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Sample records for criticality non-linear steady-state

  1. Customized Steady-State Constraints for Parameter Estimation in Non-Linear Ordinary Differential Equation Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Marcus; Timmer, Jens; Kaschek, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Ordinary differential equation models have become a wide-spread approach to analyze dynamical systems and understand underlying mechanisms. Model parameters are often unknown and have to be estimated from experimental data, e.g., by maximum-likelihood estimation. In particular, models of biological systems contain a large number of parameters. To reduce the dimensionality of the parameter space, steady-state information is incorporated in the parameter estimation process. For non-linear models, analytical steady-state calculation typically leads to higher-order polynomial equations for which no closed-form solutions can be obtained. This can be circumvented by solving the steady-state equations for kinetic parameters, which results in a linear equation system with comparatively simple solutions. At the same time multiplicity of steady-state solutions is avoided, which otherwise is problematic for optimization. When solved for kinetic parameters, however, steady-state constraints tend to become negative for particular model specifications, thus, generating new types of optimization problems. Here, we present an algorithm based on graph theory that derives non-negative, analytical steady-state expressions by stepwise removal of cyclic dependencies between dynamical variables. The algorithm avoids multiple steady-state solutions by construction. We show that our method is applicable to most common classes of biochemical reaction networks containing inhibition terms, mass-action and Hill-type kinetic equations. Comparing the performance of parameter estimation for different analytical and numerical methods of incorporating steady-state information, we show that our approach is especially well-tailored to guarantee a high success rate of optimization.

  2. Critical issues for steady state operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyabu, Nobuyoshi

    1994-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in the toroidal magnetic fusion research, achieving high quality plasmas which satisfy the breakeven condition. As the next step, such plasmas need to be maintained in a steady state or a longer period. Critical issues for the steady state operation have been discussed briefly, such as high heat load on the divertor plates, deterioration of the energy confinement with increasing power, impurity contamination, including helium (ash), maintaining of the magnetic configuration, erosion of the plasma facing material. (author)

  3. Influence of elastic supports on non-linear steady-state vibrations of Zener material plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litewka, Przemysław; Lewandowski, Roman

    2018-01-01

    The paper reports numerical results of analyses of steady-state harmonic vibrations of von Kármán non-linear plates made from Zener material with various elastic support conditions. Influences of shear deformation and rotary inertia are taken into account, thus the model is able to predict the behaviour of plates with a moderate thickness. The amplitude equation for the plate is obtained using the time-averaged principle of virtual work for the assumed harmonic form of excitation and plate displacements as well as the harmonic balance method for Zener material and non-linear elastic supports. Plates are discretised using 8-noded rectangular plate finite elements. The discretised amplitude equation is solved for the response curves using a path-following method. Results of two numerical examples are presented and the qualitative and quantitative influence of support elastic properties is discussed.

  4. Steady-state non-linear vibrations of plates using Zener material model with fractional derivative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litewka, Przemysław; Lewandowski, Roman

    2017-08-01

    The paper is devoted to non-linear vibrations of plates, made of the Zener viscoelastic material modelled with the Caputo fractional derivative, and in particular to their response to harmonic excitation. The plate geometric non-linearity is of the von Kármán type. In the formulation shear effects and rotary inertia are considered, too. The problem is solved in the frequency domain. A one-harmonic form of the solution for plate displacements corresponding to the plate formulation is assumed. The amplitude equation is obtained from the time averaged principle of virtual work. The time averaging precedes the use of the harmonic balance method. In the space discretization the finite element method is used involving 8-noded rectangular plate elements with selective-reduced integration. Several numerical examples are analyzed and the response curves are found using a path-following method. The purpose of these analyses is to identify material features of the adopted model of viscoelasticity with the fractional derivative.

  5. Steady-state global optimization of metabolic non-linear dynamic models through recasting into power-law canonical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozo, Carlos; Marín-Sanguino, Alberto; Alves, Rui; Guillén-Gosálbez, Gonzalo; Jiménez, Laureano; Sorribas, Albert

    2011-08-25

    Design of newly engineered microbial strains for biotechnological purposes would greatly benefit from the development of realistic mathematical models for the processes to be optimized. Such models can then be analyzed and, with the development and application of appropriate optimization techniques, one could identify the modifications that need to be made to the organism in order to achieve the desired biotechnological goal. As appropriate models to perform such an analysis are necessarily non-linear and typically non-convex, finding their global optimum is a challenging task. Canonical modeling techniques, such as Generalized Mass Action (GMA) models based on the power-law formalism, offer a possible solution to this problem because they have a mathematical structure that enables the development of specific algorithms for global optimization. Based on the GMA canonical representation, we have developed in previous works a highly efficient optimization algorithm and a set of related strategies for understanding the evolution of adaptive responses in cellular metabolism. Here, we explore the possibility of recasting kinetic non-linear models into an equivalent GMA model, so that global optimization on the recast GMA model can be performed. With this technique, optimization is greatly facilitated and the results are transposable to the original non-linear problem. This procedure is straightforward for a particular class of non-linear models known as Saturable and Cooperative (SC) models that extend the power-law formalism to deal with saturation and cooperativity. Our results show that recasting non-linear kinetic models into GMA models is indeed an appropriate strategy that helps overcoming some of the numerical difficulties that arise during the global optimization task.

  6. Steady-state global optimization of metabolic non-linear dynamic models through recasting into power-law canonical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorribas Albert

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Design of newly engineered microbial strains for biotechnological purposes would greatly benefit from the development of realistic mathematical models for the processes to be optimized. Such models can then be analyzed and, with the development and application of appropriate optimization techniques, one could identify the modifications that need to be made to the organism in order to achieve the desired biotechnological goal. As appropriate models to perform such an analysis are necessarily non-linear and typically non-convex, finding their global optimum is a challenging task. Canonical modeling techniques, such as Generalized Mass Action (GMA models based on the power-law formalism, offer a possible solution to this problem because they have a mathematical structure that enables the development of specific algorithms for global optimization. Results Based on the GMA canonical representation, we have developed in previous works a highly efficient optimization algorithm and a set of related strategies for understanding the evolution of adaptive responses in cellular metabolism. Here, we explore the possibility of recasting kinetic non-linear models into an equivalent GMA model, so that global optimization on the recast GMA model can be performed. With this technique, optimization is greatly facilitated and the results are transposable to the original non-linear problem. This procedure is straightforward for a particular class of non-linear models known as Saturable and Cooperative (SC models that extend the power-law formalism to deal with saturation and cooperativity. Conclusions Our results show that recasting non-linear kinetic models into GMA models is indeed an appropriate strategy that helps overcoming some of the numerical difficulties that arise during the global optimization task.

  7. Noise-induced modulation of the relaxation kinetics around a non-equilibrium steady state of non-linear chemical reaction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, Rajesh; Sbalzarini, Ivo F; González-Segredo, Nélido

    2011-01-28

    Stochastic effects from correlated noise non-trivially modulate the kinetics of non-linear chemical reaction networks. This is especially important in systems where reactions are confined to small volumes and reactants are delivered in bursts. We characterise how the two noise sources confinement and burst modulate the relaxation kinetics of a non-linear reaction network around a non-equilibrium steady state. We find that the lifetimes of species change with burst input and confinement. Confinement increases the lifetimes of all species that are involved in any non-linear reaction as a reactant. Burst monotonically increases or decreases lifetimes. Competition between burst-induced and confinement-induced modulation may hence lead to a non-monotonic modulation. We quantify lifetime as the integral of the time autocorrelation function (ACF) of concentration fluctuations around a non-equilibrium steady state of the reaction network. Furthermore, we look at the first and second derivatives of the ACF, each of which is affected in opposite ways by burst and confinement. This allows discriminating between these two noise sources. We analytically derive the ACF from the linear Fokker-Planck approximation of the chemical master equation in order to establish a baseline for the burst-induced modulation at low confinement. Effects of higher confinement are then studied using a partial-propensity stochastic simulation algorithm. The results presented here may help understand the mechanisms that deviate stochastic kinetics from its deterministic counterpart. In addition, they may be instrumental when using fluorescence-lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) or fluorescence-correlation spectroscopy (FCS) to measure confinement and burst in systems with known reaction rates, or, alternatively, to correct for the effects of confinement and burst when experimentally measuring reaction rates.

  8. Steady-State Linear and Non-linear Optical Spectroscopy of Organic Chromophores and Bio-macromolecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Marazzi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Bio-macromolecules as DNA, lipid membranes and (polypeptides are essential compounds at the core of biological systems. The development of techniques and methodologies for their characterization is therefore necessary and of utmost interest, even though difficulties can be experienced due to their intrinsic complex nature. Among these methods, spectroscopies, relying on optical properties are especially important to determine their macromolecular structures and behaviors, as well as the possible interactions and reactivity with external dyes—often drugs or pollutants—that can (photosensitize the bio-macromolecule leading to eventual chemical modifications, thus damages. In this review, we will focus on the theoretical simulation of electronic spectroscopies of bio-macromolecules, considering their secondary structure and including their interaction with different kind of (photosensitizers. Namely, absorption, emission and electronic circular dichroism (CD spectra are calculated and compared with the available experimental data. Non-linear properties will be also taken into account by two-photon absorption, a highly promising technique (i to enhance absorption in the red and infra-red windows and (ii to enhance spatial resolution. Methodologically, the implications of using implicit and explicit solvent, coupled to quantum and thermal samplings of the phase space, will be addressed. Especially, hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM methods are explored for a comparison with solely QM methods, in order to address the necessity to consider an accurate description of environmental effects on spectroscopic properties of biological systems.

  9. Steady-State Linear and Non-linear Optical Spectroscopy of Organic Chromophores and Bio-macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marazzi, Marco; Gattuso, Hugo; Monari, Antonio; Assfeld, Xavier

    2018-01-01

    Bio-macromolecules as DNA, lipid membranes and (poly)peptides are essential compounds at the core of biological systems. The development of techniques and methodologies for their characterization is therefore necessary and of utmost interest, even though difficulties can be experienced due to their intrinsic complex nature. Among these methods, spectroscopies, relying on optical properties are especially important to determine their macromolecular structures and behaviors, as well as the possible interactions and reactivity with external dyes-often drugs or pollutants-that can (photo)sensitize the bio-macromolecule leading to eventual chemical modifications, thus damages. In this review, we will focus on the theoretical simulation of electronic spectroscopies of bio-macromolecules, considering their secondary structure and including their interaction with different kind of (photo)sensitizers. Namely, absorption, emission and electronic circular dichroism (CD) spectra are calculated and compared with the available experimental data. Non-linear properties will be also taken into account by two-photon absorption, a highly promising technique (i) to enhance absorption in the red and infra-red windows and (ii) to enhance spatial resolution. Methodologically, the implications of using implicit and explicit solvent, coupled to quantum and thermal samplings of the phase space, will be addressed. Especially, hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods are explored for a comparison with solely QM methods, in order to address the necessity to consider an accurate description of environmental effects on spectroscopic properties of biological systems.

  10. A critical review of the history of low- to moderate-intensity steady-state VO2 kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robergs, Robert A

    2014-05-01

    Research into the rate of whole-body oxygen consumption (VO2) kinetics during exercise increments to low- to moderate-intensity steady-state exercise was originally based on the theory of linear first-order VO2 kinetics, implying that the VO2 response to steady-state exercise increments is a mono-exponential response of the same time constant (tau, τ) across all steady-state intensities. Despite the acceptance of this theory for more than 30 years, early research from the 1980s documented an increasing τ with increasing steady-state exercise intensity, and recent research has confirmed such results. Today, such evidence has led to retraction of the theory of linear first-order VO2 kinetics. This history, revealing the premature acceptance of a theory, and subsequent scientific investigation using improved research design, instrumentation and data processing, has important implications for the fragility of scientific theories and the need for continual testing of theories in the search for facts and not prematurely accepted constructs. This review provides historical evidence for a critical reappraisal of the theory of linear first-order VO2 kinetics and presents data to show the need for changes in the data-processing 'standards' of the discipline to improve measurement of instantaneous VO2 kinetics and the time to steady state. For example, to date, no study of VO2 kinetics has quantified and statistically analysed the time to steady state. Furthermore, the instability of τ across different exercise increments, and for the same increment from different baseline VO2 demand, prevents τ from being a valid measure of VO2 kinetics for different exercise conditions. The concept of quantifying kinetics from a total non-linear response, when no other field of kinetics pursues this methodology, also raises concern for the methods and models used to interpret steady-state VO2 kinetics.

  11. Weathering rates and steady-state critical loads for forest soils in the Georgia Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mongeon, A.; Aherne, J.; Watmough, S. [Trent Univ., Peterborough, ON (Canada). Watershed Science Centre

    2007-07-01

    Sulphur and nitrogen emissions in the Georgia Basin resulting from expansions in urban and industrial development are now leading to the acidification of soils in the region. This study used weathering rates to evaluate the sensitivity of soils and to determine weathering rates for rooting zones at 19 sites within the Georgia Basin. Soils with low weathering rates are sensitive to acid deposition. A process-oriented soil chemical weathering model was used to calculate weathering rates for each study site as well as to determine steady-state critical loads for acid deposition. Soils at the sites were mainly podzols or brunisols, with forests composed of Douglas Fir, Western Hemlock, Western Red Cedar, Amablis Fir, Sitka Spruce, and Paper Birch. Sites ranged in elevation between 100 m to 1370 m. A steady-state simple mass balance model (SSMB) was used to estimate critical loads. The sites exhibited a large range in estimated weathering rates. Sixteen sites had weathering rates lower than 1.50 keq/ha/yr. Estimated critical loads also exhibited a large range of values. It was concluded that sulphur and nitrogen deposition at various sites with low weathering rates exceeded estimated critical loads. Further acidification studies in various regions were recommended. 30 refs., 3 tabs., 1 fig.

  12. Development of a steady-state sub-channel code for small reactor on the basis of combined cross momentum and non-linear conduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huandong, Chen; Xiaoying, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Combining equations to have a more stable and faster convergence solution. • Taking account of non-linear conduction of fuel rods. • Validating code with COBRA code. • Applying code to the small reactor “MUTSU” and comparing result with its design conditions. - Abstract: For purpose of thermal hydraulic analysis in small nuclear reactors, a sub-channel code with an improved convergence has been developed based on the homogenous flowing model. A combined lateral momentum equation coupling with continuity and axial momentum equation has been used to substitute the original lateral momentum equation. The Gauss iteration method has been adopted to solve the Kirchhoff's transformation equation of nonlinear heat conduction of fuel rod, a temperature dependent conducting has been considered. The code has been validated by using experimental data from the NUPEC PWR Sub-channel and Bundle Tests (PSBT) and then applied to the “MUTSU” reactor. Results show that the code can predict the experimental data with acceptable accuracy and has ability to analyze the small PWR reactor

  13. Integrated performance and critical issues towards steady-state operation in JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Yoshiteru

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the integrated performance, achieved in JT-60U, towards the steady-state operation foreseen in ITER and DEMO reactor. Advanced tokamak plasmas with weak shear or reversed shear have been optimized to confront the critical issues such as the high-beta operation with high confinement, the compatibility of high-density operation with high confinement, and long sustainment with high non-inductive current drive. As a result, high-integrated performances were achieved in both plasma regimes. For example, high confinement reversed shear plasmas with high bootstrap current fraction exceeding no-wall beta limit are obtained in reactor relevant regime, where β N -2.7, β p -2.3 is achieved with reversed q profile with q min -2.3, and then HH 98y2 -1.7, n e /n GW -0.87 and f BS -0.9 are also obtained at q 95 -5.3. (author)

  14. Steady-state critical loads of acidity for forest soils in the Georgia Basin, British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun A. WATMOUGH

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available There has been growing interest in acid rain research in western Canada where sulphur (S and nitrogen (N emissions are expected to increase during the next two decades. One region of concern is southern British Columbia, specifically the Georgia Basin, where emissions are expected to increase owing to the expansion of industry and urban centres (Vancouver and Victoria. In the current study, weathering rates and critical loads of acidity (S and N for forest soils were estimated at nineteen sites located within the Georgia Basin. A base cation to aluminium ratio of 10 was selected as the critical chemical criterion associated with ecosystem damage. The majority of the sites (58% had low base cation weathering rates (≤50 meq m–2 y–1 based on the PROFILE model. Accordingly, mean critical load for the study sites, estimated using the steady-state mass balance model, ranged between 129–168 meq m–2 y–1. Annual average total (wet and dry S and N deposition during the period 2005–2006 (estimated by the Community Multiscale Air Quality model, exceeded critical load at five–nine of the study sites (mean exceedance = 32–46 meq m–2 y–1. The high-elevation (>1000 m study sites had shallow, acid sensitive, soils with low weathering rates; however, critical loads were predominantly exceeded at sites close to Vancouver under higher modelled deposition loads. The extent of exceedance is similar to other industrial regions in western and eastern Canada.

  15. STEADY STATE MODELING OF THE MINIMUM CRITICAL CORE OF THE TRANSIENT REACTOR TEST FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony L. Alberti; Todd S. Palmer; Javier Ortensi; Mark D. DeHart

    2016-05-01

    With the advent of next generation reactor systems and new fuel designs, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has identified the need for the resumption of transient testing of nuclear fuels. The DOE has decided that the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is best suited for future testing. TREAT is a thermal neutron spectrum, air-cooled, nuclear test facility that is designed to test nuclear fuels in transient scenarios. These specific scenarios range from simple temperature transients to full fuel melt accidents. DOE has expressed a desire to develop a simulation capability that will accurately model the experiments before they are irradiated at the facility. It is the aim for this capability to have an emphasis on effective and safe operation while minimizing experimental time and cost. The multi physics platform MOOSE has been selected as the framework for this project. The goals for this work are to identify the fundamental neutronics properties of TREAT and to develop an accurate steady state model for future multiphysics transient simulations. In order to minimize computational cost, the effect of spatial homogenization and angular discretization are investigated. It was found that significant anisotropy is present in TREAT assemblies and to capture this effect, explicit modeling of cooling channels and inter-element gaps is necessary. For this modeling scheme, single element calculations at 293 K gave power distributions with a root mean square difference of 0.076% from those of reference SERPENT calculations. The minimum critical core configuration with identical gap and channel treatment at 293 K resulted in a root mean square, total core, radial power distribution 2.423% different than those of reference SERPENT solutions.

  16. Critical power testing or self-selected cycling: Which one is the best predictor of maximal metabolic steady-state?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioni Maturana, Felipe; Keir, Daniel A; McLay, Kaitlin M; Murias, Juan M

    2017-08-01

    Critical power (CP) demarcates the boundary between heavy and very heavy exercise intensity domains, and therefore, the power output (PO) that can be sustained at the maximal metabolic steady-state during constant-PO exercise (i.e., maximal lactate steady-state (MLSS)). However, the estimated CP does not always reflect a sustainable intensity of exercise, where blood lactate concentration ([La]) and oxygen uptake (V˙O 2 ) reach a plateau. To test cyclists' ability to predict their highest PO associated with metabolic steady-state based on their own perception of effort. Repeated measures. Thirteen healthy young cyclists (26±3years; 69.0±9.2kg; 174±10cm) were tested. Five time-to-exhaustion trials were used to derive CP based on a 2-parameter hyperbolic model (CP HYP ). Participants performed two 30-min rides at a self-selected PO that they considered their highest sustainable exercise intensity (CP SELF ). Additionally, MLSS was determined as the highest PO at which variation in [La] ≤1.0mmolL -1 between the 10th and 30th min was observed during a 30-min ride. Mean PO at CP SELF (233±42W) was similar (p>0.05) to MLSS (233±41W), whereas CP HYP (253±44W) consistently overestimated (psteady-state. The limits of agreement (LOA) between MLSS and CP SELF were -20 to +20W (bias=0W, p>0.05), whereas the LOA between CP HYP and CP SELF were -40 to 0W (bias=-20W, p0.05) metabolic response (i.e., V˙O 2 , [La], and HR). Compared to CP HYP , CP SELF may offer a more precise approach to predict the constant-PO associated with maximal physiological steady-state. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Post Critical Behaviour of a Simple Non-Linear System in a Cross Wind

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Náprstek, Jiří; Pospíšil, Stanislav

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 18, 3/4 (2011), s. 193-201 ISSN 1802-1484 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200710902; GA ČR(CZ) GA103/09/0094 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : limit cycles * dynamic stability * post-critical effects * non- linear dynamics Subject RIV: JN - Civil Engineering

  18. Magnetic Fusion Energy Plasma Interactive and High Heat Flux Components: Volume 5, Technical assessment of critical issues in the steady state operation of fusion confinement devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Critical issues for the steady state operation of plasma confinement devices exist in both the physics and technology fields of fusion research. Due to the wide range and number of these issues, this technical assessment has focused on the crucial issues associated with the plasma physics and the plasma interactive components. The document provides information on the problem areas that affect the design and operation of a steady state ETR or ITER type confinement device. It discusses both tokamaks and alternative concepts, and provides a survey of existing and planned confinement machines and laboratory facilities that can address the identified issues. A universal definition of steady state operation is difficult to obtain. From a physics point of view, steady state is generally achieved when the time derivatives approach zero and the operation time greatly exceeds the characteristic time constants of the device. Steady state operation for materials depends on whether thermal stress, creep, fatigue, radiation damage, or power removal are being discussed. For erosion issues, the fluence and availability of the machine for continuous operation are important, assuming that transient events such as disruptions do not limit the component lifetimes. The panel suggests, in general terms, that steady state requires plasma operation from 100 to 1000 seconds and an availability of more than a few percent, which is similar to the expectations for an ETR type device. The assessment of critical issues for steady state operation is divided into four sections: physics issues; technology issues; issues in alternative concepts; and devices and laboratory facilities that can address these problems

  19. Magnetic Fusion Energy Plasma Interactive and High Heat Flux Components: Volume 5, Technical assessment of critical issues in the steady state operation of fusion confinement devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    Critical issues for the steady state operation of plasma confinement devices exist in both the physics and technology fields of fusion research. Due to the wide range and number of these issues, this technical assessment has focused on the crucial issues associated with the plasma physics and the plasma interactive components. The document provides information on the problem areas that affect the design and operation of a steady state ETR or ITER type confinement device. It discusses both tokamaks and alternative concepts, and provides a survey of existing and planned confinement machines and laboratory facilities that can address the identified issues. A universal definition of steady state operation is difficult to obtain. From a physics point of view, steady state is generally achieved when the time derivatives approach zero and the operation time greatly exceeds the characteristic time constants of the device. Steady state operation for materials depends on whether thermal stress, creep, fatigue, radiation damage, or power removal are being discussed. For erosion issues, the fluence and availability of the machine for continuous operation are important, assuming that transient events such as disruptions do not limit the component lifetimes. The panel suggests, in general terms, that steady state requires plasma operation from 100 to 1000 seconds and an availability of more than a few percent, which is similar to the expectations for an ETR type device. The assessment of critical issues for steady state operation is divided into four sections: physics issues; technology issues; issues in alternative concepts; and devices and laboratory facilities that can address these problems.

  20. Non-linear quantum critical dynamics and fluctuation-dissipation ratios far from equilibrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamani, Farzaneh [Max Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Nöthnitzer Str. 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Nöthnitzer Str. 40, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Ribeiro, Pedro [CeFEMA, Instituto Superior Tcnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Russian Quantum Center, Novaya Street 100 A, Skolkovo, Moscow Area, 143025 (Russian Federation); Kirchner, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.kirchner@correlated-matter.com [Center for Correlated Matter, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Non-thermal correlations of strongly correlated electron systems and the far-from-equilibrium properties of phases of condensed matter have become a topical research area. Here, an overview of the non-linear dynamics found near continuous zero-temperature phase transitions within the context of effective temperatures is presented. In particular, we focus on models of critical Kondo destruction. Such a quantum critical state, where Kondo screening is destroyed in a critical fashion, is realized in a number of rare earth intermetallics. This raises the possibility of experimentally testing for the existence of fluctuation-dissipation relations far from equilibrium in terms of effective temperatures. Finally, we present an analysis of a non-interacting, critical reference system, the pseudogap resonant level model, in terms of effective temperatures and contrast these results with those obtained near interacting quantum critical points. - Highlights: • Critical Kondo destruction explains the unusual properties of quantum critical heavy fermion compounds. • We review the concept of effective temperatures in models of critical Kondo destruction. • We compare effective temperatures found near non-interacting and fully interacting fixed points. • A comparison with non-interacting quantum impurity models is presented.

  1. Critical Loads of Acid Deposition for Wilderness Lakes in the Sierra Nevada (California) Estimated by the Steady-State Water Chemistry Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn D. Shaw; Ricardo Cisneros; Donald Schweizer; James O. Sickman; Mark E. Fenn

    2014-01-01

    Major ion chemistry (2000-2009) from 208 lakes (342 sample dates and 600 samples) in class I and II wilderness areas of the Sierra Nevada was used in the Steady-State Water Chemistry (SSWC) model to estimate critical loads for acid deposition and investigate the current vulnerability of high elevation lakes to acid deposition. The majority of the lakes were dilute (...

  2. Proceedings of A3 foresight program seminar on critical physics issues specific to steady state sustainment of high-performance plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Shigeru; Hu Liqun; Oh, Yeong-Kook

    2013-06-01

    The A3 Foresight Program titled by 'Critical Physics Issues Specific to Steady State Sustainment of High-Performance Plasmas', based on the scientific collaboration among China, Japan and Korea in the field of plasma physics, has been newly started from August 2012 under the auspice of the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS, Japan), the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF, Korea) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC, China). A seminar on the A3 collaboration took place in Hotel Gozensui, Kushiro, Japan, 22-25 January 2013. This seminar was organized by National Institute for Fusion Science. One special talk and 36 oral talks were presented in the seminar including 13 Chinese, 14 Japanese and 9 Korean attendees. Steady state sustainment of high-performance plasmas is a crucial issue for realizing a nuclear fusion reactor. This seminar was motivated along the issues. Results on fusion experiments and theory obtained through A3 foresight program during recent two years were discussed and summarized. Possible direction of future collaboration and further encouragement of scientific activity of younger scientists were also discussed in this seminar with future experimental plans in three countries. This issue is the collection of 29 papers presented at the entitled meeting. All the 29 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  3. Non-linear Structures in the Non-critical NSR String

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, K.; Ishikawa, H.

    1996-01-01

    We investigate the Ward identities of the W ∞ symmetry in the super-Liouville theory coupled to the super-conformal matter of central charge c M =1-2(p-q) 2 /pq. The theory is classified into two chiralities. For the positive chirality, all gravitationally dressed scaling operators are generated from the q-1 repeatedly. After fixing the normalizations of the dressed scaling operators, we find that the Ward identities are expressed in the form of the usual W q algebra constraints as in the bosonic case: W n (k+1) τ=0, (k=1,..,q-1; nεZ≥1- k), where the equations for even and odd n come from the currents in the NS- and the R-sector respectively. The non-linear terms come from the anomalous contributions at the boundaries of moduli space. The negative chirality is defined by interchanging the roles of p and q. Then we get the W p algebra constraints. (orig.)

  4. Robust Steady State Analysis of the Power Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Amritanshu; Jereminov, Marko; Wagner, Martin R.; Bromberg, David M.; Hug, Gabriela; Pileggi, Larry

    2018-01-01

    A robust methodology for obtaining the steady-state solution of the power grid is essential for reliable operation as well as planning of the future transmission and distribution grid. At present, disparate methods exist for steady-state analysis of the transmission (power flow) and distribution power grid (three-phase power flow). All existing alternating current (AC) power flow and three-phase power flow analyses formulate a non-linear problem that generally lacks the ability to ensure conv...

  5. Steady-state magnetohydrodynamic clump turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetreault, D.J.

    1989-01-01

    The turbulent steady state of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) clump instability [Phys. Fluids 31, 2122 (1988)] is investigated. The steady state is determined by the balance between clump growth by turbulent mixing and clump decay by field line stochasticity. The turbulent fields driving the mixing are generated self-consistently from Ampere's law and conserve the magnetic helicity. In the steady state, the mean current and magnetic field satisfy J 0 = μB 0 , where μ depends on the mean-square fluctuation level. Above this critical point (J 0 >μB 0 ), the plasma is MHD clump unstable. MHD clump instability is a dynamical route to the force-free, Taylor state. For the steady state to exist, μ must exceed a threshold on the order of that required for B 0 /sub z/ field reversal. Steady-state MHD clump turbulence corresponds to field reversed Taylor states. From the μ threshold condition, the steady-state fluctuation spectrum (δB/sub rms//B) is calculated and shown to increase with mean driving current as θ 3 , where θ is the pinch parameter

  6. Steady states in conformal theories

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    A novel conjecture regarding the steady state behavior of conformal field theories placed between two heat baths will be presented. Some verification of the conjecture will be provided in the context of fluid dynamics and holography.

  7. Steady State Shift Damage Localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sekjær, Claus; Bull, Thomas; Markvart, Morten Kusk

    2017-01-01

    The steady state shift damage localization (S3DL) method localizes structural deterioration, manifested as either a mass or stiffness perturbation, by interrogating the damage-induced change in the steady state vibration response with damage patterns cast from a theoretical model. Damage is, thus...... the required accuracy when examining complex structures, an extensive amount of degrees of freedom (DOF) must often be utilized. Since the interrogation matrix for each damage pattern depends on the size of the system matrices constituting the FE-model, the computational time quickly becomes of first...

  8. Steady-State Process Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Ian; Gani, Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    illustrate the “equation oriented” approach as well as the “sequential modular” approach to solving complex flowsheets for steady state applications. The applications include the Williams-Otto plant, the hydrodealkylation (HDA) of toluene, conversion of ethylene to ethanol and a bio-ethanol process....

  9. Proceeding of A3 foresight program seminar on critical physics issues specific to steady state sustainment of high-performance plasmas 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Liqun; Morita, Shigeru; Oh, Yeong-Kook

    2015-12-01

    To enhance close collaborations among scientists in three Asian countries (China, Japan and Korea), A3 foresight program on Plasma Physics was launched from August 2012 under the auspice of JSPS (Japan), NRF (Korea) and NSFC (China). The main purpose of this project is to solve several key physics issues through joint experiments on three Asian advanced fully superconducting fusion devices (EAST in China, LHD in Japan and KSTAR in Korea) and other magnetic confinement devices to carry out multi-faceted and complementary physics researches. To summarize the progress and achievement in the second academic year under this A3 foresight program, the 6th workshop hosted by Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences was held in Nanning during 6-9 January, 2015. The research collaboration carried out by young scientists was also encouraged with participation of graduated students. The three topics of steady state sustainment of magnetic configurations, edge and divertor plasma control and confinement of alpha particles are mainly discussed in addition to relevant studies in small devices. This issue is the collection of 41 papers presented at the entitled meeting. The 39 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  10. Steady-state pharmacokinetics and metabolism of voriconazole in patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geist, Marcus J P; Egerer, Gerlinde; Burhenne, Jürgen; Riedel, Klaus-Dieter; Weiss, Johanna; Mikus, Gerd

    2013-11-01

    Voriconazole exhibits non-linear pharmacokinetics in adults and is said to be mainly metabolized by CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 to voriconazole-N-oxide. The aim of this study was to obtain data on steady-state pharmacokinetics after dosing for at least 14 days in patients taking additional medication and in vivo data on metabolites other than voriconazole-N-oxide. Thirty-one patients receiving voriconazole as regular therapeutic drug treatment during hospitalization participated in this prospective study. Pharmacokinetic profiles were obtained for the 12 h (dosing interval) after the first orally administered dose (400 mg) or (if possible and) after an orally administered maintenance dose (200 mg) following intake for at least 14 days (n = 14 after first dose; n = 23 after maintenance dose). Blood and urine samples were collected and the concentrations of voriconazole and three of its metabolites (the N-oxide, hydroxy-voriconazole and dihydroxy-voriconazole) were determined, as well as the CYP2C19 genotype of the patients. All other drugs taken by the participating patients were evaluated. A high variability of exposure (AUC) after the first dose was slightly reduced during steady-state dosing for voriconazole (82% to 71%) and the N-oxide (86% to 56%), remained high for hydroxy-voriconazole (79%) and even increased for dihydroxy-voriconazole (97% to 127%). In 16 of the 22 steady-state patients, trough plasma concentrations were steady state stayed almost constant. Hydroxylations of voriconazole seem to be quantitatively more important in its metabolism than N-oxidation. High variability in voriconazole exposure, as well as low steady-state trough plasma concentrations, suggest that the suggested steady-state dosage of 200 mg twice a day has to be increased to prevent disease progression. Therapeutic drug monitoring is probably necessary to optimize the voriconazole dose for individual patients.

  11. Quantum thermodynamics of nanoscale steady states far from equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Nobuhiko

    2018-04-01

    We develop an exact quantum thermodynamic description for a noninteracting nanoscale steady state that couples strongly with multiple reservoirs. We demonstrate that there exists a steady-state extension of the thermodynamic function that correctly accounts for the multiterminal Landauer-Büttiker formula of quantum transport of charge, energy, or heat via the nonequilibrium thermodynamic relations. Its explicit form is obtained for a single bosonic or fermionic level in the wide-band limit, and corresponding thermodynamic forces (affinities) are identified. Nonlinear generalization of the Onsager reciprocity relations are derived. We suggest that the steady-state thermodynamic function is also capable of characterizing the heat current fluctuations of the critical transport where the thermal fluctuations dominate. Also, the suggested nonequilibrium steady-state thermodynamic relations seemingly persist for a spin-degenerate single level with local interaction.

  12. Characterizing the relationship between steady state and response using analytical expressions for the steady states of mass action models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loriaux, Paul Michael; Tesler, Glenn; Hoffmann, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    The steady states of cells affect their response to perturbation. Indeed, diagnostic markers for predicting the response to therapeutic perturbation are often based on steady state measurements. In spite of this, no method exists to systematically characterize the relationship between steady state and response. Mathematical models are established tools for studying cellular responses, but characterizing their relationship to the steady state requires that it have a parametric, or analytical, expression. For some models, this expression can be derived by the King-Altman method. However, King-Altman requires that no substrate act as an enzyme, and is therefore not applicable to most models of signal transduction. For this reason we developed py-substitution, a simple but general method for deriving analytical expressions for the steady states of mass action models. Where the King-Altman method is applicable, we show that py-substitution yields an equivalent expression, and at comparable efficiency. We use py-substitution to study the relationship between steady state and sensitivity to the anti-cancer drug candidate, dulanermin (recombinant human TRAIL). First, we use py-substitution to derive an analytical expression for the steady state of a published model of TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Next, we show that the amount of TRAIL required for cell death is sensitive to the steady state concentrations of procaspase 8 and its negative regulator, Bar, but not the other procaspase molecules. This suggests that activation of caspase 8 is a critical point in the death decision process. Finally, we show that changes in the threshold at which TRAIL results in cell death is not always equivalent to changes in the time of death, as is commonly assumed. Our work demonstrates that an analytical expression is a powerful tool for identifying steady state determinants of the cellular response to perturbation. All code is available at http://signalingsystems.ucsd.edu/models-and-code/ or

  13. Non-linear oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Hagedorn, Peter

    1982-01-01

    Thoroughly revised and updated, the second edition of this concise text provides an engineer's view of non-linear oscillations, explaining the most important phenomena and solution methods. Non-linear descriptions are important because under certain conditions there occur large deviations from the behaviors predicted by linear differential equations. In some cases, completely new phenomena arise that are not possible in purely linear systems. The theory of non-linear oscillations thus has important applications in classical mechanics, electronics, communications, biology, and many other branches of science. In addition to many other changes, this edition has a new section on bifurcation theory, including Hopf's theorem.

