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Sample records for criticality safety department

  1. Nuclear criticality safety department training implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, K.J.; Taylor, R.G.; Worley, C.A.

    1996-09-06

    The Nuclear Criticality Safety Department (NCSD) is committed to developing and maintaining a staff of qualified personnel to meet the current and anticipated needs in Nuclear Criticality Safety (NCS) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The NCSD Qualification Program is described in Y/DD-694, Qualification Program, Nuclear Criticality Safety Department This document provides a listing of the roles and responsibilities of NCSD personnel with respect to training and details of the Training Management System (TMS) programs, Mentoring Checklists and Checksheets, as well as other documentation utilized to implement the program. This document supersedes Y/DD-696, Revision 2, dated 3/27/96, Training Implementation, Nuclear Criticality Safety Department. There are no backfit requirements associated with revisions to this document.

  2. The Department of Energy Nuclear Criticality Safety Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felty, James R.

    2005-05-01

    This paper broadly covers key events and activities from which the Department of Energy Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP) evolved. The NCSP maintains fundamental infrastructure that supports operational criticality safety programs. This infrastructure includes continued development and maintenance of key calculational tools, differential and integral data measurements, benchmark compilation, development of training resources, hands-on training, and web-based systems to enhance information preservation and dissemination. The NCSP was initiated in response to Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 97-2, Criticality Safety, and evolved from a predecessor program, the Nuclear Criticality Predictability Program, that was initiated in response to Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 93-2, The Need for Critical Experiment Capability. This paper also discusses the role Dr. Sol Pearlstein played in helping the Department of Energy lay the foundation for a robust and enduring criticality safety infrastructure.

  3. An assessment of criticality safety at the Department of Energy Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Colorado, July--September 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattson, Roger J.

    1989-09-01

    This is a report on the 1989 independent Criticality Safety Assessment of the Rocky Flats Plant, primarily in response to public concerns that nuclear criticality accidents involving plutonium may have occurred at this nuclear weapon component fabrication and processing plant. The report evaluates environmental issues, fissile material storage practices, ventilation system problem areas, and criticality safety practices. While no evidence of a criticality accident was found, several recommendations are made for criticality safety improvements. 9 tabs.

  4. An assessment of criticality safety at the Department of Energy Rocky Flats Plant, Golden, Colorado, July--September 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattson, Roger J.

    1989-09-01

    This is a report on the 1989 independent Criticality Safety Assessment of the Rocky Flats Plant, primarily in response to public concerns that nuclear criticality accidents involving plutonium may have occurred at this nuclear weapon component fabrication and processing plant. The report evaluates environmental issues, fissile material storage practices, ventilation system problem areas, and criticality safety practices. While no evidence of a criticality accident was found, several recommendations are made for criticality safety improvements. 9 tabs.

  5. Nuclear criticality safety guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruvost, N.L.; Paxton, H.C. [eds.

    1996-09-01

    This technical reference document cites information related to nuclear criticality safety principles, experience, and practice. The document also provides general guidance for criticality safety personnel and regulators.

  6. Criticality safety training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodruff, S.K. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1997-06-01

    Criticality safety training is an important element of the Plutonium Facility safety program at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Training consists of student self-study handbooks and hands-on performance-based training in a mock-up laboratory containing gloveboxes, trolley conveyor system, and self-monitoring instruments. A 10-minute video tape and lecture was presented to describe how training in this area is conducted.

  7. Lecture notes for criticality safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullwood, R.

    1992-03-01

    These lecture notes for criticality safety are prepared for the training of Department of Energy supervisory, project management, and administrative staff. Technical training and basic mathematics are assumed. The notes are designed for a two-day course, taught by two lecturers. Video tapes may be used at the options of the instructors. The notes provide all the materials that are necessary but outside reading will assist in the fullest understanding. The course begins with a nuclear physics overview. The reader is led from the macroscopic world into the microscopic world of atoms and the elementary particles that constitute atoms. The particles, their masses and sizes and properties associated with radioactive decay and fission are introduced along with Einstein's mass-energy equivalence. Radioactive decay, nuclear reactions, radiation penetration, shielding and health-effects are discussed to understand protection in case of a criticality accident. Fission, the fission products, particles and energy released are presented to appreciate the dangers of criticality. Nuclear cross sections are introduced to understand the effectiveness of slow neutrons to produce fission. Chain reactors are presented as an economy; effective use of the neutrons from fission leads to more fission resulting in a power reactor or a criticality excursion. The six-factor formula is presented for managing the neutron budget. This leads to concepts of material and geometric buckling which are used in simple calculations to assure safety from criticality. Experimental measurements and computer code calculations of criticality are discussed. To emphasize the reality, historical criticality accidents are presented in a table with major ones discussed to provide lessons-learned. Finally, standards, NRC guides and regulations, and DOE orders relating to criticality protection are presented.

  8. Lecture notes for criticality safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullwood, R.

    1992-03-01

    These lecture notes for criticality safety are prepared for the training of Department of Energy supervisory, project management, and administrative staff. Technical training and basic mathematics are assumed. The notes are designed for a two-day course, taught by two lecturers. Video tapes may be used at the options of the instructors. The notes provide all the materials that are necessary but outside reading will assist in the fullest understanding. The course begins with a nuclear physics overview. The reader is led from the macroscopic world into the microscopic world of atoms and the elementary particles that constitute atoms. The particles, their masses and sizes and properties associated with radioactive decay and fission are introduced along with Einstein`s mass-energy equivalence. Radioactive decay, nuclear reactions, radiation penetration, shielding and health-effects are discussed to understand protection in case of a criticality accident. Fission, the fission products, particles and energy released are presented to appreciate the dangers of criticality. Nuclear cross sections are introduced to understand the effectiveness of slow neutrons to produce fission. Chain reactors are presented as an economy; effective use of the neutrons from fission leads to more fission resulting in a power reactor or a criticality excursion. The six-factor formula is presented for managing the neutron budget. This leads to concepts of material and geometric buckling which are used in simple calculations to assure safety from criticality. Experimental measurements and computer code calculations of criticality are discussed. To emphasize the reality, historical criticality accidents are presented in a table with major ones discussed to provide lessons-learned. Finally, standards, NRC guides and regulations, and DOE orders relating to criticality protection are presented.

  9. Lecture notes for criticality safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fullwood, R.

    1992-03-01

    These lecture notes for criticality safety are prepared for the training of Department of Energy supervisory, project management, and administrative staff. Technical training and basic mathematics are assumed. The notes are designed for a two-day course, taught by two lecturers. Video tapes may be used at the options of the instructors. The notes provide all the materials that are necessary but outside reading will assist in the fullest understanding. The course begins with a nuclear physics overview. The reader is led from the macroscopic world into the microscopic world of atoms and the elementary particles that constitute atoms. The particles, their masses and sizes and properties associated with radioactive decay and fission are introduced along with Einstein's mass-energy equivalence. Radioactive decay, nuclear reactions, radiation penetration, shielding and health-effects are discussed to understand protection in case of a criticality accident. Fission, the fission products, particles and energy released are presented to appreciate the dangers of criticality. Nuclear cross sections are introduced to understand the effectiveness of slow neutrons to produce fission. Chain reactors are presented as an economy; effective use of the neutrons from fission leads to more fission resulting in a power reactor or a criticality excursion. The six-factor formula is presented for managing the neutron budget. This leads to concepts of material and geometric buckling which are used in simple calculations to assure safety from criticality. Experimental measurements and computer code calculations of criticality are discussed. To emphasize the reality, historical criticality accidents are presented in a table with major ones discussed to provide lessons-learned. Finally, standards, NRC guides and regulations, and DOE orders relating to criticality protection are presented.

  10. 2011 Annual Criticality Safety Program Performance Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrea Hoffman

    2011-12-01

    TSR limits fuel plate bundles to 1085 grams U-235, which is the maximum loading of an ATR fuel element. The overloaded fuel plate bundle contained 1097 grams U-235 and was assembled under an 1100 gram U-235 limit in 1982. In 2003, the limit was reduced to 1085 grams citing a new criticality safety evaluation for ATR fuel elements. The fuel plate bundle inventories were not checked for compliance prior to implementing the reduced limit. A subsequent review of the NMIS inventory did not identify further violations. Requirements Management - The INL Criticality Safety program is organized and well documented. The source requirements for the INL Criticality Safety Program are from 10 CFR 830.204, DOE Order 420.1B, Chapter III, 'Nuclear Criticality Safety,' ANSI/ANS 8-series Industry Standards, and DOE Standards. These source requirements are documented in LRD-18001, 'INL Criticality Safety Program Requirements Manual.' The majority of the criticality safety source requirements are contained in DOE Order 420.1B because it invokes all of the ANSI/ANS 8-Series Standards. DOE Order 420.1B also invokes several DOE Standards, including DOE-STD-3007, 'Guidelines for Preparing Criticality Safety Evaluations at Department of Energy Non-Reactor Nuclear Facilities.' DOE Order 420.1B contains requirements for DOE 'Heads of Field Elements' to approve the criticality safety program and specific elements of the program, namely, the qualification of criticality staff and the method for preparing criticality safety evaluations. This was accomplished by the approval of SAR-400, 'INL Standardized Nuclear Safety Basis Manual,' Chapter 6, 'Prevention of Inadvertent Criticality.' Chapter 6 of SAR-400 contains sufficient detail and/or reference to the specific DOE and contractor documents that adequately describe the INL Criticality Safety Program per the elements specified in DOE Order 420.1B. The Safety Evaluation Report for SAR-400

  11. Nuclear Safety Research Department annual report 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majborn, B.; Nielsen, Sven Poul; Damkjær, A.

    2001-01-01

    The report presents a summary of the work of the Nuclear Safety Research Department in 2000. The department's research and development activities were organized in two research programmes: "Radiation Protection and Reactor Safety" and "Radioecology andTracer Studies". In addtion the department...

  12. Nuclear Safety Research Department annual report 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majborn, B.; Damkjær, A.; Nielsen, Sven Poul

    2002-01-01

    The report presents a summary of the work of the Nuclear Safety Research Department in 2001. The department's research and development activities were organized in two research programmes: "Radiation Protection and Reactor Safety" and "Radioecology andTracer Studies". In addition the department...

  13. DOE/EM Criticality Safety Needs Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westfall, Robert Michael [ORNL; Hopper, Calvin Mitchell [ORNL

    2011-02-01

    The issue of nuclear criticality safety (NCS) in Department of Energy Environmental Management (DOE/EM) fissionable material operations presents challenges because of the large quantities of material present in the facilities and equipment that are committed to storage and/or material conditioning and dispositioning processes. Given the uncertainty associated with the material and conditions for many DOE/EM fissionable material operations, ensuring safety while maintaining operational efficiency requires the application of the most-effective criticality safety practices. In turn, more-efficient implementation of these practices can be achieved if the best NCS technologies are utilized. In 2002, DOE/EM-1 commissioned a survey of criticality safety technical needs at the major EM sites. These needs were documented in the report Analysis of Nuclear Criticality Safety Technology Supporting the Environmental Management Program, issued May 2002. Subsequent to this study, EM safety management personnel made a commitment to applying the best and latest criticality safety technology, as described by the DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP). Over the past 7 years, this commitment has enabled the transfer of several new technologies to EM operations. In 2008, it was decided to broaden the basis of the EM NCS needs assessment to include not only current needs for technologies but also NCS operational areas with potential for improvements in controls, analysis, and regulations. A series of NCS workshops has been conducted over the past years, and needs have been identified and addressed by EM staff and contractor personnel. These workshops were organized and conducted by the EM Criticality Safety Program Manager with administrative and technical support by staff at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This report records the progress made in identifying the needs, determining the approaches for addressing these needs, and assimilating new NCS technologies into EM

  14. AGING FACILITY CRITICALITY SAFETY CALCULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.E. Sanders

    2004-09-10

    The purpose of this design calculation is to revise and update the previous criticality calculation for the Aging Facility (documented in BSC 2004a). This design calculation will also demonstrate and ensure that the storage and aging operations to be performed in the Aging Facility meet the criticality safety design criteria in the ''Project Design Criteria Document'' (Doraswamy 2004, Section 4.9.2.2), and the functional nuclear criticality safety requirement described in the ''SNF Aging System Description Document'' (BSC [Bechtel SAIC Company] 2004f, p. 3-12). The scope of this design calculation covers the systems and processes for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and staging Department of Energy (DOE) SNF/High-Level Waste (HLW) prior to its placement in the final waste package (WP) (BSC 2004f, p. 1-1). Aging commercial SNF is a thermal management strategy, while staging DOE SNF/HLW will make loading of WPs more efficient (note that aging DOE SNF/HLW is not needed since these wastes are not expected to exceed the thermal limits form emplacement) (BSC 2004f, p. 1-2). The description of the changes in this revised document is as follows: (1) Include DOE SNF/HLW in addition to commercial SNF per the current ''SNF Aging System Description Document'' (BSC 2004f). (2) Update the evaluation of Category 1 and 2 event sequences for the Aging Facility as identified in the ''Categorization of Event Sequences for License Application'' (BSC 2004c, Section 7). (3) Further evaluate the design and criticality controls required for a storage/aging cask, referred to as MGR Site-specific Cask (MSC), to accommodate commercial fuel outside the content specification in the Certificate of Compliance for the existing NRC-certified storage casks. In addition, evaluate the design required for the MSC that will accommodate DOE SNF/HLW. This design calculation will achieve the objective of providing the

  15. Autoclave nuclear criticality safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D`Aquila, D.M. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (United States); Tayloe, R.W. Jr. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Steam-heated autoclaves are used in gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment plants to heat large cylinders of UF{sub 6}. Nuclear criticality safety for these autoclaves is evaluated. To enhance criticality safety, systems are incorporated into the design of autoclaves to limit the amount of water present. These safety systems also increase the likelihood that any UF{sub 6} inadvertently released from a cylinder into an autoclave is not released to the environment. Up to 140 pounds of water can be held up in large autoclaves. This mass of water is sufficient to support a nuclear criticality when optimally combined with 125 pounds of UF{sub 6} enriched to 5 percent U{sup 235}. However, water in autoclaves is widely dispersed as condensed droplets and vapor, and is extremely unlikely to form a critical configuration with released UF{sub 6}.

  16. Nuclear Criticality Safety Data Book

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollenbach, D. F. [Y-12 National Security Complex, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-11-14

    The objective of this document is to support the revision of criticality safety process studies (CSPSs) for the Uranium Processing Facility (UPF) at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12). This design analysis and calculation (DAC) document contains development and justification for generic inputs typically used in Nuclear Criticality Safety (NCS) DACs to model both normal and abnormal conditions of processes at UPF to support CSPSs. This will provide consistency between NCS DACs and efficiency in preparation and review of DACs, as frequently used data are provided in one reference source.

  17. Nuclear Safety Research Department annual report 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majborn, B.; Damkjaer, A.; Nielsen, S.P.; Nonboel, E

    2001-08-01

    The report presents a summary of the work of the Nuclear Safety Research Department in 2000. The department's research and development activities were organized in two research programmes: 'Radiation Protection and Reactor Safety' and 'Radioecology and Tracer Studies'. In addition the department was responsible for the tasks 'Applied Health Physics and Emergency Preparedness', 'Dosimetry', 'Environmental Monitoring', and Irradiation and Isotope Services'. Lists of publications, committee memberships and staff members are included. (au)

  18. Nuclear criticality safety: 2-day training course

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlesser, J.A. [ed.] [comp.

    1997-02-01

    This compilation of notes is presented as a source reference for the criticality safety course. At the completion of this training course, the attendee will: be able to define terms commonly used in nuclear criticality safety; be able to appreciate the fundamentals of nuclear criticality safety; be able to identify factors which affect nuclear criticality safety; be able to identify examples of criticality controls as used as Los Alamos; be able to identify examples of circumstances present during criticality accidents; have participated in conducting two critical experiments; be asked to complete a critique of the nuclear criticality safety training course.

  19. Status of criticality safety research at NUCEF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Ken [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    Two critical facilities, named STACY (Static Experiment Critical Facility) and TRACY (Transient Experiment Critical Facility), at the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Safety Engineering Research Facility (NUCEF) started their hot operations in 1995. Since then, basic experimental data for criticality safety research have been accumulated using STACY, and supercritical experiments for the study of criticality accident in a reprocessing plant have been performed using TRACY. In this paper, the outline of those critical facilities and the main results of TRACY experiments are presented. (author)

  20. CANISTER HANDLING FACILITY CRITICALITY SAFETY CALCULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.E. Sanders

    2005-04-07

    This design calculation revises and updates the previous criticality evaluation for the canister handling, transfer and staging operations to be performed in the Canister Handling Facility (CHF) documented in BSC [Bechtel SAIC Company] 2004 [DIRS 167614]. The purpose of the calculation is to demonstrate that the handling operations of canisters performed in the CHF meet the nuclear criticality safety design criteria specified in the ''Project Design Criteria (PDC) Document'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171599], Section 4.9.2.2), the nuclear facility safety requirement in ''Project Requirements Document'' (Canori and Leitner 2003 [DIRS 166275], p. 4-206), the functional/operational nuclear safety requirement in the ''Project Functional and Operational Requirements'' document (Curry 2004 [DIRS 170557], p. 75), and the functional nuclear criticality safety requirements described in the ''Canister Handling Facility Description Document'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168992], Sections 3.1.1.3.4.13 and 3.2.3). Specific scope of work contained in this activity consists of updating the Category 1 and 2 event sequence evaluations as identified in the ''Categorization of Event Sequences for License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167268], Section 7). The CHF is limited in throughput capacity to handling sealed U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) canisters, defense high-level radioactive waste (DHLW), naval canisters, multicanister overpacks (MCOs), vertical dual-purpose canisters (DPCs), and multipurpose canisters (MPCs) (if and when they become available) (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168992], p. 1-1). It should be noted that the design and safety analyses of the naval canisters are the responsibility of the U.S. Department of the Navy (Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program) and will not be included in this document. In addition, this calculation is valid for

  1. Elements of a nuclear criticality safety program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopper, C.M.

    1995-07-01

    Nuclear criticality safety programs throughout the United States are quite successful, as compared with other safety disciplines, at protecting life and property, especially when regarded as a developing safety function with no historical perspective for the cause and effect of process nuclear criticality accidents before 1943. The programs evolved through self-imposed and regulatory-imposed incentives. They are the products of conscientious individuals, supportive corporations, obliged regulators, and intervenors (political, public, and private). The maturing of nuclear criticality safety programs throughout the United States has been spasmodic, with stability provided by the volunteer standards efforts within the American Nuclear Society. This presentation provides the status, relative to current needs, for nuclear criticality safety program elements that address organization of and assignments for nuclear criticality safety program responsibilities; personnel qualifications; and analytical capabilities for the technical definition of critical, subcritical, safety and operating limits, and program quality assurance.

  2. Safety-critical Java for embedded systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin; Dalsgaard, Andreas Engelbredt; Hansen, René Rydhof

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the motivation for and outcomes of an engineering research project on certifiable Javafor embedded systems. The project supports the upcoming standard for safety-critical Java, which defines asubset of Java and libraries aiming for development of high criticality systems....... The outcome of this projectinclude prototype safety-critical Java implementations, a time-predictable Java processor, analysis tools formemory safety, and example applications to explore the usability of safety-critical Java for this applicationarea. The text summarizes developments and key contributions...

  3. Proceedings of the Nuclear Criticality Technology and Safety Project Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, R.G. [comp.

    1994-01-01

    This report is the proceedings of the annual Nuclear Criticality Technology and Safety Project (NCTSP) Workshop held in Monterey, California, on April 16--28, 1993. The NCTSP was sponsored by the Department of Energy and organized by the Los Alamos Critical Experiments Facility. The report is divided into six sections reflecting the sessions outlined on the workshop agenda.

  4. Criticality safety basics, a study guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. L. Putman

    1999-09-01

    This document is a self-study and classroom guide, for criticality safety of activities with fissile materials outside nuclear reactors. This guide provides a basic overview of criticality safety and criticality accident prevention methods divided into three parts: theory, application, and history. Except for topic emphasis, theory and history information is general, while application information is specific to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Information presented here should be useful to personnel who must know criticality safety basics to perform their assignments safely or to design critically safe equipment or operations. However, the guide's primary target audience is fissile material handler candidates.

  5. Software Safety Risk in Legacy Safety-Critical Computer Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Janice L.; Baggs, Rhoda

    2007-01-01

    Safety Standards contain technical and process-oriented safety requirements. Technical requirements are those such as "must work" and "must not work" functions in the system. Process-Oriented requirements are software engineering and safety management process requirements. Address the system perspective and some cover just software in the system > NASA-STD-8719.13B Software Safety Standard is the current standard of interest. NASA programs/projects will have their own set of safety requirements derived from the standard. Safety Cases: a) Documented demonstration that a system complies with the specified safety requirements. b) Evidence is gathered on the integrity of the system and put forward as an argued case. [Gardener (ed.)] c) Problems occur when trying to meet safety standards, and thus make retrospective safety cases, in legacy safety-critical computer systems.

  6. Criticality Safety Experimental Investigation of Heterogeneous Fuel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Fan; ZHOU; Qi; XIA; Zhao-dong; ZHU; Qing-fu

    2015-01-01

    The spent fuel dissolver is the most important component in the reprocessing plant of the spent fuel dissolver reprocessing steps.The tonnage throughput,criticality safety and economical efficiency of the reprocess or mostly depend on the tonnage throughput,treatment rate and criticality safety of the dissolver.Because of the

  7. Reusable libraries for safety-critical Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rios Rivas, Juan Ricardo; Schoeberl, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The large collection of Java class libraries is a main factor of the success of Java. However, these libraries assume that a garbage-collected heap is used. Safety-critical Java uses scope-based memory areas instead of a garbage-collected heap. Therefore, the Java class libraries are problematic...... to use in safety-critical Java. We have identified common programming patterns in the Java class libraries that make them unsuitable for safety-critical Java. We propose ways to improve the libraries to avoid the impact of the identified problematic patterns. We illustrate these changes by implementing...

  8. A Profile for Safety Critical Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin; Søndergaard, Hans; Thomsen, Bent

    2007-01-01

    We propose a new, minimal specification for real-time Java for safety critical applications. The intention is to provide a profile that supports programming of applications that can be validated against safety critical standards such as DO-178B [15]. The proposed profile is in line with the Java...... specification request JSR-302: Safety Critical Java Technology, which is still under discussion. In contrast to the current direction of the expert group for the JSR-302 we do not subset the rather complex Real-Time Specification for Java (RTSJ). Nevertheless, our profile can be implemented on top of an RTSJ...

  9. Critical care in the emergency department.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Gabrielle

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: The volume and duration of stay of the critically ill in the emergency department (ED) is increasing and is affected by factors including case-mix, overcrowding, lack of available and staffed intensive care beds and an ageing population. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical activity associated with these high-acuity patients and to quantify resource utilization by this patient group. METHODS: The study was a retrospective review of ED notes from all patients referred directly to the intensive care team over a 6-month period from April to September 2004. We applied a workload measurement tool, Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System (TISS)-28, which has been validated as a surrogate marker of nursing resource input in the intensive care setting. A nurse is considered capable of delivering nursing activities equal to 46 TISS-28 points in each 8-h shift. RESULTS: The median score from our 69 patients was 19 points per patient. Applying TISS-28 methodology, we estimated that 3 h 13 min nursing time would be spent on a single critically ill ED patient, with a TISS score of 19. This is an indicator of the high levels of personnel resources required for these patients in the ED. ED-validated models to quantify nursing and medical staff resources used across the spectrum of ED care is needed, so that staffing resources can be planned and allocated to match service demands.

  10. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... Planning: Addressing 21st-Century Public Health Challenges Seasonal Food Safety Fact Sheets Keep your food safe - prepare now ...

  11. Safety-critical Java for embedded systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin; Dalsgaard, Andreas Engelbredt; Hansen, René Rydhof

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the motivation for and outcomes of an engineering research project on certifiable Javafor embedded systems. The project supports the upcoming standard for safety-critical Java, which defines asubset of Java and libraries aiming for development of high criticality systems...

  12. Nuclear criticality safety: 300 Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-07-31

    This Standard applies to the receipt, processing, storage, and shipment of fissionable material in the 300 Area and in any other facility under the control of the Reactor Materials Project Management Team (PMT). The objective is to establish practices and process conditions for the storage and handling of fissionable material that prevent the accidental assembly of a critical mass and that comply with DOE Orders as well as accepted industry practice.

  13. FUEL HANDLING FACILITY CRITICALITY SAFETY CALCULATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.E. Sanders

    2005-06-30

    The purpose of this design calculation is to perform a criticality evaluation of the Fuel Handling Facility (FHF) and the operations and processes performed therein. The current intent of the FHF is to receive transportation casks whose contents will be unloaded and transferred to waste packages (WP) or MGR Specific Casks (MSC) in the fuel transfer bays. Further, the WPs will also be prepared in the FHF for transfer to the sub-surface facility (for disposal). The MSCs will be transferred to the Aging Facility for storage. The criticality evaluation of the FHF features the following: (I) Consider the types of waste to be received in the FHF as specified below: (1) Uncanistered commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF); (2) Canistered CSNF (with the exception of horizontal dual-purpose canister (DPC) and/or multi-purpose canisters (MPCs)); (3) Navy canistered SNF (long and short); (4) Department of Energy (DOE) canistered high-level waste (HLW); and (5) DOE canistered SNF (with the exception of MCOs). (II) Evaluate the criticality analyses previously performed for the existing Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)-certified transportation casks (under 10 CFR 71) to be received in the FHF to ensure that these analyses address all FHF conditions including normal operations, and Category 1 and 2 event sequences. (III) Evaluate FHF criticality conditions resulting from various Category 1 and 2 event sequences. Note that there are currently no Category 1 and 2 event sequences identified for FHF. Consequently, potential hazards from a criticality point of view will be considered as identified in the ''Internal Hazards Analysis for License Application'' document (BSC 2004c, Section 6.6.4). (IV) Assess effects of potential moderator intrusion into the fuel transfer bay for defense in depth. The SNF/HLW waste transfer activity (i.e., assembly and canister transfer) that is being carried out in the FHF has been classified as safety category in the &apos

  14. Department of Energy Construction Safety Reference Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    DOE has adopted the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations Title 29 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 1926 ``Safety and Health Regulations for Construction,`` and related parts of 29 CFR 1910, ``Occupational Safety and Health Standards.`` This nonmandatory reference guide is based on these OSHA regulations and, where appropriate, incorporates additional standards, codes, directives, and work practices that are recognized and accepted by DOE and the construction industry. It covers excavation, scaffolding, electricity, fire, signs/barricades, cranes/hoists/conveyors, hand and power tools, concrete/masonry, stairways/ladders, welding/cutting, motor vehicles/mechanical equipment, demolition, materials, blasting, steel erection, etc.

  15. LC Oscillator Driver for Safety Critical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Horsky, Pavel

    2011-01-01

    A CMOS harmonic signal LC oscillator driver for automotive applications working in a harsh environment with high safety critical requirements is described. The driver can be used with a wide range of external components parameters (LC resonance network of a sensor). Quality factor of the external LC network can vary two decades. Amplitude regulation of the driver is digitally controlled and the DAC is constructed as exponential with piece-wise-linear (PWL) approximation. Low current consumption for high quality resonance networks is achieved. Realized oscillator is robust, used in safety critical application and has low EMC emissions.

  16. Aluminum Data Measurements and Evaluation for Criticality Safety Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, L. C.; Guber, K. H.; Spencer, R. R.; Derrien, H.; Wright, R. Q.

    2002-12-01

    The Defense Nuclear Facility Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 93-2 motivated the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a comprehensive criticality safety program to maintain and to predict the criticality of systems throughout the DOE complex. To implement the response to the DNFSB Recommendation 93-2, a Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP) was created including the following tasks: Critical Experiments, Criticality Benchmarks, Training, Analytical Methods, and Nuclear Data. The Nuclear Data portion of the NCSP consists of a variety of differential measurements performed at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), data analysis and evaluation using the generalized least-squares fitting code SAMMY in the resolved, unresolved, and high energy ranges, and the development and benchmark testing of complete evaluations for a nuclide for inclusion into the Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF/B). This paper outlines the work performed at ORNL to measure, evaluate, and test the nuclear data for aluminum for applications in criticality safety problems.

  17. Memory Management for Safety-Critical Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Safety-Critical Java (SCJ) is based on the Real-Time Specification for Java. To simplify the certification of Java programs, SCJ supports only a restricted scoped memory model. Individual threads share only immortal memory and the newly introduced mission memory. All other scoped memories...

  18. Safety Critical Java for Robotics Programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bent; Luckow, Kasper Søe; Bøgholm, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces Safety Critical Java (SCJ) and argues its readiness for robotics programming. We give an overview of the work done at Aalborg University and elsewhere on SCJl, some of its implementations in the form of the JOP, FijiVM and HVM and some of the tools, especially WCA, Teta...

  19. Architecture Level Safety Analyses for Safety-Critical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Kushal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The dependency of complex embedded Safety-Critical Systems across Avionics and Aerospace domains on their underlying software and hardware components has gradually increased with progression in time. Such application domain systems are developed based on a complex integrated architecture, which is modular in nature. Engineering practices assured with system safety standards to manage the failure, faulty, and unsafe operational conditions are very much necessary. System safety analyses involve the analysis of complex software architecture of the system, a major aspect in leading to fatal consequences in the behaviour of Safety-Critical Systems, and provide high reliability and dependability factors during their development. In this paper, we propose an architecture fault modeling and the safety analyses approach that will aid in identifying and eliminating the design flaws. The formal foundations of SAE Architecture Analysis & Design Language (AADL augmented with the Error Model Annex (EMV are discussed. The fault propagation, failure behaviour, and the composite behaviour of the design flaws/failures are considered for architecture safety analysis. The illustration of the proposed approach is validated by implementing the Speed Control Unit of Power-Boat Autopilot (PBA system. The Error Model Annex (EMV is guided with the pattern of consideration and inclusion of probable failure scenarios and propagation of fault conditions in the Speed Control Unit of Power-Boat Autopilot (PBA. This helps in validating the system architecture with the detection of the error event in the model and its impact in the operational environment. This also provides an insight of the certification impact that these exceptional conditions pose at various criticality levels and design assurance levels and its implications in verifying and validating the designs.

  20. Nuclear Safety Research and Facilities Department annual report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majborn, B.; Aarkrog, A.; Brodersen, K. [and others

    1998-04-01

    The report presents a summary of the work of the Nuclear Safety Research and Facilities Department in 1997. The department`s research and development activities were organized in four research programmes: Reactor Safety, Radiation protection, Radioecology, and Radioanalytical Chemistry. The nuclear facilities operated by the department include the research reactor DR3, the Isotope Laboratory, the Waste Treatment Plant, and the educational reactor DR1. Lists of staff and publications are included together with a summary of the staff`s participation in national and international committees. (au) 11 tabs., 39 ills.; 74 refs.

  1. Nuclear Safety Research and Facilities Department annual report 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majborn, B.; Brodersen, K.; Damkjaer, A.; Hedemann Jensen, P.; Nielsen, S.P.; Nonboel, E

    1999-04-01

    The report present a summary of the work of the Nuclear Safety Research and Facilities Department in 1998. The department`s research and development activities were organized in two research programmes: `Radiation Protection and Reactor Safety` and `Radioecology and Tracer Studies`. The nuclear facilities operated by the department include the research reactor DR3, the Isotope Laboratory, the Waste Treatment plant, and the educational reactor DR1. Lsits of staff and publications are included together with a summary of the staff`s participation in national and international committees. (au)

  2. Criticality Safety Basics for INL Emergency Responders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valerie L. Putman

    2012-08-01

    This document is a modular self-study guide about criticality safety principles for Idaho National Laboratory emergency responders. This guide provides basic criticality safety information for people who, in response to an emergency, might enter an area that contains much fissionable (or fissile) material. The information should help responders understand unique factors that might be important in responding to a criticality accident or in preventing a criticality accident while responding to a different emergency.

    This study guide specifically supplements web-based training for firefighters (0INL1226) and includes information for other Idaho National Laboratory first responders. However, the guide audience also includes other first responders such as radiological control personnel.

    For interested readers, this guide includes clearly marked additional information that will not be included on tests. The additional information includes historical examples (Been there. Done that.), as well as facts and more in-depth information (Did you know …).

    INL criticality safety personnel revise this guide as needed to reflect program changes, user requests, and better information. Revision 0, issued May 2007, established the basic text. Revision 1 incorporates operation, program, and training changes implemented since 2007. Revision 1 increases focus on first responders because later responders are more likely to have more assistance and guidance from facility personnel and subject matter experts. Revision 1 also completely reorganized the training to better emphasize physical concepts behind the criticality controls that help keep emergency responders safe. The changes are based on and consistent with changes made to course 0INL1226.

  3. Safety-Critical Java for Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rios Rivas, Juan Ricardo

    for Java aims at providing a reduced set of the Java programming language that can be used for systems that need to be certified at the highest levels of criticality. Safety-critical Java (SCJ) restricts how a developer can structure an application by providing a specific programming model...... and by restricting the set of methods and libraries that can be used. Furthermore, its memory model do not use a garbage-collected heap but scoped memories. In this thesis we examine the use of the SCJ specification through an implementation in a time-predictable, FPGA-based Java processor. The specification is now...

  4. Security for safety critical space borne systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Sue

    1987-01-01

    The Space Station contains safety critical computer software components in systems that can affect life and vital property. These components require a multilevel secure system that provides dynamic access control of the data and processes involved. A study is under way to define requirements for a security model providing access control through level B3 of the Orange Book. The model will be prototyped at NASA-Johnson Space Center.

  5. Critical view of safety during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vettoretto, Nereo; Saronni, Cristiano; Harbi, Asaf; Balestra, Luca; Taglietti, Lucio; Giovanetti, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has a 0.3% to 0.5% morbidity rate due to major biliary injuries. The majority of surgeons have routinely performed the so-called "infundibular" technique for gallbladder hilar dissection since the introduction of laparoscopy in the early nineties. The "critical view of safety" approach has only been recently discussed in controlled studies. It is characterized by a blunt dissection of the upper part of Calot's space, which does not usually contain arterial or biliary anomalies and is therefore ideal for a safe dissection, even in less experienced hands. We applied and compared the critical view of safety triangle approach with the infundibular approach in a retrospective cohort study. We divided 174 patients into 2 groups, with a similar case-mix (cholelithiasis, chronic cholecystitis, and acute cholecystitis). Results of operations performed by a young surgeon using critical view of safety dissection were compared to results of the infundibular approach performed by an experienced surgeon. Outcome values and operative times were examined with univariate analysis (Student t test). No difference occurred in terms of morbidity (even though comparison for biliary injuries is inconclusive because of insufficient power) and outcome; significant differences were found in operative time, favoring the critical view of safety approach in every stage of gallbladder disease, with minor significance for acute cases. We suggest this technique as the gold standard for resident teaching, because it has a similar rate of biliary and hemorrhagic complications but has a shorter operative time, builds self-confidence, and is a simple standardized method both for complicated and uncomplicated gallbladder lithiasis.

  6. A desktop 3D printer in safety-critical Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Tórur Biskopstø; Schoeberl, Martin

    2012-01-01

    It is desirable to bring Java technology to safety-critical systems. To this end The Open Group has created the safety-critical Java specification, which will allow Java applications, written according to the specification, to be certifiable in accordance with safety-critical standards. Although...... there exist several safety-critical Java framework implementations, there is a lack of safety-critical use cases implemented according to the specification. In this paper we present a 3D printer and its safety-critical Java level 1 implementation as a use case. With basis in the implementation we evaluate...

  7. Nuclear Safety Research and Facilities Department annual report 1999

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majborn, B.; Damkjær, A.; Jensen, Per Hedemann

    2000-01-01

    The report presents a summary of the work of the Nuclear Safety Research and Facilities Department in 1999. The department´s research and development activities were organized in two research programmes: "Radiation Protection and Reactor Safety" and"Radioecology and Tracer Studies". The nuclear...... facilities operated by the department include the research reactor DR 3, the Isotope Laboratory, the Waste Management Plant, and the educational reactor DR 1. Lists of staff and publications are includedtogether with a summary of the staff´s participation in national and international committees....

  8. Nuclear Safety Research and Facilities Department. Annual report 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majborn, B.; Damkjaer, A.; Hedemann Jensen, P.; Nielsen, S.P.; Nonboel, E. [eds.

    2000-04-01

    The report presents a summary of the work of the Nuclear Safety Research and Facilities Department in 1999. The department's research and development activities were organized in two research programmes: 'Radiation Protection and Reactor Safety' and 'Radioecology and Tracer Studies'. The nuclear facilities operated by the department include the research reactor DR 3, the Isotope Laboratory, the Waste Management Plant, and the educational reactor DR 1. Lists of staff and publications are included together with a summary of the staff's participation in national and international committees. (au)

  9. Patient safety culture lives in departments and wards: Multilevel partitioning of variance in patient safety culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofoss Dag

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aim of study was to document 1 that patient safety culture scores vary considerably by hospital department and ward, and 2 that much of the variation is across the lowest level organizational units: the wards. Setting of study: 500-bed Norwegian university hospital, September-December 2006. Methods Data collected from 1400 staff by (the Norwegian version of the generic version of the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ Short Form 2006. Multilevel analysis by MLwiN version 1.10. Results Considerable parts of the score variations were at the ward and department levels. More organization level variation was seen at the ward level than at the department level. Conclusions Patient safety culture improvement efforts should not be limited to all-hospital interventions or interventions aimed at entire departments, but include involvement at the ward level, selectively aimed at low-scoring wards. Patient safety culture should be studied as closely to the patient as possible. There may be such a thing as "hospital safety culture" and the variance across hospital departments indicates the existence of department safety cultures. However, neglecting the study of patient safety culture at the ward level will mask important local variations. Safety culture research and improvement should not stop at the lowest formal level of the hospital (wards, out-patient clinics, ERs, but proceed to collect and analyze data on the micro-units within them.

  10. Nuclear Safety Research Department annual progress report 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majborn, B.; Brodersen, K.; Damkjaer, A.; Hoejerup, C.F. [eds.

    1995-03-01

    The report describes the work of the Nuclear Safety Research Department during 1994. The activities cover health physics, reactor physics, operation of the small reactor DR1, and radioactive waste management. Lists of staff and publications are included together with a summary of the staff`s participation in international committees. (au) (1 tab., 12 ills.).

  11. Providing Nuclear Criticality Safety Analysis Education through Benchmark Experiment Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John D. Bess; J. Blair Briggs; David W. Nigg

    2009-11-01

    One of the challenges that today's new workforce of nuclear criticality safety engineers face is the opportunity to provide assessment of nuclear systems and establish safety guidelines without having received significant experience or hands-on training prior to graduation. Participation in the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) and/or the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) provides students and young professionals the opportunity to gain experience and enhance critical engineering skills.

  12. Proceedings of the Nuclear Criticality Technology Safety Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rene G. Sanchez

    1998-04-01

    This document contains summaries of most of the papers presented at the 1995 Nuclear Criticality Technology Safety Project (NCTSP) meeting, which was held May 16 and 17 at San Diego, Ca. The meeting was broken up into seven sessions, which covered the following topics: (1) Criticality Safety of Project Sapphire; (2) Relevant Experiments For Criticality Safety; (3) Interactions with the Former Soviet Union; (4) Misapplications and Limitations of Monte Carlo Methods Directed Toward Criticality Safety Analyses; (5) Monte Carlo Vulnerabilities of Execution and Interpretation; (6) Monte Carlo Vulnerabilities of Representation; and (7) Benchmark Comparisons.

  13. A Critical Perspective on Online Safety Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elza Dunkels

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Nordic countries have enjoyed mass use of the Internet at home and in schools since the mid-1990’s. Children have been noted to have rapidly taken the Internet into possession and to have made use of the affordances (Greeno, 1994 of Internet communication. However, media coverage of how children take on, and learn what the Internet has to offer has often been of a negative kind. Blazing headlines portray a generation in bottomless danger where children are defined both as possible victims and perpetrators. Another common attribute of this media coverage is the exoticising of young people’s net cultures – describing the young and their cultures as profoundly different from earlier generations and elevating the “colourful and the bizarre” (Coffey et al., 1999, p. 169 to a level where it appears normal for this particular generation. In this setting safe use guides – tips for parents and children on how to keep safe on the Internet – began to appear. They were often composed by teachers, concerned parents, non-governmental organisations and in some cases governments. The safe use guides were disseminated online in different forums aimed at concerned adults. In this article I will give a brief description of current online safety issues and examine them critically. My earlier research – 104 interviews with 12-year old Swedes conducted in 2004-2005 (Dunkels, 2007 and a study of European safe use guides conducted in 2008 (Lüders et al., 2009 left me with a number of questions. I could see that safe use guides were strikingly similar, despite their origin, and I could see that they rested upon norms and values that were actually neither accounted for nor even declared. This article is a literature review of the area with the aim of critically discussing some of these questions.

  14. Safety and efficiency of emergency department assessment of chest discomfort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christenson, Jim; Innes, Grant; McKnight, Douglas; Boychuk, Barb; Grafstein, Eric; Thompson, Christopher R.; Rosenberg, Frances; Anis, Aslam H.; Gin, Ken; Tilley, Jessica; Wong, Hubert; Singer, Joel

    2004-01-01

    Background Most Canadian emergency departments use an unstructured, individualized approach to patients with chest pain, without data to support the safety and efficiency of this practice. We sought to determine the proportions of patients with chest discomfort in emergency departments who either had acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and were inappropriately discharged from the emergency department or did not have ACS and were held for investigation. Methods Consecutive consenting patients aged 25 years or older presenting with chest discomfort to 2 urban tertiary care emergency departments between June 2000 and April 2001 were prospectively enrolled unless they had a terminal illness, an obvious traumatic cause, a radiographically identifiable cause, severe communication problems or no fixed address in British Columbia or they would not be available for follow-up by telephone. At 30 days we assigned predefined explicit outcome diagnoses: definite ACS (acute myocardial infarction [AMI] or definite unstable angina) or no ACS. Results Of 1819 patients, 241 (13.2%) were assigned a 30-day diagnosis of AMI and 157 (8.6%), definite unstable angina. Of these 398 patients, 21 (5.3%) were discharged from the emergency department without a diagnosis of ACS and without plans for further investigation. The clinical sensitivity for detecting ACS was 94.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 92.5%– 96.9%) and the specificity 73.8% (95% CI 71.5%– 76.0%). Of the patients without ACS or an adverse event, 71.1% were admitted to hospital or held in the emergency department for more than 3 hours. Interpretation The current individualized approach to evaluation and disposition of patients with chest discomfort in 2 Canadian tertiary care emergency departments misses 5.3% of cases of ACS while consuming considerable health care resources for patients without coronary disease. Opportunities exist to improve both safety and efficiency. PMID:15184334

  15. SRTC criticality safety technical review: Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation 93-04 enriched uranium receipt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathbun, R.

    1993-10-13

    Review of NMP-NCS-930087, {open_quotes}Nuclear Criticality Safety Evaluation 93-04 Enriched Uranium Receipt (U), July 30, 1993, {close_quotes} was requested of SRTC (Savannah River Technology Center) Applied Physics Group. The NCSE is a criticality assessment to determine the mass limit for Engineered Low Level Trench (ELLT) waste uranium burial. The intent is to bury uranium in pits that would be separated by a specified amount of undisturbed soil. The scope of the technical review, documented in this report, consisted of (1) an independent check of the methods and models employed, (2) independent HRXN/KENO-V.a calculations of alternate configurations, (3) application of ANSI/ANS 8.1, and (4) verification of WSRC Nuclear Criticality Safety Manual procedures. The NCSE under review concludes that a 500 gram limit per burial position is acceptable to ensure the burial site remains in a critically safe configuration for all normal and single credible abnormal conditions. This reviewer agrees with that conclusion.

  16. Family needs of critically ill patients in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Ping-Ru; Redley, Bernice; Hsiao, Ya-Chu; Lin, Chun-Chih; Han, Chin-Yen; Lin, Hung-Ru

    2017-01-01

    Family members' experience a range of physiological, psychological and emotional impacts when accompanying a critically ill relative in the emergency department. Family needs are influenced by their culture and the context of care, and accurate clinician understanding of these needs is essential for patient- and family-centered care delivery. The aim of this study was to describe the needs of Taiwanese family members accompanying critically ill patients in the emergency department while waiting for an inpatient bed and compare these to the perceptions of emergency nurses. A prospective cross-sectional survey was conducted in a large medical center in Taiwan. Data were collected from 150 family members and 150 emergency nurses who completed a Chinese version of the Critical Care Family Needs Inventory. Family members ranked needs related to 'communication with family members,' as most important, followed by 'family member participation in emergency department care', 'family member support' and 'organizational comfort'; rankings were similar to those of emergency nurses. Compared to nurses, family members reported higher scores for the importance of needs related to 'communication with family members' and 'family members' participation in emergency department care'. Family members place greater importance than emergency nurses on the need for effective communication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Nuclear Criticality Safety Handbook, Version 2. English translation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-08-01

    The Nuclear Criticality Safety Handbook, Version 2 essentially includes the description of the Supplement Report to the Nuclear Criticality Safety Handbook, released in 1995, into the first version of the Nuclear Criticality Safety Handbook, published in 1988. The following two points are new: (1) exemplifying safety margins related to modeled dissolution and extraction processes, (2) describing evaluation methods and alarm system for criticality accidents. Revision has been made based on previous studies for the chapter that treats modeling the fuel system: e.g., the fuel grain size that the system can be regarded as homogeneous, non-uniformity effect of fuel solution, an burnup credit. This revision has solved the inconsistencies found in the first version between the evaluation of errors found in JACS code system and the criticality condition data that were calculated based on the evaluation. This report is an English translation of the Nuclear Criticality Safety Handbook, Version 2, originally published in Japanese as JAERI 1340 in 1999. (author)

  18. Quality and Safety Implications of Emergency Department Information Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Heather L.; Baumlin, Kevin M.; Hamedani, Azita G.; Cheung, Dickson S.; Edwards, Michael R.; Fuller, Drew C.; Genes, Nicholas; Griffey, Richard T.; Kelly, John J.; McClay, James C.; Nielson, Jeff; Phelan, Michael P.; Shapiro, Jason S.; Stone-Griffith, Suzanne; Pines, Jesse M.

    2013-01-01

    The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act of 2009 and the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services “meaningful use” incentive programs, in tandem with the boundless additional requirements for detailed reporting of quality metrics, have galvanized hospital efforts to implement hospital-based electronic health records. As such, emergency department information systems (EDISs) are an important and unique component of most hospitals’ electronic health records. System functionality varies greatly and affects physician decisionmaking, clinician workflow, communication, and, ultimately, the overall quality of care and patient safety. This article is a joint effort by members of the Quality Improvement and Patient Safety Section and the Informatics Section of the American College of Emergency Physicians. The aim of this effort is to examine the benefits and potential threats to quality and patient safety that could result from the choice of a particular EDIS, its implementation and optimization, and the hospital’s or physician group’s approach to continuous improvement of the EDIS. Specifically, we explored the following areas of potential EDIS safety concerns: communication failure, wrong order–wrong patient errors, poor data display, and alert fatigue. Case studies are presented that illustrate the potential harm that could befall patients from an inferior EDIS product or suboptimal execution of such a product in the clinical environment. The authors have developed 7 recommendations to improve patient safety with respect to the deployment of EDISs. These include ensuring that emergency providers actively participate in selection of the EDIS product, in the design of processes related to EDIS implementation and optimization, and in the monitoring of the system’s ongoing success or failure. Our recommendations apply to emergency departments using any type of EDIS: custom-developed systems, best-of-breed vendor systems, or

  19. A Methodological Framework for Software Safety in Safety Critical Computer Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Srinivas Acharyulu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Software safety must deal with the principles of safety management, safety engineering and software engineering for developing safety-critical computer systems, with the target of making the system safe, risk-free and fail-safe in addition to provide a clarified differentaition for assessing and evaluating the risk, with the principles of software risk management. Problem statement: Prevailing software quality models, standards were not subsisting in adequately addressing the software safety issues for real-time safety-critical embedded systems. At present no standard framework does exist addressing the safety management and safety engineering priniciples for the development of software safety in safety-critical computer systems. Approach: In this study we propose a methodological framework involving safety management practices, safety engineering practices and software development life cycle phases for the development of software safety. In this framework we make use of the safety management practices such as planning, defining priniciples, fixing responsibilities, creteria and targets, risk assessment, design for safety, formulating safety requirements and integrating skills and techniques to address safety issues early with a vision for assurance and so on. In this framework we have also analysed integration of applicability of generic industrial heirarchy and software development heirarchy, with derived cyclical review involving safety professionals generating a nodal point for software safety. Results: This framework is applied to safety-critical software based laboratory prototype Railroad Crossing Control System (RCCS with a limited complexity. The results have shown that all critical operations were safe and risk free. Conclusion: The development of software based on the proposed framework for RCCS have shown a clarified and improved safety-critical operations of the overall system peformance.

  20. Criticality safety evaluation report for K Basin filter cartridges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, D.G., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-28

    A criticality safety evaluation of the K Basin filter cartridge assemblies was completed to support operations without criticality alarm system. The results show that for normal operation, the cartridge assembly is far below the safety limit of K eff = 0.95.

  1. Patient safety culture lives in departments and wards: Multilevel partitioning of variance in patient safety culture

    OpenAIRE

    Hofoss Dag; Deilkås Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Aim of study was to document 1) that patient safety culture scores vary considerably by hospital department and ward, and 2) that much of the variation is across the lowest level organizational units: the wards. Setting of study: 500-bed Norwegian university hospital, September-December 2006. Methods Data collected from 1400 staff by (the Norwegian version of) the generic version of the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ Short Form 2006). Multilevel analysis by MLwiN vers...

  2. Proceedings of the nuclear criticality technology safety project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, R.G. [comp.

    1997-06-01

    This document contains summaries of the most of the papers presented at the 1994 Nuclear Criticality Technology Safety Project (NCTSP) meeting, which was held May 10 and 11 at Williamsburg, Va. The meeting was broken up into seven sessions, which covered the following topics: (1) Validation and Application of Calculations; (2) Relevant Experiments for Criticality Safety; (3) Experimental Facilities and Capabilities; (4) Rad-Waste and Weapons Disassembly; (5) Criticality Safety Software and Development; (6) Criticality Safety Studies at Universities; and (7) Training. The minutes and list of participants of the Critical Experiment Needs Identification Workgroup meeting, which was held on May 9 at the same venue, has been included as an appendix. A second appendix contains the names and addresses of all NCTSP meeting participants. Separate abstracts have been indexed to the database for contributions to this proceedings.

  3. Observational study of food safety practices in retail deli departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubran, M B; Pouillot, R; Bohm, S; Calvey, E M; Meng, J; Dennis, S

    2010-10-01

    In order to improve the safety of refrigerated ready-to-eat food products prepared at retail deli departments, a better understanding of current practices in these establishments is needed. Food employees in deli departments at six chain and three independent retail establishments in Maryland and Virginia were observed, using notational analysis, as they prepared deli products for sale. The frequency of contact with objects and deli products before sale, hand washing and glove changing during preparation, and equipment, utensil, and surface cleaning and sanitizing was determined. Compliance with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration's 2005 model Food Code recommendations, which must be adopted by the individual state and local jurisdictions that are responsible for directly regulating retail establishments, was also assessed. Observations indicated there were a large number of actions for which hand washing was recommended at independent and chain stores (273 recommended of 1,098 total actions and 439 recommended of 3,073 total actions, respectively). Moreover, 67% (295 of 439) of the actions for which hand washing was recommended at the chain stores and 86% (235 of 273) of those at the independent stores resulted from employees touching non-food contact surfaces prior to handling ready-to-eat food. Compliance with hand washing recommendations was generally low and varied depending on store type with independent stores exhibiting lower compliance than chain stores (5 instances of compliance for 273 recommended actions and 73 instances of compliance for 439 recommended actions, respectively). Potential risk mitigation measures that may reduce the frequency of hand washing actions needed during ready-to-eat food preparation in retail deli departments are discussed. More research is needed to determine the impact of such measures on food safety.

  4. A Test Suite for Safety-Critical Java using JML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Anders Peter; Søndergaard, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Development techniques are presented for a test suite for the draft specification of the Java profile for Safety-Critical Systems. Distinguishing features are: specification of conformance constraints in the Java Modeling Language, encoding of infrastructure concepts without implementation bias...

  5. Criticality safety benchmark evaluation project: Recovering the past

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumble, E.F.

    1997-06-01

    A very brief summary of the Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project of the Westinghouse Savannah River Company is provided in this paper. The purpose of the project is to provide a source of evaluated criticality safety experiments in an easily usable format. Another project goal is to search for any experiments that may have been lost or contain discrepancies, and to determine if they can be used. Results of evaluated experiments are being published as US DOE handbooks.

  6. Explicit Precedence Constraints in Safety-Critical Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puffitsch, Wolfgang; Noulard, Eric; Pagetti, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Safety-critical Java (SCJ) aims at making the amenities of Java available for the development of safety-critical applications. The multi-rate synchronous language Prelude facilitates the specification of the communication and timing requirements of complex real-time systems. This paper combines...... to provide explicit support for precedence constraints. We present the considerations behind the design of this extension and discuss our experiences with a first prototype implementation based on the SCJ implementation of the Java Optimized Processor....

  7. U.S. Department of Energy Critical Materials Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, D.; Diamond, D.; Li, J.; Sandalow, D.; Telleen, P.; Wanner, B.

    2010-12-01

    This report examines the role of rare earth metals and other materials in the clean energy economy. It was prepared by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) based on data collected and research performed during 2010. Its main conclusions include: (a) Several clean energy technologies -- including wind turbines, electric vehicles, photovoltaic cells and fluorescent lighting -- use materials at risk of supply disruptions in the short term. Those risks will generally decrease in the medium and long term. (b) Clean energy technologies currently constitute about 20 percent of global consumption of critical materials. As clean energy technologies are deployed more widely in the decades ahead, their share of global consumption of critical materials will likely grow. (c) Of the materials analyzed, five rare earth metals (dysprosium, neodymium, terbium, europium and yttrium), as well as indium, are assessed as most critical in the short term. For this purpose, 'criticality' is a measure that combines importance to the clean energy economy and risk of supply disruption. (d) Sound policies and strategic investments can reduce the risk of supply disruptions, especially in the medium and long term. (e) Data with respect to many of the issues considered in this report are sparse. In the report, DOE describes plans to (i) develop its first integrated research agenda addressing critical materials, building on three technical workshops convened by the Department during November and December 2010; (ii) strengthen its capacity for information-gathering on this topic; and (iii) work closely with international partners, including Japan and Europe, to reduce vulnerability to supply disruptions and address critical material needs. DOE will work with other stakeholders -- including interagency colleagues, Congress and the public -- to shape policy tools that strengthen the United States' strategic capabilities. DOE also announces its plan to develop an updated critical

  8. Product Engineering Class in the Software Safety Risk Taxonomy for Building Safety-Critical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Janice; Victor, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    When software safety requirements are imposed on legacy safety-critical systems, retrospective safety cases need to be formulated as part of recertifying the systems for further use and risks must be documented and managed to give confidence for reusing the systems. The SEJ Software Development Risk Taxonomy [4] focuses on general software development issues. It does not, however, cover all the safety risks. The Software Safety Risk Taxonomy [8] was developed which provides a construct for eliciting and categorizing software safety risks in a straightforward manner. In this paper, we present extended work on the taxonomy for safety that incorporates the additional issues inherent in the development and maintenance of safety-critical systems with software. An instrument called a Software Safety Risk Taxonomy Based Questionnaire (TBQ) is generated containing questions addressing each safety attribute in the Software Safety Risk Taxonomy. Software safety risks are surfaced using the new TBQ and then analyzed. In this paper we give the definitions for the specialized Product Engineering Class within the Software Safety Risk Taxonomy. At the end of the paper, we present the tool known as the 'Legacy Systems Risk Database Tool' that is used to collect and analyze the data required to show traceability to a particular safety standard

  9. Towards the Design of Safety-Critical Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rafeh

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Safety is the most important factor when developing software for safety-critical systems. Traditional approaches attempted to achieve safety through testing the software. However, there might be some bugs in the software not revealed in the test procedure. Formal verification is a new trend in developing safe software. In this paper, we propose a multi-phase formal approach for safety management in safety-critical software. We use timed transition Petri-net as a formal means to specify the properties of the model and their relations in each component of the software. In addition, we use the Z language to specify textual and mathematical specifications of the model, as a representative model to evaluate the proposed approach; we chose continuous infusion insulin pump (CIIP.

  10. Critical View of Safety During Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Vettoretto, Nereo; Saronni, Cristiano; Harbi, Asaf; Balestra, Luca; Taglietti, Lucio; Giovanetti, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has a 0.3% to 0.5% morbidity rate due to major biliary injuries. The majority of surgeons have routinely performed the so-called “infundibular” technique for gallbladder hilar dissection since the introduction of laparoscopy in the early nineties. The “critical view of safety” approach has only been recently discussed in controlled studies. It is characterized by a blunt dissection of the upper part of Calot's space, which does not usual...

  11. Criticality safety in high explosives dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troyer, S.D.

    1997-06-01

    In 1992, an incident occurred at the Pantex Plant in which the cladding around a fissile material component (pit) cracked during dismantlement of the high explosives portion of a nuclear weapon. Although the event did not result in any significant contamination or personnel exposures, concerns about the incident led to the conclusion that the current dismantlement process was unacceptable. Options considered for redesign, dissolution tooling design considerations, dissolution tooling design features, and the analysis of the new dissolution tooling are summarized. The final tooling design developed incorporated a number of safety features and provides a simple, self-contained, low-maintenance method of high explosives removal for nuclear explosive dismantlement. Analyses demonstrate that the tooling design will remain subcritical under normal, abnormal, and credible accident scenarios. 1 fig.

  12. Analyzing Software Requirements Errors in Safety-Critical, Embedded Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Robyn R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper analyzes the root causes of safety-related software errors in safety-critical, embedded systems. The results show that software errors identified as potentially hazardous to the system tend to be produced by different error mechanisms than non- safety-related software errors. Safety-related software errors are shown to arise most commonly from (1) discrepancies between the documented requirements specifications and the requirements needed for correct functioning of the system and (2) misunderstandings of the software's interface with the rest of the system. The paper uses these results to identify methods by which requirements errors can be prevented. The goal is to reduce safety-related software errors and to enhance the safety of complex, embedded systems.

