All patients who underwent randomisation (except for those who were excluded after randomisation) were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01486121. Between Dec 2, 2011, and Feb 27, 2014, 137 patients were randomly assigned to the control (n=68) or intervention groups (n=69). In the intention-to-treat analysis, time to successful extubation was significantly lower in the intervention group than in the control group (median 8 h [IQR 4-36] vs 50 h [29-93], group difference -33·6 h [95% CI -44·9 to -22·4]; p<0·0001). The adjusted hazard ratio was 5·2 (95% CI 3·1-8·8, p<0·0001). Immediate interruption of sedation in critically ill postoperative patients with organ dysfunction who were admitted to the ICU after abdominal surgery improved outcomes compared

  5. The association of plasma gamma-aminobutyric acid concentration with postoperative delirium in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitaka, Shiho; Egi, Moritoki; Kanazawa, Tomoyuki; Toda, Yuichiro; Morita, Kiyoshi

    2014-12-01

    Delirium is a common complication in postoperative, critically ill patients. The mechanism of postoperative delirium is not well understood but many studies have shown significant associations between benzodiazepine use, alcohol withdrawal and cirrhosis, and an increased risk of delirium. We aimed to investigate a possible link with alterations of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) activity. A prospective observational investigation of 40 patients > 20 years old who had undergone elective surgery with general anaesthesia and were expected to need postoperative intensive care for more than 48 hours. We assessed postoperative delirium using the confusion assessment method in the intensive care unit at 1 hour after the operation and on postoperative Day (POD) 1 and POD 2. We collected blood samples for measurement of plasma GABA concentrations before the operation and on POD 1 and 2. Postoperative delirium and perioperative plasma GABA concentrations in patients with and without delirium. Postoperative delirium occurred in 13 of the patients. Patients with delirium had significantly higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores than patients without delirium. The mean plasma GABA concentration on POD 2 was significantly lower in patients with delirium than in those without delirium. After adjustment of relevant variables, plasma GABA concentration on POD 2 was independently associated with postoperative delirium. Plasma GABA level on POD 2 has a significant independent association with postoperative delirium.

  6. Acinetobacter baumannii in critically ill patients: Molecular epidemiology, clinical features and predictors of mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnacho-Montero, José; Gutiérrez-Pizarraya, Antonio; Díaz-Martín, Ana; Cisneros-Herreros, José Miguel; Cano, María Eugenia; Gato, Eva; Ruiz de Alegría, Carlos; Fernández-Cuenca, Felipe; Vila, Jordi; Martínez-Martínez, Luis; Tomás-Carmona, M Del Mar; Pascual, Álvaro; Bou, Germán; Pachón-Diaz, Jerónimo; Rodríguez-Baño, Jesús

    2016-11-01

    The main aim of this study was to assess changes in the epidemiology and clinical presentation of Acinetobacter baumannii over a 10-year period, as well as risk factors of mortality in infected patients. Prospective, multicentre, hospital-based cohort studies including critically ill patients