  14. Efficient Non Linear Loudspeakers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bo R.; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2006-01-01

    Loudspeakers have traditionally been designed to be as linear as possible. However, as techniques for compensating non linearities are emerging, it becomes possible to use other design criteria. This paper present and examines a new idea for improving the efficiency of loudspeakers at high levels...... by changing the voice coil layout. This deliberate non-linear design has the benefit that a smaller amplifier can be used, which has the benefit of reducing system cost as well as reducing power consumption....

  15. Steady State Dynamic Operating Behavior of Universal Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khan Burdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A detailed investigation of the universal motor is developed and used for various dynamic steady state and transient operating conditions of loads. In the investigation, output torque, motor speed, input current, input/output power and efficiency are computed, compared and analyzed for different loads. While this paper discusses the steady-state behavior of the universal motor, another companion paper, ?Transient dynamic behavior of universal motor?, will discuss its transient behavior in detail. A non-linear generalized electric machine model of the motor is considered for the analysis. This study was essential to investigate effect of output load on input current, power, speed and efficiency of the motor during operations. Previously such investigation is not known

  16. Creep stresses in a spherical shell under steady state temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Gaurav; Rana, Puneet

    2017-10-01

    The paper investigates the problem of creep of a spherical structure under the influence of steady state temperature. The problem of creep in spherical shell is solved by using the concept of generalized strain measures and transition hypothesis given by Seth. The problem has reduced to non-linear differential equation for creep transition. This paper deals with the non-linear behaviour of spherical shell under thermal condition. The spherical shell structures are easily vulnerable to creep, shrinkage and thermal effects; a thorough understanding of their time-dependent behaviour has been fully established. The paper aims to provide thermal creep analysis to enhance the effective design and long life of shells, and a theoretical model is developed for calculating creep stresses and strains in a spherical shell with purpose. Results obtained for the problem are depicted graphically.

  17. NESTLE: Few-group neutron diffusion equation solver utilizing the nodal expansion method for eigenvalue, adjoint, fixed-source steady-state and transient problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turinsky, P.J.; Al-Chalabi, R.M.K.; Engrand, P.; Sarsour, H.N.; Faure, F.X.; Guo, W.

    1994-06-01

    NESTLE is a FORTRAN77 code that solves the few-group neutron diffusion equation utilizing the Nodal Expansion Method (NEM). NESTLE can solve the eigenvalue (criticality); eigenvalue adjoint; external fixed-source steady-state; or external fixed-source. or eigenvalue initiated transient problems. The code name NESTLE originates from the multi-problem solution capability, abbreviating Nodal Eigenvalue, Steady-state, Transient, Le core Evaluator. The eigenvalue problem allows criticality searches to be completed, and the external fixed-source steady-state problem can search to achieve a specified power level. Transient problems model delayed neutrons via precursor groups. Several core properties can be input as time dependent. Two or four energy groups can be utilized, with all energy groups being thermal groups (i.e. upscatter exits) if desired. Core geometries modelled include Cartesian and Hexagonal. Three, two and one dimensional models can be utilized with various symmetries. The non-linear iterative strategy associated with the NEM method is employed. An advantage of the non-linear iterative strategy is that NSTLE can be utilized to solve either the nodal or Finite Difference Method representation of the few-group neutron diffusion equation

  18. New Tore Supra steady state operating scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, G.; Parlange, F.; van Houtte, D.; Wijnands, T.

    1995-01-01

    This document deals with plasma control in steady state conditions. A new plasma control systems enabling feedback control of global plasma equilibrium parameters has been developed. It also enables to operate plasma discharge in steady state regime. (TEC). 4 refs., 5 figs

  19. Comparative analysis of steady state heat transfer in a TBC and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    - etry conforming to the NACA0012 is developed which is then used in a finite element algorithm to obtain a non-linear steady state solution to the heat equation for the blade under convection and radiation boundary conditions. The effects of.

  20. Steady-state Operational Characteristics of Ghana Research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Steady state operational characteristics of the 30 kW tank-in-pool type reactor named Ghana Research Reactor-1 were investigated after a successful on-site zero power critical experiments. The steadystate operational character-istics determined were the thermal neutron fluxes, maximum period of operation at nominal ...

  1. Non-linear osmosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Jared M.

    1966-01-01

    1. The relation between osmotic gradient and rate of osmotic water flow has been measured in rabbit gall-bladder by a gravimetric procedure and by a rapid method based on streaming potentials. Streaming potentials were directly proportional to gravimetrically measured water fluxes. 2. As in many other tissues, water flow was found to vary with gradient in a markedly non-linear fashion. There was no consistent relation between the water permeability and either the direction or the rate of water flow. 3. Water flow in response to a given gradient decreased at higher osmolarities. The resistance to water flow increased linearly with osmolarity over the range 186-825 m-osM. 4. The resistance to water flow was the same when the gall-bladder separated any two bathing solutions with the same average osmolarity, regardless of the magnitude of the gradient. In other words, the rate of water flow is given by the expression (Om — Os)/[Ro′ + ½k′ (Om + Os)], where Ro′ and k′ are constants and Om and Os are the bathing solution osmolarities. 5. Of the theories advanced to explain non-linear osmosis in other tissues, flow-induced membrane deformations, unstirred layers, asymmetrical series-membrane effects, and non-osmotic effects of solutes could not explain the results. However, experimental measurements of water permeability as a function of osmolarity permitted quantitative reconstruction of the observed water flow—osmotic gradient curves. Hence non-linear osmosis in rabbit gall-bladder is due to a decrease in water permeability with increasing osmolarity. 6. The results suggest that aqueous channels in the cell membrane behave as osmometers, shrinking in concentrated solutions of impermeant molecules and thereby increasing membrane resistance to water flow. A mathematical formulation of such a membrane structure is offered. PMID:5945254

  2. Non linear microtearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbet, X.; Mourgues, F.; Samain, A.

    1987-01-01

    Among the various instabilities which could explain the anomalous electron heat transport observed in tokamaks during additional heating, a microtearing turbulence is a reasonable candidate since it affects directly the magnetic topology. This turbulence may be described in a proper frame rotating around the majors axis by a static potential vector. In strong non linear regimes, the flow of electrons along the stochastic field lines induces a current. The point is to know whether this current can sustain the turbulence. The mechanisms of this self-consistency, involving the combined effects of the thermal diamagnetism and of the electric drift are presented here

  3. The steady state in toroidal traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldston, R.

    1997-01-01

    Experiments at the JET, TORE SUPRA, TFTR and DIII-D reactors have corroborated calculations showing that an advanced tokamak configuration with an important self-generated current, a large plasma pressure and thus a large thermonuclear power density, could allow for the construction of fusion steady state reactors with reduced size and cost. Stellarators only need external superconductive coils for reaching the steady state, but it is essential to reduce in a large proportion the plasma self-generated current

  4. Advanced steady-state operating scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevins, W.M.; Bulmer, R.H.; Pearlstein, L.D.; Haney, S.W.; Manickam, J.

    1993-01-01

    The goal for advanced steady-state operation in ITER should be to demonstrate the operation of the plasma core for a steady-state fusion reactor. To accomplish this the authors must develop steady-state operating scenarios at high beta for high fusion power density, low auxiliary power requirements (Q CD ≥ 25, where Q CD triple-bond P fusion/P CD and P DC is the power required for sustaining the plasma current) for low recirculating power requirements, and at moderate safety factor (q ψ ≤ 4.5) to minimize the cost for the tokamak core of a steady-state demonstration power reactor based on the operating modes demonstrated in ITER. The key to achieving steady-state operation at high fusion power in ITER will be the development of operating scenarios with very high bootstrap current fractions (f BS ≥ 90%) in which the radial profile of the bootstrap current density is well aligned with that of the total plasma current density, and for which the MHD β-limit exceeds β n * = 0.05 T-m/MA. They are in the process of developing such operating modes for ITER. In section 1 they propose two advanced steady-state operating points; a preliminary operating point that was the basis for the MHD studies reported in section 2, and a second operating point that has been optimized based on the authors studies to date. In section 2 they present calculations indicating that the initial operating point is stable to MHD ballooning and low-n kink modes (with a conducting wall at r = 1.25a) up to β n * ∼ 6 x 10 -2 T - m/MA. In section 3 they present a free-boundary MHD equilibrium, and show that advanced steady-state operating modes are compatible with the ITER poloidal field system and diverter

  5. Steady state detection of chemical reaction networks using a simplified analytical method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Martínez-Forero

    Full Text Available Chemical reaction networks (CRNs are susceptible to mathematical modelling. The dynamic behavior of CRNs can be investigated by solving the polynomial equations derived from its structure. However, simple CRN give rise to non-linear polynomials that are difficult to resolve. Here we propose a procedure to locate the steady states of CRNs from a formula derived through algebraic geometry methods. We have applied this procedure to define the steady states of a classic CRN that exhibits instability, and to a model of programmed cell death.

  6. BR2 reactor core steady state transient modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarenko, A.; Petrova, T.

    2000-01-01

    A coupled neutronics/hydraulics/heat-conduction model of the BR2 reactor core is under development at SCK-CEN. The neutron transport phenomenon has been implemented as steady state and time dependent nodal diffusion. The non-linear heat conduction equation in-side fuel elements is solved with a time dependent finite element method. To allow coupling between functional modules and to simulate subcooled regimes, a simple single-phase hydraulics has been introduced, while the two-phase hydraulics is under development. Multiple tests, general benchmark cases as well as calculation/experiment comparisons demonstrated a good accuracy of both neutronic and thermal hydraulic models, numerical reliability and full code portability. A refinement methodology has been developed and tested for better neutronic representation in hexagonal geometry. Much effort is still needed to complete the development of an extended cross section library with kinetic data and two-phase flow representation. (author)

  7. A steady state theory for processive cellulases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruys-Bagger, Nicolaj; Olsen, Jens Elmerdahl; Præstgaard, Eigil

    2013-01-01

    remains to be fully developed. In this paper, we suggest a deterministic kinetic model that relies on a processive set of enzyme reactions and a quasi steady-state assumption. It is shown that this approach is practicable in the sense that it leads to mathematically simple expressions for the steady......-state rate, and only requires data from standard assay techniques as experimental input. Specifically, it is shown that the processive reaction rate at steady state may be expressed by a hyperbolic function related to the conventional Michaelis–Menten equation. The main difference is a ‘kinetic processivity......Processive enzymes perform sequential steps of catalysis without dissociating from their polymeric substrate. This mechanism is considered essential for efficient enzymatic hydrolysis of insoluble cellulose (particularly crystalline cellulose), but a theoretical framework for processive kinetics...

  8. Practical steady-state enzyme kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorsch, Jon R

    2014-01-01

    Enzymes are key components of most biological processes. Characterization of enzymes is therefore frequently required during the study of biological systems. Steady-state kinetics provides a simple and rapid means of assessing the substrate specificity of an enzyme. When combined with site-directed mutagenesis (see Site-Directed Mutagenesis), it can be used to probe the roles of particular amino acids in the enzyme in substrate recognition and catalysis. Effects of interaction partners and posttranslational modifications can also be assessed using steady-state kinetics. This overview explains the general principles of steady-state enzyme kinetics experiments in a practical, rather than theoretical, way. Any biochemistry textbook will have a section on the theory of Michaelis-Menten kinetics, including derivations of the relevant equations. No specific enzymatic assay is described here, although a method for monitoring product formation or substrate consumption over time (an assay) is required to perform the experiments described. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Energy repartition in the nonequilibrium steady state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Peng; Bauer, G.E.; Zhang, Huaiwu

    2017-01-01

    The concept of temperature in nonequilibrium thermodynamics is an outstanding theoretical issue. We propose an energy repartition principle that leads to a spectral (mode-dependent) temperature in steady-state nonequilibrium systems. The general concepts are illustrated by analytic solutions of

  10. Steady-state spheromak reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Hagenson, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    After summarizing the essential elements of a gun-sustained spheromak, the potential for a steady-state is explored by means of a comprehensive physics/engineering/costing model. A range of cost-optimized reactor design points is presented, and the sensitivity of cost to key physics, engineering, and operational variables is reported

  11. Steady state statistics of driven diffusions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maes, C.; Netočný, Karel; Wynants, B.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 387, č. 12 (2008), s. 2675-2689 ISSN 0378-4371 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC202/07/J051 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : nonequilibrium fluctuations * steady state * diffusion Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.441, year: 2008

  12. Factorised steady states and condensation transitions in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Scotland. E-mail: martin@ph.ed.ac.uk. Abstract. Systems driven out of equilibrium can often exhibit behaviour not seen in systems in thermal equilibrium – for example phase ... weights rather it will be a nonequilibrium steady state. ... particular cases are: if u(m) = m then the dynamics of each particle is independent.

  13. Steady-state spheromak reactor studies. Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.; Hagenson, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    After summarizing the essential elements of a gun-sustained spheromak, the potential for a steady-state is explored by means of a comprehensive physics/engineering/costing model. A range of cost-optimized reactor design point is presented, and the sensitivity of cost to key physics, engineering, and operational variables is reported

  14. Factorised steady states and condensation transitions in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I will then consider a more general class of mass trans- port models, encompassing continuous mass variables and discrete time updating, and present a necessary and sufficient condition for the steady state to factorise. The prop- erty of factorisation again allows an analysis of the condensation transitions which may occur.

  15. Steady state modeling of desiccant wheels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemo, Lorenzo; Elmegaard, Brian; Kærn, Martin Ryhl

    2014-01-01

    systems. A steady state two-dimensional model is formulated and implemented aiming to obtain good accuracy and short computational times. Comparison with experimental data from the literature shows that the model reproduces the physical behavior of desiccant wheels. Mass diffusion in the desiccant should...

  16. Intermediates, Catalysts, Persistence, and Boundary Steady States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marcondes de Freitas, Michael; Feliu, Elisenda; Wiuf, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    as cascades of a large class of post-translational modification systems (of which the MAPK cascade and the n-site futile cycle are prominent examples). Since one of the aforementioned sufficient conditions for persistence precludes the existence of boundary steady states, our method also provides a graphical...

  17. Steady-State Creep of Asphalt Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alibai Iskakbayev

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the experimental investigation of the steady-state creep process for fine-grained asphalt concrete at a temperature of 20 ± 2 °С and under stress from 0.055 to 0.311 MPa under direct tension and was found to occur at a constant rate. The experimental results also determined the start, the end point, and the duration of the steady-state creep process. The dependence of these factors, in addition to the steady-state creep rate and viscosity of the asphalt concrete on stress is satisfactorily described by a power function. Furthermore, it showed that stress has a great impact on the specific characteristics of asphalt concrete: stress variation by one order causes their variation by 3–4.5 orders. The described relations are formulated for the steady-state of asphalt concrete in a complex stressed condition. The dependence is determined between stress intensity and strain rate intensity.

  18. Steady-state propagation of interface corner crack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veluri, Badrinath; Jensen, Henrik Myhre

    2013-01-01

    Steady-state propagation of interface cracks close to three-dimensional corners has been analyzed. Attention was focused on modeling the shape of the interface crack front and calculating the critical stress for steady-state propagation of the crack. The crack propagation was investigated...... by estimating the fracture mechanics parameters that includes the strain energy release rate, crack front profiles and the three-dimensional mode-mixity along the interface crack front. A numerical approach was then applied for coupling the far field solutions based on the Finite Element Method to the near...... field (crack tip) solutions based on the J-integral. The adopted two-dimensional numerical approach for the calculation of fracture mechanical properties was compared with three-dimensional models for quarter-circular and straight sided crack front shapes. A quantitative approach was formulated based...

  19. The Steady State Distribution of the Master Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Sano, Mitsusada M.

    2008-01-01

    The steady states of the master equation are investigated. We give two expressions for the steady state distribution of the master equation a la the Zubarev-McLennan steady state distribution, i.e., the exact expression and an expression near equilibrium. The latter expression obtained is consistent with recent attempt of constructing steady state theormodynamics.

  20. Application of non-linear discretetime feedback regulators with assignable closed-loop dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubljević Stevan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work the application of a new approach is demonstrated to a discrete-time state feedback regulator synthesis with feedback linearization and pole-placement for non-linear discrete-time systems. Under the simultaneous implementation of a non-linear coordinate transformation and a non-linear state feedback law computed through the solution of a system of non-linear functional equations, both the feedback linearization and pole-placement design objectives were accomplished. The non-linear state feedback regulator synthesis method was applied to a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR under non-isothermal operating conditions that exhibits steady-state multiplicity. The control objective was to regulate the reactor at the middle unstable steady state by manipulating the rate of input heat in the reactor. Simulation studies were performed to evaluate the performance of the proposed non-linear state feedback regulator, as it was shown a non-linear state feedback regulator clearly outperformed a standard linear one, especially in the presence of adverse disturbance under which linear regulation at the unstable steady state was not feasible.

  1. Steady state compact toroidal plasma production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, William C.

    1986-01-01

    Apparatus and method for maintaining steady state compact toroidal plasmas. A compact toroidal plasma is formed by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun and held in close proximity to the gun electrodes by applied magnetic fields or magnetic fields produced by image currents in conducting walls. Voltage supply means maintains a constant potential across the electrodes producing an increasing magnetic helicity which drives the plasma away from a minimum energy state. The plasma globally relaxes to a new minimum energy state, conserving helicity according to Taylor's relaxation hypothesis, and injecting net helicity into the core of the compact toroidal plasma. Controlling the voltage so as to inject net helicity at a predetermined rate based on dissipative processes maintains or increases the compact toroidal plasma in a time averaged steady state mode.

  2. Progress and prospect of true steady state operation with RF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacquinot Jean

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Operation of fusion confinement experiments in full steady state is a major challenge for the development towards fusion energy. Critical to achieving this goal is the availability of actively cooled plasma facing components and auxiliary systems withstanding the very harsh plasma environment. Equally challenging are physics issues related to achieving plasma conditions and current drive efficiency required by reactor plasmas. RF heating and current drive systems have been key instruments for obtaining the progress made until today towards steady state. They hold all the records of long pulse plasma operation both in tokamaks and in stellarators. Nevertheless much progress remains to be made in particular for integrating all the requirements necessary for maintaining in steady state the density and plasma pressure conditions of a reactor. This is an important stated aim of ITER and of devices equipped with superconducting magnets. After considering the present state of the art, this review will address the key issues which remain to be solved both in physics and technology for reaching this goal. They constitute very active subjects of research which will require much dedicated experimentation in the new generation of superconducting devices which are now in operation or becoming close to it.

  3. Simulating ITER steady-state operation scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.H.; Casper, T.A.; Campbell, D.J.; Snipes, J.A.; Bulmer, R.; LoDestro, L.L.; Meyer, W.H.; Pearlstein, L.D.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. ITER steady-state operation aims at demonstrating fully non-inductive plasma operation at a moderate fusion power multiplication factor (Q) of about 5, for long burn durations of up to 3000 s. In this work, this operational capability is studied using an advanced free-boundary transport simulation code, CORSICA [1-3], including relevant physics and engineering constraints. The tokamak discharge modelling capability of the CORSICA code has been improved by integrating realistic source modules for heating and current drive and a parameterized EPED1 pedestal model. The electro-magnetic ITER machine description is computed using the recent design parameters and the latest source configurations are taken into account. This work has been performed to study the feasibility of the ITER steady-state operation. Although the evolution of internal transport barriers (ITBs) are not yet included in this study, a higher energy confinement over the H-mode confinement (H98>1) is assumed by maintaining a reversed safety factor (q) profile during the flat-top phase. This paper presents several ITER steady-state operation scenarios, including a reference 9 MA case, and also suggests a potential approach for achieving fully non-inductive ITER steady-state operation with Q>5. References: [1] Crotinger, J.A. et al, 1997 LLNL Report UCRL-ID-126284; NTIS PB2005-102154; [2] Casper, T.A. et al, 2010 23. Int. Conf. on Fusion Energy (Daejeon, Korea) ITR/P1-19 accepted for publication in Nuclear Fusion; [3] Kim, S.H. et al, 2012 24. Int. Conf. on Fusion Energy (San Diego, USA) ITR/P1-13. (authors)

  4. Simulation of multi-steady states in low temperature gas discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hong; Hu Xiwei

    2004-01-01

    This article presents hydrodynamics simulation of multi-steady states and mode transition by DC-beam-injected gas discharge, and provides a model approach to hysteresis and distinct forms of multi-steady states. The critical transition conditions of the three discharge modes (temperature limited mode, Langmuir mode, and space charge limited mode) are estimated to be dependent on the gas pressure and the filament temperature. Various forms of the multi-steady states in gas discharge can be uniformly explained by the displacement of the mutant positions. The simulation results are in a good agreement with those of the experiments. (authors)

  5. Thermodynamic limit of a nonequilibrium steady state: Maxwell-type construction for a bistable biochemical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hao; Qian, Hong

    2009-10-02

    We show that the thermodynamic limit of a bistable phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycle has a selection rule for the "more stable" macroscopic steady state. The analysis is akin to the Maxwell construction. Based on the chemical master equation approach, it is shown that, except at a critical point, bistability disappears in the stochastic model when fluctuation is sufficiently low but unneglectable. Onsager's Gaussian fluctuation theory applies to the unique macroscopic steady state. With an initial state in the basin of attraction of the "less stable" steady state, the deterministic dynamics obtained by the law of mass action is a metastable phenomenon. Stability and robustness in cell biology are emergent stochastic concepts.

  6. Enceladus is not in Steady State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheunchitra, T.; Stevenson, D. J.

    2016-12-01

    Libration data tell us there is a global ocean. Topography and gravity tell us that there is substantial compensation at degree 2, meaning that the underside of the ice shell must have topography. This topography will decay, typically on a timescale of order a million years (fortuitously similar to thermal diffusion times through the ice shell), by viscous lateral flow of the ice. This could in principle be compensated in steady state by net melting beneath the poles and a compensating net freezing at the equator. In that model, the ice shell beneath the poles is partially melted with water being continuously produced and percolating to the base (or expelled if there are cracks, as at the South Pole). We have modeled this without an a priori assumption about the strength of tidal heating. We find that even if the tidal heating is zero on average around the equator, then the latent heat release from the required freezing can only be accommodated in steady state if the ice shell is 18km. The ice thickness must be even less at the poles in order to satisfy gravity and topography. Moreover, there must then be substantial tidal heating at the poles and it is physically unreasonable to have the volumetric tidal heating at the equator be enormously less than at the North Pole. For example, if the volumetric tidal heating at the equator is on average one quarter of that at the North Pole then marginal consistency with gravity and topography may be possible for a mean ice thickness at the equator of 12km. The global heat flow may exceed 40GW, much higher than the detectable IR excess (the observed south polar tiger stripe heat flow). Recent work (Fuller et al.) admits orbital evolutions with large heat flow at least for a recent part of the orbital history. However, this thin shell steady state model has difficulty reconciling observed gravity and topography as well as the libration data. We conclude that it is unlikely that Enceladus has no net melting or freezing. The ice

  7. Statistical steady states in turbulent droplet condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bec, Jeremie; Krstulovic, Giorgio; Siewert, Christoph

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the general problem of turbulent condensation. Using direct numerical simulations we show that the fluctuations of the supersaturation field offer different conditions for the growth of droplets which evolve in time due to turbulent transport and mixing. This leads to propose a Lagrangian stochastic model consisting of a set of integro-differential equations for the joint evolution of the squared radius and the supersaturation along droplet trajectories. The model has two parameters fixed by the total amount of water and the thermodynamic properties, as well as the Lagrangian integral timescale of the turbulent supersaturation. The model reproduces very well the droplet size distributions obtained from direct numerical simulations and their time evolution. A noticeable result is that, after a stage where the squared radius simply diffuses, the system converges exponentially fast to a statistical steady state independent of the initial conditions. The main mechanism involved in this convergence is a loss of memory induced by a significant number of droplets undergoing a complete evaporation before growing again. The statistical steady state is characterised by an exponential tail in the droplet mass distribution.

  8. Máxima fase estável de lactato sanguíneo e potência crítica em ciclistas bem treinados Maximal lactate steady state and critical power in well-trained cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Aparecido Corrêa Caritá

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available O principal objetivo deste estudo foi comparar a intensidade correspondente à máxima fase estável de lactato (MLSS e a potência crítica (PC durante o ciclismo em indivíduos bem treinados. Seis ciclistas do sexo masculino (25,5 ± 4,4 anos, 68,8 ± 3,0kg, 173,0 ± 4,0cm realizaram em diferentes dias os seguintes testes: exercício incremental até a exaustão para a determinação do pico de consumo de oxigênio (VO2pico e sua respectiva intensidade (IVO2pico; cinco a sete testes de carga constante para a determinação da MLSS e da PC; e um exercício até a exaustão na PC. A MLSS foi considerada com a maior intensidade de exercício onde a concentração de lactato não aumentou mais do que 1mM entre o 10º e o 30º min de exercício. Os valores individuais de potência (95, 100 e 110% IVO2pico e seu respectivo tempo máximo de exercício (Tlim foram ajustados a partir do modelo hiperbólico de dois parâmetros para a determinação da PC. Embora altamente correlacionadas (r = 0,99; p = 0,0001, a PC (313,5 ± 32,3W foi significantemente maior do que a MLLS (287,0 ± 37,8W (p = 0,0002. A diferença percentual da PC em relação à MLSS foi de 9,5 ± 3,1%. No exercício realizado na PC, embora tenha existido componente lento do VO2 (CL = 400,8 ± 267,0 ml.min-1, o VO2pico não foi alcançado (91,1 ± 3,3 %. Com base nesses resultados pode-se concluir que a PC e a MLSS identificam diferentes intensidades de exercício, mesmo em atletas com elevada aptidão aeróbia. Entretanto, o percentual da diferença entre a MLLS e PC (9% indica que relação entre esses dois índices pode depender da aptidão aeróbia. Durante o exercício realizado até a exaustão na PC, o CL que é desenvolvido não permite que o VO2pico seja alcançado.The main objective of this study was to compare the intensity corresponding to the maximal lactate steady state (MLSS and critical power (CP in well-trained cyclists. Six male cyclists (25.5 ± 4.4 years, 68.8 ± 3

  9. Current Pressure Transducer Application of Model-based Prognostics Using Steady State Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teubert, Christopher; Daigle, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Prognostics is the process of predicting a system's future states, health degradation/wear, and remaining useful life (RUL). This information plays an important role in preventing failure, reducing downtime, scheduling maintenance, and improving system utility. Prognostics relies heavily on wear estimation. In some components, the sensors used to estimate wear may not be fast enough to capture brief transient states that are indicative of wear. For this reason it is beneficial to be capable of detecting and estimating the extent of component wear using steady-state measurements. This paper details a method for estimating component wear using steady-state measurements, describes how this is used to predict future states, and presents a case study of a current/pressure (I/P) Transducer. I/P Transducer nominal and off-nominal behaviors are characterized using a physics-based model, and validated against expected and observed component behavior. This model is used to map observed steady-state responses to corresponding fault parameter values in the form of a lookup table. This method was chosen because of its fast, efficient nature, and its ability to be applied to both linear and non-linear systems. Using measurements of the steady state output, and the lookup table, wear is estimated. A regression is used to estimate the wear propagation parameter and characterize the damage progression function, which are used to predict future states and the remaining useful life of the system.

  10. Producing a steady-state population inversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, R.K.; Griffin, D.C.

    1986-03-01

    An observed steady-state transition at 17.5 nm is identified as the 2p 5 3s3p 4 S/sub 3/2/ → 2p 6 3p 2 P/sub 3/2/ transition in Na-like aluminum. The upper level is populated by electron inner shell ionization of metastable Mg-like aluminum. From the emission intensity, the rate coefficient for populating the upper level is calculated to be approximately 5 x 10 -10 ) cm 3 /sec. Since the upper level is quasimetastable with a lifetime 22 times longer than the lower level, it may be possible to produce a population inversion, if a competing process to populate the lower level can be reduced

  11. Magnetic sensor for steady state tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neyatani, Yuzuru; Mori, Katsuharu; Oguri, Shigeru; Kikuchi, Mitsuru [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    1996-06-01

    A new type of magnetic sensor has been developed for the measurement of steady state magnetic fields without DC-drift such as integration circuit. The electromagnetic force induced to the current which leads to the sensor was used for the measurement. For the high frequency component which exceeds higher than the vibration frequency of sensor, pick-up coil was used through the high pass filter. From the results using tokamak discharges, this sensor can measure the magnetic field in the tokamak discharge. During {approx}2 hours measurement, no DC drift was observed. The sensor can respond {approx}10ms of fast change of magnetic field during disruptions. We confirm the extension of measured range to control the current which leads to the sensor. (author).

  12. Bifurcations of steady states in a class of lattices of nonlinear discrete Klein-Gordon type with double-quadratic on-site potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Wenxin

    2003-01-01

    By using the method of symbolic dynamics, we study the bifurcations of steady states in a class of lattices of nonlinear discrete Klein-Gordon type with double-quadratic on-site potential. We derive by virtue of the admissible condition the critical value ε 0 of the coupling strength, below which the steady states persist without bifurcations. If the coupling coefficient ε passes through the critical value, some of the steady states disappear. Meanwhile there are no new steady states created as ε varies. We obtain bifurcation values of some lower-order spatially periodic steady states by introducing the concept 'characteristic polynomial' of periodic sequences

  13. Non-Linear Mixed Logit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Hole, Arne Risa

    2012-01-01

    We develop an extension of the familiar linear mixed logit model to allow for the direct estimation of parametric non-linear functions defined over structural parameters. Classic applications include the estimation of coefficients of utility functions to characterize risk attitudes and discounting...

  14. Xenon spatial oscillation in nuclear power reactors:an analytical approach through non linear modal analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez Antola, R.

    2005-01-01

    It was proponed recently to apply an extension of Lyapunov's first method to the non-linear regime, known as non-linear modal analysis (NMA), to the study of space-time problems in nuclear reactor kinetics, nuclear power plant dynamics and nuclear power plant instrumentation and control(1). The present communication shows how to apply NMA to the study of Xenon spatial oscillations in large nuclear reactors. The set of non-linear modal equations derived by J. Lewins(2) for neutron flux, Xenon concentration and Iodine concentration are discussed, and a modified version of these equations is taken as a starting point. Using the methods of singular perturbation theory a slow manifold is constructed in the space of mode amplitudes. This allows the reduction of the original high dimensional dynamics to a low dimensional one. It is shown how the amplitudes of the first mode for neutron flux field, temperature field and concentrations of Xenon and Iodine fields can have a stable steady state value while the corresponding amplitudes of the second mode oscillates in a stable limit cycle. The extrapolated dimensions of the reactor's core are used as bifurcation parameters. Approximate analytical formulae are obtained for the critical values of this parameters( below which the onset of oscillations is produced), for the period and for the amplitudes of the above mentioned oscillations. These results are applied to the discussion of neutron flux and temperature excursions in critical locations of the reactor's core. The results of NMA can be validated from the results obtained applying suitable computer codes, using homogenization theory(3) to link the complex heterogeneous model of the codes with the simplified mathematical model used for NMA

  15. Mathematical analysis of steady-state solutions in compartment and continuum models of cell polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhenzhen; Chou, Ching-Shan; Yi, Tau-Mu; Nie, Qing

    2011-10-01

    Cell polarization, in which substances previously uniformly distributed become asymmetric due to external or/and internal stimulation, is a fundamental process underlying cell mobility, cell division, and other polarized functions. The yeast cell S. cerevisiae has been a model system to study cell polarization. During mating, yeast cells sense shallow external spatial gradients and respond by creating steeper internal gradients of protein aligned with the external cue. The complex spatial dynamics during yeast mating polarization consists of positive feedback, degradation, global negative feedback control, and cooperative effects in protein synthesis. Understanding such complex regulations and interactions is critical to studying many important characteristics in cell polarization including signal amplification, tracking dynamic signals, and potential trade-off between achieving both objectives in a robust fashion. In this paper, we study some of these questions by analyzing several models with different spatial complexity: two compartments, three compartments, and continuum in space. The step-wise approach allows detailed characterization of properties of the steady state of the system, providing more insights for biological regulations during cell polarization. For cases without membrane diffusion, our study reveals that increasing the number of spatial compartments results in an increase in the number of steady-state solutions, in particular, the number of stable steady-state solutions, with the continuum models possessing infinitely many steady-state solutions. Through both analysis and simulations, we find that stronger positive feedback, reduced diffusion, and a shallower ligand gradient all result in more steady-state solutions, although most of these are not optimally aligned with the gradient. We explore in the different settings the relationship between the number of steady-state solutions and the extent and accuracy of the polarization. Taken together

  16. Non-Linear Dynamics and Fundamental Interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Khanna, Faqir

    2006-01-01

    The book is directed to researchers and graduate students pursuing an advanced degree. It provides details of techniques directed towards solving problems in non-linear dynamics and chos that are, in general, not amenable to a perturbative treatment. The consideration of fundamental interactions is a prime example where non-perturbative techniques are needed. Extension of these techniques to finite temperature problems is considered. At present these ideas are primarily used in a perturbative context. However, non-perturbative techniques have been considered in some specific cases. Experts in the field on non-linear dynamics and chaos and fundamental interactions elaborate the techniques and provide a critical look at the present status and explore future directions that may be fruitful. The text of the main talks will be very useful to young graduate students who are starting their studies in these areas.

  17. Steady State Vapor Bubble in Pool Boiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, An; Chanana, Ashish; Agrawal, Amit; Wayner, Peter C; Maroo, Shalabh C

    2016-02-03

    Boiling, a dynamic and multiscale process, has been studied for several decades; however, a comprehensive understanding of the process is still lacking. The bubble ebullition cycle, which occurs over millisecond time-span, makes it extremely challenging to study near-surface interfacial characteristics of a single bubble. Here, we create a steady-state vapor bubble that can remain stable for hours in a pool of sub-cooled water using a femtosecond laser source. The stability of the bubble allows us to measure the contact-angle and perform in-situ imaging of the contact-line region and the microlayer, on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces and in both degassed and regular (with dissolved air) water. The early growth stage of vapor bubble in degassed water shows a completely wetted bubble base with the microlayer, and the bubble does not depart from the surface due to reduced liquid pressure in the microlayer. Using experimental data and numerical simulations, we obtain permissible range of maximum heat transfer coefficient possible in nucleate boiling and the width of the evaporating layer in the contact-line region. This technique of creating and measuring fundamental characteristics of a stable vapor bubble will facilitate rational design of nanostructures for boiling enhancement and advance thermal management in electronics.

  18. Triple echo steady-state (TESS) relaxometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heule, Rahel; Ganter, Carl; Bieri, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Rapid imaging techniques have attracted increased interest for relaxometry, but none are perfect: they are prone to static (B0 ) and transmit (B1 ) field heterogeneities, and commonly biased by T2 /T1 . The purpose of this study is the development of a rapid T1 and T2 relaxometry method that is completely (T2 ) or partly (T1 ) bias-free. A new method is introduced to simultaneously quantify T1 and T2 within one single scan based on a triple echo steady-state (TESS) approach in combination with an iterative golden section search. TESS relaxometry is optimized and evaluated from simulations, in vitro studies, and in vivo experiments. It is found that relaxometry with TESS is not biased by T2 /T1 , insensitive to B0 heterogeneities, and, surprisingly, that TESS-T2 is not affected by B1 field errors. Consequently, excellent correspondence between TESS and reference spin echo data is observed for T2 in vitro at 1.5 T and in vivo at 3 T. TESS offers rapid T1 and T2 quantification within one single scan, and in particular B1 -insensitive T2 estimation. As a result, the new proposed method is of high interest for fast and reliable high-resolution T2 mapping, especially of the musculoskeletal system at high to ultra-high fields. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Phenomenon of Life: Between Equilibrium and Non-Linearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galimov, E. M.