  13. Training of nuclear criticality safety engineers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.G. [Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (United States)

    1997-06-01

    The site specific analysis of nuclear criticality training needs is very briefly described. Analysis indicated that the four major components required were analysis, surveillance, business practices or administration, and emergency preparedness. The analysis component was further divided into process analysis, accident analysis, and transportation analysis. Ten subject matter areas for the process analysis component were identified as candidates for class development. Training classes developed from the job content analysis have demonstrated that the specialized information can be successfully delivered to new entrants. 1 fig.

  14. 48 CFR 1371.113 - Department of Labor occupational safety and health standards for ship repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... occupational safety and health standards for ship repair. 1371.113 Section 1371.113 Federal Acquisition... CONSTRUCTION AND SHIP REPAIR Provisions and Clauses 1371.113 Department of Labor occupational safety and health standards for ship repair. Insert clause 1352.271-82, Department of Labor Occupational Safety and...

  15. Criticality Safety Basics for INL FMHs and CSOs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. L. Putman

    2012-04-01

    Nuclear power is a valuable and efficient energy alternative in our energy-intensive society. However, material that can generate nuclear power has properties that require this material be handled with caution. If improperly handled, a criticality accident could result, which could severely harm workers. This document is a modular self-study guide about Criticality Safety Principles. This guide's purpose it to help you work safely in areas where fissionable nuclear materials may be present, avoiding the severe radiological and programmatic impacts of a criticality accident. It is designed to stress the fundamental physical concepts behind criticality controls and the importance of criticality safety when handling fissionable materials outside nuclear reactors. This study guide was developed for fissionable-material-handler and criticality-safety-officer candidates to use with related web-based course 00INL189, BEA Criticality Safety Principles, and to help prepare for the course exams. These individuals must understand basic information presented here. This guide may also be useful to other Idaho National Laboratory personnel who must know criticality safety basics to perform their assignments safely or to design critically safe equipment or operations. This guide also includes additional information that will not be included in 00INL189 tests. The additional information is in appendices and paragraphs with headings that begin with 'Did you know,' or with, 'Been there Done that'. Fissionable-material-handler and criticality-safety-officer candidates may review additional information at their own discretion. This guide is revised as needed to reflect program changes, user requests, and better information. Issued in 2006, Revision 0 established the basic text and integrated various programs from former contractors. Revision 1 incorporates operation and program changes implemented since 2006. It also incorporates suggestions, clarifications

  16. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Offers Food Safety Tips for Areas Affected by Hurricane Irma Sep 22, 2017 Docket No. FSIS-2017-0038 - ... Offers Food Safety Tips for Areas Affected by Hurricane Irma Sep 22, 2017 Docket No. FSIS-2017-0038 - ...

  17. Criticality Safety Code Validation with LWBR’s SB Cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putman, Valerie Lee

    2003-01-01

    The first set of critical experiments from the Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor Program included eight, simple geometry critical cores built with 233UO2-ZrO2, 235UO2-ZrO2, ThO2, and ThO2-233UO2 nuclear materials. These cores are evaluated, described, and modeled to provide benchmarks and validation information for INEEL criticality safety calculation methodology. In addition to consistency with INEEL methodology, benchmark development and nuclear data are consistent with International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project methodology.Section 1 of this report introduces the experiments and the reason they are useful for validating some INEEL criticality safety calculations. Section 2 provides detailed experiment descriptions based on currently available experiment reports. Section 3 identifies criticality safety validation requirement sources and summarizes requirements that most affect this report. Section 4 identifies relevant hand calculation and computer code calculation methodologies used in the experiment evaluation, benchmark development, and validation calculations. Section 5 provides a detailed experiment evaluation. This section identifies resolutions for currently unavailable and discrepant information. Section 5 also reports calculated experiment uncertainty effects. Section 6 describes the developed benchmarks. Section 6 includes calculated sensitivities to various benchmark features and parameters. Section 7 summarizes validation results. Appendices describe various assumptions and their bases, list experimenter calculations results for items that were independently calculated for this validation work, report other information gathered and developed by SCIENTEC personnel while evaluating these same experiments, and list benchmark sample input and miscellaneous supplementary data.

  18. Sensitivity-Uncertainty Based Nuclear Criticality Safety Validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Forrest B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Nuclear Engineering Dept.

    2016-09-20

    These are slides from a seminar given to the University of Mexico Nuclear Engineering Department. Whisper is a statistical analysis package developed to support nuclear criticality safety validation. It uses the sensitivity profile data for an application as computed by MCNP6 along with covariance files for the nuclear data to determine a baseline upper-subcritical-limit for the application. Whisper and its associated benchmark files are developed and maintained as part of MCNP6, and will be distributed with all future releases of MCNP6. Although sensitivity-uncertainty methods for NCS validation have been under development for 20 years, continuous-energy Monte Carlo codes such as MCNP could not determine the required adjoint-weighted tallies for sensitivity profiles. The recent introduction of the iterated fission probability method into MCNP led to the rapid development of sensitivity analysis capabilities for MCNP6 and the development of Whisper. Sensitivity-uncertainty based methods represent the future for NCS validation – making full use of today’s computer power to codify past approaches based largely on expert judgment. Validation results are defensible, auditable, and repeatable as needed with different assumptions and process models. The new methods can supplement, support, and extend traditional validation approaches.

  19. Formalization and Validation of Safety-Critical Requirements

    CERN Document Server

    Cimatti, Alessandro; Susi, Angelo; Tonetta, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    The validation of requirements is a fundamental step in the development process of safety-critical systems. In safety critical applications such as aerospace, avionics and railways, the use of formal methods is of paramount importance both for requirements and for design validation. Nevertheless, while for the verification of the design, many formal techniques have been conceived and applied, the research on formal methods for requirements validation is not yet mature. The main obstacles are that, on the one hand, the correctness of requirements is not formally defined; on the other hand that the formalization and the validation of the requirements usually demands a strong involvement of domain experts. We report on a methodology and a series of techniques that we developed for the formalization and validation of high-level requirements for safety-critical applications. The main ingredients are a very expressive formal language and automatic satisfiability procedures. The language combines first-order, tempor...

  20. Nuclear Criticality Safety Organization training implementation. Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, K.J.; Taylor, R.G.; Worley, C.A.

    1997-05-19

    The Nuclear Criticality Safety Organization (NCSO) is committed to developing and maintaining a staff of qualified personnel to meet the current and anticipated needs in Nuclear Criticality Safety (NCS) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. This document provides a listing of the roles and responsibilities of NCSO personnel with respect to training and details of the Training Management System (TMS) programs, Mentoring Checklists and Checksheets, as well as other documentation utilized to implement the program. This Training Implementation document is applicable to all technical and managerial NCSO personnel, including temporary personnel, sub-contractors and/or LMES employees on loan to the NCSO, who are in a qualification program.

  1. Fission, critical mass and safety-a historical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meggitt, Geoff

    2006-06-15

    Since the discovery of fission, the notion of a chain reaction in a critical mass releasing massive amounts of energy has haunted physicists. The possibility of a bomb or a reactor prompted much of the early work on determining a critical mass, but the need to avoid an accidental critical excursion during processing or transport of fissile material drove much that took place subsequently. Because of the variety of possible situations that might arise, it took some time to develop adequate theoretical tools for criticality safety and the early assessments were based on direct experiment. Some extension of these experiments to closely similar situations proved possible, but it was not until the 1960s that theoretical methods (and computers to run them) developed enough for them to become reliable assessment tools. Validating such theoretical methods remained a concern, but by the end of the century they formed the backbone of criticality safety assessment. This paper traces the evolution of these methods, principally in the UK and USA, and summarises some related work concerned with the nature of criticality accidents and their radiological consequences. It also indicates how the results have been communicated and used in ensuring nuclear safety. (review)

  2. Physics Design of Criticality Assembly in Experimental Research About Criticality Safety in Spent Fuel Dissolver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU; Qi

    2012-01-01

    <正>In order to meet the experimental demand of criticality safety research in the spent fuel dissolver, we need to design a suitable criticality assembly. The key problem of the design work is the core design because there are many limits for it such as the number of fuel rods loaded, fissile materials existed in the solution, reactivity control, core size and etc.

  3. Nuclear criticality safety training: guidelines for DOE contractors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowell, M.R.

    1983-09-01

    The DOE Order 5480.1A, Chapter V, Safety of Nuclear Facilities, establishes safety procedures and requirements for DOE nuclear facilities. This guide has been developed as an aid to implementing the Chapter V requirements pertaining to nuclear criticality safety training. The guide outlines relevant conceptual knowledge and demonstrated good practices in job performance. It addresses training program operations requirements in the areas of employee evaluations, employee training records, training program evaluations, and training program records. It also suggests appropriate feedback mechanisms for criticality safety training program improvement. The emphasis is on academic rather than hands-on training. This allows a decoupling of these guidelines from specific facilities. It would be unrealistic to dictate a universal program of training because of the wide variation of operations, levels of experience, and work environments among DOE contractors and facilities. Hence, these guidelines do not address the actual implementation of a nuclear criticality safety training program, but rather they outline the general characteristics that should be included.

  4. Formal methods in the development of safety critical software systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, L.G. [Software Engineering Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1991-11-15

    As the use of computers in critical control systems such as aircraft controls, medical instruments, defense systems, missile controls, and nuclear power plants has increased, concern for the safety of those systems has also grown. Much of this concern has focused on the software component of those computer-based systems. This is primarily due to historical experience with software systems that often exhibit larger numbers of errors than their hardware counterparts and the fact that the consequences of a software error may endanger human life, property, or the environment. A number of different techniques have been used to address the issue of software safety. Some are standard software engineering techniques aimed at reducing the number of faults in a software protect, such as reviews and walkthroughs. Others, including fault tree analysis, are based on identifying and reducing hazards. This report examines the role of one such technique, formal methods, in the development of software for safety critical systems. The use of formal methods to increase the safety of software systems is based on their role in reducing the possibility of software errors that could lead to hazards. The use of formal methods in the development of software systems is controversial. Proponents claim that the use of formal methods can eliminate errors from the software development process, and produce programs that are probably correct. Opponents claim that they are difficult to learn and that their use increases development costs unacceptably. This report discusses the potential of formal methods for reducing failures in safety critical software systems.

  5. Private Memory Allocation Analysis for Safety-Critical Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Andreas E.; Hansen, René Rydhof; Schoeberl, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Safety-critical Java (SCJ) avoids garbage collection and uses a scope based memory model. This memory model is based on a restricted version of RTSJ [2] style scopes. The scopes form a clear hierarchy with different lifetimes. Therefore, references between objects in different scopes are only...

  6. Chip-Multiprocessor Hardware Locks for Safety-Critical Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Torur Biskopstø; Puffitsch, Wolfgang; Schoeberl, Martin

    2013-01-01

    and may void a task set's schedulability. In this paper we present a hardware locking mechanism to reduce the synchronization overhead. The solution is implemented for the chip-multiprocessor version of the Java Optimized Processor in the context of safety-critical Java. The implementation is compared...

  7. Criticality safety enhancements for SCALE 6.2 and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rearden, Bradley T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bekar, Kursat B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Celik, Cihangir [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Clarno, Kevin T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dunn, Michael E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hart, Shane W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ibrahim, Ahmad M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Seth R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Langley, Brandon R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lefebvre, Jordan P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lefebvre, Robert A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Marshall, William J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mertyurek, Ugur [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mueller, Don [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peplow, Douglas E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Perfetti, Christopher M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Petrie Jr, Lester M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Thompson, Adam B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wiarda, Dorothea [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wieselquist, William A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Mark L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    SCALE is a widely used suite of tools for nuclear systems modeling and simulation that provides comprehensive, verified and validated, user-friendly capabilities for criticality safety, reactor physics, radiation shielding, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. Since 1980, regulators, industry, and research institutions around the world have relied on SCALE for nuclear safety analysis and design. SCALE 6.2 provides several new capabilities and significant improvements in many existing features for criticality safety analysis. Enhancements are realized for nuclear data; multigroup resonance self-shielding; continuous-energy Monte Carlo analysis for sensitivity/uncertainty analysis, radiation shielding, and depletion; and graphical user interfaces. An overview of these capabilities is provided in this paper, and additional details are provided in several companion papers.

  8. Criticality safety enhancements for SCALE 6.2 and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rearden, Bradley T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bekar, Kursat B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Celik, Cihangir [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Clarno, Kevin T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Dunn, Michael E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hart, Shane W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ibrahim, Ahmad M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Seth R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Langley, Brandon R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lefebvre, Jordan P. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Lefebvre, Robert A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Marshall, William J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mertyurek, Ugur [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mueller, Don [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peplow, Douglas E. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Perfetti, Christopher M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Petrie Jr, Lester M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Thompson, Adam B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wiarda, Dorothea [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wieselquist, William A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Williams, Mark L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    SCALE is a widely used suite of tools for nuclear systems modeling and simulation that provides comprehensive, verified and validated, user-friendly capabilities for criticality safety, reactor physics, radiation shielding, and sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. Since 1980, regulators, industry, and research institutions around the world have relied on SCALE for nuclear safety analysis and design. SCALE 6.2 provides several new capabilities and significant improvements in many existing features for criticality safety analysis. Enhancements are realized for nuclear data; multigroup resonance self-shielding; continuous-energy Monte Carlo analysis for sensitivity/uncertainty analysis, radiation shielding, and depletion; and graphical user interfaces. An overview of these capabilities is provided in this paper, and additional details are provided in several companion papers.

  9. Criticality safety assessment of tank 241-C-106 remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waltar, A.E., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-19

    A criticality safety assessment was performed in support of Project 320 for the retrieval of waste from tank 241-C-106 to tank 241-AY-102. The assessment was performed by a multi-disciplined team consisting of expertise covering the range of nuclear engineering, plutonium and nuclear waste chemistry,and physical mixing hydraulics. Technical analysis was performed to evaluate the physical and chemical behavior of fissile material in neutralized Hanford waste as well as modeling of the fluid dynamics for the retrieval activity. The team has not found evidence of any credible mechanism to attain neutronic criticality in either tank and has concluded that a criticality accident is incredible.

  10. Lecture Notes on Criticality Safety Validation Using MCNP & Whisper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Forrest B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rising, Michael Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Alwin, Jennifer Louise [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-11

    Training classes for nuclear criticality safety, MCNP documentation. The need for, and problems surrounding, validation of computer codes and data area considered first. Then some background for MCNP & Whisper is given--best practices for Monte Carlo criticality calculations, neutron spectra, S(α,β) thermal neutron scattering data, nuclear data sensitivities, covariance data, and correlation coefficients. Whisper is computational software designed to assist the nuclear criticality safety analyst with validation studies with the Monte Carlo radiation transport package MCNP. Whisper's methodology (benchmark selection – Ck's, weights; extreme value theory – bias, bias uncertainty; MOS for nuclear data uncertainty – GLLS) and usage are discussed.

  11. Physicians' and nurses' perceptions of patient safety risks in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Källberg, Ann-Sofie; Ehrenberg, Anna; Florin, Jan; Östergren, Jan; Göransson, Katarina E

    2017-02-28

    The emergency department has been described as a high-risk area for errors. It is also known that working conditions such as a high workload and shortage off staff in the healthcare field are common factors that negatively affect patient safety. A limited amount of research has been conducted with regard to patient safety in Swedish emergency departments. Additionally, there is a lack of knowledge about clinicians' perceptions of patient safety risks. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to describe emergency department clinicians' experiences with regard to patient safety risks.

  12. 75 FR 28200 - Safety Zone; Washington State Department of Transportation Ferries Division Marine Rescue...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-20

    ... safety of the participating ferries, rescue vessels, and the maritime public during the exercise by... response organization specific to ferries in the Puget Sound area. This temporary safety zone will mitigate... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Washington State Department of...

  13. Is culture associated with patient safety in the emergency department? A study of staff perspectives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek-van Noord, I.; Wagner, C.; Dyck, C. van; Twisk, J.W.R.; Bruijne, M.C. de

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe the patient safety culture of Dutch emergency departments (EDs), to examine associations between safety culture dimensions and patient safety grades as reported by ED staff and to compare these associations between nurses and physicians. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey conducte

  14. Implications of Monte Carlo Statistical Errors in Criticality Safety Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pevey, Ronald E.

    2005-09-15

    Most criticality safety calculations are performed using Monte Carlo techniques because of Monte Carlo's ability to handle complex three-dimensional geometries. For Monte Carlo calculations, the more histories sampled, the lower the standard deviation of the resulting estimates. The common intuition is, therefore, that the more histories, the better; as a result, analysts tend to run Monte Carlo analyses as long as possible (or at least to a minimum acceptable uncertainty). For Monte Carlo criticality safety analyses, however, the optimization situation is complicated by the fact that procedures usually require that an extra margin of safety be added because of the statistical uncertainty of the Monte Carlo calculations. This additional safety margin affects the impact of the choice of the calculational standard deviation, both on production and on safety. This paper shows that, under the assumptions of normally distributed benchmarking calculational errors and exact compliance with the upper subcritical limit (USL), the standard deviation that optimizes production is zero, but there is a non-zero value of the calculational standard deviation that minimizes the risk of inadvertently labeling a supercritical configuration as subcritical. Furthermore, this value is shown to be a simple function of the typical benchmarking step outcomes--the bias, the standard deviation of the bias, the upper subcritical limit, and the number of standard deviations added to calculated k-effectives before comparison to the USL.

  15. A software engineering process for safety-critical software application.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Byung Heon; Kim, Hang Bae; Chang, Hoon Seon; Jeon, Jong Sun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    Application of computer software to safety-critical systems in on the increase. To be successful, the software must be designed and constructed to meet the functional and performance requirements of the system. For safety reason, the software must be demonstrated not only to meet these requirements, but also to operate safely as a component within the system. For longer-term cost consideration, the software must be designed and structured to ease future maintenance and modifications. This paper presents a software engineering process for the production of safety-critical software for a nuclear power plant. The presentation is expository in nature of a viable high quality safety-critical software development. It is based on the ideas of a rational design process and on the experience of the adaptation of such process in the production of the safety-critical software for the shutdown system number two of Wolsung 2, 3 and 4 nuclear power generation plants. This process is significantly different from a conventional process in terms of rigorous software development phases and software design techniques, The process covers documentation, design, verification and testing using mathematically precise notations and highly reviewable tabular format to specify software requirements and software requirements and software requirements and code against software design using static analysis. The software engineering process described in this paper applies the principle of information-hiding decomposition in software design using a modular design technique so that when a change is required or an error is detected, the affected scope can be readily and confidently located. it also facilitates a sense of high degree of confidence in the `correctness` of the software production, and provides a relatively simple and straightforward code implementation effort. 1 figs., 10 refs. (Author).

  16. Management of critically ill patients receiving noninvasive and invasive mechanical ventilation in the emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose L

    2012-03-01

    and invasively ventilated patients are discussed, with a particular emphasis on initiation and ongoing monitoring priorities focused on maintaining patient safety and improving patient outcomes.Keywords: mechanical ventilation, emergency department, noninvasive ventilation, critical illness, acute respiratory failure

  17. The critical incident stress debriefing process for the Los Angeles County Fire Department: automatic and effective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokanson, M; Wirth, B

    2000-01-01

    Los Angeles County Fire Department has one of the oldest Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) programs in the country. One core component for the LACoFD has been the Critical Incident Stress Debriefing (CISD). Two important questions for the emergency managers are: 1) Do individuals find a significant difference in symptom reduction for events that were debriefed? 2) Does helpfulness of a debriefing for a specific individual correlate with recommending the process for others? A Department-wide evaluative survey was conducted in 1996 to determine the satisfaction and effectiveness of the debriefing program. Individuals reported a significant difference in the speed of symptom reduction for incidents that were debriefed versus incidents that were not debriefed. The majority of individuals would recommend the debriefing process to others regardless of whether they personally found the process helpful or not. Based on this, the recommendations are to continue the debriefing process for specific events and to make the process mandatory; furthermore, it is recommended that the term "mandatory" be changed to "automatic." By using the term "automatic," debriefings become standard operating procedures. By doing so, a method to protect the psychological welfare of emergency personnel becomes as automatic as putting on safety protection equipment [International Journal of Emergency Mental Health, 2000, 2(4), 249-257].

  18. 76 FR 70649 - Safety Zone; Department of Defense Exercise, Hood Canal, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-15

    ...The Coast Guard is establishing a temporary safety zone around vessels involved in a Department of Defense exercise in Hood Canal, WA that will take place on November 21, 2011. A safety zone is necessary to ensure the safety of the maritime public during the exercise. The zone will do so by prohibiting any person or vessel from entering or remaining in the safety zone unless authorized by the......

  19. Criticality safety research at the University of Tennessee-Knoxville

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodds, H.L. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1997-06-01

    A list of seven research projects in nuclear criticality safety being conducted at the University of Tennessee is given. One of the projects is very briefly described. The study of space-dependent kinetics analysis of a hypothetical criticality accident involving an array of bottles containing UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} is being conducted for the US DOE, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, K-25 plant. Preliminary results for power versus time are presented, which indicate that space-time effects are significant after approximately 70 seconds. 2 refs., 1 fig.

  20. Critical Ethnography, Cultural Safety, and International Nursing Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean N. Harrowing PhD

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Critical qualitative methodology provides a strategy to examine the human experience and its relationship to power and truth. Cultural safety is a concept that has been applied to nursing education and practice and refers to interactions that acknowledge and respect the unique cultural background of patients. It recognizes power inequities between caregivers who belong to dominant cultures and patients who may belong to oppressed groups. Culture is interpreted from a critical constructivist perspective as a fluid relational process that is enacted contextually. The purpose of this paper is to examine the congruence between and

  1. Criticality safety calculations of the Soreq research reactor storage pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caner, M.; Hirshfeld, H.; Nagler, A.; Silverman, I.; Bettan, M. [Soreq Nuclear Research Center, Yavne 81800 (Israel); Levine, S.H. [Penn State University, University Park 16802 (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The IRR-l spent fuel is to be relocated in a storage pool. The present paper describes the actual facility and summarizes the Monte Carlo criticality safety calculations. The fuel elements are to be placed inside cadmium boxes to reduce their reactivity. The fuel element is 7.6 cm by 8.0 cm in the horizontal plane. The cadmium box is effectively 9.7 cm by 9.7 cm, providing significant water between the cadmium and the fuel element. The present calculations show that the spent fuel storage pool is criticality safe even for fresh fuel elements. (author)

  2. Criticality safety at Zircatec - past present and future - part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, R.; Longinov, M.; Pant, A. [Zircatec Precision Industries, Port Hope, Ontario (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    In response to the Power Uprate program at Bruce Power, Zircatec has committed to introduce, by Spring 2006 a new manufacturing line for the production of 43 element CANFLEX bundles containing Slightly Enriched Uranium (SEU) with a centre pin of blended dysprosia/urania (BDU). This is a new fuel design and is the first change in fuel design since the introduction of the current 37 element fuel over 20 years ago. This move to LVRF fuel manufacture has prompted the change to a plant wide implementation of criticality safety methods. The major aspects of this change will be discussed from the viewpoint of the end user of the facility. Some of the methods used in the design of the unit processes and in the conducting of the criticality safety evaluations will be elaborated. (author)

  3. From Safety Critical Java Programs to Timed Process Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Bent; Luckow, Kasper Søe; Thomsen, Lone Leth

    2015-01-01

    built and the tools have been used to analyse a number of systems for properties such as worst case execution time, schedulability and energy optimization [12–14,19,34,36,38]. In this paper we will elaborate on the theoretical underpinning of the translation from Java programs to timed automata models...... frameworks, we have in recent years pursued an agenda of translating hard-real-time embedded safety critical programs written in the Safety Critical Java Profile [33] into networks of timed automata [4] and subjecting those to automated analysis using the UPPAAL model checker [10]. Several tools have been...... and briefly summarize some of the results based on this translation. Furthermore, we discuss future work, especially relations to the work in [16,24] as Java recently has adopted first class higher order functions in the form of lambda abstractions....

  4. Multiprocessor Priority Ceiling Emulation for Safety-Critical Java

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Torur Biskopstø; Schoeberl, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Priority ceiling emulation has preferable properties on uniprocessor systems, such as avoiding priority inversion and being deadlock free. This has made it a popular locking protocol. According to the safety-critical Java specication, priority ceiling emulation is a requirement for implementations....... However, implementing the protocol for multiprocessor systemsis more complex so implementations might perform worse than non-preemptive implementations. In this paper we compare two multiprocessor lock implementations with hardware support for the Java optimized processor: non-preemptive locking...

  5. A Test Suite for Safety-Critical Java using JML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Anders P.; Søndergaard, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Development techniques are presented for a test suite for the draft specification of the Java profile for Safety-Critical Systems. Distinguishing features are: specification of conformance constraints in the Java Modeling Language, encoding of infrastructure concepts without implementation bias......, and corresponding specifications of implicitly stated behavioral and real-time properties. The test programs are auto-generated from the specification, while concrete values for test parameters are selected manually. The suite is open source and publicly accessible....

  6. A Test Suite for Safety-Critical Java using JML

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Anders P.; Søndergaard, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Development techniques are presented for a test suite for the draft specification of the Java profile for Safety-Critical Systems. Distinguishing features are: specification of conformance constraints in the Java Modeling Language, encoding of infrastructure concepts without implementation bias, ......, and corresponding specifications of implicitly stated behavioral and real-time properties. The test programs are auto-generated from the specification, while concrete values for test parameters are selected manually. The suite is open source and publicly accessible....

  7. Safety-Critical Software: Status Report and Annotated Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-01

    software in place of hardware in safety-critical sys- tems are the Therac 25 (a therapeutic linear accelerator) and nuclear reactor shutdown sys- tems...Leveson and Turner [141], is the Therac 25 radiation treatment machine. A predecessor to the Therac 25, the Therac 20, had a number of hardware Interlocks...to stop an undesirable behavior. Much of the software in the Therac 25 was similar to that of the Therac 20 and the software in both cases contained

  8. Improved analysis of bias in Monte Carlo criticality safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Thomas C.

    2000-08-01

    Criticality safety, the prevention of nuclear chain reactions, depends on Monte Carlo computer codes for most commercial applications. One major shortcoming of these codes is the limited accuracy of the atomic and nuclear data files they depend on. In order to apply a code and its data files to a given criticality safety problem, the code must first be benchmarked against similar problems for which the answer is known. The difference between a code prediction and the known solution is termed the "bias" of the code. Traditional calculations of the bias for application to commercial criticality problems are generally full of assumptions and lead to large uncertainties which must be conservatively factored into the bias as statistical tolerances. Recent trends in storing commercial nuclear fuel---narrowed regulatory margins of safety, degradation of neutron absorbers, the desire to use higher enrichment fuel, etc.---push the envelope of criticality safety. They make it desirable to minimize uncertainty in the bias to accommodate these changes, and they make it vital to understand what assumptions are safe to make under what conditions. A set of improved procedures is proposed for (1) developing multivariate regression bias models, and (2) applying multivariate regression bias models. These improved procedures lead to more accurate estimates of the bias and much smaller uncertainties about this estimate, while also generally providing more conservative results. The drawback is that the procedures are not trivial and are highly labor intensive to implement. The payback in savings in margin to criticality and conservatism for calculations near regulatory and safety limits may be worth this cost. To develop these procedures, a bias model using the statistical technique of weighted least squares multivariate regression is developed in detail. Problems that can occur from a weak statistical analysis are highlighted, and a solid statistical method for developing the bias

  9. Report of the aviation safety review of Department of Energy helicopter operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    In a memorandum dated November 27, 1991, the Secretary of Energy directed the Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH) to lead, with Program Secretarial Office participation, an aviation safety review of the safe operation of the Department`s helicopter program. The Aviation Safety Review Team comprised of aviation experts from the US Army, the Federal Aviation Administration, private consulting organizations, and Department of Energy (DOE) staff was assembled. The scope of the Aviation Safety Review Team`s appraisals included the following as applicable: policy; operations; maintenance; crew training; previous appraisals; contract requirements; aviation safety analysis reports; refueling facilities and management; night vision goggle (NVG) operations; helicopter limited standdown initiative; Secretary of Energy Notice (SEN) -6D-91 Compliance; and, DOE/contractor organizational structures and responsibilities. The appraisals at each site included a review of aviation policy, manuals, procedures, facilities, and documentation pertaining to management, safety, operations, maintenance, and quality control.

  10. Agile Methods for Open Source Safety-Critical Software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, Kevin; Enquobahrie, Andinet; Ibanez, Luis; Cheng, Patrick; Yaniv, Ziv; Cleary, Kevin; Kokoori, Shylaja; Muffih, Benjamin; Heidenreich, John

    2011-08-01

    The introduction of software technology in a life-dependent environment requires the development team to execute a process that ensures a high level of software reliability and correctness. Despite their popularity, agile methods are generally assumed to be inappropriate as a process family in these environments due to their lack of emphasis on documentation, traceability, and other formal techniques. Agile methods, notably Scrum, favor empirical process control, or small constant adjustments in a tight feedback loop. This paper challenges the assumption that agile methods are inappropriate for safety-critical software development. Agile methods are flexible enough to encourage the rightamount of ceremony; therefore if safety-critical systems require greater emphasis on activities like formal specification and requirements management, then an agile process will include these as necessary activities. Furthermore, agile methods focus more on continuous process management and code-level quality than classic software engineering process models. We present our experiences on the image-guided surgical toolkit (IGSTK) project as a backdrop. IGSTK is an open source software project employing agile practices since 2004. We started with the assumption that a lighter process is better, focused on evolving code, and only adding process elements as the need arose. IGSTK has been adopted by teaching hospitals and research labs, and used for clinical trials. Agile methods have matured since the academic community suggested they are not suitable for safety-critical systems almost a decade ago, we present our experiences as a case study for renewing the discussion.

  11. Formalization and Validation of Safety-Critical Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Cimatti

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The validation of requirements is a fundamental step in the development process of safety-critical systems. In safety critical applications such as aerospace, avionics and railways, the use of formal methods is of paramount importance both for requirements and for design validation. Nevertheless, while for the verification of the design, many formal techniques have been conceived and applied, the research on formal methods for requirements validation is not yet mature. The main obstacles are that, on the one hand, the correctness of requirements is not formally defined; on the other hand that the formalization and the validation of the requirements usually demands a strong involvement of domain experts. We report on a methodology and a series of techniques that we developed for the formalization and validation of high-level requirements for safety-critical applications. The main ingredients are a very expressive formal language and automatic satisfiability procedures. The language combines first-order, temporal, and hybrid logic. The satisfiability procedures are based on model checking and satisfiability modulo theory. We applied this technology within an industrial project to the validation of railways requirements.

  12. Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Safety Class and Safety Significant Commercial Grade Items (CGI) Critical Characteristic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    THOMAS, R.J.

    2000-04-24

    This document specifies the critical characteristics for Commercial Grade Items (CGI) procured for use in the Plutonium Finishing Plant as required by HNF-PRO-268 and HNF-PRO-1819. These are the minimum specifications that the equipment must meet in order to properly perform its safety function. There may be several manufacturers or models that meet the critical characteristics of any one item.

  13. U.S. Department of Energy - Critical Materials Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-12-01

    The Critical Materials Strategy builds on the Department’s previous work in this area and provides a foundation for future action. This Strategy is a first step toward a comprehensive response to the challenges before us. We hope it will also encourage others to engage in a dialogue about these issues and work together to achieve our Nation’s clean energy goals.

  14. Evaluating safety-critical organizations - emphasis on the nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, Teemu; Oedewald, Pia (VTT, Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland))

    2009-04-15

    - it is understood that safety is a complex phenomenon. Safety is understood as a property of an entire system and not just absence of incidents - people feel personally responsible for the safety of the entire system, they feel they can have an effect on safety - the organizations aims for understanding the hazards and anticipating the risks in their activities - the organization is alert to the possibility of an unanticipated event - good prerequisites for carrying out the daily work exist. An organizational evaluation should aim at reasoning the: - sources of effectiveness in the organizational dimensions - sources of ineffectiveness in the organization dimensions - social processes in the organization - psychological outcomes of the current organization on a personnel level, e.g. motivation, understanding of hazards and sense of control. When drawing inferences from the organizational evaluations and defining development initiatives, it is important to consider actions that will promote and maintain the strengths of the organization as well as actions that will address and develop the weak areas. Issues associated with data collection and choice of methods has been a topic of much discussion in the field of evaluation of safety-critical organizations. We argue that the problem of collecting data is not the most important problem in terms of facilitating valid evaluations. A more important problem concerns the criteria that are used, as well as the operationalization of criteria into something measurable. Too much effort has been spent on methods and too little on contemplating the question of valid evaluation criteria and a valid means of deducing from the data whether the criteria are fulfilled. In order to accomplish this, a valid evaluation framework is needed, which incorporates the idea of organization as a complex sociotechnical system. This report has been an attempt to illustrate the premises and key issues to consider in organizational evaluations. No

  15. Criticality safety evaluation report for the multi-canister overpack

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KESSLER, S.F.

    1999-05-21

    This criticality evaluation is for Spent N Reactor fuel unloaded from the existing canisters in both KE and KW Basins, and loaded into multiple canister overpack (MCO) containers with specially built baskets containing a maximum of either 54 Mark 1V or 48 Mark IA fuel assemblies. The criticality evaluations include loading baskets into the cask-MCO, operations at the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, and storage in the Canister Storage Building. Many conservatisms have been built into this analysis, the primary one being the selection of the k{sub eff} = 0.95 criticality safety limit. Additional analyses in this revision include partial fuel basket loadings, loading 26.1 inch Mark IA fuel assemblies into Mark IV fuel baskets, and the revised fuel and scrap basket designs. The MCO MCNP model was revised to include the shield plug assembly.

  16. An approach to radiation safety department benchmarking in academic and medical facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Richard P

    2015-02-01

    Based on anecdotal evidence and networking with colleagues at other facilities, it has become evident that some radiation safety departments are not adequately staffed and radiation safety professionals need to increase their staffing levels. Discussions with management regarding radiation safety department staffing often lead to similar conclusions. Management acknowledges the Radiation Safety Officer (RSO) or Director of Radiation Safety's concern but asks the RSO to provide benchmarking and justification for additional full-time equivalents (FTEs). The RSO must determine a method to benchmark and justify additional staffing needs while struggling to maintain a safe and compliant radiation safety program. Benchmarking and justification are extremely important tools that are commonly used to demonstrate the need for increased staffing in other disciplines and are tools that can be used by radiation safety professionals. Parameters that most RSOs would expect to be positive predictors of radiation safety staff size generally are and can be emphasized in benchmarking and justification report summaries. Facilities with large radiation safety departments tend to have large numbers of authorized users, be broad-scope programs, be subject to increased controls regulations, have large clinical operations, have significant numbers of academic radiation-producing machines, and have laser safety responsibilities.

  17. RESILIENT INTERFACE DESIGN FOR SAFETY-CRITICAL EMBEDDED AUTOMOTIVE SOFTWARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harald Sporer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The replacement of the former, purely mechanical, functionality with mechatronics-based solutions, the introduction of new propulsion technologies, and the connection of cars to their environment are just a few reasons for the continuously increasing electrical and/or electronic system (E/E system complexity in modern passenger cars. Smart methodologies and techniques have been introduced in system development to cope with these new challenges. A topic that is often neglected is the definition of the interface between the hardware and software subsystems. However, during the development of safety-critical E/E systems, according to the automotive functional safety standard ISO 26262, an unambiguous definition of the hardware-software interface (HSI has become vital. This paper presents a domain-specific modelling approach for mechatronic systems with an integrated hardware-software interface definition feature. The newly developed model-based domain-specific language is tailored to the needs of mechatronic system engineers and supports the system’s architectural design including the interface definition, with a special focus on safety-criticality.

  18. Department of Nuclear Safety Research and Nuclear Facilities annual report 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majborn, B.; Brodersen, K.; Damkjaer, A.; Floto, H.; Jacobsen, U.; Oelgaard, P.L. [eds.

    1996-03-01

    The report presents a summary of the work of the Department of Nuclear Safety Research and Nuclear Facilities in 1995. The department`s research and development activities are organized in three research programmes: Radiation Protection, Reactor Safety, and Radioanalytical Chemistry. The nuclear facilities operated by the department include the Research Reactor DR3, the Isotope Laboratory, the Waste Treatment Plant, and the Educational Reactor DR1. Lists of staff and publications are included together with a summary of the staff`s participation in national and international committees. (au) 5 tabs., 21 ills.

  19. The impact of situation-background-assessment-recommendation (SBAR on safety attitudes in the obstetrics department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Hua Ting

    2017-04-01

    Conclusion: The SBAR technique, which uses a novel structured handover list, is a feasible tool for nurse–obstetrician communication, and it may improve most dimensions of safety attitudes in the obstetrics department.

  20. Report of the aviation safety review of Department of Energy helicopter operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    In a memorandum dated November 27, 1991, the Secretary of Energy directed the Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH) to lead, with Program Secretarial Office participation, an aviation safety review of the safe operation of the Department's helicopter program. The Aviation Safety Review Team comprised of aviation experts from the US Army, the Federal Aviation Administration, private consulting organizations, and Department of Energy (DOE) staff was assembled. The scope of the Aviation Safety Review Team's appraisals included the following as applicable: policy; operations; maintenance; crew training; previous appraisals; contract requirements; aviation safety analysis reports; refueling facilities and management; night vision goggle (NVG) operations; helicopter limited standdown initiative; Secretary of Energy Notice (SEN) -6D-91 Compliance; and, DOE/contractor organizational structures and responsibilities. The appraisals at each site included a review of aviation policy, manuals, procedures, facilities, and documentation pertaining to management, safety, operations, maintenance, and quality control.

  1. 76 FR 44592 - Cooperative Agreement With the World Health Organization Department of Food Safety and Zoonoses...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Cooperative Agreement With the World Health Organization Department of Food Safety and Zoonoses in Support of Strategies That Address Food Safety Problems That Align Domestically and Globally (U01); Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice...

  2. Patterns for Safety-Critical Java Memory Usage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rios Rivas, Juan Ricardo; Nilsen, Kelvin; Schoeberl, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Scoped memories are introduced in real-time Java profiles in order to make object allocation and deallocation time and space predictable. However, explicit scoping requires care from programmers when dealing with temporary objects, passing scope-allocated objects as arguments to methods, and retu......Scoped memories are introduced in real-time Java profiles in order to make object allocation and deallocation time and space predictable. However, explicit scoping requires care from programmers when dealing with temporary objects, passing scope-allocated objects as arguments to methods...... are illustrated by implementations in the safety-critical Java profile....

  3. A safety-critical java technology compatibility kit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Hans; Korsholm, Stephan E.; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2014-01-01

    In order to claim conformance with a given Java Specification Request (JSR), a Java implementation has to pass all tests in an associated Technology Compatibility Kit (TCK). This paper presents development of test cases and tools for the draft Safety-Critical Java (SCJ) specification. In previous...... work we have shown how the Java Modeling Language (JML) is applied to specify conformance constraints for SCJ, and how JML-related tools may assist in generating and executing tests. Here we extend this work with a layout for concrete test cases including checking of results in a simplified version...

  4. Safety-critical Java on a Java processor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeberl, Martin; Rios Rivas, Juan Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    The safety-critical Java (SCJ) specification is developed within the Java Community Process under specification request number JSR 302. The specification is available as public draft, but details are still discussed by the expert group. In this stage of the specification we need prototype...... implementations of SCJ and first test applications that are written with SCJ, even when the specification is not finalized. The feedback from those prototype implementations is needed for final decisions. To help the SCJ expert group, a prototype implementation of SCJ on top of the Java optimized processor...

  5. Safety-Critical Java for Low-End Embedded Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Hans; Korsholm, Stephan E.; Ravn, Anders P.

    2012-01-01

    We present an implementation of the Safety-Critical Java profile (SCJ), targeted for low-end embedded platforms with as little as 16 kB RAM and 256 kB flash. The distinctive features of the implementation are a combination of a lean Java virtual machine (HVM), with a bare metal kernel implementing...... hardware objects, first level interrupt handlers, and native variables, and an infrastructure written in Java which is minimized through program specialization. The HVM allows the implementation to be easily ported to embedded platforms which have a C compiler as part of the development environment...

  6. Safety-critical Java for low-end embedded platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Hans; Korsholm, Stephan E.; Ravn, Anders Peter

    2012-01-01

    We present an implementation of the Safety-Critical Java profile (SCJ), targeted for low-end embedded platforms with as little as 16 kB RAM and 256 kB flash. The distinctive features of the implementation are a combination of a lean Java virtual machine (HVM), with a bare metal kernel implementing...... hardware objects, first level interrupt handlers, and native variables, and an infrastructure written in Java which is minimized through program specialization. The HVM allows the implementation to be easily ported to embedded platforms which have a C compiler as part of the development environment...

  7. A Safety-Critical Java Technology Compatibility Kit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Hans; Korsholm, Stephan Erbs; Ravn, Anders P.

    2014-01-01

    In order to claim conformance with a given Java Specification Request (JSR), a Java implementation has to pass all tests in an associated Technology Compatibility Kit (TCK). This paper presents development of test cases and tools for the draft Safety-Critical Java (SCJ) specification. In previous...... work we have shown how the Java Modeling Language (JML) is applied to specify conformance constraints for SCJ, and how JML-related tools may assist in generating and executing tests. Here we extend this work with a layout for concrete test cases including checking of results in a simplified version...

  8. Safety-Critical Java for Low-End Embedded Platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Hans; Korsholm, Stephan E.; Ravn, Anders P.

    2012-01-01

    We present an implementation of the Safety-Critical Java profile (SCJ), targeted for low-end embedded platforms with as little as 16 kB RAM and 256 kB flash. The distinctive features of the implementation are a combination of a lean Java virtual machine (HVM), with a bare metal kernel implementing...... hardware objects, first level interrupt handlers, and native variables, and an infrastructure written in Java which is minimized through program specialization. The HVM allows the implementation to be easily ported to embedded platforms which have a C compiler as part of the development environment...

  9. The implementation and assessment of a quality and safety culture education program in a large radiation oncology department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhouse, Kristina D; Volz, Edna; Bellerive, Marc; Bergendahl, Howard W; Gabriel, Peter E; Maity, Amit; Hahn, Stephen M; Vapiwala, Neha

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, the American Society for Radiation Oncology launched a national campaign to improve patient safety in radiation therapy. One recommendation included the expansion of educational programs dedicated to quality and safety. We subsequently implemented a quality and safety culture education program (Q-SCEP) in our large radiation oncology department. The purpose of this study is to describe the design, implementation, and impact of this Q-SCEP. In 2010, we instituted a comprehensive Q-SCEP, consisting of a longitudinal series of lectures, meetings, and interactive workshops. Participation was mandatory for all department members across all network locations. Electronic surveys were administered to assess employee engagement, knowledge retention, preferred learning styles, and the program's overall impact. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Survey on Patient Safety Culture was administered. Analysis of variance was used for statistical analysis. Between 2010 and 2015, 100% of targeted staff participated in Q-SCEP. Thirty-three percent (132 of 400) and 30% (136 of 450) responded to surveys in 2012 and 2014, respectively. Mean scores improved from 73% to 89% (P safety culture education was critical to performing their jobs well. Full course compliance was achieved despite the sizable number of personnel and treatment centers. Periodic assessments demonstrated high knowledge retention, which significantly improved over time in nearly all department divisions. Additionally, our AHRQ patient safety grade remains high and continues to improve. These results will be used to further enhance ongoing internal safety initiatives and to inform future innovative efforts. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Galileo Safety-of-Life Service Utilization for Railway Non-Safety and Safety Critical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocek, Hynek; Filip, Aleš; Bazant, Lubor

    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Galileo is expected to play an essential role in railway transport with view to reduce operational, investment and maintenance costs. However, quality requirements of the GNSS originate mainly from the aviation suggestions. Different safety philosophies used in aviation domain and in railway signaling complicate direct employment of the GNSS quality measures to the railway telematic applications. The objective of this paper is to outline the conception of railway requirements specification for the GNSS in order to cover a large amount of the appropriate applications in the non-safety and safety related domains. The elaborated methodology enables to provide specification of minimal quantitative requirements for GNSS system by means of railway attributes RAMS. This process generally represents contribution for GNSS system certification, when it is necessary to demonstrate that the GNSS system meets requirements, and the system outputs are correct. In the second level, certification of the specific GNSS application must follow subsequently.

  11. Criticality Safety Validation of Scale 6.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, William BJ J [ORNL; Rearden, Bradley T [ORNL

    2011-11-01

    The computational bias of criticality safety computer codes must be established through the validation of the codes to critical experiments. A large collection of suitable experiments has been vetted by the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiment Program (ICSBEP) and made available in the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments (IHECSBE). A total of more than 350 cases from this reference have been prepared and reviewed within the Verified, Archived Library of Inputs and Data (VALID) maintained by the Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The performance of the KENO V.a and KENO-VI Monte Carlo codes within the Scale 6.1 code system with ENDF/B-VII.0 cross-section data in 238-group and continuous energy is assessed using the VALID models of benchmark experiments. The TSUNAMI tools for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis are utilized to examine some systems further in an attempt to identify potential causes of unexpected results. The critical experiments available for validation of the KENO V.a code cover eight different broad categories of systems. These systems use a range of fissile materials including a range of uranium enrichments, various plutonium isotopic vectors, and mixed uranium-plutonium oxides. The physical form of the fissile material also varies and is represented as metal, solutions, or arrays of rods or plates in a water moderator. The neutron energy spectra of the systems also vary and cover both fast and thermal spectra. Over 300 of the total cases used utilize the KENO V.a code. The critical experiments available for the validation of the KENO-VI code cover three broad categories of systems. The fissile materials in the systems vary and include high and intermediate-enrichment uranium and mixed uranium/plutonium oxides. The physical form of the fissile material is either metal or rod arrays in water. As with KENO V.a, both fast and thermal neutron energy spectra

  12. Characteristics of Real-Time, Non-Critical Incident Debriefing Practices in the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadir, Nur-Ain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Benefits of post-simulation debriefings as an educational and feedback tool have been widely accepted for nearly a decade. Real-time, non-critical incident debriefing is similar to post-simulation debriefing; however, data on its practice in academic emergency departments (ED, is limited. Although tools such as TeamSTEPPS® (Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety suggest debriefing after complicated medical situations, they do not teach debriefing skills suited to this purpose. Anecdotal evidence suggests that real-time debriefings (or non-critical incident debriefings do in fact occur in academic EDs;, however, limited research has been performed on this subject. The objective of this study was to characterize real-time, non-critical incident debriefing practices in emergency medicine (EM. We conducted this multicenter cross-sectional study of EM attendings and residents at four large, high-volume, academic EM residency programs in New York City. Questionnaire design was based on a Delphi panel and pilot testing with expert panel. We sought a convenience sample from a potential pool of approximately 300 physicians across the four sites with the goal of obtaining >100 responses. The survey was sent electronically to the four residency list-serves with a total of six monthly completion reminder emails. We collected all data electronically and anonymously using SurveyMonkey.com; the data were then entered into and analyzed with Microsoft Excel. The data elucidate various characteristics of current real-time debriefing trends in EM, including its definition, perceived benefits and barriers, as well as the variety of formats of debriefings currently being conducted. This survey regarding the practice of real-time, non-critical incident debriefings in four major academic EM programs within New York City sheds light on three major, pertinent points: 1 real-time, non-critical incident debriefing definitely occurs in

  13. Characteristics of Real-Time, Non-Critical Incident Debriefing Practices in the Emergency Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadir, Nur-Ain; Bentley, Suzanne; Papanagnou, Dimitrios; Bajaj, Komal; Rinnert, Stephan; Sinert, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Benefits of post-simulation debriefings as an educational and feedback tool have been widely accepted for nearly a decade. Real-time, non-critical incident debriefing is similar to post-simulation debriefing; however, data on its practice in academic emergency departments (ED), is limited. Although tools such as TeamSTEPPS® (Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety) suggest debriefing after complicated medical situations, they do not teach debriefing skills suited to this purpose. Anecdotal evidence suggests that real-time debriefings (or non-critical incident debriefings) do in fact occur in academic EDs;, however, limited research has been performed on this subject. The objective of this study was to characterize real-time, non-critical incident debriefing practices in emergency medicine (EM). Methods We conducted this multicenter cross-sectional study of EM attendings and residents at four large, high-volume, academic EM residency programs in New York City. Questionnaire design was based on a Delphi panel and pilot testing with expert panel. We sought a convenience sample from a potential pool of approximately 300 physicians across the four sites with the goal of obtaining >100 responses. The survey was sent electronically to the four residency list-serves with a total of six monthly completion reminder emails. We collected all data electronically and anonymously using SurveyMonkey.com; the data were then entered into and analyzed with Microsoft Excel. Results The data elucidate various characteristics of current real-time debriefing trends in EM, including its definition, perceived benefits and barriers, as well as the variety of formats of debriefings currently being conducted. Conclusion This survey regarding the practice of real-time, non-critical incident debriefings in four major academic EM programs within New York City sheds light on three major, pertinent points: 1) real-time, non-critical incident debriefing

  14. Safety and efficiency of emergency department interrogation of cardiac devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuenschwander, James F.; Peacock, W. Frank; Migeed, Madgy; Hunter, Sara A.; Daughtery, John C.; McCleese, Ian C.; Hiestand, Brian C.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Patients with implanted cardiac devices may wait extended periods for interrogation in emergency departments (EDs). Our purpose was to determine if device interrogation could be done safely and faster by ED staff. Methods Prospective randomized, standard therapy controlled, trial of ED staff device interrogation vs. standard process (SP), with 30-day follow-up. Eligibility criteria: ED presentation with a self-report of a potential device related complaint, with signed informed consent. SP interrogation was by company representative or hospital employee. Results Of 60 patients, 42 (70%) were male, all were white, with a median (interquartile range) age of 71 (64 to 82) years. No patient was lost to follow up. Of all patients, 32 (53%) were enrolled during business hours. The overall median (interquartile range) ED vs. SP time to interrogation was 98.5 (40 to 260) vs. 166.5 (64 to 412) minutes (P=0.013). While ED and SP interrogation times were similar during business hours, 102 (59 to 138) vs. 105 (64 to 172) minutes (P=0.62), ED interrogation times were shorter vs. SP during non-business hours; 97 (60 to 126) vs. 225 (144 to 412) minutes, P=0.002, respectively. There was no difference in ED length of stay between the ED and SP interrogation, 249 (153 to 390) vs. 246 (143 to 333) minutes (P=0.71), regardless of time of presentation. No patient in any cohort suffered an unplanned medical contact or post-discharge adverse device related event. Conclusion ED staff cardiac device interrogations are faster, and with similar 30-day outcomes, as compared to SP. PMID:28168230

  15. Patient safety in obstetrics and gynecology departments of two teaching hospitals in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindiya Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: A healthy safety culture is integral to positive health care. A sound safety climate is required in Obstetrics and Gynecology to prevent adverse outcomes. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess and compare patient safety culture in two departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Materials and Methods: Using a closed-ended standard version of Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPS, respondents were asked to answer 42 survey items, grouped into 10 dimensions and two outcome variables in two tertiary care teaching hospitals in Delhi. Qualitative data were compared using Fisher's exact test and chi-square test wherever applicable. Mean values were calculated and compared using unpaired t-test. Results: The overall survey response rate was 55%. A positive response rate of 57% was seen in the overall perception of patient safety that ranged from very good to acceptable. Sixty-four percent showed positive teamwork across hospital departments and units, while 36% gave an affirmative opinion with respect to interdepartmental handoffs. However, few adverse events (0-10 were reported in the last 12 months and only 38% of mistakes by doctors were reported. Half of the respondents agreed that their mistakes were held against them. There was no statistical difference in the safety culture between the two hospitals. Conclusions: Although the perception of patient safety and standards of patient safety were high in both the hospitals' departments, there is plenty of scope for improvement with respect to event reporting, positive feedback, and nonpunitive error.

  16. Patient Safety in Obstetrics and Gynecology Departments of two Teaching Hospitals in Delhi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Bindiya; Guleria, Kiran; Arora, Renu

    2016-01-01

    Background: A healthy safety culture is integral to positive health care. A sound safety climate is required in Obstetrics and Gynecology to prevent adverse outcomes. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess and compare patient safety culture in two departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology. Materials and Methods: Using a closed-ended standard version of Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPS), respondents were asked to answer 42 survey items, grouped into 10 dimensions and two outcome variables in two tertiary care teaching hospitals in Delhi. Qualitative data were compared using Fisher's exact test and chi-square test wherever applicable. Mean values were calculated and compared using unpaired t-test. Results: The overall survey response rate was 55%. A positive response rate of 57% was seen in the overall perception of patient safety that ranged from very good to acceptable. Sixty-four percent showed positive teamwork across hospital departments and units, while 36% gave an affirmative opinion with respect to interdepartmental handoffs. However, few adverse events (0-10) were reported in the last 12 months and only 38% of mistakes by doctors were reported. Half of the respondents agreed that their mistakes were held against them. There was no statistical difference in the safety culture between the two hospitals. Conclusions: Although the perception of patient safety and standards of patient safety were high in both the hospitals' departments, there is plenty of scope for improvement with respect to event reporting, positive feedback, and nonpunitive error. PMID:27385879

  17. Packaging Strategies for Criticality Safety for "Other" DOE Fuels in a Repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry L Taylor

    2004-06-01

    Since 1998, there has been an ongoing effort to gain acceptance of U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF) in the national repository. To accomplish this goal, the fuel matrix was used as a discriminating feature to segregate fuels into nine distinct groups. From each of those groups, a characteristic fuel was selected and analyzed for criticality safety based on a proposed packaging strategy. This report identifies and quantifies the important criticality parameters for the canisterized fuels within each criticality group to: (1) demonstrate how the “other” fuels in the group are bounded by the baseline calculations or (2) allow identification of individual type fuels that might require special analysis and packaging.

  18. Licensing process for safety-critical software-based systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haapanen, P. [VTT Automation, Espoo (Finland); Korhonen, J. [VTT Electronics, Espoo (Finland); Pulkkinen, U. [VTT Automation, Espoo (Finland)

    2000-12-01

    System vendors nowadays propose software-based technology even for the most critical safety functions in nuclear power plants. Due to the nature of software faults and the way they cause system failures new methods are needed for the safety and reliability evaluation of these systems. In the research project 'Programmable automation systems in nuclear power plants (OHA)', financed together by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM) and the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT), various safety assessment methods and tools for software based systems are developed and evaluated. As a part of the OHA-work a reference model for the licensing process for software-based safety automation systems is defined. The licensing process is defined as the set of interrelated activities whose purpose is to produce and assess evidence concerning the safety and reliability of the system/application to be licensed and to make the decision about the granting the construction and operation permissions based on this evidence. The parties of the licensing process are the authority, the licensee (the utility company), system vendors and their subcontractors and possible external independent assessors. The responsibility about the production of the evidence in first place lies at the licensee who in most cases rests heavily on the vendor expertise. The evaluation and gauging of the evidence is carried out by the authority (possibly using external experts), who also can acquire additional evidence by using their own (independent) methods and tools. Central issue in the licensing process is to combine the quality evidence about the system development process with the information acquired through tests, analyses and operational experience. The purpose of the licensing process described in this report is to act as a reference model both for the authority and the licensee when planning the licensing of individual applications

  19. Critical incident stress debriefing after adverse patient safety events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Reema; Wu, Albert

    2017-05-01

    Adverse events (AEs) are common, estimated to occur in around 10% internationally. Although preventable harm can be minimized, when AEs occur it is important that they be managed appropriately. AEs can be traumatic not only for patients, their friends, and relatives, but also for the involved clinicians, who have been referred to as "second victims" in a growing body of international research. Despite the frequency with which AEs occur, organizational mechanisms for supporting staff in these circumstances are not routinely embedded in healthcare settings. Critical Incident Stress Debriefing (CISD) has long been provided for professionals, such as disaster workers, who are exposed to traumatic and high-stress events. CISD is considered an effective strategy to promote resilience and recovery. We explore the potential value of providing CISD for health professionals involved in patient safety-related AEs and discuss the instances in which this could be routinely implemented.

  20. Safety-critical Java on a time-predictable processor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Stephan E.; Schoeberl, Martin; Puffitsch, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    For real-time systems the whole execution stack needs to be time-predictable and analyzable for the worst-case execution time (WCET). This paper presents a time-predictable platform for safety-critical Java. The platform consists of (1) the Patmos processor, which is a time-predictable processor......; (2) a C compiler for Patmos with support for WCET analysis; (3) the HVM, which is a Java-to-C compiler; (4) the HVM-SCJ implementation which supports SCJ Level 0, 1, and 2 (for both single and multicore platforms); and (5) a WCET analysis tool. We show that real-time Java programs translated to C...... and compiled to a Patmos binary can be analyzed by the AbsInt aiT WCET analysis tool. To the best of our knowledge the presented system is the second WCET analyzable real-time Java system; and the first one on top of a RISC processor....

  1. Hardware Support for Safety-critical Java Scope Checks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rios Rivas, Juan Ricardo; Schoeberl, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Memory management in Safety-Critical Java (SCJ) is based on time bounded, non garbage collected scoped memory regions used to store temporary objects. Scoped memory regions may have different life times during the execution of a program and hence, to avoid leaving dangling pointers, it is necessary...... between threads and any other scoped region is thread private. In this paper we present how, due to this simplified model, a single scope nesting level can be used to check the legality of every reference assignment. We also show that with simple hardware extensions a processor can see some improvement...... in terms of execution time for applications where cross-scope references are frequent. Our proposal was implemented and tested on the Java Optimized Processor (JOP)....

  2. Safety-Critical Java on a Time-predictable Processor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsholm, Stephan Erbs; Schoeberl, Martin; Puffitsch, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    For real-time systems the whole execution stack needs to be time-predictable and analyzable for the worst-case execution time (WCET). This paper presents a time-predictable platform for safety-critical Java. The platform consists of (1) the Patmos processor, which is a time-predictable processor......; (2) a C compiler for Patmos with support for WCET analysis; (3) the HVM, which is a Java-to-C compiler; (4) the HVM-SCJ implementation which supports SCJ Level 0, 1, and 2 (for both single and multicore platforms); and (5) a WCET analysis tool. We show that real-time Java programs translated to C...... and compiled to a Patmos binary can be analyzed by the AbsInt aiT WCET analysis tool. To the best of our knowledge the presented system is the second WCET analyzable real-time Java system; and the first one on top of a RISC processor....

  3. Collegiate Aviation Research and Education Solutions to Critical Safety Issues. UNO Aviation Monograph Series. UNOAI Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent, Ed.