    2004-12-01

    A model of ordering applicable to biological evolution is presented. It is shown that a steady state (more precisely approaching to a steady state) system of irreversible processes, under conditions of disproportionation of entropy, produces a lower-entropy product, that is, ordering. The ordering is defined as restricting of degrees of freedom: freedom of motion, interactions etc. The model differs from previous ones in that it relates the ordering to processes running not far from equilibrium, described in the linear field of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. It is shown that a system, which includes adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) conversion meets the demands of the physical model: it provides energy maintaining steady state conditions, and hydrolysis of ATP proceeding with consumption of water can be tightly conjugated with the most important reactions of synthesis of organic polymers (peptides, nucleotide chains etc.), which proceed with release of water. For these and other reasons ATP seems to be a key molecule of prebiotic evolution. It is argued that the elementary chemical reaction proceeding under control of an enzyme is not necessarily far from equilibrium. The experimental evidence supporting this idea, is presented. It is based on isotope data. Carbon isotope distribution in biochemical systems reveals regularity, which is inherent to steady state systems of chemical reactions, proceeding not far from equilibrium. In living organisms this feature appears at the statistical level, as many completely irreversible and non-linear processes occur in organisms. However not-far-from-equilibrium reactions are inherent to biochemical systems as a matter of principle. They are reconcilable with biochemical behavior. Extant organisms are highly evolved entities which, however, show in their basis the same features, as the simplest chemical systems must have had been involved in the origin of life. Some consequences following from the

  20. Human auditory steady state responses to binaural and monaural beats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, D W F; Taylor, P

    2005-03-01

    Binaural beat sensations depend upon a central combination of two different temporally encoded tones, separately presented to the two ears. We tested the feasibility to record an auditory steady state evoked response (ASSR) at the binaural beat frequency in order to find a measure for temporal coding of sound in the human EEG. We stimulated each ear with a distinct tone, both differing in frequency by 40Hz, to record a binaural beat ASSR. As control, we evoked a beat ASSR in response to both tones in the same ear. We band-pass filtered the EEG at 40Hz, averaged with respect to stimulus onset and compared ASSR amplitudes and phases, extracted from a sinusoidal non-linear regression fit to a 40Hz period average. A 40Hz binaural beat ASSR was evoked at a low mean stimulus frequency (400Hz) but became undetectable beyond 3kHz. Its amplitude was smaller than that of the acoustic beat ASSR, which was evoked at low and high frequencies. Both ASSR types had maxima at fronto-central leads and displayed a fronto-occipital phase delay of several ms. The dependence of the 40Hz binaural beat ASSR on stimuli at low, temporally coded tone frequencies suggests that it may objectively assess temporal sound coding ability. The phase shift across the electrode array is evidence for more than one origin of the 40Hz oscillations. The binaural beat ASSR is an evoked response, with novel diagnostic potential, to a signal that is not present in the stimulus, but generated within the brain.

  1. Two stable steady states in the Hodgkin-Huxley axons

    OpenAIRE

    Aihara, K.; Matsumoto, G.

    1983-01-01

    Two stable steady states were found in the numerical solution of the Hodgkin-Huxley equations for the intact squid axon bathed in potassium-rich sea water with an externally applied inward current. Under the conditions the two stable steady-states exist, the Hodgkin-Huxley equations have a complex bifurcation structure including, in addition to the two stable steady-states, a stable limit cycle, two unstable equilibrium points, and one asymptotically stable equilibrium point. It was also conc...

  2. Exploiting the steady state, continuous fueling reactor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vondy, D.R.; Cunningham, G.W.; Fowler, T.B.

    1979-01-01

    A continuously fueled reactor presents an analysis challenge, especially so when the neutron accounting is sensitive to the core design and the fuel handling. A scheme was implemented to solve the steady state, continuous fueling problem. This problem is an accurate model of the reactor for assessing performance at a point in its operating history. Available capability in a modular code system developed to treat fixed fuel reactors was extended in this effort. Parametric studies have been made with this capability to assess the performance of a pebble bed power plant reactor over a wide range of fueling possibilities. The model and the calculational methods are discussed. A global iteration scheme is used to effect a solution for the critical reactor state. The schemes used to accelerate the rate of convergence of one- and two-dimensional problems are described and the interactive behavior is shown for representative problems

  3. Capitalist Diversity and De-growth Trajectories to Steady-state Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2014-01-01

    Growth-critical scholarship has done much to both expose the environmentally unsustainable nature of the capitalist growth-economies of the overdeveloped part of the world and to develop an alternative vision of a degrowth transition leading to a steady-state economy. However, this scholarship...... on capitalist diversity and institutional change. On the basis of a typology of different models of capitalism, the article suggests that if de-growth transitions took place they would take different forms and lead to a variety of types of steady-state economies (SSEs). To illustrate this point, three ideal...

  4. Dynamics of unsymmetric piecewise-linear/non-linear systems using finite elements in time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu

    1995-08-01

    The dynamic response and stability of a single-degree-of-freedom system with unsymmetric piecewise-linear/non-linear stiffness are analyzed using the finite element method in the time domain. Based on a Hamilton's weak principle, this method provides a simple and efficient approach for predicting all possible fundamental and sub-periodic responses. The stability of the steady state response is determined by using Floquet's theory without any special effort for calculating transition matrices. This method is applied to a number of examples, demonstrating its effectiveness even for a strongly non-linear problem involving both clearance and continuous stiffness non-linearities. Close agreement is found between available published findings and the predictions of the finite element in time approach, which appears to be an efficient and reliable alternative technique for non-linear dynamic response and stability analysis of periodic systems.

  5. Restitution slope is principally determined by steady-state action potential duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shattock, Michael J; Park, Kyung Chan; Yang, Hsiang-Yu; Lee, Angela W C; Niederer, Steven; MacLeod, Kenneth T; Winter, James

    2017-06-01

    The steepness of the action potential duration (APD) restitution curve and local tissue refractoriness are both thought to play important roles in arrhythmogenesis. Despite this, there has been little recognition of the apparent association between steady-state APD and the slope of the restitution curve. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that restitution slope is determined by APD and to examine the relationship between restitution slope, refractoriness and susceptibility to VF. Experiments were conducted in isolated hearts and ventricular myocytes from adult guinea pigs and rabbits. Restitution curves were measured under control conditions and following intervention to prolong (clofilium, veratridine, bretylium, low [Ca]e, chronic transverse aortic constriction) or shorten (catecholamines, rapid pacing) ventricular APD. Despite markedly differing mechanisms of action, all interventions that prolonged the action potential led to a steepening of the restitution curve (and vice versa). Normalizing the restitution curve as a % of steady-state APD abolished the difference in restitution curves with all interventions. Effects on restitution were preserved when APD was modulated by current injection in myocytes pre-treated with the calcium chelator BAPTA-AM - to abolish the intracellular calcium transient. The non-linear relation between APD and the rate of repolarization of the action potential is shown to underpin the common influence of APD on the slope of the restitution curve. Susceptibility to VF was found to parallel changes in APD/refractoriness, rather than restitution slope. Steady-state APD is the principal determinant of the slope of the ventricular electrical restitution curve. In the absence of post-repolarization refractoriness, factors that prolong the action potential would be expected to steepen the restitution curve. However, concomitant changes in tissue refractoriness act to reduce susceptibility to sustained VF. Dependence on

  6. Measurement of non-steady-state free fatty acid turnover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, M.D.; Heiling, V.; Miles, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    The accuracy of non-steady-state equations for measuring changes in free fatty acid rate of appearance (Ra) is unknown. In the present study, endogenous lipolysis (traced with [ 14 C]-linoleate) was pharmacologically suppressed in six conscious mongrel dogs. A computer-responsive infusion pump was then used to deliver an intravenous oleic acid emulsion in both constant and linear gradient infusion modes. Both non-steady-state equations with various effective volumes of distribution (V) and steady-state equations were used to measure oleate Ra [( 14 C]oleate). Endogenous lipolysis did not change during the experiment. When oleate Ra increased in a linear gradient fashion, only non-steady-state equations with a large (150 ml/kg) V resulted in erroneous values (9% overestimate, P less than 0.05). In contrast, when oleate Ra decreased in a similar fashion, steady-state and standard non-steady-state equations (V = plasma volume = 50 ml/kg) overestimated total oleate Ra (18 and 7%, P less than 0.001 and P less than 0.05, respectively). Overall, non-steady-state equations with an effective V of 90 ml/kg (1.8 x plasma volume) allowed the most accurate estimates of oleate Ra

  7. Parametrization of the feedback Hamiltonian realizing a pure steady state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Naoki

    2005-01-01

    Feedback control is expected to considerably protect quantum states against decoherence caused by interaction between the system and environment. Especially, Markovian feedback scheme developed by Wiseman can modify the properties of decoherence and eventually recover the purity of the steady state of the corresponding master equation. This paper provides a condition for which the modified master equation has a pure steady state. By applying this condition to a two-qubit system, we obtain a complete parametrization of the feedback Hamiltonian such that the steady state becomes a maximally entangled state

  8. Properties of the steady state distribution of electrons in semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscato, Orazio; Di Stefano, Vincenza [Catania Univ. degli Studi (Italy). Dipt. di Matematica e Informatica; Wagner, Wolfgang [Weierstrass-Institut fuer Angewandte Analysis und Stochastik (WIAS) im Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V. (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    This paper studies a Boltzmann transport equation with several electronphonon scattering mechanisms, which describes the charge transport in semiconductors. The electric field is coupled to the electron distribution function via Poisson's equation. Both the parabolic and the quasi-parabolic band approximations are considered. The steady state behaviour of the electron distribution function is investigated by a Monte Carlo algorithm. More precisely, several nonlinear functionals of the solution are calculated that quantify the deviation of the steady state from a Maxwellian distribution with respect to the wave-vector. On the one hand, the numerical results illustrate known theoretical statements about the steady state and indicate possible directions for future studies. On the other hand, the nonlinear functionals provide tools that can be used in the framework of Monte Carlo algorithms for detecting regions in which the steady state distribution has a relatively simple structure, thus providing a basis for domain decomposition methods. (orig.)

  9. H-modes under steady-state conditions in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.J.; Arshad, S.A.; Gondhalekar, A.; Thomas, P.R.

    1994-01-01

    Two H-mode regimes have been identified in JET in which edge localized modes (ELMs) maintain steady-state conditions. In the first regime, strong gas puffing was used in combined (ICRF plus NBI) heating experiments at powers of up to 20 MW. Rapid ELM activity occurred and at moderate powers (∼ 8 MW) steady-state H-modes with durations of up to 18s and energy confinement times of up to 95% of the JET/D-IIID scaling were established. At high toroidal beta (β N ≥ 1.5) H-mode plasmas were also found to exhibit regular ELM behaviour which resulted in steady-state H-modes with confinement enhancement of ∼ 90% of the JET/D-IIID scaling. This paper examines the plasma properties of these regimes and assesses their implications for steady-state H-mode operation in ignited plasmas. (author)

  10. Stabilizing unstable steady states using extended time-delay autosynchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Austin; Bienfang, Joshua C.; Hall, G. Martin; Gardner, Jeff R.; Gauthier, Daniel J.

    1998-12-01

    We describe a method for stabilizing unstable steady states in nonlinear dynamical systems using a form of extended time-delay autosynchronization. Specifically, stabilization is achieved by applying a feedback signal generated by high-pass-filtering in real time the dynamical state of the system to an accessible system parameter or variables. Our technique is easy to implement, does not require knowledge of the unstable steady state coordinates in phase space, automatically tracks changes in the system parameters, and is more robust to broadband noise than previous schemes. We demonstrate the controller's efficacy by stabilizing unstable steady states in an electronic circuit exhibiting low-dimensional temporal chaos. The simplicity and robustness of the scheme suggests that it is ideally suited for stabilizing unstable steady states in ultra-high-speed systems. (c) 1998 American Institute of Physics.

  11. Steady-state leaching of tritiated water from silica gel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, H.A.; Hou, Xiaolin

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous leaching of tritium from silica gel, loaded by absorption of water vapor, makes part of reactor de-commissioning. It is found to follow the formulation of steady-state diffusion.......Aqueous leaching of tritium from silica gel, loaded by absorption of water vapor, makes part of reactor de-commissioning. It is found to follow the formulation of steady-state diffusion....

  12. Selection of steady states in planar Darcy convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsybulin, V.G.; Karasoezen, B.; Ergenc, T.

    2006-01-01

    The planar natural convection of an incompressible fluid in a porous medium is considered. We study the selection of steady states under temperature perturbations on the boundary. A selection map is introduced in order to analyze the selection of a steady state from a continuous family of equilibria which exists under zero boundary conditions. The results of finite-difference modeling for a rectangular enclosure are presented

  13. [On the terminology of auditory steady-state responses. What differentiates steady-state and transient potentials?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühler, R

    2012-05-01

    Recording human auditory steady-state responses (ASSR) at different frequencies allows objective assessment of auditory thresholds. Common practice has been to record ASSR to pure tones that are sinusoidally modulated in amplitude and frequency. Recently, optimized chirp stimuli have been proposed to evoke transient as well as steady-state responses. Because of the resulting uncertainty about the different methods, this paper aims to reconsider the terminology of transient and steady-state responses. Two experiments demonstrate the smooth transition between transient and steady-state responses. In experiment 1, click-evoked auditory brainstem responses (ABR) were recorded over a wide range of stimulus repetition rates (24/s to 72/s). In experiment 2, auditory steady-state responses were recorded for the same stimulus repetition rates, using three different stimulus types: an amplitude modulated 1-kHz tone (AM), a 1-kHz tone-burst (TB) and a flat-spectrum chirp. Experiment 1 demonstrates the merging of the typical ABR wave complexes at higher repetition rates, forming a steady-state response. This effect can only be observed if the time window is extended far beyond the window traditionally used for clinical ABR recordings. Experiment 2 reveals similar ASSR amplitude spectra regardless of the stimulus type and repetition rate used. Steady-state responses can be evoked for a large variety of stimulus types and repetition rates. Thus, from a clinician's point of view, steady-state responses cannot be considered a new type of evoked responses. They differ from transient responses primarily in the frequency response method and the longer timeframe required.

  14. The steady state: is it a neglectable or a compulsory condition for determining renal clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bongartz, W.; Kuni, H.; Ridder, H.W.; Naber, K.

    1975-01-01

    The first part of the paper reviews critically the whole-body counter technique with falling blood activity level for measuring renal clearance. It is proved that the methodological assumption that the classic clearance formula in its differential mode can be applied is not fulfilled under routine conditions for several reasons. Therefore, that procedure has to be judged as a ''clearance-equivalent'' method. The second part describes the development of a steady-state clearance procedure to a practicable method. By using a subcutaneous (s.c.) autogenous blood depot of 51 Cr-EDTA the authors achieve a quasi constant level of blood activity which is nearly equivalent to that achievable by means of a continuous infusion technique. The third part describes a further development of this method into a ''total clearance'' method by means of a new and quantitative two-compartment analysis. The authors discuss the conditions under which the main criterion of a steady state (input equal to output) is realized and show that (1) the steady state is a condition absolutely necessary for the exact determination of renal clearance, and (2) the standard condition of constant blood level is neither sufficient to prove a steady state nor essential for a mass balance. This conception of determining renal clearance indirectly by means of a complete two-compartment analysis seems to have advantages over competitive procedures. At a reasonable expense of hardware and personnel this method involves minimal discomfort to the patient. (author)

  15. Transient and steady state behaviour of elasto–aerodynamic air foil bearings, considering bump foil compliance and top foil inertia and flexibility: A numerical investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bo Bjerregaard; Santos, Ilmar F.

    2017-01-01

    This work gives a theoretical contribution to the problem of modelling air foil bearings considering large sagging effects in the calculation of the non-linear transient and steady state response of a rigid rotor. This paper consists of two parts: the development of a miltiphysics model of the air...... foils and one air foil bearing with a fully supported top foil. The steady state responses of a journal supported by these air foil bearings are investigated for varied rotational speeds and journal unbalances as well as the top foil sagging in the unsupported area. The study reveals that sub...

  16. Adaptive solution of some steady-state fluid-structure interaction problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Etienne, S.; Pelletier, D.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a general integrated and coupled formulation for modeling the steady-state interaction of a viscous incompressible flow with an elastic structure undergoing large displacements (geometric non-linearities). This constitutes an initial step towards developing a sensitivity analysis formulation for this class of problems. The formulation uses velocity and pressures as unknowns in a flow domain and displacements in the structural components. An interface formulation is presented that leads to clear and simple finite element implementation of the equilibrium conditions at the fluid-solid interface. Issues of error estimation and mesh adaptation are discussed. The adaptive formulation is verified on a problem with a closed form solution. It is then applied to a sample case for which the structure undergoes large displacements induced by the flow. (author)

  17. New Methods for Processing and Quantifying VO2 Kinetics to Steady State: VO2 Onset Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig R. McNulty

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Current methods of oxygen uptake (VO2 kinetics data handling may be too simplistic for the complex physiology involved in the underlying physiological processes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to quantify the VO2 kinetics to steady state across the full range of sub-ventilatory threshold work rates, with a particular focus on the VO2 onset kinetics. Ten healthy, moderately trained males participated in five bouts of cycling. Each bout involved 10 min at a percentage of the subject's ventilation threshold (30, 45, 60, 75, 90% from unloaded cycling. The VO2 kinetics was quantified using the conventional mono-exponential time constant (tau, τ, as well as the new methods for VO2 onset kinetics. Compared to linear modeling, non-linear modeling caused a deterioration of goodness of fit (main effect, p < 0.001 across all exercise intensities. Remainder kinetics were also improved using a modified application of the mono-exponential model (main effect, p < 0.001. Interestingly, the slope from the linear regression of the onset kinetics data is similar across all subjects and absolute exercise intensities, and thereby independent of subject fitness and τ. This could indicate that there are no functional limitations between subjects during this onset phase, with limitations occurring for the latter transition to steady state. Finally, the continuing use of mono-exponential modeling could mask important underlying physiology of more instantaneous VO2 responses to steady state. Consequently, further research should be conducted on this new approach to VO2 onset kinetics.

  18. Calibration of a mass spectrometer in steady-state conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, E.V.; Kupryazhkin, A.Ya.

    1982-01-01

    The mass spectrometer calibration technique by 4 He in steady-state operation conditions by the method of gas expansion from the small volume into the large one using a capacitance micromanometer is described. For realizing steady-state operation of the mass-spectrometer one of the steam-mercury diffusion pumps has been replaced for an adsorption pump. Using adsorption pump permits to maintain working vacuum in the system for more than 3 h. The mass spectrometer calibration has been performed by comparing calibrated volume and mass spectrometer chamber volume. The mass spectrometer sensitivity value by 4 He in the steady-state operation ν=(4.1+-0.1)x10 - 7 Pa/mV is obtained

  19. A steady state solution to a field reversed configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, M.

    1987-01-01

    To find a steady state field reversed configuration, a method is considered for sustaining the diamagnetic plasma current by a seed current externally driven at the field null point. The steady state solution is obtained by solving the one-dimensional fluid equations including equilibrium and transport. It is found that the amount of seed current necessary to maintain a steady field reversal depends strongly on τ B /τ N , where τ B and τ N are the magnetic diffusion times and the particle confinement time, respectively. As τ B /τ N increases, more flux is excluded from the plasma. The steady state solution is applied to a D-T ignited plasma. (author)

  20. From Steady-State To Cyclic Metal Forming Processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montmitonnet, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Continuous processes often exhibit a high proportion of steady state, and have been modeled with steady-state formulations for thirty years, resulting in very CPU-time efficient computations. On the other hand, incremental forming processes generally remain a challenge for FEM software, because of the local nature of deformation compared with the size of the part to be formed, and of the large number of deformation steps needed. Among them however, certain semi-continuous metal forming processes can be characterized as periodic, or cyclic. In this case, an efficient computational strategy can be derived from the ideas behind the steady-state models. This will be illustrated with the example of pilgering, a seamless tube cold rolling process

  1. Structural simplification of chemical reaction networks in partial steady states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madelaine, Guillaume; Lhoussaine, Cédric; Niehren, Joachim; Tonello, Elisa

    2016-11-01

    We study the structural simplification of chemical reaction networks with partial steady state semantics assuming that the concentrations of some but not all species are constant. We present a simplification rule that can eliminate intermediate species that are in partial steady state, while preserving the dynamics of all other species. Our simplification rule can be applied to general reaction networks with some but few restrictions on the possible kinetic laws. We can also simplify reaction networks subject to conservation laws. We prove that our simplification rule is correct when applied to a module of a reaction network, as long as the partial steady state is assumed with respect to the complete network. Michaelis-Menten's simplification rule for enzymatic reactions falls out as a special case. We have implemented an algorithm that applies our simplification rules repeatedly and applied it to reaction networks from systems biology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Contour analysis of steady state tokamak reactor performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devoto, R.S.; Fenstermacher, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    A new method of analysis for presenting the possible operating space for steady state, non-ignited tokamak reactors is proposed. The method uses contours of reactor performance and plasma characteristics, fusion power gain, wall neutron flux, current drive power, etc., plotted on a two-dimensional grid, the axes of which are the plasma current I p and the normalized beta, β n = β/(I p /aB 0 ), to show possible operating points. These steady state operating contour plots are called SOPCONS. This technique is illustrated in an application to a design for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) with neutral beam, lower hybrid and bootstrap current drive. The utility of the SOPCON plots for pointing out some of the non-intuitive considerations in steady state reactor design is shown. (author). Letter-to-the-editor. 16 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  3. Multiple dual mode counter-current chromatography with periodic sample injection: Steady-state and non-steady-state operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostanyan, Artak E

    2014-12-19

    The multiple dual mode (MDM) counter-current chromatography (CCC) separation consists of a succession of two isocratic counter-current steps and is carried out in series alternating between normal phase and reversed phase operation. The performance of the MDM technique can be improved by the sample re-injection between each of the dual-mode steps. The objective of this work was to develop analytical expressions to describe the MDM CCC with periodic sample injection, which can be used to simulate these processes and select optimal operating conditions for the separation of a given feed mixture. Two possible methods of the MDM separation with periodic sample injection are considered: 1 - steady-state separation: the duration of the flow periods of the phases is kept constant for all the cycles and the steady-state regime is achieved after a certain number of cycles. 2 - non-steady-state separation with variable duration of phase elution steps. It is shown that proper selection of the duration of phase flow times allows to reach complete separation of solutes in continuous steady-state operation mode even in a low efficiency column. This mode of operation provides both high productivity and high resolution. The non-steady-state method with variable duration of phase elution steps offers several options to split a mixture into groups of compounds and/or concentrate target compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Numerical solution of non-linear dual-phase-lag bioheat transfer equation within skin tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Kumar, P; Rai, K N

    2017-11-01

    This paper deals with numerical modeling and simulation of heat transfer in skin tissues using non-linear dual-phase-lag (DPL) bioheat transfer model under periodic heat flux boundary condition. The blood perfusion is assumed temperature-dependent which results in non-linear DPL bioheat transfer model in order to predict more accurate results. A numerical method of line which is based on finite difference and Runge-Kutta (4,5) schemes, is used to solve the present non-linear problem. Under specific case, the exact solution has been obtained and compared with the present numerical scheme, and we found that those are in good agreement. A comparison based on model selection criterion (AIC) has been made among non-linear DPL models when the variation of blood perfusion rate with temperature is of constant, linear and exponential type with the experimental data and it has been found that non-linear DPL model with exponential variation of blood perfusion rate is closest to the experimental data. In addition, it is found that due to absence of phase-lag phenomena in Pennes bioheat transfer model, it achieves steady state more quickly and always predict higher temperature than thermal and DPL non-linear models. The effect of coefficient of blood perfusion rate, dimensionless heating frequency and Kirchoff number on dimensionless temperature distribution has also been analyzed. The whole analysis is presented in dimensionless form. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Non-equilibrium steady state in the hydro regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourhasan, Razieh [Science Institute, University of Iceland,Dunhaga 5, 107 Reykjavik (Iceland)

    2016-02-01

    We study the existence and properties of the non-equilibrium steady state which arises by putting two copies of systems at different temperatures into a thermal contact. We solve the problem for the relativistic systems that are described by the energy-momentum of a perfect hydro with general equation of state (EOS). In particular, we examine several simple examples: a hydro with a linear EOS, a holographic CFT perturbed by a relevant operator and a barotropic fluid, i.e., P=P(E). Our studies suggest that the formation of steady state is a universal result of the hydro regime regardless of the kind of fluid.

  6. Emergence of advance waves in a steady-state universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobart, R.H.

    1979-10-01

    In standard Wheeler-Feynman electrodynamics advanced waves from any source are absolutely canceled by the advanced waves from the absorber responding to that source. The present work shows this cancellation fails over cosmic distances in a steady-state universe. A test of the view proposed earlier, in a paper which assumed failure of cancellation ad hoc, that zero-point fluctuations of the electromagnetic field are such emergent advanced waves, is posed. The view entails anomalous slowing of spontaneous transition rates at longer emission wavelengths; available data go against this, furnishing additional argument against the suspect assumption that the universe is steady-state.

  7. Emergence of advance waves in a steady-state universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobart, R.H.

    1979-01-01

    In standard Wheeler-Feynman electrodynamics advanced waves from any source are absolutely canceled by the advanced waves from the absorber responding to that source. The present work shows this cancellation fails over cosmic distances in a steady-state universe. A test of the view proposed earlier, in a paper which assumed failure of cancellation ad hoc, that zero-point fluctuations of the electromagnetic field are such emergent advanced waves, is posed. The view entails anomalous slowing of spontaneous transition rates at longer emission wavelengths; available data go against this, furnishing additional argument against the suspect assumption that the universe is steady-state

  8. Neural Networks for Non-linear Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, O.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes how a neural network, structured as a Multi Layer Perceptron, is trained to predict, simulate and control a non-linear process.......This paper describes how a neural network, structured as a Multi Layer Perceptron, is trained to predict, simulate and control a non-linear process....

  9. Non-Linear Approximation of Bayesian Update

    KAUST Repository

    Litvinenko, Alexander

    2016-06-23

    We develop a non-linear approximation of expensive Bayesian formula. This non-linear approximation is applied directly to Polynomial Chaos Coefficients. In this way, we avoid Monte Carlo sampling and sampling error. We can show that the famous Kalman Update formula is a particular case of this update.

  10. Non-linear finite element modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lars Pilgaard

    The note is written for courses in "Non-linear finite element method". The note has been used by the author teaching non-linear finite element modeling at Civil Engineering at Aalborg University, Computational Mechanics at Aalborg University Esbjerg, Structural Engineering at the University...

  11. Simulation of non-linear ultrasound fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Fox, Paul D.; Wilhjelm, Jens E.

    2002-01-01

    An approach for simulating non-linear ultrasound imaging using Field II has been implemented using the operator splitting approach, where diffraction, attenuation, and non-linear propagation can be handled individually. The method uses the Earnshaw/Poisson solution to Burgcrs' equation for the non...

  12. Non-linear realizations and bosonic branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, P.

    2001-01-01

    In this very short note, following hep-th/0001216, we express the well known bosonic brane as a non-linear realization. The reader may also consult hep-th/9912226, 0001216 and 0005270 where the branes of M theory are constructed as a non-linear realisation. The automorphisms of the supersymmetry algebra play an essential role. (author)

  13. Steady-state, pre-steady-state, and single-turnover kinetic measurement for DNA glycosylase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassa, Akira; Beard, William A; Shock, David D; Wilson, Samuel H

    2013-08-19

    Human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) excises the mutagenic oxidative DNA lesion 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG) from DNA. Kinetic characterization of OGG1 is undertaken to measure the rates of 8-oxoG excision and product release. When the OGG1 concentration is lower than substrate DNA, time courses of product formation are biphasic; a rapid exponential phase (i.e. burst) of product formation is followed by a linear steady-state phase. The initial burst of product formation corresponds to the concentration of enzyme properly engaged on the substrate, and the burst amplitude depends on the concentration of enzyme. The first-order rate constant of the burst corresponds to the intrinsic rate of 8-oxoG excision and the slower steady-state rate measures the rate of product release (product DNA dissociation rate constant, k(off)). Here, we describe steady-state, pre-steady-state, and single-turnover approaches to isolate and measure specific steps during OGG1 catalytic cycling. A fluorescent labeled lesion-containing oligonucleotide and purified OGG1 are used to facilitate precise kinetic measurements. Since low enzyme concentrations are used to make steady-state measurements, manual mixing of reagents and quenching of the reaction can be performed to ascertain the steady-state rate (k(off)). Additionally, extrapolation of the steady-state rate to a point on the ordinate at zero time indicates that a burst of product formation occurred during the first turnover (i.e. y-intercept is positive). The first-order rate constant of the exponential burst phase can be measured using a rapid mixing and quenching technique that examines the amount of product formed at short time intervals (steady-state phase and corresponds to the rate of 8-oxoG excision (i.e. chemistry). The chemical step can also be measured using a single-turnover approach where catalytic cycling is prevented by saturating substrate DNA with enzyme (E>S). These approaches can measure elementary rate

  14. the steady-state performance characteristics of single phase transfer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-11-03

    Nov 3, 2012 ... The paper reports the derivation of the steady- state equivalent circuit of a single phase transfer ... series opposition between the two halves of the ma- ..... from its equivalent circuit of fig 6 for different values of slip. Impedance due to forward field. Zf = Rf + jXf = Rr. 2(2s - 1). + jxr. 2. (19) in parallel with jxm. 2.

  15. Canonical structure of dynamical fluctuations in mesoscopic nonequilibrium steady states

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maes, C.; Netočný, Karel

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 3 (2008), 30003/1-30003/6 ISSN 0295-5075 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC202/07/J051 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520 Keywords : nonequilibrium fluctuations * steady state * Onsager- Machlup theory Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 2.203, year: 2008

  16. Application of Monte Carlo Method to Steady State Heat Conduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Monte Carlo method was used in modelling steady state heat conduction problems. The method uses the fixed and the floating random walks to determine temperature in the domain of the definition of the heat conduction equation, at a single point directly. A heat conduction problem with an irregular shaped geometry ...

  17. Steady-state equations of even flux and scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verwaerde, D.

    1985-11-01

    Some mathematical properties of steady-state equation of even flux are shown in variational formalism. This theoretical frame allows to study the existence of a solution and its asymptotical behavior in opaque media (i.e. the relation with scattering equation). At last it allows to qualify the convergence velocity of resolution iterative processes used practically [fr

  18. Principle of Entropy Maximization for Nonequilibrium Steady States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this contribution is to find out to what extent the principle of entropy maximization, which serves as a basis for the equilibrium thermodynamics, may be generalized onto non-equilibrium steady states. We prove a theorem that, in the system of thermodynamic coordinates, where entropy...

  19. Steady-state response of a micropolar generalized thermoelastic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The linear theory of micropolar thermoelasticity was developed by extending the theory of micropolar continua to include thermal effects by Eringen [2] and Nowacki. [13]. Steady state response to moving loads in elasticity have been discussed in Fung [7]. Different authors [1,9,10,11,14,16±18] discussed different problems ...

  20. Herd-Level Modeling and Steady-State Livestock Productivity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... an outline of the scope for applications and addresses the prospects for refinement and model extensions. The algorithms for use in development of steady state derivations include transition of matrices in a Markov Chain approach, continuous differential equations and actuarial approach built on life and fecundity tables.

  1. Combined Steady-State and Dynamic Heat Exchanger Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyben, William L.; Tuzla, Kemal; Bader, Paul N.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a heat-transfer experiment that combines steady-state analysis and dynamic control. A process-water stream is circulated through two tube-in-shell heat exchangers in series. In the first, the process water is heated by steam. In the second, it is cooled by cooling water. The equipment is pilot-plant size: heat-transfer areas…

  2. Correlates of Steady-State Haematocrit and Hepatosplenomegaly in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Backgroup: Sickle cell disease is a common genetic disorder in Nigeria. Objectives: To determine the steady state haematocrit, liver size and spleen size in children with sickle cell disease and the factors that influence them. Methods: This was a retrospective study of children with sickle cell disorders who attended the ...

  3. Plasticity, Fracture and Friction in Steady-State Plate Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Wierzbicki, Tomasz

    1997-01-01

    A closed form solution to the problem of steady-state wedge cutting through a ductile metal plate is presented. The considered problem is an idealization of a ship bottom raking process, i.e. a continuous cutting damage of a ship bottom by a hard knife-like rock in a grounding event. A new...

  4. Classical Orbital Paramagnetism in Non-equilibrium Steady State

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Avinash A. Deshpande

    2017-09-12

    Sep 12, 2017 ... Abstract. We report the results of our numerical simulation of classical-dissipative dynamics of a charged particle subjected to a non-Markovian stochastic forcing. We find that the system develops a steady-state orbital magnetic moment in the presence of a static magnetic field. Very significantly, the sign of ...

  5. A steady state model for anaerobic digestion of sewage sludges ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A steady state model for anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge is developed that comprises three sequential parts – a kinetic part from which the % COD removal and ... and a carbonate system weak acid/base chemistry part from which the digester pH is calculated from the partial pressure of CO2 and alkalinity generated.

  6. Steady States of the Parametric Rotator and Pendulum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzas, Antonio O.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss several steady-state rotation and oscillation modes of the planar parametric rotator and pendulum with damping. We consider a general elliptic trajectory of the suspension point for both rotator and pendulum, for the latter at an arbitrary angle with gravity, with linear and circular trajectories as particular cases. We treat the…

  7. Practical error analysis of the quasi-steady-state approximation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Quasi-Steady-State Approximation (QSSA) is a method of getting approximate solutions to differential equations, developed heuristically in biochemistry early this century. It can produce acceptable and important results even when formal analytic and numerical procedures fail. It has become associated with singular ...

  8. Regulation of the tolerogenic function of steady-state DCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Hans Christian; Muth, Sabine; Schild, Hansjörg

    2014-04-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are master regulators of T-cell responses. After sensing pathogen-derived molecular patterns (PAMPs), or signals of inflammation and cellular stress, DCs differentiate into potent activators of naïve CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells through a process that is termed DC maturation. By contrast, DCs induce and maintain peripheral T-cell tolerance in the steady state, that is in the absence of overt infection or inflammation. However, the immunological steady state is not devoid of DC-activating stimuli, such as commensal microorganisms, subclinical infections, or basal levels of proinflammatory mediators. In the presence of these activating stimuli, DC maturation must be calibrated to ensure self-tolerance yet allow for adequate T-cell responses to infections. Here, we review the factors that are known to control DC maturation in the steady state and discuss their effect on the tolerogenic function of steady-state DCs. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Classical Orbital Paramagnetism in Non-equilibrium Steady State

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... We report the results of our numerical simulation of classical-dissipative dynamics of a charged particle subjected to a non-Markovian stochastic forcing. We find that the system develops a steady-state orbital magnetic moment in the presence of a static magnetic field. Very significantly, the sign of the orbital ...

  10. Dark Entangled Steady States of Interacting Rydberg Atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dasari, Durga; Mølmer, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    their short-lived excited states lead to rapid, dissipative formation of an entangled steady state. We show that for a wide range of physical parameters, this entangled state is formed on a time scale given by the strengths of coherent Raman and Rabi fields applied to the atoms, while it is only weakly...