    This document contains four papers concerning collegiate aviation research and education solutions to critical safety issues. "Panel Proposal Titled Collegiate Aviation Research and Education Solutions to Critical Safety Issues for the Tim Forte Collegiate Aviation Safety Symposium" (Brent Bowen) presents proposals for panels on the…

  4. Use of Opioid Medications for Employees in Critical Safety or Security Positions and Positions with Safety Sensitive Duties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-30

    Employees in Critical Safety or Security Positions and Positions with Safety Sensitive Duties . 1. REFERENCES. A. Army Regulation 40-5, Preventive... duties . C. The employee is considered unfit for safety sensitive duties until such a time when he or she is no longer taking opioid pain...Aeromedical Policy Letters, Medication Waivers, January 2002 Revision. 2. BACKGROUND. Employees who work in safety-sensitive occupations or handle

  5. Natural Language Interface for Safety Certification of Safety-Critical Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denney, Ewen; Fischer, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    Model-based design and automated code generation are being used increasingly at NASA. The trend is to move beyond simulation and prototyping to actual flight code, particularly in the guidance, navigation, and control domain. However, there are substantial obstacles to more widespread adoption of code generators in such safety-critical domains. Since code generators are typically not qualified, there is no guarantee that their output is correct, and consequently the generated code still needs to be fully tested and certified. The AutoCert generator plug-in supports the certification of automatically generated code by formally verifying that the generated code is free of different safety violations, by constructing an independently verifiable certificate, and by explaining its analysis in a textual form suitable for code reviews.

  6. Application of the SCALE TSUNAMI Tools for the Validation of Criticality Safety Calculations Involving 233U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Don [ORNL; Rearden, Bradley T [ORNL; Hollenbach, Daniel F [ORNL

    2009-02-01

    The Radiochemical Development Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been storing solid materials containing 233U for decades. Preparations are under way to process these materials into a form that is inherently safe from a nuclear criticality safety perspective. This will be accomplished by down-blending the {sup 233}U materials with depleted or natural uranium. At the request of the U.S. Department of Energy, a study has been performed using the SCALE sensitivity and uncertainty analysis tools to demonstrate how these tools could be used to validate nuclear criticality safety calculations of selected process and storage configurations. ISOTEK nuclear criticality safety staff provided four models that are representative of the criticality safety calculations for which validation will be needed. The SCALE TSUNAMI-1D and TSUNAMI-3D sequences were used to generate energy-dependent k{sub eff} sensitivity profiles for each nuclide and reaction present in the four safety analysis models, also referred to as the applications, and in a large set of critical experiments. The SCALE TSUNAMI-IP module was used together with the sensitivity profiles and the cross-section uncertainty data contained in the SCALE covariance data files to propagate the cross-section uncertainties ({Delta}{sigma}/{sigma}) to k{sub eff} uncertainties ({Delta}k/k) for each application model. The SCALE TSUNAMI-IP module was also used to evaluate the similarity of each of the 672 critical experiments with each application. Results of the uncertainty analysis and similarity assessment are presented in this report. A total of 142 experiments were judged to be similar to application 1, and 68 experiments were judged to be similar to application 2. None of the 672 experiments were judged to be adequately similar to applications 3 and 4. Discussion of the uncertainty analysis and similarity assessment is provided for each of the four applications. Example upper subcritical limits (USLs) were

  7. Review of criteria for nuclear criticality safety control in transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, J. T.; Smith, D. R.

    1978-01-01

    Basic elements in the review of criteria for nuclear criticality safety in transportation are the magnitudes of reactivity changes that may occur to a shipment of packages and those inherent in the regulatory procedure of assessment. The generic representation of criticality of reflected arrays of uncontained fissionable materials is used as a basis for comparison of packaged fissionable materials. The reactivities associated with array changes and perturbations representative of credible conditions that may occur in storage or transportation are summarized for air-spaced units of fissionable materials. Calculations of packaged fissionable material determined reactivities associated with similar changes to arrays of packages. Typical thermal insulating materials being studied are Celotex, wood, Foamglas, and a bonded vermiculite. The effect on the array neutron multiplication of these, with and without steel as an inner and outer container material, is examined. The present stage of the study has produced results illustrating the variable margin of subcriticality manifested by the criteria. Depending upon the packaging, mass loading and array reflector condition, the margin of subcriticality can be of the order of 1% in k/sub eff/.

  8. The safety climate of a Department of Energy nuclear facility: A sociotechnical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, A.E.; Harbour, J.L.

    1993-06-01

    Government- and public-sponsored groups are increasingly demanding greater accountability by the Department of Energy`s weapons complex. Many of these demands have focused on the development of a positive safety climate, one that not only protects workers onsite, but also the surrounding populace and environment as well. These demands are, in part, a response to findings which demonstrate a close linkage between actual organizational safety performance and the organization`s safety climate, i.e., the collective attitudes employees hold concerning the level of safety in their organization. This paper describes the approach taken in the systematic assessment of the safety climate at EG&G Rocky Flats Plant (RFP).

  9. Handbook on criticality. Vol. 1. Criticality and nuclear safety; Handbuch zur Kritikalitaet. Bd. 1. Kritikalitaet und nukleare Sicherheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-04-15

    This handbook was prepared primarily with the aim to provide information to experts in industry, authorities or research facilities engaged in criticality-safety-related problems that will allow an adequate and rapid assessment of criticality safety issues already in the planning and preparation of nuclear facilities. However, it is not the intention of the authors of the handbook to offer ready solutions to complex problems of nuclear safety. Such questions have to remain subject to an in-depth analysis and assessment to be carried out by dedicated criticality safety experts. Compared with the previous edition dated December 1998, this handbook has been further revised and supplemented. The proven basic structure of the handbook remains unchanged. The handbook follows in some ways similar criticality handbooks or instructions published in the USA, UK, France, Japan and the former Soviet Union. The expedient use of the information given in this handbook requires a fundamental understanding of criticality and the terminology of nuclear safety. In Vol. 1, ''Criticality and Nuclear Safety'', therefore, first the most important terms and fundamentals are introduced and explained. Subsequently, experimental techniques and calculation methods for evaluating criticality problems are presented. The following chapters of Vol. 1 deal i. a. with the effect of neutron reflectors and absorbers, neutron interaction, measuring methods for criticality, and organisational safety measures and provide an overview of criticality-relevant operational experience and of criticality accidents and their potential hazardous impact. Vol. 2 parts 1 and 2 finally compile criticality parameters in graphical and tabular form. The individual graph sheets are provided with an initially explained set of identifiers, to allow the quick finding of the information of current interest. Part 1 includes criticality parameters for systems with {sup 235}U as fissile material, while part

  10. Educating Next Generation Nuclear Criticality Safety Engineers at the Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. D. Bess; J. B. Briggs; A. S. Garcia

    2011-09-01

    One of the challenges in educating our next generation of nuclear safety engineers is the limitation of opportunities to receive significant experience or hands-on training prior to graduation. Such training is generally restricted to on-the-job-training before this new engineering workforce can adequately provide assessment of nuclear systems and establish safety guidelines. Participation in the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) and the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) can provide students and young professionals the opportunity to gain experience and enhance critical engineering skills. The ICSBEP and IRPhEP publish annual handbooks that contain evaluations of experiments along with summarized experimental data and peer-reviewed benchmark specifications to support the validation of neutronics codes, nuclear cross-section data, and the validation of reactor designs. Participation in the benchmark process not only benefits those who use these Handbooks within the international community, but provides the individual with opportunities for professional development, networking with an international community of experts, and valuable experience to be used in future employment. Traditionally students have participated in benchmarking activities via internships at national laboratories, universities, or companies involved with the ICSBEP and IRPhEP programs. Additional programs have been developed to facilitate the nuclear education of students while participating in the benchmark projects. These programs include coordination with the Center for Space Nuclear Research (CSNR) Next Degree Program, the Collaboration with the Department of Energy Idaho Operations Office to train nuclear and criticality safety engineers, and student evaluations as the basis for their Master's thesis in nuclear engineering.

  11. Safety Issues at the DOE Test and Research Reactors. A Report to the U.S. Department of Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources.

    This report provides an assessment of safety issues at the Department of Energy (DOE) test and research reactors. Part A identifies six safety issues of the reactors. These issues include the safety design philosophy, the conduct of safety reviews, the performance of probabilistic risk assessments, the reliance on reactor operators, the fragmented…

  12. Physical design correlates of efficiency and safety in emergency departments: a qualitative examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Debajyoti; Harvey, Thomas E; Pati, Sipra

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore and identify physical design correlates of safety and efficiency in emergency department (ED) operations. This study adopted an exploratory, multimeasure approach to (1) examine the interactions between ED operations and physical design at 4 sites and (2) identify domains of physical design decision-making that potentially influence efficiency and safety. Multidisciplinary gaming and semistructured interviews were conducted with stakeholders at each site. Study data suggest that 16 domains of physical design decisions influence safety, efficiency, or both. These include (1) entrance and patient waiting, (2) traffic management, (3) subwaiting or internal waiting areas, (4) triage, (5) examination/treatment area configuration, (6) examination/treatment area centralization versus decentralization, (7) examination/treatment room standardization, (8) adequate space, (9) nurse work space, (10) physician work space, (11) adjacencies and access, (12) equipment room, (13) psych room, (14) staff de-stressing room, (15) hallway width, and (16) results waiting area. Safety and efficiency from a physical environment perspective in ED design are mutually reinforcing concepts--enhancing efficiency bears positive implications for safety. Furthermore, safety and security emerged as correlated concepts, with security issues bearing implications for safety, thereby suggesting important associations between safety, security, and efficiency.

  13. The electronic security partnership of safety/security and information systems departments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yow, J Art

    2012-01-01

    The ever-changing world of security electronics is reviewed in this article. The author focuses on its usage in a hospital setting and the need for safety/security and information systems departments to work together to protect and get full value from IP systems.

  14. Integrated Design and Analysis Environment for Safety Critical Human-Automation Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Flight deck systems, like many safety critical systems, often involve complex interactions between multiple human operators, automated subsystems, and physical...

  15. Report of the Task Group on Electrical Safety of Department of Energy facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1993-01-01

    The Task Group on Electrical Safety at DOE Facilities (Task Group), which was formally established on October 27, 1992. The Task Group reviewed the electrical safety-related occurrence history of, and conducted field visits to, seven DOE sites chosen to represent a cross section of the Department`s electrical safety activities. The purpose of the field visits was to review, firsthand, electrical safety programs and practices and to gain greater insight to the root causes and corrective actions taken for recently reported incidents. The electrical safety environment of the DOE complex is extremely varied, ranging from common office and industrial electrical systems to large high-voltage power distribution systems (commercial transmission line systems). It includes high-voltage/high-power systems associated with research programs such as linear accelerators and experimental fusion confinement systems. Age, condition, and magnitude of the facilities also varies, with facilities dating from the Manhattan Project, during World War II, to the most modem complexes. The complex is populated by Federal (DOE and other agencies) and contractor employees engaged in a wide variety of occupations and activities in office, research and development, and industrial settings. The sites visited included all of these variations and are considered by the Task Group to offer a valid representation of the Department`s electrical safety issues. The sites visited were Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Nevada Test Site (NTS), Savannah River Site (SRS), Hanford Reservation (Hanford), and the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRA) located at Grand Junction, Colorado.

  16. Department

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2016-09-20

    Sep 20, 2016 ... Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Kibabii University. 2. Department .... be seen that average rainfall exhibited a cyclic pattern with a reducing trend under both scenarios .... Department of Meteorology, University.

  17. Safety and security profiles of industry networks used in safety- critical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária FRANEKOVÁ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The author describes the mechanisms of safety and security profiles of industry and communication networks used within safety – related applications in technological and information levels of process control recommended according to standards IEC 61784-3,4. Nowadays the number of vendors of the safety – related communication technologies who guarantees besides the standard communication, the communication amongst the safety – related equipment according to IEC 61508 is increasing. Also the number of safety – related products is increasing, e. g. safety Fieldbus, safety PLC, safety curtains, safety laser scanners, safety buttons, safety relays and other. According to world survey the safety Fieldbus denoted the highest growth from all manufactured safety products.The main part of this paper is the description of the safety-related Fieldbus communication system, which has to guaranty Safety Integrity Level.

  18. Lithium safety and tolerability in mood disorders: a critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Aprahamian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background : Lithium is a first-line treatment for bipolar disorder in all phases, also indicated as add-on drug for unipolar depression and suicide prevention. This study encompasses a broad critical review on the safety and tolerability of lithium for mood disorders. Methods : A computerized search for English written human studies was made in MEDLINE, using the keywords “lithium” and “mood disorders”, starting from July 1993 through July 2013 (n = 416. This initial search aimed to select clinical trials, prospective data, and controlled design studies of lithium treatment for mood disorders reporting adverse effects (n = 36. The final selection yielded 91 studies. Results : The most common general side effects in patients on lithium treatment were thirst, frequent urination, dry mouth, weight gain, fatigue and cognitive complaints. Lithium users showed a high prevalence of hypothyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, and decrease in urinary concentration ability. Reduction of glomerular filtration rate in patients using lithium was also observed, but in a lesser extent. The evidence of teratogenicity associated with lithium use is not well established. Anti-inflammatory non-steroidal drugs, thiazide diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and alprazolam may increase serum lithium and the consequent risk for intoxication. Discussion : Short-term lithium treatment is associated with mild side effects. Medium and long-term lithium treatment, however, might have effects on target organs which may be prevented by periodical monitoring. Overall, lithium is still a safe option for the treatment of mood disorders.

  19. Self-reported safety belt use among emergency department patients in Boston, Massachusetts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Patricia

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Safety belt use is 80% nationally, yet only 63% in Massachusetts. Safety belt use among potentially at-risk groups in Boston is unknown. We sought to assess the prevalence and correlates of belt non-use among emergency department (ED patients in Boston. Methods A cross-sectional survey with systematic sampling was conducted on non-urgent ED patients age ≥18. A closed-ended survey was administered by interview. Safety belt use was defined via two methods: a single-item and a multiple-item measure of safety belt use. Each was scored using a 5-point frequency scale. Responses were used to categorize safety belt use as 'always' or less than 'always'. Outcome for multivariate logistic regression analysis was safety belt use less than 'always'. Results Of 478 patients approached, 381 (80% participated. Participants were 48% female, 48% African-American, 40% White, median age 39. Among participants, 250 (66% had been in a car crash; 234 (61% had a valid driver's license, and 42 (11% had been ticketed for belt non-use. Using two different survey measures, a single-item and a multiple-item measure, safety belt use 'always' was 51% and 36% respectively. According to separate regression models, factors associated with belt non-use included male gender, alcohol consumption >5 drinks in one episode, riding with others that drink and drive, ever receiving a citation for belt non-use, believing that safety belt use is 'uncomfortable', and that 'I just forget', while 'It's my usual habit' was protective. Conclusion ED patients at an urban hospital in Boston have considerably lower self-reported safety belt use than state or national estimates. An ED-based intervention to increase safety belt use among this hard-to-reach population warrants consideration.

  20. Annual Report To Congress. Department of Energy Activities Relating to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Calendar Year 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2004-02-28

    The Department of Energy (Department) submits an Annual Report to Congress each year detailing the Department’s activities relating to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (Board), which provides advice and recommendations to the Secretary of Energy (Secretary) regarding public health and safety issues at the Department’s defense nuclear facilities. In 2003, the Department continued ongoing activities to resolve issues identified by the Board in formal recommendations and correspondence, staff issue reports pertaining to Department facilities, and public meetings and briefings. Additionally, the Department is implementing several key safety initiatives to address and prevent safety issues: safety culture and review of the Columbia accident investigation; risk reduction through stabilization of excess nuclear materials; the Facility Representative Program; independent oversight and performance assurance; the Federal Technical Capability Program (FTCP); executive safety initiatives; and quality assurance activities. The following summarizes the key activities addressed in this Annual Report.

  1. Taking ownership of safety. What are the active ingredients of safety coaching and how do they impact safety outcomes in critical offshore working environments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauesslar, Victoria; Avery, Rachel E; Passmore, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Safety coaching interventions have become a common feature in the safety critical offshore working environments of the North Sea. Whilst the beneficial impact of coaching as an organizational tool has been evidenced, there remains a question specifically over the use of safety coaching and its impact on behavioural change and producing safe working practices. A series of 24 semi-structured interviews were conducted with three groups of experts in the offshore industry: safety coaches, offshore managers and HSE directors. Using a thematic analysis approach, several significant themes were identified across the three expert groups including connecting with and creating safety ownership in the individual, personal significance and humanisation, ingraining safety and assessing and measuring a safety coach's competence. Results suggest clear utility of safety coaching when applied by safety coaches with appropriate coach training and understanding of safety issues in an offshore environment. The current work has found that the use of safety coaching in the safety critical offshore oil and gas industry is a powerful tool in managing and promoting a culture of safety and care.

  2. Criticality Safety Evaluation of the LLNL Inherently Safe Subcritical Assembly (ISSA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Percher, Catherine [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2012-06-19

    The LLNL Nuclear Criticality Safety Division has developed a training center to illustrate criticality safety and reactor physics concepts through hands-on experimental training. The experimental assembly, the Inherently Safe Subcritical Assembly (ISSA), uses surplus highly enriched research reactor fuel configured in a water tank. The training activities will be conducted by LLNL following the requirements of an Integration Work Sheet (IWS) and associated Safety Plan. Students will be allowed to handle the fissile material under the supervision of LLNL instructors. This report provides the technical criticality safety basis for instructional operations with the ISSA experimental assembly.

  3. SAFETY

    CERN Document Server

    Niels Dupont

    2013-01-01

    CERN Safety rules and Radiation Protection at CMS The CERN Safety rules are defined by the Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Protection Unit (HSE Unit), CERN’s institutional authority and central Safety organ attached to the Director General. In particular the Radiation Protection group (DGS-RP1) ensures that personnel on the CERN sites and the public are protected from potentially harmful effects of ionising radiation linked to CERN activities. The RP Group fulfils its mandate in collaboration with the CERN departments owning or operating sources of ionising radiation and having the responsibility for Radiation Safety of these sources. The specific responsibilities concerning "Radiation Safety" and "Radiation Protection" are delegated as follows: Radiation Safety is the responsibility of every CERN Department owning radiation sources or using radiation sources put at its disposition. These Departments are in charge of implementing the requi...

  4. Development of Critical Thinking through Aesthetic Experience: The Case of Students of an Educational Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikou, Natassa

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses an application performed in tertiary education--a department of pedagogical and educational sciences--of a contemporary method, Transformative Learning through Aesthetic Experience. The method is based on the use of art and aims to reinforce and promote the development of critical thinking within educational settings.…

  5. Game theoretic analysis of congestion, safety and security networks, air traffic and emergency departments

    CERN Document Server

    Zhuang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Maximizing reader insights into the roles of intelligent agents in networks, air traffic and emergency departments, this volume focuses on congestion in systems where safety and security are at stake, devoting special attention to applying game theoretic analysis of congestion to: protocols in wired and wireless networks; power generation, air transportation and emergency department overcrowding. Reviewing exhaustively the key recent research into the interactions between game theory, excessive crowding, and safety and security elements, this book establishes a new research angle by illustrating linkages between the different research approaches and serves to lay the foundations for subsequent analysis. Congestion (excessive crowding) is defined in this work as all kinds of flows; e.g., road/sea/air traffic, people, data, information, water, electricity, and organisms. Analyzing systems where congestion occurs – which may be in parallel, series, interlinked, or interdependent, with flows one way or both way...

  6. Department of Energy Environment, Safety and Health Management Plan. Fiscal year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    This report describes efforts by the Department of Energy (DOE) to effectively plan for environment, safety and health activities that protect the environment, workers and the public from harm. This document, which covers fiscal year 1996, reflects planning by operating contractors and Program Offices in early 1994, updated to be consistent with the President`s FY 1996 budget submittal to Congress, and subsequent Department of Energy Program refinements. Prior to 1992, only a small number of facilities had a structured process for identifying environment, safety and health (ES and H) needs, reporting the costs (in both direct and indirect budgets) of ES and H requirements, prioritizing and allocating available resources, and efficiently communicating this information to DOE. Planned costs for ES and H activities were usually developed as an afterthought to program budgets. There was no visible, consistently applied mechanism for determining the appropriate amount of resources that should be allocated to ES and H, or for assuring that significant ES and H vulnerabilities were planned to be funded. To address this issue, the Secretary (in November 1991) directed DOE to develop a Safety and Health Five-Year Plan to serve as a line management tool to delineate DOE-wide programs to reduce and manage safety and health risks, and to establish a consistent framework for risk-based resource planning and allocation.

  7. 48 CFR 1352.271-82 - Department of Labor occupational safety and health standards for ship repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... occupational safety and health standards for ship repair. 1352.271-82 Section 1352.271-82 Federal Acquisition... of Provisions and Clauses 1352.271-82 Department of Labor occupational safety and health standards... Occupational Safety and Health Standards for Ship Repair (APR 2010) The contractor, in performance of all...

  8. Criticality Safety Evaluation of Hanford Site High Level Waste Storage Tanks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROGERS, C.A.

    2000-02-17

    This criticality safety evaluation covers operations for waste in underground storage tanks at the high-level waste tank farms on the Hanford site. This evaluation provides the bases for criticality safety limits and controls to govern receipt, transfer, and long-term storage of tank waste. Justification is provided that a nuclear criticality accident cannot occur for tank farms operations, based on current fissile material and operating conditions.

  9. Critical outcomes: clinical and team performance across acute illness scenarios in emergency departments of critical access hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Nana Ekua; Baker, David; Gallo, Jonathan; Slonim, Anthony D

    2012-01-01

    In their provision of acute care services, emergency department (ED) providers in critical access hospitals (CAHs) are uniquely challenged by limitations in personnel, facility resources, and available expertise. We sought to define the impact of team behaviors among ED staff in CAHs on clinical performance by studying the relationship between team and clinical performance scores across 100 simulated scenarios. Team and clinical performance scores were calculated for each scenario using standardized checklists to quantify goal achievement and aggregated across teams and scenario types. These scores were compared using bivariate analysis and correlated with clinical and team performance outcomes using Pearson's correlation (r coefficient). There was a positive correlation between team and clinical performance across all scenarios; the relationship was statistically significant (pteam performance may be a function of the critical care event itself or the unique characteristics of CAHs that make them more vulnerable when faced with high acuity, complex, and infrequently encountered clinical scenarios. © 2011 National Association for Healthcare Quality.

  10. Analyzing Software Errors in Safety-Critical Embedded Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Robyn R.

    1994-01-01

    This paper analyzes the root causes of safty-related software faults identified as potentially hazardous to the system are distributed somewhat differently over the set of possible error causes than non-safety-related software faults.

  11. Overview of Risk Mitigation for Safety-Critical Computer-Based Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo

    2015-01-01

    This report presents a high-level overview of a general strategy to mitigate the risks from threats to safety-critical computer-based systems. In this context, a safety threat is a process or phenomenon that can cause operational safety hazards in the form of computational system failures. This report is intended to provide insight into the safety-risk mitigation problem and the characteristics of potential solutions. The limitations of the general risk mitigation strategy are discussed and some options to overcome these limitations are provided. This work is part of an ongoing effort to enable well-founded assurance of safety-related properties of complex safety-critical computer-based aircraft systems by developing an effective capability to model and reason about the safety implications of system requirements and design.

  12. RECENT ADDITIONS OF CRITICALITY SAFETY RELATED INTEGRAL BENCHMARK DATA TO THE ICSBEP AND IRPHEP HANDBOOKS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Blair Briggs; Lori Scott; Yolanda Rugama; Enrico Sartori

    2009-09-01

    High-quality integral benchmark experiments have always been a priority for criticality safety. However, interest in integral benchmark data is increasing as efforts to quantify and reduce calculational uncertainties accelerate to meet the demands of future criticality safety needs to support next generation reactor and advanced fuel cycle concepts. The importance of drawing upon existing benchmark data is becoming more apparent because of dwindling availability of critical facilities worldwide and the high cost of performing new experiments. Integral benchmark data from the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments and the International Handbook of Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments are widely used. Benchmark data have been added to these two handbooks since the last Nuclear Criticality Safety Division Topical Meeting in Knoxville, Tennessee (September 2005). This paper highlights these additions.

  13. THE INVESTIGATION OF CRITICAL THINKING DISPOSITIONS OF THE STUDENTS AT PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORTS TEACHING DEPARTMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the purpose of the research is to investigate critical thinking dispositions of the students at physical education and sports teaching department at Kocaeli University. The research group is composed of 232 students studying at Kocaeli University Physical Education and Sports Teaching department during 2013-2014 Academic year. The “California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory” was used as data collection tool. The data was analyzed through Independent Samples Test and Anova Test with a significance level of 0.05 (p<0.05. As a result of this study, the students' average score of “California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory" was found low (218,40±20,18. When California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory scores were compared according to gender, a statistically significant difference was found in the subdimension of “Truth Seeking”. The comparison according to class revealed that there was a statistically significant difference between 1st class and 2nd class and between 1st class and 3rd class in the subdimesion “Systematicty”. Finally, it is suggested that the students should use the teaching methods and strategies to develop critical thinking skills and be provided with the opportunities for social activities through the education years.

  14. Relevant Study on Nursing Safety Management of Postoperative Transfer in Critically Severe Patients in the Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery%胸心外科危重患者术后转运的护理安全管理相关探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜丽娜

    2016-01-01

    目的:评估在转运胸心外科术后危重患者的途中施行系统化安全管理的效果。方法选择2015年1月—2016年1月入该院并施行胸心外科手术的65例危重型患者,随机将其分成对照和研究组,对照组32例在术后转运途中施行一般性的管理服务模式,研究组33例在术后转运途中施行系统化的安全管理护理模式,经探究两种管理模式的践行情况,评估安全护理管理的价值。结果研究组33例转运结束后,共出现3次事故,占比9.09%;对照组32例转运结束后,共出现10次事故,占比31.25%。对比得知,研究组转运途中医疗事故及不良问题的出现率低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P﹤0.05)。研究组共有32例对该次转运护理表示满意,占比96.97%;对照组共有23例对该次转运护理表示满意,占比71.88%。研究组优越于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P﹤0.05)。结论对胸心外科手术后的危重型患者实施转运时,需从转运工作的各个环节着手,将科学防护措施落实到具体操作中,并注重提升各岗医护人员的转运防护意识及操作技能,以优化术后重症患者转运服务的总体质量。%Objective To evaluate the effect of the implementation of system safety management in critically severe patients after the cardiothoracic surgery in transfer. Methods 65 cases of critically severe patients admitted in our hospital and im-plementing the cardiothoracic surgery from January 2015 to January 2016 were selected and randomly divided into two groups, the control group (32 cases) implemented general management service model in postoperative transfer, the research group (33 cases) implemented system safety management nursing model in postoperative transfer, and the safety nursing management value was assessed after the study of the implementation of these two management models. Results After trans-fer, there were 3 accidents, accounting

  15. Safety issues in cultural heritage management and critical infrastructures management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldovieri, Francesco; Masini, Nicola; Alvarez de Buergo, Monica; Dumoulin, Jean

    2013-12-01

    This special issue is the fourth of its kind in Journal of Geophysics and Engineering , containing studies and applications of geophysical methodologies and sensing technologies for the knowledge, conservation and security of products of human activity ranging from civil infrastructures to built and cultural heritage. The first discussed the application of novel instrumentation, surface and airborne remote sensing techniques, as well as data processing oriented to both detection and characterization of archaeological buried remains and conservation of cultural heritage (Eppelbaum et al 2010). The second stressed the importance of an integrated and multiscale approach for the study and conservation of architectural, archaeological and artistic heritage, from SAR to GPR to imaging based diagnostic techniques (Masini and Soldovieri 2011). The third enlarged the field of analysis to civil engineering structures and infrastructures, providing an overview of the effectiveness and the limitations of single diagnostic techniques, which can be overcome through the integration of different methods and technologies and/or the use of robust and novel data processing techniques (Masini et al 2012). As a whole, the special issue put in evidence the factors that affect the choice of diagnostic strategy, such as the material, the spatial characteristics of the objects or sites, the value of the objects to be investigated (cultural or not), the aim of the investigation (knowledge, conservation, restoration) and the issues to be addressed (monitoring, decay assessment). In order to complete the overview of the application fields of sensing technologies this issue has been dedicated to monitoring of cultural heritage and critical infrastructures to address safety and security issues. Particular attention has been paid to the data processing methods of different sensing techniques, from infrared thermography through GPR to SAR. Cascini et al (2013) present the effectiveness of a

  16. Risk analysis in support of improved safety at US department of energy hot cell facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felder, F.A.; Golay, M.W. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Phillips, Jerold; Leahy, Timothy

    2000-07-01

    The US Department of Energy (US-DOE) manages diverse facilities ranging from laboratory complexes to nuclear reactors and waste repositories. It is self-regulating in the areas of radiological safety, occupational protection and environmental disturbances. In these areas the US-DOE has obtained mostly good results, but at high expense by using conservative and unsystematic approaches. In an effort to improve both safety and use of resources a project has been undertaken to understand better how to utilize risk assessment techniques to obtain improved safety outcomes and their regulation. The example of the Test Reactor Area Hot Cell (TRAHC) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is the subject of a simple probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) in the areas of radiological releases to the environment and of occupational hazards. To our knowledge this is the first attempt to utilize quantitative risk analyses for management of non-radiological occupational risks. Its purpose is to examine the feasibility of utilizing risk assessment as a technique to supplant the currently employed, less formal, hazard analysis as the basis for allocating safety-related resources. Problems of data and modeling adequacy have proven to be important; results to-date indicate areas where revised resource allocation should be considered. (author)

  17. Safety critical systems handbook a straightforward guide to functional safety : IEC 61508 (2010 edition) and related standards

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, David J

    2010-01-01

    Electrical, electronic and programmable electronic systems increasingly carry out safety functions to guard workers and the public against injury or death and the environment against pollution. The international functional safety standard IEC 61508 was revised in 2010, and this is the first comprehensive guide available to the revised standard. As functional safety is applicable to many industries, this book will have a wide readership beyond the chemical and process sector, including oil and gas, power generation, nuclear, aircraft, and automotive industries, plus project, instrumentation, design, and control engineers. * The only comprehensive guide to IEC 61508, updated to cover the 2010 amendments, that will ensure engineers are compliant with the latest process safety systems design and operation standards* Helps readers understand the process required to apply safety critical systems standards* Real-world approach helps users to interpret the standard, with case studies and best practice design examples...

  18. Depart

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2017-01-26

    Jan 26, 2017 ... Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, ... informal automobile workshops in virtually every open space in Nigerian cities that ..... plantation to encourage a green society and.

  19. The Qualification Experiences for Safety-critical Software of POSAFE-Q

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jang Yeol; Son, Kwang Seop; Cheon, Se Woo; Lee, Jang Soo; Kwon, Kee Choon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) have been applied to the Reactor Protection System (RPS) and the Engineered Safety Feature (ESF)-Component Control System (CCS) as the major safety system components of nuclear power plants. This paper describes experiences on the qualification of the safety-critical software including the pCOS kernel and system tasks related to a safety-grade PLC, i.e. the works done for the Software Verification and Validation, Software Safety Analysis, Software Quality Assurance, and Software Configuration Management etc.

  20. Nuclear Data Activities in Support of the DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfall, R. M.; McKnight, R. D.

    2005-05-01

    The DOE Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP) provides the technical infrastructure maintenance for those technologies applied in the evaluation and performance of safe fissionable-material operations in the DOE complex. These technologies include an Analytical Methods element for neutron transport as well as the development of sensitivity/uncertainty methods, the performance of Critical Experiments, evaluation and qualification of experiments as Benchmarks, and a comprehensive Nuclear Data program coordinated by the NCSP Nuclear Data Advisory Group (NDAG). The NDAG gathers and evaluates differential and integral nuclear data, identifies deficiencies, and recommends priorities on meeting DOE criticality safety needs to the NCSP Criticality Safety Support Group (CSSG). Then the NDAG identifies the required resources and unique capabilities for meeting these needs, not only for performing measurements but also for data evaluation with nuclear model codes as well as for data processing for criticality safety applications. The NDAG coordinates effort with the leadership of the National Nuclear Data Center, the Cross Section Evaluation Working Group (CSEWG), and the Working Party on International Evaluation Cooperation (WPEC) of the OECD/NEA Nuclear Science Committee. The overall objective is to expedite the issuance of new data and methods to the DOE criticality safety user. This paper describes these activities in detail, with examples based upon special studies being performed in support of criticality safety for a variety of DOE operations.

  1. US Department of Energy Environment, Safety and Health Progress Assessment of the Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    This report documents the result of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environment, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Progress Assessment of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nye County, Nevada. The assessment, which was conducted from July 20 through August 4, 1992, included a selective review of the ES&H management systems and progress of the responsible DOE Headquarters Program Offices; the DOE Nevada Field Office (NV); and the site contractors. The ES&H Progress Assessments are part of the Secretary of Energy`s continuing effort to institutionalize line management accountability and the self-assessment process throughout DOE and its contractor organizations. This report presents a summary of issues and progress in the areas of environment, safety and health, and management.

  2. Environmental restoration and waste management department independent safety review committee program management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This Program Management Plan (PMP) describes and governs the Independent Safety Review Committee (ISRC) established within the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Department (ER WMD). The ISRC performs independent safety reviews for the ER WMD as required and specified by the governing documents mentioned above. This PMP defines the ISRC organization, work plan, and scope of work. The PMP is organized consistent with the requirements of DOE Order 4700.1, Project Management System. For the purpose of readability, this document shall use the term program'' to include not only the chartered activities of the ISRC, but also the related activities conducted by the chairman and staff. This PMP is subordinate to the ER WMD Implementing Program Management Plan, EGG-WM-10220.

  3. Environmental restoration and waste management department independent safety review committee program management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-01

    This Program Management Plan (PMP) describes and governs the Independent Safety Review Committee (ISRC) established within the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Department (ER&WMD). The ISRC performs independent safety reviews for the ER&WMD as required and specified by the governing documents mentioned above. This PMP defines the ISRC organization, work plan, and scope of work. The PMP is organized consistent with the requirements of DOE Order 4700.1, Project Management System. For the purpose of readability, this document shall use the term ``program`` to include not only the chartered activities of the ISRC, but also the related activities conducted by the chairman and staff. This PMP is subordinate to the ER&WMD Implementing Program Management Plan, EGG-WM-10220.

  4. An overview of criticality safety research at the All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuvshinov, M.I.; Voinov, A.M.; Yuferev, V.I. [All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics, Arzamas (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1997-06-01

    This paper presents a summary of experimental and calculational activities conducted at VNIIEF from the late 1940s to now to study the critical conditions of systems as part of a nuclear safety program. 9 refs., 1 tab.

  5. Model-based schedulability analysis of safety critical hard real-time Java programs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgholm, Thomas; Kragh-Hansen, Henrik; Olsen, Petur

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a novel approach to schedulability analysis of Safety Critical Hard Real-Time Java programs. The approach is based on a translation of programs, written in the Safety Critical Java profile introduced in [21] for the Java Optimized Processor [18], to timed automata models...... has been implemented in a tool, named SARTS, successfully used to verify the schedulability of a real-time sorting machine consisting of two periodic and two sporadic tasks. SARTS has also been applied on a number of smaller examples to investigate properties of our approach.......In this paper, we present a novel approach to schedulability analysis of Safety Critical Hard Real-Time Java programs. The approach is based on a translation of programs, written in the Safety Critical Java profile introduced in [21] for the Java Optimized Processor [18], to timed automata models...

  6. Analytical Methods for Verification and Validation of Adaptive Systems in Safety-Critical Aerospace Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A major challenge of the use of adaptive systems in safety-critical applications is the software life-cycle: requirement engineering through verification and...

  7. Agility in Development of Safety-Critical Software: A Conceptual Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tordrup Heeager, Lise; Nielsen, Peter Axel

    2017-01-01

    Safety-critical information systems are being used increasingly as we see applications in new areas such as personal medical devices, traffic control and detection of pathogens. A current research debate is whether safety-critical systems must be developed with traditional waterfall processes...... or agile processes which are faster and will lead to better products. In this paper we review the diverse research literature on agility in safety-critical software development. There are key propositions that we pull from the literature and combine into a framework for understanding the foundational...... challenges and the contingencies of agile development of safety-critical software. The framework consists of four problematic practice areas (which the literature mainly has focused on) and five relationships, which we suggest is even more important than the problematic areas. From this review we suggest...

  8. A validation metrics framework for safety-critical software-intensive systems

    OpenAIRE

    Cruickshank, Kristian John.

    2009-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution unlimited Validation of safety-critical software requirements is a difficult and frequently misunderstood task. It answers the question of "are we building the right product?" and is essential to Software Engineering. However, validation is often confused with verification activities, or simply left as a final tick-in-the-box just prior to delivery. Current models for validation cannot satisfy the unique aspects of safety-critical software where "b...

  9. Classification for Safety-Critical Car-Cyclist Scenarios Using Machine Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cara, I.; Gelder, E.D.

    2015-01-01

    The number of fatal car-cyclist accidents is increasing. Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) can improve the safety of cyclists, but they need to be tested with realistic safety-critical car-cyclist scenarios. In order to store only relevant scenarios, an online classification algorithm is nee

  10. Using the Job Demands-Resources model to investigate risk perception, safety climate and job satisfaction in safety critical organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Morten Birkeland; Mearns, Kathryn; Matthiesen, Stig Berge; Eid, Jarle

    2011-10-01

    Using the Job Demands-Resources model (JD-R) as a theoretical framework, this study investigated the relationship between risk perception as a job demand and psychological safety climate as a job resource with regard to job satisfaction in safety critical organizations. In line with the JD-R model, it was hypothesized that high levels of risk perception is related to low job satisfaction and that a positive perception of safety climate is related to high job satisfaction. In addition, it was hypothesized that safety climate moderates the relationship between risk perception and job satisfaction. Using a sample of Norwegian offshore workers (N = 986), all three hypotheses were supported. In summary, workers who perceived high levels of risk reported lower levels of job satisfaction, whereas this effect diminished when workers perceived their safety climate as positive. Follow-up analyses revealed that this interaction was dependent on the type of risks in question. The results of this study supports the JD-R model, and provides further evidence for relationships between safety-related concepts and work-related outcomes indicating that organizations should not only develop and implement sound safety procedures to reduce the effects of risks and hazards on workers, but can also enhance other areas of organizational life through a focus on safety.

  11. [A regular internal auditing and registration of critical incidents regarded as safety maintenance elements within the anesthetic management of patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, V L; Likhvantsev, V V; Alekseev, A A

    2004-01-01

    The paper summarizes a 5-year experience of evaluating the safety of anesthetic management of patients with thermal lesions treated at the department of thermal lesions of Vishnevsky's Institute of Surgery, Russia's Academy of Medical Sciences. Regular internal auditings, based on the principles of registering the critical incidents, the course of 1473 general anesthesia managements was analyzed in 168 patients. The conclusion is that the introduction of protocols of anesthetic management as well as a regular monitoring over meeting the fixed targets cut the total frequency of critical incidents from 2.85 to 1.19 as estimated per one general anesthesia. Finally the authors suggest a concept whose essence in that the operation of the modern anesthesiology department must be based on a scientifically substantiated technology of anesthetic management.

  12. Department

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2017-05-25

    May 25, 2017 ... Department of Animal production Federal University of Technology Minna – Niger state,. Nigeria ... principles by poultry farmers in Kwara State, Nigeria. The ma .... usually incur by broiler and layer farmers ... A multi-stage sampling technique .... their birds under intensive care, which is ... husbandry system.

  13. Ending on a positive: Examining the role of safety leadership decisions, behaviours and actions in a safety critical situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Sarah-Louise; Salmon, Paul M; Horberry, Timothy; Lenné, Michael G

    2018-01-01

    Safety leadership is an important factor in supporting safe performance in the workplace. The present case study examined the role of safety leadership during the Bingham Canyon Mine high-wall failure, a significant mining incident in which no fatalities or injuries were incurred. The Critical Decision Method (CDM) was used in conjunction with a self-reporting approach to examine safety leadership in terms of decisions, behaviours and actions that contributed to the incidents' safe outcome. Mapping the analysis onto Rasmussen's Risk Management Framework (Rasmussen, 1997), the findings demonstrate clear links between safety leadership decisions, and emergent behaviours and actions across the work system. Communication and engagement based decisions featured most prominently, and were linked to different leadership practices across the work system. Further, a core sub-set of CDM decision elements were linked to the open flow and exchange of information across the work system, which was critical to supporting the safe outcome. The findings provide practical implications for the development of safety leadership capability to support safety within the mining industry. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. KAERI software safety guideline for developing safety-critical software in digital instrumentation and control system of nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jang Soo; Kim, Jang Yeol; Eum, Heung Seop

    1997-07-01

    Recently, the safety planning for safety-critical software systems is being recognized as the most important phase in the software life cycle, and being developed new regulatory positions and standards by the regulatory and the standardization organization. The requirements for software important to safety of nuclear reactor are described in such positions and standards. Most of them are describing mandatory requirements, what shall be done, for the safety-critical software. The developers of such a software. However, there have been a lot of controversial factors on whether the work practices satisfy the regulatory requirements, and to justify the safety of such a system developed by the work practices, between the licenser and the licensee. We believe it is caused by the reason that there is a gap between the mandatory requirements (What) and the work practices (How). We have developed a guidance to fill such gap, which can be useful for both licenser and licensee to conduct a justification of the safety in the planning phase of developing the software for nuclear reactor protection systems. (author). 67 refs., 13 tabs., 2 figs.

  15. KAERI software safety guideline for developing safety-critical software in digital instrumentation and control system of nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jang Soo; Kim, Jang Yeol; Eum, Heung Seop

    1997-07-01

    Recently, the safety planning for safety-critical software systems is being recognized as the most important phase in the software life cycle, and being developed new regulatory positions and standards by the regulatory and the standardization organization. The requirements for software important to safety of nuclear reactor are described in such positions and standards. Most of them are describing mandatory requirements, what shall be done, for the safety-critical software. The developers of such a software. However, there have been a lot of controversial factors on whether the work practices satisfy the regulatory requirements, and to justify the safety of such a system developed by the work practices, between the licenser and the licensee. We believe it is caused by the reason that there is a gap between the mandatory requirements (What) and the work practices (How). We have developed a guidance to fill such gap, which can be useful for both licenser and licensee to conduct a justification of the safety in the planning phase of developing the software for nuclear reactor protection systems. (author). 67 refs., 13 tabs., 2 figs.

  16. Annual report to Congress. Department of Energy activities relating to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, calendar year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-03-01

    This Annual Report to the Congress describes the Department of Energy's activities in response to formal recommendations and other interactions with the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. During 2000, the Department completed its implementation and proposed closure of one Board recommendation and completed all implementation plan milestones associated with two additional Board recommendations. Also in 2000, the Department formally accepted two new Board recommendations and developed implementation plans in response to those recommendations. The Department also made significant progress with a number of broad-based safety initiatives. These include initial implementation of integrated safety management at field sites and within headquarters program offices, issuance of a nuclear safety rule, and continued progress on stabilizing excess nuclear materials to achieve significant risk reduction.

  17. Annual report to Congress. Department of Energy activities relating to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, calendar year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-03-01

    This Annual Report to the Congress describes the Department of Energy's activities in response to formal recommendations and other interactions with the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board. During 2000, the Department completed its implementation and proposed closure of one Board recommendation and completed all implementation plan milestones associated with two additional Board recommendations. Also in 2000, the Department formally accepted two new Board recommendations and developed implementation plans in response to those recommendations. The Department also made significant progress with a number of broad-based safety initiatives. These include initial implementation of integrated safety management at field sites and within headquarters program offices, issuance of a nuclear safety rule, and continued progress on stabilizing excess nuclear materials to achieve significant risk reduction.

  18. Brazed Joints Design and Allowables: Discuss Margins of Safety in Critical Brazed Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    FLom, Yury

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation tutorial discusses margins of safety in critical brazed structures. It reviews: (1) the present situation (2) definition of strength (3) margins of safety (4) design allowables (5) mechanical testing (6) failure criteria (7) design flowchart (8) braze gap (9) residual stresses and (10) delayed failures. This presentation addresses the strength of the brazed joints, the methods of mechanical testing, and our ability to evaluate the margins of safety of the brazed joints as it applies to the design of critical and expensive brazed assemblies.

  19. Efficacy and safety of acupuncture for dizziness and vertigo in emergency department: a pilot cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chih-Wen; Lee, Tsung-Chieh; Hsu, Po-Chi; Chen, Chia-Yun; Chang, Shun-Chang; Chiang, John Y; Lo, Lun-Chien

    2015-06-09

    Dizziness and vertigo account for roughly 4% of chief symptoms in the emergency department (ED). Pharmacological therapy is often applied for these symptoms, such as vestibular suppressants, anti-emetics and benzodiazepines. However, every medication is accompanied with unavoidable side-effects. There are several research articles providing evidence of acupuncture treating dizziness and vertigo but few studies of acupuncture as an emergent intervention in ED. We performed a pilot cohort study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture in treating patients with dizziness and vertigo in ED. A total of 60 participants, recruited in ED, were divided into acupuncture and control group. Life-threatening conditions or central nervous system disorders were excluded to ensure participants' safety. The clinical effect of treating dizziness and vertigo was evaluated by performing statistical analyses on data collected from questionnaires of Dizziness Handicap Inventory (DHI), Visual Analog Scale (VAS) of dizziness and vertigo, and heart rate variability (HRV). The variation of VAS demonstrated a significant decrease (p-value: 0.001 and p-value: 0.037) between two groups after two different durations: 30 mins and 7 days. The variation of DHI showed no significant difference after 7 days. HRV revealed a significant increase in high frequency (HF) in the acupuncture group. No adverse event was reported in this study. Acupuncture demonstrates a significant immediate effect in reducing discomforts and VAS of both dizziness and vertigo. This study provides clinical evidence on the efficacy and safety of acupuncture to treat dizziness and vertigo in the emergency department. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT02358239 . Registered 5 February 2015.

  20. A Study on Methodologies for Assessing Safety Critical Network's Risk Impact on Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, T. J.; Park, S. K.; Seo, S. J. [Soongsil Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    The objectives of this project is to establish methodologies for assessing safety-critical network's risk impact on nuclear power plant by developing reliability analysis models for the safety-critical network. It is essential to develop reliability analysis models for safety-critical network, and it is very important to adapt the model to the current methodologies for assessing risk impact on nuclear power plants. Major outputs of the first year study are preliminary models for assessing reliability of safety-critical communication networks and those of the second year study are methodologies for assessing safety-critical network's risk impact on nuclear power plant.

  1. Electronics system design techniques for safety critical applications

    CERN Document Server

    Sterpone, Luca

    2008-01-01

    Addresses the development of techniques for the evaluation and the hardening of designs implemented on SRAM-based Field Programmable Gate Arrays. This title presents a design methodology solving industrial designer''s needs for implementing electronic systems using SRAM-based FPGAs in critical environments, like the space or avionic ones.

  2. Software safety analysis techniques for developing safety critical software in the digital protection system of the LMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jang Soo; Cheon, Se Woo; Kim, Chang Hoi; Sim, Yun Sub

    2001-02-01

    This report has described the software safety analysis techniques and the engineering guidelines for developing safety critical software to identify the state of the art in this field and to give the software safety engineer a trail map between the code and standards layer and the design methodology and documents layer. We have surveyed the management aspects of software safety activities during the software lifecycle in order to improve the safety. After identifying the conventional safety analysis techniques for systems, we have surveyed in details the software safety analysis techniques, software FMEA(Failure Mode and Effects Analysis), software HAZOP(Hazard and Operability Analysis), and software FTA(Fault Tree Analysis). We have also surveyed the state of the art in the software reliability assessment techniques. The most important results from the reliability techniques are not the specific probability numbers generated, but the insights into the risk importance of software features. To defend against potential common-mode failures, high quality, defense-in-depth, and diversity are considered to be key elements in digital I and C system design. To minimize the possibility of CMFs and thus increase the plant reliability, we have provided D-in-D and D analysis guidelines.

  3. Six sigma tools for a patient safety-oriented, quality-checklist driven radiation medicine department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Ajay; Potters, Louis

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop and implement six sigma practices toward the enhancement of patient safety in an electronic, quality checklist-driven, multicenter, paperless radiation medicine department. A quality checklist process map (QPM), stratified into consultation through treatment-completion stages was incorporated into an oncology information systems platform. A cross-functional quality management team conducted quality-function-deployment and define-measure-analyze-improve-control (DMAIC) six sigma exercises with a focus on patient safety. QPM procedures were Pareto-sorted in order of decreasing patient safety risk with failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA). Quantitative metrics for a grouped set of highest risk procedures were established. These included procedural delays, associated standard deviations and six sigma Z scores. Baseline performance of the QPM was established over the previous year of usage. Data-driven analysis led to simplification, standardization, and refinement of the QPM with standard deviation, slip-day reduction, and Z-score enhancement goals. A no-fly policy (NFP) for patient safety was introduced at the improve-control DMAIC phase, with a process map interlock imposed on treatment initiation in the event of FMEA-identified high-risk tasks being delayed or not completed. The NFP was introduced in a pilot phase with specific stopping rules and the same metrics used for performance assessments. A custom root-cause analysis database was deployed to monitor patient safety events. Relative to the baseline period, average slip days and standard deviations for the risk-enhanced QPM procedures improved by over threefold factors in the NFP period. The Z scores improved by approximately 20%. A trend for proactive delays instead of reactive hard stops was observed with no adverse effects of the NFP. The number of computed potential no-fly delays per month dropped from 60 to 20 over a total of 520 cases. The fraction of computed

  4. Safety physics inter-comparison of advanced concepts of critical reactors and ADS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slessarev, I. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. d' Etudes des Reacteurs

    2001-07-01

    Enhanced safety based on the principle of the natural ''self-defence'' is one of the most desirable features of innovative nuclear systems (critical or sub-critical) regarding both TRU transmutation and ''clean'' energy producer concepts. For the evaluation of the ''self-defence'' domain, the method of the asymptotic reactivity balance has been generalised. The promising option of Hybrids systems (that use a symbiosis of fission and spallation in sub-critical cores) which could benefit the advantages of both Accelerated Driven Systems of the traditional type and regular critical systems, has been advocated. General features of Hybrid dynamics have been presented and analysed. It was demonstrated that an external neutron source of Hybrids can expand the inherent safety potential significantly. This analysis has been applied to assess the safety physics potential of innovative concepts for prospective nuclear power both for energy producers and for transmutation. It has been found, that safety enhancement goal defines a choice of sub-criticality of Hybrids. As for energy producers with Th-fuel cycle, a significant sub-criticality level is required due to a necessity of an improvement of neutronics together with safety enhancement task. (author)

  5. Student research in criticality safety at the University of Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetrick, D.L.

    1997-06-01

    A very brief progress report on four University of Arizona student projects is given. Improvements were made in simulations of power pulses in aqueous solutions, including the TWODANT model. TWODANT calculations were performed to investigate the effect of assembly shape on the expansion coefficient of reactivity for solutions. Preliminary calculations were made of critical heights for the Los Alamos SHEBA assembly. Calculations to support French experiments to measure temperature coefficients of dilute plutonium solutions confirmed feasibility.

  6. Sensitivity-Uncertainty Techniques for Nuclear Criticality Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Forrest B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rising, Michael Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Alwin, Jennifer Louise [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-07

    The sensitivity and uncertainty analysis course will introduce students to keff sensitivity data, cross-section uncertainty data, how keff sensitivity data and keff uncertainty data are generated and how they can be used. Discussion will include how sensitivity/uncertainty data can be used to select applicable critical experiments, to quantify a defensible margin to cover validation gaps and weaknesses, and in development of upper subcritical limits.

  7. Critical incidents related to cardiac arrests reported to the Danish Patient Safety Database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Oluf; Maaløe, Rikke; Andersen, Henning Boje

    2010-01-01

    Background Critical incident reports can identify areas for improvement in resuscitation practice. The Danish Patient Safety Database is a mandatory reporting system and receives critical incident reports submitted by hospital personnel. The aim of this study is to identify, analyse and categorize...... critical incidents related to cardiac arrests reported to the Danish Patient Safety Database. Methods The search terms “cardiac arrest” and “resuscitation” were used to identify reports in the Danish Patient Safety Database. Identified critical incidents were then classified into categories. Results One...... hundred and seven reports describing 122 separate incidents were identified and classified into incidents related to: alerting the resuscitation team (n = 32; 26%), human performance (n = 22; 18%), equipment failure (n = 19; 16%), resuscitation equipment not available (n = 13; 11%), physical environment...

  8. Pre-Orbital Criticality Safety for the Proposed NEPSTP Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapir, Joseph; Pelowitz, Denise; Streetman, J. Robert; Glushkov, Yevgeny S.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, Nikolai N.; Kompanietz, Georgiy V.; Lobynstev, Vyacheslav A.

    1994-07-01

    In December 1991, the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) proposed investigating whether launching a Russian Topaz-II space nuclear power system could be done safely and within budget constraints. Functional safety requirements developed for the potential US space application of the Topaz-II mandated that the reactor remain subcritical when immersed in water. Topaz-II is an epithermal, enriched-uranium-fueled, NaK-(liquid metal alloy with 22% sodium and 78% potassium) cooled, and zirconium hydride-moderated reactor. A radial beryllium reflector containing 12 rotatable control drums surrounds the core. We prepared a computer model of the Topaz reactor that explicitly represented all major reactor components. Initial analyses indicated that in several water-immersion scenarios, the reactor would not remain subcritical. After additional calculations, modifications were proposed that would assure subcriticality under such conditions. This paper describes the analyses and the proposed modifications.

  9. Efficiency evaluation of a safety department in a construction company-A case study: A DEA approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomon Odeyale

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA is a decision making tool based on linear programming for measuring the relative efficiency of a set of comparable units. DEA helps us identify the sources and level of inefficiency for each of the inputs and outputs. This approach has been used to evaluate the efficiency of the safety department in five construction companies. A three-input, safety workforce, safety training, and safety budget, and two-output, Perfect days and Uptime, constant returns-to-scale (CRS model was developed. The model indicated the necessary improvements required in the inefficient unit’s inputs and outputs to make it efficient, by identifying what factor is responsible for the low efficiency of performance, and also what factor should be improved in order to improve the efficiency of the safety department. The result shows that the safety department of firm A, B and D are efficient, but Firm C and Firm E can improve their efficiency by reducing inputs up to 3.34% and 6.05%, respectively. The inputs identified for reduction were; number of safety staffs and safety budget for Firm C and E respectively.

  10. Energy Neutral Wireless Bolt for Safety Critical Fastening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyoum, Biruk B; Rossi, Maurizio; Brunelli, Davide

    2017-09-26

    Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) are now capable of powering the abundant low power electronics from very small (just a few degrees Celsius) temperature gradients. This factor along with the continuously lowering cost and size of TEGs, has contributed to the growing number of miniaturized battery-free sensor modules powered by TEGs. In this article, we present the design of an ambient-powered wireless bolt for high-end electro-mechanical systems. The bolt is equipped with a temperature sensor and a low power RF chip powered from a TEG. A DC-DC converter interfacing the TEG with the RF chip is used to step-up the low TEG voltage. The work includes the characterizations of different TEGs and DC-DC converters to determine the optimal design based on the amount of power that can be generated from a TEG under different loads and at temperature gradients typical of industrial environments. A prototype system was implemented and the power consumption of this system under different conditions was also measured. Results demonstrate that the power generated by the TEG at very low temperature gradients is sufficient to guarantee continuous wireless monitoring of the critical fasteners in critical systems such as avionics, motorsport and aerospace.

  11. Covariance matrices for use in criticality safety predictability studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derrien, H.; Larson, N.M.; Leal, L.C.

    1997-09-01

    Criticality predictability applications require as input the best available information on fissile and other nuclides. In recent years important work has been performed in the analysis of neutron transmission and cross-section data for fissile nuclei in the resonance region by using the computer code SAMMY. The code uses Bayes method (a form of generalized least squares) for sequential analyses of several sets of experimental data. Values for Reich-Moore resonance parameters, their covariances, and the derivatives with respect to the adjusted parameters (data sensitivities) are obtained. In general, the parameter file contains several thousand values and the dimension of the covariance matrices is correspondingly large. These matrices are not reported in the current evaluated data files due to their large dimensions and to the inadequacy of the file formats. The present work has two goals: the first is to calculate the covariances of group-averaged cross sections from the covariance files generated by SAMMY, because these can be more readily utilized in criticality predictability calculations. The second goal is to propose a more practical interface between SAMMY and the evaluated files. Examples are given for {sup 235}U in the popular 199- and 238-group structures, using the latest ORNL evaluation of the {sup 235}U resonance parameters.

  12. Annual report to Congress: Department of Energy activities relating to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board, Calendar Year 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-02-01

    This is the tenth Annual Report to the Congress describing Department of Energy activities in response to formal recommendations and other interactions with the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (Board). The Board, an independent executive-branch agency established in 1988, provides advice and recommendations to the Secretary of Energy regarding public health and safety issues at the Department's defense nuclear facilities. The Board also reviews and evaluates the content and implementation of health and safety standards, as well as other requirements, relating to the design, construction, operation, and decommissioning of the Department's defense nuclear facilities. During 1999, Departmental activities resulted in the closure of nine Board recommendations. In addition, the Department has completed all implementation plan milestones associated with three Board recommendations. One new Board recommendation was received and accepted by the Department in 1999, and a new implementation plan is being developed to address this recommendation. The Department has also made significant progress with a number of broad-based initiatives to improve safety. These include expanded implementation of integrated safety management at field sites, opening of a repository for long-term storage of transuranic wastes, and continued progress on stabilizing excess nuclear materials to achieve significant risk reduction.

  13. A critical review on toxicological safety of 2-alkylcyclobutanones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Beom-Seok; Choi, Soo-Jeong; Jin, Young-Bae; Park, Jong-Heum; Kim, Jae-Kyung; Byun, Eui-Baek; Kim, Jae-Hun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Gang-Sung; Marchioni, Eric

    2014-10-01

    2-Alkylcyclobutanones (2-ACBs) are known as unique radiolytic products generated from the major fatty acids and triglycerides in food through only irradiation. Since 1990, studies on the toxicological safety of 2-ACBs have been conducted extensively with synthetic compounds. Mutagenicity tests of 2-ACBs on the microorganisms reviewed in this study clearly indicate that no evidence was observed, while several in vitro studies demonstrated the cytotoxicity of 2-ACBs through cell death. Moreover, the genotoxicity of 2-ACBs was suggested as DNA strand breaks were observed. However, these findings should be interpreted with caution because genotoxicity may result from cytotoxicity, which causes DNA damage or from cell membrane destruction and indirect oxidative DNA damage. Therefore, elucidation of the mechanism of genotoxic effects is needed. With regards to the suggestion of Raul et al. (2002) who showed the promoting effect of colon cancer by the administration of 2-ACBs, further studies are needed to correct some experimental design errors. Moreover, an in-vivo experiment that evaluated the metabolism of 2-ACBs has revealed that 2-dDCB was metabolized into cyclic alcohol and excreted through fecal discharge. In conclusion, it is considered that the ingestion of 2-ACBs through irradiated foods is unlikely to affect the human health. However, more specific studies are required to identify the fate of 2-ACBs in body and the LD50 values. The determination of chronic toxicity by long-term exposure to low concentrations of 2-ACBs has to be evaluated more clearly to determine if these compounds are safe to human.

  14. Critical issues of alcohol safety in the region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Vasil’evna Aksyutina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of the research into the economic and socio-demographic indicators associated with the production and consumption of alcoholic beverages. It discloses the analysis of the alcoholic beverage market structure in the Vologda Oblast. The authors have identified the threshold of the safe alcohol production volume in the region taking into account the World Health Organization standards of alcohol consumption and the share of illegally produced goods. The article states that the increased alcohol production contributes to the rise in tax revenues, but the state fiscal policy to regulate the alcoholic beverage market leads to an increase in the share of shadow turnover. The authors have calculated the economic loss connected with the illegal production of alcoholic beverages in the Vologda Oblast. The alcohol consumption is a destructive socio-demographic process and one of the threats to the health of the nation. Excessive alcohol consumption leads to alcohol dependence, regression of the society and increases the threat to national and economic security. The study reveals a direct correlation between the consumption of alcoholic beverages per capita and mortality rates in men and women of working age from the causes related to the consumption of alcoholic beverages. The study of the international experience to regulate alcohol consumption has showed the need to tighten state control in the sphere of production and turnover of alcoholic products. The conduct of the unified state alcohol policy substantiates the selection of the alcohol industry in the all-Russian classifier of economic activity types. The authors have elaborated the concept and conditions of alcoholic security from the point of view of economic growth and social development. The article substantiates the necessity to monitor alcohol safety indicators when considering the regional development. It presents the complex system of socio-economic and demographic

  15. Diversity for security: case assessment for FPGA-based safety-critical systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kharchenko Vyacheslav

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial safety critical instrumentation and control systems (I&Cs are facing more with information (in general and cyber, in particular security threats and attacks. The application of programmable logic, first of all, field programmable gate arrays (FPGA in critical systems causes specific safety deficits. Security assessment techniques for such systems are based on heuristic knowledges and the expert judgment. Main challenge is how to take into account features of FPGA technology for safety critical I&Cs including systems in which are applied diversity approach to minimize risks of common cause failure. Such systems are called multi-version (MV systems. The goal of the paper is in description of the technique and tool for case-based security assessment of MV FPGA-based I&Cs.

  16. Direct and indirect effects of mood on risk decision making in safety-critical workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, James I; Jones, Fiona A; Harris, Peter R

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to examine the direct influence of specific moods (fatigue, anxiety, happiness) on risk in safety-critical decision making. It further aimed to explore indirect effects, specifically, the potential mediating effects of information processing assessed using a goodness-of-simulation task. Trait fatigue and anxiety were associated with an increase in risk taking on the Safety-Critical Personal Risk Inventory (S-CPRI), however the effect of fatigue was partialled out by anxiety. Trait happiness, in contrast was related to less risky decision making. Findings concerning the ability to simulate suggest that better simulators made less risky decisions. Anxious workers were generally less able to simulate. It is suggested that in this safety-critical environment happiness had a direct effect on risk decision making while the effect of trait anxiety was mediated by goodness-of-simulation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Supporting Multiprocessors in the Icecap Safety-Critical Java Run-Time Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Shuai; Wellings, Andy; Korsholm, Stephan Erbs

    2015-01-01

    The current version of the Safety Critical Java (SCJ) specification defines three compliance levels. Level 0 targets single processor programs while Level 1 and 2 can support multiprocessor platforms. Level 1 programs must be fully partitioned but Level 2 programs can also be more globally...... scheduled. As of yet, there is no official Reference Implementation for SCJ. However, the icecap project has produced a Safety-Critical Java Run-time Environment based on the Hardware-near Virtual Machine (HVM). This supports SCJ at all compliance levels and provides an implementation of the safety......-critical Java (javax.safetycritical) package. This is still work-in-progress and lacks certain key features. Among these is the ability to support multiprocessor platforms. In this paper, we explore two possible options to adding multiprocessor support to this environment: the “green thread” and the “native...

  18. A software cost model with maintenance and risk costs for safety-critical systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hong-wei; YANG Xiao-zong; QU Feng; DONG Jian

    2006-01-01

    According to the consequences of software failures, software faults remaining in safety-critical systems can be classified into two sets: common faults and fatal faults. Common faults cause slight loss when they are activated. A fatal fault can lead to significant loss, and even damage the safety-critical system entirely when it is activated. A software reliability growth model for safety-critical systems is developed based on G-O model. And a software cost model is proposed too. The cost model considers maintenance and risk costs due to software failures. The optimal release policies are discussed to minimize the total software cost. A numerical example is provided to illustrate how to use the results we obtained.

  19. Application of a Comprehensive Unit-based Safety Program in critical care: the royal exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lauren E; Flanders, Sonya A

    2014-12-01

    This article discusses the history of the Comprehensive Unit-based Safety Program (CUSP) and how it is used to foster a culture of safety. CUSP involves interdisciplinary teamwork and empowers nurses at all levels to pioneer changes and develop leadership skills. A case study is presented to show how CUSP was used effectively in critical care to create a standardized handover of patients from the operating room to the intensive care unit.

  20. Planning the Unplanned Experiment: Assessing the Efficacy of Standards for Safety Critical Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graydon, Patrick J.; Holloway, C. Michael

    2015-01-01

    We need well-founded means of determining whether software is t for use in safety-critical applications. While software in industries such as aviation has an excellent safety record, the fact that software aws have contributed to deaths illustrates the need for justi ably high con dence in software. It is often argued that software is t for safety-critical use because it conforms to a standard for software in safety-critical systems. But little is known about whether such standards `work.' Reliance upon a standard without knowing whether it works is an experiment; without collecting data to assess the standard, this experiment is unplanned. This paper reports on a workshop intended to explore how standards could practicably be assessed. Planning the Unplanned Experiment: Assessing the Ecacy of Standards for Safety Critical Software (AESSCS) was held on 13 May 2014 in conjunction with the European Dependable Computing Conference (EDCC). We summarize and elaborate on the workshop's discussion of the topic, including both the presented positions and the dialogue that ensued.

  1. Emergency team calls for critically ill non-trauma patients in the emergency department

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Marker; Do, Hien Quoc; Rasmussen, Søren W.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Handling critically ill patients is a complex task for Emergency Department (ED) personnel. Initial treatment is of major importance and requires adequately experienced ED doctors to initiate and decide for the right medical or surgical treatment. Our aim was, with regard to clinical...... presentation, management and mortality to describe adult non-trauma patients that upon ED arrival elicited emergency team calls. METHODS: An observational study of adult patients (≥ 18 years) admitted to a regional ED with conditions that elicited acute team activation and additional emergency team.......004). Additionally, 115 adult patients were admitted to the ICU directly from the ED without eliciting an emergency team call during the study period. These patients mainly comprised patients who were intoxicated, were unconscious or had respiratory failure. CONCLUSION: The majority of emergency team call patients...

  2. Criticality safety issues in the disposition of BN-350 spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, R. W.; Klann, R. T.; Koltyshev, S. M.; Krechetov, S.

    2000-02-28

    A criticality safety analysis has been performed as part of the BN-350 spent fuel disposition project being conducted jointly by the DOE and Kazakhstan. The Kazakhstan regulations are reasonably consistent with those of the DOE. The high enrichment and severe undermoderation of this fast reactor fuel has significant criticality safety consequences. A detailed modeling approach was used that showed some configurations to be safe that otherwise would be rejected. Reasonable requirements for design and operations were needed, and with them, all operations were found to be safe.

  3. Nuclear criticality safety experiments, calculations, and analyses: 1958 to 1982. Volume 1. Lookup tables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, B.L.; Hampel, V.E.

    1982-10-21

    This compilation contains 688 complete summaries of papers on nuclear criticality safety as presented at meetings of the American Nuclear Society (ANS). The selected papers contain criticality parameters for fissile materials derived from experiments and calculations, as well as criticality safety analyses for fissile material processing, transport, and storage. The compilation was developed as a component of the Nuclear Criticality Information System (NCIS) now under development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The compilation is presented in two volumes: Volume 1 contains a directory to the ANS Transaction volume and page number where each summary was originally published, the author concordance, and the subject concordance derived from the keyphrases in titles. Volume 2 contains - in chronological order - the full-text summaries, reproduced here by permission of the American Nuclear Society from their Transactions, volumes 1-41.

  4. Criticality safety evaluation of disposing of K Basin sludge in double-shell tank AW-105

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ROGERS, C.A.

    1999-06-04

    A criticality safety evaluation is made of the disposal of K Basin sludge in double-shell tank (DST) AW-105 located in the 200 east area of Hanford Site. The technical basis is provided for limits and controls to be used in the development of a criticality prevention specification (CPS). A model of K Basin sludge is developed to account for fuel burnup. The iron/uranium mass ration required to ensure an acceptable magrin of subcriticality is determined.

  5. Home Fire Safety Practices and Smoke Detector Program Awareness in an Urban Pediatric Emergency Department Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Rachel Lynn; Teach, Stephen J; Rucker, Alexandra; Lall, Ambika; Chamberlain, James M; Ryan, Leticia Manning

    2016-11-01

    Risk factors for residential fire death (young age, minority race/ethnicity, and low socioeconomic status) are common among urban pediatric emergency department (ED) patients. Community-based resources are available in our region to provide free smoke detector installation. The objective of our study was to describe awareness of these resources and home fire safety practices in this vulnerable population. In this cross-sectional study, a brief survey was administered to a convenience sample of caregivers accompanying patients 19 years of age or younger in an urban pediatric ED in Washington, DC. Survey contents focused on participant knowledge of available community-based resources and risk factors for residential fire injury. Five hundred eleven eligible caregivers were approached, and 401 (78.5%) agreed to participate. Patients accompanying the caregivers were 48% male, 77% African American, and had a mean (SD) age of 6.5 (5.9) years. Of study participants, 256 (63.8%) lived with children younger than 5 years. When asked about available community-based resources for smoke detectors, 240 (59.9%) were unaware of these programs, 319 (79.6%) were interested in participating, and 221 (55.1%) enrolled. Presence of a home smoke detector was reported by 396 respondents (98.7%); however, 346 (86.3%) reported testing these less often than monthly. Two hundred fifty-six 256 (63.8%) lacked a carbon monoxide detector, and 202 (50.4%) had no fire escape plan. Sixty-five (16%) reported indoor smoking, and 92 (22.9%) reported space heater use. In this urban pediatric ED population, there is limited awareness of community-based resources but high rates of interest in participating once informed. Whereas the self-reported prevalence of home smoke detectors is high in our study population, other fire safety practices are suboptimal.

  6. Task Group report to the Assistant Secretary for Environment, Safety and Health on oversight of chemical safety at the Department of Energy. Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-11-01

    This report presents the results of a preliminary review of chemical safety within the Department of Energy (DOE). The review was conducted by Chemical Safety Oversight Review (CSOR) Teams composed of Office of Environment, Safety and Health (EH) staff members and contractors. The primary objective of the CSOR was to assess, the safety status of DOE chemical operations and identify any significant deficiencies associated with such operations. Significant was defined as any situation posing unacceptable risk, that is, imminent danger or threat to workers, co-located workers, the general public, or the environment, that requires prompt action by EH or the line organizations. A secondary objective of the CSOR was to gather and analyze technical and programmatic information related to chemical safety to be used in conjunction with the longer-range EH Workplace Chemical Accident Risk Review (WCARR) Program. The WCARR Program is part of the ongoing EH oversight of nonnuclear safety at all DOE facilities. `` The program objective is to analyze DOE and industry chemical safety programs and performance and determine the need for additional or improved safety guidance for DOE. During the period June 6, 1992, through July 31, 1992, EH conducted CSORs at five DOE sites. The sites visited were Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Savannah River Site (SRS), the Y-12 Plant (Y-12), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL).

  7. Research on treatment and disposal of RI and Research Institute Waste. Progress in Department of Fuel Cycle Safety Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Department of Fuel Cycle Safety Research, JAERI, has been carrying out research on safe and rational disposal systems of radioactive wastes arising from medical activities and research institutes (RI and Research Institute Waste). The research area includes a study on molten solidified waste form, a geological survey on Japan, a proposal on integrated disposal systems, data acquisition for safety evaluation, and a safety analysis of disposal systems. This report introduces progress and future works for the treatment and disposal of RI and Research Institute Waste. (author)

  8. Planning the Unplanned Experiment: Towards Assessing the Efficacy of Standards for Safety-Critical Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graydon, Patrick J.; Holloway, C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Safe use of software in safety-critical applications requires well-founded means of determining whether software is fit for such use. While software in industries such as aviation has a good safety record, little is known about whether standards for software in safety-critical applications 'work' (or even what that means). It is often (implicitly) argued that software is fit for safety-critical use because it conforms to an appropriate standard. Without knowing whether a standard works, such reliance is an experiment; without carefully collecting assessment data, that experiment is unplanned. To help plan the experiment, we organized a workshop to develop practical ideas for assessing software safety standards. In this paper, we relate and elaborate on the workshop discussion, which revealed subtle but important study design considerations and practical barriers to collecting appropriate historical data and recruiting appropriate experimental subjects. We discuss assessing standards as written and as applied, several candidate definitions for what it means for a standard to 'work,' and key assessment strategies and study techniques and the pros and cons of each. Finally, we conclude with thoughts about the kinds of research that will be required and how academia, industry, and regulators might collaborate to overcome the noted barriers.

  9. Consensus-based recommendations for research priorities related to interventions to safeguard patient safety in the crowded emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fee, Christopher; Hall, Kendall; Morrison, J Bradley; Stephens, Robert; Cosby, Karen; Fairbanks, Rollin Terry J; Youngberg, Barbara; Lenehan, Gail; Abualenain, Jameel; O'Connor, Kevin; Wears, Robert

    2011-12-01

    This article describes the results of the Interventions to Safeguard Safety breakout session of the 2011 Academic Emergency Medicine (AEM) consensus conference entitled "Interventions to Assure Quality in the Crowded Emergency Department." Using a multistep nominal group technique, experts in emergency department (ED) crowding, patient safety, and systems engineering defined knowledge gaps and priority research questions related to the maintenance of safety in the crowded ED. Consensus was reached for seven research priorities related to interventions to maintain safety in the setting of a crowded ED. Included among these are: 1) How do routine corrective processes and compensating mechanism change during crowding? 2) What metrics should be used to determine ED safety? 3) How can checklists ensure safer care and what factors contribute to their success or failure? 4) What constitutes safe staffing levels/ratios? 5) How can we align emergency medicine (EM)-specific patient safety issues with national patient safety issues? 6) How can we develop metrics and skills to recognize when an ED is getting close to catastrophic overload conditions? and 7) What can EM learn from experts and modeling from fields outside of medicine to develop innovative solutions? These priorities have the potential to inform future clinical and human factors research and extramural funding decisions related to this important topic.

  10. Cyclic executive for safety-critical Java on chip-multiprocessors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Anders P.; Schoeberl, Martin

    2010-01-01

    , that uses model checking to find a static schedule, if one exists at all, which gives an implementation of a table driven multiprocessor scheduler. To evaluate the proposed cyclic executive for multiprocessors we have implemented it in the context of safety-critical Java on a Java processor....

  11. Criticality safety and sensitivity analyses of PWR spent nuclear fuel repository facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maucec, M; Glumac, B

    2005-01-01

    Monte Carlo criticality safety and sensitivity calculations of pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent nuclear fuel repository facilities for the Slovenian nuclear power plant Krsko are presented. The MCNP4C code was deployed to model and assess the neutron multiplication parameters of pool-based stor

  12. Criticality safety and sensitivity analyses of PWR spent nuclear fuel repository facilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maucec, M; Glumac, B

    2005-01-01

    Monte Carlo criticality safety and sensitivity calculations of pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent nuclear fuel repository facilities for the Slovenian nuclear power plant Krsko are presented. The MCNP4C code was deployed to model and assess the neutron multiplication parameters of pool-based stor

  13. Safety analysis of the Los Alamos critical experiments facility: burst operation of Skua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orndoff, J.D.; Paxton, H.C.; Wimett, T.F.

    1980-12-01

    Detailed consideration of the Skua burst assembly is provided, thereby supplementing the facility Safety Analysis Report covering the operation of other critical assemblies at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. As with these assemblies the small fission-product inventory, ambient pressure, and moderate temperatures in Skua are amenable to straightforward measures to ensure the protection of the public.

  14. Nuclear criticality safety assessment of the low level radioactive waste disposal facility trenches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahook, S.D.

    1994-04-01

    Results of the analyses performed to evaluate the possibility of nuclear criticality in the Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility (LLRWDF) trenches are documented in this report. The studies presented in this document are limited to assessment of the possibility of criticality due to existing conditions in the LLRWDF. This document does not propose nor set limits for enriched uranium (EU) burial in the LLRWDF and is not a nuclear criticality safety evaluation nor analysis. The calculations presented in the report are Level 2 calculations as defined by the E7 Procedure 2.31, Engineering Calculations.

  15. Validation of Safety-Critical Systems for Aircraft Loss-of-Control Prevention and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    Validation of technologies developed for loss of control (LOC) prevention and recovery poses significant challenges. Aircraft LOC can result from a wide spectrum of hazards, often occurring in combination, which cannot be fully replicated during evaluation. Technologies developed for LOC prevention and recovery must therefore be effective under a wide variety of hazardous and uncertain conditions, and the validation framework must provide some measure of assurance that the new vehicle safety technologies do no harm (i.e., that they themselves do not introduce new safety risks). This paper summarizes a proposed validation framework for safety-critical systems, provides an overview of validation methods and tools developed by NASA to date within the Vehicle Systems Safety Project, and develops a preliminary set of test scenarios for the validation of technologies for LOC prevention and recovery

  16. Trends in robotics: A summary of the Department of Energy`s critical technology roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eicker, P.J.

    1998-08-10

    Technology roadmaps serve as pathways to the future. They call attention to future needs for research and development; provide a structure for organizing technology forecasts and programs; and help communicate technological needs and expectations among end users and the research and development (R and D) community. Critical Technology roadmaps, of which the Robotics and Intelligent Machines (RIM) Roadmap is one example, focus on enabling or cross-cutting technologies that address the needs of multiple US Department of Energy (DOE) offices. Critical Technology roadmaps must be responsive to mission needs of the offices; must clearly indicate how the science and technology can improve DOE capabilities; and must describe an aggressive vision for the future of the technology itself. The RIM Roadmap defines a DOE research and development path for the period beginning today, and continuing through the year 2020. Its purpose is to identify, select and develop objectives that will satisfy near- and long-term challenges posed by DOE`s mission objectives. If implemented, this roadmap will support DOE`s mission needs while simultaneously advancing the state-of-the-art of RIM. For the purposes of this document, RIM refers to systems composed of machines, sensors, computers and software that deliver processes to DOE operations. The RIM Roadmap describes how such systems will revolutionize DOE processes, most notably manufacturing, hazardous and remote operations, and monitoring and surveillance. The advances in DOE operations and RIM discussed in this document will be possible due to the developments in many other areas of science and technology, including computing, communication, electronics and micro-engineering. Modern software engineering techniques will permit the implementation of inherently safe RIM systems that will depend heavily on software.

  17. Shielding calculation and criticality safety analysis of spent fuel transportation cask in research reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, A; Hassanzadeh, M; Gharib, M

    2016-02-01

    In this study, shielding calculation and criticality safety analysis were carried out for general material testing reactor (MTR) research reactors interim storage and relevant transportation cask. During these processes, three major terms were considered: source term, shielding, and criticality calculations. The Monte Carlo transport code MCNP5 was used for shielding calculation and criticality safety analysis and ORIGEN2.1 code for source term calculation. According to the results obtained, a cylindrical cask with body, top, and bottom thicknesses of 18, 13, and 13 cm, respectively, was accepted as the dual-purpose cask. Furthermore, it is shown that the total dose rates are below the normal transport criteria that meet the standards specified.

  18. Proceedings of the workshop on integral experiment covariance data for critical safety validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuke, Maik (ed.)

    2016-04-15

    For some time, attempts to quantify the statistical dependencies of critical experiments and to account for them properly in validation procedures were discussed in the literature by various groups. Besides the development of suitable methods especially the quality and modeling issues of the freely available experimental data are in the focus of current discussions, carried out for example in the Expert Group on Uncertainty Analysis for Criticality Safety Assessment (UACSA) of the OECD-NEA Nuclear Science Committee. The same committee compiles and publishes also the freely available experimental data in the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments. Most of these experiments were performed as series and might share parts of experimental setups leading to correlated results. The quality of the determination of these correlations and the underlying covariance data depend strongly on the quality of the documentation of experiments.

  19. GROWTH OF THE INTERNATIONAL CRITICALITY SAFETY AND REACTOR PHYSICS EXPERIMENT EVALUATION PROJECTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Blair Briggs; John D. Bess; Jim Gulliford

    2011-09-01

    Since the International Conference on Nuclear Criticality Safety (ICNC) 2007, the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) and the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) have continued to expand their efforts and broaden their scope. Eighteen countries participated on the ICSBEP in 2007. Now, there are 20, with recent contributions from Sweden and Argentina. The IRPhEP has also expanded from eight contributing countries in 2007 to 16 in 2011. Since ICNC 2007, the contents of the 'International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments1' have increased from 442 evaluations (38000 pages), containing benchmark specifications for 3955 critical or subcritical configurations to 516 evaluations (nearly 55000 pages), containing benchmark specifications for 4405 critical or subcritical configurations in the 2010 Edition of the ICSBEP Handbook. The contents of the Handbook have also increased from 21 to 24 criticality-alarm-placement/shielding configurations with multiple dose points for each, and from 20 to 200 configurations categorized as fundamental physics measurements relevant to criticality safety applications. Approximately 25 new evaluations and 150 additional configurations are expected to be added to the 2011 edition of the Handbook. Since ICNC 2007, the contents of the 'International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments2' have increased from 16 different experimental series that were performed at 12 different reactor facilities to 53 experimental series that were performed at 30 different reactor facilities in the 2011 edition of the Handbook. Considerable effort has also been made to improve the functionality of the searchable database, DICE (Database for the International Criticality Benchmark Evaluation Project) and verify the accuracy of the data contained therein. DICE will be discussed in separate papers at ICNC 2011. The status of the

  20. Workplace Violence and Perceptions of Safety Among Emergency Department Staff Members: Experiences, Expectations, Tolerance, Reporting, and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Darcy; Henry, Melissa

    Workplace violence (WPV) is a widely recognized problem in emergency departments (EDs). The majority of WPV studies do not include nonclinical staff and do not address expectations of violence, tolerance to violence, or perceptions of safety. Among a multidisciplinary sample of ED staff members, specific study aims were to (a) describe exposure to WPV; (b) describe perceptions of safety, tolerance to violence, and expectation of violence; (c) describe reporting behaviors and perceived barriers to reporting violence; (d) examine relationships between demographic variables, experiences of violence, tolerance to violence, perceptions of safety, and reporting behaviors; and (e) identify perceptions of viable interventions to improve workplace safety. A cross-sectional design was used to survey ED staff members in a Level 1 Shock Trauma center. Eleven disciplines were represented in 147 completed surveys; 88% of respondents reported exposure to WPV in the previous 6 months. Members of every discipline reported exposure to WPV; 98% of the sample felt safe at work and 64% felt violence was an expected part of the job. Most violence was not reported, primarily because "nobody was hurt." Emergency department staff members expected and experienced violence; nevertheless, there was a widespread perception of safety. Perceptions of safety and reasons for not reporting did not mirror previous findings. The WPV exposure is not isolated to clinical staff members and occurs even when prevention strategies are in place. The definition of WPV and the individual's interpretation of the event might preclude reporting.

  1. Some Challenges in the Design of Human-Automation Interaction for Safety-Critical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feary, Michael S.; Roth, Emilie

    2014-01-01

    Increasing amounts of automation are being introduced to safety-critical domains. While the introduction of automation has led to an overall increase in reliability and improved safety, it has also introduced a class of failure modes, and new challenges in risk assessment for the new systems, particularly in the assessment of rare events resulting from complex inter-related factors. Designing successful human-automation systems is challenging, and the challenges go beyond good interface development (e.g., Roth, Malin, & Schreckenghost 1997; Christoffersen & Woods, 2002). Human-automation design is particularly challenging when the underlying automation technology generates behavior that is difficult for the user to anticipate or understand. These challenges have been recognized in several safety-critical domains, and have resulted in increased efforts to develop training, procedures, regulations and guidance material (CAST, 2008, IAEA, 2001, FAA, 2013, ICAO, 2012). This paper points to the continuing need for new methods to describe and characterize the operational environment within which new automation concepts are being presented. We will describe challenges to the successful development and evaluation of human-automation systems in safety-critical domains, and describe some approaches that could be used to address these challenges. We will draw from experience with the aviation, spaceflight and nuclear power domains.

  2. 75 FR 8239 - School Food Safety Program Based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point Principles (HACCP...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ... Service 7 CFR Parts 210 and 220 RIN 0584-AD65 School Food Safety Program Based on Hazard Analysis and... rule entitled School Food Safety Program Based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point Principles... Program (SBP) to develop a school food safety program for the preparation and service of school meals...

  3. Quality and safety: reflection on the implications for critical care nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baid, Heather; Hargreaves, Jessica

    2015-07-01

    Safe and high quality health care is underpinned by health care professionals possessing the knowledge, skills and professional attributes which are necessary for their specific clinical speciality and area of practice. Education is crucial as it enables clinicians to learn and put into practice their specialist knowledge, skills and attributes. These elements will be based on clinical standards, which set the agenda for quality and safety in health care. The purpose of this paper is to reflect upon how a post-registration, degree-level critical care nursing course provided by an English university facilitates nurses to deliver high quality, safe nursing care for critically ill patients and their families. As a reflective analysis, the process of reflection will be guided and structured according to Rolfe's framework for reflective practice. The reflection is based upon the personal observations and teaching experiences of two university lecturers involved in the delivery of the critical care course. Critical care nursing education can incorporate informed practice, simulation and non-technical skills into post-registration critical-care nursing courses as a way of promoting high-quality, safe clinical practice in the critical care setting. This article provides examples from one course's experience with doing this and ends with specific recommendations for how critical care nursing courses can enhance further the promotion of quality and safety. Educators, mentors and students of post-registration critical care nursing courses are encouraged to explore the relevance of nursing education in promoting safe and high-quality clinical practice. © 2015 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  4. Guide to verification and validation of the SCALE-4 criticality safety software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmett, M.B.; Jordan, W.C.

    1996-12-01

    Whenever a decision is made to newly install the SCALE nuclear criticality safety software on a computer system, the user should run a set of verification and validation (V&V) test cases to demonstrate that the software is properly installed and functioning correctly. This report is intended to serve as a guide for this V&V in that it specifies test cases to run and gives expected results. The report describes the V&V that has been performed for the nuclear criticality safety software in a version of SCALE-4. The verification problems specified by the code developers have been run, and the results compare favorably with those in the SCALE 4.2 baseline. The results reported in this document are from the SCALE 4.2P version which was run on an IBM RS/6000 workstation. These results verify that the SCALE-4 nuclear criticality safety software has been correctly installed and is functioning properly. A validation has been performed for KENO V.a utilizing the CSAS25 criticality sequence and the SCALE 27-group cross-section library for {sup 233}U, {sup 235}U, and {sup 239}Pu fissile, systems in a broad range of geometries and fissile fuel forms. The experimental models used for the validation were taken from three previous validations of KENO V.a. A statistical analysis of the calculated results was used to determine the average calculational bias and a subcritical k{sub eff} criteria for each class of systems validated. Included the statistical analysis is a means of estimating the margin of subcriticality in k{sub eff}. This validation demonstrates that KENO V.a and the 27-group library may be used for nuclear criticality safety computations provided the system being analyzed falls within the range of the experiments used in the validation.

  5. KAERI software verification and validation guideline for developing safety-critical software in digital I and C system of NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jang Yeol; Lee, Jang Soo; Eom, Heung Seop

    1997-07-01

    This technical report is to present V and V guideline development methodology for safety-critical software in NPP safety system. Therefore it is to present V and V guideline of planning phase for the NPP safety system in addition to critical safety items, for example, independence philosophy, software safety analysis concept, commercial off the shelf (COTS) software evaluation criteria, inter-relationships between other safety assurance organizations, including the concepts of existing industrial standard, IEEE Std-1012, IEEE Std-1059. This technical report includes scope of V and V guideline, guideline framework as part of acceptance criteria, V and V activities and task entrance as part of V and V activity and exit criteria, review and audit, testing and QA records of V and V material and configuration management, software verification and validation plan production etc., and safety-critical software V and V methodology. (author). 11 refs.

  6. Propagation of Isotopic Bias and Uncertainty to Criticality Safety Analyses of PWR Waste Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radulescu, Georgeta [ORNL

    2010-06-01

    Burnup credit methodology is economically advantageous because significantly higher loading capacity may be achieved for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) casks based on this methodology as compared to the loading capacity based on a fresh fuel assumption. However, the criticality safety analysis for establishing the loading curve based on burnup credit becomes increasingly complex as more parameters accounting for spent fuel isotopic compositions are introduced to the safety analysis. The safety analysis requires validation of both depletion and criticality calculation methods. Validation of a neutronic-depletion code consists of quantifying the bias and the uncertainty associated with the bias in predicted SNF compositions caused by cross-section data uncertainty and by approximations in the calculational method. The validation is based on comparison between radiochemical assay (RCA) data and calculated isotopic concentrations for fuel samples representative of SNF inventory. The criticality analysis methodology for commercial SNF disposal allows burnup credit for 14 actinides and 15 fission product isotopes in SNF compositions. The neutronic-depletion method for disposal criticality analysis employing burnup credit is the two-dimensional (2-D) depletion sequence TRITON (Transport Rigor Implemented with Time-dependent Operation for Neutronic depletion)/NEWT (New ESC-based Weighting Transport code) and the 44GROUPNDF5 crosssection library in the Standardized Computer Analysis for Licensing Evaluation (SCALE 5.1) code system. The SCALE 44GROUPNDF5 cross section library is based on the Evaluated Nuclear Data File/B Version V (ENDF/B-V) library. The criticality calculation code for disposal criticality analysis employing burnup credit is General Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) Transport Code. The purpose of this calculation report is to determine the bias on the calculated effective neutron multiplication factor, k{sub eff}, due to the bias and bias uncertainty associated with

  7. Rhetorics, Poetics, and Cuentos: Critical Composition Practice in a Multidisciplinary Department of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalicker, William B.

    The department of English at West Chester University, Pennsylvania provides a laboratory for examining the situation of composition in a department that has documented its dedication to a unified study of English based on attention to reading and writing. The department adopted a "Statement of Coherence" that signals a dialectic: the…

  8. Feasibility and safety of virtual-reality-based early neurocognitive stimulation in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turon, Marc; Fernandez-Gonzalo, Sol; Jodar, Mercè; Gomà, Gemma; Montanya, Jaume; Hernando, David; Bailón, Raquel; de Haro, Candelaria; Gomez-Simon, Victor; Lopez-Aguilar, Josefina; Magrans, Rudys; Martinez-Perez, Melcior; Oliva, Joan Carles; Blanch, Lluís

    2017-12-01

    Growing evidence suggests that critical illness often results in significant long-term neurocognitive impairments in one-third of survivors. Although these neurocognitive impairments are long-lasting and devastating for survivors, rehabilitation rarely occurs during or after critical illness. Our aim is to describe an early neurocognitive stimulation intervention based on virtual reality for patients who are critically ill and to present the results of a proof-of-concept study testing the feasibility, safety, and suitability of this intervention. Twenty critically ill adult patients undergoing or having undergone mechanical ventilation for ≥24 h received daily 20-min neurocognitive stimulation sessions when awake and alert during their ICU stay. The difficulty of the exercises included in the sessions progressively increased over successive sessions. Physiological data were recorded before, during, and after each session. Safety was assessed through heart rate, peripheral oxygen saturation, and respiratory rate. Heart rate variability analysis, an indirect measure of autonomic activity sensitive to cognitive demands, was used to assess the efficacy of the exercises in stimulating attention and working memory. Patients successfully completed the sessions on most days. No sessions were stopped early for safety concerns, and no adverse events occurred. Heart rate variability analysis showed that the exercises stimulated attention and working memory. Critically ill patients considered the sessions enjoyable and relaxing without being overly fatiguing. The results in this proof-of-concept study suggest that a virtual-reality-based neurocognitive intervention is feasible, safe, and tolerable, stimulating cognitive functions and satisfying critically ill patients. Future studies will evaluate the impact of interventions on neurocognitive outcomes. Trial registration Clinical trials.gov identifier: NCT02078206.

  9. 75 FR 32855 - Safety Zone; Pierce County, WA, Department of Emergency Management, Regional Water Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... Management, Regional Water Exercise AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule. SUMMARY: The Pierce County, Washington, Department of Emergency Management is sponsoring a Regional Water Rescue... County, Washington, Department of Emergency Management is sponsoring a Regional Water Rescue Exercise...

  10. 78 FR 59082 - Privacy Act of 1974; Department of Transportation, Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... for their company and enforcement officers. Enforcement Management Information System (EMIS)--The EMIS... for FMCSA enforcement data. EMIS imports census files, investigatory files, driver/vehicle safety.../UNSATISFACTORY cases within EMIS resulting from Safety Rating letters generated by MCMIS. Analysis &...

  11. Supporting Multiprocessors in the Icecap Safety-Critical Java Run-Time Environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Shuai; Wellings, Andy; Korsholm, Stephan Erbs

    2015-01-01

    scheduled. As of yet, there is no official Reference Implementation for SCJ. However, the icecap project has produced a Safety-Critical Java Run-time Environment based on the Hardware-near Virtual Machine (HVM). This supports SCJ at all compliance levels and provides an implementation of the safety......-critical Java (javax.safetycritical) package. This is still work-in-progress and lacks certain key features. Among these is the ability to support multiprocessor platforms. In this paper, we explore two possible options to adding multiprocessor support to this environment: the “green thread” and the “native...... thread” approaches. The “native thread” approach is adopted and the design and implementation of a revised icecap SCJ run-time environment is discussed....

  12. Trustworthy Variant Derivation with Translation Validation for Safety Critical Product Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iosif-Lazăr, Alexandru Florin; Wasowski, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Software product line (SPL) engineering facilitates development of entire families of software products with systematic reuse. Model driven SPLs use models in the design and development process. In the safety critical domain, validation of models and testing of code increases the quality of the p......Software product line (SPL) engineering facilitates development of entire families of software products with systematic reuse. Model driven SPLs use models in the design and development process. In the safety critical domain, validation of models and testing of code increases the quality...... translation validation. We demonstrate it using Featherweight VML—a core language for separate variability modeling relying on a single kind of variation point to define transformations of artifacts seen as object models. We use Featherweight VML with its semantics as a correctness specification...

  13. System Guidelines for EMC Safety-Critical Circuits: Design, Selection, and Margin Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawton, R. M.

    1996-01-01

    Demonstration of required safety margins on critical electrical/electronic circuits in large complex systems has become an implementation and cost problem. These margins are the difference between the activation level of the circuit and the electrical noise on the circuit in the actual operating environment. This document discusses the origin of the requirement and gives a detailed process flow for the identification of the system electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) critical circuit list. The process flow discusses the roles of engineering disciplines such as systems engineering, safety, and EMC. Design and analysis guidelines are provided to assist the designer in assuring the system design has a high probability of meeting the margin requirements. Examples of approaches used on actual programs (Skylab and Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster) are provided to show how variations of the approach can be used successfully.

  14. Distributed Measuring System for Predictive Diagnosis of Uninterruptible Power Supplies in Safety-Critical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Saponara

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes a scalable architecture of an Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS system, with predictive diagnosis capabilities, for safety critical applications. A Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA has identified the faults occurring in the energy storage unit, based on Valve Regulated Lead-Acid batteries, and in the 3-phase high power transformers, used in switching converters and for power isolation, as the main bottlenecks for power system reliability. To address these issues, a distributed network of measuring nodes is proposed, where vibration-based mechanical stress diagnosis is implemented together with electrical (voltage, current, impedance and thermal degradation analysis. Power system degradation is tracked through multi-channel measuring nodes with integrated digital signal processing in the transformed frequency domain, from 0.1 Hz to 1 kHz. Experimental measurements on real power systems for safety-critical applications validate the diagnostic unit.

  15. Concepts and techniques: Active electronics and computers in safety-critical accelerator operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankel, R.S.

    1995-12-31

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory, requires an extensive Access Control System to protect personnel from Radiation, Oxygen Deficiency and Electrical hazards. In addition, the complicated nature of operation of the Collider as part of a complex of other Accelerators necessitates the use of active electronic measurement circuitry to ensure compliance with established Operational Safety Limits. Solutions were devised which permit the use of modern computer and interconnections technology for Safety-Critical applications, while preserving and enhancing, tried and proven protection methods. In addition a set of Guidelines, regarding required performance for Accelerator Safety Systems and a Handbook of design criteria and rules were developed to assist future system designers and to provide a framework for internal review and regulation.

  16. Road safety management by objectives: a critical analysis of the Norwegian approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvik, Rune

    2008-05-01

    The Norwegian Public Roads Administration has developed a comprehensive system of road safety management by objectives. A broad set of objectives regarding road user behaviour, vehicle safety standards and the safety of roads has been formulated as part of the National Transport Plan for the term 2010--2019. These objectives have been derived from an overall objective of reducing the number of killed or seriously injured road users by 50% before the year 2020. This paper describes the system and provides a critical analysis of it. Factors that influence the effectiveness of management by objectives are identified. It is concluded that while the system of management by objectives developed in Norway has a number of attractive characteristics it also has a number of weak points that may limit its effectiveness. It is therefore by no means certain that the objective of reducing fatalities and serious injuries by 50% will be realised.

  17. Criticality safety of the ET-RR-1 new spent fuel storage pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massoud, E.; Sallam, O.H.; Amin, E

    2001-03-01

    A new ET-RR-1 spent fuel storage pool is now under construction on the reactor site at Inshass. In addition, the pool is designed to accommodate spent fuel of MTR type as well. Criticality safety of this pool for the different fuel types has been evaluated as a function of U{sup 235} loading. The effect of fuel element separation (rows and columns) on the eigenvalue has been studied. As a conservative assumption, the pool is assumed to be filled with fresh fuel. The eigenvalue considering a realistic degree of fuel burn-up was determined in order to determine the safety margin. The calculations have been carried out using the code packages of the National Center for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Control.

  18. Safety-critical Java with cyclic executives on chip-multiprocessors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Anders P.; Schoeberl, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Chip-multiprocessors offer increased processing power at a low cost. However, in order to use them for real-time systems, tasks have to be scheduled efficiently and predictably. It is well known that finding optimal schedules is a computationally hard problem. In this paper we present a solution ...... for multiprocessors, we have implemented it in the context of safety-critical Java on a Java processor....

  19. On localization with robust power control for safety critical wireless sensor networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A hybrid methodology is proposed for use in low power, safety critical wireless sensor network applications, where quality-of-service orientated transceiver output power control is required to operate in parallel with radio frequency-based localization. The practical implementation is framed in an experimental procedure designed to track a moving agent in a realistic indoor environment. An adaptive time synchronized approach is employed to ensure the positioning technique can operate effectively in the pres...

  20. Cyber Security Threats to Safety-Critical, Space-Based Infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. W.; Atencia Yepez, A.

    2012-01-01

    Space-based systems play an important role within national critical infrastructures. They are being integrated into advanced air-traffic management applications, rail signalling systems, energy distribution software etc. Unfortunately, the end users of communications, location sensing and timing applications often fail to understand that these infrastructures are vulnerable to a wide range of security threats. The following pages focus on concerns associated with potential cyber-attacks. These are important because future attacks may invalidate many of the safety assumptions that support the provision of critical space-based services. These safety assumptions are based on standard forms of hazard analysis that ignore cyber-security considerations This is a significant limitation when, for instance, security attacks can simultaneously exploit multiple vulnerabilities in a manner that would never occur without a deliberate enemy seeking to damage space based systems and ground infrastructures. We address this concern through the development of a combined safety and security risk assessment methodology. The aim is to identify attack scenarios that justify the allocation of additional design resources so that safety barriers can be strengthened to increase our resilience against security threats.

  1. Analyzing the waiting time pattern for non-critical patients in the emergency department using six sigma approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Noriza; Mohd Suradi, Nur Riza; Ahmad Sabri, Safura

    2013-04-01

    This study was conducted to examine the waiting time of non-critical patients in the Emergency Department (ED) of Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) using the approach of six sigma (6σ). The define phase is completed by obtaining customers' critical to quality in UKMMC using survey. In measure phase, data on patients to the ED of UKMMC in May 2009 were gathered. Subsequently, analysis phase is performed using cause-and-effect diagram to identify root causes of the problems. Finally, improvements are proposed based on the identified problems. Results show that waiting time is critical to quality for health services in the ED.

  2. Parametric Analysis of PWR Spent Fuel Depletion Parameters for Long-Term-Disposal Criticality Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeHart, M.D.

    1999-08-01

    Utilization of burnup credit in criticality safety analysis for long-term disposal of spent nuclear fuel allows improved design efficiency and reduced cost due to the large mass of fissile material that will be present in the repository. Burnup-credit calculations are based on depletion calculations that provide a conservative estimate of spent fuel contents (in terms of criticality potential), followed by criticality calculations to assess the value of the effective neutron multiplication factor (k(sub)eff) for the a spent fuel cask or a fuel configuration under a variety of probabilistically derived events. In order to ensure that the depletion calculation is conservative, it is necessary to both qualify and quantify assumptions that can be made in depletion models.

  3. Building capacity for quality and safety in critical care: A roundtable discussion from the second international patient safety conference in April 9-11, 2013, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaseen M Arabi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the roundtable discussion from the Second International Patient Safety Conference held in April 9-11, 2013, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The objectives of the roundtable discussion were to: (1 review the conceptual framework for building capacity in quality and safety in critical care. (2 examine examples of leading international experiences in building capacity. (3 review the experience in Saudi Arabia in this area. (4 discuss the role of building capacity in simulation for patient safety in critical care and (5 review the experience in building capacity in an ongoing improvement project for severe sepsis and septic shock.

  4. Criticality Safety Analysis Of As-loaded Spent Nuclear Fuel Casks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Kaushik [ORNL; Scaglione, John M [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The final safety analysis report (FSAR) or the safety analysis report (SAR) for a particular spent nuclear fuel (SNF) cask system documents models and calculations used to demonstrate that a system meets the regulatory requirements under all normal, off-normal, and accident conditions of spent fuel storage, and normal and accident conditions of transportation. FSAR/SAR calculations and approved content specifications are intended to be bounding in nature to certify cask systems for a variety of fuel characteristics with simplified SNF loading requirements. Therefore, in general, loaded cask systems possess excess and uncredited criticality margins (i.e., the difference between the licensing basis and the as-loaded calculations). This uncredited margin could be quantified by employing more detailed cask-specific evaluations that credit the actual as-loaded cask inventory, and taking into account full (actinide and fission product) burnup credit. This uncredited criticality margin could be potentially used to offset (1) uncertainties in the safety basis that needs to account for the effects of system aging during extended dry storage prior to transportation, and (2) increases in SNF system reactivity over a repository performance period (e.g., 10,000 years or more) as the system undergoes degradation and internal geometry changes. This paper summarizes an assessment of cask-specific, as-loaded criticality margins for SNF stored at eight reactor sites (215 loaded casks were analyzed) under fully flooded conditions to assess the margins available during transportation after extended storage. It is observed that the calculated keff margin varies from 0.05 to almost 0.3 Δkeff for the eight selected reactor sites, demonstrating that significant uncredited safety margins are present. In addition, this paper evaluates the sufficiency of this excess margin in applications involving direct disposal of currently loaded SNF casks.

  5. Criticality Safety Analysis Of As-loaded Spent Nuclear Fuel Casks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Kaushik [ORNL; Scaglione, John M [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The final safety analysis report (FSAR) or the safety analysis report (SAR) for a particular spent nuclear fuel (SNF) cask system documents models and calculations used to demonstrate that a system meets the regulatory requirements under all normal, off-normal, and accident conditions of spent fuel storage, and normal and accident conditions of transportation. FSAR/SAR calculations and approved content specifications are intended to be bounding in nature to certify cask systems for a variety of fuel characteristics with simplified SNF loading requirements. Therefore, in general, loaded cask systems possess excess and uncredited criticality margins (i.e., the difference between the licensing basis and the as-loaded calculations). This uncredited margin could be quantified by employing more detailed cask-specific evaluations that credit the actual as-loaded cask inventory, and taking into account full (actinide and fission product) burnup credit. This uncredited criticality margin could be potentially used to offset (1) uncertainties in the safety basis that needs to account for the effects of system aging during extended dry storage prior to transportation, and (2) increases in SNF system reactivity over a repository performance period (e.g., 10,000 years or more) as the system undergoes degradation and internal geometry changes. This paper summarizes an assessment of cask-specific, as-loaded criticality margins for SNF stored at eight reactor sites (215 loaded casks were analyzed) under fully flooded conditions to assess the margins available during transportation after extended storage. It is observed that the calculated keff margin varies from 0.05 to almost 0.3 Δkeff for the eight selected reactor sites, demonstrating that significant uncredited safety margins are present. In addition, this paper evaluates the sufficiency of this excess margin in applications involving direct disposal of currently loaded SNF casks.

  6. The hazard analysis and critical control point system in food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Anavella Gaitan

    2004-01-01

    The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system is a preventive method of ensuring food safety. Its objectives are the identification of consumer safety hazards that can occur in the production line and the establishment of a control process to guarantee a safer product for the consumer; it is based on the identification of potential hazards to food safety and on measures aimed at preventing these hazards. HACCP is the system of choice in the management of food safety. The principles of HACCP are applicable to all phases of food production, including basic husbandry practices, food preparation and handling, food processing, food service, distribution systems, and consumer handling and use. The HACCP system is involved in every aspect of food safety production (according to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization [FAO] and the International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods [ICMSF]). The most basic concept underlying the HACCP system is that of prevention rather than inspection. The control of processes and conditions comprises the critical control point (CCP) element. HACCP is simply a methodical, flexible, and systematic application of the appropriate science and technology for planning, controlling, and documenting the safe production of foods. The successful application of HACCP requires the full commitment and involvement of management and the workforce, using a multidisciplinary approach that should include, as appropriate, expertise in agronomy, veterinary health, microbiology, public health, food technology, environmental health, chemistry, engineering, and so on according to the particular situation. Application of the HACCP system is compatible with the implementation of total quality management (TQM) systems such as the ISO 9000 series.

  7. A Critical Thinking Benchmark for a Department of Agricultural Education and Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Dustin K.; Retallick, Michael S.; Paulsen, Thomas H.

    2014-01-01

    Due to an ever changing world where technology seemingly provides endless answers, today's higher education students must master a new skill set reflecting an emphasis on critical thinking, problem solving, and communications. The purpose of this study was to establish a departmental benchmark for critical thinking abilities of students majoring…

  8. US Department of Energy DOE Nevada Operations Office, Nevada Test Site: Underground safety and health standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    The Nevada Test Site Underground Safety and Health Standards Working Group was formed at the direction of John D. Stewart, Director, Nevada Test Site Office in April, 1990. The objective of the Working Group was to compile a safety and health standard from the California Tunnel Safety Orders and OSHA for the underground operations at the NTS, (excluding Yucca Mountain). These standards are called the NTS U/G Safety and Health Standards. The Working Group submits these standards as a RECOMMENDATION to the Director, NTSO. Although the Working Group considers these standards to be the most integrated and comprehensive standards that could be developed for NTS Underground Operations, the intent is not to supersede or replace any relevant DOE orders. Rather the intent is to collate the multiple safety and health references contained in DOE Order 5480.4 that have applicability to NTS Underground Operations into a single safety and heath standard to be used in the underground operations at the NTS. Each portion of the standard was included only after careful consideration by the Working Group and is judged to be both effective and appropriate. The specific methods and rationale used by the Working Group are outlined as follows: The letter from DOE/HQ, dated September 28, 1990 cited OSHA and the CTSO as the safety and health codes applicable to underground operations at the NTS. These mandated codes were each originally developed to be comprehensive, i.e., all underground operations of a particular type (e.g., tunnels in the case of the CTSO) were intended to be adequately regulated by the appropriate code. However, this is not true; the Working Group found extensive and confusing overlap in the codes in numerous areas. Other subjects and activities were addressed by the various codes in cursory fashion or not at all.

  9. A comparative study between transport and criticality safety indexes for fissile uranium nuclearly pure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes da Silva, T. de; Sordi, G.M.A.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN/CNEN (Brazil)]. e-mail: tmsilva@ipen.br

    2006-07-01

    The international and national standards determine that during the transport of radioactive materials the package to be sent should be identified by labels of risks specifying content, activity and the transport index. The result of the monitoring of the package to 1 meter identifies the transport index, TI, which represents the dose rate to 1 meter of this. The transport index is, by definition, a number that represents a gamma radiation that crosses the superficial layer the radioactive material of the package to 1 meter of distance. For the fissile radioactive material that is the one in which a neutron causes the division of the atom, the international standards specify criticality safety index CSI, which is related with the safe mass of the fissile element. In this work it was determined the respective safe mass for each considered enrichment for the compounds of uranium oxides UO{sub 2}, U{sub 3}O{sub 8} and U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}. In the study of CSI it was observed that the value 50 of the expression 50/N being N the number of packages be transported in subcriticality conditions it represents a fifth part of the safe mass of the element uranium or 9% of the smallest mass critical for a transport not under exclusive use. As conclusion of the accomplished study was observed that the transport index starting from 7% of enrichment doesn't present contribution and that criticality safety index is always greater than the transport index. Therefore what the standards demand to specify, the largest value between both indexes, was clearly identified in this study as being the criticality safety index. (Author)

  10. Surveying Wearable Human Assistive Technology for Life and Safety Critical Applications: Standards, Challenges and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Mahtab Alam

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this survey a new application paradigm life and safety for critical operations and missions using wearable Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs technology is introduced. This paradigm has a vast scope of applications, including disaster management, worker safety in harsh environments such as roadside and building workers, mobile health monitoring, ambient assisted living and many more. It is often the case that during the critical operations and the target conditions, the existing infrastructure is either absent, damaged or overcrowded. In this context, it is envisioned that WBANs will enable the quick deployment of ad-hoc/on-the-fly communication networks to help save many lives and ensuring people’s safety. However, to understand the applications more deeply and their specific characteristics and requirements, this survey presents a comprehensive study on the applications scenarios, their context and specific requirements. It explores details of the key enabling standards, existing state-of-the-art research studies, and projects to understand their limitations before realizing aforementioned applications. Application-specific challenges and issues are discussed comprehensively from various perspectives and future research and development directions are highlighted as an inspiration for new innovative solutions. To conclude, this survey opens up a good opportunity for companies and research centers to investigate old but still new problems, in the realm of wearable technologies, which are increasingly evolving and getting more and more attention recently.

  11. Surveying wearable human assistive technology for life and safety critical applications: standards, challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Muhammad Mahtab; Ben Hamida, Elyes

    2014-05-23

    In this survey a new application paradigm life and safety for critical operations and missions using wearable Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) technology is introduced. This paradigm has a vast scope of applications, including disaster management, worker safety in harsh environments such as roadside and building workers, mobile health monitoring, ambient assisted living and many more. It is often the case that during the critical operations and the target conditions, the existing infrastructure is either absent, damaged or overcrowded. In this context, it is envisioned that WBANs will enable the quick deployment of ad-hoc/on-the-fly communication networks to help save many lives and ensuring people's safety. However, to understand the applications more deeply and their specific characteristics and requirements, this survey presents a comprehensive study on the applications scenarios, their context and specific requirements. It explores details of the key enabling standards, existing state-of-the-art research studies, and projects to understand their limitations before realizing aforementioned applications. Application-specific challenges and issues are discussed comprehensively from various perspectives and future research and development directions are highlighted as an inspiration for new innovative solutions. To conclude, this survey opens up a good opportunity for companies and research centers to investigate old but still new problems, in the realm of wearable technologies, which are increasingly evolving and getting more and more attention recently.

  12. The SHIELD (Safety & Health Improvement: Enhancing Law Enforcement Departments Study: Feasibility and Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry Stephen Kuehl

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This randomized prospective trial aimed to assess the feasibility and efficacy of a team-based worksite health and safety intervention for law enforcement personnel. Four-hundred and eight subjects were enrolled and half were randomized to meet participants met for weekly, peer-led sessions delivered from a scripted team-based health and safety curriculum. Curriculum addressed: exercise, nutrition, stress, sleep, body weight, injury, and other unhealthy lifestyle behaviours such as smoking and heavy alcohol use. Health and safety questionnaires administered before and after the intervention found significant improvements for increased fruit and vegetable consumption, overall healthy eating, increased sleep quantity and sleep quality, and reduced personal stress.

  13. Criticality safety evaluation for the Advanced Test Reactor enhanced low enriched uranium fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montierth, Leland M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-07-19

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) convert program is developing a high uranium density fuel based on a low enriched uranium (LEU) uranium-molybdenum alloy. Testing of prototypic GTRI fuel elements is necessary to demonstrate integrated fuel performance behavior and scale-up of fabrication techniques. GTRI Enhanced LEU Fuel (ELF) elements based on the ATR-Standard Size elements (all plates fueled) are to be fabricated for testing in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). While a specific ELF element design will eventually be provided for detailed analyses and in-core testing, this criticality safety evaluation (CSE) is intended to evaluate a hypothetical ELF element design for criticality safety purposes. Existing criticality analyses have analyzed Standard (HEU) ATR elements from which controls have been derived. This CSE documents analysis that determines the reactivity of the hypothetical ELF fuel elements relative to HEU ATR elements and whether the existing HEU ATR element controls bound the ELF element. The initial calculations presented in this CSE analyzed the original ELF design, now referred to as Mod 0.1. In addition as part of a fuel meat thickness optimization effort for reactor performance other designs have been evaluated. As of early 2014 the most current conceptual designs are Mk1A and Mk1B that were previously referred to as conceptual designs Mod 0.10 and Mod 0.11, respectively. Revision 1 evaluates the reactivity of the ATR HEU Mark IV elements for a comparison with the Mark VII elements.

  14. Criticality safety evaluation for the Advanced Test Reactor enhanced low enriched uranium fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montierth, Leland M. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-07-19

    The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) convert program is developing a high uranium density fuel based on a low enriched uranium (LEU) uranium-molybdenum alloy. Testing of prototypic GTRI fuel elements is necessary to demonstrate integrated fuel performance behavior and scale-up of fabrication techniques. GTRI Enhanced LEU Fuel (ELF) elements based on the ATR-Standard Size elements (all plates fueled) are to be fabricated for testing in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). While a specific ELF element design will eventually be provided for detailed analyses and in-core testing, this criticality safety evaluation (CSE) is intended to evaluate a hypothetical ELF element design for criticality safety purposes. Existing criticality analyses have analyzed Standard (HEU) ATR elements from which controls have been derived. This CSE documents analysis that determines the reactivity of the hypothetical ELF fuel elements relative to HEU ATR elements and whether the existing HEU ATR element controls bound the ELF element. The initial calculations presented in this CSE analyzed the original ELF design, now referred to as Mod 0.1. In addition, as part of a fuel meat thickness optimization effort for reactor performance, other designs have been evaluated. As of early 2014 the most current conceptual designs are Mk1A and Mk1B, that were previously referred to as conceptual designs Mod 0.10 and Mod 0.11, respectively. Revision 1 evaluates the reactivity of the ATR HEU Mark IV elements for a comparison with the Mark VII elements.

  15. Testing of Safety-Critical Software Embedded in an Artificial Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Sungdeok; Jeong, Sehun; Yoo, Junbeom; Kim, Young-Gab

    Software is being used more frequently to control medical devices such as artificial heart or robotic surgery system. While much of software safety issues in such systems are similar to other safety-critical systems (e.g., nuclear power plants), domain-specific properties may warrant development of customized techniques to demonstrate fitness of the system on patients. In this paper, we report results of a preliminary analysis done on software controlling a Hybrid Ventricular Assist Device (H-VAD) developed by Korea Artificial Organ Centre (KAOC). It is a state-of-the-art artificial heart which completed animal testing phase. We performed software testing in in-vitro experiments and animal experiments. An abnormal behaviour, never detected during extensive in-vitro analysis and animal testing, was found.

  16. Blood transfusions in critical care: improving safety through technology & process analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aulbach, Rebecca K; Brient, Kathy; Clark, Marie; Custard, Kristi; Davis, Carolyn; Gecomo, Jonathan; Ho, Judy Ong

    2010-06-01

    A multidisciplinary safety initiative transformed blood transfusion practices at St. Luke's Episcopal Hospital in Houston, Texas. An intense analysis of a mistransfusion using the principles of a Just Culture and the process of Cause Mapping identified system and human performance factors that led to the transfusion error. Multiple initiatives were implemented including technology, education and human behaviour change. The wireless technology of Pyxis Transfusion Verification by CareFusion is effective with the rapid infusion module efficient for use in critical care. Improvements in blood transfusion safety were accomplished by thoroughly evaluating the process of transfusions and by implementing wireless electronic transfusion verification technology. During the 27 months following implementation of the CareFusion Transfusion Verification there have been zero cases of transfusing mismatched blood.

  17. The Inquiry into the Waterfall train crash: implications for medical examinations of safety-critical workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Bruce

    2006-02-06

    The implications arising from the Inquiry into the Waterfall train crash for medical examinations of safety-critical workers are discussed. Examinations need to be appropriate for the level of risk in the job and apply current medical thinking. A careful balance is required between the various legal obligations, including duty of care, disability discrimination and privacy. The frequency of examinations depends on a combination of medical, economic and logistical factors. Health professionals who conduct examinations should be familiar with the occupation of the person being examined. Ethical relationships with the worker's general practitioner or specialist(s) must be observed. The procedures associated with the examinations are as important in achieving safety as the actual examinations. These include complying with relevant standards; providing all relevant documentation with a referral for an examination; acting on the doctor's report appropriately; and auditing the process.