  11. A displacement based FE formulation for steady state problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Y.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis a new displacement based formulation is developed for elasto-plastic deformations in steady state problems. In this formulation the displacements are the primary variables, which is in contrast to the more common formulations in terms of the velocities as the primary variables. In a

  12. Classical Orbital Paramagnetism in Non-equilibrium Steady State

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Avinash A. Deshpande

    2017-09-12

    Sep 12, 2017 ... Classical Orbital Paramagnetism in Non-equilibrium Steady State. AVINASH A. DESHPANDE. ∗ and N. KUMAR. Raman Research Institute, Bangalore 560 080, India. ∗. Corresponding author. E-mail: desh@rri.res.in. MS received 25 March 2017; accepted 31 July 2017; published online 12 September ...

  13. Dust remobilization in fusion plasmas under steady state conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolias, P.; Ratynskaia, S.; de Angeli, M.; De Temmerman, G.; Ripamonti, D.; Riva, G.; I. Bykov,; Shalpegin, A.; Vignitchouk, L.; Brochard, F.; Bystrov, K.; Bardin, S.; Litnovsky, A.

    2016-01-01

    The first combined experimental and theoretical studies of dust remobilization by plasma forces are reported. The main theoretical aspects of remobilization in fusion devices under steady state conditions are analyzed. In particular, the dominant role of adhesive forces is highlighted and generic

  14. Optimising performance in steady state for a supermarket refrigeration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Torben; Kinnaert, Michel; Razavi-Far, Roozbeh

    2012-01-01

    Using a supermarket refrigeration system as an illustrative example, the paper postulates that by appropriately utilising knowledge of plant operation, the plant wide performance can be optimised based on a small set of variables. Focusing on steady state operations, the total system performance...

  15. Stabilizing the border steady-state solution of two interacting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we have successfully developed a feedback control which has been used to stabilize an unstable steady-state solution (0, 3.3534). This convergence has occurred when the values of the final time are 190, 200, 210 and 220 which corresponds to the scenario when the value of the step length of our simulation ...

  16. Pattern formation due to non-linear vortex diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijngaarden, Rinke J.; Surdeanu, R.; Huijbregtse, J. M.; Rector, J. H.; Dam, B.; Einfeld, J.; Wördenweber, R.; Griessen, R.

    Penetration of magnetic flux in YBa 2Cu 3O 7 superconducting thin films in an external magnetic field is visualized using a magneto-optic technique. A variety of flux patterns due to non-linear vortex diffusion is observed: (1) Roughening of the flux front with scaling exponents identical to those observed in burning paper including two distinct regimes where respectively spatial disorder and temporal disorder dominate. In the latter regime Kardar-Parisi-Zhang behavior is found. (2) Fractal penetration of flux with Hausdorff dimension depending on the critical current anisotropy. (3) Penetration as ‘flux-rivers’. (4) The occurrence of commensurate and incommensurate channels in films with anti-dots as predicted in numerical simulations by Reichhardt, Olson and Nori. It is shown that most of the observed behavior is related to the non-linear diffusion of vortices by comparison with simulations of the non-linear diffusion equation appropriate for vortices.

  17. Steady state evaluation of aortic dissections: a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Cicco, Maria Luisa; Andreoli, Chiara; Casciani, Emanuele; Polettini, Elisabetta; Gualdi, Gian Franco

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. One the main reasons for the limited use of MR1 in the evaluation of aortic dissection in emergency conditions is its long execution lime. The authors report their experience regarding a new MRI sequence that reduces execution time and avoids the use of contrast medium. Materials and methods. Eighteen haemodynamically stable patients with suspected (16 cases, 3 with confirmed diagnosis of aneurysm) or known aortic dissection (2 cases) underwent in emergency conditions 1.5T MR1 with Steady-State sequence (Fast Imaging Employing Steady-State Acquisition: GRE 2D; TR 3.5, TE 1.6; Flip Angle 45, bandwidth 125, matrix 224x224, NEX 1, acquisition lime per slice 7 s, thickness 6-8 mm, FOV 38; 2D-OE breath-hold sequence requiring cardiac triggering). The results obtained were compared in terms of diagnostic accuracy and execution lime wth those of classical MRI examination (black blood TI, FSE T2 and 3D MR-angiography) or multislice CT. Results. The diagnostic accuracy of MRI, both with Steady-State sequence and the classical technique, and multislice CT in the diagnosis of dissection or aneurysm equal (100%), whereas execution time is 6, 25 and 6 minutes, respectively. Multislice CT proved to be more accurate than Steady-State MR1 in evaluating the renal parenchyma and the extension of the dissection to the renal arteries. Conclusions. The Steady-State MRI sequence provides a diagnosis of aortic dissection or aneurysmal dilatation in a short lime and may represent a valuable alternative to CT in emergency settings, especially in patients with reported contraindications to iodinated contrast media [it

  18. Auditory steady-state response in cochlear implant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Fortuny, Alejandro; Arnaiz-Marquez, Isabel; Hernández-Pérez, Heivet; Eimil-Suárez, Eduardo

    2018-03-19

    Auditory steady state responses to continuous amplitude modulated tones at rates between 70 and 110Hz, have been proposed as a feasible alternative to objective frequency specific audiometry in cochlear implant subjects. The aim of the present study is to obtain physiological thresholds by means of auditory steady-state response in cochlear implant patients (Clarion HiRes 90K), with acoustic stimulation, on free field conditions and to verify its biological origin. 11 subjects comprised the sample. Four amplitude modulated tones of 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000Hz were used as stimuli, using the multiple frequency technique. The recording of auditory steady-state response was also recorded at 0dB HL of intensity, non-specific stimulus and using a masking technique. The study enabled the electrophysiological thresholds to be obtained for each subject of the explored sample. There were no auditory steady-state responses at either 0dB or non-specific stimulus recordings. It was possible to obtain the masking thresholds. A difference was identified between behavioral and electrophysiological thresholds of -6±16, -2±13, 0±22 and -8±18dB at frequencies of 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000Hz respectively. The auditory steady state response seems to be a suitable technique to evaluate the hearing threshold in cochlear implant subjects. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Performance enhancement of steady-state Markov analysis for cognitive radio networks via channel reservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehal M. El Azaly

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive radio wireless networks CRNs have been considered as an efficient communication paradigm to the utilization of scarce spectrum. The main purpose of channel reservation of dynamic spectrum access (DSA is to access these idle channels intelligently which are specialized for primary users (PUS to be used by unlicensed users temporarily, which are called secondary users (SUS without causing critical interference to the licensed user’s activity. In this paper, continuous-time Markov chain paradigm is improved via channel reservation to show the best usage of the radio spectrum bands, and the transition matrix are deduced for the proposed model. Moreover, the probability state vector is proved by performing steady state analysis. The deduced expressions of the suggested model are illustrated in the numerical results section. Keywords: Cognitive radio networks, Dynamic spectrum access, Channel reservation, Continuous-time Markov chain, Steady-state analysis

  20. Methods of computing steady-state voltage stability margins of power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, Joe Hong; Ghiocel, Scott Gordon

    2018-03-20

    In steady-state voltage stability analysis, as load increases toward a maximum, conventional Newton-Raphson power flow Jacobian matrix becomes increasingly ill-conditioned so power flow fails to converge before reaching maximum loading. A method to directly eliminate this singularity reformulates the power flow problem by introducing an AQ bus with specified bus angle and reactive power consumption of a load bus. For steady-state voltage stability analysis, the angle separation between the swing bus and AQ bus can be varied to control power transfer to the load, rather than specifying the load power itself. For an AQ bus, the power flow formulation is only made up of a reactive power equation, thus reducing the size of the Jacobian matrix by one. This reduced Jacobian matrix is nonsingular at the critical voltage point, eliminating a major difficulty in voltage stability analysis for power system operations.

  1. Wavelet-Based Analytical Algorithm for Solving Steady-State Concentration in Immobilized Glucose Isomerase of Packed-Bed Reactor Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvi, M Salai Mathi; Hariharan, G

    2016-08-01

    Wavelet method is a recently developed tool in applied mathematics. The mathematical model of the steady-state immobilized enzyme electrodes is discussed. This theoretical model is based on one-dimensional heat conduction equations containing a non-linear term related to Michaelis-Menten kinetics. An efficient Chebyshev wavelet-based technique is applied to solve the non-linear diffusion equation for the steady-state condition. A simple expression of the substrate concentration is obtained as a function of the Thiele modulus [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text](kinetic parameter). The wavelet results are compared with the numerical and HPM solutions and found to be in good agreement.

  2. 40 CFR 92.130 - Determination of steady-state concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Determination of steady-state....130 Determination of steady-state concentrations. (a)(1) For HC and NOX emissions, a steady-state... section. (2) For CO and CO2 emissions, a steady-state concentration measurement, measured after 300...

  3. Non-Linear Algebra and Bogolubov's Recursion

    OpenAIRE

    Morozov, A.; Serbyn, M.

    2007-01-01

    Numerous examples are given of application of Bogolubov's forest formula to iterative solutions of various non-linear equations: one and the same formula describes everything, from ordinary quadratic equation to renormalization in quantum field theory.

  4. Correlations and Non-Linear Probability Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breen, Richard; Holm, Anders; Karlson, Kristian Bernt

    2014-01-01

    Although the parameters of logit and probit and other non-linear probability models are often explained and interpreted in relation to the regression coefficients of an underlying linear latent variable model, we argue that they may also be usefully interpreted in terms of the correlations betwee...... certain circumstances, which we explain, the derived correlation provides a way of overcoming the problems inherent in cross-sample comparisons of the parameters of non-linear probability models....

  5. Theory of minimum dissipation of energy for the steady state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.K.

    1992-02-01

    The magnetic configuration of an inductively driven steady-state plasma bounded by a surface (or two adjacent surfaces) on which B·n = 0 is force-free: ∇xB = 2αB, where α is a constant, in time and in space. α is the ratio of the Poynting flux to the magnetic helicity flux at the boundary. It is also the ratio of the dissipative rates of the magnetic energy to the magnetic helicity in the plasma. The spatial extent of the configuration is noninfinitesimal. This global constraint is a result of the requirement that, for a steady-state plasma, the rate of change of the vector potential, ∂A/∂t, is constant in time and uniform in space

  6. Theoretical analysis of steady state operating forces in control valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavaraj Hubballi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The controlling components, such as valves are used to regulate controlled fluid power. It is not always possible to calculate valve forces accurately, and with some types of valves even the existence of certain types of forces cannot be predicted with certainty. In many cases, however, the analysis can be made fairly completely and accurately. The assumption of steady state conditions is valid for the valve alone, but transient effects in the rest of the system may be large. These effects are particularly important with regard to the instability of valves, where the system may react on the valve in such a way as to make it squeal or oscillate, sometimes with large amplitude. The origin of the steady state flow force understood from a brief qualitative explanation. The following paper will summarize much of what is known about valve forces in the spool type controlling element.

  7. Quantally fed steady-state domain distributions in stochastic inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellini, M.; Sisterna, P.D.; Deza, R.R.

    2000-01-01

    Within the framework of stochastic inflationary cosmology it has been derived steady-state distributions P c (V) of domains in comoving coordinates, under the assumption of slow-rolling and for two specific choices of the coarse-grained inflation potential V(Φ). It has been modelled the process as a Starobinsky-like equation in V-space plus a time-independent source term P ω (V) which carries (phenomenologically) quantum-mechanical information drawn from either of two known solutions of the Wheeler-De Witt equation: Hartle-Hawking's and Vilenkin's wave functions. The presence of the source term leads to the existence of nontrivial steady-state distributions P c ω (V). The relative efficiencies of both mechanisms at different scales are compared for the proposed potentials

  8. Non-equilibrium steady states in supramolecular polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorrenti, Alessandro; Leira-Iglesias, Jorge; Sato, Akihiro; Hermans, Thomas M.

    2017-06-01

    Living systems use fuel-driven supramolecular polymers such as actin to control important cell functions. Fuel molecules like ATP are used to control when and where such polymers should assemble and disassemble. The cell supplies fresh ATP to the cytosol and removes waste products to sustain steady states. Artificial fuel-driven polymers have been developed recently, but keeping them in sustained non-equilibrium steady states (NESS) has proven challenging. Here we show a supramolecular polymer that can be kept in NESS, inside a membrane reactor where ATP is added and waste removed continuously. Assembly and disassembly of our polymer is regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, respectively. Waste products lead to inhibition, causing the reaction cycle to stop. Inside the membrane reactor, however, waste can be removed leading to long-lived NESS conditions. We anticipate that our approach to obtain NESS can be applied to other stimuli-responsive materials to achieve more life-like behaviour.

  9. Extending Molecular Theory to Steady-State Diffusing Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FRINK,LAURA J. D.; SALINGER,ANDREW G.; THOMPSON,AIDAN P.

    1999-10-22

    Predicting the properties of nonequilibrium systems from molecular simulations is a growing area of interest. One important class of problems involves steady state diffusion. To study these cases, a grand canonical molecular dynamics approach has been developed by Heffelfinger and van Swol [J. Chem. Phys., 101, 5274 (1994)]. With this method, the flux of particles, the chemical potential gradients, and density gradients can all be measured in the simulation. In this paper, we present a complementary approach that couples a nonlocal density functional theory (DFT) with a transport equation describing steady-state flux of the particles. We compare transport-DFT predictions to GCMD results for a variety of ideal (color diffusion), and nonideal (uphill diffusion and convective transport) systems. In all cases excellent agreement between transport-DFT and GCMD calculations is obtained with diffusion coefficients that are invariant with respect to density and external fields.

  10. Optimal control of transitions between nonequilibrium steady states.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick R Zulkowski

    Full Text Available Biological systems fundamentally exist out of equilibrium in order to preserve organized structures and processes. Many changing cellular conditions can be represented as transitions between nonequilibrium steady states, and organisms have an interest in optimizing such transitions. Using the Hatano-Sasa Y-value, we extend a recently developed geometrical framework for determining optimal protocols so that it can be applied to systems driven from nonequilibrium steady states. We calculate and numerically verify optimal protocols for a colloidal particle dragged through solution by a translating optical trap with two controllable parameters. We offer experimental predictions, specifically that optimal protocols are significantly less costly than naive ones. Optimal protocols similar to these may ultimately point to design principles for biological energy transduction systems and guide the design of artificial molecular machines.

  11. Non-linear iterative strategy for nem refinement and extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engrand, P.R.; Maldonado, G.I.; Al-Chalabi, R.; Turinsky, P.J.

    1994-10-01

    The following work is related to the non-linear iterative strategy developed by K. Smith to solve the Nodal Expansion Method (NEM) representation of the neutron diffusion equations. We show how to improve this strategy and how to adapt it to time dependant problems. This work has been done in the NESTLE code, developed at North Carolina State University. When using Smith's strategy, one ends up with a two-node problem which corresponds to a matrix with a fixed structure and a size of 16 x 16 (for a 2 group representation). We show how to reduce this matrix into 2 equivalent systems which sizes are 4 x 4 and 8 x 8. The whole problem needs many of these 2 node problems solution. Therefore the gain in CPU time reaches 45% in the nodal part of the code. To adapt Smith's strategy to time dependent problems, the idea is to get the same structure of the 2 node problem system as in steady-state calculation. To achieve this, one has to approximate the values of the past time-step and of the previous by a second order polynomial and to treat it as a source term. We show here how to make this approximation consistent and accurate. (authors). 1 tab., 2 refs

  12. Mimicking Nonequilibrium Steady States with Time-Periodic Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-29

    8,9]: A reaction such as ATP hydrolysis ( ATP → ADPþ Pi) produces entropy in the surrounding solution, and the chemical potential difference between...kinetic proofreading is achieved through breaking detailed balance, e.g., coupling the w ↔ x transition to the hydrolysis of ATP into ADP , whose...paradigm, a system driven by fixed thermodynamic forces—such as temperature gradients or chemical potential differences — reaches a steady state in

  13. Three-dimensional stellarator equilibrium as an ohmic steady state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, W.; Monticello, D.A.; Strauss, H.; Manickam, J.

    1985-07-01

    A stable three-dimensional stellarator equilibrium can be obtained numerically by a time-dependent relaxation method using small values of dissipation. The final state is an ohmic steady state which approaches an ohmic equilibrium in the limit of small dissipation coefficients. We describe a method to speed up the relaxation process and a method to implement the B vector . del p = 0 condition. These methods are applied to obtain three-dimensional heliac equilibria using the reduced heliac equations

  14. Visual steady state in relation to age and cognitive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horwitz, Anna; Dyhr Thomsen, Mia; Wiegand, Iris

    2017-01-01

    examine the steady-state VEP power response (SSVEP-PR) in the alpha (8Hz) and gamma (36Hz) bands in 54 males (avg. age: 62.0 years) and compare these with 10 young healthy participants (avg. age 27.6 years). Furthermore, we correlate the individual alpha-to-gamma difference in relative visual-area power......, global cognition, executive function, memory, and education (p

  15. Brain penetration assessment in vivo: a reliable and simple method in anesthetized rats at steady state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Claus A; Perfetti, Paolo; Nibbio, Martina; Bellini, Marta; Angelini, Roberto; Fornasier, Massenzio

    2014-07-30

    For CNS drugs, brain disposition is of critical importance during drug discovery. In vitro methods are used early followed by more predictive in vivo methods later on in the drug discovery process. Current in vivo methods are costly, have long turnover times or do not measure brain disposition at steady state. A new method to evaluate drug brain disposition in vivo was developed in anaesthetized rats. Seven reference compounds were administered as an initial IV bolus (loading dose) followed by IV infusion for 4.5 h in order to obtain a steady state plasma concentration before brain sampling. The loading dose was estimated from a preliminary single dose IV pharmacokinetic study and was found to successfully bring plasma concentrations to steady state for compounds exhibiting either mono- or bi-compartmental pharmacokinetics. Using this method, a steady state lasting at least 2h was obtained, thus making the in vivo method robust with respect to differences in the pharmacokinetics and/or blood-to-brain equilibration rate of the compounds tested. The method produced highly reproducible results, with substantial advantages in terms of cost, turnaround time and animal welfare. The results agreed with those reported in other, more elaborate preclinical models and in humans, enabling brain disposition to be assessed in a simple, efficient and robust in vivo model for new chemical entities. Introducing the presented method in drug discovery allows brain disposition to be assessed earlier in the drug discovery pipeline and thus facilitate the selection of potent and penetrant CNS drugs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Is steady-state capitalism viable? A review of the issues and an answer in the affirmative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawn, Philip

    2011-02-01

    Most ecological economists believe that the transition to a steady-state economy is necessary to ensure ecological sustainability and to maximize a nation's economic welfare. While some observers agree with the necessity of the steady-state economy, they are nonetheless critical of the suggestion made by ecological economists-in particular, Herman Daly-that a steady-state economy is compatible with a capitalist system. First, they believe that steady-state capitalism is based on the untenable assumption that growth is an optional rather than in-built element of capitalism. Second, they argue that capitalist notions of efficient resource allocation are too restrictive to facilitate the transition to an "ecological" or steady-state economy. I believe these observers are outright wrong with their first criticism and, because they misunderstand Daly's vision of a steady-state economy, are misplaced with their second criticism. The nature of a capitalist system depends upon the institutional framework that supports and shapes it. Hence, a capitalist system can exist in a wide variety of forms. Unfortunately, many observers fail to recognize that the current "growth imperative" is the result of capitalist systems everywhere being institutionally designed to grow. They need not be designed this way to survive and thrive. Indeed, because continued growth is both existentially undesirable and ecologically unsustainable, redesigning capitalist systems through the introduction of Daly-like institutions would prove to be capitalism's savior. What's more, it would constitute humankind's best hope of achieving sustainable development. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  17. Steady states of continuous-time open quantum walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chaobin; Balu, Radhakrishnan

    2017-07-01

    Continuous-time open quantum walks (CTOQW) are introduced as the formulation of quantum dynamical semigroups of trace-preserving and completely positive linear maps (or quantum Markov semigroups) on graphs. We show that a CTOQW always converges to a steady state regardless of the initial state when a graph is connected. When the graph is both connected and regular, it is shown that the steady state is the maximally mixed state. As shown by the examples in this article, the steady states of CTOQW can be very unusual and complicated even though the underlying graphs are simple. The examples demonstrate that the structure of a graph can affect quantum coherence in CTOQW through a long-time run. Precisely, the quantum coherence persists throughout the evolution of the CTOQW when the underlying topology is certain irregular graphs (such as a path or a star as shown in the examples). In contrast, the quantum coherence will eventually vanish from the open quantum system when the underlying topology is a regular graph (such as a cycle).

  18. Optimization of steady-state beam-driven tokamak reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikkelsen, D.R.; Singer, C.E.

    1983-01-01

    Recent developments in neutral beam technology prompt us to reconsider the prospects for steady-state tokamak reactors. A mathematical reactor model is developed that includes the physics of beam-driven currents and reactor power balance, as well as reactor and beam system costs. This model is used to find the plasma temperatures that minimize the reactor cost per unit of net electrical output. The optimum plasma temperatures are nearly independent of β and are roughly twice as high as the optimum temperatures for ignited reactors. If beams of neutral deuterium atoms with near-optimum energies of 1 to 2 MeV are used to drive the current in a reactor the size of the International Tokamak Reactor, then the optimum temperatures are typically T /SUB e/ approx. = 12 to 15 keV and T /SUB i/ approx. = 17 to 21 keV for a wide range of model parameters. Net electrical output rises rapidly with increasing deuterium beam energy for E /SUB b/ less than or equal to 400 keV, but rises only slowly above E /SUB b/ about 1 MeV. We estimate that beam-driven steady-state reactors could be economically competitive with pulsed-ignition reactors if cyclic-loading problems limit the toroidal magnetic field strength of pulsed reactors to less than or equal to 85% of that allowed in steady-state reactors

  19. Steady state ventilation regimes in multiple room buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Morris; Caulfield, Colm-Cille

    2004-11-01

    The ventilation of connected chambers offers a rich variety of flow behaviors. A two-chamber model is considered in which only one of the chambers is thermally forced yet both may communicate with the external environment. If the plume source has a finite volume flux, either chamber may become blocked i.e. completely filled with contaminated fluid. Hence, a steady, naturally ventilated regime is possible only for certain non-dimensional combinations of the effective vent area and the source volume and buoyancy fluxes. Steady state conditions are derived in a manner analogous to Linden, Lane-Serff & Smeed (1990) and Woods, Caulfield & Phillips (2003). Unfortunately, these conditions cannot specify the buoyant layer depth in the unforced room for which the transient evolution toward steady state must also be considered. Results from this analysis (performed in the limiting case of a plume source with zero volume flux) suggest that at steady state, the buoyant layer depth in the unforced chamber may be either larger or smaller than that of the forced chamber.

  20. Steady-state oxygen-solubility in niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, K.; Jehn, H.

    1977-01-01

    During annealing of niobium in oxygen in certain temperature and pressure ranges steady states are established between the absorption of molecular oxygen and the evaporation of volatile oxides. The oxygen concentration in the niobium-oxygen α-solid solution is a function of oxygen pressure and temperature and has been redetermined in the ranges 10 -5 - 10 -2 Pa O 2 and 2,070 - 2,470 K. It follows differing from former results the equation csub(o) = 9.1 x 10 -6 x sub(po2) x exp (502000/RT) with csub(o) in at.-ppm, sub(po2) in Pa, T in K, R = 8.31 J x mol -1 x K -1 . The existence of steady states is limited to a temperature range from 1870 to 2470 K and to oxygen concentrations below the solubility limit given by solidus and solvus lines in the T-c diagram. In the experiments high-purity niobium wires with a specific electrical ratio rho (273 K)/rho(4.2 K) > 5,000 have been gassed under isothermal-isobaric conditions until the steady state has been reached. The oxygen concentration has been determined analytically by vacuum fusion extraction with platinum-flux technique as well as by electrical residual resistivity measurements at 4.2 K. (orig.) [de

  1. Transient and steady-state currents in epoxy resin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillermin, Christophe; Rain, Pascal; Rowe, Stephen W

    2006-01-01

    Charging and discharging currents have been measured in a diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A epoxy resin with and without silica fillers, below and above its glass transition temperature T g = 65 deg. C. Both transient and steady-state current densities have been analysed. The average applied fields ranged from 3 to 35 kV mm -1 with a sample thickness of 0.5 mm. Above T g , transient currents suggested a phenomenon of charge injection forming trapped space charges even at low fields. Steady-state currents confirmed that the behaviour was not Ohmic and suggested Schottky-type injection. Below T g , the current is not controlled by the metal-dielectric interface but by the conduction in the volume: the current is Ohmic at low fields and both transient and steady-state currents suggest a phenomenon of space-charge limited currents at high fields. The field threshold is similar in the filler-free and the filled resin. Values in the range 12-17 kV mm -1 have been measured

  2. Macroscopic and non-linear quantum games

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerts, D.; D'Hooghe, A.; Posiewnik, A.; Pykacz, J.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: We consider two models of quantum games. The first one is Marinatto and Weber's 'restricted' quantum game in which only the identity and the spin-flip operators are used. We show that this quantum game allows macroscopic mechanistic realization with the use of a version of the 'macroscopic quantum machine' described by Aerts already in 1980s. In the second model we use non-linear quantum state transformations which operate on points of spin-1/2 on the Bloch sphere and which can be used to distinguish optimally between two non-orthogonal states. We show that efficiency of these non-linear strategies out-perform any linear ones. Some hints on the possible theory of non-linear quantum games are given. (author)

  3. Non-linear classical dynamics in a superconducting circuit containing a cavity and a Josephson junction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meister, Selina; Kubala, Bjoern; Gramich, Vera; Mecklenburg, Michael; Stockburger, Juergen T.; Ankerhold, Joachim [Institute for Complex Quantum Systems, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89069 Ulm (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Motivated by recent experiments a superconducting hybrid circuit consisting of a voltage biased Josephson junction in series with a resonator is studied. For strong driving the dynamics of the system can be very complex, even in the classical regime. Studying the dissipative dynamics within a Langevin-type description, we obtain well-defined dynamical steady states. In contrast to the well-known case of anharmonic potentials, like the Duffing or parametric oscillator, in our case the non-linearity stems from the peculiar way the external drive couples to the system [2]. We investigate the resonance behaviour of this non-linear hybrid system, in particular when driving at higher- or subharmonics. The resulting down- and up-conversions can be observed both, as resonances in the I-V curve, and in the emitted microwave radiation, which yields additional spectral information.

  4. Non-linear Post Processing Image Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Shawn; Lopez, Alex; Torres, Angel

    1997-01-01

    A non-linear filter for image post processing based on the feedforward Neural Network topology is presented. This study was undertaken to investigate the usefulness of "smart" filters in image post processing. The filter has shown to be useful in recovering high frequencies, such as those lost during the JPEG compression-decompression process. The filtered images have a higher signal to noise ratio, and a higher perceived image quality. Simulation studies comparing the proposed filter with the optimum mean square non-linear filter, showing examples of the high frequency recovery, and the statistical properties of the filter are given,

  5. Modeling of the blood rheology in steady-state shear flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostolidis, Alex J.; Beris, Antony N.

    2014-01-01

    We undertake here a systematic study of the rheology of blood in steady-state shear flows. As blood is a complex fluid, the first question that we try to answer is whether, even in steady-state shear flows, we can model it as a rheologically simple fluid, i.e., we can describe its behavior through a constitutive model that involves only local kinematic quantities. Having answered that question positively, we then probe as to which non-Newtonian model best fits available shear stress vs shear-rate literature data. We show that under physiological conditions blood is typically viscoplastic, i.e., it exhibits a yield stress that acts as a minimum threshold for flow. We further show that the Casson model emerges naturally as the best approximation, at least for low and moderate shear-rates. We then develop systematically a parametric dependence of the rheological parameters entering the Casson model on key physiological quantities, such as the red blood cell volume fraction (hematocrit). For the yield stress, we base our description on its critical, percolation-originated nature. Thus, we first determine onset conditions, i.e., the critical threshold value that the hematocrit has to have in order for yield stress to appear. It is shown that this is a function of the concentration of a key red blood cell binding protein, fibrinogen. Then, we establish a parametric dependence as a function of the fibrinogen and the square of the difference of the hematocrit from its critical onset value. Similarly, we provide an expression for the Casson viscosity, in terms of the hematocrit and the temperature. A successful validation of the proposed formula is performed against additional experimental literature data. The proposed expression is anticipated to be useful not only for steady-state blood flow modeling but also as providing the starting point for transient shear, or more general flow modeling

  6. Modeling of the blood rheology in steady-state shear flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apostolidis, Alex J.; Beris, Antony N., E-mail: beris@udel.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    We undertake here a systematic study of the rheology of blood in steady-state shear flows. As blood is a complex fluid, the first question that we try to answer is whether, even in steady-state shear flows, we can model it as a rheologically simple fluid, i.e., we can describe its behavior through a constitutive model that involves only local kinematic quantities. Having answered that question positively, we then probe as to which non-Newtonian model best fits available shear stress vs shear-rate literature data. We show that under physiological conditions blood is typically viscoplastic, i.e., it exhibits a yield stress that acts as a minimum threshold for flow. We further show that the Casson model emerges naturally as the best approximation, at least for low and moderate shear-rates. We then develop systematically a parametric dependence of the rheological parameters entering the Casson model on key physiological quantities, such as the red blood cell volume fraction (hematocrit). For the yield stress, we base our description on its critical, percolation-originated nature. Thus, we first determine onset conditions, i.e., the critical threshold value that the hematocrit has to have in order for yield stress to appear. It is shown that this is a function of the concentration of a key red blood cell binding protein, fibrinogen. Then, we establish a parametric dependence as a function of the fibrinogen and the square of the difference of the hematocrit from its critical onset value. Similarly, we provide an expression for the Casson viscosity, in terms of the hematocrit and the temperature. A successful validation of the proposed formula is performed against additional experimental literature data. The proposed expression is anticipated to be useful not only for steady-state blood flow modeling but also as providing the starting point for transient shear, or more general flow modeling.

  7. Fitting Boolean networks from steady state perturbation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almudevar, Anthony; McCall, Matthew N; McMurray, Helene; Land, Hartmut

    2011-10-05

    Gene perturbation experiments are commonly used for the reconstruction of gene regulatory networks. Typical experimental methodology imposes persistent changes on the network. The resulting data must therefore be interpreted as a steady state from an altered gene regulatory network, rather than a direct observation of the original network. In this article an implicit modeling methodology is proposed in which the unperturbed network of interest is scored by first modeling the persistent perturbation, then predicting the steady state, which may then be compared to the observed data. This results in a many-to-one inverse problem, so a computational Bayesian approach is used to assess model uncertainty. The methodology is first demonstrated on a number of synthetic networks. It is shown that the Bayesian approach correctly assigns high posterior probability to the network structure and steady state behavior. Further, it is demonstrated that where uncertainty of model features is indicated, the uncertainty may be accurately resolved with further perturbation experiments. The methodology is then applied to the modeling of a gene regulatory network using perturbation data from nine genes which have been shown to respond synergistically to known oncogenic mutations. A hypothetical model emerges which conforms to reported regulatory properties of these genes. Furthermore, the Bayesian methodology is shown to be consistent in the sense that multiple randomized applications of the fitting algorithm converge to an approximately common posterior density on the space of models. Such consistency is generally not feasible for algorithms which report only single models. We conclude that fully Bayesian methods, coupled with models which accurately account for experimental constraints, are a suitable tool for the inference of gene regulatory networks, in terms of accuracy, estimation of model uncertainty, and experimental design.

  8. Mimicking Nonequilibrium Steady States with Time-Periodic Driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Raz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Under static conditions, a system satisfying detailed balance generically relaxes to an equilibrium state in which there are no currents. To generate persistent currents, either detailed balance must be broken or the system must be driven in a time-dependent manner. A stationary system that violates detailed balance evolves to a nonequilibrium steady state (NESS characterized by fixed currents. Conversely, a system that satisfies instantaneous detailed balance but is driven by the time-periodic variation of external parameters—also known as a stochastic pump (SP—reaches a periodic state with nonvanishing currents. In both cases, these currents are maintained at the cost of entropy production. Are these two paradigmatic scenarios effectively equivalent? For discrete-state systems, we establish a mapping between nonequilibrium stationary states and stochastic pumps. Given a NESS characterized by a particular set of stationary probabilities, currents, and entropy production rates, we show how to construct a SP with exactly the same (time-averaged values. The mapping works in the opposite direction as well. These results establish a proof of principle: They show that stochastic pumps are able to mimic the behavior of nonequilibrium steady states, and vice versa, within the theoretical framework of discrete-state stochastic thermodynamics. Nonequilibrium steady states and stochastic pumps are often used to model, respectively, biomolecular motors driven by chemical reactions and artificial molecular machines steered by the variation of external, macroscopic parameters. Our results loosely suggest that anything a biomolecular machine can do, an artificial molecular machine can do equally well. We illustrate this principle by showing that kinetic proofreading, a NESS mechanism that explains the low error rates in biochemical reactions, can be effectively mimicked by a constrained periodic driving.

  9. Non-linear Loudspeaker Unit Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bo Rohde; Agerkvist, Finn

    2008-01-01

    Simulations of a 6½-inch loudspeaker unit are performed and compared with a displacement measurement. The non-linear loudspeaker model is based on the major nonlinear functions and expanded with time-varying suspension behaviour and flux modulation. The results are presented with FFT plots of three...

  10. Controller Reconfiguration for non-linear systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kanev, S.K.; Verhaegen, M.H.G.

    2000-01-01

    This paper outlines an algorithm for controller reconfiguration for non-linear systems, based on a combination of a multiple model estimator and a generalized predictive controller. A set of models is constructed, each corresponding to a different operating condition of the system. The interacting

  11. Pharmaceutical applications of non-linear imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strachan, Clare J.; Windbergs, Maike; Offerhaus, Herman L.

    2011-01-01

    Non-linear optics encompasses a range of optical phenomena, including two- and three-photon fluorescence, second harmonic generation (SHG), sum frequency generation (SFG), difference frequency generation (DFG), third harmonic generation (THG), coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS), and

  12. A steady state tokamak operation by use of magnetic monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narihara, K.

    1991-12-01

    A steady state tokamak operation based on a magnetic monopole circuit is considered. Circulation of a chain of iron cubes which trap magnetic monopoles generates the needed loop voltage. The monopole circuit is enclosed by a series of solenoid coils in which magnetic field is feedback controlled so that the force on the circuit balance against the mechanical friction. The driving power is supplied through the current sources of poloidal, ohmic and solenoid coils. The current drive efficiency is same as that of the ohmic current drive. (author)

  13. On the minimum circulating power of steady state tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.; Fukuyama, A.; Yagi, M.

    1995-07-01

    Circulating power for the sustenance and profile control of the steady state tokamak plasmas is discussed. The simultaneous fulfillment of the MHD stability at high beta value, the improved confinement and the stationary equilibrium requires the rotation drive as well as the current drive. In addition to the current drive efficiency, the efficiency for the rotation drive is investigated. The direct rotation drive by the external torque, such as the case of beam injection, is not efficient enough. The mechanism and the magnitude of the spontaneous plasma rotation are studied. (author).

  14. Steady-State-Preserving Simulation of Genetic Regulatory Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruqiang Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel family of exponential Runge-Kutta (expRK methods are designed incorporating the stable steady-state structure of genetic regulatory systems. A natural and convenient approach to constructing new expRK methods on the base of traditional RK methods is provided. In the numerical integration of the one-gene, two-gene, and p53-mdm2 regulatory systems, the new expRK methods are shown to be more accurate than their prototype RK methods. Moreover, for nonstiff genetic regulatory systems, the expRK methods are more efficient than some traditional exponential RK integrators in the scientific literature.