  18. 76 FR 23708 - Safety Zone; Pierce County Department of Emergency Management Regional Water Exercise, East...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ... Management Regional Water Exercise, East Passage, Tacoma, WA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary... of Emergency Management is sponsoring a Regional Water Rescue Exercise in the waters of East Passage..., Washington for a Regional Water Rescue Exercise near Browns Point. A safety zone is necessary to ensure...

  19. Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance (CVSA)/Department of Energy (DOE) cooperative agreement final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slavich, Antoinette; Daust, James E.

    1999-10-01

    This S and T product is a culmination of the activities, including research of the Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance (CVSA) in developing and implementing inspection procedures and the out-of-service criteria for states and tribes to use when inspecting HRCQ and Transuranic shipments of radioactive materials. The report also contains the results of a pilot study to test the procedures.

  20. Expectations of Care, Perceived Safety, and Anxiety following Acute Behavioural Disturbance in the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalen Lim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We explored perspectives of emergency department users (patients and visitors regarding the management of acute behavioural disturbances in the emergency department and whether these disturbances influenced their levels of anxiety. Methods. Emergency department patients and visitors were surveyed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and a purpose-designed questionnaire and semistructured interview. The main outcome measures were themes that emerged from the questionnaires, the interviews, and scores from the state component of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Results. 70 participants were recruited. Users of the emergency department preferred behaviourally disturbed people be managed in a separate area from the general emergency department population so that the disturbance was inaudible (=32 and out of view (=40. The state anxiety levels of those that witnessed an acute behavioural disturbance were within the normal range and did not differ to that of ED patients that were not present during such a disturbance (median, control = 37, Code Grey = 33. Conclusions. Behavioural disturbances in the emergency department do not provoke anxiety in other users. However, there is a preference that such disturbances be managed out of visual and audible range. Innovative design features may be required to achieve this.

  1. An evaluation of safety-critical Java on a Java processor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rios Rivas, Juan Ricardo; Schoeberl, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The safety-critical Java (SCJ) specification provides a restricted set of the Java language intended for applications that require certification. In order to test the specification, implementations are emerging and the need to evaluate those implementations in a systematic way is becoming important....... In this paper we evaluate our SCJ implementation which is based on the Java Optimized Processor JOP and we measure different performance and timeliness criteria relevant to hard real-time systems. Our implementation targets Level 0 and Level1 of the specification and to test it we use a series of micro...

  2. Water Resistant Container Technical Basis Document for the TA-55 Criticality Safety Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Paul Herrick [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Teague, Jonathan Gayle [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-04-30

    Criticality safety at TA-55 relies on nuclear material containers that are water resistant to prevent significant amounts of water from coming into contact with fissile material in the event of a fire that causes a breach of glovevbox confinement and subsequent fire water ingress. A “water tight container” is a container that will not allow more than 50ml of water ingress when fully submerged, except when under sufficient pressure to produce structural discontinuity. There are many types of containers, welded containers, hermetically sealed containers, filtered containers, etc.

  3. Analysis using formal method and testing technique for the processor module for safety-critical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J. Y.; Choi, B. J.; Song, H. J.; Hwang, D. Y.; Song, G. H.; Lee, H. [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    This research is on help develop nuclear power plant control system, through the requirement specification and verification method development. As the result of applying the test method, a test standard was obtain through test documentation writing support and a test document reflecting the standard test activities based on the test standard. The specification and verification of the pCOS system and the unified testing documentation and execution helps the entire project to progress and enable us to achieve necessary documents and technology to develop a safety critical system.

  4. High-confidence software for safety-critical process-control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastani, F.B. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States)

    1997-12-01

    Software for safety-critical systems, such as nuclear power plant control systems; avionic systems; and medical, defense, and manufacturing systems, must be highly reliable because failures can have catastrophic consequences. While existing methods, such as formal techniques, testing, and fault-tolerant software, can significantly enhance software reliability, they have some limitations in achieving ultrahigh reliability requirements. Formal methods are not able to cope with specification faults, testing is not cost-effective for high-assurance systems, and fault-tolerant software based on diverse designs is susceptible to common-mode failures.

  5. Multi-hypothesis GPS and electronic fence data fusion for safety-critical positioning in railway worksites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueiras, Joao; Gronbaek, Jesper; Schwefel, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Safety-critical applications often use position information as a mean of assessing the safety level of people. For this reason, such information is required to be precise in terms of accuracy and timeliness. This paper regards position mechanisms for personalized warning systems for railway worke...

  6. Failure mode and effect analysis on safety critical components of space travel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kouroush Jenab

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sending men to space has never been an ordinary activity, it requires years of planning and preparation in order to have a chance of success. The payoffs of reliable and repeatable space flight are many, including both Commercial and Military opportunities. In order for reliable and repeatable space flight to become a reality, catastrophic failures need to be detected and mitigated before they occur. It can be shown that small pieces of a design which seem ordinary can create devastating impacts if not designed and tested properly. This paper will address the use of a Failure Mode, Effects, and Criticality Analysis (FMECA with modified Risk Priority Number (RPN and its application to safety critical design components of shuttle liftoff. An example will be presented here which specifically focuses on the Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs to illustrate the FMECA approach to reliable space travel.

  7. Department of the Navy Explosives Safety Site Approval Process Improvement Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    software deployment and sustainment within the DON for: • Automated Site Planning Tool ( ASPT )—ESSv6 • WebSAR • Explosives Safety Database The...Measures  Administrative Record for ESA  Configuration/Data Control of facility-related ES data for ASPT The NOSSA level roll-up of the...the DDESB by 30 December 2010. At this point, the following principles are guiding the development of the implementation plan:  Use DDESB ASPT

  8. Some English Departments Are Giving Undergraduates Grounding in New Literary and Critical Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Scott

    1988-01-01

    The English Department at Carnegie Mellon believes they are creating a new-wave curriculum. Theoretical questions are becoming the center of undergraduate study. Scholars want students to think about the political, social, and historical forces that end up shaping a writer's vision, the written work, and the reader's interpretation. (MLW)

  9. A study of occupational health and safety measures in the Laundry Department of a private tertiary care teaching hospital, Bengaluru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shashi Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Laundry Department plays an important role in preventing the spread of infection and continuously supplying clean linen to various departments in any hospital. Objectives of the Study: To identify existing practices and occupational safety and health (OSH measures in the Laundry Department and to assess the use of personal protective equipments (PPEs among health care workers. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in a private tertiary care teaching hospital. An observation checklist was developed, which was partially based on occupational hazard checklist of OSHA for Laundry Department. This was field tested and validated for applicability for this study. Results: The potential biological hazards are infections through exposure to aerosols, spills and splashes during various activities, fungal infection due to wet clothes and environment and infections through fomites. The potential physical hazards are injuries due to slips and falls, exposure to heat, humidity, dust, noise, and vibration. The potential chemical hazards are contact dermatitis and allergic asthma due to exposure to detergents, phenyl solution, bleaching powder, and soap oil solution. The potential ergonomic hazards are musculoskeletal diseases and repetitive stress injuries at the shoulder, elbow, and small joints of the hands. PPEs were not used consistently in most areas of the department.

  10. The effects of safety behaviors during exposure therapy for anxiety: Critical analysis from an inhibitory learning perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakey, Shannon M; Abramowitz, Jonathan S

    2016-11-01

    In the context of clinical anxiety, safety behaviors are actions performed to prevent, escape, or minimize feared catastrophes and/or associated distress. Research consistently implicates safety behaviors in the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders; accordingly, safety behaviors are traditionally eliminated during exposure treatments for pathological anxiety. The notion that safety behaviors are ubiquitously deleterious in the context of exposure has recently been challenged, yet findings regarding safety behaviors' effects on exposure outcomes are limited, mixed, and controversial. Furthermore, developments in explanatory models for exposure's effectiveness (e.g., inhibitory learning theory) highlight other possible consequences of safety behaviors performed during exposure. Unfortunately, these theoretical advances are neglected in experimental research. The present review critically examines the literature addressing the role of safety behaviors in exposure therapy from an inhibitory learning perspective. Limitations, future directions, and clinical recommendations are also discussed.

  11. Safety Management in an Oil Company through Failure Mode Effects and Critical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedictus Rahardjo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to apply Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA to improve the safety of a production system, specifically the production process of an oil company. Since food processing is a worldwide issue and self-management of a food company is more important than relying on government regulations, therefore this study focused on that matter. The initial step of this study is to identify and analyze the criticality of the potential failure modes of the production process. Furthermore, take corrective action to minimize the probability of repeating the same failure mode, followed by a re-analysis of its criticality. The results of corrective actions were compared with those before improvement conditions by testing the significance of the difference using two sample t-test. The final measured result is the Criticality Priority Number (CPN, which refers to the severity category of the failure mode and the probability of occurrence of the same failure mode. The recommended actions proposed by the FMECA significantly reduce the CPN compared with the value before improvement, with increases of 38.46% for the palm olein case study.

  12. Ontario Hydro experience in the identification and mitigation of potential failures in safety critical software systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huget, R.G.; Viola, M.; Froebel, P.A. [Ontario Hydro, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-08-01

    Ontario Hydro has had experience in designing and qualifying safety critical software used in the reactor shutdown systems of its nuclear generating stations. During software design, an analysis of system level hazards and potential hardware failure effects provide input to determining what safeguards will be needed. One form of safeguard, called software self checks, continually monitor the health of the computer on line. The design of self checks usually is a trade off between the amount of computing resources required, the software complexity, and the level of safeguarding provided. As part of the software verification activity, a software hazards analysis is performed, which identifiers any failure modes that could lead to the software causing an unsafe state, and which recommends changes to mitigate that potential. These recommendations may involve a re-structuring of the software to be more resistant to failure, or the introduction of other safeguarding measures. This paper discusses how Ontario Hydro has implemented these aspects of software design and verification into safety critical software used in reactor shutdown systems.

  13. Verification of MCNP6.2 for Nuclear Criticality Safety Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Forrest B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rising, Michael Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Alwin, Jennifer Louise [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-10

    Several suites of verification/validation benchmark problems were run in early 2017 to verify that the new production release of MCNP6.2 performs correctly for nuclear criticality safety applications (NCS). MCNP6.2 results for several NCS validation suites were compared to the results from MCNP6.1 [1] and MCNP6.1.1 [2]. MCNP6.1 is the production version of MCNP® released in 2013, and MCNP6.1.1 is the update released in 2014. MCNP6.2 includes all of the standard features for NCS calculations that have been available for the past 15 years, along with new features for sensitivity-uncertainty based methods for NCS validation [3]. Results from the benchmark suites were compared with results from previous verification testing [4-8]. Criticality safety analysts should consider testing MCNP6.2 on their particular problems and validation suites. No further development of MCNP5 is planned. MCNP6.1 is now 4 years old, and MCNP6.1.1 is now 3 years old. In general, released versions of MCNP are supported only for about 5 years, due to resource limitations. All future MCNP improvements, bug fixes, user support, and new capabilities are targeted only to MCNP6.2 and beyond.

  14. The automatic programming for safety-critical software in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jang Yeol; Eom, Heung Seop; Choi, You Rark

    1998-06-01

    We defined the Korean unique safety-critical software development methodology by modifying Dr. Harel`s statechart-based on formal methods in order to digitalized the reactor protection system. It is suggested software requirement specification guideline to specify design specification which is basis for requirement specification and automatic programming by the caused by shutdown parameter logic of the steam generator water level for Wolsung 2/3/4 unit SDS no.1 and simulated it by binding the Graphic User Interface (GUI). We generated the K and R C code automatically by utilizing the Statemate MAGNUM Sharpshooter/C code generator. Auto-generated K and R C code is machine independent code and has high productivity, quality and provability. The following are the summaries of major research and development. - Set up the Korean unique safety-critical software development methodology - Developed software requirement specification guidelines - Developed software design specification guidelines - Reactor trip modeling for steam generator waster level Wolsung 2/3/4 SDS no. 1 shutdown parameter logic - Graphic panel binding with GUI. (author). 20 refs., 12 tabs., 15 figs

  15. Using Machine Learning for Risky Module Estimation of Safety-Critical Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Mi; Jeong, Choong Heui [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    With the rapid development of digital computer and information processing technologies, nuclear I and C (Instrument and Control) system which needs safety critical function has adopted digital technologies. Software used in safety-critical system must have high dependability. Highly dependable software needs strict software testing and V and V activities. These days, regulatory demands for nuclear power plants are more and more increasing. But, human resources and time for regulation are limited. So, early software risky module prediction is very useful for software testing and regulation activities. Early estimation can be built from a collection of internal metrics during early development phase. Internal metrics are measures of a product derived from assessment of the product itself, and external metrics are measures of a product derived from assessment of the behavior of the systems. Internal metrics can be collected more easily and early than external metrics. In addition, internal metrics can be useful for estimating fault-prone software modules using machine learning. In this paper, we introduce current research status and techniques related to estimating risky software module using machine learning techniques. Section 2 describes the overview of the estimation model using machine learning and section 3 describes processes of the estimation model. Section 4 describes several estimation models using machine leanings. Section 5 concludes the paper.

  16. A Method to Select Test Input Cases for Safety-critical Software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Heeeun; Kang, Hyungook [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Son, Hanseong [Joongbu Univ., Geumsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    This paper proposes a new testing methodology for effective and realistic quantification of RPS software failure probability. Software failure probability quantification is important factor in digital system safety assessment. In this study, the method for software test case generation is briefly described. The test cases generated by this method reflect the characteristics of safety-critical software and past inputs. Furthermore, the number of test cases can be reduced, but it is possible to perform exhaustive test. Aspect of software also can be reflected as failure data, so the final failure data can include the failure of software itself and external influences. Software reliability is generally accepted as the key factor in software quality since it quantifies software failures which can make a powerful system inoperative. In the KNITS (Korea Nuclear Instrumentation and Control Systems) project, the software for the fully digitalized reactor protection system (RPS) was developed under a strict procedure including unit testing and coverage measurement. Black box testing is one type of Verification and validation (V and V), in which given input values are entered and the resulting output values are compared against the expected output values. Programmable logic controllers (PLCs) were used in implementing critical systems and function block diagram (FBD) is a commonly used implementation language for PLC.

  17. SCJ-Circus: a refinement-oriented formal notation for Safety-Critical Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Miyazawa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Safety-Critical Java (SCJ is a version of Java whose goal is to support the development of real-time, embedded, safety-critical software. In particular, SCJ supports certification of such software by introducing abstractions that enforce a simpler architecture, and simpler concurrency and memory models. In this paper, we present SCJ-Circus, a refinement-oriented formal notation that supports the specification and verification of low-level programming models that include the new abstractions introduced by SCJ. SCJ-Circus is part of the family of state-rich process algebra Circus, as such, SCJ-Circus includes the Circus constructs for modelling sequential and concurrent behaviour, real-time and object orientation. We present here the syntax and semantics of SCJ-Circus, which is defined by mapping SCJ-Circus constructs to those of standard Circus. This is based on an existing approach for modelling SCJ programs. We also extend an existing Circus-based refinement strategy that targets SCJ programs to account for the generation of SCJ-Circus models close to implementations in SCJ.

  18. Validation and Verification of Future Integrated Safety-Critical Systems Operating under Off-Nominal Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Christine M.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to aircraft fatal accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are highly complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents and reducing them will require a holistic integrated intervention capability. Future onboard integrated system technologies developed for preventing loss of vehicle control accidents must be able to assure safe operation under the associated off-nominal conditions. The transition of these technologies into the commercial fleet will require their extensive validation and verification (V and V) and ultimate certification. The V and V of complex integrated systems poses major nontrivial technical challenges particularly for safety-critical operation under highly off-nominal conditions associated with aircraft loss-of-control events. This paper summarizes the V and V problem and presents a proposed process that could be applied to complex integrated safety-critical systems developed for preventing aircraft loss-of-control accidents. A summary of recent research accomplishments in this effort is also provided.

  19. Modeling the critical safety functions status tree of a NPP using FPGA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Marcos Santana; Oliveira, Mauro Vitor de; Jaime, Guilherme Dutra Gonzaga; Almeida, Jose Carlos Soares de; Augusto, Silas Cordeiro, E-mail: msantana@ien.gov.br, E-mail: mvitor@ien.gov.br, E-mail: gdjaime@ien.gov.br, E-mail: jcsa@ien.gov.br, E-mail: silas@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Divisao de Engenharia Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) based systems and equipment are beginning to appear in new plants I and C applications, as well as in retrofits for operating plants, in particular for safety applications due to their capability to face the systems obsolescence since they are circuit independent. The circuits implemented can be portable to different FPGAs architectures. Moreover, they reduce complexity for regulatory approval as compared to conventional microprocessor-based systems. Critical safety function (CSF) is the most significant design concept for prioritize operator actions for NPP based on the potential threat to the three barriers (fuel cladding, primary coolant system boundary, and containment) and allows the operator to respond to these threats prior to event diagnosis. CSF has a hierarchical information structure that organizes the system variables affecting the plant safety in terms of goal-means relations. This paper describes the application of FPGA in the implementation of the CSFs status tree logic for a Westinghouse 3-loops NPP simulator. (author)

  20. Minimum Safety Factor for Evaluation of Critical Buckling Pressure of Zirconium Alloy Tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung Kyu; Kim, Jae Yong; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Lee, Young Ho; Lee, Kang Hee; Kang, Heung Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    We consider the uncertainty in the elastic buckling formula for a thin tube. We take into account the measurement uncertainty of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio and the tolerance of the tube thickness and diameter. Elastic buckling must be prohibited for a thin tube such as a nuclear fuel rod that must satisfy a self-stand criterion. Since the predicted critical buckling pressure overestimated that found in the experiment, the determination of the minimum safety factor is crucial. The uncertainty in each parameter (i.e., Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, thickness, and diameter) is mutually independent, so the safety factor is evaluated as the sum of the inverse of each uncertainty. We found that the thickness variation greatly affects the uncertainty. The minimum safety factor of a thin tube of Zirconium alloy is evaluated as 1.547 for a thickness of 0.87 mm and 3.487 for a thickness of 0.254 mm.

  1. Communication in Change - Voice over IP in Safety and Security Critical Communication Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeilinger, Heimo; Sevcik, Berndt; Turek, Thomas; Zucker, Gerhard

    During the last decade communication technology has changed rapidly. Due to its decreasing costs and rising expansion, IP (Internet Protocol) technology has found its way to areas that have long been the domain of public-switched telephone networks (PSTN). Voice over IP (VoIP) applications are widely used not only for phone calls or common Internet conferences, but also tend to be used for safety critical communication applications. Hence security and safety topics arise, which pose new challenges in this area of research. The authors are convinced that new issues on the network layer as well as on the application layer require detailed analysis. Hence this paper gives an overview on latest developments in this area, and states the authors’ view on this topic. Thereby safety and security issues are faced from different abstraction layers. On the one hand the network layer and on the other hand the application layer focusing on middleware systems in the area of service oriented architectures (SOAs).

  2. Towards the Verification of Safety-critical Autonomous Systems in Dynamic Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Aniculaesei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing necessity to deploy autonomous systems in highly heterogeneous, dynamic environments, e.g. service robots in hospitals or autonomous cars on highways. Due to the uncertainty in these environments, the verification results obtained with respect to the system and environment models at design-time might not be transferable to the system behavior at run time. For autonomous systems operating in dynamic environments, safety of motion and collision avoidance are critical requirements. With regard to these requirements, Macek et al. [6] define the passive safety property, which requires that no collision can occur while the autonomous system is moving. To verify this property, we adopt a two phase process which combines static verification methods, used at design time, with dynamic ones, used at run time. In the design phase, we exploit UPPAAL to formalize the autonomous system and its environment as timed automata and the safety property as TCTL formula and to verify the correctness of these models with respect to this property. For the runtime phase, we build a monitor to check whether the assumptions made at design time are also correct at run time. If the current system observations of the environment do not correspond to the initial system assumptions, the monitor sends feedback to the system and the system enters a passive safe state.

  3. Supplemental studies for cardiovascular risk assessment in safety pharmacology: a critical overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Sandra; Goineau, Sonia; Guillaume, Philippe; Henry, Joël; Hanouz, Jean-Luc; Rouet, René

    2011-12-01

    Safety Pharmacology studies for the cardiovascular risk assessment, as described in the ICH S7A and S7B guidelines, appear as being far from sufficient. The fact that almost all medicines withdrawn from the market because of life-threatening tachyarrhythmias (torsades-de-pointes) were shown as hERG blockers and QT interval delayers led the authorities to focus mainly on these markers. However, other surrogate biomarkers, e.g., TRIaD (triangulation, reverse-use-dependence, instability and dispersion of ventricular repolarization), have been identified to more accurately estimate the drug-related torsadogenic risk. In addition, more attention should be paid to other arrhythmias, not related to long QT and nevertheless severe and/or not self-extinguishing, e.g., atrial or ventricular fibrillation, resulting from altered electrical conduction or heterogeneous shortening of cardiac repolarization. Moreover, despite numerous clinical cases of drug-induced pulmonary hypertension, orthostatic hypotension, or heart valvular failure, few safety investigations are still conducted on drug interaction with cardiac and regional hemodynamics other than changes in aortic blood pressure evaluated in conscious large animals during the core battery mandatory studies. This critical review aims at discussing the usefulness, relevance, advantages, and limitations of some preclinical in vivo, in vitro, and in silico models, with high predictive values and currently used in supplemental safety studies.

  4. Critical challenges in establishing emergency physician driven emergency departments – A Durban experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Maharaj*

    2013-12-01

    The Western Cape experience has demonstrated the utility of an Emergency Physician led Emergency Department in improving the outcome of acute illness and trauma, which are strongly dependent on the early recognition of severity and the need for early intervention. We believe that a similar mind-set needs to be developed to service the increasing needs of the urban and peri-urban population served by eThekwini hospitals.

  5. Additional Studies of the Criticality Safety of Failed Used Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, William BJ J [ORNL; Wagner, John C [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Commercial used nuclear fuel (UNF) in the United States is expected to remain in storage for periods potentially greater than 40 years. Extended storage (ES) time and irradiation to high-burnup values (>45 GWd/t) may increase the potential for fuel failure during normal and accident conditions involving storage and transportation. Fuel failure, depending on the severity, could result in changes to the geometric configuration of the fuel, which has safety and regulatory implications. The likelihood and extent of fuel reconfiguration and its impact on the safety of the UNF is not well understood. The objective of this work is to assess and quantify the impact of fuel reconfiguration due to fuel failure on criticality safety of UNF in storage and transportation casks. Criticality analyses are conducted considering representative UNF designs covering a range of enrichments and burnups in multiple cask systems. Prior work developed a set of failed fuel configuration categories and specific configurations were evaluated to understand trends and quantify the consequences of worst-case potential reconfiguration progressions. These results will be summarized here and indicate that the potential impacts on subcriticality can be rather significant for certain configurations (e.g., >20% keff). It can be concluded that the consequences of credible fuel failure configurations from ES or transportation following ES are manageable (e.g., <5% keff). The current work expands on these efforts and examines some modified scenarios and modified approaches to investigate the effectiveness of some techniques for reducing the calculated increase in keff. The areas included here are more realistic modeling of some assembly types and the effect of reconfiguration of some assemblies in the storage and transportation canister.

  6. An Actuator Control Unit for Safety-Critical Mechatronic Applications with Embedded Energy Storage Backup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Saponara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an actuator control unit (ACU with a 450-J embedded energy storage backup to face safety critical mechatronic applications. The idea is to ensure full operation of electric actuators, even in the case of battery failure, by using supercapacitors as a local energy tank. Thanks to integrated switching converter circuitry, the supercapacitors provide the required voltage and current levels for the required time to guarantee actuator operation until the system enters into safety mode. Experimental results are presented for a target application related to the control of servomotors for a robotized prosthetic arm. Mechatronic devices for rehabilitation or assisted living of injured and/or elderly people are available today. In most cases, they are battery powered with lithium-based cells, providing high energy density and low weight, but at the expense of a reduced robustness compared to lead-acid- or nickel-based battery cells. The ACU of this work ensures full operation of the wearable robotized arm, controlled through acceleration and electromyography (EMG sensor signals, even in the case of battery failure, thanks to the embedded energy backup unit. To prove the configurability and scalability of the proposed solution, experimental results related to the electric actuation of the car door latch and of a robotized gearbox in vehicles are also shown. The reliability of the energy backup device has been assessed in a wide temperature range, from −40 to 130 °C, and in a durability test campaign of more than 10,000 cycles. Achieved results prove the suitability of the proposed approach for ACUs requiring a burst of power of hundreds of watts for only a few seconds in safety-critical applications. Alternatively, the aging and temperature characterizations of energy backup units is limited to supercapacitors of thousands of farads for high power applications (e.g., electric/hybrid propulsion and with a temperature range limited to

  7. Maintenance of Department of Defense Mission Critical and Mission Support Software: A Preliminary Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-11-01

    of Jürgen Habermas as a Means for a Theory of Information Systems," Research Methods in Information Systems, ed. E. Mum- fored et al. (Holland...Ideology," Theory in Society, September 1981, p. 746; J. Forester, "The Policy Analysis—Critical Theory Affair: Wildavsky and Habermas as Bedfellow...34 Journal of Public Policy, 1982, No. 2, p. 151; J. Habermas , The Theory of Com- municative Action, 1984, Vol. 1, p. 308; S. Seidman, ed., Jürgen Habermas

  8. Patient Safety and Satisfaction Drivers in Emergency Departments Re-visited - An Empirical Analysis using Structural Equation Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørup, Christian Michel; Jacobsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    How can emergency department (ED) decision makers contribute to increase patient satisfaction rates? This question has been thoroughly investigated in many hospital departments but not so much in the ED, which has led to a number of untested hypotheses. Maximising value-added activities seen from...... a patient’s perspective has become an essential outcome in health care, meaning that the untested hypotheses are in need of quantitative testing. This study proposes an integrated framework in which four latent constructs reflecting principal aspects of patient care are tested. The four constructs...... are entitled safety and satisfaction, waiting time, information delivery, and infrastructure accordingly. As an empirical foundation, a recently published comprehensive survey in 11 Danish EDs is analysed in depth using structural equation modeling (SEM). Consulting the proposed framework, ED decision makers...

  9. Generation of integral experiment covariance data and their impact on criticality safety validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuke, Maik; Peters, Elisabeth; Sommer, Fabian

    2016-11-15

    The quantification of statistical dependencies in data of critical experiments and how to account for them properly in validation procedures has been discussed in the literature by various groups. However, these subjects are still an active topic in the Expert Group on Uncertainty Analysis for Criticality Safety Assessment (UACSA) of the OECDNEA Nuclear Science Committee. The latter compiles and publishes the freely available experimental data collection, the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments, ICSBEP. Most of the experiments were performed as series and share parts of experimental setups, consequently leading to correlation effects in the results. The correct consideration of correlated data seems to be inevitable if the experimental data in a validation procedure is limited or one cannot rely on a sufficient number of uncorrelated data sets, e.g. from different laboratories using different setups. The general determination of correlations and the underlying covariance data as well as the consideration of them in a validation procedure is the focus of the following work. We discuss and demonstrate possible effects on calculated k{sub eff}'s, their uncertainties, and the corresponding covariance matrices due to interpretation of evaluated experimental data and its translation into calculation models. The work shows effects of various modeling approaches, varying distribution functions of parameters and compares and discusses results from the applied Monte-Carlo sampling method with available data on correlations. Our findings indicate that for the reliable determination of integral experimental covariance matrices or the correlation coefficients a detailed study of the underlying experimental data, the modeling approach and assumptions made, and the resulting sensitivity analysis seems to be inevitable. Further, a Bayesian method is discussed to include integral experimental covariance data when estimating an

  10. SAFETY OF LIFE ACTIVITY AND ECOLOGICAL COMPATIBILITY IN THE GROCERY DEPARTMENT OF A BEET-SUGAR FACTORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Ageev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Beet-sugar factory - is a large, well-equipped with modern technology, the company that operates in a continuous circuit. In the technological structure of a sugar factory there are three production divisions: beet processing department, juice purification house and grocery department. In the grocery department of a sugar factory dangerous and harmful factors may encounter while using equipment such as vacuum devices, centrifuges, and crystallizer tank, massecuite distributor, driers and classifiers sugar. The working area of the service of machinery may appear dangerous or harmful factors, which are divided into the following groups: physical, chemical, biological and physiological. To maintain microclimate parameters can be applied general ventilation, in which the replacement of the warm air to the cold going around the room volume. Heating in the grocery department in the production season is not carried out, since it is sufficient to heat generated by the equipment. In the grocery department uses natural and artificial lighting. In the sugar factory used the following measures to protect against vibration: perform detailed assembly, eliminate defects and looseness of individual parts; way to isolate the transmission of vibrations from the machine to the foundation apply vibration isolators. Widespread use of electrical installations in a sugar factory creates the risk of electric shock to persons. Causes of electrical shocks are often disadvantages of construction and installation of the equipment, its operation is wrong. During drying and transportation of sugar produced by static electricity. To remove the static electricity equipment grounded; also used the increase in humidity; air ionization. To reduce the consumption of fresh industrial water from reservoirs provides for the establishment of the system of working circuits cleaning and maximum reuse of industrial water. Thus, safety and environmental compliance in the grocery

  11. Emergency department-based interventions for women suffering domestic abuse: a critical literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Sereena; Boyle, Adrian

    2017-02-01

    Domestic abuse represents a serious public health and human rights concern. Interventions to reduce the risk of abuse include staff training and standardized documentation improving detection and adherence to referral pathways. Interventional studies have been conducted in primary care, maternity and outpatient settings. Women disclosing abuse in emergency departments differ from women attending other healthcare settings, and it is unclear whether these interventions can be transferred to the emergency care setting. This review examines interventional studies to evaluate the effectiveness of emergency department-based interventions in reducing domestic abuse-related morbidity. Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Cochrane Library were searched, according to prespecified selection criteria. Study quality was assessed using the Jadad scale. Of 273 search results, nine were eligible for review. Interventions involving staff training demonstrated benefits in subjective measures, such as staff knowledge regarding abuse, but no changes in clinical practice, based on detection and referral rates. When staff training was implemented in conjunction with supporting system changes - for example, standardized documentation for assessment and referral - clinically relevant improvements were noted. Interventions centred around staff training are insufficient to bring about improvements in the management and, thus, outcome of patients suffering abuse. Instead, system changes, such as standardized documentation and referral pathways, supported by training, may bring about beneficial changes. It remains uncertain whether surrogate outcomes employed by most studies translate to changes in abuse-related morbidity: the ultimate goal.

  12. Criticality safety validation: Simple geometry, single unit {sup 233}U systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Putman, V.L.

    1997-06-01

    Typically used LMITCO criticality safety computational methods are evaluated for suitability when applied to INEEL {sup 233}U systems which reasonably can be modeled as simple-geometry, single-unit systems. Sixty-seven critical experiments of uranium highly enriched in {sup 233}U, including 57 aqueous solution, thermal-energy systems and 10 metal, fast-energy systems, were modeled. These experiments include 41 cylindrical and 26 spherical cores, and 41 reflected and 26 unreflected systems. No experiments were found for intermediate-neutron-energy ranges, or with interstitial non-hydrogenous materials typical of waste systems, mixed {sup 233}U and plutonium, or reflectors such as steel, lead, or concrete. No simple geometry experiments were found with cubic or annular cores, or approximating infinite sea systems. Calculations were performed with various tools and methodologies. Nine cross-section libraries, based on ENDF/B-IV, -V, or -VI.2, or on Hansen-Roach source data, were used with cross-section processing methods of MCNP or SCALE. The k{sub eff} calculations were performed with neutral-particle transport and Monte Carlo methods of criticality codes DANT, MCNP 4A, and KENO Va.

  13. Emergency planning and response: An independent safety assessment of Department of Energy nuclear reactor facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knuth, D.; Boyd, R.

    1981-02-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has formed a Nuclear Facilities Personnel Qualification and Training (NFPQT) Committee to assess the implications of the recommendations contained in the President's Commission Report on the Three Mile Island (TMI) Accident (the Kemeny Commission report) that are applicable to DOE's nuclear reactor operations. Thirteen DOE nuclear reactors have been reviewed. The assessments of the 13 facilities are based on information provided by the individual operator organizations and/or cognizant DOE Field Offices. Additional clarifying information was supplied in some, but not all, instances. This report indicates how these 13 reactor facilities measure up in light of the Kemeny and other TMI-related studies and recommendations, particularly those that have resulted in upgraded Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements in the area of emergency planning and response.

  14. Lasershot(sm) marking system: high-volume labeling for safety-critical parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dane, C B; Hackel, L; Honig, J; Halpin, J; Chen, H-L; Mendieta, F; Harris, F; Lane, L; Daly, J; Harrison, J

    2001-02-16

    The Lasershot Marking System uses laser pulses to safely and permanently impress identification markings on metal components. This process does not remove material or change surface chemistry and actually increases the marked area's resistance to fatigue and corrosion failure. Lasershot marking is ideally suited for marking parts used in situations where safety is critical--from hip-joint replacements to commercial airliner components. The minimum size of the mark is limited only by the resolution of the reading system, allowing manufacturers to mark parts which, up to now, have been too small to label with mechanical peening techniques. The high resolution of the Lasershot marks makes them difficult to reproduce, providing a solution to the ongoing problem of inferior, counterfeited parts. The high marking rate of up to six marks per second makes this system practical and cost-effective for marking high-volume components.

  15. A Comparison of Bus Architectures for Safety-Critical Embedded Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushby, John; Miner, Paul S. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    We describe and compare the architectures of four fault-tolerant, safety-critical buses with a view to deducing principles common to all of them, the main differences in their design choices, and the tradeoffs made. Two of the buses come from an avionics heritage, and two from automobiles, though all four strive for similar levels of reliability and assurance. The avionics buses considered are the Honeywell SAFEbus (the backplane data bus used in the Boeing 777 Airplane Information Management System) and the NASA SPIDER (an architecture being developed as a demonstrator for certification under the new DO-254 guidelines); the automobile buses considered are the TTTech Time-Triggered Architecture (TTA), recently adopted by Audi for automobile applications, and by Honeywell for avionics and aircraft control functions, and FlexRay, which is being developed by a consortium of BMW, DaimlerChrysler, Motorola, and Philips.

  16. Multi-core System Architecture for Safety-critical Control Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Gang

    certification cost. Meanwhile, hardware platforms with improved processing power are required to execute the applications of larger size. To tackle the two issues mentioned above, the state of the art approaches are using more Electronic Control Units (ECU) in a federated architecture or increasing...... cores, low power consumption, on-chip interconnection and natural support to on-chip hardware diversity and redundancy at the inter-core level. The objective of this dissertation is to propose a multi-core system architecture for safety-critical control applications with reduced certification cost...... on partitioning design of both multi-core hardware and software architectures, in order to minimize efforts and cost of system certification at the integration time. Hardware architecture design concentrates on a firmware architecture on SoC platforms, providing separated hardware execution environments...

  17. Measurement of Fresh Fuel Rods to Demonstrate Compliance with Criticality Safety Limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miko, David K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Desimone, David J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-03

    In order to operate TA-66 as a radiological facility with the quantity of nuclear material required to fulfil its mission, a criticality safety evaluation was required. This evaluation defined the control parameters for operations at the facility. The resulting evaluation for TA-66 placed limits on the amount of SNM, as well as other materials such as beryllium. In addition, there is a limit on the number of uranium fuel rods allowed subject to enrichment, outer diameter, and overall length restrictions. The enrichments for the rods to be shipped to TA-66 were documented in LA-UR-13-23581, but the outer diameter and length were not documented. This report provides this information.

  18. Identification of safety-critical events using kinematic vehicle data and the discrete fourier transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluger, Robert; Smith, Brian L; Park, Hyungjun; Dailey, Daniel J

    2016-11-01

    Recent technological advances have made it both feasible and practical to identify unsafe driving behaviors using second-by-second trajectory data. Presented in this paper is a unique approach to detecting safety-critical events using vehicles' longitudinal accelerations. A Discrete Fourier Transform is used in combination with K-means clustering to flag patterns in the vehicles' accelerations in time-series that are likely to be crashes or near-crashes. The algorithm was able to detect roughly 78% of crasjavascript:void(0)hes and near-crashes (71 out of 91 validated events in the Naturalistic Driving Study data used), while generating about 1 false positive every 2.7h. In addition to presenting the promising results, an implementation strategy is discussed and further research topics that can improve this method are suggested in the paper.

  19. Testing Result Statistics-Based Rapid Testing Method for Safety-Critical System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Yao Deng; Nan Sang

    2008-01-01

    Safety-critical system (SCS) has highly demand for dependability, which requires plenty of resource to ensure that the system under test (SUT) satisfies the dependability requirement. In this paper, a new SCS rapid testing method is proposed to improve SCS adaptive dependability testing. The result of each test execution is saved in calculation memory unit and evaluated as an algorithm model. Then the least quantity of scenario test case for next test execution will be calculated according to the promised SUT's confidence level. The feedback data are generated to weight controller as the guideline for the further testing. Finally, a compre- hensive experiment study demonstrates that this adaptive testing method can really work in practice. This rapid testing method, testing result statistics-based adaptive control, makes the SCS dependability testing much more effective.

  20. Testing Result Statistics-Based Rapid Testing Method for Safety-Critical System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-Yao Deng; Nan Sang

    2008-01-01

    Safety-critical system (SCS) has highlydemand for dependability, which requires plenty ofresource to ensure that the system under test (SUT)satisfies the dependability requirement. In this paper, anew SCS rapid testing method is proposed to improveSCS adaptive dependability testing. The result of each testexecution is saved in calculation memory unit andevaluated as an algorithm model. Then the least quantityof scenario test case for next test execution will becalculated according to the promised SUT's confidencelevel. The feedback data are generated to weightcontroller as the guideline for the further testing. Finally,a compre- hensive experiment study demonstrates thatthis adaptive testing method can really work in practice.This rapid testing method, testing result statistics-basedadaptive control, makes the SCS dependability testingmuch more effective.

  1. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for critically ill adults in the emergency department: history, current applications, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosier, Jarrod M; Kelsey, Melissa; Raz, Yuval; Gunnerson, Kyle J; Meyer, Robyn; Hypes, Cameron D; Malo, Josh; Whitmore, Sage P; Spaite, Daniel W

    2015-12-17

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a mode of extracorporeal life support that augments oxygenation, ventilation and/or cardiac output via cannulae connected to a circuit that pumps blood through an oxygenator and back into the patient. ECMO has been used for decades to support cardiopulmonary disease refractory to conventional therapy. While not robust, there are promising data for the use of ECMO in acute hypoxemic respiratory failure, cardiac arrest, and cardiogenic shock and the potential indications for ECMO continue to increase. This review discusses the existing literature on the potential use of ECMO in critically ill patients within the emergency department.

  2. Some thoughts on providing effective mental health critical care for police departments after Line-of-Duty Deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jeffrey T; Levenson, Richard L

    2006-01-01

    There is no more stressful or emotionally painful event in the professional lives of police officers than a fellow officer's Line-of-Duty Death (LODD). In response to a LODD, crisis teams must apply Critical Incident Stress Management (CISM) techniques in a systematic, organized, and responsible manner. Newly formed crisis teams are particularly vulnerable to choosing inappropriate tactics in complex situations. This article provides a strategic framework within which teams can work with police departments after a LODD. It includes cautionary information in connection with problematic situations and mistakes that can occur. Special modifications to the LODD debriefing process are recommended.

  3. The Department of Energy's Atmospheric Chemistry Program: A critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    In response to a request from the Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), the Committee on Atmospheric Chemistry has reviewed OHER's Atmospheric Chemistry Program (ACP). This report contains the committee's evaluation and critique arising from that review. The review process included a two-day symposium held at the National Academy of Sciences on September 25 and 26, 1990, that focused on presenting the ACP's current components, recent scientific accomplishments, and scientific plans. Following the symposium, committee members met in a one-day executive session to formulate and outline this report. In undertaking this review, OHER and ACP management requested that the committee attempt to answer several specific questions involving the program's technical capability and productivity, its leadership and organization, and its future direction. These questions are given in the Appendix. This report represents the committee's response to the questions posed in the Appendix. Chapter I explores the committee's view of the role that atmospheric chemistry could and should assume within the DOE and its prospective National Energy Strategy. Chapter 2 assesses the current ACP, Chapter 3 presents recommendations for revising and strengthening it, and Chapter 4 restates the committee's conclusions and recommendations.

  4. The Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Chemistry Program: A critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    In response to a request from the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Health and Environmental Research (OHER), the Committee on Atmospheric Chemistry has reviewed OHER`s Atmospheric Chemistry Program (ACP). This report contains the committee`s evaluation and critique arising from that review. The review process included a two-day symposium held at the National Academy of Sciences on September 25 and 26, 1990, that focused on presenting the ACP`s current components, recent scientific accomplishments, and scientific plans. Following the symposium, committee members met in a one-day executive session to formulate and outline this report. In undertaking this review, OHER and ACP management requested that the committee attempt to answer several specific questions involving the program`s technical capability and productivity, its leadership and organization, and its future direction. These questions are given in the Appendix. This report represents the committee`s response to the questions posed in the Appendix. Chapter I explores the committee`s view of the role that atmospheric chemistry could and should assume within the DOE and its prospective National Energy Strategy. Chapter 2 assesses the current ACP, Chapter 3 presents recommendations for revising and strengthening it, and Chapter 4 restates the committee`s conclusions and recommendations.

  5. Standard operating procedure: implementation, critical analysis, and validation in the Audiology Department at CESTEH/Fiocruz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Anelisse Vasco Mascarenhas de; Quixabeiro, Elinaldo Leite; Luz, Geórgia Rosangela Soares; Franco, Viviane Moreira; Santos, Viviane Fontes Dos

    2016-01-01

    Evaluate three standard operational procedures (SOPs), regarding the application of the brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) test, implemented by the Audiology Department of the Center for Studies in Occupational Health and Human Ecology (CESTEH) through the application of a questionnaire and to verify whether the SOPs are effective and assess the necessity for improvement. The study was conducted in three phases: in the first phase, eight speech-language pathologists and seven physicians, with no experience in BAEP, were instructed to read and perform each SOP, eventually all individuals evaluated the SOPs by responding to a questionnaire; in the second phase, the questionnaires were analyzed and the three SOP texts were reviewed; in the third phase, nine speech-language pathologists and six physicians, also with no experience in BAEP, read and re-evaluated the reviewed SOPs through a questionnaire. In the first phase, difficulties in understanding the texts were found, raising doubts about the procedures; however, every participant was able to perform the procedure as a whole. In the third phase, after the review, all individuals were able to perform the procedures appropriately and continuously without any doubts. The assessment of the SOPs by questionnaires showed the need for adaptation in the texts. After the texts were reviewed according to the suggestions of the health professionals, it was possible to observe that the SOPs assisted in the execution of the task, which was conducted without any difficulties or doubts, being regarded effective and ensuring quality to the service offered.

  6. Understanding safety-critical interactions with a home medical device through Distributed Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkomar, Atish; Mayer, Astrid; Blandford, Ann

    2015-08-01

    As healthcare shifts from the hospital to the home, it is becoming increasingly important to understand how patients interact with home medical devices, to inform the safe and patient-friendly design of these devices. Distributed Cognition (DCog) has been a useful theoretical framework for understanding situated interactions in the healthcare domain. However, it has not previously been applied to study interactions with home medical devices. In this study, DCog was applied to understand renal patients' interactions with Home Hemodialysis Technology (HHT), as an example of a home medical device. Data was gathered through ethnographic observations and interviews with 19 renal patients and interviews with seven professionals. Data was analyzed through the principles summarized in the Distributed Cognition for Teamwork methodology. In this paper we focus on the analysis of system activities, information flows, social structures, physical layouts, and artefacts. By explicitly considering different ways in which cognitive processes are distributed, the DCog approach helped to understand patients' interaction strategies, and pointed to design opportunities that could improve patients' experiences of using HHT. The findings highlight the need to design HHT taking into consideration likely scenarios of use in the home and of the broader home context. A setting such as home hemodialysis has the characteristics of a complex and safety-critical socio-technical system, and a DCog approach effectively helps to understand how safety is achieved or compromised in such a system.

  7. [Analysis of adverse events associated with interhospital transfer of critically ill patients. Safety checklist].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgarejo Urendez, A; Bernat Adell, M D; Lorente García, P

    2014-01-01

    Mobilization entails a risk for critically ill patients. It is therefore important to design and apply the tools to detect any safety lapses and to improve the quality of patient healthcare. To identify which adverse events (AE) are related to interhospital transfer of assisted patients and how enabling a protocol may prevent potential risks. Descriptive, observational study. We analyzed 110 transfers during morning shift in an Intensive Care Unit at a reference hospital between January and March 2011. Variables related to underlying security factors were collected. The average transfer time was 37.16 minutes. 61.82% of the transfers were carried out on a scheduled basis. An 18.18% of AE were detected. In both cases, desaturation and hemodynamic instability made up to 2.7% of the cases. 5.5% of the cases were underlying factors related to monitoring during transfer, and those related to ventilation during transfer accounted for 2.7%. Not having all materials by the stretcher constituted 1.8%. We detected 31 AE for non-compliance with the protocol, that being a 27.15% of all transfers. Before each hospital transfer, a risk-benefit assessment is recommended in order to avoid potential alterations in the patient's pathophysiologic condition. Both the protocol and the safety checklist are key to detect underlying factors and improve security during interhospital transfers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  8. Understanding the application of knowledge management to the safety critical facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilina, Elena

    2010-07-01

    Challenges to the operating nuclear power plants and transport infrastructures are outlined. It is concluded that most aggravating factors are related to knowledge. Thus, of necessity, effective knowledge management is required. Knowledge management theories are reviewed in their historical perspective as a natural extension and unification of information theories and theories about learning. The first line is identified with names as Wiener, Ashby, Shannon, Jaynes, Dretske, Harkevich. The second line - with Vygotsky, Engestroem, Carayannis. The recent developments of knowledge management theorists as Davenport, Prusak, Drew, Wiig, Zack are considered stressing learning, retaining of knowledge, approaching the state awareness of awareness, and alignment of knowledge management with the strategy of the concerned organizations. Further, some of the details and results are presented of what is achieved so far. More specifically, knowledge management tools are applied to the practical work activities as event reporting, data collection, condition assessment, verification of safety functions and incident investigation. Obstacles are identified and improvements are proposed. Finally, it is advised to continue to implement and further develop knowledge management tools in the organizations involved in various aspects of safety critical facilities

  9. The role of the physiotherapist practitioner in emergency departments: a critical appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bethel, Jim

    2005-05-01

    The quantity of literature available on the role of physiotherapist practitioners in EDs is severely limited, a situation that probably reflects the relatively recent introduction of the role. The quality of the literature, too, is variable; much of it is generalised and intended for presentation at conferences rather than as detailed analysis for publication. Nevertheless, the literature does identify two of the major benefits of employing physiotherapist practitioners in EDs: they enhance the ability of departments to meet government targets by reducing waiting times, and they are popular with patients. The extent to which physiotherapist practitioners might serve as an educational resource for other emergency care team members is also discussed. The disadvantages of employing physiotherapist practitioners in EDs mostly relate to their caseloads being so specific that, in smaller EDs in particular, there may simply be too few patients to make the role worthwhile. This can be offset, however, by the potential benefits of employing physiotherapist practitioners in review clinics. The narrow focus of practice and clinical skills identified in this review can however fragment the care that physiotherapist practitioners provide. Physiotherapist practitioners may not be trained in applying POP, for example, so cannot care for some patients continuously from admission to discharge or referral. These disadvantages should influence and guide training programmes, and inform individual EDs, when the introduction of physiotherapist practitioners is being considered. They may also aid decision making about what combination of staff EDs should employ, and what specific roles should be undertaken by different members of staff. The role of physiotherapist practitioners is fairly new and has been evaluated using different criteria that depend on the expectations of the role, which in turn are shaped by the rationale behind the role's introduction. This variation in role according

  10. Malnutrition among Cognitively Intact, non-Critically Ill Older Adults in the Emergency Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Greg F.; Bulik, Cynthia M.; Weaver, Mark A.; Holland, Wesley C.; Platts-Mills, Timothy F.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We estimate the prevalence of malnutrition among older patients presenting to an emergency department (ED) in the southeastern United States and identify subgroups at increased risk. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study with random time block sampling of cognitively intact patients aged 65 years and older. Nutrition was assessed using the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short-Form (0–14 scale) with malnutrition defined as a score of 7 or less and at-risk for malnutrition defined as a score of 8–11. The presence of depressive symptoms was defined as a Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression-10 score of 4 or more (0–10 scale). Results Among 138 older adults, 16% (95% Confidence Interval [CI], 10%–22%) were malnourished and 60% (95% CI, 52%–69%) were either malnourished or at-risk for malnutrition. Seventeen of the 22 malnourished patients (77%) denied previously being diagnosed with malnutrition. The prevalence of malnutrition was not appreciably different between males and females, across levels of patient education, or between those living in urban and rural areas. However, the prevalence of malnutrition was higher among patients with depressive symptoms 52%, those residing in assisted living 50%, those with difficulty eating 38%, and those reporting difficulty buying groceries 33%. Conclusion Among a random sample of cognitively intact older ED patients, more than half were malnourished or at-risk for malnutrition, and the majority of malnourished patients had not previously been diagnosed. Higher rates of malnutrition among those with depression, difficulty eating, and difficulty buying groceries suggest the need to explore multifaceted interventions. PMID:25129819

  11. Sensitivity analysis of parameters important to nuclear criticality safety of Castor X/28F spent nuclear fuel cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leotlela, Mosebetsi J. [Witwatersrand Univ., Johannesburg (South Africa). School of Physics; Koeberg Operating Unit, Johannesburg (South Africa). Regulations and Licensing; Malgas, Isaac [Koeberg Nuclear Power Station, Duinefontein (South Africa). Nuclear Engineering Analysis; Taviv, Eugene [ASARA consultants (PTY) LTD, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2015-11-15

    In nuclear criticality safety analysis it is essential to ascertain how various components of the nuclear system will perform under certain conditions they may be subjected to, particularly if the components of the system are likely to be affected by environmental factors such as temperature, radiation or material composition. It is therefore prudent that a sensitivity analysis is performed to determine and quantify the response of the output to variation in any of the input parameters. In a fissile system, the output parameter of importance is the k{sub eff}. Therefore, in attempting to prevent reactivity-induced accidents, it is important for the criticality safety analyst to have a quantified degree of response for the neutron multiplication factor to perturbation in a given input parameter. This article will present the results of the perturbation of the parameters that are important to nuclear criticality safety analysis and their respective correlation equations for deriving the sensitivity coefficients.

  12. Criticality Safety Evaluation for the Advanced Test Reactor U-Mo Demonstration Elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leland M. Montierth

    2010-12-01

    The Reduced Enrichment Research Test Reactors (RERTR) fuel development program is developing a high uranium density fuel based on a (LEU) uranium-molybdenum alloy. Testing of prototypic RERTR fuel elements is necessary to demonstrate integrated fuel performance behavior and scale-up of fabrication techniques. Two RERTR-Full Size Demonstration fuel elements based on the ATR-Reduced YA elements (all but one plate fueled) are to be fabricated for testing in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The two fuel elements will be irradiated in alternating cycles such that only one element is loaded in the reactor at a time. Existing criticality analyses have analyzed Standard (HEU) ATR elements (all plates fueled) from which controls have been derived. This criticality safety evaluation (CSE) documents analysis that determines the reactivity of the Demonstration fuel elements relative to HEU ATR elements and shows that the Demonstration elements are bound by the Standard HEU ATR elements and existing HEU ATR element controls are applicable to the Demonstration elements.

  13. Regenerative braking strategies, vehicle safety and stability control systems: critical use-case proposals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleksowicz, Selim A.; Burnham, Keith J.; Southgate, Adam; McCoy, Chris; Waite, Gary; Hardwick, Graham; Harrington, Cian; McMurran, Ross

    2013-05-01

    The sustainable development of vehicle propulsion systems that have mainly focused on reduction of fuel consumption (i.e. CO2 emission) has led, not only to the development of systems connected with combustion processes but also to legislation and testing procedures. In recent years, the low carbon policy has made hybrid vehicles and fully electric vehicles (H/EVs) popular. The main virtue of these propulsion systems is their ability to restore some of the expended energy from kinetic movement, e.g. the braking process. Consequently new research and testing methods for H/EVs are currently being developed. This especially concerns the critical 'use-cases' for functionality tests within dynamic events for both virtual simulations, as well as real-time road tests. The use-case for conventional vehicles for numerical simulations and road tests are well established. However, the wide variety of tests and their great number (close to a thousand) creates a need for selection, in the first place, and the creation of critical use-cases suitable for testing H/EVs in both virtual and real-world environments. It is known that a marginal improvement in the regenerative braking ratio can significantly improve the vehicle range and, therefore, the economic cost of its operation. In modern vehicles, vehicle dynamics control systems play the principal role in safety, comfort and economic operation. Unfortunately, however, the existing standard road test scenarios are insufficient for H/EVs. Sector knowledge suggests that there are currently no agreed tests scenarios to fully investigate the effects of brake blending between conventional and regenerative braking as well as the regenerative braking interaction with active driving safety systems (ADSS). The paper presents seven manoeuvres, which are considered to be suitable and highly informative for the development and examination of H/EVs with regenerative braking capability. The critical manoeuvres presented are considered to be

  14. The ORSphere Benchmark Evaluation and Its Potential Impact on Nuclear Criticality Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John D. Bess; Margaret A. Marshall; J. Blair Briggs

    2013-10-01

    In the early 1970’s, critical experiments using an unreflected metal sphere of highly enriched uranium (HEU) were performed with the focus to provide a “very accurate description…as an ideal benchmark for calculational methods and cross-section data files.” Two near-critical configurations of the Oak Ridge Sphere (ORSphere) were evaluated as acceptable benchmark experiments for inclusion in the International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments (ICSBEP Handbook). The results from those benchmark experiments were then compared with additional unmoderated and unreflected HEU metal benchmark experiment configurations currently found in the ICSBEP Handbook. For basic geometries (spheres, cylinders, and slabs) the eigenvalues calculated using MCNP5 and ENDF/B-VII.0 were within 3 of their respective benchmark values. There appears to be generally a good agreement between calculated and benchmark values for spherical and slab geometry systems. Cylindrical geometry configurations tended to calculate low, including more complex bare HEU metal systems containing cylinders. The ORSphere experiments do not calculate within their 1s uncertainty and there is a possibility that the effect of the measured uncertainties for the GODIVA I benchmark may need reevaluated. There is significant scatter in the calculations for the highly-correlated ORCEF cylinder experiments, which are constructed from close-fitting HEU discs and annuli. Selection of a nuclear data library can have a larger impact on calculated eigenvalue results than the variation found within calculations of a given experimental series, such as the ORCEF cylinders, using a single nuclear data set.

  15. Burn-up credit in criticality safety of PWR spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoud, Rowayda F., E-mail: Rowayda_mahmoud@yahoo.com [Metallurgy Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority (Egypt); Shaat, Mohamed K. [Nuclear Engineering, Reactors Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority (Egypt); Nagy, M.E.; Agamy, S.A. [Professor of Nuclear Engineering, Nuclear and Radiation Department, Alexandria University (Egypt); Abdelrahman, Adel A. [Metallurgy Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority (Egypt)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Designing spent fuel wet storage using WIMS-5D and MCNP-5 code. • Studying fresh and burned fuel with/out absorber like “B{sub 4}C and Ag–In–Cd” in racks. • Sub-criticality was confirmed for fresh and burned fuel under specific cases. • Studies for BU credit recommend increasing fuel burn-up to 60.0 GWD/MTU. • Those studies require new core structure materials, fuel composition and cladding. - Abstract: The criticality safety calculations were performed for a proposed design of a wet spent fuel storage pool. This pool will be used for the storage of spent fuel discharged from a typical pressurized water reactor (PWR). The mathematical model based on the international validated codes, WIMS-5 and MCNP-5 were used for calculating the effective multiplication factor, k{sub eff}, for the spent fuel stored in the pool. The data library for the multi-group neutron microscopic cross-sections was used for the cell calculations. The k{sub eff} was calculated for several changes in water density, water level, assembly pitch and burn-up with different initial fuel enrichment and new types and amounts of fixed absorbers. Also, k{sub eff} was calculated for the conservative fresh fuel case. The results of the calculations confirmed that the effective multiplication factor for the spent fuel storage is sub-critical for all normal and abnormal states. The future strategy for the burn-up credit recommends increasing the fuel burn-up to a value >60.0 GWD/MTU, which requires new fuel composition and new fuel cladding material with the assessment of the effects of negative reactivity build up.

  16. Effectiveness and safety of a protocol for promotion of early intragastric feeding in critically ill children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briassoulis, G C; Zavras, N J; Hatzis MD, T D

    2001-04-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the feasibility, adequacy, and efficacy of early poststress intragastric feeding (EPIGF) in critically ill children. DESIGN: A prospective clinical study. SETTING: Pediatric intensive care unit in a tertiary care children's hospital. PATIENTS: Seventy-one consecutively enrolled critically ill children requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation. INTERVENTIONS: Full-strength intragastric tube feedings (Nutrison Pediatric, Standard) were initiated within 12 hrs of the study-entry event. Enteral feedings were advanced to a target volume of energy intake = 1/2, 1, 5/4, 6/4, and 6/4 of the predicted basal metabolic rate (PBMR) on days 1-5, respectively. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Nutritional status by the caloric intake, recommended dietary allowances, PBMR, predicted energy expenditure (PEE), anthropometry, and clinical indices were evaluated on days 1 and 5. Safety was assessed by the clinical course of disease, laboratory findings, and occurrence of complications. Success was determined by accomplishment of the PEE target. The early success rate was 94.4% and predicted late enteral feeding success accurately (p =.0001). Caloric intake approached PBMR the second day (43 +/- 1.7 kcal/kg/day vs. 43.2 +/- 1.1 kcal/kg/day) and PEE the fifth day (66.2 +/- 2.7 kcal/kg/day vs. 67.7 +/- 6.4 kcal/kg/day). Multivariate stepwise regression analysis showed that poor outcome and a high Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System score correlated with failure of EPIGF (p PBMR by the second day and PEE by the fourth day in critically ill children. Caloric intake lower than PBMR is associated with higher mortality and morbidity rates.