  15. Non-steady-state heat transfer of finned surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Y.; Kameoka, T.

    1974-01-01

    For many purposes, the finned surface is being used to increase heat transfer. Heat exchangers and fuel elements of gas cooled nuclear reactors require the use of the finned surface for high flux heat transfer. The problem is analytically treated by deriving a non-steady-state equation of radiative and convective heat transfer of annular and radial fins in case of sudden change of the fin-root temperature or heat flux. The numerical solution of temperature distribution along the fin is obtained for several typical transient cases. (U.S.)

  16. Steady State Evoked Responses as a Measure of Tracking Difficulty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-30

    8217) STEADY STATEr OKD !~PNE SAMAUE0;1 Jun 0.-30 Sep 79\\ TRACKIN& DFCUTY: HOR~a) a CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER(&) 7jU1HO . F960-79-C-156//j t- 3.PRFRIG...I.CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS,,.AARAA . Air Force Office of Scientific Research -(L 13. NUMBER OF PAGES Boiling AFB DC 20332 4 14...for future research were discussed. l AA SECURITY CLASIFI ATION OF TMIS PAGE(Wha, Data tateeE UM -R-X- 3 0-02 10 STEADY STATE EVOKED RESPONSES AS A

  17. Steady-state current drive by lower hybrid waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyanskaya, N.V.; Dnestrovskii, Y.N.; Kostomarov, D.P.; Smirnov, A.P.

    1986-01-01

    Steady-state current drive in a plasma by lower-hybrid waves with a square-wave spectrum is analyzed in the linear approximation. A linearized two-dimensional kinetic equation in velocity space for the electron distribution function is reduced to a one-dimensional expansion in Legendre polynomials. A numerical solution is found for the complete equation, and an analytic solution is found for the asymptotic equation. The results can be used to determine the effect of the spectral width of the excited waves on the efficiency of the current drive. The analytic solution agrees well with the numerical solution

  18. Steady-state bifurcations of the three-dimensional Kolmogorov problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Min Chen

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the spatially periodic incompressible fluid motion in $mathbb R^3$ excited by the external force $k^2(sin kz, 0,0$ with $kgeq 2$ an integer. This driving force gives rise to the existence of the unidirectional basic steady flow $u_0=(sin kz,0, 0$ for any Reynolds number. It is shown in Theorem 1.1 that there exist a number of critical Reynolds numbers such that $u_0$ bifurcates into either 4 or 8 or 16 different steady states, when the Reynolds number increases across each of such numbers.

  19. MARS input data for steady-state calculation of ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyun Sik; Euh, D. J.; Choi, K. Y.; Kwon, T. S.; Jeong, J. J.; Baek, W. P.

    2004-12-01

    An integral effect test loop for Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs), the ATLAS (Advanced Thermal-hydraulic Test Loop for Accident Simulation), is under construction by Thermal-Hydraulics Safety Research Division in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). This report includes calculation sheets of the input for the best-estimate system analysis code, the MARS code, based on the ongoing design features of ATLAS. The ATLAS facility has been designed to have the length scale of 1/2 and area scale of 1/144 compared with the reference plant, APR1400. The contents of this report are divided into three parts: (1) core and reactor vessel, (2) steam generator and steam line, and (3) primary piping, pressurizer and reactor coolant pump. The steady-state analysis for the ATLAS facility will be performed based on these calculation sheets, and its results will be applied to the detailed design of ATLAS. Additionally, the calculation results will contribute to getting optimum test conditions and preliminary operational test conditions for the steady-state and transient experiments

  20. Plasma control issues for an advanced steady state tokamak reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper deals with specific control issues related to the advanced tokamak scenarios in which rather accurate tailoring of the current density profile is a requirement in connection with the steady state operation of a reactor in a high confinement optimized shear mode. It is found that adequate current profile control can be performed if real-time magnetic flux reconstruction is available through a set of dedicated diagnostics and computers, with sufficient accuracy to deduce the radial profile of the safety factor and of the internal plasma loop voltage. It is also shown that the safety factor can be precisely controlled in the outer half of the plasma through the surface loop voltage and the off-axis current drive power, but that a compromise must be made between the accuracy of the core safety factor control and the total duration of the current and fuel density ramp-up phases, so that the demonstration of the steady state reactor potential of the optimized/reversed shear concept in the Next Step device will demand pulse lengths of the order of one thousand seconds (or more for an ITER-size machine). (author)

  1. Dissipative dark matter halos: The steady state solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foot, R.

    2018-02-01

    Dissipative dark matter, where dark matter particle properties closely resemble familiar baryonic matter, is considered. Mirror dark matter, which arises from an isomorphic hidden sector, is a specific and theoretically constrained scenario. Other possibilities include models with more generic hidden sectors that contain massless dark photons [unbroken U (1 ) gauge interactions]. Such dark matter not only features dissipative cooling processes but also is assumed to have nontrivial heating sourced by ordinary supernovae (facilitated by the kinetic mixing interaction). The dynamics of dissipative dark matter halos around rotationally supported galaxies, influenced by heating as well as cooling processes, can be modeled by fluid equations. For a sufficiently isolated galaxy with a stable star formation rate, the dissipative dark matter halos are expected to evolve to a steady state configuration which is in hydrostatic equilibrium and where heating and cooling rates locally balance. Here, we take into account the major cooling and heating processes, and numerically solve for the steady state solution under the assumptions of spherical symmetry, negligible dark magnetic fields, and that supernova sourced energy is transported to the halo via dark radiation. For the parameters considered, and assumptions made, we were unable to find a physically realistic solution for the constrained case of mirror dark matter halos. Halo cooling generally exceeds heating at realistic halo mass densities. This problem can be rectified in more generic dissipative dark matter models, and we discuss a specific example in some detail.

  2. Concept study of the Steady State Tokamak Reactor (SSTR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    The Steady State Tokamak Reactor (SSTR) concept has been proposed as a realistic fusion power reactor to be built in the near future. An overall concept of SSTR is introduced which is based on a small extension of the present day physics and technologies. The major feature of SSTR is the maximum utilization of a bootstrap current in order to reduce the power required for the steady state operation. This requirement leads to the choice of moderate current (12 MA), and high βp (2.0) for the device, which are achieved by selecting high aspect ratio (A=4) and high toroidal magnetic field (16.5 T). A negative-ion-based neutral beam injection system is used both for heating and central current drive. Notable engineering features of SSTR are: the use of a uniform vacuum vessel and periodical replacements of the first wall and blanket layers and significant reduction of the electromagnetic force with the use of functionally gradient material. It is shown that a tokamak machine comparable to ITER in size can become a power reactor capable of generating about 1 GW of electricity with a plant efficiency of ∼30%. (author)

  3. MHD stability regimes for steady state and pulsed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardin, S.C.; Kessel, C.E.; Pomphrey, N.

    1994-02-01

    A tokamak reactor will operate at the maximum value of β≡2μ 0 /B 2 that is compatible with MHD stability. This value depends upon the plasma current and pressure profiles, the plasma shape and aspect ratio, and the location of nearby conducting structures. In addition, a steady state reactor will minimize its external current drive requirements and thus achieve its maximum economic benefit with a bootstrap fraction near one, I bs /I p ∼ 1, which constrains the product of the inverse aspect ratio and the plasma poloidal beta to be near unity, ε β p ∼ 1. An inductively driven pulsed reactor has different constraints set by the steady-state Ohm's law which relates the plasma temperature and density profiles to the parallel current density. We present the results obtained during the ARIES I, II/IV, and III and the PULSAR reactor studies where these quantities were optimized subject to different design philosophies. The ARIES-II/IV and ARIES-III designs are both in the second stability regime, but differ in requirements on the form of the profiles at the plasma edge, and in the location of the conducting wall. The relation between these, as well as new attractive MHD regimes not utilized in the ARIES or PULSAR studies is also discussed

  4. Steady state magnetic field configurations for the earth's magnetotail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hau, L.N.; Wolf, R.A.; Voigt, G.H.; Wu, C.C.

    1989-01-01

    The authors present a two-dimensional, force-balanced magnetic field model in which flux tubes have constant pVγ throughout an extended region of the nightside plasma sheet, between approximately 36 R E geocentric distance and the region of the inner edge of the plasma sheet. They have thus demonstrated the theoretical existence of a steady state magnetic field configuration that is force-balanced and also consistent with slow, lossless, adiabatic, earthward convection within the limit of the ideal MHD (isotropic pressure, perfect conductivity). The numerical solution was constructed for a two-dimensional magnetosphere with a rectangular magnetopause and nonflaring tail. The primary characteristics of the steady state convection solution are (1) a pressure maximum just tailward of the inner edge of the plasma sheet and (2) a deep, broad minimum in equatorial magnetic field strength B ze , also just tailward of the inner edge. The results are consistent with Erickson's (1985) convection time sequences, which exhibited analogous pressure peaks and B ze minima. Observations do not indicate the existence of a B ze minimum, on the average. They suggest that the configurations with such deep minima in B ze may be tearing-mode unstable, thus leading to substorm onset in the inner plasma sheet

  5. True constructive interference in the steady state (trueCISS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Tom; Nguyen, Damien; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Krueger, Gunnar; Kober, Tobias; Bieri, Oliver

    2018-04-01

    To introduce a novel time-efficient method, termed true constructive interference in the steady state (trueCISS), that not only solves the problem of banding artifacts for balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) but also provides its genuine, that is, true, on-resonant signal. After a compressed sensing reconstruction from a set of highly undersampled phase-cycled bSSFP scans, the local off-resonance, relaxation time ratio, and equilibrium magnetization are voxel-wise estimated using a dictionary-based fitting routine. Subsequently, on-resonant bSSFP images are generated using the previously estimated parameters. Due to the high undersampling factors used, the acquisition time is not prolonged with respect to a standard CISS acquisition. From a set of 16 phase-cycled SSFP scans in combination with an eightfold undersampling, both phantom and in vivo whole-brain experiments demonstrate that banding successfully can be removed. Additionally, trueCISS allows the derivation of synthetic bSSFP images with arbitrary flip angles, which enables image contrasts that may not be possible to acquire in practice due to safety constraints. TrueCISS offers banding-free bSSFP images with on-resonant signal intensity and without requiring additional acquisition time compared to conventional methods. Magn Reson Med 79:1901-1910, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  6. Radial fast interrupted steady-state (FISS) magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koktzoglou, Ioannis; Edelman, Robert R

    2018-04-01

    To report a highly interrupted radial variant of balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) imaging, termed fast interrupted steady-state (FISS), for decreasing flow artifact as well as fat signal conspicuity with respect to bSSFP, and saturation effects vis-à-vis fast low-angle shot (FLASH) imaging. Numerical simulations, phantom studies, and human studies were conducted to examine the imaging contrast, off-resonance behavior, and flow properties of FISS. Human studies applied FISS for cine cardiac imaging and ungated nonenhanced MR angiography (MRA) of the legs, neck, and brain. Comparisons were made with bSSFP and FLASH imaging. Simulations revealed that FISS retains the high signal levels of bSSFP for stationary on-resonant spins, while reducing undesirable signal heterogeneity from flowing spins. Phantom studies agreed with the simulations, and showed that FISS reduces fat signal and flow artifact with respect to bSSFP imaging. FISS imaging in human subjects agreed with the simulations and phantom studies, and showed reduced saturation artifact compared with FLASH imaging. FISS imaging reduces flow artifact and fat signal conspicuity with respect to bSSFP imaging, and ameliorates arterial signal saturation observed with FLASH imaging. Potential clinical applications include fat-suppressed cine imaging and ungated nonenhanced MRA. Magn Reson Med 79:2077-2086, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  7. Steady-State ALPS for Real-Valued Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornby, Gregory S.

    2009-01-01

    The two objectives of this paper are to describe a steady-state version of the Age-Layered Population Structure (ALPS) Evolutionary Algorithm (EA) and to compare it against other GAs on real-valued problems. Motivation for this work comes from our previous success in demonstrating that a generational version of ALPS greatly improves search performance on a Genetic Programming problem. In making steady-state ALPS some modifications were made to the method for calculating age and the method for moving individuals up layers. To demonstrate that ALPS works well on real-valued problems we compare it against CMA-ES and Differential Evolution (DE) on five challenging, real-valued functions and on one real-world problem. While CMA-ES and DE outperform ALPS on the two unimodal test functions, ALPS is much better on the three multimodal test problems and on the real-world problem. Further examination shows that, unlike the other GAs, ALPS maintains a genotypically diverse population throughout the entire search process. These findings strongly suggest that the ALPS paradigm is better able to avoid premature convergence then the other GAs.

  8. Transient and steady-state selection in the striatal microcircuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam eTomkins

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the basal ganglia have been widely studied and implicated in signal processing and action selection, little information is known about the active role the striatal microcircuit plays in action selection in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops. To address this knowledge gap we use a large scale three dimensional spiking model of the striatum, combined with a rate coded model of the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loop, to asses the computational role the striatum plays in action selection. We identify a robust transient phenomena generated by the striatal microcircuit, which temporarily enhances the difference between two competing cortical inputs. We show that this transient is sufficient to modulate decision making in the basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical circuit. We also find that the transient selection originates from a novel adaptation effect in single striatal projection neurons, which is amenable to experimental testing. Finally, we compared transient selection with models implementing classical steady-state selection. We challenged both forms of model to account for recent reports of paradoxically enhanced response selection in Huntington's Disease patients. We found that steady-state selection was uniformly impaired under all simulated Huntington's conditions, but transient selection was enhanced given a sufficient Huntington's-like increase in NMDA receptor sensitivity. Thus our models provide an intriguing hypothesis for the mechanisms underlying the paradoxical cognitive improvements in manifest Huntington's patients.

  9. Non-linear wave equations:Mathematical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    An account of certain well-established mathematical methods, which prove useful to deal with non-linear partial differential equations is presented. Within the strict framework of Functional Analysis, it describes Semigroup Techniques in Banach Spaces as well as variational approaches towards critical points. Detailed proofs are given of the existence of local and global solutions of the Cauchy problem and of the stability of stationary solutions. The formal approach based upon invariance under Lie transformations deserves attention due to its wide range of applicability, even if the explicit solutions thus obtained do not allow for a deep analysis of the equations. A compre ensive introduction to the inverse scattering approach and to the solution concept for certain non-linear equations of physical interest are also presented. A detailed discussion is made about certain convergence and stability problems which arise in importance need not be emphasized. (author) [es

  10. 40 CFR 86.1362-2010 - Steady-state testing with a ramped-modal cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Steady-state testing with a ramped... Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1362-2010 Steady-state testing with a ramped-modal cycle. This section describes how to test engines under steady-state conditions. For model years through 2009, manufacturers may...

  11. 40 CFR 86.1362-2007 - Steady-state testing with a ramped-modal cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Steady-state testing with a ramped... Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1362-2007 Steady-state testing with a ramped-modal cycle. This section describes how to test engines under steady-state conditions. Manufacturers may alternatively use the...

  12. 40 CFR 85.2225 - Steady state test exhaust analysis system-EPA 91.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Steady state test exhaust analysis... Performance Warranty Short Tests § 85.2225 Steady state test exhaust analysis system—EPA 91. (a) Special... for steady state short tests consists, at a minimum, of a tailpipe probe; a flexible sample line; a...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1039 - Steady-State Duty Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Steady-State Duty Cycles II Appendix... Appendix II to Part 1039—Steady-State Duty Cycles (a) The following duty cycles apply for constant-speed...(seconds) Engine speed Torque(percent) 1, 2 1a Steady-state 53 Engine governed 100. 1b Transition 20 Engine...

  14. 40 CFR 86.1363-2007 - Steady-state testing with a discrete-mode cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Steady-state testing with a discrete... Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1363-2007 Steady-state testing with a discrete-mode cycle. This section describes an alternate procedure for steady-state testing that manufacturers may use through the 2009 model...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1042 - Steady-State Duty Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Steady-State Duty Cycles II Appendix..., App. II Appendix II to Part 1042—Steady-State Duty Cycles (a) The following duty cycles apply as... Time in mode(seconds) Engine speed 1, 3 Power (percent) 2, 3 1aSteady-state 229 Maximum test speed 100...

  16. 40 CFR 85.2230 - Steady state test dynamometer-EPA 91.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Steady state test dynamometer-EPA 91... Warranty Short Tests § 85.2230 Steady state test dynamometer—EPA 91. (a) Special calendar and model year... or engines. (b) The chassis dynamometer for steady state short tests must provide the capabilities...

  17. Non linear dynamics of magnetic islands in fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshcheriakov, D.

    2012-10-01

    In this thesis we investigate the issues of linear stability of the tearing modes in a presence of both curvature and diamagnetic rotation using the non linear full-MHD toroidal code XTOR-2F, which includes anisotropic heat transport, diamagnetic and geometrical effects. This analysis is applied to one of the fully non-inductive discharges on Tore-Supra. Such experiments are crucially important to demonstrate reactor scale steady state operation for the tokamak. The possibility of a full linear stabilization of the tearing modes by diamagnetic rotation in the presence of toroidal curvature is shown. The stabilization threshold does not follow the classical scaling law connecting the growth rate of islands to plasma conductivity, measured here by the Lundquist number (S). However, for numerical reasons, the conductivity used in the simulations is lower than that of the experiment, which raises the question of extrapolation of the obtained results to the experimental situation. The extrapolation of the obtained results requires simulations with several different conductivities. It predicts that the mode at q = 2 surface to be stable at value of diamagnetic frequency consistent with the experimental one at S = S(exp). In the linearly stable domain, the mode is metastable: saturation level depends on the seed island size. In the non linear regime, the saturation of n=1, m=2 mode is found to be strongly reduced by diamagnetic rotation and by Lundquist number. However, the extrapolation to the experimental situation shows that if the island is destabilized, it will saturate at a detectable level for the Tore Supra diagnostic. For a large plasma aspect ratio (i.e. weak curvature effects), the reduction of the saturated width by diamagnetic frequency takes the form of a jump reminiscent of multiple states evidenced in slab geometry case. The question of extrapolation of the obtained results towards future generation of fusion devices is also addressed. In particular, for

  18. Non-linear soil-structure interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    The basic equation of motion to analyse the interaction of a non-linear structure and an irregular soil with the linear unbounded soil is formulated in the time domain. The contribution of the unbounded soil involves convolution integrals of the dynamic-stiffness coefficients in the time domain and the corresponding motions. As another possibility, a flexibility formulation fot the contribution of the unbounded soil using the dynamic-flexibility coefficients in the time domain, together with the direct-stiffness method for the structure and the irregular soil can be applied. As an example of a non-linear soil-structure-interaction analysis, the partial uplift of the basemat of a structure is examined. (Author) [pt

  19. Non-linear Loudspeaker Unit Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bo Rohde; Agerkvist, Finn T.

    2008-01-01

    Simulations of a 6½-inch loudspeaker unit are performed and compared with a displacement measurement. The non-linear loudspeaker model is based on the major nonlinear functions and expanded with time-varying suspension behaviour and flux modulation. The results are presented with FFT plots of thr...... frequencies and different displacement levels. The model errors are discussed and analysed including a test with loudspeaker unit where the diaphragm is removed....

  20. Vulcan: A steady-state tokamak for reactor-relevant plasma–material interaction science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olynyk, G.M.; Hartwig, Z.S.; Whyte, D.G.; Barnard, H.S.; Bonoli, P.T.; Bromberg, L.; Garrett, M.L.; Haakonsen, C.B.; Mumgaard, R.T.; Podpaly, Y.A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new scaling for obtaining reactor similarity in the divertor of scaled tokamaks. ► Conceptual design for a tokamak (“Vulcan”) to implement this new scaling. ► Demountable superconducting coils and compact neutron shielding. ► Helium-cooled high-temperature vacuum vessel and first wall. ► High-field-side lower hybrid current drive for non-inductive operation. - Abstract: An economically viable magnetic-confinement fusion reactor will require steady-state operation and high areal power density for sufficient energy output, and elevated wall/blanket temperatures for efficient energy conversion. These three requirements frame, and couple to, the challenge of plasma–material interaction (PMI) for fusion energy sciences. Present and planned tokamaks are not designed to simultaneously meet these criteria. A new and expanded set of dimensionless figures of merit for PMI have been developed. The key feature of the scaling is that the power flux across the last closed flux surface P/S ≃ 1 MW m −2 is to be held constant, while scaling the core volume-averaged density weakly with major radius, n ∼ R −2/7 . While complete similarity is not possible, this new “P/S” or “PMI” scaling provides similarity for the most critical reactor PMI issues, compatible with sufficient current drive efficiency for non-inductive steady-state core scenarios. A conceptual design is developed for Vulcan, a compact steady-state deuterium main-ion tokamak which implements the P/S scaling rules. A zero-dimensional core analysis is used to determine R = 1.2 m, with a conventional reactor aspect ratio R/a = 4.0, as the minimum feasible size for Vulcan. Scoping studies of innovative fusion technologies to support the Vulcan PMI mission were carried out for three critical areas: a high-temperature, helium-cooled vacuum vessel and divertor design; a demountable superconducting toroidal field magnet system; and a steady-state lower hybrid current drive system

  1. Useful tools for non-linear systems: Several non-linear integral inequalities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Agahi, H.; Mohammadpour, A.; Mesiar, Radko; Vaezpour, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 1 (2013), s. 73-80 ISSN 0950-7051 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP402/11/0378 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Monotone measure * Comonotone functions * Integral inequalities * Universal integral Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 3.058, year: 2013 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/E/mesiar-useful tools for non-linear systems several non-linear integral inequalities.pdf

  2. Active ideal sedimentation: exact two-dimensional steady states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, Sophie; Schmidt, Matthias

    2018-02-28

    We consider an ideal gas of active Brownian particles that undergo self-propelled motion and both translational and rotational diffusion under the influence of gravity. We solve analytically the corresponding Smoluchowski equation in two space dimensions for steady states. The resulting one-body density is given as a series, where each term is a product of an orientation-dependent Mathieu function and a height-dependent exponential. A lower hard wall is implemented as a no-flux boundary condition. Numerical evaluation of the suitably truncated analytical solution shows the formation of two different spatial regimes upon increasing Peclet number. These regimes differ in their mean particle orientation and in their variation of the orientation-averaged density with height.

  3. Analysis of steady-state ductile crack growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian

    1999-01-01

    The fracture strength under quasi-static steady-state crack growth in an elastic-plastic material joined by a laser weld is analyzed. Laser welding gives high mismatch between the yield stress within the weld and the yield stress in the base material. This is due to the fast termic cycle, which...... the finite element mesh remains fixed relative to the tip of the growing crack. Fracture is modelled using two different local crack growth criteria. One is a crack opening displacement criterion, while the other is a model in which a cohesive zone is imposed in front of the crack tip along the fracture zone....... Both models predict that in general a thinner laser weld gives higher interface strength. Furthermore, both fracture criteria show, that the preferred path of the crack is close outside the weld material; a phenomenon also observed in experiments....

  4. Steady State Thermal Analyses of SCEPTOR X-57 Wingtip Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnulo, Sydney L.; Chin, Jeffrey C.; Smith, Andrew D.; Dubois, Arthur

    2017-01-01

    Electric aircraft concepts enable advanced propulsion airframe integration approaches that promise increased efficiency as well as reduced emissions and noise. NASA's fully electric Maxwell X-57, developed under the SCEPTOR program, features distributed propulsion across a high aspect ratio wing. There are 14 propulsors in all: 12 high lift motor that are only active during take off and climb, and 2 larger motors positioned on the wingtips that operate over the entire mission. The power electronics involved in the wingtip propulsion are temperature sensitive and therefore require thermal management. This work focuses on the high and low fidelity heat transfer analysis methods performed to ensure that the wingtip motor inverters do not reach their temperature limits. It also explores different geometry configurations involved in the X-57 development and any thermal concerns. All analyses presented are performed at steady state under stressful operating conditions, therefore predicting temperatures which are considered the worst-case scenario to remain conservative.

  5. Nuclide Importance and the Steady-State Burnup Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimoto, Hiroshi; Nemoto, Atsushi

    2000-01-01

    Conventional methods for evaluating some characteristic values of nuclides relating to burnup in a given neutron spectrum are reviewed in a mathematically systematic way, and a new method based on the importance theory is proposed. In this method, these characteristic values of a nuclide are equivalent to the importances of the nuclide. By solving the equation adjoint to the steady-state burnup equation with a properly chosen source term, the importances for all nuclides are obtained simultaneously.The fission number importance, net neutron importance, fission neutron importance, and absorbed neutron importance are evaluated and discussed. The net neutron importance is a measure directly estimating neutron economy, and it can be evaluated simply by calculating the fission neutron importance minus the absorbed neutron importance, where only the absorbed neutron importance depends on the fission product. The fission neutron importance and absorbed neutron importance are analyzed separately, and detailed discussions of the fission product effects are given for the absorbed neutron importance

  6. Fast Prediction Method for Steady-State Heat Convection

    KAUST Repository

    Wáng, Yì

    2012-03-14

    A reduced model by proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) and Galerkin projection methods for steady-state heat convection is established on a nonuniform grid. It was verified by thousands of examples that the results are in good agreement with the results obtained from the finite volume method. This model can also predict the cases where model parameters far exceed the sample scope. Moreover, the calculation time needed by the model is much shorter than that needed for the finite volume method. Thus, the nonuniform POD-Galerkin projection method exhibits high accuracy, good suitability, and fast computation. It has universal significance for accurate and fast prediction. Also, the methodology can be applied to more complex modeling in chemical engineering and technology, such as reaction and turbulence. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Stationary Distribution and Thermodynamic Relation in Nonequilibrium Steady States

    KAUST Repository

    Komatsu, Teruhisa S.

    2010-01-01

    We describe our recent attempts toward statistical mechanics and thermodynamics for nonequilibrium steady states (NESS) realized, e.g., in a heat conducting system. Our first result is a simple expression of the probability distribution (of microscopic states) of a NESS. Our second result is a natural extension of the thermodynamic Clausius relation and a definition of an accompanying entropy in NESS. This entropy coincides with the normalization constant appearing in the above mentioned microscopic expression of NESS, and has an expression similar to the Shannon entropy (with a further symmetrization). The NESS entropy proposed here is a clearly defined measurable quantity even in a system with a large degrees of freedom. We numerically measure the NESS entropy in hardsphere fluid systems with a heat current, by observing energy exchange between the system and the heat baths when the temperatures of the baths are changed according to specified protocols.

  8. An Adsorption Equilibria Model for Steady State Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Ismail, Azhar Bin

    2016-02-29

    The investigation of adsorption isotherms is a prime factor in the ongoing development of adsorption cycles for a spectrum of advanced, thermally-driven engineering applications, including refrigeration, natural gas storage, and desalination processes. In this work, a novel semi-empirical mathematical model has been derived that significantly enhances the prediction of the steady state uptake in adsorbent surfaces. This model, a combination of classical Langmuir and a novel modern adsorption isotherm equation, allows for a higher degree of regression of both energetically homogenous and heterogeneous adsorbent surfaces compared to several isolated classical and modern isotherm models, and has the ability to regress isotherms for all six types under the IUPAC classification. Using a unified thermodynamic framework, a single asymmetrical energy distribution function (EDF) has also been proposed that directly relates the mathematical model to the adsorption isotherm types. This fits well with the statistical rate theory approach and offers mechanistic insights into adsorption isotherms.

  9. Locating CVBEM collocation points for steady state heat transfer problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hromadka, T.V.

    1985-01-01

    The Complex Variable Boundary Element Method or CVBEM provides a highly accurate means of developing numerical solutions to steady state two-dimensional heat transfer problems. The numerical approach exactly solves the Laplace equation and satisfies the boundary conditions at specified points on the boundary by means of collocation. The accuracy of the approximation depends upon the nodal point distribution specified by the numerical analyst. In order to develop subsequent, refined approximation functions, four techniques for selecting additional collocation points are presented. The techniques are compared as to the governing theory, representation of the error of approximation on the problem boundary, the computational costs, and the ease of use by the numerical analyst. ?? 1985.

  10. Steady State Temperature Profile in a Cylinder Heated by Microwaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, H. W.; Barmatz, M.; Wagner, P.

    1995-01-01

    A new theory has been developed to calculate the steady state temperature profile in a cylindrical sample positioned along the entire axis of a cylindrical microwave cavity. Temperature profiles where computed for- alumina rods of various radii contained in a cavity excite in one of the TM(sub OnO) modes with n = 1, 2 or 3. Calculations where also performed with a concentric outer cylindrical tube surrounding the rod to investigate hybrid heating. The parameters studies of the sample center and surface temperature where performed as a function of the total power transmitted into the cavity. Also, the total hemispherical emissivity was varied at boundaries of the rod, surrounding tube, and cavity walls. The result are discussed in the context of controlling the average rod temperature and the temperature distribution in the rod during microwave processing.

  11. NASA Lewis Steady-State Heat Pipe Code Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Ye; Tower, Leonard K.

    2013-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has developed the LERCHP code. The PC-based LERCHP code can be used to predict the steady-state performance of heat pipes, including the determination of operating temperature and operating limits which might be encountered under specified conditions. The code contains a vapor flow algorithm which incorporates vapor compressibility and axially varying heat input. For the liquid flow in the wick, Darcy s formula is employed. Thermal boundary conditions and geometric structures can be defined through an interactive input interface. A variety of fluid and material options as well as user defined options can be chosen for the working fluid, wick, and pipe materials. This report documents the current effort at GRC to update the LERCHP code for operating in a Microsoft Windows (Microsoft Corporation) environment. A detailed analysis of the model is presented. The programming architecture for the numerical calculations is explained and flowcharts of the key subroutines are given

  12. Period doubling in period-one steady states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Reuben R. W.; Xing, Bo; Carlo, Gabriel G.; Poletti, Dario

    2018-02-01

    Nonlinear classical dissipative systems present a rich phenomenology in their "route to chaos," including period doubling, i.e., the system evolves with a period which is twice that of the driving. However, typically the attractor of a periodically driven quantum open system evolves with a period which exactly matches that of the driving. Here, we analyze a periodically driven many-body open quantum system whose classical correspondent presents period doubling. We show that by studying the dynamical correlations, it is possible to show the occurrence of period doubling in the quantum (period-one) steady state. We also discuss that such systems are natural candidates for clean and intrinsically robust Floquet time crystals.

  13. Quasi-steady-state regime in transient stimulated Raman scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackerhalt, J.R.; Kurnit, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    A method is developed for studying transient stimulated Raman scattering in the quasi-steady-state regime when the input pump field consists of a repetitive periodic sequence of pulses. The method is most attractive for cases where the single-pulse duration is substantially shorter than the repetition time scale, making a straightforward numerical simulation very costly, time consuming, and potentially intractable. The method is applicable to any periodic electric field envelope including that generated by a finite number of longitudinal modes with arbitrary phase. A second numerically efficient method is developed for treating the buildup of the entire pulse train. In addition, an analytic solution is found in the undepleted-pump regime which illuminates the underlying physics of the process

  14. Modular first wall concept for steady state operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotzlowski, H.E.

    1981-01-01

    On the basis of the limiter design proposed for ZEPHYR a first wall concept has been developed which can also be used as a large area limiter, heat shield or beam pump. Its specific feature is the thermal contact of the wall armour elements with the water-cooled base plates. The combination of radiation and contact cooling, compared with radiation only, helps to lower the steady state temperatures of the first wall by approximately 50 % and to reduce the cooling-time between discharges. Particulary the lower wall temperature give a larger margin for additional heating of the wall by plasma disruption or neutral beams until excessive erosion or damage of the armour takes place

  15. Steady-State Density Functional Theory for Finite Bias Conductances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanucci, G; Kurth, S

    2015-12-09

    In the framework of density functional theory, a formalism to describe electronic transport in the steady state is proposed which uses the density on the junction and the steady current as basic variables. We prove that, in a finite window around zero bias, there is a one-to-one map between the basic variables and both local potential on as well as bias across the junction. The resulting Kohn-Sham system features two exchange-correlation (xc) potentials, a local xc potential, and an xc contribution to the bias. For weakly coupled junctions the xc potentials exhibit steps in the density-current plane which are shown to be crucial to describe the Coulomb blockade diamonds. At small currents these steps emerge as the equilibrium xc discontinuity bifurcates. The formalism is applied to a model benzene junction, finding perfect agreement with the orthodox theory of Coulomb blockade.

  16. Plasticity, Fracture and Friction in Steady-State Plate Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Wierzbicki, Tomasz

    1997-01-01

    A closed form solution to the problem of steady-state wedge cutting through a ductile metal plate is presented. The considered problem is an idealization of a ship bottom raking process, i.e. a continuous cutting damage of a ship bottom by a hard knife-like rock in a grounding event. A new...... extension of the presented plate model to include more structural members as for example the stiffeners attached to a ship bottom plating. The fracture process is discussed and the model is formulated partly on the basis of the material fracture toughness. The effect of friction and the reaction force...... perpendicular to the direction of motion is derived theoretically in a consistent manner. The perpendicular reaction force is of paramount importance for prediction the structural damage of a ship hull because it governs the vertical ship motion and rock penetration which is strongly coupled with the horizontal...

  17. Common-User Land Transportation Management in the Layered, Non-Linear, Non-Contiguous Battlefield

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Strobel, Lawrence E

    2005-01-01

    .... Current multinational counterinsurgency warfare occurs in a layered, non-linear, non-contiguous battle space, making management of ground transportation assets even more critical than in conventional warfare...

  18. Non-linear control algorithms for an unmanned surface vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, SK; Sutton, R; Motwani, A; Annamalai, A

    2014-01-01

    Although intrinsically marine craft are known to exhibit non-linear dynamic characteristics, modern marine autopilot system designs continue to be developed based on both linear and non-linear control approaches. This article evaluates two novel non-linear autopilot designs based on non-linear local control network and non-linear model predictive control approaches to establish their effectiveness in terms of control activity expenditure, power consumption and mission duration length under si...

  19. Non-linear dynamics in Parkinsonism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier eDarbin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 30 years, the functions (and dysfunctions of the sensory-motor circuitry have been mostly conceptualized using linear modelizations which have resulted in two main models: the "rate hypothesis" and the "oscillatory hypothesis". In these two models, the basal ganglia data stream is envisaged as a random temporal combination of independent simple patterns issued from its probability distribution of interval interspikes or its spectrum of frequencies respectively.More recently, non-linear analyses have been introduced in the modelization of motor circuitry activities, and they have provided evidences that complex temporal organizations exist in basal ganglia neuronal activities. Regarding movement disorders, these complex temporal organizations in the basal ganglia data stream differ between conditions (i.e. parkinsonism, dyskinesia, healthy control and are responsive to treatments (i.e. L-DOPA,DBS. A body of evidence has reported that basal ganglia neuronal entropy (a marker for complexity/irregularity in time series is higher in hypokinetic state. In line with these findings, an entropy-based model has been recently formulated to introduce basal ganglia entropy as a marker for the alteration of motor processing and a factor of motor inhibition. Importantly, non-linear features have also been identified as a marker of condition and/or treatment effects in brain global signals (EEG, muscular activities (EMG or kinetic of motor symptoms (tremor, gait of patients with movement disorders. It is therefore warranted that the non-linear dynamics of motor circuitry will contribute to a better understanding of the neuronal dysfunctions underlying the spectrum of parkinsonian motor symptoms including tremor, rigidity and hypokinesia.

  20. TRUMP, Steady-State and Transient 1-D, 2-D and 3-D Potential Flow, Temperature Distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elrod, D.C.; Turner, W.D.