  17. Patient safety certification in a Department of Intensive Care Medicine: our experience with standard UNE 179003:2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, P; Bustamante, E; Campillo-Artero, C; Bartual, E; Tuero, G; Marí, J

    2014-01-01

    Systematic and structured methods must be used to ensure that healthcare risks are effectively managed. Spanish standard UNE 179003:2013 provides healthcare organizations with a framework and a systematic protocol for managing patient safety from a clinical and organizational perspective. Furthermore, it is useful in securing an efficient balance among health risk, health outcomes and costs. The UNE 179003:2013 certifies that a clinical service complies with rules and operating procedures aimed at reducing the incidence of adverse events. It also requires mandatory continuous improvement, given that the standard entails frequent monitoring of the risk management system through periodic audits. The aims of this paper are to describe the UNE 179003:2013 certification process in an Intensive Care Unit, propose a risk management program for critical patients, and offer some recommendations regarding its implementation.

  18. Is Model-Based Development a Favorable Approach for Complex and Safety-Critical Computer Systems on Commercial Aircraft?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo

    2014-01-01

    A system is safety-critical if its failure can endanger human life or cause significant damage to property or the environment. State-of-the-art computer systems on commercial aircraft are highly complex, software-intensive, functionally integrated, and network-centric systems of systems. Ensuring that such systems are safe and comply with existing safety regulations is costly and time-consuming as the level of rigor in the development process, especially the validation and verification activities, is determined by considerations of system complexity and safety criticality. A significant degree of care and deep insight into the operational principles of these systems is required to ensure adequate coverage of all design implications relevant to system safety. Model-based development methodologies, methods, tools, and techniques facilitate collaboration and enable the use of common design artifacts among groups dealing with different aspects of the development of a system. This paper examines the application of model-based development to complex and safety-critical aircraft computer systems. Benefits and detriments are identified and an overall assessment of the approach is given.

  19. CSER 98-003: criticality safety evaluation report for PFP glovebox HC-21A with button can opening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ERICKSON, D.G.

    1999-02-25

    Glovebox HC-21A is an enclosure where cans containing plutonium metal buttons or other plutonium bearing materials are prepared for thermal stabilization in the muffle furnaces. The Inert Atmosphere Confinement (IAC), a new feature added to Glovebox HC-21 A, allows the opening of containers suspected of containing hydrided plutonium metal. The argon atmosphere in the IAC prevents an adverse reaction between oxygen and the hydride. The hydride is then stabilized in a controlled manner to prevent glovebox over pressurization. After removal from the containers, the plutonium metal buttons or plutonium bearing materials will be placed into muffle furnace boats and then be sent to one of the muffle furnace gloveboxes for stabilization. The materials allowed to be brought into Glovebox HC-21A are limited to those with a hydrogen to fissile atom ratio (H/X) {le} 20. Glovebox HC-21A is classified as a DRY glovebox, meaning it has no internal liquid lines, and no free liquids or solutions are allowed to be introduced. The double contingency principle states that designs shall incorporate sufficient factors of safety to require at least two unlikely, independent, and concurrent changes in process conditions before a criticality accident is possible. This criticality safety evaluation report (CSER) shows that the operations to be performed in this glovebox are safe from a criticality standpoint. No single identified event that causes criticality controls to be lost exceeded the criticality safety limit of k{sub eff} = 0.95 (including uncertainties). Therefore, this CSER meets the requirements for a criticality analysis contained in the Hanford Site Nuclear Criticality Safety Manual, HNF-PRO-334, and meets the double contingency principle.

  20. CSER 98-003: criticality safety evaluation report for PFP glovebox HC-21A with button can opening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ERICKSON, D.G.

    1999-02-25

    Glovebox HC-21A is an enclosure where cans containing plutonium metal buttons or other plutonium bearing materials are prepared for thermal stabilization in the muffle furnaces. The Inert Atmosphere Confinement (IAC), a new feature added to Glovebox HC-21 A, allows the opening of containers suspected of containing hydrided plutonium metal. The argon atmosphere in the IAC prevents an adverse reaction between oxygen and the hydride. The hydride is then stabilized in a controlled manner to prevent glovebox over pressurization. After removal from the containers, the plutonium metal buttons or plutonium bearing materials will be placed into muffle furnace boats and then be sent to one of the muffle furnace gloveboxes for stabilization. The materials allowed to be brought into Glovebox HC-21A are limited to those with a hydrogen to fissile atom ratio (H/X) {le} 20. Glovebox HC-21A is classified as a DRY glovebox, meaning it has no internal liquid lines, and no free liquids or solutions are allowed to be introduced. The double contingency principle states that designs shall incorporate sufficient factors of safety to require at least two unlikely, independent, and concurrent changes in process conditions before a criticality accident is possible. This criticality safety evaluation report (CSER) shows that the operations to be performed in this glovebox are safe from a criticality standpoint. No single identified event that causes criticality controls to be lost exceeded the criticality safety limit of k{sub eff} = 0.95 (including uncertainties). Therefore, this CSER meets the requirements for a criticality analysis contained in the Hanford Site Nuclear Criticality Safety Manual, HNF-PRO-334, and meets the double contingency principle.

  1. Perceived versus Observed Patient Safety Measures in a Critical Care Unit from a Teaching Hospital in Southern Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Hernan Montenegro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Patient safety is an important topic. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the perceived versus observed patient safety measures (PSM in critically ill patients in a teaching hospital in Latin America. Materials and Methods. The level of perceived patient safety was evaluated with the patient safety hospital survey. Three months later, a qualitative study was conducted, including video recording of procedures, graded according to adherence to PSM. Levels of adherence were scored during patient mobilization (PM, placement of central catheters (PCC, other invasive procedures (OIP, infection control (IC, and endotracheal intubation (ETI. Results. The perceived adherence of PSM in the prestudy survey was considered fair by 89.1% of the ICU staff. After the survey, 829 ICU procedures were video-recorded. Mean observed adherence for fair patient safety measures was 20.8%. Perceived adherence was higher than the real patient safety protocol measures observed in the videos. Conclusion. Perception of PSM was higher than observed in the management of critically ill patients in a teaching hospital in southern Colombia.

  2. Nuclear criticality safety and time reactivity enhancement aspects of energy amplifier system devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siciliano, F. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Trisaia, Rotondelle, Matera (Italy). Direzione INFO

    1995-12-01

    As far as the Rubbia`s and colleagues proposal of innovating Energy Amplifier system (E.A.s.) device driven by a particle beam accelerator is concerned, four basic topics are comprised in the present paper: (1) A short outline of the nuclear aspects of Th-U and U-Pu fuel cycles regarding their general breeding and efficiency features. (2) The needed nuclear criticality control requirements have been studied in terms of safety regulating parameters on the basis of the ThO2 mixed oxides selected as fuel kind for the E.A.s. device technology development. Particular attention is devoted to time evolution of neutron multiplication factor since delayed development of the 233U buildup and so system reactivity are expected in the Th-U cycle. (3) Code E.A.s. device irradiation and post-irradiation modelling for determining higher actinides buildup, fission products formation and fuel consumption trends as function of time, system enrichment degree and flux level parameters. (4) The confirmation, on the basis of the same specific power irradiation, of expected actinides waste obtainment cleaner than the one deriving from the U-Pu cycle utilization. For this end, a model comparison of equivalent enriched fissile nuclides in both cycles has been devised as having, within the range of 0-700 days, ten irradiation periods of about 53 MW/ton specific power and equivalent cooling time post-irradiation periods.

  3. Automated Translation of Safety Critical Application Software Specifications into PLC Ladder Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leucht, Kurt W.; Semmel, Glenn S.

    2008-01-01

    The numerous benefits of automatic application code generation are widely accepted within the software engineering community. A few of these benefits include raising the abstraction level of application programming, shorter product development time, lower maintenance costs, and increased code quality and consistency. Surprisingly, code generation concepts have not yet found wide acceptance and use in the field of programmable logic controller (PLC) software development. Software engineers at the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) recognized the need for PLC code generation while developing their new ground checkout and launch processing system. They developed a process and a prototype software tool that automatically translates a high-level representation or specification of safety critical application software into ladder logic that executes on a PLC. This process and tool are expected to increase the reliability of the PLC code over that which is written manually, and may even lower life-cycle costs and shorten the development schedule of the new control system at KSC. This paper examines the problem domain and discusses the process and software tool that were prototyped by the KSC software engineers.

  4. 精神科护理安全管理浅析%The analysis of management on nursing safety in psychiatric department

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟美

    2014-01-01

    To explore the management on nursing safety in psychiatric department,ful play the management ability of charge nurse,meanwhile emphasis on staff training and strengthen their ideological education, and improve their risk prevention capacity ,thus to ensure the personal safety of patients during their hospitalization.%探讨精神科护理安全管理,充分发挥护士长管理能力,重视培训、强化思想教育,加强责任心,提高风险识别能力。保证患者住院期间人身安全。

  5. Safety of life activity and environmental friendliness in beet processing department of a beet-sugar factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Ageev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The branch of processing of a beet is characterized by a variety of dangerous and harmful production factors. To maintain the optimal values of microclimate in beet processing department carried out installation of systems of ventilation and heating. To implement the protection measures for impacts include the use of low-power equipment; the attenuation of the noise in the way of its propagation by means of sound insulation; maintenance equipment; install equipment on vibration isolation bases. Electrical safety in industrial environments by the appropriate design of electrical installations, technical means and means of protection, organizational and technical measures. For protection against static electricity use of protective grounding. The safe operation of lifting and handling equipment is provided by the audit of the reliability and strength of their structural elements, as well as ropes, lifting devices. To reduce the harmful impact of the use of the Department of toxic substances into the running, you must use individual protection equipment: special clothing, anti-dust respirators. Of technical means of protection used in the supply and exhaust ventilation, are also used cyclones. To protect surface and groundwater from effluent applied field of filtration, aeration tanks, biofilters. The amount of emissions into the atmosphere can reduce the reduction of steam consumption for technological needs. For dust removal in dusty offices with equipment install the cyclone. One of the measures to prevent the explosion is to install explosion protection. For fire in a sugar factory used fire boards, fire hoses, automatic water extinguishing systems, steam and gas fire. All facilities and process plant should be provided with primary fire extinguishing means. Place them in conspicuous places, readily accessible at any time. In addition, the company is required to lay special network of fire water. Thus, security and compliance with of

  6. Validation of nuclear criticality safety software and 27 energy group ENDF/B-IV cross sections. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B.L. Jr. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States); D`Aquila, D.M. [Lockheed Martin Utility Services, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1996-01-01

    The original validation report, POEF-T-3636, was documented in August 1994. The document was based on calculations that were executed during June through August 1992. The statistical analyses in Appendix C and Appendix D were completed in October 1993. This revision is written to clarify the margin of safety being used at Portsmouth for nuclear criticality safety calculations. This validation gives Portsmouth NCS personnel a basis for performing computerized KENO V.a calculations using the Lockheed Martin Nuclear Criticality Safety Software. The first portion of the document outlines basic information in regard to validation of NCSS using ENDF/B-IV 27-group cross sections on the IBM3090 at ORNL. A basic discussion of the NCSS system is provided, some discussion on the validation database and validation in general. Then follows a detailed description of the statistical analysis which was applied. The results of this validation indicate that the NCSS software may be used with confidence for criticality calculations at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant. For calculations of Portsmouth systems using the specified codes and systems covered by this validation, a maximum k{sub eff} including 2{sigma} of 0.9605 or lower shall be considered as subcritical to ensure a calculational margin of safety of 0.02. The validation of NCSS on the IBM 3090 at ORNL was extended to include NCSS on the IBM 3090 at K-25.

  7. Efficacy and Safety of Acupuncture for Acute Low Back Pain in Emergency Department: A Pilot Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Ting Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Low back pain (LBP is one of the most common complaints in the emergency department (ED. There are several research articles providing evidence for acupuncture for treating chronic LBP but few about treating acute LBP. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for the treatment of acute LBP in the ED. Materials and methods. A clinical pilot cohort study was conducted. 60 participants, recruited in the ED, were divided into experimental and control groups with 1 dropout during the study. Life-threatening conditions or severe neurological defects were excluded. The experimental group (n=45 received a series of fixed points of acupuncture. The control group (n=14 received sham acupuncture by pasting seed-patches near acupoints. Back pain was measured using the visual analog scale (VAS at three time points: baseline and immediately after and 3 days after intervention as the primary outcome. The secondary outcomes were heart rate variability (HRV and adverse events. Results. The VAS demonstrated a significant decrease (P value <0.001 for the experimental group after 15 minutes of acupuncture. The variation in HRV showed no significant difference in either group. No adverse event was reported. Conclusion. Acupuncture might provide immediate effect in reducing the pain of acute LBP safely.

  8. Efficacy and Safety of Acupuncture for Acute Low Back Pain in Emergency Department: A Pilot Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yen-Ting; Chiu, Chih-Wen; Chang, Chin-Fu; Lee, Tsung-Chieh; Chen, Chia-Yun; Chang, Shun-Chang; Lee, Chia-Ying; Lo, Lun-Chien

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common complaints in the emergency department (ED). There are several research articles providing evidence for acupuncture for treating chronic LBP but few about treating acute LBP. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for the treatment of acute LBP in the ED. Materials and methods. A clinical pilot cohort study was conducted. 60 participants, recruited in the ED, were divided into experimental and control groups with 1 dropout during the study. Life-threatening conditions or severe neurological defects were excluded. The experimental group (n = 45) received a series of fixed points of acupuncture. The control group (n = 14) received sham acupuncture by pasting seed-patches near acupoints. Back pain was measured using the visual analog scale (VAS) at three time points: baseline and immediately after and 3 days after intervention as the primary outcome. The secondary outcomes were heart rate variability (HRV) and adverse events. Results. The VAS demonstrated a significant decrease (P value acupuncture. The variation in HRV showed no significant difference in either group. No adverse event was reported. Conclusion. Acupuncture might provide immediate effect in reducing the pain of acute LBP safely.

  9. Testing of LWR fuel rods to support criticality safety analysis of transport accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purcell, P.C. [BNFL International Transport, Spent Fuel Services (United Kingdom); Dallongeville, M. [COGEMA Logistics (AREVA Group) (France)

    2004-07-01

    For the transport of low enriched materials, criticality safety may be demonstrated by applying pessimistic modelling assumptions that bound any realistic case. Where Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel is being transported, enrichment levels are usually too high to permit this approach and more realistic data is needed. This requires a method by which the response of LWR fuel under impact accident conditions can be approximated or bounded. In 2000, BNFL and COGEMA LOGISTICS jointly commenced the Fuel Integrity Project (FIP) whose objective was to develop such methods. COGEMA LOGISTICS were well advanced with a method for determining the impact response of unirradiated fuel, but required further test data before acceptance by the Transport Regulators. The joint project team extensively discussed the required inputs to the FIP, from which it was agreed that BNFL would organise new tests on both unirradiated and irradiated fuel samples and COGEMA LOGISTICS would take major responsibility for evaluating the test results. Tests on unirradiated fuel rod samples involved both dynamic and quasi-static loading on fuel samples. PWR fuel rods loaded with uranium pellets were dropped vertically from 9m onto a rigid target and this was repeated on BWR fuel rods, similar tests on empty fuel rods were also conducted. Quasi-static tests were conducted on 530 mm long PWR and BWR fuel specimens under axial loading. Tests on irradiated fuel samples were conducted on high burn-up fuel rods of both PWR and BWR types. These were believed original to the FIP project and involved applying bending loads to simply supported pressurised rod specimens. In one test the fuel rod was heated to nearly 500oC during loading, all specimens were subject to axial impact before testing. Considerable experience of fuel rod testing and new data was gained from this test programme.

  10. 76 FR 33307 - Strengthen and Promote the Role of Local Health Departments in Retail Food Safety Regulation (U-50)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... in Retail Food Safety Regulation (U-50) AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice... support of a cooperative agreement between the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN) and.... Salsbury, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (HFS-320), Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint...

  11. System modeling with the DISC framework: evidence from safety-critical domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiman, Teemu; Pietikäinen, Elina; Oedewald, Pia; Gotcheva, Nadezhda

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to illustrate the development and application of the Design for Integrated Safety Culture (DISC) framework for system modeling by evaluating organizational potential for safety in nuclear and healthcare domains. The DISC framework includes criteria for good safety culture and a description of functions that the organization needs to implement in order to orient the organization toward the criteria. Three case studies will be used to illustrate the utilization of the DISC framework in practice.

  12. Safety

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Please note that the safety codes A9, A10 AND A11 (ex annexes of SAPOCO/42) entitled respectively "Safety responsibilities in the divisions" "The safety policy committee (SAPOCO) and safety officers' committees" and "Administrative procedure following a serious accident or incident" are available on the web at the following URLs: Code A9: http://edms.cern.ch/document/337016/LAST_RELEASED Code A10: http://edms.cern.ch/document/337019/LAST_RELEASED Code A11: http://edms.cern.ch/document/337026/LAST_RELEASED Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS divisional secretariat, e-mail: tis.secretariat@cern.ch. TIS Secretariat

  13. SRAM-Based FPGA Systems for Safety-Critical Applications:A Survey on Design Standards and Proposed Methodologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cinzia Bernardeschi; Luca Cassano; Andrea Domenici

    2015-01-01

    As the ASIC design cost becomes affordable only for very large-scale productions, the FPGA technology is currently becoming the leading technology for those applications that require a small-scale production. FPGAs can be considered as a technology crossing between hardware and software. Only a small-number of standards for the design of safety-critical systems give guidelines and recommendations that take the peculiarities of the FPGA technology into consideration. The main contribution of this paper is an overview of the existing design standards that regulate the design and verification of FPGA-based systems in safety-critical application fields. Moreover, the paper proposes a survey of significant published research proposals and existing industrial guidelines about the topic, and collects and reports about some lessons learned from industrial and research pro jects involving the use of FPGA devices.

  14. Inventory of possible emerging hazards to food safety and an analysis of critical factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleter, G.A.; Poelman, M.; Groot, M.J.; Marvin, H.J.P.

    2006-01-01

    Various recent incidents around food safety issues have led to the establishment of the European Food Safety Authority and its national counterparts in the member states of the European Union. Besides these measures, it is desirable to identify food risks while they are still emerging, i.e. when

  15. Bias and Uncertainty of Critical Experiment Models with CSAS25 from SCALE4.4a for Criticality Safety Analyses On the HP J-5600 (CMODB) Workstation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.H.; Keener, H.J.; DeClue, J.F.; Krass, A.W.; Cain, V.R.

    2001-02-01

    This report documents establishment of bias, bias trends and uncertainty for validation of the CSAS25 control module from the SCALE 4.4a computer code system for use in evaluating criticality safety of uranium systems. The 27-group ENDF/B-IV, 44-group ENDF/B-V, and 238-group ENDF/B-V cross-section libraries were used. The criticality validation calculations were performed using over 500 benchmark cases from Volumes II and IV of the ''International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments,'' published by the Nuclear Energy Agency Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (NEA/OECD). Based on statistical analysis of the calculation results, the bias, bias trends and uncertainty of the benchmark calculations have been established for these benchmark experiments. Numerical methods for applying margins are briefly described, but the determination of appropriate correlating parameter and values for additional margin, applicable to a particular analysis, must be determined as part of process analysis. As such, this document does not specify upper subcritical limits as has been done in the past. A follow-on report will be written to assess the methods for determination of an upper safety limit in more detail, provide comparisons, and recommend a preferred method. Analysts using these results are responsible for exercising sound engineering judgment using strong technical arguments to develop a margin in k{sub eff} or other correlating parameter that is sufficiently large to ensure that conditions (calculated by this method to be subcritical by this margin) will actually be subcritical. Documentation of determination and justification of the appropriate margin in the analyst's evaluation, in conjunction with this report, will constitute the complete Validation Report in accordance with ANSI/ANS-8.1-1998, Section 4.3.6(4).

  16. Emergency department patient safety incident characterization: an observational analysis of the findings of a standardized peer review process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jepson, Zach K; Darling, Chad E; Kotkowski, Kevin A; Bird, Steven B; Arce, Michael W; Volturo, Gregory A; Reznek, Martin A

    2014-08-08

    Emergency Department (ED) care has been reported to be prone to patient safety incidents (PSIs). Improving our understanding of PSIs is essential to prevent them. A standardized, peer review process was implemented to identify and analyze ED PSIs. The primary objective of this investigation was to characterize ED PSIs identified by the peer review process. A secondary objective was to characterize PSIs that led to patient harm. In addition, we sought to provide a detailed description of the peer review process for others to consider as they conduct their own quality improvement initiatives. An observational study was conducted in a large, urban, tertiary-care ED. Over a two-year period, all ED incident reports were investigated via a standardized, peer review process. PSIs were identified and analyzed for contributing factors including systems failures and practitioner-based errors. The classification system for factors contributing to PSIs was developed based on systems previously reported in the emergency medicine literature as well as the investigators' experience in quality improvement and peer review. All cases in which a PSI was discovered were further adjudicated to determine if patient harm resulted. In 24 months, 469 cases were investigated, identifying 152 PSIs. In total, 188 systems failures and 96 practitioner-based errors were found to have contributed to the PSIs. In twelve cases, patient harm was determined to have resulted from PSIs. Systems failures were identified in eleven of the twelve cases in which a PSI resulted in patient harm. Systems failures were almost twice as likely as practitioner-based errors to contribute to PSIs, and systems failures were present in the majority of cases resulting in patient harm. To effectively reduce PSIs, ED quality improvement initiatives should focus on systems failure reduction.

  17. Preservation and Dissemination of the Hardcopy Documentation Portion of the NCSP Nuclear Criticality Bibliographic Database

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, B L; Heinrichs, D

    2009-05-18

    The U.S. Department of Energy supports a nuclear criticality safety bibliographic internet database that contains approximately 15,000 records. We are working to ensure that a substantial portion of the corresponding hardcopy documents are preserved, digitized, and made available to criticality safety practitioners via the Nuclear Criticality Safety Program web site.

  18. Effects of critical pathway on the management of patients with ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction in an emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Dong Ryeol; Choi, Jang Won; Lee, Bong-Ki; Cho, Byung Ryul

    2015-03-01

    Critical pathways (CP) are clinical management plans that provide the sequence and timing of actions of medical staff. The main goal of a CP is to provide optimal patient care and to improve time-effectiveness. Current guidelines for the treatment of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) recommend a door-to-balloon time of intervention (PCI). The aim of this study was to identify the effects of CP on the management of patients with STEMI in an emergency department. The study population consisted of 175 patients undergoing primary PCI for STEMI who presented to the emergency department of Kangwon National University Hospital (Chuncheon, South Korea) with chest pain from July 1, 2005 to November 30, 2010. We retrospectively analyzed medication use, symptom onset-to-door times, door-to-balloon times, total ischemic times, and the reperfusion rate within 90 minutes. We also measured the 30-day and 1-year total mortality rates pre- and post-CP implementation. The effects of CP implementation on the medication use outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction were increased between the pre- and post-CP patients groups. The median door-to-balloon time declined significantly from 85 to 64 minutes after CP implementation (P = 0.001), and the primary PCI rate within 90 minutes was significantly increased (57% vs. 79%, P = 0.01). However, the symptom to door time was not changed between the pre- and post-CP groups (150 minutes vs. 149 minutes; P = 0.841). Although the total ischemic time was decreased after CP implementation, it was not statistically insignificant (352.5 minutes vs. 281 minutes; P = 0.397). Moreover, the 30-day and 1-year total mortality rates of the 2 groups did not change (12.0% vs. 12.0%, P > 0.999; 13.0% vs. 17.3%, P = 0.425, respectively). However, the 1-year mortality rates of 2 groups based on a total ischemic time of 240 minutes, which was median value, decreased significantly from 19.0% to 9.0%. (P = 0. 018) CONCLUSION

  19. Review of Ireland’s Road Safety Strategy. On behalf of Department of the Environment and Local Government, Ireland.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    2003-01-01

    SWOV has been requested to carry out a review of Ireland's Road Safety Strategy. This review should pay attention to three aspects: (1) review developments and progress made under the current National Road Safety Strategy 1998-2002; (2) place Ireland's performance in an appropriate international con

  20. Critical Review of Commercial Secondary Lithium-Ion Battery Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry P.; Chapin, Thomas, J.; Tabaddor, Mahmod

    2010-09-01

    The development of Li-ion cells with greater energy density has lead to safety concerns that must be carefully assessed as Li-ion cells power a wide range of products from consumer electronics to electric vehicles to space applications. Documented field failures and product recalls for Li-ion cells, mostly for consumer electronic products, highlight the risk of fire, smoke, and even explosion. These failures have been attributed to the occurrence of internal short circuits and the subsequent thermal runaway that can lead to fire and explosion. As packaging for some applications include a large number of cells, the risk of failure is likely to be magnified. To address concerns about the safety of battery powered products, safety standards have been developed. This paper provides a review of various international safety standards specific to lithium-ion cells. This paper shows that though the standards are harmonized on a host of abuse conditions, most lack a test simulating internal short circuits. This paper describes some efforts to introduce internal short circuit tests into safety standards.

  1. Estimation of Remained defects in a Safety-Critical Software using Bayesian Belief Network of Software Development Life Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Jun; Jung, Wondea Jung [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Some researchers recognized Bayesian belief network (BBN) method to be a promising method of quantifying software reliability. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) comprehensively reviewed various quantitative software reliability methods to identify the most promising methods for use in probabilistic safety assessments (PSAs) of digital systems of NPPs against a set of the most desirable characteristics developed therein. BBNs are recognized as a promising way of quantifying software reliability and are useful for integrating many aspects of software engineering and quality assurance. The method explicitly incorporates important factors relevant to reliability, such as the quality of the developer, the development process, problem complexity, testing effort, and the operation environment. In this work, a BBN model was developed to estimate the number of remained defects in a safety-critical software based on the quality evaluation of software development life cycle (SDLC). Even though a number of software reliability evaluation methods exist, none of them can be applicable to the safety-critical software in an NPP because software quality in terms of PDF is required for the PSA.

  2. Postharvest intervention technologies for safety enhancement of meat and meat based products; a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohaib, Muhammad; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad Sajid; Rahman, Ubaid Ur

    2016-01-01

    Globally, the demand for safe, healthy and nutritious meat and allied products possesses improved taste with extended shelf life is mounting. Microbial safety is among the imperative challenges that prevails in meat products because they provide an ideal medium for the growth of microorganisms particularly pathogenic bacteria. The incidence of these microbes can result quality deterioration of products leading towards food borne diseases when consumed by peoples. Several preservation technologies like chemical and biological interventions are effective to retard or inactivate the growth of micro-organisms most commonly related to food-borne diseases. Despite these, innovative approaches like hydrostatic pressure processing, active packaging, pulse electric field, hurdle approach and use of natural antimicrobials can be deployed to enhance the safety of meat and meat products. The objective of review is to describe the current approaches and developing technologies for enhancing safety of meat and allied meat products.

  3. Program desk manual for occupational safety and health -- U.S. Department of Energy Richland Operations, Office of Environment Safety and Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musen, L.G.

    1998-08-27

    The format of this manual is designed to make this valuable information easily accessible to the user as well as enjoyable to read. Each chapter contains common information such as Purpose, Scope, Policy and References, as well as information unique to the topic at hand. This manual can also be provided on a CD or Hanford Internet. Major topics include: Organization and program for operational safety; Occupational medicine; Construction and demolition; Material handling and storage; Hoisting and rigging; Explosives; Chemical hazards; Gas cylinders; Electrical; Boiler and pressure vessels; Industrial fire protection; Industrial hygiene; and Safety inspection checklist.

  4. Process management - critical safety issues with focus on risk management; Processtyrning - kritiska saekerhetsfraagor med inriktning paa riskhantering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanne, Johan M. [Linkoeping Univ. (Sweden). The Tema Inst. - Technology and Social Change

    2005-12-15

    Organizational changes focused on process orientation are taking place among Swedish nuclear power plants, aiming at improving the operation. The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate has identified a need for increased knowledge within the area for its regulatory activities. In order to analyze what process orientation imply for nuclear power plant safety a number of questions must be asked: 1. How is safety in nuclear power production created currently? What significance does the functional organization play? 2. How can organizational forms be analysed? What consequences does quality management have for work and for the enterprise? 3. Why should nuclear power plants be process oriented? Who are the customers and what are their customer values? Which customers are expected to contribute from process orientation? 4. What can one learn from process orientation in other safety critical systems? What is the effect on those features that currently create safety? 5. Could customer values increase for one customer without decreasing for other customers? What is the relationship between economic and safety interests from an increased process orientation? The deregulation of the electricity market have caused an interest in increased economic efficiency, which is the motivation for the interest in process orientation. among other means. It is the nuclear power plants' owners and the distributors (often the same corporations) that have the strongest interest in process orientation. If the functional organization and associated practices are decomposed, the prerequisites of the risk management regime changes, perhaps deteriorating its functionality. When nuclear power operators consider the introduction of process orientation, the Nuclear Power Inspectorate should require that 1. The operators perform a risk analysis beforehand concerning the potential consequences that process orientation might convey: the analysis should contain a model specifying how safety is currently

  5. Design optimization for security-and safety-critical distributed real-time applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Wei; Pop, Paul; Jiang, Ke

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we are interested in the design of real-time applications with security, safety, timing, and energy requirements. The applications are scheduled with cyclic scheduling, and are mapped on distributed heterogeneous architectures. Cryptographic services are deployed to satisfy securit...

  6. Reaping the Benefits of Task Conflict in Teams: The Critical Role of Team Psychological Safety Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Bret H.; Postlethwaite, Bennett E.; Klotz, Anthony C.; Hamdani, Maria R.; Brown, Kenneth G.

    2012-01-01

    Past research suggests that task conflict may improve team performance under certain conditions; however, we know little about these specific conditions. On the basis of prior theory and research on conflict in teams, we argue that a climate of psychological safety is one specific context under which task conflict will improve team performance.…

  7. Structural safety: Study into critical factors in the design and construction process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwel, K.C.

    2014-01-01

    Failure investigations show that 80-85% of the structural failures are caused by inadequacies in the design and construction process, related to human and organizational factors. This study showed that safety culture, allocation of responsibilities control, communication and collaboration and knowl

  8. Selecting an Architecture for a Safety-Critical Distributed Computer System with Power, Weight and Cost Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Pomales, Wilfredo

    2014-01-01

    This report presents an example of the application of multi-criteria decision analysis to the selection of an architecture for a safety-critical distributed computer system. The design problem includes constraints on minimum system availability and integrity, and the decision is based on the optimal balance of power, weight and cost. The analysis process includes the generation of alternative architectures, evaluation of individual decision criteria, and the selection of an alternative based on overall value. In this example presented here, iterative application of the quantitative evaluation process made it possible to deliberately generate an alternative architecture that is superior to all others regardless of the relative importance of cost.

  9. Risk-Based Predictive Maintenance for Safety-Critical Systems by Using Probabilistic Inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhua Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Risk-based maintenance (RBM aims to improve maintenance planning and decision making by reducing the probability and consequences of failure of equipment. A new predictive maintenance strategy that integrates dynamic evolution model and risk assessment is proposed which can be used to calculate the optimal maintenance time with minimal cost and safety constraints. The dynamic evolution model provides qualified risks by using probabilistic inference with bucket elimination and gives the prospective degradation trend of a complex system. Based on the degradation trend, an optimal maintenance time can be determined by minimizing the expected maintenance cost per time unit. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated and demonstrated by a collision accident of high-speed trains with obstacles in the presence of safety and cost constrains.

  10. An Introduction to Formal Methods for the Development of Safety-critical Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    is assumed to have some knowledge about software development, but not on formal methods. The background for the railway authorities’ interest in formal methods is the fact that during the next decade a total renewal of the Danish signalling infrastructure is going to take place. Central parts of the new......This report is a delivery to The Danish Government’s railway authority, Trafikstyrelsen, as a part of the Public Sector Consultancy service offered by the Technical University of Denmark. The purpose of the report is to give the reader an insight into the stateof-the-art of formal methods. The reader...... systems will be software components that must fulfill strong safety requirements: in order to get the software certified at the highest Safety Integrity Levels of the European CENELEC standards for railway applications, the software providers are expected to use formal methods....

  11. Does assisted driving behavior lead to safety-critical encounters with unequipped vehicles' drivers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuk, Katharina; Stemmler, Eric; Schießl, Caroline; Jipp, Meike

    2016-10-01

    With Intelligent Transport Systems (e.g., traffic light assistance systems) assisted drivers are able to show driving behavior in anticipation of upcoming traffic situations. In the years to come, the penetration rate of such systems will be low. Therefore, the majority of vehicles will not be equipped with these systems. Unequipped vehicles' drivers may not expect the driving behavior of assisted drivers. However, drivers' predictions and expectations can play a significant role in their reaction times. Thus, safety issues could arise when unequipped vehicles' drivers encounter driving behavior of assisted drivers. This is why we tested how unequipped vehicles' drivers (N=60) interpreted and reacted to the driving behavior of an assisted driver. We used a multi-driver simulator with three drivers. The three drivers were driving in a line. The lead driver in the line was a confederate who was followed by two unequipped vehicles' drivers. We varied the equipment of the confederate with an Intelligent Transport System: The confederate was equipped either with or without a traffic light assistance system. The traffic light assistance system provided a start-up maneuver before a light turned green. Therefore, the assisted confederate seemed to show unusual deceleration behavior by coming to a halt at an unusual distance from the stop line at the red traffic light. The unusual distance was varied as we tested a moderate (4m distance from the stop line) and an extreme (10m distance from the stop line) parameterization of the system. Our results showed that the extreme parametrization resulted in shorter minimal time-to-collision of the unequipped vehicles' drivers. One rear-end crash was observed. These results provided initial evidence that safety issues can arise when unequipped vehicles' drivers encounter assisted driving behavior. We recommend that future research identifies counteractions to prevent these safety issues. Moreover, we recommend that system developers

  12. Four Pillars for Improving the Quality of Safety-Critical Software-Reliant Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    the use of ISO 9001 /CMMI®,1 the suite of ISO -IEC SC 7 process standards, and standards and practices specific to the certification of safety...Carnegie Mellon University. 2 ISO , International Organization for Standardization; ISO -IEC SC 7, ISO -International Electro technical Commission...Ellison 2008]). International Standards Organization ( ISO ) stand- ard (15026-2) for assurance cases is now under development. The U.S. Food and Drug

  13. An Economic Evaluation of Food Safety Education Interventions: Estimates and Critical Data Gaps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zan, Hua; Lambea, Maria; McDowell, Joyce; Scharff, Robert L

    2017-08-01

    The economic evaluation of food safety interventions is an important tool that practitioners and policy makers use to assess the efficacy of their efforts. These evaluations are built on models that are dependent on accurate estimation of numerous input variables. In many cases, however, there is no data available to determine input values and expert opinion is used to generate estimates. This study uses a benefit-cost analysis of the food safety component of the adult Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) in Ohio as a vehicle for demonstrating how results based on variable values that are not objectively determined may be sensitive to alternative assumptions. In particular, the focus here is on how reported behavioral change is translated into economic benefits. Current gaps in the literature make it impossible to know with certainty how many people are protected by the education (what are the spillover effects?), the length of time education remains effective, and the level of risk reduction from change in behavior. Based on EFNEP survey data, food safety education led 37.4% of participants to improve their food safety behaviors. Under reasonable default assumptions, benefits from this improvement significantly outweigh costs, yielding a benefit-cost ratio of between 6.2 and 10.0. Incorporation of a sensitivity analysis using alternative estimates yields a greater range of estimates (0.2 to 56.3), which highlights the importance of future research aimed at filling these research gaps. Nevertheless, most reasonable assumptions lead to estimates of benefits that justify their costs.

  14. Quality and Safety in Orthopaedics: Learning and Teaching at the Same Time: AOA Critical Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Kevin P; Armstrong, April D; Hutzler, Lorraine; Egol, Kenneth A

    2015-11-04

    Increasing attention has been placed on providing higher quality and safer patient care. This requires the development of a new set of competencies to better understand and navigate the system and lead the orthopaedic team. While still trying to learn and develop these competencies, the academic orthopaedist is also expected to model and teach them.The orthopaedic surgeon must understand what is being measured and why, both for purposes of providing better care and to eliminate unnecessary expense in the system. Metrics currently include hospital-acquired conditions, "never events," and thirty-day readmission rates. More will undoubtedly follow.Although commitment and excellence at the individual level are essential, the orthopaedist must think at the systems level to provide the highest value of care. A work culture characterized by respect and trust is essential to improved communication, teamwork, and confidential peer review. An increasing number of resources, both in print and electronic format, are available for us to understand what we can do now to improve quality and safety.Resident education in quality and safety is a fundamental component of the systems-based practice competency, the Next Accreditation System, and the Clinical Learning Environment Review. This needs to be longitudinally integrated into the curriculum and applied parallel to the development of resident knowledge and skill, and will be best learned if resident learning is experiential and taught within a genuine culture of quality and safety. Copyright © 2015 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  15. Efficient integration of secure and safety critical industrial wireless sensor networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björkman Mats

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Wireless communication has gained more interest in industrial automation due to flexibility, mobility, and cost reduction. Wireless systems, in general, require additional and different engineering and maintenance tasks, for example cryptographic key management. This is an important aspect that needs to be addressed before wireless systems can be deployed and maintained efficiently in the industry. In this paper, we take an holistic approach that addresses safety and security regardless of the underlying media. In our proposed framework we introduce security modules which can be retrofitted to provide end-to-end integrity and authentication measures by utilizing the black channel concept. With the proposed approach, we can extend and provide end-to-end security as well as functional safety using existing automation equipment and standards, such as Profisafe, Profinet IO, and WirelessHART. Furthermore, we improve the WirelessHART standard with periodic and deterministic downlink transmissions to enable efficient usage of wireless actuators, as well as improving the performance of functional safety protocols.

  16. 30 CFR 7.85 - Critical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Critical characteristics. 7.85 Section 7.85 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND... Underground Coal Mines § 7.85 Critical characteristics. The following critical characteristics shall...

  17. Safety of Animal Fats for Biodiesel Production: A Critical Review of Literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, A.; Dawson, P.; Nixon, D.; Atkins, J.; Pearl, G. [Clemson University, SC (United States)

    2007-05-15

    An in-depth review of available literature was conducted on the safety of using animal fats for biodiesel. The review indicated little or no known risk to human and animal health and to the environment relative to inherent microbial, organic or inorganic agents in animal fats destined for biodiesel production. Animal by-products are generated from the inedible tissues derived from meat, poultry and fish production. This material is thermally processed by the rendering industry to generate a number of industrial materials including use of the fat portion to produce biodiesel. As the biodiesel industry continues to develop, questions have emerged about the safety of animal versus vegetable fats for biodiesel production and utilization. The following report is the result of a detailed literature search into the potential microbial, organic, and inorganic contaminants that may be present in animal fats and the potential for human or environmental safety issues associated with each. The potential safety risks associated with prions are discussed in a separate report, 'Biodiesel from Specified Risk Material Tallow: An Appraisal of TSE Risks and their Reduction'. In certain instances, very little was reported about the potential contaminating moiety and its fate in biodiesel production and usage. Establishing an absolute zero risk assessment is impossible on any fat utilized for biodiesel production. Among the potential microbial contaminants, bacteria, viruses, fungi, yeast, parasites, and microbial toxins were considered. In each instance, the nature of the production process and usage of biodiesel via combustion reduce the possibility that microbial contaminants would be a cause for concern to humans, animals, or the environment. Potential organic moieties contaminating the fat should meet a similar fate. Current evidence suggests that metals and metalloids within animal fats will not cause significant safety issues in the production and use of rendered fat

  18. Applicability of the SCALE code system to MOX fuel transport systems for criticality safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Naito, Yoshitaka [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Hayashi, Toshiaki; Takasugi, Masahiro; Natsume, Toshihiro; Tsuda, Kazuaki

    1996-11-01

    In order to ascertain feasibilities of the SCALE code system for MOX fuel transport systems, criticality analyses were performed for MOX fuel (Pu enrichment; 3.0 wt.%) criticality experiments at JAERI`s TCA and for infinite fuel rod arrays as parameters of Pu enrichment and lattice pitch. The comparison with a combination of the continuous energy Monte Carlo code MCNP and JENDL-3.2 indicated that the SCALE code system with GAM-THERMOS 123-group library can produce feasible results. Though HANSEN-ROACH 16-group library gives poorer results for MOS fuel transport systems, the errors are conservative except for high enriched fuels. (author)

  19. INTEGRAL BENCHMARKS AVAILABLE THROUGH THE INTERNATIONAL REACTOR PHYSICS EXPERIMENT EVALUATION PROJECT AND THE INTERNATIONAL CRITICALITY SAFETY BENCHMARK EVALUATION PROJECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Blair Briggs; Lori Scott; Enrico Sartori; Yolanda Rugama

    2008-09-01

    Interest in high-quality integral benchmark data is increasing as efforts to quantify and reduce calculational uncertainties accelerate to meet the demands of next generation reactor and advanced fuel cycle concepts. The International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) and the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) continue to expand their efforts and broaden their scope to identify, evaluate, and provide integral benchmark data for method and data validation. Benchmark model specifications provided by these two projects are used heavily by the international reactor physics, nuclear data, and criticality safety communities. Thus far, 14 countries have contributed to the IRPhEP, and 20 have contributed to the ICSBEP. The status of the IRPhEP and ICSBEP is discussed in this paper, and the future of the two projects is outlined and discussed. Selected benchmarks that have been added to the IRPhEP and ICSBEP handbooks since PHYSOR’06 are highlighted, and the future of the two projects is discussed.

  20. Critical review of the reactor-safety study radiological health effects model. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, D.W.; Evans, J.S.; Jacob, N.; Kase, K.R.; Maletskos, C.J.; Robertson, J.B.; Smith, D.G.

    1983-03-01

    This review of the radiological health effects models originally presented in the Reactor Safety Study (RSS) and currently used by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) was undertaken to assist the NRC in determining whether or not to revise the models and to aid in the revision, if undertaken. The models as presented in the RSS and as implemented in the CRAC (Calculations of Reactor Accident Consequences) Code are described and critiqued. The major elements analyzed are those concerning dosimetry, early effects, and late effects. The published comments on the models are summarized, as are the important findings since the publication of the RSS.

  1. Risk-Informed Safety Assurance and Probabilistic Assessment of Mission-Critical Software-Intensive Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarro, Sergio B.

    2010-01-01

    This report validates and documents the detailed features and practical application of the framework for software intensive digital systems risk assessment and risk-informed safety assurance presented in the NASA PRA Procedures Guide for Managers and Practitioner. This framework, called herein the "Context-based Software Risk Model" (CSRM), enables the assessment of the contribution of software and software-intensive digital systems to overall system risk, in a manner which is entirely compatible and integrated with the format of a "standard" Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA), as currently documented and applied for NASA missions and applications. The CSRM also provides a risk-informed path and criteria for conducting organized and systematic digital system and software testing so that, within this risk-informed paradigm, the achievement of a quantitatively defined level of safety and mission success assurance may be targeted and demonstrated. The framework is based on the concept of context-dependent software risk scenarios and on the modeling of such scenarios via the use of traditional PRA techniques - i.e., event trees and fault trees - in combination with more advanced modeling devices such as the Dynamic Flowgraph Methodology (DFM) or other dynamic logic-modeling representations. The scenarios can be synthesized and quantified in a conditional logic and probabilistic formulation. The application of the CSRM method documented in this report refers to the MiniAERCam system designed and developed by the NASA Johnson Space Center.

  2. Dependability analysis of a safety critical system the LHC beam dumping system at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Filippini, R

    2006-01-01

    This thesis presents the dependability study of the Beam Dumping System of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), the high energy particle accelerator to be commissioned at CERN in summer 2007. There are two identical, independent LHC Beam Dumping Systems (LBDS), one per LHC beam, each consisting of a series of magnets that extract the particle beam from the LHC ring into the extraction line leading to the absorbing block. The consequences of a failure within the LBDS can be very severe. This risk is reduced by applying redundancy to the design of the most critical components and on-line surveillance that, in case of a detected failure, issues a safe operation abort, called false beam dump. The system has been studied applying Failure Modes Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) and reliability prediction. The system failure processes have been represented with a state transition diagram, governed by a Markov regenerative stochastic process, and analysed for different operational scenarios for one year of operati...

  3. Impact of critically ill patients in regards to the boarding time from the emergency department to the intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Fildissis

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the association between ED overcrowding and outcomes for critically ill patients Design and Setting: We included medical and surgical pts that all of them were intubated promptly to ED of 2 general hospitals of Athens GR, for 12 months. Pts survived > 24hours were divided into 2 groups: ED boarding 61 yrs, female gender and direct admission to ICU were associated with lower hospital survival (odds ratio 0.815; 95% 0.612-0.976. Conclusions: Boarding time of critically ill from ED to ICUs is very important because it is strongly related to the hospital LOS and mortality rate.

  4. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Plagge, C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

    Fire Safety – Essential for a particle detector The CMS detector is a marvel of high technology, one of the most precise particle measurement devices we have built until now. Of course it has to be protected from external and internal incidents like the ones that can occur from fires. Due to the fire load, the permanent availability of oxygen and the presence of various ignition sources mostly based on electricity this has to be addressed. Starting from the beam pipe towards the magnet coil, the detector is protected by flooding it with pure gaseous nitrogen during operation. The outer shell of CMS, namely the yoke and the muon chambers are then covered by an emergency inertion system also based on nitrogen. To ensure maximum fire safety, all materials used comply with the CERN regulations IS 23 and IS 41 with only a few exceptions. Every piece of the 30-tonne polyethylene shielding is high-density material, borated, boxed within steel and coated with intumescent (a paint that creates a thick co...

  5. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

      “Safety is the highest priority”: this statement from CERN is endorsed by the CMS management. An interpretation of this statement may bring you to the conclusion that you should stop working in order to avoid risks. If the safety is the priority, work is not! This would be a misunderstanding and misinterpretation. One should understand that “working safely” or “operating safely” is the priority at CERN. CERN personnel are exposed to different hazards on many levels on a daily basis. However, risk analyses and assessments are done in order to limit the number and the gravity of accidents. For example, this process takes place each time you cross the road. The hazard is the moving vehicle, the stake is you and the risk might be the risk of collision between both. The same principle has to be applied during our daily work. In particular, keeping in mind the general principles of prevention defined in the late 1980s. These principles wer...

  6. Digital System Reliability Test for the Evaluation of safety Critical Software of Digital Reactor Protection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Kook Shin

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A new Digital Reactor Protection System (DRPS based on VME bus Single Board Computer has been developed by KOPEC to prevent software Common Mode Failure(CMF inside digital system. The new DRPS has been proved to be an effective digital safety system to prevent CMF by Defense-in-Depth and Diversity (DID&D analysis. However, for practical use in Nuclear Power Plants, the performance test and the reliability test are essential for the digital system qualification. In this study, a single channel of DRPS prototype has been manufactured for the evaluation of DRPS capabilities. The integrated functional tests are performed and the system reliability is analyzed and tested. The results of reliability test show that the application software of DRPS has a very high reliability compared with the analog reactor protection systems.

  7. Criticality safety evaluation report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility`s process water handling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roblyer, S.D.

    1998-02-12

    This report addresses the criticality concerns associated with process water handling in the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). The controls and limitations on equipment design and operations to control potential criticality occurrences are identified. The effectiveness of equipment design and operation controls in preventing criticality occurrences during normal and abnormal conditions is evaluated and documented in this report. Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is removed from existing canisters in both the K East and K West Basins and loaded into a multicanister overpack (MCO) in the K Basin pool. The MCO is housed in a shipping cask surrounded by clean water in the annulus between the exterior of the MCO and the interior of the shipping cask. The fuel consists of spent N Reactor and some single pass reactor fuel. The MCO is transported to the CVDF near the K Basins to remove process water from the MCO interior and from the shipping cask annulus. After the bulk water is removed from the MCO, any remaining free liquid is removed by drawing a vacuum on the MCO`s interior. After cold vacuum drying is completed, the MCO is filled with an inert cover gas, the lid is replaced on the shipping cask, and the MCO is transported to the Canister Storage Building. The process water removed from the MCO contains fissionable materials from metallic uranium corrosion. The process water from the MCO is first collected in a geometrically safe process water conditioning receiver tank. The process water in the process water conditioning receiver tank is tested, then filtered, demineralized, and collected in the storage tank. The process water is finally removed from the storage tank and transported from the CVDF by truck.

  8. [The critical incident reporting system as an instrument of risk management for better patient safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzica, M; Krettek, C; Cartes, M

    2011-09-01

    The probability that an inpatient will be harmed by a medical procedure is at least 3% of all patients. As a consequence, hospital risk management has become a central management task in the health care sector. The critical incident reporting system (CIRS) as a voluntary instrument for reporting (near) incidents plays a key role in the implementation of a risk management system. The goal of the CIRS is to register system errors without assigning guilt or meting out punishment and at the same time increasing the number of voluntary reports.

  9. Criticality Safety Evaluation for TRU Waste In Storage at the RWMC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. E. Shaw; J. B. Briggs; C. A. Atkinson; G. J. Briscoe

    1994-04-01

    Stored containers (drums, boxes, and bins) of transuranic waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) facility located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) were evaluated based on inherent neutron absorption characteristics of the waste materials. It was demonstrated that these properties are sufficient to preclude a criticality accident at the actual fissile levels present in the waste stored at the RWMC. Based on the database information available, the results reported herein confirm that the waste drums, boxes, and bins currently stored at the RWMC will remain safely subcritical if rearranged, restacked, or otherwise handled. Acceptance criteria for receiving future drum shipments were established based on fully infinite systems.

  10. MODSARE-V: Validation of Dependability and Safety Critical Software Components with Model Based Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Daniel T. de M. M.; Schoofs, Tobias; Alana Salazar, Elena; Rodriguez Rodriguez, Ana Isabel; Devic, Marie-Odile

    2010-08-01

    The wide use of RAMS methods and techniques [1] (e.g. SFMECA, SFTA, HAZOP, HA...) in critical software development resulted in the specification of new software requirements, design constraints and other issues such as mandatory coding rules. Given the large variety of RAMS Requirements and Techniques, different types of Verification and Validation (V&V) [14] are spread over the phases of the software engineering process. As a result, the V&V process becomes complex and the cost and time required for a complete and consistent V&V process is increased. By introducing the concept of a model based approach to facilitate the RAMS requirements definition process, the V&V may be reduce in time and effort. MODSARE-V is demonstrates the feasibility of this concept based on case studies applied to ground or on-board software space projects with critical functions/components. This paper describes the approach adopted at MODSARE-V to realize the concept into a prototype and summarizes the results and conclusions met after the prototype application on the case studies.

  11. Pervasive Observation Medicine: The Application of RFID to Improve Patient Safety in Observation Unit of Hospital Emergency Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chang-I; Liu, Cheng-Yaw; Li, Yu-Chuan; Chao, Chia-Cheng; Liu, Chien-Tsai; Chen, Chieh-Feng; Kuan, Ching-Feng

    2005-01-01

    Over the past decade, observation medicine has become an important component of emergency medicine. There are several settings in which observation medicine has been useful and valuable.(1) RFID as the patient identification, not only generates the on-line laboratory data and radiology report via hand-held wireless PDA, this RFID system help physician stream-line patient admission to acute bed or ICU in the emergency department more effectively.

  12. Experimental study of neutron noise with criticality safety applications in mind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, C.S.

    1985-11-01

    A study has been conducted on the statistics of detected neutrons that leaked from four subcritical reflected, enriched-uranium assemblies, to explore the feasibility of developing a criticality warning system based on neutron noise analysis. Studies were conducted on three possible discriminators, i.e., three signatures that might be used to discriminate among assemblies of various multiplications. The noise analysis techniques studied performed well enough in deeply subcritical situations to deserve testing in an applications environment. They have a good chance of detecting changes in reactivity that are potentially dangerous. One can expect sharpest results when doing comparisons, i.e., when comparing two records, one taken in the past under circumstances known to be normal and one taken now to search for change.

  13. Open-access technique and "critical view of safety" as the safest way to perform laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsalis, Konstantinos; Antoniou, Nikolaos; Koukouritaki, Zambia; Patridas, Dimitrios; Christoforidis, Emmanuel; Lazaridis, Charalampos

    2015-04-01

    The 2 main challenges of laparoscopic cholecystectomy are primary peritoneal access and safe identification, ligation, and division of the cystic duct and cystic artery. This is a 13-year period retrospective study from January 2000 to December 2012. All the operations were performed by 1 surgeon and all the data were collected from the hospitals archive. A total of 929 laparoscopic cholecystectomies were performed for symptomatic cholelithiasis. The first author was involved in all the operations either by performing or assisting in them. The open access (OA) technique was used in all cases for the creation of pneumoperitoneum. After establishing the pneumoperitoneum, the "critical view of safety" (CVS) technique was used to ligate and divide the cystic duct and cystic artery. When the OA was not possible or CVS was not feasible, the operation was converted to open. Successful establishment of pneumoperitoneum with OA was possible in 911 of 929 (98.06%) patients and CVS was achieved in 873 patients (95.82%). In 18 patients the operation was converted to open because of dense adhesions not permitting the establishment of the pneumoperitoneum. No intraoperative or postoperative complications occurred in these patients. No bile duct injury occurred in this series. Postoperative complications were recorded in 19 patients (2.04%). Five patients had bleeding from port sites, 12 patients had wound infection at the umbilical incision, and 2 patients developed subhepatic collections, which were drained percutaneously under computed tomographic guidance. In this series of laparoscopic cholecystectomies, we used the "open access" technique to create pneumoperitoneum and we obtained the "critical view of safety" for the identification of the cystic duct. Our results show that this approach is the safest way to perform and teach laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  14. A systems perspective of managing error recovery and tactical re-planning of operating teams in safety critical domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontogiannis, Tom

    2011-04-01

    Research in human error has provided useful tools for designing procedures, training, and intelligent interfaces that trap errors at an early stage. However, this "error prevention" policy may not be entirely successful because human errors will inevitably occur. This requires that the error management process (e.g., detection, diagnosis and correction) must also be supported. Research has focused almost exclusively on error detection; little is known about error recovery, especially in the context of safety critical systems. The aim of this paper is to develop a research framework that integrates error recovery strategies employed by experienced practitioners in handling their own errors. A control theoretic model of human performance was used to integrate error recovery strategies assembled from reviews of the literature, analyses of near misses from aviation and command & control domains, and observations of abnormal situations training at air traffic control facilities. The method of system dynamics has been used to analyze and compare error recovery strategies in terms of patterns of interaction, system affordances, and types of recovery plans. System dynamics offer a promising basis for studying the nature of error recovery management in the context of team interactions and system characteristics. The proposed taxonomy of error recovery strategies can help human factors and safety experts to develop resilient system designs and training solutions for managing human errors in unforeseen situations; it may also help incident investigators to explore why people's actions and assessments were not corrected at the time. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Criticality Safety Scoping Study for the Transport of Weapons-Grade Mixed-Oxide Fuel Using the MO-1 Shipping Package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, M.E.; Fox, P.B.

    1999-05-01

    This report provides the criticality safety information needed for obtaining certification of the shipment of mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel using the MO-1 [USA/9069/B()F] shipping package. Specifically, this report addresses the shipment of non-weapons-grade MOX fuel as certified under Certificate of Compliance 9069, Revision 10. The report further addresses the shipment of weapons-grade MOX fuel using a possible Westinghouse fuel design. Criticality safety analysis information is provided to demonstrate that the requirements of 10 CFR S 71.55 and 71.59 are satisfied for the MO-1 package. Using NUREG/CR-5661 as a guide, a transport index (TI) for criticality control is determined for the shipment of non-weapons-grade MOX fuel as specified in Certificate of Compliance 9069, Revision 10. A TI for criticality control is also determined for the shipment of weapons-grade MOX fuel. Since the possible weapons-grade fuel design is preliminary in nature, this report is considered to be a scoping evaluation and is not intended as a substitute for the final criticality safety analysis of the MO-1 shipping package. However, the criticality safety evaluation information that is presented in this report does demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining certification for the transport of weapons-grade MOX lead test fuel using the MO-1 shipping package.

  16. Critical appraisal of efficacy and safety of abatacept in the treatment of refractory rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustine JM

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Lisa M Lundquist1, Sabrina W Cole2, Jill M Augustine11Mercer University College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, Atlanta, GA, 2Wingate University School of Pharmacy, Wingate, NC, USAAbstract: Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic, progressive, autoimmune disease that leads to significant disability and premature mortality. Various treatment options are available, but the foundation of treatment includes nonbiologic and biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. The incidence of patients with rheumatoid arthritis refractory to first-line agents is estimated to be at least 20%. Abatacept, a T cell costimulation modulator, is the first agent to interfere with full T cell activation by competing with CD28 for binding of CD80 and CD86, which results in decreased secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and autoantibody production. Current American College of Rheumatology treatment guidelines recommend abatacept for patients with at least moderate disease activity and a poor prognosis demonstrating an inadequate response to other agents. Several key Phase III trials have been conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of abatacept in patients with an inadequate response to methotrexate or anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha therapy. Response rates in all trials showed statistically significant improvements compared with placebo according to American College of Rheumatology criteria for disease improvement. The most common adverse event report in patients receiving abatacept was infection; however, the frequency of adverse events was similar to placebo. Abatacept is a safe and effective rheumatoid arthritis treatment for patients with an inadequate response to methotrexate or anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha therapy.Keywords: abatacept, rheumatoid arthritis, treatment refractory, biologic, disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs

  17. Emplacement Guidance for Criticality Safety in Low-Level-Waste Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elam, K.R.

    2001-06-23

    The disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) containing special nuclear material (SNM) presents some unusual challenges for LLW disposal site operators and regulators. Radiological concerns associated with the radioactive decay of the SNM are combined with concerns associated with the avoidance of a nuclear criticality both during handling and after disposal of the waste. Currently, there are three operating LLW disposal facilities: Envirocare, Barnwell, and Richland. All these facilities are located in U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Agreement States and are regulated by their respective state: Utah, South Carolina, and Washington. As such, the amount of SNM that can be possessed by each of these facilities is limited to the 10 CFR Part 150 limits (i.e., 350 g of uranium-235, 200 g of uranium-233, and 200 g of Pu, with the sum-of-fractions rule applying), unless an exemption is issued. NRC has applied these SNM possession limits to above-ground possession. The purpose of this report is to provide data which could demonstrate that SNM waste at emplacement will not cause a nuclear criticality accident. Five different SNM isotopic compositions were studied: 100 wt% enriched uranium, 10 wt% enriched uranium, uranium-233, plutonium-239, and an isotopic mixture of plutonium (76 wt% plutonium-239, 12 wt% plutonium-240, and 12 wt% plutonium-241). Three different graded-approach methods are presented. The first graded-approach method is the most conservative and may be applicable to facilities that dispose of very low areal densities of SNM, or dispose of material with a low average enrichment. It relies on the calculation of average areal density or on the average enrichment of SNM. The area over which averaging may be performed is also specified, but the emplacement depth is not constrained. The second graded-approach method relies on limiting the average concentration by weight of SNM in the waste, and on limiting the depth of the emplacement. This method

  18. Plutonium working group report on environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities associated with the department`s plutonium storage. Volume II, Appendix B, Part 9: Oak Ridge site site team report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    This report provides the input to and results of the Department of Energy (DOE) - Oak Ridge Operations (ORO) DOE Plutonium Environment, Safety and Health (ES & H) Vulnerability Assessment (VA) self-assessment performed by the Site Assessment Team (SAT) for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL or X-10) and the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant (Y-12) sites that are managed by Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (MMES). As initiated (March 15, 1994) by the Secretary of Energy, the objective of the VA is to identify and rank-order DOE-ES&H vulnerabilities associated for the purpose of decision making on the interim safe management and ultimate disposition of fissile materials. This assessment is directed at plutonium and other co-located transuranics in various forms.

  19. Nuclear Criticality Safety of the DOT 9975 Container for237NpO2Storage, Handling, and Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, D.A.

    2003-08-29

    Nuclear criticality safety considerations are presented to address use of the DOT 9975 shipping container for {sup 237}NpO{sub 2}. The DOT 9975 container will be used by multiple DOE sites and contractors. Various of site- and activity-specific NCS and facility safety documents are yet to be developed. For these reasons, an overall assessment of criticality safety of {sup 237}NpO{sub 2}-loaded DOT 9975 containers is considered useful to personnel involved in generating, reviewing, or approving these various documents. It is concluded that inherent container features, the loading per container (maximum of 6 kg {sup 237}Np), and the nuclear physics properties of {sup 237}NpO{sub 2} combine to preclude the potential for a nuclear criticality accident. This conclusion applies to storage, handling, and transport operations involving closed DOT 9975 packages, including credible off-normal conditions that may result in damage to packages during those operations.

  20. Criticality safety aspects of spent fuel arrays from emerging nuclear fuel cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicolaou, G. [University of Thrace, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Laboratory of Nuclear Technology, Kimmerria Campus, 67100 Xanthi (Greece)

    2010-07-01

    Emerging nuclear fuel cycles: fuels with Pu or minor actinides (MA) for their self-generated recycling or transmutation in PWR or FR {yields} reduction of radiotoxicity of HLW. The aim of work is to assess criticality (k{sub {infinity}}) of arrays of spent nuclear fuels from these emerging fuel cycles. Procedures: Calculations of - k{sub {infinity}}, using MCNP5 based on fresh and spent fuel compositions (infinite arrays), - spent fuel compositions using ORIGEN. Fuels considered: - commercial PWR-UO{sub 2} (R1) and -MOX (R2), [45 GWd/t] and fast reactor [100 GWd/t] (R3), - PWR self-generated Pu recycling (S1) and MA recycling (S2), FR self-generated MA recycling (S3), FR with 2% {sup 237}Np for transmutation purposes (T). Results: k{sub {infinity}} based on fresh and spent fuel compositions is shown. Fuels are clustered in two distinct families: - fast reactor fuels, - thermal reactor fuels; k{sub {infinity}} decreases when calculated on the basis of actinide and fission product inventory. In conclusions: - Emerging fuels considered resemble their corresponding commercial fuels; - k{sub {infinity}} decreases in all cases when calculated on the basis of spent fuel compositions (reactivity worth {approx}-20%{Delta}k/k), hence improving the effectiveness of packaging. (author)

  1. Critical points of Brazil nuts: a beginning for food safety, quality control and Amazon sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Andriele M; Gonçalves, Evonnildo C; Andrade, Soraya S; Barbosa, Maria S R; Barroso, Karla F P; de Sousa, Mayara B; Borges, Larissa; Vieira, Jozé L F; Teixeira, Francisco M

    2013-03-15

    One difficulty of self-sustainability is the quality assurance of native products. This research was designed to study the risks and critical control points in the collection, handling and marketing of Brazil nuts from native forests and urban fairs in the Brazilian Amazon by characterisation of morphological aspects of fungi and posterior identification by molecular biology and determination of aflatoxins by high-performance liquid chromatography. Several corrective actions to improve product quality were found to be necessary in both sites. Growth of fungi was observed in 95% of fragments of Brazil nuts from both sites during the between-harvest period. Aflatoxin levels indicated that, although fungal growth was observed in both sites, only Brazil nuts from the native forest showed a high risk to human health (total aflatoxin level of 471.69 µg kg(-1)). This study has shown the main issues related to the process design of Brazil nuts, supporting the necessity for research on new strategies to improve the quality of nuts. Also, the habit of eating Brazil nuts stored throughout the year may represent a risk to farmers. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Validation of MCNP6.1 for Criticality Safety of Pu-Metal, -Solution, and -Oxide Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiedrowski, Brian C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Conlin, Jeremy Lloyd [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Favorite, Jeffrey A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kahler, III, Albert C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kersting, Alyssa R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Parsons, Donald K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Walker, Jessie L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-05-13

    Guidance is offered to the Los Alamos National Laboratory Nuclear Criticality Safety division towards developing an Upper Subcritical Limit (USL) for MCNP6.1 calculations with ENDF/B-VII.1 nuclear data for three classes of problems: Pu-metal, -solution, and -oxide systems. A benchmark suite containing 1,086 benchmarks is prepared, and a sensitivity/uncertainty (S/U) method with a generalized linear least squares (GLLS) data adjustment is used to reject outliers, bringing the total to 959 usable benchmarks. For each class of problem, S/U methods are used to select relevant experimental benchmarks, and the calculational margin is computed using extreme value theory. A portion of the margin of sub criticality is defined considering both a detection limit for errors in codes and data and uncertainty/variability in the nuclear data library. The latter employs S/U methods with a GLLS data adjustment to find representative nuclear data covariances constrained by integral experiments, which are then used to compute uncertainties in keff from nuclear data. The USLs for the classes of problems are as follows: Pu metal, 0.980; Pu solutions, 0.973; dry Pu oxides, 0.978; dilute Pu oxide-water mixes, 0.970; and intermediate-spectrum Pu oxide-water mixes, 0.953.

  3. Health Monitor for Multitasking, Safety-Critical, Real-Time Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoerner, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Health Manager can detect Bad Health prior to a failure occurring by periodically monitoring the application software by looking for code corruption errors, and sanity-checking each critical data value prior to use. A processor s memory can fail and corrupt the software, or the software can accidentally write to the wrong address and overwrite the executing software. This innovation will continuously calculate a checksum of the software load to detect corrupted code. This will allow a system to detect a failure before it happens. This innovation monitors each software task (thread) so that if any task reports "bad health," or does not report to the Health Manager, the system is declared bad. The Health Manager reports overall system health to the outside world by outputting a square wave signal. If the square wave stops, this indicates that system health is bad or hung and cannot report. Either way, "bad health" can be detected, whether caused by an error, corrupted data, or a hung processor. A separate Health Monitor Task is started and run periodically in a loop that starts and stops pending on a semaphore. Each monitored task registers with the Health Manager, which maintains a count for the task. The registering task must indicate if it will run more or less often than the Health Manager. If the task runs more often than the Health Manager, the monitored task calls a health function that increments the count and verifies it did not go over max-count. When the periodic Health Manager runs, it verifies that the count did not go over the max-count and zeroes it. If the task runs less often than the Health Manager, the periodic Health Manager will increment the count. The monitored task zeroes the count, and both the Health Manager and monitored task verify that the count did not go over the max-count.

  4. Study of neutron noise from reflected, metal assemblies with criticality safety applications in mind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, C.S.

    1985-08-20

    The author studied the statistics of detected neutrons that leaked from four subcritical reflected, enriched-uranium assemblies, to explore the feasibility of developing a criticality warning system based on neutron noise analysis. The calculated multiplication factors of the assemblies are 0.59, 0.74, 0.82, and 0.92. The author studied three possible discriminators, i.e., three signatures that might be used to discriminate among assemblies of various multiplications. They are: (1) variance-to-mean ratio of the counts in a time bin (V/M); (2) covariance-to-mean ratio of the counts in a common time bin from two different detectors (C/M); and (3) covariance-to-mean ratio of the counts from a single detector in two adjacent time bins of equal length, which the author calls the serial-covariance-to-mean ratio (SC/M). The performances of the three discriminators were not greatly different, but a hierarchy did emerge: SC/M greater than or equal to V/M greater than or equal to C/M. An example of some results: in the neighborhood of k = 0.6 the ..delta..k required for satisfactory discrimination varies from about 3% to 7% as detector solid angle varies from 19% to 5%. In the neighborhood of k = 0.8 the corresponding ..delta..ks are 1% and 2%. The noise analysis techniques studied performed well enough in deeply subcritical situations to deserve testing in an applications environment. They have a good chance of detecting changes in reactivity that are potentially dangerous. One can expect sharpest results when doing comparisons, i.e., when comparing two records, one taken in the past under circumstances known to be normal and one taken now to search for change.

  5. Safety Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Swan Lake National Wildlife Refuge Safety Plan discusses policies for the safety of the station employees, volunteers, and public. This plan seeks to identify...

  6. Very early passive cycling exercise in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients: physiological and safety aspects--a case series.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruy Camargo Pires-Neto

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Early mobilization can be performed in critically ill patients and improves outcomes. A daily cycling exercise started from day 5 after ICU admission is feasible and can enhance functional capacity after hospital discharge. In the present study we verified the physiological changes and safety of an earlier cycling intervention (< 72 hrs of mechanical ventilation in critical ill patients. METHODS: Nineteen hemodynamically stable and deeply sedated patients within the first 72 hrs of mechanical ventilation were enrolled in a single 20 minute passive leg cycling exercise using an electric cycle ergometer. A minute-by-minute evaluation of hemodynamic, respiratory and metabolic variables was undertaken before, during and after the exercise. Analyzed variables included the following: cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, central venous blood oxygen saturation, respiratory rate and tidal volume, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production and blood lactate levels. RESULTS: We enrolled 19 patients (42% male, age 55 ± 17 years, SOFA = 6 ± 3, SAPS3 score = 58 ± 13, PaO2/FIO2 = 223 ± 75. The median time of mechanical ventilation was 1 day (02, and 68% (n=13 of our patients required norepinephrine (maximum concentration = 0.47 µg.kg(-1.min(-1. There were no clinically relevant changes in any of the analyzed variables during the exercise, and two minor adverse events unrelated to hemodynamic instability were observed. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, this very early passive cycling exercise in sedated, critically ill, mechanically ventilated patients was considered safe and was not associated with significant alterations in hemodynamic, respiratory or metabolic variables even in those requiring vasoactive agents.

  7. Using model-driven engineering to support the certification of safety-critical systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panesar-Walawege, Rajwinder Kaur

    2012-07-15

    Iron (Fe) is an important impurity in solar-grade silicon which contributes substantially in degrading the efficiency of solar cells. The degradation is mainly caused by the Fe atoms situating at an unperturbed tetrahedral interstitial sites (Fei) in the silicon crystal, consequently acting as a recombination center. By altering the position and the neighbouring environment at which the Fe atoms reside, there are opportunities in minimizing or neutralizing the electrical activity of Fe. Furthermore, utilizing the high mobility of Fe, one can increase the performance of a device by accumulating the Fe atoms from critical regions into regions where Fe can be tolerated. These approaches can help in realizing high efficient solar cells based on cheap and highly Fe-contaminated silicon. In this work, we have investigated the interaction between Fe and defects relevant to solar cells, using mainly electrical characterization methods such as capacitance-voltage measurement, deep level transient spectroscopy and admittance spectroscopy. From the study of potential hydrogen passivation of Fe, hydrogen was introduced through wet chemical etching and further driven to a defined region. Using depth profiles, it is found that incorporation of hydrogen stimulates the dissociation of the iron-boron (Fe-B) pair, releasing and resulting in the unwanted Fei. At the same time, no passivation of Fe by hydrogen has been observed. On the investigation of the mechanism of phosphorus gettering of metal impurities, vacancies have been generated through proton-irradiation. The resulting irradiation-induced defects were examined for reactions with Fe after heat treatments. Based on the evolution of defect concentrations by isochronal annealings, it is found that Fe interacts with the divacancy and the vacancy-oxygen complexes, forming deep levels of 0.28 eV and 0.34 eV above the valence band edge (EV), respectively. In the search for substitutional Fe to investigate its electrical activity

  8. Final Technical Report on Quantifying Dependability Attributes of Software Based Safety Critical Instrumentation and Control Systems in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smidts, Carol [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Huang, Funqun [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Li, Boyuan [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Li, Xiang [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2016-03-25

    With the current transition from analog to digital instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants, the number and variety of software-based systems have significantly increased. The sophisticated nature and increasing complexity of software raises trust in these systems as a significant challenge. The trust placed in a software system is typically termed software dependability. Software dependability analysis faces uncommon challenges since software systems’ characteristics differ from those of hardware systems. The lack of systematic science-based methods for quantifying the dependability attributes in software-based instrumentation as well as control systems in safety critical applications has proved itself to be a significant inhibitor to the expanded use of modern digital technology in the nuclear industry. Dependability refers to the ability of a system to deliver a service that can be trusted. Dependability is commonly considered as a general concept that encompasses different attributes, e.g., reliability, safety, security, availability and maintainability. Dependability research has progressed significantly over the last few decades. For example, various assessment models and/or design approaches have been proposed for software reliability, software availability and software maintainability. Advances have also been made to integrate multiple dependability attributes, e.g., integrating security with other dependability attributes, measuring availability and maintainability, modeling reliability and availability, quantifying reliability and security, exploring the dependencies between security and safety and developing integrated analysis models. However, there is still a lack of understanding of the dependencies between various dependability attributes as a whole and of how such dependencies are formed. To address the need for quantification and give a more objective basis to the review process -- therefore reducing regulatory uncertainty

  9. Nursing safety management of nosocomial transportation in postoperative critical patients%危重患者术后院内转运的护理安全管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢俊红; 王秀军

    2016-01-01

    Objective To retrospect the nosocomial transportation status of postoperative critical patients,summarize the complications,explore the problems of patient′s handover,so as to provide new thinking of guaranteeing nursing safety quality.Methods By clinical multicentric retrospective study method,1 625 cases of critical patients′nosocomial transportation status were analyzed in two hospitals,and the complications and handover were paid attention to count.Results During transportation,the incidence of complications were 56 cases with 3.4%,and inefficient handover was 39 cases with 2.4% in the ward;99.8%of patients can be transferred on time,but 0.2% of them delayed to transfer.Conclusions The operation is complicated in Neurosurgery Department and Department of Chest Surgery,but has strong influencing on patient′s nerve,circulatory and respiratory system which may find out the risk factors of complications.Thus, the nursing safety management of nosomial transportation must be paid attention to including effective doctor-nurse-patient information communication,sufficient risk assessment,necessary technique support and standard transportation process and handover regulation,in order to ensure nursing safety quality.%目的:通过回顾术后危重症患者院内转运情况,总结常见并发症,探讨患者交接问题,对保证护理安全质量提出新思考。方法采用临床多中心回顾性研究方法,对2所医院的1625例术后危重症患者院内转运情况进行分析,对并发症及交接情况进行重点统计。结果转运过程中发生并发症56例占3.4%,与病房交接不到位39例占2.4%;99.8%的患者按原计划转运,0.2%的患者延期转运。结论神经外科和胸外科手术复杂,对患者神经、循环及呼吸系统影响大,可能是出现并发症的危险因素。因此,术后危重症患者院内转运的护理安全质量必须得到重视,包括医、护、患间的有效

  10. Nuclear criticality safety experiments, calculations, and analyses - 1958 to 1982. Volume 2. Summaries. Complilation of papers from the Transactions of the American Nuclear Society

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, B.L.; Hampel, V.E.

    1982-10-21

    This compilation contains 688 complete summaries of papers on nuclear criticality safety as presented at meetings of the American Nuclear Society (ANS). The selected papers contain criticality parameters for fissile materials derived from experiments and calculations, as well as criticality safety analyses for fissile material processing, transport, and storage. The compilation was developed as a component of the Nuclear Criticality Information System (NCIS) now under development at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The compilation is presented in two volumes: Volume 1 contains a directory to the ANS Transaction volume and page number where each summary was originally published, the author concordance, and the subject concordance derived from the keyphrases in titles. Volume 2 contains-in chronological order-the full-text summaries, reproduced here by permission of the American Nuclear Society from their Transactions, volumes 1-41.

  11. Do the residents in the emergency department appropriately manage patients with acute asthma attack? A study of self-criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoglu, Sebahat; Topacoglu, Hakan; Karcioglu, Ozgur; Cimrin, Arif Hikmet

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the management of patients with asthma attack admitted to the emergency department (ED) in terms of compliance with international guidelines. The records of patients with asthma who were admitted to a university-based ED between December 2001 and December 2002 were evaluated. A total of 72 cases with available data were evaluated retrospectively. Twenty-six patients (36.1%) were admitted more than once during the study period. The number of multiple admissions ranged from 2 (15 patients, 20.0%) to 11 (2 patients, 2.8%). Peak expiratory flow (PEF) measurements were recorded in 17 patients (23.6%) on presentation. Pulse and respiratory rates were recorded in 70 (97.0%) and 67 patients (93.0%), respectively. Thirty-four patients (47.2%) underwent chest x-ray; results were normal in most patients. Salbutamol was the most commonly used drug as first-line therapy. Ipratropium bromide (inhaled) and systemic corticosteroids were added to the salbutamol in 47 (65.2%), 42 (58.4%), and 32 patients (44%), respectively. Pulmonologists were consulted in only 7 cases (9.7%). Thirty patients (43.4%) were prescribed corticosteroids on discharge. The role of functional parameters in determining asthma severity and monitoring treatment effects should be emphasized in clinical practice. Finally, more prevalent use of management guidelines will help determine their usefulness.

  12. Technical Data to Justify Full Burnup Credit in Criticality Safety Licensing Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enercon Services, Inc.

    2011-03-14

    ENERCON's understanding of the difficult issues related to obtaining and analyzing additional cross section test data to support Full Burnup Credit. A PIRT (Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table) analysis was performed by ENERCON to evaluate the costs and benefits of acquiring different types of nuclear data in support of Full Burnup Credit. A PIRT exercise is a formal expert elicitation process with the final output being the ranking tables. The PIRT analysis (Table 7-4: Results of PIRT Evaluation) showed that the acquisition of additional Actinide-Only experimental data, although beneficial, was associated with high cost and is not necessarily needed. The conclusion was that the existing Radiochemical Assay (RCA) data plus the French Haut Taux de Combustion (HTC)2 and handbook Laboratory Critical Experiment (LCE) data provide adequate benchmark validation for Actinide-Only Burnup Credit. The PIRT analysis indicated that the costs and schedule to obtain sufficient additional experimental data to support the addition of 16 fission products to Actinide-Only Burnup Credit to produce Full Burnup Credit are quite substantial. ENERCON estimates the cost to be $50M to $100M with a schedule of five or more years. The PIRT analysis highlights another option for fission product burnup credit, which is the application of computer-based uncertainty analyses (S/U - Sensitivity/Uncertainty methodologies), confirmed by the limited experimental data that is already available. S/U analyses essentially transform cross section uncertainty information contained in the cross section libraries into a reactivity bias and uncertainty. Recent work by ORNL and EPRI has shown that a methodology to support Full Burnup Credit is possible using a combination of traditional RCA and LCE validation plus S/U validation for fission product isotopics and cross sections. Further, the most recent cross section data (ENDF/B-VII) can be incorporated into the burnup credit codes at a reasonable cost

  13. Application of hazard analysis and critical control point methodology and risk-based grading to consumer food safety surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røssvoll, Elin Halbach; Ueland, Øydis; Hagtvedt, Therese; Jacobsen, Eivind; Lavik, Randi; Langsrud, Solveig

    2012-09-01

    Traditionally, consumer food safety survey responses have been classified as either "right" or "wrong" and food handling practices that are associated with high risk of infection have been treated in the same way as practices with lower risks. In this study, a risk-based method for consumer food safety surveys has been developed, and HACCP (hazard analysis and critical control point) methodology was used for selecting relevant questions. We conducted a nationally representative Web-based survey (n = 2,008), and to fit the self-reported answers we adjusted a risk-based grading system originally developed for observational studies. The results of the survey were analyzed both with the traditional "right" and "wrong" classification and with the risk-based grading system. The results using the two methods were very different. Only 5 of the 10 most frequent food handling violations were among the 10 practices associated with the highest risk. These 10 practices dealt with different aspects of heat treatment (lacking or insufficient), whereas the majority of the most frequent violations involved storing food at room temperature for too long. Use of the risk-based grading system for survey responses gave a more realistic picture of risks associated with domestic food handling practices. The method highlighted important violations and minor errors, which are performed by most people and are not associated with significant risk. Surveys built on a HACCP-based approach with risk-based grading will contribute to a better understanding of domestic food handling practices and will be of great value for targeted information and educational activities.

  14. Hazards Control Department annual technology review, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, R.V.; Anderson, K.J. (eds.)

    1988-07-01

    This document describes some of the research performed in the LLNL Hazards Control Department from October 1986 to September 1987. The sections in the Annual report cover scientific concerns in the areas of Health Physics, Industrial Hygiene, Industrial Safety, Aerosol Science, Resource Management, Dosimetry and Radiation Physics, Criticality Safety, and Fire Science. For a broader overview of the types of work performed in the Hazards Control Department, we have also compiled a selection of abstracts of recent publications by Hazards Control employees. Individual reports are processed separately for the data base.

  15. A comparison of adherence to correctly documented triage level of critically ill patients between emergency department and the ambulance service nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönsson, Kenneth; Fridlund, Bengt

    2013-07-01

    Priority or triage has always occurred in emergency care. Today it is performed by both nurses in emergency departments (EDs) and ambulance services (ASs) to ensure patient safety. Recent studies have shown that nurses are unlikely to change their first impressions and patients suffering from blunt trauma are undertriaged. Our study aimed to compare and evaluate the adherence to correct triage level documentation, between nurses in the ED and the AS, according to current regulations. Of 592 analysed triage records from a university, a central and a district hospital, the adherence was 64% by ED nurses and 43% by AS nurses (pnurses do not adhere to the triage system and do not correctly document the triage level. Internal feedback and control are two approaches to improve the patient outcome, indicating that organisational actions must be taken.

  16. 30 CFR 7.305 - Critical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Critical characteristics. 7.305 Section 7.305 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND... characteristics. The following critical characteristics shall be inspected on each motor assembly to which...

  17. 30 CFR 7.45 - Critical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Critical characteristics 7.45 Section 7.45 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND... characteristics The following critical characteristics shall be inspected or tested on each battery assembly...

  18. 30 CFR 7.99 - Critical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Critical characteristics. 7.99 Section 7.99 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND... characteristics. The following critical characteristics shall be inspected or tested on each diesel power...

  19. Efficacy and safety of procalcitonin guidance in reducing the duration of antibiotic treatment in critically ill patients : a randomised, controlled, open-label trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Evelien; van Oers, Jos A; Beishuizen, Albertus; Vos, Piet; Vermeijden, Wytze J; Haas, Lenneke E; Loef, Bert G; Dormans, Tom; van Melsen, Gertrude C; Kluiters, Yvette C; Kemperman, Hans; van den Elsen, Maarten J; Schouten, Jeroen A; Streefkerk, Jörn O; Krabbe, Hans G; Kieft, Hans; Kluge, Georg H; van Dam, Veerle C; van Pelt, Joost; Bormans, Laura; Otten, Martine Bokelman; Reidinga, Auke C; Endeman, Henrik; Twisk, Jos W; van de Garde, Ewoudt M W; de Smet, Anne Marie G A; Kesecioglu, Jozef; Girbes, Armand R; Nijsten, Maarten W; de Lange, Dylan W

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In critically ill patients, antibiotic therapy is of great importance but long duration of treatment is associated with the development of antimicrobial resistance. Procalcitonin is a marker used to guide antibacterial therapy and reduce its duration, but data about safety of this reduct

  20. 浅析临床普外危重症的治疗%Analysis of Clinical Treatment of Critically Ill Patients in General Surgery Department

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付寒林

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究分析普外科危重患者的临床治疗方式。方法根据我院普外科危重患者186例的临床治疗资料来进行研究分析,术后为患者提供氧代谢来调整器官功能情况,对治疗效果进行总结分析。结果患者接受一系列治疗措施后,致死率比较低,治疗效果较显著。结论普外科患者接受手术治疗,清除感染病灶,遏制高分解代谢能够对患者的生命体征稳定起到帮助,降低了临床死亡率,提升手术治疗效果,改善患者的生活质量。%Objective To study the clinical treatment of critically ill patients in department of general surgery.Methods According to the clinical treatment data of 186 cases of critically ill patients in the department of general surgery in our hospital to carry on the research analysis, for patients with postoperative oxygen metabolism to adjust the organ function, to analyze the therapeutic effect.Results A series of treatment measures in this study of patients in clinic, the lethal rate was relatively low, relatively significant patients receive treatment effect.ConclusionPatients in the department of general surgery received operation treatment, clear the infection foci, curb high catabolism stable vital signs, can reduce clinical mortality, improve the effect of operation treatment, improve the quality of life of patients.

  1. Safety and feasibility of sublingual microcirculation assessment in the emergency department for civilian and military patients with traumatic haemorrhagic shock: a prospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, David N; Mellis, Clare; Smith, Iain M; Mamuza, Jasna; Skene, Imogen; Harris, Tim; Midwinter, Mark J; Hutchings, Sam D

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Sublingual microcirculatory monitoring for traumatic haemorrhagic shock (THS) may predict clinical outcomes better than traditional blood pressure and cardiac output, but is not usually performed until the patient reaches the intensive care unit (ICU), missing earlier data of potential importance. This pilot study assessed for the first time the feasibility and safety of sublingual video-microscopy for THS in the emergency department (ED), and whether it yields useable data for analysis. Setting A safety and feasibility assessment was undertaken as part of the prospective observational MICROSHOCK study; sublingual video-microscopy was performed at the UK-led Role 3 medical facility at Camp Bastion, Afghanistan, and in the ED in 3 UK Major Trauma Centres. Participants There were 15 casualties (2 military, 13 civilian) who presented with traumatic haemorrhagic shock with a median injury severity score of 26. The median age was 41; the majority (n=12) were male. The most common injury mechanism was road traffic accident. Primary and secondary outcome measures Safety and feasibility were the primary outcomes, as measured by lack of adverse events or clinical interruptions, and successful acquisition and storage of data. The secondary outcome was the quality of acquired video clips according to validated criteria, in order to determine whether useful data could be obtained in this emergency context. Results Video-microscopy was successfully performed and stored for analysis for all patients, yielding 161 video clips. There were no adverse events or episodes where clinical management was affected or interrupted. There were 104 (64.6%) video clips from 14 patients of sufficient quality for analysis. Conclusions Early sublingual microcirculatory monitoring in the ED for patients with THS is safe and feasible, even in a deployed military setting, and yields videos of satisfactory quality in a high proportion of cases. Further investigations of early

  2. Metal food packaging design based on hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP system in canned food safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xingyi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to design metal food packaging with hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP. First, theory of HACCP was introduced in detail. Taking empty cans provided by Wuxi Huapeng Food Packaging Company as an example, we studied migration of bisphenol compounds in coating of food can to food stimulant. Moreover, packaging design of luncheon meat can was taken as an example to confirm whether HACCP system could effectively control migration of phenolic substance. Results demonstrated that, coating of such empty were more likely to contain multiple bisphenol compounds such as bisphenol A (BPA, and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE was considered as the leading bisphenol pollutant; food stimulant of different types, storage temperature and time could all impact migration of bisphenol compounds. HACCP system was proved to be effective in controlling hazards of phenolic substance in luncheon meat can and could reduce various phenolic substance indexes to an acceptable range. Therefore, HACCP can control migration of phenolic substance and recontamination of food and thus ensure food safety.

  3. Health and Safety Advisory Committee (HASAC) of the International Embryo Transfer Society (IETS) has managed critical challenges for two decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibier, M; Stringfellow, D A

    2003-02-01

    The International Embryo Transfer Society (IETS) was founded in 1974. Early members used the society as a forum for the exchange of scientific and technical information relevant to a newly emerging embryo transfer industry. The impact that embryo transfer could have on the international trade of livestock genetics was clear by 1982, so the IETS commissioned the Import/Export Committee. The initial challenge for this Committee was to deal with concerns about disease transmission via embryo transfer. Many of the early concerns have been dispelled, but at the time they threatened the continued development of a fledgling industry. Over the past two decades, many new critical challenges have been met and managed by this Committee, which was recently renamed the Health and Safety Advisory Committee (HASAC). Assessing risks of animal disease transmission via reproductive technologies and establishing protocols for managing these risks are still major issues for HASAC. However, additional concerns have developed as views of the society changed and as novel applications of biotechnology in farm animals were identified. This paper is intended to chronicle some of the major changes and challenges that were managed by members of the HASAC and its Subcommittees from the early years of embryo transfer to the current millennium with technological advances in molecular biology.

  4. Validation and Verification (V&V) of Safety-Critical Systems Operating Under Off-Nominal Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    Loss of control (LOC) remains one of the largest contributors to aircraft fatal accidents worldwide. Aircraft LOC accidents are highly complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or more often in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. Research is underway at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the development of advanced onboard system technologies for preventing or recovering from loss of vehicle control and for assuring safe operation under off-nominal conditions associated with aircraft LOC accidents. The transition of these technologies into the commercial fleet will require their extensive validation and verification (V&V) and ultimate certification. The V&V of complex integrated systems poses highly significant technical challenges and is the subject of a parallel research effort at NASA. This chapter summarizes the V&V problem and presents a proposed process that could be applied to complex integrated safety-critical systems developed for preventing aircraft LOC accidents. A summary of recent research accomplishments in this effort is referenced.

  5. Work Practice Simulation of Complex Human-Automation Systems in Safety Critical Situations: The Brahms Generalized berlingen Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancey, William J.; Linde, Charlotte; Seah, Chin; Shafto, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The transition from the current air traffic system to the next generation air traffic system will require the introduction of new automated systems, including transferring some functions from air traffic controllers to on­-board automation. This report describes a new design verification and validation (V&V) methodology for assessing aviation safety. The approach involves a detailed computer simulation of work practices that includes people interacting with flight-critical systems. The research is part of an effort to develop new modeling and verification methodologies that can assess the safety of flight-critical systems, system configurations, and operational concepts. The 2002 Ueberlingen mid-air collision was chosen for analysis and modeling because one of the main causes of the accident was one crew's response to a conflict between the instructions of the air traffic controller and the instructions of TCAS, an automated Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System on-board warning system. It thus furnishes an example of the problem of authority versus autonomy. It provides a starting point for exploring authority/autonomy conflict in the larger system of organization, tools, and practices in which the participants' moment-by-moment actions take place. We have developed a general air traffic system model (not a specific simulation of Überlingen events), called the Brahms Generalized Ueberlingen Model (Brahms-GUeM). Brahms is a multi-agent simulation system that models people, tools, facilities/vehicles, and geography to simulate the current air transportation system as a collection of distributed, interactive subsystems (e.g., airports, air-traffic control towers and personnel, aircraft, automated flight systems and air-traffic tools, instruments, crew). Brahms-GUeM can be configured in different ways, called scenarios, such that anomalous events that contributed to the Überlingen accident can be modeled as functioning according to requirements or in an

  6. Final Technical Report on Quantifying Dependability Attributes of Software Based Safety Critical Instrumentation and Control Systems in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smidts, Carol [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Huang, Funqun [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Li, Boyuan [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Li, Xiang [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2016-03-25

    With the current transition from analog to digital instrumentation and control systems in nuclear power plants, the number and variety of software-based systems have significantly increased. The sophisticated nature and increasing complexity of software raises trust in these systems as a significant challenge. The trust placed in a software system is typically termed software dependability. Software dependability analysis faces uncommon challenges since software systems’ characteristics differ from those of hardware systems. The lack of systematic science-based methods for quantifying the dependability attributes in software-based instrumentation as well as control systems in safety critical applications has proved itself to be a significant inhibitor to the expanded use of modern digital technology in the nuclear industry. Dependability refers to the ability of a system to deliver a service that can be trusted. Dependability is commonly considered as a general concept that encompasses different attributes, e.g., reliability, safety, security, availability and maintainability. Dependability research has progressed significantly over the last few decades. For example, various assessment models and/or design approaches have been proposed for software reliability, software availability and software maintainability. Advances have also been made to integrate multiple dependability attributes, e.g., integrating security with other dependability attributes, measuring availability and maintainability, modeling reliability and availability, quantifying reliability and security, exploring the dependencies between security and safety and developing integrated analysis models. However, there is still a lack of understanding of the dependencies between various dependability attributes as a whole and of how such dependencies are formed. To address the need for quantification and give a more objective basis to the review process -- therefore reducing regulatory uncertainty

  7. Impact of critical care environment on burnout, perceived quality of care and safety attitude of the nursing team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guirardello, Edinêis de Brito

    2017-06-05

    assess the perception of the nursing team about the environment of practice in critical care services and its relation with the safety attitude, perceived quality of care and burnout level. cross-sectional study involving 114 nursing professionals from the intensive care unit of a teaching hospital. The following instruments were used: Nursing Work Index-Revised, Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Safety Attitude Questionnaire. the professionals who perceived greater autonomy, good relationships with the medical team and better control over the work environment presented lower levels of burnout, assessed the quality of care as good and reported a positive perception on the safety attitude for the domain job satisfaction. the findings evidenced that environments favorable to these professionals' practice result in lower levels of burnout, a better perceived quality of care and attitudes favorable to patient safety. avaliar a percepção da equipe de enfermagem sobre o ambiente da prática em unidades de cuidados críticos e sua relação com atitude de segurança, percepção da qualidade do cuidado e nível de burnout. estudo transversal com a participação de 114 profissionais de enfermagem da unidade de terapia intensiva de um hospital de ensino. Foram utilizados os instrumentos: Nursing Work Index-Revised, Inventário de Burnout de Maslach e o Questionário de Atitudes de Segurança. os profissionais que perceberam maior autonomia, boas relações com a equipe médica e melhor controle sobre o ambiente de trabalho, apresentaram menores níveis de burnout, avaliaram como boa a qualidade do cuidado e relataram uma percepção positiva da atitude de segurança para o domínio satisfação no trabalho. os achados evidenciaram que ambientes favoráveis à prática desses profissionais resultam em menores níveis de burnout, melhor percepção da qualidade do cuidado e atitudes favoráveis à segurança do paciente. evaluar la percepción del equipo de enfermer

  8. 论安全法律部门的独立性、交叉性和分支构成%Study on the Independence and Branch Constitution of Safety Law Department

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹瑜璞; 朱燕

    2011-01-01

    To make people realize the important position of safety law department in Chinas legal system and its constitution, thus, to set up such a faith that safety law department is an independent department, the paper discusses the independence and cross of the existence of safety law department based on method of sociology, method of law and comparative method, and explains the constitution of safety law department from five different perspectives. The independence is that its regulation targets are the relationships of property and personal safety independent of other department laws; its main branches are project construction safety law, civil safety law, administrative safety law, safety criminal responsibility law, procedural safety law, commercial safety law, environmental safety law, resource safety law and military safety law, etc. Therefore, the legal community must upgrade the safety law department to a level as high as environment and resources protection law department as well as labor and social security law department; The legislative branch must establish safety legal system on the basis of each branch law so as to overcome the long existing flaw of disorder, intricacy and overlap in safety law understanding.%为了使人们认识到安全法律部门在我国法律体系中的重要地位,安全法律部门是由哪些内容构成的,从而树立安全法律部门是独立的部门这样一种信念.以法学方法、社会学方法、比较方法等论述我国安全法律部门存在的独立性和交叉性,并从5个不同的角度论述安全法律部门的分支构成.其独立性在于其调整对象是独立于其他各部门法的财产、人身安全关系;其分支划分主要是安全工程建设法、安全民法、安全行政法、安全刑事责任法、安全诉讼法、安全商法、环境安全法、资源安全法、军事安全法等.因此,法学界要把安全法律部门提高到与环境资源法部门、劳动社会保障法

  9. Critical appraisal of the efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability of hydroxyprogesterone caproate injection to reduce the risk of preterm birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidaeff AC

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Alex C Vidaeff, Michael A BelfortDivision of Maternal-Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Baylor College of Medicine and Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, TX, USAAbstract: Prevention of preterm delivery is a major desiderate in contemporary obstetrics and a societal necessity. The means to achieve this goal remain elusive. Progesterone has been used in an attempt to prevent preterm delivery since the 1970s, but the evidence initially accumulated was fraught by mixed results and was based on mostly underpowered studies with variable eligibility criteria, including history of spontaneous abortion as an indication for treatment. More recent randomized controlled clinical trials restimulated the interest in progesterone supplementation, suggesting that progesterone may favorably influence the rate of preterm delivery. Preterm delivery is a complex disorder and consequently it is unlikely that one generalized prevention strategy will be effective in all patients. Further, an additional impediment in accepting progesterone as the "magic bullet" in the prevention of preterm delivery is that its mechanism of action is not fully understood and the optimal formulations, route of administration, and dose have yet to be established. We have concerned ourselves in this review with the most recent status of 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17OH-PC supplementation for prevention of preterm delivery. Our intention is to emphasize the efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability of this intervention, based on a comprehensive and unbiased review of the available literature. Currently there are insufficient data to suggest that 17OH-PC is superior or inferior to natural progesterone. Based on available evidence, we suggest a differential approach giving preferential consideration to either 17OH-PC or other progestins based on obstetric history and cervical surveillance. Progestin therapy for risk factors other than a history of preterm

  10. Developing the Safety of Atrial Fibrillation Ablation Registry Initiative (SAFARI) as a collaborative pan-stakeholder critical path registry model: a Cardiac Safety Research Consortium "Incubator" Think Tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khatib, Sana M; Calkins, Hugh; Eloff, Benjamin C; Kowey, Peter; Hammill, Stephen C; Ellenbogen, Kenneth A; Marinac-Dabic, Danica; Waldo, Albert L; Brindis, Ralph G; Wilbur, David J; Jackman, Warren M; Yaross, Marcia S; Russo, Andrea M; Prystowsky, Eric; Varosy, Paul D; Gross, Thomas; Pinnow, Ellen; Turakhia, Mintu P; Krucoff, Mitchell W

    2010-10-01

    Although several randomized clinical trials have demonstrated the safety and efficacy of catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF) in experienced centers, the outcomes of this procedure in routine clinical practice and in patients with persistent and long-standing persistent AF remain uncertain. Brisk adoption of this therapy by physicians with diverse training and experience highlights potential concerns regarding the safety and effectiveness of this procedure. Some of these concerns could be addressed by a national registry of AF ablation procedures such as the Safety of Atrial Fibrillation Ablation Registry Initiative that was initially proposed at a Cardiac Safety Research Consortium Think Tank meeting in April 2009. In January 2010, the Cardiac Safety Research Consortium, in collaboration with the Duke Clinical Research Institute, the US Food and Drug Administration, the American College of Cardiology, and the Heart Rhythm Society, held a follow-up meeting of experts in the field to review the construct and progress to date. Other participants included the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services; the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; the AdvaMed AF working group; and additional industry representatives. This article summarizes the discussions that occurred at the meeting of the state of the Safety of Atrial Fibrillation Ablation Registry Initiative, the identification of a clear pathway for its implementation, and the exploration of solutions to potential issues in the execution of this registry. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Critical appraisal of the safety and efficacy of insulin detemir in glycemic control and cardiovascular risk management in diabetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Le Floch

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Jean-Pierre Le FlochDepartment of Diabetology, Medical Clinic, Villecresnes, FranceAbstract: Insulin detemir is an analog of human insulin designed to provide a long duration of basal insulin action. This is achieved by protracted absorption from the injection depot, which results in part from increased self-association of insulin detemir molecules and in part from reversible albumin binding. Subsequent albumin binding in the circulation is thought to buffer changes in the effects at target tissues that could otherwise arise from variability in absorption rate. In consequence, insulin detemir has shown a less variable pharmacodynamic profile than alternative basal insulins; this manifests as more consistent temporal glucose reduction profiles in repeat-clamp studies. In clinical trials, insulin detemir has been characterized by consistent risk reductions in hypoglycemia, as well as reduced weight gain in comparison with other basal insulins. Given some recent associations that have been made in prospective and epidemiologic studies between glucose variability and/or hypoglycemia and increased cardiovascular risk, and the long-known association between excess weight and cardiovascular risk, it is possible that the clinical profile of insulin detemir may carry prognostic value with regard to cardiovascular safety, although this is yet to be substantiated. There have also been some concerns raised recently over the use of insulin analogs and cancer risk, but available clinical data and the receptor interaction profile of insulin detemir suggest no excess in risk in comparison with human insulin therapy. Optimal approaches for the clinical use of insulin detemir have been emerging through an increasing clinical study base, and the analog is becoming established as a potentially valuable therapy option.Keywords: insulin detemir, type 2 diabetes, glucose variability, hypoglycemia, weight gain

  12. Application of Integrated Verification Approach to FPGA-based Safety-Critical I and C System of Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Ibrahim; Heo, Gyunyoung [Kyunghee Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jaecheon [KEPCO, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Safety-critical instrumentation and control (I and C) system in nuclear power plant (NPP) implemented on programmable logic controllers (PLCs) plays a vital role in safe operation of the plant. The challenges such as fast obsolescence, the vulnerability to cyber-attack, and other related issues of software systems have currently led to the consideration of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) as an alternative to PLCs because of their advantages and hardware related benefits. Generally in FPGA design verification, the designers make use of verification techniques by writing the test benches which involved various stages of verification activities of register-transfer level (RTL), gate-level, and place and route. Writing the test benches is considerably time consuming and require a lot of efforts to achieve a satisfied desire results. Furthermore, performing the verification at each stage is a major bottleneck and demanded much activities and time. In addition, verification is conceivably, the most difficult and complicated aspect of any design. Therefore, in view of these, this work applied an integrated verification approach to the verification of FPGA-based I and C system in NPP that simultaneously verified the whole design modules using MATLAB/Simulink HDL Co-simulation models. Verification is conceivably, the most difficult and complicated aspect of any design, and an FPGA design is not an exception. Therefore, in this work, we introduced and discussed how an application of integrated verification technique to the verification and testing of FPGA-based I and C system design in NPP can facilitate the verification processes, and verify the entire design modules of the system simultaneously using MATLAB/Simulink HDL co-simulation models. In conclusion, the results showed that, the integrated verification approach through MATLAB/Simulink models, if applied to any design to be verified, could speed up the design verification and reduce the V and V tasks.

  13. Organisational culture at the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority of Finland's department of Nuclear Reactor Regulation; Organisationskulturen inom den finlaendska Straalsaekerhetscentralens (STUK) avdelning foer oevervakning av kaernkraftverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, T.; Norros, L. [VTT Automation, Esbo (Finland)

    2001-03-01

    A case study to investigate the organisational culture of the regulatory authority was conducted at the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority of Finland's (STUK) Nuclear Reactor Regulation (YTO) - department. Organisational culture is defined as a pattern of shared basic assumptions, which are basically unconscious. Objectives of the study were to conceptualise and describe the main characteristics of YTO's organisational culture and to carry out a tentative core task analysis of the inspectors' work. A combination of quantitative and qualitative methods was used in the research. YTO's culture was identified as a hierarchy-focused culture with less emphasis on innovation or social support. However, the ideal values of the personnel emphasised also social support and goal setting. Ambiguous goals were felt by some personnel as increased uncertainty about the meaningfulness of one's job. Also a lack of feedback was mentioned. The core task analysis identified the critical functions of the regulatory practice. These functions specify the three roles of the regulatory authority, the expert role, the public role and the authority role. The culture must support the fulfilment of the requirements of all the three roles. Development needs in YTO's culture were identified and recommendations were made. (au)

  14. Analysis of Emergency Triage Safety Management in Emergency Department%急诊分诊安全管理在急诊的应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静

    2016-01-01

    Objective To discuss and analyze the effects of emergency triage safety management in emergency nursing.Methods 500 patients admitted to emergency department from May 2013 to May 2014 were selected as the control group while 500 patients admitted from June 2014 to June 2015 were selected as the treatment group. Triage safety management was not conducted in the control group but in the treatment group. Compared the nursing quality score and patient's satisfaction on nursing between two groups.Results Nursing quality score for treatment group was (96.2±1.4) while it was 81.3±2.5 for control group. The difference was of statistically significant difference(P<0.05). Patient's satisfaction rate on nursing for treatment group and control group was 95.4% and 74% respectively with significant difference (P<0.05).Conclusion The application of emergency triage safety management in emergency nursing is conductive to improving nursing quality and nursing satisfaction.%目的探讨分析在急诊护理中应用急诊分诊安全管理模式的效果。方法选择本院急诊科2013年5月至2014年5月收治的500例病患作为对照组观察对象,再以急诊科2014年6月至2015年6月收治的500例病患作为试验组。对照组未实施分诊安全管理,试验组实施分诊安全管理,比较两组护理质量评分与患者护理满意度。结果试验组的护理质量评分是(96.2±1.4)分,较对照组的(81.3±2.5)分高,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);试验组患者的护理满意度为95.4%,对照组为74%,两组比较,试验组更高(P<0.05)。结论将急诊分诊安全管理模式应用于急诊护理中,对护理质量及护理满意度的提高均有促进作用。

  15. Assessment of safety culture within the radiotherapy department of the Bordeaux University Hospital Centre; Evaluation de la culture de securite au sein du service de radiotherapie du centre hospitalier universitaire de Bordeaux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leysalle, A.; Vendrely, V.; Sarrade, C.; Boutolleau, J.B.; Vitry, E.; Trouette, R.; Maire, J.P. [Hopital Saint-Andre, 33 - Bordeaux (France)

    2010-10-15

    The assessment of the safety culture within a radiotherapy department has been performed by using a Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ). It assesses the safety environment, the team cooperation quality, the satisfaction related to professional activity, the approval of management actions, the perception of the work environment quality and of logistic support, and the acknowledgment of the influence of stress on performance. The survey has been performed before and after the support intervention of a hospital audit and expertise mission in relationship with the National cancer Institute (Inca). The comparison of results before and after this support intervention shows a general score improvement for the SAQ. Short communication

  16. Development of a multimedia tutorial to educate how to assess the critical view of safety in laparoscopic cholecystectomy using expert review and crowd-sourcing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Shanley B; Stefanidis, Dimitrios; Brunt, L Michael; Alseidi, Adnan

    2017-05-01

    We sought to determine the feasibility of developing a multimedia educational tutorial to teach learners to assess the critical view of safety using input from expert surgeons, non-surgeons and crowd-sourcing. We intended to develop a tutorial that would teach learners how to identify the basic anatomy and physiology of the gallbladder, identify the components of the critical view of safety criteria, and understand its significance for performing a safe gallbladder removal. Using rounds of assessment with experts, laypersons and crowd-workers we developed an educational video with improving comprehension after each round of revision. We demonstrate that the development of a multimedia educational tool to educate learners of various backgrounds is feasible using an iterative review process that incorporates the input of experts and crowd sourcing. When planning the development of an educational tutorial, a step-wise approach as described herein should be considered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Multi-hypothesis GPS and electronic fence data fusion for safety-critical positioning in railway worksites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueiras, Joao; Gronbaek, Jesper; Schwefel, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    . Position accuracy for safety assessment purposes is defined as the precise identification whether the worker is located in a dangerous or safe zone within a certain worksite. This paper extends a previous publication from the same authors to a scenario with multiple workers, while analyzing the combination...... alarm and safety-related missed detection events....

  18. Growth Hormone Safety Workshop Position Paper: a critical appraisal of recombinant human growth hormone therapy in children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allen, David B; Backeljauw, Philippe; Bidlingmaier, Martin

    2015-01-01

    , the statement highlighted a number of areas for on-going surveillance of long-term safety, including cancer risk, impact on glucose homeostasis, and use of high dose pharmacological rhGH treatment. Over the intervening years, there have been a number of publications addressing the safety of rhGH with regard...

  19. Planning the Safety of Atrial Fibrillation Ablation Registry Initiative (SAFARI) as a Collaborative Pan-Stakeholder Critical Path Registry Model: a Cardiac Safety Research Consortium "Incubator" Think Tank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khatib, Sana M; Calkins, Hugh; Eloff, Benjamin C; Packer, Douglas L; Ellenbogen, Kenneth A; Hammill, Stephen C; Natale, Andrea; Page, Richard L; Prystowsky, Eric; Jackman, Warren M; Stevenson, William G; Waldo, Albert L; Wilber, David; Kowey, Peter; Yaross, Marcia S; Mark, Daniel B; Reiffel, James; Finkle, John K; Marinac-Dabic, Danica; Pinnow, Ellen; Sager, Phillip; Sedrakyan, Art; Canos, Daniel; Gross, Thomas; Berliner, Elise; Krucoff, Mitchell W

    2010-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a major public health problem in the United States that is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Of the therapeutic modalities available to treat AF, the use of percutaneous catheter ablation of AF is expanding rapidly. Randomized clinical trials examining the efficacy and safety of AF ablation are currently underway; however, such trials can only partially determine the safety and durability of the effect of the procedure in routine clinical practice, in more complex patients, and over a broader range of techniques and operator experience. These limitations of randomized trials of AF ablation, particularly with regard to safety issues, could be addressed using a synergistically structured national registry, which is the intention of the SAFARI. To facilitate discussions about objectives, challenges, and steps for such a registry, the Cardiac Safety Research Consortium and the Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, NC, in collaboration with the US Food and Drug Administration, the American College of Cardiology, and the Heart Rhythm Society, organized a Think Tank meeting of experts in the field. Other participants included the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, the Society of Thoracic Surgeons, the AdvaMed AF working group, and additional industry representatives. The meeting took place on April 27 to 28, 2009, at the US Food and Drug Administration headquarters in Silver Spring, MD. This article summarizes the issues and directions presented and discussed at the meeting. Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Applying Failure Modes, Effects, And Criticality Analysis And Human Reliability Analysis Techniques To Improve Safety Design Of Work Process In Singapore Armed Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    interactions from a purely mechanical standpoint. However, SAF does not apply FMECA to work processes that are typical of SAF training and operational...take considerable effort to complete. Therefore, it should be applied to work processes or activities that are generally static in nature ...AND CRITICALITY ANALYSIS AND HUMAN RELIABILITY ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES TO IMPROVE SAFETY DESIGN OF WORK PROCESS IN SINGAPORE ARMED FORCES by Weihao K

  1. A double blind randomized placebo controlled phase I/II study assessing the safety and efficacy of allogeneic bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cell in critical limb ischemia

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Pawan K; Chullikana, Anoop; Parakh, Rajiv; Desai, Sanjay; Das, Anjan; Gottipamula, Sanjay; Krishnamurthy, Sagar; Anthony, Naveen; Pherwani, Arun; Majumdar, Anish S

    2013-01-01

    Background Peripheral vascular disease of the lower extremities comprises a clinical spectrum that extends from no symptoms to presentation with critical limb ischemia (CLI). Bone marrow derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (BM- MSCs) may ameliorate the consequences of CLI due to their combinatorial potential for inducing angiogenesis and immunomodulatory environment in situ. The primary objective was to determine the safety of BM- MSCs in patients with CLI. Methods Prospective, double blind random...

  2. Growth and Expansion of the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project and the Newly Organized International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Blair Briggs; Lori Scott; Yolanda Rugama; Enrico Satori

    2007-05-01

    Since ICNC 2003, the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) has continued to expand its efforts and broaden its scope. Criticality-alarm / shielding type benchmarks and fundamental physics measurements that are relevant to criticality safety applications are not only included in the scope of the project, but benchmark data are also included in the latest version of the handbook. A considerable number of improvements have been made to the searchable database, DICE and the criticality-alarm / shielding benchmarks and fundamental physics measurements have been included in the database. There were 12 countries participating on the ICSBEP in 2003. That number has increased to 18 with recent contributions of data and/or resources from Brazil, Czech Republic, Poland, India, Canada, and China. South Africa, Germany, Argentina, and Australia have been invited to participate. Since ICNC 2003, the contents of the “International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments” have increased from 350 evaluations (28,000 pages) containing benchmark specifications for 3070 critical or subcritical configurations to 442 evaluations (over 38,000 pages) containing benchmark specifications for 3957 critical or subcritical configurations, 23 criticality-alarm-placement / shielding configurations with multiple dose points for each, and 20 configurations that have been categorized as fundamental physics measurements that are relevant to criticality safety applications in the 2006 Edition of the ICSBEP Handbook. Approximately 30 new evaluations and 250 additional configurations are expected to be added to the 2007 Edition of the Handbook. Since ICNC 2003, a reactor physics counterpart to the ICSBEP, The International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) was initiated. Beginning in 1999, the IRPhEP was conducted as a pilot activity by the by the Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy

  3. In vitro dosimetry modeling will be a critical step toward efficient assessment of engineered nanomaterials for environmental health and safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presentation Description: The development and application of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) into commercial and consumer products is far outpacing the ability of traditional approaches to evaluate the potential implications for environmental health and safety. This problem recen...

  4. Safety for Users

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    CERN welcomes more than 8000 Users every year. The PH Department as host to these scientific associates requires the highest safety standards. The PH Safety Office has published a Safety Flyer for Users. Important safety topics and procedures are presented. Although the Flyer is intended primarily to provide safety information for Users, the PH Safety Office invites all those on the CERN sites to keep a copy of the flyer as it gives guidance in matters of safety and explains what to do in the event of an emergency. Link: http://ph-dep.web.cern.ch/ph-dep/Safety/SafetyOffice.html PH-Safety Office PH Department

  5. Safety for Users

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2008-01-01

    CERN welcomes more than 8000 Users every year. The PH Department as host to these scientific associates requires the highest safety standards. The PH Safety Office has published a safety flyer for Users. Important safety topics and procedures are presented. Although the flyer is intended primarily to provide safety information for Users, the PH Safety Office invites all those on the CERN sites to keep a copy of the flyer as it gives guidance in matters of safety and explains what to do in the event of an emergency. The flyer is available at: http://ph-dep.web.cern.ch/ph-dep/Safety/SafetyOffice.html PH-Safety Office PH Department

  6. Criticality Safety Evaluation Report CSER-96-019 for Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Processing and Storage Facilities Multi Canister Overpack (MCO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KESSLER, S.F.

    1999-10-20

    This criticality evaluation is for Spent N Reactor fuel unloaded from the existing canisters in both KE and KW Basins, and loaded into multiple canister overpack (MCO) containers with specially built baskets containing a maximum of either 54 Mark IV or 48 Mark IA fuel assemblies. The criticality evaluations include loading baskets into the cask-MCO, operation at the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility,a nd storage in the Canister Storage Building. Many conservatisms have been built into this analysis, the primary one being the selection of the K{sub eff} = 0.95 criticality safety limit. This revision incorporates the analyses for the sampling/weld station in the Canister Storage Building and additional analysis of the MCO during the draining at CVDF. Additional discussion of the scrap basket model was added to show why the addition of copper divider plates was not included in the models.

  7. Criticality Safety Evaluation for Small Sample Preparation and Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) Operations in Wing 7 Basement of the CMR Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunkle, Paige Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zhang, Ning [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-08-02

    Nuclear Criticality Safety (NCS) has reviewed the fissionable material small sample preparation and NDA operations in Wing 7 Basement of the CMR Facility. This is a Level-1 evaluation conducted in accordance with NCS-AP-004 [Reference 1], formerly NCS-GUIDE-01, and the guidance set forth on use of the Standard Criticality Safety Requirements (SCSRs) [Reference 2]. As stated in Reference 2, the criticality safety evaluation consists of both the SCSR CSED and the SCSR Application CSED. The SCSR CSED is a Level-3 CSED [Reference 3]. This Level-1 CSED is the SCSR Application CSED. This SCSR Application (Level-1) evaluation does not derive controls, it simply applies controls derived from the SCSR CSED (Level-3) for the application of operations conducted here. The controls derived in the SCSR CSED (Level-3) were evaluated via the process described in Section 6.6.5 of SD-130 (also reproduced in Section 4.3.5 of NCS-AP-004 [Reference 1]) and were determined to not meet the requirements for consideration of elevation into the safety basis documentation for CMR. According to the guidance set forth on use of the SCSRs [Reference 2], the SCSR CSED (Level-3) is also applicable to the CMR Facility because the process and the normal and credible abnormal conditions in question are bounded by those that are described in the SCSR CSED. The controls derived in the SCSR CSED include allowances for solid materials and solution operations. Based on the operations conducted at this location, there are less-than-accountable (LTA) amounts of 233U. Based on the evaluation documented herein, the normal and credible abnormal conditions that might arise during the execution of this process will remain subcritical with the following recommended controls.

  8. HYGIENE PRACTICES IN URBAN RESTAURANTS AND CHALLENGES TO IMPLEMENTING FOOD SAFETY AND HAZARD ANALYSIS CRITICAL CONTROL POINTS (HACCP) PROGRAMMES IN THIKA TOWN, KENYA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muinde, R K; Kiinyukia, C; Rombo, G O; Muoki, M A

    2012-12-01

    To determine the microbial load in food, examination of safety measures and possibility of implementing an Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) system. The target population for this study consisted of restaurants owners in Thika. Municipality (n = 30). Simple randomsamples of restaurantswere selected on a systematic sampling method of microbial analysis in cooked, non-cooked, raw food and water sanitation in the selected restaurants. Two hundred and ninety eight restaurants within Thika Municipality were selected. Of these, 30 were sampled for microbiological testing. From the study, 221 (74%) of the restaurants were ready to eat establishments where food was prepared early enough to hold and only 77(26%) of the total restaurants, customers made an order of food they wanted. 118(63%) of the restaurant operators/staff had knowledge on quality control on food safety measures, 24 (8%) of the restaurants applied these knowledge while 256 (86%) of the restaurants staff showed that food contains ingredients that were hazard if poorly handled. 238 (80%) of the resultants used weighing and sorting of food materials, 45 (15%) used preservation methods and the rest used dry foods as critical control points on food safety measures. The study showed that there was need for implementation of Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) system to enhance food safety. Knowledge of HACCP was very low with 89 (30%) of the restaurants applying some of quality measures to the food production process systems. There was contamination with Coliforms, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus microbial though at very low level. The means of Coliforms, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureas microbial in sampled food were 9.7 x 103CFU/gm, 8.2 x 103 CFU/gm and 5.4 x 103 CFU/gm respectively with Coliforms taking the highest mean.