    1981-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: TRUMP solves a general non- linear parabolic partial differential equation describing flow in various kinds of potential fields, such as fields of temperature, pressure, or electricity and magnetism; simultaneously, it will solve two additional equations representing, in thermal problems, heat production by decomposition of two reactants having rate constants with a general Arrhenius temperature dependence. Steady- state and transient flow in one, two, or three dimensions are considered in geometrical configurations having simple or complex shapes and structures. Problem parameters may vary with spatial position, time, or primary dependent variables--temperature, pressure, or field strength. Initial conditions may vary with spatial position, and among the criteria that may be specified for ending a problem are upper and lower limits on the size of the primary dependent variable, upper limits on the problem time or on the number of time-steps or on the computer time, and attainment of steady state. 2 - Method of solution: Solutions may be obtained by use of explicit- or implicit-difference equations, or by an optimized combination of both. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The program currently provides for maxima of: 40 materials, 5 reactants, 105 surface conditions, 20 boundary nodes, 16 entries per tabulated function (table-length)

  1. The steady-state modeling and optimization of a refrigeration system for high heat flux removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Rongliang; Zhang Tiejun; Catano, Juan; Wen, John T.; Michna, Gregory J.; Peles, Yoav; Jensen, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    Steady-state modeling and optimization of a refrigeration system for high heat flux removal, such as electronics cooling, is studied. The refrigeration cycle proposed consists of multiple evaporators, liquid accumulator, compressor, condenser and expansion valves. To obtain more efficient heat transfer and higher critical heat flux (CHF), the evaporators operate with two-phase flow only. This unique operating condition necessitates the inclusion of a liquid accumulator with integrated heater for the safe operation of the compressor. Due to the projected incorporation of microchannels into the system to enhance the heat transfer in heat sinks, the momentum balance equation, rarely seen in previous vapor compression cycle heat exchangers modeling efforts, is utilized in addition to the mass and energy balance equations to capture the expected significant microchannel pressure drop witnessed in previous experimental investigations. Using the steady-state model developed, a parametric study is performed to study the effect of various external inputs on the system performance. The Pareto optimization is applied to find the optimal system operating conditions for given heat loads such that the system coefficient of performance (COP) is optimized while satisfying the CHF and other system operation constraints. Initial validation efforts show the good agreement between the experimental data and model predictions.

  2. Current status and prospect of plasma control system for steady-state operation on QUEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Makoto, E-mail: hasegawa@triam.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Nakamura, Kazuo; Zushi, Hideki; Hanada, Kazuaki; Fujisawa, Akihide; Tokunaga, Kazutoshi; Idei, Hiroshi; Nagashima, Yoshihiko; Kawasaki, Shoji; Nakashima, Hisatoshi; Higashijima, Aki

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Overall configuration of plasma control system on QUEST are presented. • Multi core system and reflective memories are used for the real-time control. • Hall sensors are used for the identification of plasma current and its position. • Repetitive gas fueling with the feed-back control of Hα signal is implemented. - Abstract: The plasma control system (PCS) of QUEST is developed according to the progress of QUEST project. Since one of the critical goals of the project is to achieve the steady-state operation with high temperature vacuum vessel wall, the PCS is also required to have the capability to control the plasma for a long period. For the increase of the loads to processing power of the PCS, the PCS is decentralized with the use of reflective memories (RFMs). The PCS controls the plasma edge position with the real-time identification of plasma current and its position. This identification is done with not only flux loops but also hall sensors. The gas fueling method by piezo valve with monitoring the Hα signal filtered by a digital low-pass filter are proposed and suitable for the steady-state operation on QUEST. The present status and prospect of the PCS are presented with recent topics.

  3. Lower bounds for ballistic current and noise in non-equilibrium quantum steady states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Doyon

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Let an infinite, homogeneous, many-body quantum system be unitarily evolved for a long time from a state where two halves are independently thermalized. One says that a non-equilibrium steady state emerges if there are nonzero steady currents in the central region. In particular, their presence is a signature of ballistic transport. We analyze the consequences of the current observable being a conserved density; near equilibrium this is known to give rise to linear wave propagation and a nonzero Drude peak. Using the Lieb–Robinson bound, we derive, under a certain regularity condition, a lower bound for the non-equilibrium steady-state current determined by equilibrium averages. This shows and quantifies the presence of ballistic transport far from equilibrium. The inequality suggests the definition of “nonlinear sound velocities”, which specialize to the sound velocity near equilibrium in non-integrable models, and “generalized sound velocities”, which encode generalized Gibbs thermalization in integrable models. These are bounded by the Lieb–Robinson velocity. The inequality also gives rise to a bound on the energy current noise in the case of pure energy transport. We show that the inequality is satisfied in many models where exact results are available, and that it is saturated at one-dimensional criticality.

  4. A theory of nonequilibrium steady states in quantum chaotic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pei

    2017-09-01

    Nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) is a quasistationary state, in which exist currents that continuously produce entropy, but the local observables are stationary everywhere. We propose a theory of NESS under the framework of quantum chaos. In an isolated quantum system whose density matrix follows a unitary evolution, there exist initial states for which the thermodynamic limit and the long-time limit are noncommutative. The density matrix \\hat ρ of these states displays a universal structure. Suppose that \\renewcommand{\\ket}[1]{{\\vert #1 >}} \\ketα and \\renewcommand{\\ket}[1]{{\\vert #1 >}} \\ketβ are different eigenstates of the Hamiltonian with energies E_α and E_β , respectively. \\renewcommand{\\bra}[1]{} \\braα\\hat ρ \\ketβ behaves as a random number which has zero mean. In thermodynamic limit, the variance of \\renewcommand{\\bra}[1]{} \\braα\\hat ρ \\ketβ is a smooth function of ≤ft\\vert E_α-E_β\\right\\vert , scaling as 1/≤ft\\vert E_α-E_β\\right\\vert 2 in the limit ≤ft\\vert E_α-E_β\\right\\vert \\to 0 . If and only if this scaling law is obeyed, the initial state evolves into NESS in the long time limit. We present numerical evidence of our hypothesis in a few chaotic models. Furthermore, we find that our hypothesis indicates the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis (ETH) for current operators in a bipartite system.

  5. Steady State Analysis of Small Molten Salt Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takahisa; Mitachi, Koshi; Suzuki, Takashi

    The Molten Salt Reactor (MSR) is a thermal neutron reactor with graphite moderation and operates on the thorium-uranium fuel cycle. The feature of the MSR is that fuel salt flows inside the reactor during the nuclear fission reaction. In the previous study, the authors developed numerical model with which to simulate the effects of fuel salt flow on the reactor characteristics. In this study, we apply the model to the steady-state analysis of a small MSR system and estimate the effects of fuel flow. The model consists of two-group neutron diffusion equations for fast and thermal neutron fluxes, transport equations for six-group delayed neutron precursors and energy conservation equations for fuel salt and the graphite moderator. The following results are obtained: (1) in the rated operation condition, the peaks of the neutron fluxes slightly move toward the bottom from the center of the reactor and the delayed neutron precursors are significantly carried by the fuel salt flow, and (2) the extension of residence time in the external-loop system and the rise of the fuel inflow temperature show weak negative reactivity effects, which decrease the neutron multiplication factor of the small MSR system.

  6. Ising game: Nonequilibrium steady states of resource-allocation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, C.; Yang, G.; Huang, J. P.

    2017-04-01

    Resource-allocation systems are ubiquitous in the human society. But how external fields affect the state of such systems remains poorly explored due to the lack of a suitable model. Because the behavior of spins pursuing energy minimization required by physical laws is similar to that of humans chasing payoff maximization studied in game theory, here we combine the Ising model with the market-directed resource-allocation game, yielding an Ising game. Based on the Ising game, we show theoretical, simulative and experimental evidences for a formula, which offers a clear expression of nonequilibrium steady states (NESSs). Interestingly, the formula also reveals a convertible relationship between the external field (exogenous factor) and resource ratio (endogenous factor), and a class of saturation as the external field exceeds certain limits. This work suggests that the Ising game could be a suitable model for studying external-field effects on resource-allocation systems, and it could provide guidance both for seeking more relations between NESSs and equilibrium states and for regulating human systems by choosing NESSs appropriately.

  7. Visual steady state in relation to age and cognitive function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Horwitz

    Full Text Available Neocortical gamma activity is crucial for sensory perception and cognition. This study examines the value of using non-task stimulation-induced EEG oscillations to predict cognitive status in a birth cohort of healthy Danish males (Metropolit with varying cognitive ability. In particular, we examine the steady-state VEP power response (SSVEP-PR in the alpha (8Hz and gamma (36Hz bands in 54 males (avg. age: 62.0 years and compare these with 10 young healthy participants (avg. age 27.6 years. Furthermore, we correlate the individual alpha-to-gamma difference in relative visual-area power (ΔRV with cognitive scores for the older adults. We find that ΔRV decrease with age by just over one standard deviation when comparing young with old participants (p<0.01. Furthermore, intelligence is significantly negatively correlated with ΔRV in the older adult cohort, even when processing speed, global cognition, executive function, memory, and education (p<0.05. In our preferred specification, an increase in ΔRV of one standard deviation is associated with a reduction in intelligence of 48% of a standard deviation (p<0.01. Finally, we conclude that the difference in cerebral rhythmic activity between the alpha and gamma bands is associated with age and cognitive status, and that ΔRV therefore provide a non-subjective clinical tool with which to examine cognitive status in old age.

  8. Steady-state growth of the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.J.; SooHoo, J.B.; Kiefer, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    Seasonal studies of the vertical distribution of nitrate, nitrite, and phytoplankton in the oceans and studies using 15 N as a tracer of nitrate metabolism indicate that the reduction of nitrate by phytoplankton is a source of nitrite in the upper waters of the ocean. To better understand this process, the relationship between nitrate uptake and nitrite production has been examined with continuous cultures of the small marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana. In a turbidostat culture, the rates of nitrite production by T. Pseudonana increase with light intensity. This process is only loosely coupled to rates of nitrate assimilation since the ratio of net nitrite production to total nitrate assimilation increases with increased rates of growth. In continuous cultures where steady-state concentrations of nitrate and nitrite were varied, T. pseudonana produced nitrite at rates which increased with increasing concentrations of nitrate. Again, the rates of nitrite production were uncoupled from rates of nitrate assimilation. The study was used to derive a mathematical description of nitrate and nitrite metabolism by T. pseudonana. The validity of this model was supported by the results of a study in which 15 N-labeled nitrite was introduced into the continuous culture, and the model was used to examine patterns in distribution of nitrite in the Antarctic Ocean and the Sargasso Sea

  9. Quasi-steady state aerodynamics of the cheetah tail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Patel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available During high-speed pursuit of prey, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus has been observed to swing its tail while manoeuvring (e.g. turning or braking but the effect of these complex motions is not well understood. This study demonstrates the potential of the cheetah's long, furry tail to impart torques and forces on the body as a result of aerodynamic effects, in addition to the well-known inertial effects. The first-order aerodynamic forces on the tail are quantified through wind tunnel testing and it is observed that the fur nearly doubles the effective frontal area of the tail without much mass penalty. Simple dynamic models provide insight into manoeuvrability via simulation of pitch, roll and yaw tail motion primitives. The inertial and quasi-steady state aerodynamic effects of tail actuation are quantified and compared by calculating the angular impulse imparted onto the cheetah's body and its shown aerodynamic effects contribute to the tail's angular impulse, especially at the highest forward velocities.

  10. Electrically evoked auditory steady-state responses in Guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Fuh-Cherng; Abbas, Paul J; Brown, Carolyn J; Miller, Charles A; Nourski, Kirill V; Robinson, Barbara K

    2007-01-01

    Most cochlear implant systems available today provide the user with information about the envelope of the speech signal. The goal of this study was to explore the feasibility of recording electrically evoked auditory steady-state response (ESSR) and in particular to evaluate the degree to which the response recorded using electrical stimulation could be separated from stimulus artifact. Sinusoidally amplitude-modulated electrical stimuli with alternating polarities were used to elicit the response in adult guinea pigs. Separation of the stimulus artifact from evoked neural responses was achieved by summing alternating polarity responses or by using spectral analysis techniques. The recorded response exhibited physiological response properties including a pattern of nonlinear growth and their abolishment following euthanasia or administration of tetrodotoxin. These findings demonstrate that the ESSR is a response generated by the auditory system and can be separated from electrical stimulus artifact. As it is evoked by a stimulus that shares important features of cochlear implant stimulation, this evoked potential may be useful in either clinical or basic research efforts. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Attentional Modulation of Auditory Steady-State Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Yatin; Davis, Chris; Kim, Jeesun

    2014-01-01

    Auditory selective attention enables task-relevant auditory events to be enhanced and irrelevant ones suppressed. In the present study we used a frequency tagging paradigm to investigate the effects of attention on auditory steady state responses (ASSR). The ASSR was elicited by simultaneously presenting two different streams of white noise, amplitude modulated at either 16 and 23.5 Hz or 32.5 and 40 Hz. The two different frequencies were presented to each ear and participants were instructed to selectively attend to one ear or the other (confirmed by behavioral evidence). The results revealed that modulation of ASSR by selective attention depended on the modulation frequencies used and whether the activation was contralateral or ipsilateral. Attention enhanced the ASSR for contralateral activation from either ear for 16 Hz and suppressed the ASSR for ipsilateral activation for 16 Hz and 23.5 Hz. For modulation frequencies of 32.5 or 40 Hz attention did not affect the ASSR. We propose that the pattern of enhancement and inhibition may be due to binaural suppressive effects on ipsilateral stimulation and the dominance of contralateral hemisphere during dichotic listening. In addition to the influence of cortical processing asymmetries, these results may also reflect a bias towards inhibitory ipsilateral and excitatory contralateral activation present at the level of inferior colliculus. That the effect of attention was clearest for the lower modulation frequencies suggests that such effects are likely mediated by cortical brain structures or by those in close proximity to cortex. PMID:25334021

  12. Attentional modulation of auditory steady-state responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yatin Mahajan

    Full Text Available Auditory selective attention enables task-relevant auditory events to be enhanced and irrelevant ones suppressed. In the present study we used a frequency tagging paradigm to investigate the effects of attention on auditory steady state responses (ASSR. The ASSR was elicited by simultaneously presenting two different streams of white noise, amplitude modulated at either 16 and 23.5 Hz or 32.5 and 40 Hz. The two different frequencies were presented to each ear and participants were instructed to selectively attend to one ear or the other (confirmed by behavioral evidence. The results revealed that modulation of ASSR by selective attention depended on the modulation frequencies used and whether the activation was contralateral or ipsilateral. Attention enhanced the ASSR for contralateral activation from either ear for 16 Hz and suppressed the ASSR for ipsilateral activation for 16 Hz and 23.5 Hz. For modulation frequencies of 32.5 or 40 Hz attention did not affect the ASSR. We propose that the pattern of enhancement and inhibition may be due to binaural suppressive effects on ipsilateral stimulation and the dominance of contralateral hemisphere during dichotic listening. In addition to the influence of cortical processing asymmetries, these results may also reflect a bias towards inhibitory ipsilateral and excitatory contralateral activation present at the level of inferior colliculus. That the effect of attention was clearest for the lower modulation frequencies suggests that such effects are likely mediated by cortical brain structures or by those in close proximity to cortex.

  13. Reactor potential of steady-state field-reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kernbichler, W.

    1990-01-01

    The intrinsic potential of a Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) for high-β operation - with β-values in the range of 50 to 100% - stimulates much interest in this device as an attractive candidate for a compact fusion device with high power density. Several additional benefits, e.g. the cylindrical geometry of the concept, the divertor action of the open field lines and the possibility for direct energy conversion of the charged particle flow, justify a closer look at the benefits and problems of FRCs. Present emphasis is on operation with D- 3 He fuel under reactor relevant conditions, whereas D-T is taken as a reference case. A steady-state version of an FRC is considered to be more attractive than its pulsed counterpart. Frequent start-up to high temperatures would be particularly detrimental for D- 3 He where start-up scenarios seem to rely on the transition from D-T to D- 3 He, with unavoidable strong tritium contamination

  14. Quasi-steady state aerodynamics of the cheetah tail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Amir; Boje, Edward; Fisher, Callen; Louis, Leeann; Lane, Emily

    2016-08-15

    During high-speed pursuit of prey, the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) has been observed to swing its tail while manoeuvring (e.g. turning or braking) but the effect of these complex motions is not well understood. This study demonstrates the potential of the cheetah's long, furry tail to impart torques and forces on the body as a result of aerodynamic effects, in addition to the well-known inertial effects. The first-order aerodynamic forces on the tail are quantified through wind tunnel testing and it is observed that the fur nearly doubles the effective frontal area of the tail without much mass penalty. Simple dynamic models provide insight into manoeuvrability via simulation of pitch, roll and yaw tail motion primitives. The inertial and quasi-steady state aerodynamic effects of tail actuation are quantified and compared by calculating the angular impulse imparted onto the cheetah's body and its shown aerodynamic effects contribute to the tail's angular impulse, especially at the highest forward velocities. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Prediction of steady state thermohydraulic conditions in water reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srikantiah, G.

    1975-08-01

    A method developed for the automatic prediction of the initial steady state conditions in reactor systems and a computer code based on this method are described. The reactor system is considered as a hydraulic network made up of the system components and their interconnections. Generalized network methods based on Graph Theory are applied to establish a set of independent equations in terms of the driving potentials and fluxes of the network. The terminal equations relating the ''across'' and ''through'' variables in the system components are derived by applying the one-dimensional drift-flux model. The resulting equations are solved by an appropriate numerical technique. Sample problems have been worked out to illustrate the advantages and the efficiency of this method. The basic advantages are: the component modeling is independent of the method of deriving the final balance equations for the system; the formulation procedure is independent of the numerical technique applied to solve the resulting set of equations, and the entire problem formulation and solution procedure requires a small amount of computer time

  16. Avoiding electromagnetic artifacts when recording auditory steady-state responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picton, Terence W; John, M Sasha

    2004-09-01

    Electromagnetic artifacts can occur when recording multiple auditory steady-state responses evoked by sinusoidally amplitude modulated (SAM) stimuli. High-intensity air-conducted stimuli evoked responses even when hearing was prevented by masking. Additionally, high-intensity bone-conducted stimuli evoked responses that were completely different from those evoked by air-conducted stimuli of similar sensory level. These artifacts were caused by aliasing since they did not occur when recordings used high analog-digital (AD) conversion rates or when high frequencies in the electroencephalographic (EEG) signal were attenuated by steep-slope low-pass filtering. Two possible techniques can displace aliased energy away from the response frequencies: (1) using an AD rate that is not an integer submultiple of the carrier frequencies and (2) using stimuli with frequency spectra that do not alias back to the response frequencies, such as beats or "alternating SAM" tones. Alternating SAM tones evoke responses similar to conventional SAM tones, whereas beats produce significantly smaller responses.

  17. Steady State Turbulent Transport in Magnetic Fusion Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.W.; Ethier, S.; Kolesnikov, R.; Wang, W.X.; Tang, W.M.

    2007-01-01

    For more than a decade, the study of microturbulence, driven by ion temperature gradient (ITG) drift instabilities in tokamak devices, has been an active area of research in magnetic fusion science for both experimentalists and theorists alike. One of the important impetus for this avenue of research was the discovery of the radial streamers associated the ITG modes in the early nineties using a Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code. Since then, ITG simulations based on the codes with increasing realism have become possible with the dramatic increase in computing power. The notable examples were the demonstration of the importance of nonlinearly generated zonal flows in regulating ion thermal transport and the transition from Bohm to GyroBoham scaling with increased device size. In this paper, we will describe another interesting nonlinear physical process associated with the parallel acceleration of the ions, that is found to play an important role for the steady state turbulent transport. Its discovery is again through the use of the modern massively parallel supercomputers

  18. Hair-triggered instability of radial steady states, spread and extinction in semilinear heat equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Junping; Wang, Xuefeng

    We first study the initial value problem for a general semilinear heat equation. We prove that every bounded nonconstant radial steady state is unstable if the spatial dimension is low ( n⩽10) or if the steady state is flat enough at infinity: the solution of the heat equation either becomes unbounded as t approaches the lifespan, or eventually stays above or below another bounded radial steady state, depending on if the initial value is above or below the first steady state; moreover, the second steady state must be a constant if n⩽10. Using this instability result, we then prove that every nonconstant radial steady state of the generalized Fisher equation is a hair-trigger for two kinds of dynamical behavior: extinction and spreading. We also prove more criteria on initial values for these types of behavior. Similar results for a reaction-diffusion system modeling an isothermal autocatalytic chemical reaction are also obtained.

  19. Non linear self consistency of microtearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbet, X.; Mourgues, F.; Samain, A.

    1987-01-01

    The self consistency of a microtearing turbulence is studied in non linear regimes where the ergodicity of the flux lines determines the electron response. The current which sustains the magnetic perturbation via the Ampere law results from the combines action of the radial electric field in the frame where the island chains are static and of the thermal electron diamagnetism. Numerical calculations show that at usual values of β pol in Tokamaks the turbulence can create a diffusion coefficient of order ν th p 2 i where p i is the ion larmor radius and ν th the electron ion collision frequency. On the other hand, collisionless regimes involving special profiles of each mode near the resonant surface seem possible

  20. Image denoising using non linear diffusion tensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzarti, F.; Amiri, H.

    2011-01-01

    Image denoising is an important pre-processing step for many image analysis and computer vision system. It refers to the task of recovering a good estimate of the true image from a degraded observation without altering and changing useful structure in the image such as discontinuities and edges. In this paper, we propose a new approach for image denoising based on the combination of two non linear diffusion tensors. One allows diffusion along the orientation of greatest coherences, while the other allows diffusion along orthogonal directions. The idea is to track perfectly the local geometry of the degraded image and applying anisotropic diffusion mainly along the preferred structure direction. To illustrate the effective performance of our model, we present some experimental results on a test and real photographic color images.

  1. Non-linear rheology of layered systems-a phase model approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshino, Hajime; Matsukawa, Hiroshi; Yukawa, Satoshi; Kawamura, Hikaru

    2007-01-01

    We study non-linear rheology of a simple theoretical model developed to mimic layered systems such as lamellar structures under shear. In the present work we study a 2-dimensional version of the model which exhibits a Kosterlitz-Thouless transition in equilibrium at a critical temperature T c . While the system behaves as Newtonain fluid at high temperatures T > T c , it exhibits shear thinning at low temperatures T c . The non-linear rheology in the present model is understood as due to motions of edge dislocations and resembles the non-linear transport phenomena in superconductors by vortex motions

  2. Evolution of Slow Dual Steady-State Optical Solitons in a Cold Three-State Medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jian-Qiang; Li Hao-Chen; Gu Xiao-Yan

    2012-01-01

    The generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation, which describes the evolution of dual steady-state optical solitons in a cold three-state medium, is written as the Hamiltonian symplectic structure. The symplectic method is applied to investigate evolution of dual steady-state optical solitons. By adjusting the initial pulses, the saturation parameter variables and the distances of optical solitons, the different behaviors of dual steady-state optical solitons are analyzed. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  3. Two Dimensional Steady State Eddy Current Analysis of a Spinning Conducting Cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-09

    UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED AD-E403 855 Technical Report ARMET-TR-16045 TWO- DIMENSIONAL STEADY-STATE EDDY CURRENT ANALYSIS OF A...August 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TWO- DIMENSIONAL STEADY-STATE EDDY CURRENT ANALYSIS OF A SPINNING CONDUCTING CYLINDER 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...analytical closed-form analysis performed by Michael P. Perry and Thomas B. Jones (ref. 4). Two- dimensional (2D) finite element steady state analyses

  4. Superconducting magnets and cryogenics for the steady state superconducting tokamak SST-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, Y.C.

    2000-01-01

    SST-1 is a steady state superconducting tokamak for studying the physics of the plasma processes in tokamak under steady state conditions and to learn technologies related to the steady state operation of the tokamak. SST-1 will have superconducting magnets made from NbTi based conductors operating at 4.5 K temperature. The design of the superconducting magnets and the cryogenic system of SST-1 tokamak are described. (author)

  5. Steady State Comparisons HAWC2 v12.2 vs HAWCStab2 v2.12

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verelst, David Robert; Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Pirrung, Georg

    This reports presents comparison of the steady state HAWC2 [1] [2] [3] simulation results and the HAWCStab2 computations of the DTU10MW reference turbine [4] [5]. It serves as a simple validation for the HAWCStab2 [6] [7] [8] steady state computations.......This reports presents comparison of the steady state HAWC2 [1] [2] [3] simulation results and the HAWCStab2 computations of the DTU10MW reference turbine [4] [5]. It serves as a simple validation for the HAWCStab2 [6] [7] [8] steady state computations....

  6. Nonequilibrium current-carrying steady states in the anisotropic X Y spin chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Jarrett L.

    2016-05-01

    Out-of-equilibrium behavior is explored in the one-dimensional anisotropic X Y model. Initially preparing the system in the isotropic X X model with a linearly varying magnetic field to create a domain-wall magnetization profile, dynamics is generated by rapidly changing the exchange interaction anisotropy and external magnetic field. Relaxation to a nonequilibrium steady state is studied analytically at the critical transverse Ising point, where correlation functions may be computed in closed form. For arbitrary values of anisotropy and external field, an effective generalized Gibbs' ensemble is shown to accurately describe observables in the long-time limit. Additionally, we find spatial oscillations in the exponentially decaying, transverse spin-spin correlation functions with wavelength set by the magnetization jump across the initial domain wall. This wavelength depends only weakly on anisotropy and magnetic field in contrast to the current, which is highly dependent on these parameters.

  7. A steady-state model of the lunar ejecta cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christou, Apostolos

    2014-05-01

    Every airless body in the solar system is surrounded by a cloud of ejecta produced by the impact of interplanetary meteoroids on its surface [1]. Such ``dust exospheres'' have been observed around the Galilean satellites of Jupiter [2,3]. The prospect of long-term robotic and human operations on the Moon by the US and other countries has rekindled interest on the subject [4]. This interest has culminated with the - currently ongoing - investigation of the Moon's dust exosphere by the LADEE spacecraft [5]. Here a model is presented of a ballistic, collisionless, steady state population of ejecta launched vertically at randomly distributed times and velocities and moving under constant gravity. Assuming a uniform distribution of launch times I derive closed form solutions for the probability density functions (pdfs) of the height distribution of particles and the distribution of their speeds in a rest frame both at the surface and at altitude. The treatment is then extended to particle motion with respect to a moving platform such as an orbiting spacecraft. These expressions are compared with numerical simulations under lunar surface gravity where the underlying ejection speed distribution is (a) uniform (b) a power law. I discuss the predictions of the model, its limitations, and how it can be validated against near-surface and orbital measurements.[1] Gault, D. Shoemaker, E.M., Moore, H.J., 1963, NASA TN-D 1767. [2] Kruger, H., Krivov, A.V., Hamilton, D. P., Grun, E., 1999, Nature, 399, 558. [3] Kruger, H., Krivov, A.V., Sremcevic, M., Grun, E., 2003, Icarus, 164, 170. [4] Grun, E., Horanyi, M., Sternovsky, Z., 2011, Planetary and Space Science, 59, 1672. [5] Elphic, R.C., Hine, B., Delory, G.T., Salute, J.S., Noble, S., Colaprete, A., Horanyi, M., Mahaffy, P., and the LADEE Science Team, 2014, LPSC XLV, LPI Contr. 1777, 2677.

  8. Steady State Analysis of Multiple Effect Evaporation (MEE) Desalination Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, S.

    2012-01-01

    Life without water is not possible. Like other natural resources, the global resources of fresh water are unevenly distributed. The world population is increasing at very rapid rate while the natural water resources remain constant. This gap is expected to widen dramatically in the near future. Our country like most countries in the east suffer from water stressed condition. Desalination is only the logical or available solution. In MED units, the feed seawater sprayed individually in each effect is heated to form pure vapors, which condense to form product water. Irrespective of the continuous development of the desalination industry the thermal desalination is still expensive. The study presented in this thesis is motivated by, to study the impact of various cost controlling parameters on the performance of MEE desalination process. KANUPP has two desalination plants (RO and NDDP). The NDDP has parallel feed cross flow multiple effect evaporation (MEE-PC) configurations. The study presented in this thesis describes a simplified steady state mathematical model to analyze the MED systems. The results obtained by the model are compared with the NDDP data. The developed model is used to investigate the effect of the parameters controlling the product water cost. These parameters includes thermal performance ratio, cooling water flow rate and heat transfer area. It can also be used to study the effect of variation in the operating conditions of the plant on the plant performance. The effect of the process variables on the performance of MED is carried out. This includes the effect of number of effects, intake seawater salinity and heating stream temperature, vacuum condition in term of vapor temperature of last effect. (author)

  9. An implicit meshless scheme for the solution of transient non-linear Poisson-type equations

    KAUST Repository

    Bourantas, Georgios

    2013-07-01

    A meshfree point collocation method is used for the numerical simulation of both transient and steady state non-linear Poisson-type partial differential equations. Particular emphasis is placed on the application of the linearization method with special attention to the lagging of coefficients method and the Newton linearization method. The localized form of the Moving Least Squares (MLS) approximation is employed for the construction of the shape functions, in conjunction with the general framework of the point collocation method. Computations are performed for regular nodal distributions, stressing the positivity conditions that make the resulting system stable and convergent. The accuracy and the stability of the proposed scheme are demonstrated through representative and well-established benchmark problems. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Global non-linear effect of temperature on economic production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Marshall; Hsiang, Solomon M.; Miguel, Edward

    2015-11-01

    Growing evidence demonstrates that climatic conditions can have a profound impact on the functioning of modern human societies, but effects on economic activity appear inconsistent. Fundamental productive elements of modern economies, such as workers and crops, exhibit highly non-linear responses to local temperature even in wealthy countries. In contrast, aggregate macroeconomic productivity of entire wealthy countries is reported not to respond to temperature, while poor countries respond only linearly. Resolving this conflict between micro and macro observations is critical to understanding the role of wealth in coupled human-natural systems and to anticipating the global impact of climate change. Here we unify these seemingly contradictory results by accounting for non-linearity at the macro scale. We show that overall economic productivity is non-linear in temperature for all countries, with productivity peaking at an annual average temperature of 13 °C and declining strongly at higher temperatures. The relationship is globally generalizable, unchanged since 1960, and apparent for agricultural and non-agricultural activity in both rich and poor countries. These results provide the first evidence that economic activity in all regions is coupled to the global climate and establish a new empirical foundation for modelling economic loss in response to climate change, with important implications. If future adaptation mimics past adaptation, unmitigated warming is expected to reshape the global economy by reducing average global incomes roughly 23% by 2100 and widening global income inequality, relative to scenarios without climate change. In contrast to prior estimates, expected global losses are approximately linear in global mean temperature, with median losses many times larger than leading models indicate.

  11. Global non-linear effect of temperature on economic production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Marshall; Hsiang, Solomon M; Miguel, Edward

    2015-11-12

    Growing evidence demonstrates that climatic conditions can have a profound impact on the functioning of modern human societies, but effects on economic activity appear inconsistent. Fundamental productive elements of modern economies, such as workers and crops, exhibit highly non-linear responses to local temperature even in wealthy countries. In contrast, aggregate macroeconomic productivity of entire wealthy countries is reported not to respond to temperature, while poor countries respond only linearly. Resolving this conflict between micro and macro observations is critical to understanding the role of wealth in coupled human-natural systems and to anticipating the global impact of climate change. Here we unify these seemingly contradictory results by accounting for non-linearity at the macro scale. We show that overall economic productivity is non-linear in temperature for all countries, with productivity peaking at an annual average temperature of 13 °C and declining strongly at higher temperatures. The relationship is globally generalizable, unchanged since 1960, and apparent for agricultural and non-agricultural activity in both rich and poor countries. These results provide the first evidence that economic activity in all regions is coupled to the global climate and establish a new empirical foundation for modelling economic loss in response to climate change, with important implications. If future adaptation mimics past adaptation, unmitigated warming is expected to reshape the global economy by reducing average global incomes roughly 23% by 2100 and widening global income inequality, relative to scenarios without climate change. In contrast to prior estimates, expected global losses are approximately linear in global mean temperature, with median losses many times larger than leading models indicate.

  12. Pu recycling in a full Th-MOX PWR core. Part I: Steady state analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridman, E.; Kliem, S.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Detailed 3D 100% Th-MOX PWR core design is developed. → Pu incineration increased by a factor of 2 as compared to a full MOX PWR core. → The core controllability under steady state conditions is demonstrated. - Abstract: Current practice of Pu recycling in existing Light Water Reactors (LWRs) in the form of U-Pu mixed oxide fuel (MOX) is not efficient due to continuous Pu production from U-238. The use of Th-Pu mixed oxide (TOX) fuel will considerably improve Pu consumption rates because virtually no new Pu is generated from thorium. In this study, the feasibility of Pu recycling in a typical pressurized water reactor (PWR) fully loaded with TOX fuel is investigated. Detailed 3-dimensional 100% TOX and 100% MOX PWR core designs are developed. The full MOX core is considered for comparison purposes. The design stages included determination of Pu loading required to achieve 18-month fuel cycle assuming three-batch fuel management scheme, selection of poison materials, development of the core loading pattern, optimization of burnable poison loadings, evaluation of critical boron concentration requirements, estimation of reactivity coefficients, core kinetic parameters, and shutdown margin. The performance of the MOX and TOX cores under steady-state condition and during selected reactivity initiated accidents (RIAs) is compared with that of the actual uranium oxide (UOX) PWR core. Part I of this paper describes the full TOX and MOX PWR core designs and reports the results of steady state analysis. The TOX core requires a slightly higher initial Pu loading than the MOX core to achieve the target fuel cycle length. However, the TOX core exhibits superior Pu incineration capabilities. The significantly degraded worth of control materials in Pu cores is partially addressed by the use of enriched soluble boron and B 4 C as a control rod absorbing material. Wet annular burnable absorber (WABA) rods are used to flatten radial power distribution

  13. Construction of the wave operator for non-linear dispersive equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruta, Kai Erik

    In this thesis, we will study non-linear dispersive equations. The primary focus will be on the construction of the positive-time wave operator for such equations. The positive-time wave operator problem arises in the study of the asymptotics of a partial differential equation. It is a map from a space of initial data X into itself, and is loosely defined as follows: Suppose that for a solution ψlin to the dispersive equation with no non-linearity and initial data ψ +, there exists a unique solution ψ to the non-linear equation with initial data ψ0 such that ψ behaves as ψ lin as t → infinity. Then the wave operator is the map W+ that takes ψ + to ψ0. By its definition, W+ is injective. An important additional question is whether or not the map is also surjective. If so, then every non-linear solution emanating from X behaves, in some sense, linearly as it evolves (this is known as asymptotic completeness). Thus, there is some justification for treating these solutions as their much simpler linear counterparts. The main results presented in this thesis revolve around the construction of the wave operator(s) at critical non-linearities. We will study the "semi-relativistic" Schrodinger equation as well as the Klein-Gordon-Schrodinger system on R2 . In both cases, we will impose fairly general quadratic non-linearities for which conservation laws cannot be relied upon. These non-linearities fall below the scaling required to employ such tools as the Strichartz estimates. We instead adapt the "first iteration method" of Jang, Li, and Zhang to our setting which depends crucially on the critical decay of the non-linear interaction of the linear evolution. To see the critical decay in our problem, careful analysis is needed to treat the regime where one has spatial and/or time resonance.

  14. Progress Towards High Performance, Steady-state Spherical Torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, M.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Bigelow, T.; Bitter, M.; Blanchard, W.; Boedo, J.; Bourdelle, C.; Bush, C.; Choe, W.; Chrzanowski, J.; Darrow, D.S.; Diem, S.J.; Doerner, R.; Efthimion, P.C.; Ferron, J.R.; Fonck, R.J.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Garstka, G.D.; Gates, D.A.; Gray, T.; Grisham, L.R.; Heidbrink, W.; Hill, K.W.; Hoffman, D.; Jarboe, T.R.; Johnson, D.W.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.M.; Kessel, C.; Kim, J.H.; Kissick, M.W.; Kubota, S.; Kugel, H.W.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Lee, K.; Lee, S.G.; Lewicki, B.T.; Luckhardt, S.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Manickam, J.; Maqueda, R.; Mau, T.K.; Mazzucato, E.; Medley, S.S.; Menard, J.; Mueller, D.; Nelson, B.A.; Neumeyer, C.; Nishino, N.; Ostrander, C.N.; Pacella, D.; Paoletti, F.; Park, H.K.; Park, W.; Paul, S.F.; Peng, Y.-K. M.; Phillips, C.K.; Pinsker, R.; Probert, P.H.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Raman, R.; Redi, M.; Roquemore, A.L.; Rosenberg, A.; Ryan, P.M.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Schaffer, M.; Schooff, R.J.; Seraydarian, R.; Skinner, C.H.; Sontag, A.C.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Spaleta, J.; Stevenson, T.; Stutman, D.; Swain, D.W.; Synakowski, E.; Takase, Y.; Tang, X.; Taylor, G.; Timberlake, J.; Tritz, K.L.; Unterberg, E.A.; Von Halle, A.; Wilgen, J.; Williams, M.; Wilson, J.R.; Xu, X.; Zweben, S.J.; Akers, R.; Barry, R.E.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Bialek, J.M.; Blagojevic, B.; Bonoli, P.T.; Carter, M.D.; Davis, W.; Deng, B.; Dudek, L.; Egedal, J.; Ellis, R.; Finkenthal, M.; Foley, J.; Fredd, E.; Glasser, A.; Gibney, T.; Gilmore, M.; Goldston, R.J.; Hatcher, R.E.; Hawryluk, R.J.; Houlberg, W.; Harvey, R.; Jardin, S.C.; Hosea, J.C.; Ji, H.; Kalish, M.; Lowrance, J.; Lao, L.L.; Levinton, F.M.; Luhmann, N.C.; Marsala, R.; Mastravito, D.; Menon, M.M.; Mitarai, O.; Nagata, M.; Oliaro, G.; Parsells, R.; Peebles, T.; Peneflor, B.; Piglowski, D.; Porter, G.D.; Ram, A.K.; Rensink, M.; Rewoldt, G.; Roney, P.; Shaing, K.; Shiraiwa, S.; Sichta, P.; Stotler, D.; Stratton, B.C.; Vero, R.; Wampler, W.R.; Wurden, G.A.

    2003-01-01

    Research on the Spherical Torus (or Spherical Tokamak) is being pursued to explore the scientific benefits of modifying the field line structure from that in more moderate aspect-ratio devices, such as the conventional tokamak. The Spherical Tours (ST) experiments are being conducted in various U.S. research facilities including the MA-class National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at Princeton, and three medium-size ST research facilities: Pegasus at University of Wisconsin, HIT-II at University of Washington, and CDX-U at Princeton. In the context of the fusion energy development path being formulated in the U.S., an ST-based Component Test Facility (CTF) and, ultimately a Demo device, are being discussed. For these, it is essential to develop high-performance, steady-state operational scenarios. The relevant scientific issues are energy confinement, MHD stability at high beta (B), noninductive sustainment, ohmic-solenoid-free start-up, and power and particle handling. In the confinement area, the NSTX experiments have shown that the confinement can be up to 50% better than the ITER-98-pby2 H-mode scaling, consistent with the requirements for an ST-based CTF and Demo. In NSTX, CTF-relevant average toroidal beta values bT of up to 35% with the near unity central betaT have been obtained. NSTX will be exploring advanced regimes where bT up to 40% can be sustained through active stabilization of resistive wall modes. To date, the most successful technique for noninductive sustainment in NSTX is the high beta-poloidal regime, where discharges with a high noninductive fraction (∼60% bootstrap current + neutral-beam-injected current drive) were sustained over the resistive skin time. Research on radio-frequency-based heating and current drive utilizing HHFW (High Harmonic Fast Wave) and EBW (Electron Bernstein Wave) is also pursued on NSTX, Pegasus, and CDX-U. For noninductive start-up, the Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI), developed in HIT/HIT-II, has been adopted

  15. Frequency Domain Characterization of the Somatosensory Steady State Response in Electroencephalography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlaar, Martijn P.; van der Helm, Frans C.T.; Schouten, Alfred C.

    2015-01-01

    A continuous somatosensory stimulation evokes a steady state response in the cortex, which can be measured using electroencephalography. We applied mechanical multisine stimulation of the wrist to investigate the properties of the steady state response in the frequency domain. Our results show a

  16. Distance to achieve steady state walking speed in frail elderly persons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindemann, U.; Najafi, B.; Zijlstra, W.; Hauer, K.; Muche, R.; Becker, C.; Aminian, K.

    This study aims to determine the length of the gait initiation phase before achieving steady state walking in frail older people. Based on body fixed sensors, habitual walking was analysed in 116 community-dwelling older persons (mean age 83.1 years, 84% women). The start of steady state walking was

  17. The steady state of a particle in a vibrating box and possible ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In particular, the parameter range is found in which the particle oscillates between the walls in steady state as if the wall was static and it is showed that for these parameter ranges the particle settles to this steady state for all initial conditions. It is proposed that this phenomenon can be used to bunch charged particles in ...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix C to Subpart S of... - Steady-State Short Test Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Steady-State Short Test Standards C Appendix C to Subpart S of Part 51 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED.../Maintenance Program Requirements Pt. 51, Subpt. S, App. C Appendix C to Subpart S of Part 51—Steady-State...

  19. Steady state, erosional continuity, and the topography of landscapes developed in layered rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perne, Matija; Covington, Matthew D.; Thaler, Evan A.; Myre, Joseph M.

    2017-01-01

    The concept of topographic steady state has substantially informed our understanding of the relationships between landscapes, tectonics, climate, and lithology. In topographic steady state, erosion rates are equal everywhere, and steepness adjusts to enable equal erosion rates in rocks of different strengths. This conceptual model makes an implicit assumption of vertical contacts between different rock types. Here we hypothesize that landscapes in layered rocks will be driven toward a state of erosional continuity, where retreat rates on either side of a contact are equal in a direction parallel to the contact rather than in the vertical direction. For vertical contacts, erosional continuity is the same as topographic steady state, whereas for horizontal contacts it is equivalent to equal rates of horizontal retreat on either side of a rock contact. Using analytical solutions and numerical simulations, we show that erosional continuity predicts the form of flux steady-state landscapes that develop in simulations with horizontally layered rocks. For stream power erosion, the nature of continuity steady state depends on the exponent, n, in the erosion model. For n = 1, the landscape cannot maintain continuity. For cases where n ≠ 1, continuity is maintained, and steepness is a function of erodibility that is predicted by the theory. The landscape in continuity steady state can be quite different from that predicted by topographic steady state. For n stream power erosion model, continuity steady state provides a general mathematical tool that may also be useful to understand landscapes that develop by other erosion processes.

  20. Modelling long term rockslide displacements with non-linear time-dependent relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Caro, Mattia; Volpi, Giorgio; Castellanza, Riccardo; Crosta, Giovanni; Agliardi, Federico

    2015-04-01

    Rockslides undergoing rapid changes in behaviour pose major risks in alpine areas, and require careful characterization and monitoring both for civil protection and mitigation activities. In particular, these instabilities can undergo very slow movement with occasional and intermittent acceleration/deceleration stages of motion potentially leading to collapse. Therefore, the analysis of such instabilities remains a challenging issue. Rockslide displacements are strongly conditioned by hydrologic factors as suggested by correlations with groundwater fluctuations, snowmelt, with a frequently observed delay between perturbation and system reaction. The aim of this work is the simulation of the complex time-dependent behaviour of two case studies for which also a 2D transient hydrogeological simulation has been performed: Vajont rockslide (1960 to 1963) and the recent Mt. de La Saxe rockslide (2009 to 2012). Non-linear time-dependent constitutive relationships have been used to describe long-term creep deformation. Analyses have been performed using a "rheological-mechanical" approach that fits idealized models (e.g. viscoelastic, viscoplastic, elasto-viscoplastic, Burgers, nonlinear visco-plastic) to the experimental behaviour of specific materials by means of numerical constants. Bidimensional simulations were carried out using the finite difference code FLAC. Displacements time-series, available for the two landslides, show two superimposed deformation mechanisms: a creep process, leading to movements under "steady state" conditions (e.g. constant groundwater level), and a "dynamic" process, leading to an increase in displacement rate due to changes of external loads (e.g. groundwater level). For both cases sliding mass is considered as an elasto-plastic body subject to its self-weight, inertial and seepage forces varying with time according to water table fluctuation (due to snowmelt or changing in reservoir level) and derived from the previous hydrogeological

  1. Major progress on tore supra toward steady state operation of tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saoutic, Y.

    2003-01-01

    During winter 2000-2001, a major upgrade of the internal components of Tore Supra has been completed that increased the heat extraction capability to 25 MW in steady state. Operating Tore Supra in this new configuration has produced a wealth of new results. The highlights of the 2002 long duration discharges campaign are: 4 minutes 25 seconds long discharges with an integrated energy of 0.75 GJ, which is three time higher than the old Tore Supra world record; recharge of the primary transformer by Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) for about 1 minute; 4 minutes long LHCD pulses; 1 minute long Ion Cyclotron Resonant Heating (ICRH) pulse (0.11 GJ of ICRH injected energy). Beyond the quantitative step, significant qualitative progress in the steady state nature of the discharge has been accomplished: contrary to the situation in the old Tore Supra configuration, the plasma density is perfectly controlled by active pumping over the overall shot duration. The duration of Tore Supra discharges is sufficient to allow the complete diffusion of the resistive current. Surprising new physics is revealed in such discharges when approaching zero loop voltage. Slow central electron temperature oscillations have been observed in a variety of situations. Such oscillations are not likely to be linked to any MHD instabilities and probably results from an interplay between current profile shape, LHCD power deposition and transport. Analysis of the temperature gradient in the core region shows a very interesting behaviour and the normalised temperature gradient length is compared to the critical thresholds. Finally, the performance of heating and current drive systems and the observations made of the interior of Tore Supra after the long duration discharges campaign are reported. (author)

  2. Sulfur isotopic and proteomic profiles of sulfate reducers grown under differential steady-states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavitt, W.; Venceslau, S.; Waldbauer, J.; Smith, D. A.; Boidi, F. J.; Bradley, A. S.

    2016-12-01

    Microbial sulfate reducers (MSR) drive the Earth's biogeochemical sulfur cycle. At the heart of this energy metabolism is a cascade of redox transformations coupling organic carbon and/or hydrogen oxidation to the dissimilatory reduction of sulfate to sulfide. The product sulfide is depleted in the heavier isotopes of sulfur, relative to the reactant sulfate, consistent with a normal kinetic isotope effect. However, the magnitude of the net fractionation during MSR can range over a range of 70 permil, consistent with a multi-step set of reactions. This range in MSR fractionation has been shown to mainly depend on: i) the cell-specific sulfate reduction rate (csSRR), and ii) the ambient sulfate concentration. However, the fractionation under identical conditions differs among strains (Bradley et al. 2016. Geobio), and so must also be mediated by strain-specific processes, such as the nature and quantity of individual proteins involved in sulfate reduction, electron transport, and growth. In recent work we have examined the influence of electron donor, electron acceptor, and co-limitation under controlled steady-state culture conditions in order better inform models of MSR isotope fractionation, and the physiological and isotopic response to differential environmental forcings (e.g. Leavitt et al. (2013) PNAS). Recent models of the fractionation response to MSR rate (c.f. Bradley 2016; Wing & Halevy, 2016) make specific predictions for the responses of the cellular metabolome and proteome. Here we compare the steady-state S-isotopic fractionation and proteome of `fast' versus `slow' grown D. vulgaris, using replicate chemostats under electron donor limitation. We observe clear and statistically robust changes in some key central MSR and C-metabolism enzymes, though a host of the critical energy-transfer enzymes show no statistically discernable change. We discuss these results in light of recent theoretical advances and their relevance to modern and ancient

  3. A simplified method for power-law modelling of metabolic pathways from time-course data and steady-state flux profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugimoto Masahiro

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to improve understanding of metabolic systems there have been attempts to construct S-system models from time courses. Conventionally, non-linear curve-fitting algorithms have been used for modelling, because of the non-linear properties of parameter estimation from time series. However, the huge iterative calculations required have hindered the development of large-scale metabolic pathway models. To solve this problem we propose a novel method involving power-law modelling of metabolic pathways from the Jacobian of the targeted system and the steady-state flux profiles by linearization of S-systems. Results The results of two case studies modelling a straight and a branched pathway, respectively, showed that our method reduced the number of unknown parameters needing to be estimated. The time-courses simulated by conventional kinetic models and those described by our method behaved similarly under a wide range of perturbations of metabolite concentrations. Conclusion The proposed method reduces calculation complexity and facilitates the construction of large-scale S-system models of metabolic pathways, realizing a practical application of reverse engineering of dynamic simulation models from the Jacobian of the targeted system and steady-state flux profiles.

  4. A steady-state target calculation method based on "point" model for integrating processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Qiang; Zou, Tao; Zhang, Yanyan; Cong, Qiumei

    2015-05-01

    Aiming to eliminate the influences of model uncertainty on the steady-state target calculation for integrating processes, this paper presented an optimization method based on "point" model and a method determining whether or not there is a feasible solution of steady-state target. The optimization method resolves the steady-state optimization problem of integrating processes under the framework of two-stage structure, which builds a simple "point" model for the steady-state prediction, and compensates the error between "point" model and real process in each sampling interval. Simulation results illustrate that the outputs of integrating variables can be restricted within the constraints, and the calculation errors between actual outputs and optimal set-points are small, which indicate that the steady-state prediction model can predict the future outputs of integrating variables accurately. Copyright © 2014 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Numerical method for three dimensional steady-state two-phase flow calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, P.; Toumi, I.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the numerical scheme which was developed for the FLICA-4 computer code to calculate three dimensional steady state two phase flows. This computer code is devoted to steady state and transient thermal hydraulics analysis of nuclear reactor cores 1,3 . The first section briefly describes the FLICA-4 flow modelling. Then in order to introduce the numerical method for steady state computations, some details are given about the implicit numerical scheme based upon an approximate Riemann solver which was developed for calculation of flow transients. The third section deals with the numerical method for steady state computations, which is derived from this previous general scheme and its optimization. We give some numerical results for steady state calculations and comparisons on required CPU time and memory for various meshing and linear system solvers

  6. Large-time asymptotic behaviour of solutions of non-linear Sobolev-type equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaikina, Elena I; Naumkin, Pavel I; Shishmarev, Il'ya A

    2009-01-01

    The large-time asymptotic behaviour of solutions of the Cauchy problem is investigated for a non-linear Sobolev-type equation with dissipation. For small initial data the approach taken is based on a detailed analysis of the Green's function of the linear problem and the use of the contraction mapping method. The case of large initial data is also closely considered. In the supercritical case the asymptotic formulae are quasi-linear. The asymptotic behaviour of solutions of a non-linear Sobolev-type equation with a critical non-linearity of the non-convective kind differs by a logarithmic correction term from the behaviour of solutions of the corresponding linear equation. For a critical convective non-linearity, as well as for a subcritical non-convective non-linearity it is proved that the leading term of the asymptotic expression for large times is a self-similar solution. For Sobolev equations with convective non-linearity the asymptotic behaviour of solutions in the subcritical case is the product of a rarefaction wave and a shock wave. Bibliography: 84 titles.

  7. Dynamics and steady-state properties of adaptive networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieland, Stefan

    Collective phenomena often arise through structured interactions among a system's constituents. In the subclass of adaptive networks, the interaction structure coevolves with the dynamics it supports, yielding a feedback loop that is common in a variety of complex systems. To understand and steer such systems, modeling their asymptotic regimes is an essential prerequisite. In the particular case of a dynamic equilibrium, each node in the adaptive network experiences a perpetual change in connections and state, while a comprehensive set of measures characterizing the node ensemble are stationary. Furthermore, the dynamic equilibria of a wide class of adaptive networks appear to be unique, as their characteristic measures are insensitive to initial conditions in both state and topology. This work focuses on dynamic equilibria in adaptive networks, and while it does so in the context of two paradigmatic coevolutionary processes, obtained results easily generalize to other dynamics. In the first part, a low-dimensional framework is elaborated on using the adaptive contact process. A tentative description of the phase diagram and the steady state is obtained, and a parameter region identified where asymmetric microscopic dynamics yield a symmetry between node subensembles. This symmetry is accounted for by novel recurrence relations, which predict it for a wide range of adaptive networks. Furthermore, stationary nodeensemble distributions are analytically generated by these relations from one free parameter. Secondly, another analytic framework is put forward that detects and describes dynamic equilibria, while assigning to them general properties that must hold for a variety of adaptive networks. Modeling a single node's evolution in state and connections as a random walk, the ergodic properties of the network process are used to extract node-ensemble statistics from the node's long-term behavior. These statistical measures are composed of a variety of stationary

  8. Ferrite core non-linearity in coils for magnetic neurostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RamRakhyani, Anil Kumar; Lazzi, Gianluca

    2014-10-01

    The need to correctly predict the voltage across terminals of mm-sized coils, with ferrite core, to be employed for magnetic stimulation of the peripheral neural system is the motivation for this work. In such applications, which rely on a capacitive discharge on the coil to realise a transient voltage curve of duration and strength suitable for neural stimulation, the correct modelling of the non-linearity of the ferrite core is critical. A demonstration of how a finite-difference model of the considered coils, which include a model of the current-controlled inductance in the coil, can be used to correctly predict the time-domain voltage waveforms across the terminals of a test coil is presented. Five coils of different dimensions, loaded with ferrite cores, have been fabricated and tested: the measured magnitude and width of the induced pulse are within 10% of simulated values.

  9. Spectral coupling issues in a two-degree-of-freedom system with clearance non-linearities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmanabhan, C.; Singh, R.

    1992-06-01

    In an earlier study [14], the frequency response characteristics of a multi-degree-of-freedom system with clearance non-linearities were presented. The current study is an extension of this prior work and deals specifically with the issue of dynamic interactions between resonances. The harmonic balance method, digital solutions and analog computer simulation are used to investigate a two-degree-of-freedom system under a mean load, when subjected to sinusoidal excitations. The existence of harmonic, periodic and chaotic solutions is demonstrated using digital simulation. The method of harmonic balance is employed to construct approximate solutions at the excitation frequency which are then used to classify weak, moderate and strong non-linear spectral interactions. The effects of parameters such as damping ratio, mean load, alternating load and frequency spacing between the resonances have been quantified. The applicability of the methodology is demonstrated through the following practical examples: (i) neutral gear rattle in an automotive transmission system; and (ii) steady state characteristics of a spur gear pair with backlash. In the second case, measured dynamic transmission error data at the gear mesh frequency are used to investigate spectral interactions. Limitations associated with solution methods and interaction classification schemes are also discussed.

  10. The ITER divertor cassette. Steady state characterisation and draining and drying transient hydraulic analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietro Alessandro Di Maio; Valerio Tomarchio; Giuseppe Vella; Irene Zammuto; Giovanni Dell'Orco

    2005-01-01

    gas bubbles. Due to the complex flow scheme of the hydraulic circuit, a pure theoretical study does not appears sufficient to address all the above mentioned items and an experimental validation of the models is mandatory. In addition to that, the assembly of the PFCs onto the cassette body as well as their integration by welding the coolant connections of the PFCs, also represent a critical step to be investigated. In order to investigate the aforementioned critical issues a theoretical and experimental research activity has been launched by the ENEA-Brasimone labs, in cooperation with the Department of Nuclear Engineering of the University of Palermo, with the specific aim of investigating the thermal-hydraulic behaviour of the whole divertor cassette both in steady state and operational or accidental transient conditions. The theoretical study, based on a computational approach, has been carried out with the RELAP5 code and the results obtained are herewith presented and critically discussed. In particular, the paper presents steady state and transient theoretical analyses intended to characterise the steady state behaviour of the cassette, determining flow distribution, pressure drop and CHF margin for each cooling channels, and to investigate the cassette behaviour during the draining and drying procedure, respectively. (authors)

  11. The ITER divertor cassette. Steady state characterisation and draining and drying transient hydraulic analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pietro Alessandro Di Maio; Valerio Tomarchio; Giuseppe Vella; Irene Zammuto [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Nucleare, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo, (Italy); Giovanni Dell' Orco [ENEA-Brasimone, 40032 Camugnano, Bologna (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    elimination of gas bubbles. Due to the complex flow scheme of the hydraulic circuit, a pure theoretical study does not appears sufficient to address all the above mentioned items and an experimental validation of the models is mandatory. In addition to that, the assembly of the PFCs onto the cassette body as well as their integration by welding the coolant connections of the PFCs, also represent a critical step to be investigated. In order to investigate the aforementioned critical issues a theoretical and experimental research activity has been launched by the ENEA-Brasimone labs, in cooperation with the Department of Nuclear Engineering of the University of Palermo, with the specific aim of investigating the thermal-hydraulic behaviour of the whole divertor cassette both in steady state and operational or accidental transient conditions. The theoretical study, based on a computational approach, has been carried out with the RELAP5 code and the results obtained are herewith presented and critically discussed. In particular, the paper presents steady state and transient theoretical analyses intended to characterise the steady state behaviour of the cassette, determining flow distribution, pressure drop and CHF margin for each cooling channels, and to investigate the cassette behaviour during the draining and drying procedure, respectively. (authors)

  12. Advancing metal-oxide-semiconductor theory: Steady-state nonequilibrium conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passlack, M.; Hong, M.; Schubert, E. F.; Zydzik, G. J.; Mannaerts, J. P.; Hobson, W. S.; Harris, T. D.

    1997-06-01

    This article investigates steady-state nonequilibrium conditions in metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors. Steady-state nonequilibrium conditions are of significant interest due to the advent of wide-gap semiconductors in the arena of MOS (or metal-insulator-semiconductor) devices and due to the scaling of oxide thickness in Si technology. Two major classes of steady-state nonequilibrium conditions were studied both experimentally and theoretically: (i) steady-state deep depletion and (ii) steady-state low level optical generation. It is found that the identification and subsequent understanding of steady-state nonequilibrium conditions is of significant importance for correct interpretation of electrical measurements such as capacitance-voltage and conductance-voltage measurements. Basic implications of steady-state nonequilibrium conditions were derived for both MOS capacitors with low interfaces state density Dit and for oxide semiconductor interfaces with a pinned Fermi level. Further, a photoluminescence power spectroscopy technique is investigated as a complementary tool for direct-gap semiconductors to study Dit and to monitor the interface quality during device fabrication.

  13. Steady state creep of Zr-Nb alloys in a temperature interval 350 to 5500C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahutova, M.; Cadek, J.

    1976-01-01

    Creep of three Zr-Nb alloys (0.5, 2.5 and 4.5 wt% Nb) was investigated in a temperature interval 350 to 550 0 C using the isothermal creep test and transmission electron microscopy techniques. Relations between steady-state creep rate and applied stress were determined; the parameter of applied stress sensitivity of steady-state creep rate increases with the applied stress, reaching values sometimes greater than 30 at 350 0 C. The apparent activation energy of creep was determined and the mean effective stress in steady-state creep measured. Possible creep-rate controlling mechanisms were discussed, with the conclusion that the creep is most probably recovery-controlled. Relations between steady state flow stress and temperature suggest a significant contribution of an athermal deformation mechanism to the measured steady-state strain rate at low temperatures and high applied stresses. The creep-strengthening effect of niobium increases linearly with niobium concentration at high steady-state creep rates, while at low steady-state creep rates the optimum niobium concentration does not exceed 2.5%. This, together with the temperature sensitivity of the strengthening effect of niobium, was explained by structural stability decreasing as niobium concentration increases from 2.5 to 4.5%. Creep-controlling mechanisms for very low creep rates are discussed. (Auth.)

  14. Assessing Quasi-Steady State in Evaporation of Sessile Drops by Diffusion Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Cameron; Nguyen, Hoa; Kelly-Zion, Peter; Pursell, Chris

    2017-11-01

    The vapor distributions surrounding sessile drops of methanol are modeled as the solutions of the steady-state and transient diffusion equations using Matlab's PDE Toolbox. The goal is to determine how quickly the transient diffusive transport reaches its quasi-steady state as the droplet geometry is varied between a Weber's disc, a real droplet shape, and a spherical cap with matching thickness or contact angle. We assume that the only transport mechanism at work is diffusion. Quasi-steady state is defined using several metrics, such as differences between the transient and steady-state solutions, and change in the transient solution over time. Knowing the vapor distribution, the gradient is computed to evaluate the diffusive flux. The flux is integrated along the surface of a control volume surrounding the drop to obtain the net rate of diffusion out of the volume. Based on the differences between the transient and steady-state diffusive fluxes at the discrete points along the control-volume surface, the time to reach quasi-steady state evaporation is determined and is consistent with other proposed measurements. By varying the dimensions of the control volume, we can also assess what regimes have equivalent or different quasi-steady states for different droplet geometries. Petroleum Research Fund.

  15. Steady State Performance Characteristics of Micropolar Lubricated Hydrodynamic Journal Bearings with Flexible Liner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Pikesh; Chattopadhyay, Ajit Kumar; Agrawal, Vishnu Prakash

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study is to theoretically determine the steady state characteristics of hydrodynamic oil journal bearings considering the effect of deformation of liner and with micropolar lubrication. Modified Reynolds equation based on micropolar lubrication theory is solved using finite difference method to obtain steady state film pressures. Minimum film thickness is calculated taking into consideration the deformation of the liner. Parametric study has been conducted and steady state characteristics for journal bearing with elasticity of bearing liner are plotted for various values of eccentricity ratio, deformation factor, characteristic length and coupling number.

  16. On Steady-State Multiple Resonances for a Modified Bretherton Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianglong; Cui, Jifeng; He, Zihan; Liu, Zeng

    2017-05-01

    In this article, a modified Bretherton equation is considered to further check if steady-state multiple resonances exist not only for water waves but also for other dispersive medium. The linear resonance condition analysis shows that different components may interact with each other so multiple resonances may happen. Convergent steady-state solutions are obtained by solution procedure based on the homotopy analysis method (HAM) and the collocation method. Amplitude spectrum analysis confirms that more components indeed join the resonance as the nonlinearity increases. This article suggests that steady-state multiple resonance may exist in other dispersive system.

  17. Pre-steady-state Kinetics for Hydrolysis of Insoluble Cellulose by Cellobiohydrolase Cel7A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruys-Bagger, Nicolaj; Olsen, Jens Elmerdahl; Præstgaard, Eigil

    2012-01-01

    The transient kinetic behavior of enzyme reactions prior to the establishment of steady state is a major source of mechanistic information, yet this approach has not been utilized for cellulases acting on their natural substrate, insoluble cellulose. Here, we elucidate the pre-steady-state regime...... for the exo-acting cellulase Cel7A using amperometric biosensors and an explicit model for processive hydrolysis of cellulose. This analysis allows the identification of a pseudo-steady-state period and quantification of a processivity number as well as rate constants for the formation of a threaded enzyme...

  18. Self-consistent steady state and dust-ion-acoustic soliton propagation in inhomogeneous plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yangfang; Ma, J.X.

    2005-01-01

    The steady state of an inhomogeneous collisional dusty plasma is formulated self-consistently and the dust-ion-acoustic soliton propagation in such a plasma is studied by using the reductive perturbation method. The steady state is governed by the ambipolar diffusion theory, which includes the spatially varying collisions of electrons and ions with dust grains and is solved numerically with the boundary value problem. The effects of the nonuniformity of the equilibrium quantities on the solitons are considered. It is shown that the property of the solitons, especially the characteristic width, are sensitive to the variations of the steady state

  19. NESTLE, Few-Group Neutron Diffusion for Steady-State and Transient Problems by Nodal Expansion Method (NEM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: NESTLE solves the few-group neutron diffusion equation utilizing the Nodal Expansion Method (NEM). The NESTLE code can solve the eigenvalue (criticality), eigenvalue adjoint, external fixed-source steady-state, and external fixed-source or eigenvalue initiated transient problems. The eigenvalue problem allows criticality searches to be completed, and the external fixed-source steady-state problem can search to achieve a specified power level. Transient problems model delayed neutrons via precursor groups. Several core properties can be input as time dependent. Two- or four-energy groups can be utilized, with all energy groups being thermal groups (i.e. up-scatter exits) if desired. Core geometries modeled include Cartesian and hexagonal. Three-, two-, and one-dimensional models can be utilized with various symmetries. The thermal conditions predicted by the thermal-hydraulic model of the core are used to correct cross sections for temperature and density effects. Cross sections are parametrized by color, control rod state (i.e., in or out), and burnup, allowing fuel depletion to be modeled. Either a macroscopic or microscopic model may be employed. The December 1996 release of NESTLE V5.02 includes the option to utilize a Weilandt Eigenvalue Shift method in place of the Semi-Implicit Chebyshev Polynomial method to accelerate the outer iterations. In addition, flux, fission source and power density are now exponentially extrapolated to the new time-step time value to improve convergence. Other features added include the following: implicit or explicit transient T-H feedback option, specification of whether convergence after a NEM/T-H update is demanded, frequency of NEM coupling coefficients update based upon L2 fission source relative error reduction, execution time specification of control file name, input echo execution option, and improved run-time statistics. In addition, various minor bugs were fixed, and code

  20. Melnikov's Method for Non-Linear Oscillators with Non-Linear Excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Margallo, J.; Bejarano, J. D.

    1998-04-01

    The response of a non-linear oscillator of the formx+f(A,B,x)=cg(E, μ,w,k,t), wheref(A,B,x) is an odd non-linearity andcis small, forA0 is considered. The homoclinic orbits for the unperturbed system are obtained by using Jacobian elliptic functions with the generalized harmonic balance method. Also the chaotic limits of this equation are studied with a generalized Melnikov function,M0(E, μ,x,w,k,t0), depending on the variablek. A functionR0(E, μ,w,k) is defined such that there only exists chaotic motion ifE/μ>R0withkfrom 0.51 to 0.99. It is demonstrated with Poincaré maps in the phase plane that there is good agreement between these predictions and the numerical simulations of the Duffing-Holmes oscillator using the fourth-order Runge-Kutta method of numerical integration.

  1. An empirically based steady state friction law and implications for fault stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnuolo, E; Nielsen, S; Violay, M; Di Toro, G

    2016-04-16

    Empirically based rate-and-state friction laws (RSFLs) have been proposed to model the dependence of friction forces with slip and time. The relevance of the RSFL for earthquake mechanics is that few constitutive parameters define critical conditions for fault stability (i.e., critical stiffness and frictional fault behavior). However, the RSFLs were determined from experiments conducted at subseismic slip rates ( V   0.1 m/s) remains questionable on the basis of the experimental evidence of (1) large dynamic weakening and (2) activation of particular fault lubrication processes at seismic slip rates. Here we propose a modified RSFL (MFL) based on the review of a large published and unpublished data set of rock friction experiments performed with different testing machines. The MFL, valid at steady state conditions from subseismic to seismic slip rates (0.1 µm/s fault frictional stability with implications for slip event styles and relevance for models of seismic rupture nucleation, propagation, and arrest.

  2. Non-linear diffusion and pattern formation in vortex matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijngaarden, Rinke J.; Surdeanu, R.; Huijbregtse, J. M.; Rector, J. H.; Dam, B.; Griessen, R.; Einfeld, J.; Woerdenweber, R.