  9. Providing critical laboratory results on time, every time to help reduce emergency department length of stay: how our laboratory achieved a Six Sigma level of performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blick, Kenneth E

    2013-08-01

    To develop a fully automated core laboratory, handling samples on a "first in, first out" real-time basis with Lean/Six Sigma management tools. Our primary goal was to provide services to critical care areas, eliminating turnaround time outlier percentage (TAT-OP) as a factor in patient length of stay (LOS). A secondary goal was to achieve a better laboratory return on investment. In 2011, we reached our primary goal when we calculated the TAT-OP distribution and found we had achieved a Six Sigma level of performance, ensuring that our laboratory service can be essentially eliminated as a factor in emergency department patient LOS. We also measured return on investment, showing a productivity improvement of 35%, keeping pace with our increased testing volume. As a result of our Lean process improvements and Six Sigma initiatives, in part through (1) strategic deployment of point-of-care testing and (2) core laboratory total automation with robotics, middleware, and expert system technology, physicians and nurses at the Oklahoma University Medical Center can more effectively deliver lifesaving health care using evidence-based protocols that depend heavily on "on time, every time" laboratory services.

  10. The use of performance improvement methods to enhance emergency department patient satisfaction in the United States: a critical review of the literature and suggestions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreaux, Edwin D; Cruz, Brian L; Baumann, Brigitte M

    2006-07-01

    The authors reviewed the evidence on performance improvement methods for increasing emergency department (ED) patient satisfaction to provide evidence-based suggestions for clinical practice. Data sources consisted of searches through MEDLINE, CINAHL, PSYCHINFO, Cochrane Library, and Emergency Medicine Abstracts and a manual search of references. Articles were included if they reported a performance improvement intervention targeting patient satisfaction in the ED setting. Articles on studies not conducted in the United States or that failed to provide enough details to allow critical evaluation of the study were excluded. Two authors used structured evaluation criteria to independently review each retained study. Nineteen articles met all selection criteria. Three studies found varying levels of support for multicomponent interventions, predominantly focused on implementation of clinical practice guidelines for specific presenting complaints and process redesign. Sixteen studies evaluated single-component interventions, with the following having at least one supportive study: using alternating patient assignment to provider teams rather than "zone"-based assignment, enhancing provider communication and customer service skills, incorporating information delivery interventions (e.g., pamphlets, video) that target patient expectations, using preformatted charts, and establishing ED-based observation units for specific conditions such as asthma and chest pain. There is modest evidence supporting a range of performance improvement interventions for improving ED patient satisfaction. Further work is needed before specific, evidence-based recommendations can be made regarding which process changes are most effective. Recommendations are made for improving the quality of performance improvement efforts in the ED setting.

  11. Nuclear criticality safety 2005 and 2006. Monitoring, follow-up and communication; Nukleaer kriticitetssaekerhet 2005 och 2006. Bevakning, uppfoeljning och kommunikation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mennerdahl, Dennis (E Mennerdahl Systems, Taeby (SE))

    2007-03-15

    A number of selected issues have dominated during 2005 and 2006. This include development of models for realism based on physics (not only statistics and praxis), criteria for criticality safety, regulations and standards, burnup credit, determination of source convergence in calculations, substantial improvements in calculation methods, validation of those methods, etc. In spite of some criticism against certain parts of the NRC FCSS/ISG-10, it is an important document. It should support both authorities and utilities to determine adequate safety margins. To a large extent, the principles that have been applied in Sweden since the 1970's are supported. The extra safety margin (MMS or DELTAk{sub m}) that protects against unknown uncertainties in k{sub eff} should be related to the known uncertainty. In Sweden this has been achieved by limitation of the total, statistically determined standard deviation to 0.01. In addition, FCSS/ISG-10 supports the principle of using different values of DELTAk{sub m} for normal situations than for design basis incidents (must have very low probabilities). In Sweden, DELTAk{sub m} have been included in the design limits that have been 0.95 for normal scenarios and 0.98 for incident scenarios. The corresponding values of DELTAk{sub m} are 0.05 and 0.02. They are exactly the same values as are mentioned in FCSS/ISG-10. The recently issued SCALE 5.1 is very important for burnup credit. Similar capabilities have been available in Sweden, in the form of CASMO, PHOENIX and their predecessor BUXY, for more than 30 years. SCALE 5.1 makes reactor calculations available in a procedure that is easily accessible to specialists on criticality safety. The physics simulation of the irradiation (Monte Carlo through KENO in 3-D or deterministic through NEWT in 2-D) becomes much more realistic with SCALE 5.1 than with earlier versions. A very important project is the OECD/NEA study on reference values for criticality safety. The final report has

  12. GH safety workshop position paper: a critical appraisal of recombinant human GH therapy in children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D B; Backeljauw, P; Bidlingmaier, M; Biller, B M K; Boguszewski, M; Burman, P; Butler, G; Chihara, K; Christiansen, J; Cianfarani, S; Clayton, P; Clemmons, D; Cohen, P; Darendeliler, F; Deal, C; Dunger, D; Erfurth, E M; Fuqua, J S; Grimberg, A; Haymond, M; Higham, C; Ho, K; Hoffman, A R; Hokken-Koelega, A; Johannsson, G; Juul, A; Kopchick, J; Lee, P; Pollak, M; Radovick, S; Robison, L; Rosenfeld, R; Ross, R J; Savendahl, L; Saenger, P; Toft Sorensen, H; Stochholm, K; Strasburger, C; Swerdlow, A; Thorner, M

    2016-02-01

    Recombinant human GH (rhGH) has been in use for 30 years, and over that time its safety and efficacy in children and adults has been subject to considerable scrutiny. In 2001, a statement from the GH Research Society (GRS) concluded that 'for approved indications, GH is safe'; however, the statement highlighted a number of areas for on-going surveillance of long-term safety, including cancer risk, impact on glucose homeostasis, and use of high dose pharmacological rhGH treatment. Over the intervening years, there have been a number of publications addressing the safety of rhGH with regard to mortality, cancer and cardiovascular risk, and the need for long-term surveillance of the increasing number of adults who were treated with rhGH in childhood. Against this backdrop of interest in safety, the European Society of Paediatric Endocrinology (ESPE), the GRS, and the Pediatric Endocrine Society (PES) convened a meeting to reappraise the safety of rhGH. The ouput of the meeting is a concise position statement.

  13. GH safety workshop position paper: a critical appraisal of recombinant human GH therapy in children and adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D B; Backeljauw, P; Bidlingmaier, M; Biller, B M K; Boguszewski, M; Burman, P; Butler, G; Chihara, K; Christiansen, J; Cianfarani, S; Clayton, P; Clemmons, D; Cohen, P; Darendeliler, F; Deal, C; Dunger, D; Erfurth, E M; Fuqua, J S; Grimberg, A; Haymond, M; Higham, C; Ho, K; Hoffman, A R; Hokken-Koelega, A; Johannsson, G; Juul, A; Kopchick, J; Lee, P; Pollak, M; Radovick, S; Robison, L; Rosenfeld, R; Ross, R J; Savendahl, L; Saenger, P; Toft Sorensen, H; Stochholm, K; Strasburger, C; Swerdlow, A; Thorner, M

    2015-01-01

    Recombinant human GH (rhGH) has been in use for 30 years, and over that time its safety and efficacy in children and adults has been subject to considerable scrutiny. In 2001, a statement from the GH Research Society (GRS) concluded that ‘for approved indications, GH is safe’; however, the statement highlighted a number of areas for on-going surveillance of long-term safety, including cancer risk, impact on glucose homeostasis, and use of high dose pharmacological rhGH treatment. Over the intervening years, there have been a number of publications addressing the safety of rhGH with regard to mortality, cancer and cardiovascular risk, and the need for long-term surveillance of the increasing number of adults who were treated with rhGH in childhood. Against this backdrop of interest in safety, the European Society of Paediatric Endocrinology (ESPE), the GRS, and the Pediatric Endocrine Society (PES) convened a meeting to reappraise the safety of rhGH. The ouput of the meeting is a concise position statement. PMID:26563978

  14. A nuclear criticality safety assessment of the loss of moderation control in 2 1/2 and 10-ton cylinders containing enriched UF{sub 6}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newvahner, R.L. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (United States); Pryor, W.A. [PAI Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1991-12-31

    Moderation control for maintaining nuclear criticality safety in 2 {1/2}-ton, 10-ton, and 14-ton cylinders containing enriched uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) has been used safely within the nuclear industry for over thirty years, and is dependent on cylinder integrity and containment. This assessment evaluates the loss of moderation control by the breaching of containment and entry of water into the cylinders. The first objective of this study was to estimate the required amounts of water entering these large UF{sub 6} cylinders to react with, and to moderate the uranium compounds sufficiently to cause criticality. Hypothetical accident situations were modeled as a uranyl fluoride (UO{sub 2}F{sub 2}) slab above a UF{sub 6} hemicylinder, and a UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} sphere centered within a UF{sub 6} hemicylinder. These situations were investigated by computational analyses utilizing the KENO V.a Monte Carlo Computer Code. The results were used to estimate both the masses of water required for criticality, and the limiting masses of water that could be considered safe. The second objective of the assessment was to calculate the time available for emergency control actions before a criticality would occur, i.e., a {open_quotes}safetime{close_quotes}, for various sources of water and different size openings in a breached cylinder. In the situations considered, except the case for a fire hose, the safetime appears adequate for emergency control actions. The assessment shows that current practices for handling moderation controlled cylinders of low enriched UF{sub 6}, along with the continuation of established personnel training programs, ensure nuclear criticality safety for routine and emergency operations.

  15. GH safety workshop position paper: A critical appraisal of recombinant human GH therapy in children and adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recombinant human Growth Hormone (rhGH) has been in use for 30 years, and over that time its safety and efficacy in children and adults has been subject to considerable scrutiny. In 2001, a statement from the GH Research Society (GRS) concluded that 'for approved indications, GH is safe'; however, t...

  16. Design of Uranium Solution Critical Experimental Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI; Da-yong; GUO; Zhi-jia; YAO; Cheng-zhi; SHI; Chen-lei

    2012-01-01

    <正>In 2012, Department of reactor engineering design completes the design and mechanical analysis of Uranium solution critical experimental device. According to user’s requirements and nuclear safety regulations, design and analysis mainly involves two sets of core structure, uranium solution loop, water loop and experimental bench, etc. The core which includes a core vessel, reactor core support, safety rods, control rods, and so on, is used for containing uranium solution and fuel element and fulfilling the

  17. Study on Safety of Sub-critical Nuclear Power Reactor%次临界能源堆安全性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周喆; 汪俊; 张慧敏

    2015-01-01

    The sub‐critical nuclear power reactor is composed by the Tokamak device in the center and the fission blanket surrounding it .A design layout of the fuel and coolant channel of the fission blanket was offered in the paper ,in which the safety analysis was done .The CFD code was used for the thermal‐hydraulic design and safety analysis of coolant channel blocked accident . The RELAP code was used to simulate the fission blanket of the sub‐critical nuclear power reactor , and the inherent safety of it was researched .By the analysis ,some safety weak points were found and related sugges‐tions were provided for the future safety improvement of the sub‐critical nuclear power reactor .%次临界能源堆由中心的托卡马克装置和围绕其的裂变包层组成。本文根据物理和热工专业分析计算得出的一种针对其裂变包层的燃料和冷却剂通道布置方式,分析设计的包层结构安全性和工程应用中的安全性。包层结构安全性分析使用C FD方法,计算了正常运行工况和冷却剂通道堵管的情况,得到堵管发生后包层的局部状况。通过RELAP程序模拟了裂变包层参与核电厂发电运行过程中,其本身所具有的固有安全性。本文通过计算发现了其安全上的薄弱环节,并提出了改进措施,为以后改进次临界能源堆安全性提供参考。

  18. System Safety Assessment Based on Past Incidents in Oil and Gas Industries: A Focused Approach in Forecasting of Minor, Severe, Critical, and Catastrophic Incidents, 2010–2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Patel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Accident in an occupation which occurred due to series of repetitive minor incidents within the working environment. This work demonstrates the critical system safety assessment based on various incidents that took place to the different system and subsystem of two Indian oil refineries in five years of span 2010 to 2015. The categorization of incidents and hazard rate function of each incident category were classified and calculated. The result of Weibull analysis estimators in the form of scale and shape parameters provides useful information of incidents forecasting and their patterns in a particular time.

  19. Optimum design and criticality safety of a beam-shaping assembly with an accelerator-driven subcritical neutron multiplier for boron neutron capture therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraga, F

    2015-12-01

    The beam-shaping assembly for boron neutron capture therapies with a compact accelerator-driven subcritical neutron multiplier was designed so that an epithermal neutron flux of 1.9×10(9) cm(-2) s(-1) at the treatment position was generated by 5 MeV protons in a beam current of 2 mA. Changes in the atomic density of (135)Xe in the nuclear fuel due to the operation of the beam-shaping assembly were estimated. The criticality safety of the beam-shaping assembly in terms of Xe poisoning is discussed.

  20. Effect of Mo-Re Alloy on Drop Critical Safety%钼铼合金对掉落临界安全的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡彬和; 李龙; 吴晓春; 孙征; 柯国土

    2016-01-01

    T he drop critical safety at the launch phase is the key point and difficult point in the design of space fast reactor .One of the general methods to ensure drop critical safety is using spectral shift absorption material as the structure material .The Mo‐Re alloy is usually used as spectral shift absorption material and the structure material with its excellent spectral shift performance and high temperature performance .The study was focused on Prometheus basic core scheme ,using MCNP code ,calculated and ana‐lyzed the effect of M o‐Re alloy on drop critical safety and its mechanism in the different drop conditions .T he results suggest that the drop condition has different effects on the critical safety with the different contents of Re .The strengthened resonance absorption caused by softenspectrum and the increase of Re content are the main factors of the change of the worst drop condition .%发射阶段的掉落临界安全是空间快堆设计中的重点和难点。目前空间快堆保证掉落临界安全的常用手段之一是采用谱移材料兼作结构材料。钼铼(M o‐Re)合金因其优异的谱移性能和高温性能常用作空间快堆的谱移材料和结构材料。本文以美国Prometheus基本型堆芯方案为研究对象,采用MCNP程序计算并分析了不同Re含量的M o‐Re合金对掉落临界安全的影响及其机理。计算结果及分析表明:Re含量不同,反应堆掉落工况对临界安全影响也不同;能谱软化和Re含量增加引起的Re共振吸收增强是最严重掉落工况转变的主要因素。

  1. A survey of the literature on challenges to safety posed by outsourcing or subcontracting of critical tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thommesen, Jacob; Andersen, Henning Boje; Øien, Knut

    The purpose of this document is to report on a review of the literature on the relation between safety and outsourcing or subcontracting. The review seeks to identify the problems and solutions that have been identified and described in the literature concerning outsourcing and subcontracting....... The report, being the first of three reports that comprise Deliverable D1.4.1, describes results of an extensive review of the literature that has been referenced in science and engineering databases....

  2. Development and experimental qualification of the new safety-criticality CRISTAL package; Developpement et qualification experimentale du nouveau formulaire de surete-criticite Cristal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattera, Ch

    1998-11-01

    This thesis is concerned with Criticality-Safety studies related to the French Nuclear Fuel Cycle. We first describe the steps in the nuclear fuel cycle and the specific characteristics of these studies compared with those performed in Reactor Physics. In order to respond to the future requirements of the French Nuclear Program, we have developed a new package CRISTAL based on a recent cross sections library (CEA 93) and the newest accurate codes (APOLLO 2, MORET 4, TRIPOLI 4). The CRISTAL system includes two calculations routes: a design route which will be used by French Industry (COGEMA/SGN) and a reference route. To transfer this package to the French industry, we have elaborated calculation schemes for fissile solutions, dissolver media, transport casks and storage pools. Afterwards, these schemes have been used for the CRISTAL experimental validation. We have also contributed to the CRISTAL experimental database by reevaluating a French storage pool experiment: the CRISTO II experiment. This revaluation has been submitted to the OECD working group in order that this experiment can be used by international criticality safety engineers to validate calculations methods. This work represents a large contribution to the recommendation of accurate calculation schemes and to the experimental validation of the CRISTAL package. These studies came up to the French Industry expectations. (author)

  3. Development and experimental testing of the new safety-criticality Cristal package; Developpement et qualification experimentale du nouveau formulaire de surete-criticite Cristal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattera, Ch

    1998-11-10

    This thesis is concerned with Criticality-Safety studies related to the French Nuclear Fuel Cycle. We first describe the steps in the nuclear fuel cycle and the specific characteristics of these studies compared with those performed in Reactor Physics. In order to respond to the future requirements of the French Nuclear Program, we have developed a new package CRISTAL based on a recent cross sections library (CEA93) and the newest accurate codes (APOLLO2, MORET4, TRIPOLI4). The cristal system includes two calculations routes: a design route which will be used by French Industry (COGEMA/SGN) and a reference route.) To transfer this package to the French industry, we have elaborated calculation schemes for fissile solutions, dissolver media, transport casks and storage pools. Afterwards, these schemes have been used for the CRISTAL experimental validation. We have also contributed to the CRISTAL experimental database by reevaluating a French storage pool experiment: the CRISTO II experiment. This revaluation has been submitted to the OCDE working group in order that this experiment can be used by international criticality safety engineers to validate calculations methods. This work represents a large contribution to the recommendation of accurate calculation schemes and to the experimental validation of the CRISTAL package. These studies came up to the French Industry expectations. (author) 70 refs.

  4. Design verification enhancement of field programmable gate array-based safety-critical I&C system of nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Ibrahim [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyung Hee University, 1732 Deogyeong-daero, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 17104 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jaecheon, E-mail: jcjung@kings.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear Power Plant Engineering, KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, 658-91 Haemaji-ro, Seosang-myeon, Ulju-gun, Ulsan 45014 (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Gyunyoung [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyung Hee University, 1732 Deogyeong-daero, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 17104 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • An enhanced, systematic and integrated design verification approach is proposed for V&V of FPGA-based I&C system of NPP. • RPS bistable fixed setpoint trip algorithm is designed, analyzed, verified and discussed using the proposed approaches. • The application of integrated verification approach simultaneously verified the entire design modules. • The applicability of the proposed V&V facilitated the design verification processes. - Abstract: Safety-critical instrumentation and control (I&C) system in nuclear power plant (NPP) implemented on programmable logic controllers (PLCs) plays a vital role in safe operation of the plant. The challenges such as fast obsolescence, the vulnerability to cyber-attack, and other related issues of software systems have currently led to the consideration of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) as an alternative to PLCs because of their advantages and hardware related benefits. However, safety analysis for FPGA-based I&C systems, and verification and validation (V&V) assessments still remain important issues to be resolved, which are now become a global research point of interests. In this work, we proposed a systematic design and verification strategies from start to ready-to-use in form of model-based approaches for FPGA-based reactor protection system (RPS) that can lead to the enhancement of the design verification and validation processes. The proposed methodology stages are requirement analysis, enhanced functional flow block diagram (EFFBD) models, finite state machine with data path (FSMD) models, hardware description language (HDL) code development, and design verifications. The design verification stage includes unit test – Very high speed integrated circuit Hardware Description Language (VHDL) test and modified condition decision coverage (MC/DC) test, module test – MATLAB/Simulink Co-simulation test, and integration test – FPGA hardware test beds. To prove the adequacy of the proposed

  5. The critical soil P levels for crop yield, soil fertility and environmental safety in different soil types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bai, Z.H.; Li, H.G.; Yang, X.Y.; Zhou, B.K.; Shi, X.J.; Wang, B.R.; Li, D.C.; Shen, J.B.; Chen, Q.; Qin, W.; Oenema, O.; Zhang, F.S.

    2013-01-01

    Sufficient soil phosphorus (P) is important for achieving optimal crop production, but excessive soil P levels may create a risk of P losses and associated eutrophication of surface waters. The aim of this study was to determine critical soil P levels for achieving optimal crop yields and minimal P

  6. Using the Technology of Critical Thinking Development (CTD) as a Means of Forming Competencies of Students Majoring in "Life Safety"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayumova, Leysan R.; Morozova, Marina A.

    2016-01-01

    The relevance of the research problem is caused by the need to use various teaching methods and techniques in training students majoring in pedagogical specialties while implementing the competency approach in education. Information about the technology of critical thinking development (CTD) in future teachers training is limited, and the…

  7. Critical features of an auditable management system for an ISO 9000-compatible occupational health and safety standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, S; Dyjack, D T

    1997-04-01

    An International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 9001: 1994-harmonized occupational health and safety (OHS) management system has been written at the University of Michigan, and reviewed, revised, and accepted under the direction of the American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA) Occupational Health and Safety Management Systems (OHSMS) Task Force and the Board of Directors. This system is easily adaptable to the ISO 14001 format and to both OHS and environmental management system applications. As was the case with ISO 9001: 1994, this system is expected to be compatible with current production quality and OHS quality systems and standards, have forward compatibility for new applications, and forward flexibility, with new features added as needed. Since ISO 9001: 1987 and 9001: 1994 have been applied worldwide, the incorporation of harmonized OHS and environmental management system components should be acceptable to business units already performing first-party (self-) auditing, and second-party (contract qualification) auditing. This article explains the basis of this OHS management system, its relationship to ISO 9001 and 14001 standards, the philosophy and methodology of an ISO-harmonized system audit, the relationship of these systems to traditional OHS audit systems, and the authors' vision of the future for application of such systems.

  8. Safety in Serbian animal source food industry and the impact of hazard analysis and critical control points: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomašević, I.; Đekić, I.

    2017-09-01

    There is a significant lack of HACCP-educated and/or HACCP-highly trained personnel within the Serbian animal source food workforces and veterinary inspectors, and this can present problems, particularly in hazard identification and assessment activities. However, despite obvious difficulties, HACCP benefits to the Serbian dairy industry are widespread and significant. Improving prerequisite programmes on the farms, mainly through infrastructural investments in milk collectors and transportation vehicles on one hand, and increasing hygiene awareness of farmers through training on the other hand has improved the safety of milk. The decline in bacterial numbers on meat contact surfaces, meat handlers’ hands and cooling facilities presents strong evidence of improved process hygiene and justifies the adoption of HACCP in Serbian meat establishments. Apart from the absence of national food poisoning statistics or national foodborne disease databases, the main obstacle to fully recognising the impact of HACCP on the safety of animal source food in Serbia is the lack of research regarding the occurrence of chemical and/or physical hazards interrelated with its production.

  9. Application of healthcare failure mode and effect analysis in hospital transport of critically ill patients in emergency department%医疗失效模式与效应分析在急诊危重患者院内转运中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宁

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the application of healthcare failure mode and effect analysis in hospital transport of critically ill patients in emergency department. Methods Healthcare failure mode and effect analysis were used to analyze the influencing factors of hospital transport of critically ill patients in e-mergency department. Failure mode was found from 3 processes of pre - transport,in transit and after - transport,and the control schemes were developed pertinently. Results The incidence of adverse events in transport was reduced, and the handover problems were reduced ( P < 0. 01 or P < 0.05 ). Conclusion Application of healthcare failure mode and effect analysis can improve the safety of hospital transport of critically ill patients in emergency department.%目的 探讨医疗失效模式与效应分析在急诊危重患者转运中的应用.方法 运用医疗失效模式与效应分析院内安全转运的影响因素,从转运前、转运中及转运后3个流程查找失效模式,并有针对性地制订控制方案.结果 降低了院内患者转运中意外的发生率,减少了与接收科室发生的交接问题(P<0.01或P<0.05).结论 应用医疗失效模式与效应分析可提高急诊危重患者院内转运的安全性.

  10. Management of the aging of critical safety-related concrete structures in light-water reactor plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Arndt, E.G. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The Structural Aging Program has the overall objective of providing the USNRC with an improved basis for evaluating nuclear power plant safety-related structures for continued service. The program consists of a management task and three technical tasks: materials property data base, structural component assessment/repair technology, and quantitative methodology for continued-service determinations. Objectives, accomplishments, and planned activities under each of these tasks are presented. Major program accomplishments include development of a materials property data base for structural materials as well as an aging assessment methodology for concrete structures in nuclear power plants. Furthermore, a review and assessment of inservice inspection techniques for concrete materials and structures has been complete, and work on development of a methodology which can be used for performing current as well as reliability-based future condition assessment of concrete structures is well under way. 43 refs., 3 tabs.

  11. Computational modelling of ovine critical-sized tibial defects with implanted scaffolds and prediction of the safety of fixator removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Heather; Lohfeld, Stefan; Dürselen, Lutz; McHugh, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Computational model geometries of tibial defects with two types of implanted tissue engineering scaffolds, β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL)/β-TCP, are constructed from µ-CT scan images of the real in vivo defects. Simulations of each defect under four-point bending and under simulated in vivo axial compressive loading are performed. The mechanical stability of each defect is analysed using stress distribution analysis. The results of this analysis highlights the influence of callus volume, and both scaffold volume and stiffness, on the load-bearing abilities of these defects. Clinically-used image-based methods to predict the safety of removing external fixation are evaluated for each defect. Comparison of these measures with the results of computational analyses indicates that care must be taken in the interpretation of these measures.

  12. [Design of a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) plan to assure the safety of a bologna product produced by a meat processing plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou Rached, Lizet; Ascanio, Norelis; Hernández, Pilar

    2004-03-01

    The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) is a systematic integral program used to identify and estimate the hazards (microbiological, chemical and physical) and the risks generated during the primary production, processing, storage, distribution, expense and consumption of foods. To establish a program of HACCP has advantages, being some of them: to emphasize more in the prevention than in the detection, to diminish the costs, to minimize the risk of manufacturing faulty products, to allow bigger trust to the management, to strengthen the national and international competitiveness, among others. The present work is a proposal based on the design of an HACCP program to guarantee the safety of the Bologna Special Type elaborated by a meat products industry, through the determination of hazards (microbiological, chemical or physical), the identification of critical control points (CCP), the establishment of critical limits, plan corrective actions and the establishment of documentation and verification procedures. The used methodology was based in the application of the seven basic principles settled down by the Codex Alimentarius, obtaining the design of this program. In view of the fact that recently the meat products are linked with pathogens like E. coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes, these were contemplated as microbiological hazard for the establishment of the HACCP plan whose application will guarantee the obtaining of a safe product.

  13. Multiple Views on Safety-Critical Automation: Aircraft, Autonomous Vehicles, Air Traffic Management and Satellite Ground Segments Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feary, Michael S.; Palanque, Philippe Andre Rolan; Martinie, De Almeida; Tscheligi, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    This SIG focuses on the engineering of automation in interactive critical systems. Automation has already been studied in a number of (sub-) disciplines and application fields: design, human factors, psychology, (software) engineering, aviation, health care, games. One distinguishing feature of the area we are focusing on is that in the field of interactive critical systems properties such as reliability, dependability, fault-tolerance are as important as usability, user experience or overall acceptance issues. The SIG targets at two problem areas: first the engineering of the user interaction with (partly-) autonomous systems: how to design, build and assess autonomous behavior, especially in cases where there is a need to represent on the user interface both autonomous and interactive objects. An example of such integration is the representation of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) (where no direct interaction is possible), together with aircrafts (that have to be instructed by an air traffic controller to avoid the UAV). Second the design and engineering of user interaction in general for autonomous objects systems (for example a cruise control in a car or an autopilot in an aircraft). The goal of the SIG is to raise interest in the CHI community on the general aspects of automation and to identify a community of researchers and practitioners interested in those increasingly prominent issues of interfaces towards (semi)-autonomous systems. The expected audience should be interested in addressing the issues of integration of mainly unconnected research domains to formulate a new joint research agenda.

  14. SIG: Multiple Views on Safety-Critical Automation: Aircraft, Autonomous Vehicles, Air Traffic Management and Satellite Ground Segments Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feary, Michael; Palanque, Philippe; Martinie, Célia; Tscheligi, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    This SIG focuses on the engineering of automation in interactive critical systems. Automation has already been studied in a number of (sub-) disciplines and application fields: design, human factors, psychology, (software) engineering, aviation, health care, games. One distinguishing feature of the area we are focusing on is that in the field of interactive critical systems properties such as reliability, dependability, fault tolerance are as important as usability, user experience or overall acceptance issues. The SIG targets at two problem areas: first the engineering of the user interaction with (partly-) autonomous systems: how to design, build and assess autonomous behavior, especially in cases where there is a need to represent on the user interface both autonomous and interactive objects. An example of such integration is the representation of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) (where no direct interaction is possible), together with aircrafts (that have to be instructed by an air traffic controller to avoid the UAV). Second the design and engineering of user interaction in general for autonomous objects/systems (for example a cruise control in a car or an autopilot in an aircraft). The goal of the SIG is to raise interest in the CHI community on the general aspects of automation and to identify a community of researchers and practitioners interested in those increasingly prominent issues of interfaces towards (semi)-autonomous systems. The expected audience should be interested in addressing the issues of integration of mainly unconnected research domains to formulate a new joint research agenda.

  15. Department of Homeland Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Content Official website of the Department of Homeland Security Contact Us Quick Links Site Map A-Z ... HP - 2016 CISRM HP - 2016 CISRM Critical Infrastructure Security HP - Surge Capacity Force HP - Surge Capacity Force ...

  16. USING STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL AND SIX SIGMA TO CRITICALLY ANALYSE SAFETY OF HELICAL SPRINGS: A RAILWAY CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulufhelo Ṋemavhola

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper exhibits the examination of life quality evaluation of helical coil springs in the railway industry as it impacts the safety of the transportation of goods and people. The types of spring considered are: the external spring, internal spring and stabiliser spring. Statistical process control was utilised as the fundamental instrument in the investigation. Measurements were performed using a measuring tape, dynamic actuators and the vernier caliper. The purpose of this research was to examine the usability of old helical springs found in a railway environment. The goal of the experiment was to obtain factual statistical information to determine the life quality of the helical springs used in the railroad transportation environment. Six sigma advocacies were additionally used as a part of this paper. According to six sigma estimation examination only the stabilizers and inner springs for coil bar diameter met the six sigma prerequisites. It is reasoned that the coil springs should be replaced as they do not meet the six sigma requirements.

  17. Towards spatial isolation design in a multi-core real-time kernel targeting safety-critical applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Gang; Top, Søren

    2013-01-01

    . Partitioning can prevent fault propagation among mixed-criticality applications, if spatial and temporal isolation are adequately ensured. This paper focuses on the solution of spatial isolation in the HARTEX kernel on a multi-core platform in terms of memory, communication between applications and I/O sharing....... According to formulated isolation requirements, a simple partitioning multi-core hardware architecture is proposed using SoC and memory protection units, and the kernel is extended to support spatial isolation between the kernel and applications as well as between applications. Combined design of hardware...... and software can easily achieve this isolation. At last, the spatial isolation is evaluated using a statistical sampling method and its performance is tested in terms of task switch, system call and footprint....

  18. Comparative analysis of operation and safety of subcritical nuclear systems and innovative critical reactors; Analyse comparative du fonctionnement et de la surete de systemes sous-critiques et de reacteurs critiques innovants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bokov, P.M

    2005-05-01

    The main goal of this thesis work is to investigate the role of core subcriticality for safety enhancement of advanced nuclear systems, in particular, molten salt reactors, devoted to both energy production and waste incineration/transmutation. The inherent safety is considered as ultimate goal of this safety improvement. An attempt to apply a systematic approach for the analysis of the subcriticality contribution to inherent properties of hybrid system was performed. The results of this research prove that in many cases the subcriticality may improve radically the safety characteristics of nuclear reactors, and in some configurations it helps to reach the 'absolute' intrinsic safety. In any case, a proper choice of subcriticality level makes all analyzed transients considerably slower and monotonic. It was shown that the weakest point of the independent-source systems with respect to the intrinsic safety is thermohydraulic unprotected transients, while in the case of the coupled-source systems the excess reactivity/current insertion events remain a matter of concern. To overcome these inherent drawbacks a new principle of realization of a coupled sub-critical system (DENNY concept) is proposed. In addition, the ways to remedy some particular safety-related problems with the help of the core sub-criticality are demonstrated. A preliminary safety analysis of the fast-spectrum molten salt reactor (REBUS concept) is also carried out in this thesis work. Finally, the potential of the alternative (to spallation) neutron sources for application in hybrid systems is examined. (author)

  19. Allen Denver Russell Memorial Lecture, 2006. The use of microbicides in infection control: a critical look at safety, testing and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, S A

    2006-10-01

    Microbial pathogens continue as major threats to health. Indeed, many ongoing societal changes are enhancing our vulnerability and exposure to several frank and opportunistic pathogens. This, together with rampant antimicrobial resistance and reduced prospects for newer drugs and vaccines, is forcing a higher reliance on microbiocides in infection prevention and control. That this reliance may not be well-founded becomes apparent from a closer look at current ways of testing and registering microbiocides, their label claims as well as human and environmental safety of certain widely used microbicidal chemicals. Many methods to test microbiocides for registration are flawed and/or entail test conditions irrelevant to field use. Pathogens listed on product labels may not be among those amenable to interruption through microbiocide use. The wide variations and discrepancies in existing national/regional regulations for registering microbiocides for sale stifle innovation. This is a critical look at the above-mentioned issues with emphasis on chemicals meant for use on environmental surfaces and medical devices. It highlights better ways to test microbiocides and to attain global harmonization of testing and product registration. It also details the known and potential dangers of microbiocide use and what to consider in choosing such formulations for optimal safety and effectiveness. End users are advised to be more critical and prudent in the selection and application of microbicidal chemicals, manufacturers are encouraged to explore infection control products and technologies that are safer in the workplace and for the environment, and regulators are urged to review and update the requirements and procedures for premarket review of microbiocide efficacy data and label claims. Independent investigations are also urgently needed to document the proportion of nosocomial infections that would be amenable to prevention through chemical disinfection of environmental

  20. In-Situ Radiological Surveys to Address Nuclear Criticality Safety Requirements During Remediation Activities at the Shallow Land Disposal Area, Armstrong County, Pennsylvania - 12268

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, Phillip; Mihalo, Mark; Eberlin, John; Lambert, Mike [Cabrera Services (United States); Matthews, Brian [Nuclear Safety Associates (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Cabrera Services Inc. (CABRERA) is the remedial contractor for the Shallow Land Disposal Area (SLDA) Site in Armstrong County Pennsylvania, a United States (US) Army Corps of Engineers - Buffalo District (USACE) contract. The remediation is being completed under the USACE's Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) which was established to identify, investigate, and clean up or control sites previously used by the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and its predecessor, the Manhattan Engineer District (MED). As part of the management of the FUSRAP, the USACE is overseeing investigation and remediation of radiological contamination at the SLDA Site in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), 42 US Code (USC), Section 9601 et. seq, as amended and, the National Oil and Hazardous Substance Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP), Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Section 300.430(f) (2). The objective of this project is to clean up radioactive waste at SLDA. The radioactive waste contains special nuclear material (SNM), primarily U-235, in 10 burial trenches, Cabrera duties include processing, packaging and transporting the waste to an offsite disposal facility in accordance with the selected remedial alternative as defined in the Final Record of Decision (USACE, 2007). Of particular importance during the remediation is the need to address nuclear criticality safety (NCS) controls for the safe exhumation and management of waste containing fissile materials. The partnership between Cabrera Services, Inc. and Measutronics Corporation led to the development of a valuable survey tool and operating procedure that are essential components of the SLDA Criticality Safety and Material Control and Accountability programs. Using proven existing technologies in the design and manufacture of the Mobile Survey Cart, the continued deployment of the Cart will allow for an efficient and reliable

  1. Safety and Effectiveness of Bone Marrow Cell Concentrate in the Treatment of Chronic Critical Limb Ischemia Utilizing a Rapid Point-of-Care System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh Ponemone

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Critical limb ischemia (CLI is the end stage of lower extremity peripheral vascular disease (PVD in which severe obstruction of blood flow results in ischemic rest pain, ulcers and/or gangrene, and a significant risk of limb loss. This open-label, single-arm feasibility study evaluated the safety and therapeutic effectiveness of autologous bone marrow cell (aBMC concentrate in revascularization of CLI patients utilizing a rapid point-of-care device. Seventeen (17 no-option CLI patients with ischemic rest pain were enrolled in the study. Single dose of aBMC, prepared utilizing an intraoperative point-of-care device, the Res-Q™ 60 BMC system, was injected intramuscularly into the afflicted limb and patients were followed up at regular intervals for 12 months. A statistically significant improvement in Ankle Brachial Index (ABI, Transcutaneous Oxygen Pressure (TcPO2, mean rest pain and intermittent claudication pain scores, wound/ ulcer healing, and 6-minute walking distance was observed following aBMC treatment. Major amputation-free survival (mAFS rate and amputation-free rates (AFR at 12 months were 70.6% and 82.3%, respectively. In conclusion, aBMC injections were well tolerated with improved tissue perfusion, confirming the safety, feasibility, and preliminary effectiveness of aBMC treatment in CLI patients.

  2. Safety and Effectiveness of Bone Marrow Cell Concentrate in the Treatment of Chronic Critical Limb Ischemia Utilizing a Rapid Point-of-Care System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponemone, Venkatesh; Gupta, Saniya; Sethi, Dalip; Suthar, Manish; Sharma, Monika; Powell, Richard J; Harris, Kenneth Lee; Jungla, Nungshi; Arambam, Priyadarshini; Kaul, Upendra; Seth, Ashok; Bukhari, Suhail

    2017-01-01

    Critical limb ischemia (CLI) is the end stage of lower extremity peripheral vascular disease (PVD) in which severe obstruction of blood flow results in ischemic rest pain, ulcers and/or gangrene, and a significant risk of limb loss. This open-label, single-arm feasibility study evaluated the safety and therapeutic effectiveness of autologous bone marrow cell (aBMC) concentrate in revascularization of CLI patients utilizing a rapid point-of-care device. Seventeen (17) no-option CLI patients with ischemic rest pain were enrolled in the study. Single dose of aBMC, prepared utilizing an intraoperative point-of-care device, the Res-Q™ 60 BMC system, was injected intramuscularly into the afflicted limb and patients were followed up at regular intervals for 12 months. A statistically significant improvement in Ankle Brachial Index (ABI), Transcutaneous Oxygen Pressure (TcPO2), mean rest pain and intermittent claudication pain scores, wound/ ulcer healing, and 6-minute walking distance was observed following aBMC treatment. Major amputation-free survival (mAFS) rate and amputation-free rates (AFR) at 12 months were 70.6% and 82.3%, respectively. In conclusion, aBMC injections were well tolerated with improved tissue perfusion, confirming the safety, feasibility, and preliminary effectiveness of aBMC treatment in CLI patients.

  3. Department of Energy's High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR), September 15--19, 1980: An independent on-site safety review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-02-01

    The intent of this on-site safety review was to make a broad management assessment of HFBR operations, rather than conduct a detailed in-depth audit. The result of the review should only be considered as having identified trends or indications. The Team's observations and recommendations for the most part are based upon licensed reactor facility practices used to meet industry standards. These standards form the basis for many of the comments in this report. The Team believes that a uniform minimum standard of performance should be achieved in the operation of DOE reactors. In order to assure that this is accomplished, clear standards are necessary. Consistent with the past AEC and ERDA policy, the team has used the standards of the commercial nuclear power industry. It is recognized that this approach is conservative in that the HFBR reactor has a significantly greater degree of inherent safety (low pressure, temperature, power, etc.) than a licensed reactor.

  4. Emergency department as a 'place of safety': reviewing the use of Section 136 of the Mental Health Act 1983 in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apakama, Dorothy C

    2012-01-01

    Section 136 provides the lawful authority for the removal, by the police, of the person to whom the provision applies, from a place to which the public have access. There has been a longstanding debate as to the most appropriate place of safety for these patients. The aim of this article is to review the literature and determine the ideal place for the detention and assessment of these patients and clarify the responsibilities of the staff of the agencies involved in the detention. It concludes that there is no single most appropriate place of safety for all groups of patients. Rather, there should be a range of options to enable the assessment in the most suitable environment for individual cases according to their needs at the time.

  5. Overview of Experiments for Physics of Fast Reactors from the International Handbooks of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments and Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bess, J. D.; Briggs, J. B.; Gulliford, J.; Ivanova, T.; Rozhikhin, E. V.; Semenov, M. Yu.; Tsibulya, A. M.; Koscheev, V. N.

    2017-07-01

    is the critical experiments with fast reactor fuel rods in water, interesting in terms of justification of nuclear safety during transportation and storage of fresh and spent fuel. These reports provide a detailed review of the experiment, designate the area of their application and include results of calculations on modern systems of constants in comparison with the estimated experimental data.

  6. A Critical Analysis Of The Majority Judgment In F V Minister Of Safety And Security 2012 1 Sa 536 (Cc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Linscott

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The majority judgment of Mogoeng CJ in F v Minister of Safety and Security 2012 1 SA 536 (CC purports to be a straightforward application of the reasoning of the Constitutional Court in K v Minister of Safety and Security 2005 6 SA 419 (CC, in which the court updated and constitutionalised the "standard test" for vicarious liability in deviation cases originally set out in Minister of Police v Rabie 1986 1 SA 117 (A by holding that constitutional and other policy norms now play an important role in deciding questions of vicarious liability. However, it is respectfully submitted that a close reading of the majority judgment in F reveals that the judge misconstrues several key concepts related to the doctrine of vicarious liability. In particular, the judge seems to suggest that there are separate and different tests for vicarious liability in instances where an employee has plainly committed a delict in the course and scope of his employment, and where he has to some extent deviated from his employment duties. In fact, there is a single overarching test for vicarious liability - the course and scope rule - but various subsidiary tests are used by the courts to address difficult or borderline cases. It is also questionable whether F truly is a "typical deviation case", as the judge asserts. The judge then applies the constitutionalised test for vicarious liability originally set out in K in a manner which is subtly, but significantly, different from how it was deployed in that case. In particular, Mogoeng CJ's implication that it is not necessary for a court to consider the second leg of the Rabie test in circumstances where the employee wrongdoer has clearly subjectively intended to further the interests of his employer is undesirable and should not be supported. Furthermore, the judge identifies the question of whether or not there is an "intimate link" between the conduct of the employee wrongdoer and the business of his employer as one of the

  7. Context Is Everything: Harmonization of Critical Food Microbiology Descriptors and Metadata for Improved Food Safety and Surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Griffiths

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Globalization of food networks increases opportunities for the spread of foodborne pathogens beyond borders and jurisdictions. High resolution whole-genome sequencing (WGS subtyping of pathogens promises to vastly improve our ability to track and control foodborne disease, but to do so it must be combined with epidemiological, clinical, laboratory and other health care data (called “contextual data” to be meaningfully interpreted for regulatory and health interventions, outbreak investigation, and risk assessment. However, current multi-jurisdictional pathogen surveillance and investigation efforts are complicated by time-consuming data re-entry, curation and integration of contextual information owing to a lack of interoperable standards and inconsistent reporting. A solution to these challenges is the use of ‘ontologies’ - hierarchies of well-defined and standardized vocabularies interconnected by logical relationships. Terms are specified by universal IDs enabling integration into highly regulated areas and multi-sector sharing (e.g., food and water microbiology with the veterinary sector. Institution-specific terms can be mapped to a given standard at different levels of granularity, maximizing comparability of contextual information according to jurisdictional policies. Fit-for-purpose ontologies provide contextual information with the auditability required for food safety laboratory accreditation. Our research efforts include the development of a Genomic Epidemiology Ontology (GenEpiO, and Food Ontology (FoodOn that harmonize important laboratory, clinical and epidemiological data fields, as well as existing food resources. These efforts are supported by a global consortium of researchers and stakeholders worldwide. Since foodborne diseases do not respect international borders, uptake of such vocabularies will be crucial for multi-jurisdictional interpretation of WGS results and data sharing.

  8. Improvement of the safety of a clinical process using failure mode and effects analysis: Prevention of venous thromboembolic disease in critical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viejo Moreno, R; Sánchez-Izquierdo Riera, J Á; Molano Álvarez, E; Barea Mendoza, J A; Temprano Vázquez, S; Díaz Castellano, L; Montejo González, J C

    2016-11-01

    To improve critical patient safety in the prevention of venous thromboembolic disease, using failure mode and effects analysis as safety tool. A contemporaneous cohort study covering the period January 2014-March 2015 was made in 4 phases: phase 1) prior to failure mode and effects analysis; phase 2) conduction of mode analysis and implementation of the detected improvements; phase 3) evaluation of outcomes, and phase 4) (post-checklist introduction impact. Patients admitted to the adult polyvalent ICU of a third-level hospital center. A total of 196 patients, older than 18 years, without thromboembolic disease upon admission to the ICU and with no prior anticoagulant treatment. A series of interventions were implemented following mode analysis: training, and introduction of a protocol and checklist to increase preventive measures in relation to thromboembolic disease. Indication and prescription of venous thrombosis prevention measures before and after introduction of the measures derived from the failure mode and effects analysis. A total of 59, 97 and 40 patients were included in phase 1, 3 and 4, respectively, with an analysis of the percentage of subjects who received thromboprophylaxis. The failure mode and effects analysis was used to detect potential errors associated to a lack of training and protocols referred to thromboembolic disease. An awareness-enhancing campaign was developed, with staff training and the adoption of a protocol for the prevention of venous thromboembolic disease. The prescription of preventive measures increased in the phase 3 group (91.7 vs. 71.2%, P=.001). In the post-checklist group, prophylaxis was prescribed in 97.5% of the patients, with an increase in the indication of dual prophylactic measures (4.7, 6.7 and 41%; P<.05). There were no differences in complications rate associated to the increase in prophylactic measures. The failure mode and effects analysis allowed us to identify improvements in the prevention of

  9. Application of SHEL model in safety management of intravenous medication nursing in emergency department%SHEL模式在急诊静脉用药护理安全管理中的应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林喜爱

    2012-01-01

    目的 评价SHEL模式在急诊静脉用药护理安全管理中的应用效果.方法 对比分析SHEL模式实施前后静脉用药护理安全缺陷、急诊科护士用药安全知识的变化.结果 除皮试阳性结果判断标准外,SHEL模式实施后的其余四个主题的得分均显著优于SHEL模式实施前;SHEL模式实施后静脉用药缺陷率为35.7%,显著低于SHEL模式实施前的60.0%(X2=5.893,P=0.015).结论 SHEL模式能够显著降低急诊科静脉用药缺陷,是一种有效的护理安全管理工作方法.%Objective To assess the effect of the SHEL model in safety management of intravenous medication nursing in emergency department.Methods The changes of intravenous medication errors and knowledge of medication nursing safety in emergency nurses were compared after application of the SHEL model.Results Medication nursing safety knowledge,except judgement of skin test results.was significantly improved after application of the SHEL model The rate of intravenous medication errors was 35.7% after application of the SHEL model,which was decreased significantly as compared with the baseline ( X2 =5.893,P=0.015 ).Conclusions The SHEL model can markedly reduce intravenous medication errors in emergency department and is a management method for nursing safety.

  10. Transport Safety Management Strategy with Emergency Department Patients with Cervical Spine Fracture%急诊颈椎骨折患者院内转运的安全管理策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高秀梅

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analysis the influence factors of emergency department patients with cervical spine fracture nosocomial transportation safety, improvng the safety of the patients with cervical spine fracture transport. Methods 38 cases with cervical spine fracture from the emergency department to the ward or inspection department accident case were analyzed by continuous observation, the application ef ect evaluation of transhipment assessment management strategy. Results Evaluation management strategy and strengthening the nursing care on the way can improve the security of hospital patients with cervical spine fracture of transshipment. Conclusion Master of various rescue techniques can ensure safety and ef ect of cervical spine fracture patients, which was an important way, saving lives timely, reducing the happening of the disability rate.%目的:分析急诊颈椎骨折患者院内转运安全的影响因素,提高颈椎骨折患者转运的安全性。方法运用连续观察法分析38例从急诊科转运到病房或检查科室的颈椎骨折患者发生意外的情况,评价转运评估管理策略的应用效果。结果运用转运评估管理策略及加强转运途中护理,能够提高院内颈椎骨折患者转运的安全性。结论掌握各种抢救技术是保证颈椎骨折患者院内安全有效转运的重要途径,可及时的拯救生命,减少伤残率的发生。

  11. Refrigeration and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Refrigeration and Food Safety History of Refrigeration Importance of Refrigeration Types of ...

  12. Fires and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Fires and Food Safety Fire! Few words can strike such terror. Residential ...

  13. Food safety and nutritional quality for the prevention of non communicable diseases: the Nutrient, hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point process (NACCP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Renzo, Laura; Colica, Carmen; Carraro, Alberto; Cenci Goga, Beniamino; Marsella, Luigi Tonino; Botta, Roberto; Colombo, Maria Laura; Gratteri, Santo; Chang, Ting Fa Margherita; Droli, Maurizio; Sarlo, Francesca; De Lorenzo, Antonino

    2015-04-23

    The important role of food and nutrition in public health is being increasingly recognized as crucial for its potential impact on health-related quality of life and the economy, both at the societal and individual levels. The prevalence of non-communicable diseases calls for a reformulation of our view of food. The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system, first implemented in the EU with the Directive 43/93/CEE, later replaced by Regulation CE 178/2002 and Regulation CE 852/2004, is the internationally agreed approach for food safety control. Our aim is to develop a new procedure for the assessment of the Nutrient, hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (NACCP) process, for total quality management (TMQ), and optimize nutritional levels. NACCP was based on four general principles: i) guarantee of health maintenance; ii) evaluate and assure the nutritional quality of food and TMQ; iii) give correct information to the consumers; iv) ensure an ethical profit. There are three stages for the application of the NACCP process: 1) application of NACCP for quality principles; 2) application of NACCP for health principals; 3) implementation of the NACCP process. The actions are: 1) identification of nutritional markers, which must remain intact throughout the food supply chain; 2) identification of critical control points which must monitored in order to minimize the likelihood of a reduction in quality; 3) establishment of critical limits to maintain adequate levels of nutrient; 4) establishment, and implementation of effective monitoring procedures of critical control points; 5) establishment of corrective actions; 6) identification of metabolic biomarkers; 7) evaluation of the effects of food intake, through the application of specific clinical trials; 8) establishment of procedures for consumer information; 9) implementation of the Health claim Regulation EU 1924/2006; 10) starting a training program. We calculate the risk assessment as follows

  14. A Decision Support System for Identifying and Ranking Critical Habitat Parcels on and in the Vicinity of Department of Defense Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    DOD Department of Defense DBH Diameter at Breast Height DEM Digital Elevation Model DSS Decision Support System DTM Digital Terrain...Typically a 200 foot buffer is marked around the set of cavity trees belonging to a woodpecker group (termed a cavity tree cluster), and within...girdling trees with wire, burying cable, firing artillery within 600 feet and using anything that produces excessive disturbance (e.g., noise

  15. Application of Classification Marks in Transfusion Safety Management in Outpatient Department and Emergency Room%分级标识在门急诊输液安全管理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薄丽妹; 任璐; 吴晓惠

    2015-01-01

    目的探讨利用分级标识在门急诊输液安全管理中的应用。方法对2013年7月至12月的门急诊输液患者根据病情、年龄、用药等的不同情况进行评估,划分A、B、C、D四个等级,给以红、黄、绿、无标识的方法实施不同程度的安全管理。结果比较分级标识管理前后,患者满意度和护士工作满意度评分差异显著,具有统计学意义(P<0.05),输液护理安全隐患和投诉发生率降低,护理安全质量评分较前提高。结论采用分级标识模式能细化护理安全管理,强化护士安全意识,提高患者满意度,具有可行性。%Objective To discuss the application of classification marks in transfusion safety management in outpatient department and emergency room.Methods The patients who accepted transfusion treatment in outpatient department and emergency room from July to December, 2013, were divided into four grades (A, B, C and D, which were marked with red-mark, yellow-mark, green-mark and non-mark) based on the assessment of their conditions, age and medication, so as to conduct safety management of different levels according to their grade.Results There were significant differences between satisfaction scores of patients and nurses before and after the application of classification marks (p<0.05). After the implementation of classification marks, the safety hazard of recurrent hemorrhage and the incidence of complaints reduced, and the nursing safety quality score increased.Conclusion The application of classification marks could refine the nursing safety management, strengthen nurses' safety consciousness and improve patients' satisfaction. Therefore, the classification marks are feasible.

  16. Outcomes of Critical Limb Ischemia in an Urban, Safety Net Hospital Population with High WIfI Amputation Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Robert; Dunn, Joie; Clavijo, Leonardo; Shavelle, David; Rowe, Vincent; Woo, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Patients presenting to a public hospital with critical limb ischemia (CLI) typically have advanced disease with significant comorbidities. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of revascularization on 1-year amputation rate of CLI patients presenting to Los Angeles County USC Medical Center, classified according to the Society for Vascular Surgery Wound, Ischemia and foot Infection (WIfI). A retrospective review of patients who presented to a public hospital with CLI from February 2010 to July 2014 was performed. Patients were classified according to the WIfI system. Only patients with complete data who survived at least 12 months after presentation were included. Ninety-three patients with 98 affected limbs were included. The mean age was 62.8 years. Eighty-two patients (84%) had hypertension and 71 (72%) had diabetes. Fifty (57.5%) limbs had Trans-Atlantic Inter-Society Consensus (TASC) C or D femoral-popliteal lesions and 82 (98%) had significant infrapopliteal disease. The majority had moderate or high WIfI amputation and revascularization scores. Eighty-four (86%) limbs underwent open, endovascular, or hybrid revascularization. Overall, one year major amputation (OYMA) rate was 26.5%. In limbs with high WIfI amputation score, the OYMA was 34.5%: 21.4% in those who were revascularized and 57% in those who were not. On univariable analysis, factors associated with increased risk of OYMA were nonrevascularization (P = 0.005), hyperlipidemia (P = 0.06), hemodialysis (P = 0.005), gangrene (P = 0.02), ulcer classification (P = 0.05), WIfI amputation score (P = 0.026), and WIfI wound grade (P = 0.04). On multivariable analysis, increasing WIfI amputation score (odds ratio [OR] 1.84, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0-3.39) was associated with increased risk of OYMA while revascularization (OR 0.24, 95% CI 0.07-0.80) was associated with decreased risk of OYMA. The OYMA rates in this population were consistent with those predicted by the

  17. Spent Fuel Working Group report on inventory and storage of the Department`s spent nuclear fuel and other reactor irradiated nuclear materials and their environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities. Volume 3, Site team reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    A self assessment was conducted of those Hanford facilities that are utilized to store Reactor Irradiated Nuclear Material, (RINM). The objective of the assessment is to identify the Hanford inventories of RINM and the ES & H concerns associated with such storage. The assessment was performed as proscribed by the Project Plan issued by the DOE Spent Fuel Working Group. The Project Plan is the plan of execution intended to complete the Secretary`s request for information relevant to the inventories and vulnerabilities of DOE storage of spent nuclear fuel. The Hanford RINM inventory, the facilities involved and the nature of the fuel stored are summarized. This table succinctly reveals the variety of the Hanford facilities involved, the variety of the types of RINM involved, and the wide range of the quantities of material involved in Hanford`s RINM storage circumstances. ES & H concerns are defined as those circumstances that have the potential, now or in the future, to lead to a criticality event, to a worker radiation exposure event, to an environmental release event, or to public announcements of such circumstances and the sensationalized reporting of the inherent risks.

  18. Study on the Effect of Nursing Safety Management in Emergency Department Nursing%护理安全管理在急诊科护理中的应用效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建香

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析护理安全管理在急诊科护理中的应用效果。方法将2011年3月~2012年4月安全管理未实施前与2012年5月~2013年6月安全管理实施后不良事件发生率进行比对,并探讨其原因及解决对策。结果临床安全管理未实施前不良事件发生率为46.7%,实施后发生率为6.7%,安全管理实施前后存在鲜明性临床差异(P<0.05)。结论急诊科实施护理安全管理可有效防范护理风险,为患者生命安全提供可靠保障,亦可在提高患者满意率的同时,提高护理人员服务水平。%Objective To analyze the effect of nursing safety management in emergency department nursing. Methods The comparison of the adverse events occurring between March April and May 2012 before the implementation of the security management in 2011 to 2013 years in June, and to investigate the reasons and countermeasures. Results The clinical safety management did not implement the incidence of adverse events was 46.7%, the incidence of the implementation was 6.7%, the safety management before and after the implementation of the clinical differences (P<0.05). Conclusion Emergency department implementation nursing safety management can effectively prevent nursing risk and provide a reliable guarantee for the safety of patients, but also in improving the satisfaction rate of patients at the same time, improve the level of nursing service.

  19. 面向安全关键系统的时间触发软件%Time-triggered software for safety-critical systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏罗辉; 郑小宁; 张超

    2014-01-01

    为了保证任务的执行免受事件驱动行为的影响,安全关键控制系统软件设计时应当避免使用任何时间不确定的结构。时间触发软件是时间触发架构重要的组成部分,具有较高的可靠性和确定性,易于开发和综合。重点研究了时间触发软件的体系架构、时间触发操作系统的调度策略和任务管理策略。同时容错通信层的实现使得副本的数目、表决和重新综合对于应用软件完全保持透明。总之,时间触发操作系统和容错通信层可以使应用软件和安全关键控制算法的开发更加简单和快捷,也更易于测试和验证。%In order to protect execution of the tasks from the effects of event-driven behavior, any time-uncertain structure should not be adopted in safety-critical control software design. Time-triggered software is an important part of time triggered architecture with high reliability and certainty which is easy to develop and integrate. Time triggered software architecture, scheduling policy and task management policy of time triggered operation system were mainly studied. Fault-tolerant communication layer made number of copies, voting and reintegration keeping entirely transparent to the application software. Owing to time triggered operating system and fault-tolerant communication layer, the development of application software and safety-critical control algorithm becomes easy and rapid and it is easy to test and verify too.

  20. Spent Fuel Working Group report on inventory and storage of the Department`s spent nuclear fuel and other reactor irradiated nuclear materials and their environmental, safety and health vulnerabilities. Volume 2, Working Group Assessment Team reports; Vulnerability development forms; Working group documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    The Secretary of Energy`s memorandum of August 19, 1993, established an initiative for a Department-wide assessment of the vulnerabilities of stored spent nuclear fuel and other reactor irradiated nuclear materials. A Project Plan to accomplish this study was issued on September 20, 1993 by US Department of Energy, Office of Environment, Health and Safety (EH) which established responsibilities for personnel essential to the study. The DOE Spent Fuel Working Group, which was formed for this purpose and produced the Project Plan, will manage the assessment and produce a report for the Secretary by November 20, 1993. This report was prepared by the Working Group Assessment Team assigned to the Hanford Site facilities. Results contained in this report will be reviewed, along with similar reports from all other selected DOE storage sites, by a working group review panel which will assemble the final summary report to the Secretary on spent nuclear fuel storage inventory and vulnerability.