    2000-03-01

    Penetration of magnetic flux in YBa_2Cu_3O7 superconducting thin films and crystals in externally applied magnetic fields is visualized with a magneto-optical technique. A variety of flux patterns due to non-linear vortex behavior is observed: 1. Roughening of the flux front^1 with scaling exponents identical to those observed in burning paper^2. Two regimes are found where respectively spatial disorder and temporal disorder dominate. In the latter regime Kardar-Parisi-Zhang behavior is found. 2. Roughening of the flux profile similar to the Oslo model for rice-piles. 3. Fractal penetration of flux^3 with Hausdorff dimension depending on the critical current anisotropy. 4. Penetration as 'flux-rivers'. 5. The occurrence of commensurate and incommensurate channels in films with anti-dots as predicted in numerical simulations by Reichhardt, Olson and Nori^4. By comparison with numerical simulations, it is shown that most of the observed behavior can be explained in terms of non-linear diffusion of vortices. ^1R. Surdeanu, R.J. Wijngaarden, E. Visser, J.M. Huijbregtse, J.H. Rector, B. Dam and R. Griessen, Phys.Rev. Lett. 83 (1999) 2054 ^2J. Maunuksela, M. Myllys, O.-P. Kähkönen, J. Timonen, N. Provatas, M.J. Alava, T. Ala-Nissila, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1515 (1997) ^3R. Surdeanu, R.J. Wijngaarden, B. Dam, J. Rector, R. Griessen, C. Rossel, Z.F. Ren and J.H. Wang, Phys Rev B 58 (1998) 12467 ^4C. Reichhardt, C.J. Olson and F. Nori, Phys. Rev. B 58, 6534 (1998)

  3. Technical challenges in the construction of the steady-state stellarator Wendelstein 7-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, H.-S.; Wolf, R. C.; Andreeva, T.; Baldzuhn, J.; Birus, D.; Bluhm, T.; Bräuer, T.; Braune, H.; Bykov, V.; Cardella, A.; Durodié, F.; Endler, M.; Erckmann, V.; Gantenbein, G.; Hartmann, D.; Hathiramani, D.; Heimann, P.; Heinemann, B.; Hennig, C.; Hirsch, M.; Holtum, D.; Jagielski, J.; Jelonnek, J.; Kasparek, W.; Klinger, T.; König, R.; Kornejew, P.; Kroiss, H.; Krom, J. G.; Kühner, G.; Laqua, H.; Laqua, H. P.; Lechte, C.; Lewerentz, M.; Maier, J.; McNeely, P.; Messiaen, A.; Michel, G.; Ongena, J.; Peacock, A.; Pedersen, T. S.; Riedl, R.; Riemann, H.; Rong, P.; Rust, N.; Schacht, J.; Schauer, F.; Schroeder, R.; Schweer, B.; Spring, A.; Stäbler, A.; Thumm, M.; Turkin, Y.; Wegener, L.; Werner, A.; Zhang, D.; Zilker, M.; Akijama, T.; Alzbutas, R.; Ascasibar, E.; Balden, M.; Banduch, M.; Baylard, Ch.; Behr, W.; Beidler, C.; Benndorf, A.; Bergmann, T.; Biedermann, C.; Bieg, B.; Biel, W.; Borchardt, M.; Borowitz, G.; Borsuk, V.; Bozhenkov, S.; Brakel, R.; Brand, H.; Brown, T.; Brucker, B.; Burhenn, R.; Buscher, K.-P.; Caldwell-Nichols, C.; Cappa, A.; Cardella, A.; Carls, A.; Carvalho, P.; Ciupiński, Ł.; Cole, M.; Collienne, J.; Czarnecka, A.; Czymek, G.; Dammertz, G.; Dhard, C. P.; Davydenko, V. I.; Dinklage, A.; Drevlak, M.; Drotziger, S.; Dudek, A.; Dumortier, P.; Dundulis, G.; Eeten, P. v.; Egorov, K.; Estrada, T.; Faugel, H.; Fellinger, J.; Feng, Y.; Fernandes, H.; Fietz, W. H.; Figacz, W.; Fischer, F.; Fontdecaba, J.; Freund, A.; Funaba, T.; Fünfgelder, H.; Galkowski, A.; Gates, D.; Giannone, L.; García Regaña, J. M.; Geiger, J.; Geißler, S.; Greuner, H.; Grahl, M.; Groß, S.; Grosman, A.; Grote, H.; Grulke, O.; Haas, M.; Haiduk, L.; Hartfuß, H.-J.; Harris, J. H.; Haus, D.; Hein, B.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Helander, P.; Heller, R.; Hidalgo, C.; Hildebrandt, D.; Höhnle, H.; Holtz, A.; Holzhauer, E.; Holzthüm, R.; Huber, A.; Hunger, H.; Hurd, F.; Ihrke, M.; Illy, S.; Ivanov, A.; Jablonski, S.; Jaksic, N.; Jakubowski, M.; Jaspers, R.; Jensen, H.; Jenzsch, H.; Kacmarczyk, J.; Kaliatk, T.; Kallmeyer, J.; Kamionka, U.; Karaleviciu, R.; Kern, S.; Keunecke, M.; Kleiber, R.; Knauer, J.; Koch, R.; Kocsis, G.; Könies, A.; Köppen, M.; Koslowski, R.; Koshurinov, J.; Krämer-Flecken, A.; Krampitz, R.; Kravtsov, Y.; Krychowiak, M.; Krzesinski, G.; Ksiazek, I.; Kubkowska, M.; Kus, A.; Langish, S.; Laube, R.; Laux, M.; Lazerson, S.; Lennartz, M.; Li, C.; Lietzow, R.; Lohs, A.; Lorenz, A.; Louche, F.; Lubyako, L.; Lumsdaine, A.; Lyssoivan, A.; Maaßberg, H.; Marek, P.; Martens, C.; Marushchenko, N.; Mayer, M.; Mendelevitch, B.; Mertens, Ph.; Mikkelsen, D.; Mishchenko, A.; Missal, B.; Mizuuchi, T.; Modrow, H.; Mönnich, T.; Morizaki, T.; Murakami, S.; Musielok, F.; Nagel, M.; Naujoks, D.; Neilson, H.; Neubauer, O.; Neuner, U.; Nocentini, R.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.; Nührenberg, C.; Obermayer, S.; Offermanns, G.; Oosterbeek, H.; Otte, M.; Panin, A.; Pap, M.; Paquay, S.; Pasch, E.; Peng, X.; Petrov, S.; Pilopp, D.; Pirsch, H.; Plaum, B.; Pompon, F.; Povilaitis, M.; Preinhaelter, J.; Prinz, O.; Purps, F.; Rajna, T.; Récsei, S.; Reiman, A.; Reiter, D.; Remmel, J.; Renard, S.; Rhode, V.; Riemann, J.; Rimkevicius, S.; Riße, K.; Rodatos, A.; Rodin, I.; Romé, M.; Roscher, H.-J.; Rummel, K.; Rummel, Th.; Runov, A.; Ryc, L.; Sachtleben, J.; Samartsev, A.; Sanchez, M.; Sano, F.; Scarabosio, A.; Schmid, M.; Schmitz, H.; Schmitz, O.; Schneider, M.; Schneider, W.; Scheibl, L.; Scholz, M.; Schröder, G.; Schröder, M.; Schruff, J.; Schumacher, H.; Shikhovtsev, I. V.; Shoji, M.; Siegl, G.; Skodzik, J.; Smirnow, M.; Speth, E.; Spong, D. A.; Stadler, R.; Sulek, Z.; Szabó, V.; Szabolics, T.; Szetefi, T.; Szökefalvi-Nagy, Z.; Tereshchenko, A.; Thomsen, H.; Thumm, M.; Timmermann, D.; Tittes, H.; Toi, K.; Tournianski, M.; Toussaint, U. v.; Tretter, J.; Tulipán, S.; Turba, P.; Uhlemann, R.; Urban, J.; Urbonavicius, E.; Urlings, P.; Valet, S.; Van Eester, D.; Van Schoor, M.; Vervier, M.; Viebke, H.; Vilbrandt, R.; Vrancken, M.; Wauters, T.; Weissgerber, M.; Weiß, E.; Weller, A.; Wendorf, J.; Wenzel, U.; Windisch, T.; Winkler, E.; Winkler, M.; Wolowski, J.; Wolters, J.; Wrochna, G.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Yamada, H.; Yokoyama, M.; Zacharias, D.; Zajac, J.; Zangl, G.; Zarnstorff, M.; Zeplien, H.; Zoletnik, S.; Zuin, M.

    2013-12-01

    The next step in the Wendelstein stellarator line is the large superconducting device Wendelstein 7-X, currently under construction in Greifswald, Germany. Steady-state operation is an intrinsic feature of stellarators, and one key element of the Wendelstein 7-X mission is to demonstrate steady-state operation under plasma conditions relevant for a fusion power plant. Steady-state operation of a fusion device, on the one hand, requires the implementation of special technologies, giving rise to technical challenges during the design, fabrication and assembly of such a device. On the other hand, also the physics development of steady-state operation at high plasma performance poses a challenge and careful preparation. The electron cyclotron resonance heating system, diagnostics, experiment control and data acquisition are prepared for plasma operation lasting 30 min. This requires many new technological approaches for plasma heating and diagnostics as well as new concepts for experiment control and data acquisition.

  4. Nonexistence of nonconstant steady-state solutions in a triangular cross-diffusion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Yuan; Tao, Youshan; Winkler, Michael

    2017-05-01

    In this paper we study the Shigesada-Kawasaki-Teramoto model for two competing species with triangular cross-diffusion. We determine explicit parameter ranges within which the model exclusively possesses constant steady state solutions.

  5. Research on Steady States of Fuzzy Cognitive Map and its Application in Three-Rivers Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Peng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuzzy Cognitive Map (FCM offers many advantages such intuitive knowledge representation and fast numerical reasoning ability, etc. It suits modeling and decision-making of dynamic systems. With the aims to effectively help to analyze and control system sustainable evolution, the paper defines the steady states of fixed point and limited cycle of a FCM modeling system. Accordingly, the rules of steady states of the FCM model and the factors influencing the steady states are presented and proved. The Three-Rivers represents a system including population, ecological environment, social development and their relationships. Based on the relationships, the Three-Rivers ecosystem is modeled by FCM and the Three-Rivers ecosystemsustainable evolutionis analyzed bythe rules of the steady states of FCM.

  6. ROLE OF NMDA, NICOTINIC, AND GABA RECEPTORS IN THE STEADY STATE VISUAL EVOKED POTENTIAL IN RATS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript characterizes the receptor pathways involved in pattern-evoked potential generation in rats" NMDA and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors appear to be involved in the generation of the steady-state pattern evoked response in vivo." The pattern evok...

  7. Navier-Stokes Predictions of Dynamic Stability Derivatives: Evaluation of Steady-State Methods

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    DeSpirito, James; Silton, Sidra I; Weinacht, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The prediction of the dynamic stability derivatives-roll-damping, Magnus, and pitch-damping moments-were evaluated for three spin-stabilized projectiles using steady-state computational fluid dynamic (CFD) calculations...

  8. Steady state performance of subcritical and supercritical pressure natural circulation in the same test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swapnalee, B.T.; Vijayan, P.K; Sharma, Manish; Pilkhwal, D.S.; Saha, D.; Sinha, R.K.

    2011-01-01

    For supercritical pressure natural circulation loops, explicit correlation for steady state flow are not available. While using the subcritical natural circulation flow correlation for supercritical pressure data, it has been observed that subcritical flow correlation is not able to predict the steady state flow accurately near supercritical pressure condition. A generalized correlation has been proposed to estimate the steady state flow in supercritical pressure natural circulation loop based on a relationship between dimensionless density and dimensionless enthalpy reported in literature. This generalized correlation has been tested with the steady state supercritical pressure CO 2 data and found to be in good agreement. Subsequently supercritical pressure data for different working fluids reported in literature has also been compared with the proposed correlation. It is observed that the same generalized correlation is applicable for other fluids also. The present paper deals with the details of the test facility, the derivation of the generalized correlation and comparison with experimental data. (author)

  9. Measurements of Gene Expression at Steady State Improve the Predictability of Part Assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haoqian M; Chen, Shuobing; Shi, Handuo; Ji, Weiyue; Zong, Yeqing; Ouyang, Qi; Lou, Chunbo

    2016-03-18

    Mathematical modeling of genetic circuits generally assumes that gene expression is at steady state when measurements are performed. However, conventional methods of measurement do not necessarily guarantee that this assumption is satisfied. In this study, we reveal a bi-plateau mode of gene expression at the single-cell level in bacterial batch cultures. The first plateau is dynamically active, where gene expression is at steady state; the second plateau, however, is dynamically inactive. We further demonstrate that the predictability of assembled genetic circuits in the first plateau (steady state) is much higher than that in the second plateau where conventional measurements are often performed. By taking the nature of steady state into consideration, our method of measurement promises to directly capture the intrinsic property of biological parts/circuits regardless of circuit-host or circuit-environment interactions.

  10. Pump two-phase performance program. Volume 5. Steady-state data. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, W.G.; Jacob, M.C.; Whitehouse, J.C.; Fishburn, J.D.; Kanupka, G.J.

    1980-09-01

    Objective was to obtain steady-state and transient two-phase empirical data to substantiate and improve the reactor coolant pump analytical model currently used for LOCA analysis. A one-fifth scale pump was tested in steady-state runs with single- and two-phase mixtures of water and steam over ranges of operating conditions representative of postulated loss-of-coolant accidents. This volume contains tabulated data and derived parameters obtained for each of 962 selected steady-state test points conducted. A summary chronological listing of all 1322 steady-state test points actually conducted is also provided. The basic data are 67 channels of direct measurements for each test. Twenty-six derived parameters plus drift and standard deviations are calculated from the basic data and presented in the tabulation

  11. Calibration of steady-state car-following models using macroscopic loop detector data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The paper develops procedures for calibrating the steady-state component of various car following models using : macroscopic loop detector data. The calibration procedures are developed for a number of commercially available : microscopic traffic sim...

  12. Bioaccumulation factors and the steady state assumption for cesium isotopes in aquatic foodwebs near nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowan, D.J.

    2013-01-01

    Steady state approaches, such as transfer coefficients or bioaccumulation factors, are commonly used to model the bioaccumulation of 137 Cs in aquatic foodwebs from routine operations and releases from nuclear generating stations and other nuclear facilities. Routine releases from nuclear generating stations and facilities, however, often consist of pulses as liquid waste is stored, analyzed to ensure regulatory compliance and then released. The effect of repeated pulse releases on the steady state assumption inherent in the bioaccumulation factor approach has not been evaluated. In this study, I examine the steady state assumption for aquatic biota by analyzing data for two cesium isotopes in the same biota, one isotope in steady state (stable 133 Cs) from geologic sources and the other released in pulses ( 137 Cs) from reactor operations. I also compare 137 Cs bioaccumulation factors for similar upstream populations from the same system exposed solely to weapon test 137 Cs, and assumed to be in steady state. The steady state assumption appears to be valid for small organisms at lower trophic levels (zooplankton, rainbow smelt and 0+ yellow perch) but not for older and larger fish at higher trophic levels (walleye). Attempts to account for previous exposure and retention through a biokinetics approach had a similar effect on steady state, upstream and non-steady state, downstream populations of walleye, but were ineffective in explaining the more or less constant deviation between fish with steady state exposures and non-steady state exposures of about 2-fold for all age classes of walleye. These results suggest that for large, piscivorous fish, repeated exposure to short duration, pulse releases leads to much higher 137 Cs BAFs than expected from 133 Cs BAFs for the same fish or 137 Cs BAFs for similar populations in the same system not impacted by reactor releases. These results suggest that the steady state approach should be used with caution in any situation

  13. Bioaccumulation factors and the steady state assumption for cesium isotopes in aquatic foodwebs near nuclear facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, D J

    2013-07-01

    Steady state approaches, such as transfer coefficients or bioaccumulation factors, are commonly used to model the bioaccumulation of (137)Cs in aquatic foodwebs from routine operations and releases from nuclear generating stations and other nuclear facilities. Routine releases from nuclear generating stations and facilities, however, often consist of pulses as liquid waste is stored, analyzed to ensure regulatory compliance and then released. The effect of repeated pulse releases on the steady state assumption inherent in the bioaccumulation factor approach has not been evaluated. In this study, I examine the steady state assumption for aquatic biota by analyzing data for two cesium isotopes in the same biota, one isotope in steady state (stable (133)Cs) from geologic sources and the other released in pulses ((137)Cs) from reactor operations. I also compare (137)Cs bioaccumulation factors for similar upstream populations from the same system exposed solely to weapon test (137)Cs, and assumed to be in steady state. The steady state assumption appears to be valid for small organisms at lower trophic levels (zooplankton, rainbow smelt and 0+ yellow perch) but not for older and larger fish at higher trophic levels (walleye). Attempts to account for previous exposure and retention through a biokinetics approach had a similar effect on steady state, upstream and non-steady state, downstream populations of walleye, but were ineffective in explaining the more or less constant deviation between fish with steady state exposures and non-steady state exposures of about 2-fold for all age classes of walleye. These results suggest that for large, piscivorous fish, repeated exposure to short duration, pulse releases leads to much higher (137)Cs BAFs than expected from (133)Cs BAFs for the same fish or (137)Cs BAFs for similar populations in the same system not impacted by reactor releases. These results suggest that the steady state approach should be used with caution in any

  14. Non-linear buckling of an FGM truncated conical shell surrounded by an elastic medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofiyev, A.H.; Kuruoglu, N.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the non-linear buckling of the truncated conical shell made of functionally graded materials (FGMs) surrounded by an elastic medium has been studied using the large deformation theory with von Karman–Donnell-type of kinematic non-linearity. A two-parameter foundation model (Pasternak-type) is used to describe the shell–foundation interaction. The FGM properties are assumed to vary continuously through the thickness direction. The fundamental relations, the modified Donnell type non-linear stability and compatibility equations of the FGM truncated conical shell resting on the Pasternak-type elastic foundation are derived. By using the Superposition and Galerkin methods, the non-linear stability equations for the FGM truncated conical shell is solved. Finally, influences of variations of Winkler foundation stiffness and shear subgrade modulus of the foundation, compositional profiles and shell characteristics on the dimensionless critical non-linear axial load are investigated. The present results are compared with the available data for a special case. -- Highlights: • Nonlinear buckling of FGM conical shell surrounded by elastic medium is studied. • Pasternak foundation model is used to describe the shell–foundation interaction. • Nonlinear basic equations are derived. • Problem is solved by using Superposition and Galerkin methods. • Influences of various parameters on the nonlinear critical load are investigated

  15. Burn cycle requirements comparison of pulsed and steady-state tokamak reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, J.N.; Ehst, D.A.

    1983-12-01

    Burn cycle parameters and energy transfer system requirements were analyzed for an 8-m commercial tokamak reactor using four types of cycles: conventional, hybrid, internal transformer, and steady state. Not surprisingly, steady state is the best burn mode if it can be achieved. The hybrid cycle is a promising alternative to the conventional. In contrast, the internal transformer cycle does not appear attractive for the size tokamak in question

  16. A Novel Chronic Opioid Monitoring Tool to Assess Prescription Drug Steady State Levels in Oral Fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaparin, Naum; Mehta, Neel; Kunkel, Frank; Stripp, Richard; Borg, Damon; Kolb, Elizabeth

    2017-11-01

    Interpretation limitations of urine drug testing and the invasiveness of blood toxicology have motivated the desire for the development of simpler methods to assess biologically active drug levels on an individualized patient basis. Oral fluid is a matrix well-suited for the challenge because collections are based on simple noninvasive procedures and drug concentrations better correlate to blood drug levels as oral fluid is a filtrate of the blood. Well-established pharmacokinetic models were utilized to generate oral fluid steady state concentration ranges to assess the interpretive value of the alternative matrix to monitor steady state plasma oxycodone levels. Paired oral fluid and plasma samples were collected from patients chronically prescribed oxycodone and quantitatively analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Steady state plasma concentration ranges were calculated for each donor and converted to an equivalent range in oral fluid. Measured plasma and oral fluid oxycodone concentrations were compared with respective matrix-matched steady state ranges, using each plasma steady state classification as the control. A high degree of correlation was observed between matrices when classifying donors according to expected steady state oxycodone concentration. Agreement between plasma and oral fluid steady state classifications was observed in 75.6% of paired samples. This study supports novel application of basic pharmacokinetic knowledge to the pain management industry, simplifying and improving individualized drug monitoring and risk assessment through the use of oral fluid drug testing. Many benefits of established therapeutic drug monitoring in plasma can be realized in oral fluid for patients chronically prescribed oxycodone at steady state. © 2017 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  17. A homotopy method based on WENO schemes for solving steady state problems of hyperbolic conservation laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-03

    Numerical Solution of Polynomial Systems by Homotopy Con- tinuation Methods in Handbook of Numerical Analysis , Volume XI, Spe- cial Volume: Foundations of...A homotopy method based on WENO schemes for solving steady state problems of hyperbolic conservation laws Wenrui Hao∗ Jonathan D. Hauenstein† Chi...robustness of the new method . Keywords homotopy continuation, hyperbolic conservation laws, WENO scheme, steady state problems. ∗Department of Applied and

  18. Finite element modelling of creep process - steady state stresses and strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedmak Aleksandar S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Finite element modelling of steady state creep process has been described. Using an analogy of visco-plastic problem with a described procedure, the finite element method has been used to calculate steady state stresses and strains in 2D problems. An example of application of such a procedure have been presented, using real life problem - cylindrical pipe with longitudinal crack at high temperature, under internal pressure, and estimating its residual life, based on the C*integral evaluation.

  19. Non-existence of Steady State Equilibrium in the Neoclassical Growth Model with a Longevity Trend

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Mikkel Nørlem

    of steady state equilibrium when considering the empirically observed trend in longevity. We extend a standard continuous time overlapping generations model by a longevity trend and are thereby able to study the properties of mortality-driven population growth. This turns out to be exceedingly complicated...... to handle, and it is shown that in general no steady state equilibrium exists. Consequently analytical results and long run implications cannot be obtained in a setting with a realistic demographic setup....

  20. Model-based derivation, analysis and control of unstable microaerobic steady-states--considering Rhodospirillum rubrum as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carius, Lisa; Rumschinski, Philipp; Faulwasser, Timm; Flockerzi, Dietrich; Grammel, Hartmut; Findeisen, Rolf

    2014-04-01

    Microaerobic (oxygen-limited) conditions are critical for inducing many important microbial processes in industrial or environmental applications. At very low oxygen concentrations, however, the process performance often suffers from technical limitations. Available dissolved oxygen measurement techniques are not sensitive enough and thus control techniques, that can reliable handle these conditions, are lacking. Recently, we proposed a microaerobic process control strategy, which overcomes these restrictions and allows to assess different degrees of oxygen limitation in bioreactor batch cultivations. Here, we focus on the design of a control strategy for the automation of oxygen-limited continuous cultures using the microaerobic formation of photosynthetic membranes (PM) in Rhodospirillum rubrum as model phenomenon. We draw upon R. rubrum since the considered phenomenon depends on the optimal availability of mixed-carbon sources, hence on boundary conditions which make the process performance challenging. Empirically assessing these specific microaerobic conditions is scarcely practicable as such a process reacts highly sensitive to changes in the substrate composition and the oxygen availability in the culture broth. Therefore, we propose a model-based process control strategy which allows to stabilize steady-states of cultures grown under these conditions. As designing the appropriate strategy requires a detailed knowledge of the system behavior, we begin by deriving and validating an unstructured process model. This model is used to optimize the experimental conditions, and identify properties of the system which are critical for process performance. The derived model facilitates the good process performance via the proposed optimal control strategy. In summary the presented model-based control strategy allows to access and maintain microaerobic steady-states of interest and to precisely and efficiently transfer the culture from one stable microaerobic steady-state

  1. Isotopic effects on non-linearity, molecular radius and intermolecular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    study the isotopic effects on the non-linearity parameter and the physicochemical proper- ties of the liquids, which in turn has been used to study their effect on the intermolecular interactions produced thereof. Keywords. Non-linearity parameter; molecular radius; free length; intermolecular inter- actions. PACS Nos 43.25.

  2. Non-linear wave packet dynamics of coherent states

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have compared the non-linear wave packet dynamics of coherent states of various symmetry groups and found that certain generic features of non-linear evolution are present in each case. Thus the initial coherent structures are quickly destroyed but are followed by Schrödinger cat formation and revival. We also report ...

  3. Identification of Non-Linear Structures using Recurrent Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Hansen, H. I.

    Two different partially recurrent neural networks structured as Multi Layer Perceptrons (MLP) are investigated for time domain identification of a non-linear structure.......Two different partially recurrent neural networks structured as Multi Layer Perceptrons (MLP) are investigated for time domain identification of a non-linear structure....

  4. Identification of Non-Linear Structures using Recurrent Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Nielsen, Søren R. K.; Hansen, H. I.

    1995-01-01

    Two different partially recurrent neural networks structured as Multi Layer Perceptrons (MLP) are investigated for time domain identification of a non-linear structure.......Two different partially recurrent neural networks structured as Multi Layer Perceptrons (MLP) are investigated for time domain identification of a non-linear structure....

  5. Non-Linear Asset Valuation on Markets with Frictions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Waegenaere, A.M.B.; Kast, R.; Lapied, A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides a non-linear pricing rule for the valuation of assets on financial markets with intermediaries.The non-linearity arises from the fact that dealers charge a price for their intermediation between buyer and seller. The pricing rule we propose is an alternative for the wellknown

  6. Non-linearity aspects in the design of submarine pipelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández, M.L.

    1981-01-01

    An arbitrary attempt has been made to classify and discuss some non-linearity aspects related to design, construction and operation of submarine pipelines. Non-linearities usually interrelate and take part of a comprehensive design, making difficult to quantify their individual influence or

  7. Linearity and Non-linearity of Photorefractive effect in Materials ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper we have studied the Linearity and Non-linearity of Photorefractive effect in materials using the band transport model. For low light beam intensities the change in the refractive index is proportional to the electric field for linear optics while for non- linear optics the change in refractive index is directly proportional ...

  8. On the design of approximate non-linear parametric controllers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savaresi, Sergio M.; Nijmeijer, Henk; Guardabassi, Guido O.

    2000-01-01

    This paper focuses on the design of non-linear parametric controllers, around a nominal input/output trajectory of a discrete-time non-linear system. The main result provided herein is a relationship between the tracking performance of the closed-loop control system in the neighbourhood of a nominal

  9. Algorithms for non-linear M-estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Edlund, O; Ekblom, H

    1997-01-01

    In non-linear regression, the least squares method is most often used. Since this estimator is highly sensitive to outliers in the data, alternatives have became increasingly popular during the last decades. We present algorithms for non-linear M-estimation. A trust region approach is used, where...

  10. Steady state effects in a two-pulse diffusion-weighted sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubkov, Mikhail; Stait-Gardner, Timothy; Price, William S; Stilbs, Peter

    2015-04-21

    In conventional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) diffusion measurements a significant amount of experimental time is used up by magnetization recovery, serving to prevent the formation of the steady state, as in the latter case the manifestation of diffusion is modulated by multiple applications of the pulse sequence and conventional diffusion coefficient inference procedures are generally not applicable. Here, an analytical expression for diffusion-related effects in a two-pulse NMR experiment (e.g., pulsed-gradient spin echo) in the steady state mode (with repetition times less than the longitudinal relaxation time of the sample) is derived by employing a Fourier series expansion within the solution of the Bloch-Torrey equations. Considerations are given for the transition conditions between the full relaxation and the steady state experiment description. The diffusion coefficient of a polymer solution (polyethylene glycol) is measured by a two-pulse sequence in the full relaxation mode and for a range of repetition times, approaching the rapid steady state experiment. The precision of the fitting employing the presented steady state solution by far exceeds that of the conventional fitting. Additionally, numerical simulations are performed yielding results strongly supporting the proposed description of the NMR diffusion measurements in the steady state.

  11. Steady state effects in a two-pulse diffusion-weighted sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubkov, Mikhail; Stait-Gardner, Timothy; Price, William S.; Stilbs, Peter

    2015-01-01

    In conventional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) diffusion measurements a significant amount of experimental time is used up by magnetization recovery, serving to prevent the formation of the steady state, as in the latter case the manifestation of diffusion is modulated by multiple applications of the pulse sequence and conventional diffusion coefficient inference procedures are generally not applicable. Here, an analytical expression for diffusion-related effects in a two-pulse NMR experiment (e.g., pulsed-gradient spin echo) in the steady state mode (with repetition times less than the longitudinal relaxation time of the sample) is derived by employing a Fourier series expansion within the solution of the Bloch-Torrey equations. Considerations are given for the transition conditions between the full relaxation and the steady state experiment description. The diffusion coefficient of a polymer solution (polyethylene glycol) is measured by a two-pulse sequence in the full relaxation mode and for a range of repetition times, approaching the rapid steady state experiment. The precision of the fitting employing the presented steady state solution by far exceeds that of the conventional fitting. Additionally, numerical simulations are performed yielding results strongly supporting the proposed description of the NMR diffusion measurements in the steady state

  12. When it pays to rush: interpreting morphogen gradients prior to steady-state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, Timothy; Howard, Martin

    2009-01-01

    During development, morphogen gradients precisely determine the position of gene expression boundaries despite the inevitable presence of fluctuations. Recent experiments suggest that some morphogen gradients may be interpreted prior to reaching steady-state. Theoretical work has predicted that such systems will be more robust to embryo-to-embryo fluctuations. By analyzing two experimentally motivated models of morphogen gradient formation, we investigate the positional precision of gene expression boundaries determined by pre-steady-state morphogen gradients in the presence of embryo-to-embryo fluctuations, internal biochemical noise and variations in the timing of morphogen measurement. Morphogens that are direct transcription factors are found to be particularly sensitive to internal noise when interpreted prior to steady-state, disadvantaging early measurement, even in the presence of large embryo-to-embryo fluctuations. Morphogens interpreted by cell-surface receptors can be measured prior to steady-state without significant decrease in positional precision provided fluctuations in the timing of measurement are small. Applying our results to experiment, we predict that Bicoid, a transcription factor morphogen in Drosophila, is unlikely to be interpreted prior to reaching steady-state. We also predict that Activin in Xenopus and Nodal in zebrafish, morphogens interpreted by cell-surface receptors, can be decoded in pre-steady-state

  13. Reproducibility of hypercapnic ventilatory response measurements with steady-state and rebreathing methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannée, Denise C; Fabius, Timon M; Wagenaar, Michiel; Eijsvogel, Michiel M M; de Jongh, Frans H C

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the hypercapnic ventilatory response (HCVR) was measured, defined as the ventilation response to carbon dioxide tension ( P CO 2 ). We investigated which method, rebreathing or steady-state, is most suitable for measurement of the HCVR in healthy subjects, primarily based on reproducibility. Secondary outcome parameters were subject experience and duration. 20 healthy adults performed a rebreathing and steady-state HCVR measurement on two separate days. Subject experience was assessed using numeric rating scales (NRS). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICCs) of the sensitivity to carbon dioxide above the ventilatory recruitment threshold and the projected apnoea threshold were calculated to determine the reproducibility of both methods. The ICCs of sensitivity were 0.89 (rebreathing) and 0.56 (steady-state). The ICCs of the projected apnoea threshold were 0.84 (rebreathing) and 0.25 (steady-state). The steady-state measurement was preferred by 16 out of 20 subjects; the differences in NRS scores were small. The hypercapnic ventilatory response measured using the rebreathing setup provided reproducible results, while the steady-state method did not. This may be explained by high variability in end-tidal P CO 2 . Differences in subject experience between the methods are small.

  14. Non-linear dielectric monitoring of biological suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treo, E F; Felice, C J

    2007-01-01

    Non-linear dielectric spectroscopy as a tool for in situ monitoring of enzyme assumes a non-linear behavior of the sample when a sinusoidal voltage is applied to it. Even many attempts have been made to improve the original experiments, all of them had limited success. In this paper we present upgrades made to a non-linear dielectric spectrometer developed and the results obtained when using different cells. We emphasized on the electrode surface, characterizing the grinding and polishing procedure. We found that the biological medium does not behave as expected, and the non-linear response is generated in the electrode-electrolyte interface. The electrochemistry of this interface can bias unpredictably the measured non-linear response

  15. Non-linear seismic analysis of structures coupled with fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descleve, P.; Derom, P.; Dubois, J.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents a method to calculate non-linear structure behaviour under horizontal and vertical seismic excitation, making possible the full non-linear seismic analysis of a reactor vessel. A pseudo forces method is used to introduce non linear effects and the problem is solved by superposition. Two steps are used in the method: - Linear calculation of the complete model. - Non linear analysis of thin shell elements and calculation of seismic induced pressure originating from linear and non linear effects, including permanent loads and thermal stresses. Basic aspects of the mathematical formulation are developed. It has been applied to axi-symmetric shell element using a Fourier series solution. For the fluid interaction effect, a comparison is made with a dynamic test. In an example of application, the displacement and pressure time history are given. (orig./GL)

  16. Theoretical and experimental steady-state rotordynamics of an adaptive Air Film Damper with Metal Rubber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanhong, Ma; Zhichao, Liang; Hong, Wang; Dayi, Zhang; Jie, Hong

    2013-10-01

    hydrodynamic air film, the maximum stiffness of the MR can be captured. Compared to the steady-state properties of the rotor system without an AFD, the eccentricity of the journal ɛj, amplitude ratio A, transmitted force F, and the force transmissibility T all decrease significantly in the rotor system of an AFD by providing damping and additional stiffness. It is validated that greater stiffness and damping of MR benefits the steady-state properties of the rotor system. Based on the experimental investigation, the mechanism and the vibration track process of the floating ring are validated. During the whole operational process of the AFD, the phase of the floating ring always lags behind the journal, indicating that a damping effect is provided to the rotor system. The frequency response peak of the rotor system with an AFD is smaller than the one without an AFD, and the critical speed of the AFD is elevated; these serve to verify that additional stiffness was provided to the rotor. Moreover, a smaller initial air film clearance can generate a larger air film force, which provides additional stiffness to the rotor system and has a better effect on vibration control.

  17. 40 CFR 1033.515 - Discrete-mode steady-state emission tests of locomotives and locomotive engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrete-mode steady-state emission... Procedures § 1033.515 Discrete-mode steady-state emission tests of locomotives and locomotive engines. This... a warm-up followed by a sequence of nominally steady-state discrete test modes, as described in...

  18. Illustrating the Steady-State Condition and the Single-Molecule Kinetic Method with the NMDA Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosman, Daniel J.

    2009-01-01

    The steady-state is a fundamental aspect of biochemical pathways in cells; indeed, the concept of steady-state is a definition of life itself. In a simple enzyme kinetic scheme, the steady-state condition is easy to define analytically but experimentally often difficult to capture because of its evanescent quality; the initial, constant velocity…

  19. Steady-state properties of Josephson junctions with direct conductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubkov, A.A.; Kupriyanov, M.Y.; Semenov, V.K.

    1981-01-01

    A new criterion for determining the kinetic inductance of Josephson junctions is introduced. The effects of temperature T, the critical temperatures of the superconducting electrodes T/sub c/1 and T/sub c/2, and the weak-link length on the kinetic inductance of ''dirty'' junctions with direct conductivity are analyzed within the framework of the Usadel equations. Numerical calculations show that both a large characteristic voltage and a nearly harmonic dependence of the current on the phase difference of the superconducting-electrode wave functions cannot be obtained by varying the junction parameters

  20. Landslide-driven drainage divide migration and quantifying progress toward topographic steady state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlquist, M. P.; West, A. J.; Li, G.

    2017-12-01

    Drainage divide migration is a critical process in landscape evolution. It reorganizes river basins, redistributing fluvial erosive energy to facilitate mass balance, and contributes to feedbacks between tectonics, erosion, and climate. However, it leaves little straightforward evidence in the geologic or geomorphic record, and has been subject to minimal field study, hampering understanding its role in landscape evolution. Landslides link river channels, hillslopes, and ridges in steep landscapes, and thus play a central role in divide migration. In this study, we examine landslides triggered by three events: the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake in central China, the 2015 Gorkha Earthquake in Nepal, and the 2009 Typhoon Morakot in southern Taiwan, seeking new insight into the controls on divide migration. Of the 100,000 landslides triggered, we mapped 367 which caused a divide to migrate, resulting in a total exchange of about 2 km2 between basins. We use this database of divide migrations to explore relationships between the geometry of rivers and the exchange of drainage area, comparing metrics which have been proposed as indicators of divide stability across mobile divides. We find that upstream-averaged local relief and upstream-averaged channel gradient predict the We propose a new metric to describe divide mobility and the overall influence of a reorganizing event on a landscape, using it to estimate the impact of events similar to the 2009 Typhoon Morakot on the progress of Taiwan's Central Range toward topographic steady state.

  1. Modelling of Quench Limit for Steady State Heat Deposits in LHC Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Bocian, D; Siemko, A

    2008-01-01

    A quench, the transition of a conductor from the superconducting to the normal conducting state, occurs irreversibly in the accelerator magnets if one of the three parameters: temperature, magnetic field or current density exceeds a critical value. Energy deposited in the superconductor by the particle beams provokes quenches detrimental for the accelerator operation. In particular if particles impacting on the vacuum chamber and their secondary showers depose energy in the magnet coils. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) nominal beam intensity is 3.2 ldr 10^14 protons. A quench occurs if a fraction of the order of 10^7 protons per second is lost locally. A network model is used to simulate the thermodynamic behaviour of the magnets. The heat flow in the network model was validated with measurements performed in the CERN magnet test facility. A steady state heat flow was introduced in the coil by using the quench heaters implemented in the LHC magnets. The value of the heat source current is determined by the ne...

  2. Scoping studies for small steady-state tokamaks for divertor testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galambos, J.D.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Nelson, B.E.; Hirshman, S.P.; Fogarty, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    A prime uncertainty in next-generation devices is the divertor performance. For the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), the divertor limit often plays a more critical role in the operational scenario definition than do beta limit and energy confinement constraints. Hence, it is desirable to test the divertors in an environment as close as possible to that expected in next-step burning plasma experiments. Initial global scoping studies are done for small, steady-state, copper coil, beam-driven tokamaks that are dedicated to divertor testing. The usual ITER global physics models (beta limit, energy confinement, and analytic divertor heat load calculation) are incorporated, and for performance criteria we require that the divertor heat load and plasma collisionality in the edge region be similar to those expected in ITER. The smallest, lowest-cost devices satisfying these constraints tend to have major radius below 1 m, plasma current of 0.5 to 1 MA, and low aspect ratio and costs of a few tens of millions of dollars. Injection powers of about 4 to 5 MW are needed to sustain the plasma current, maintain plasma power balance, and provide the required divertor heat load. 6 refs., 5 tabs

  3. Numerical modelling in non linear fracture mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viggo Tvergaard

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Some numerical studies of crack propagation are based on using constitutive models that accountfor damage evolution in the material. When a critical damage value has been reached in a materialpoint, it is natural to assume that this point has no more carrying capacity, as is done numerically in the elementvanish technique. In the present review this procedure is illustrated for micromechanically based materialmodels, such as a ductile failure model that accounts for the nucleation and growth of voids to coalescence, and a model for intergranular creep failure with diffusive growth of grain boundary cavities leading to micro-crack formation. The procedure is also illustrated for low cycle fatigue, based on continuum damage mechanics. In addition, the possibility of crack growth predictions for elastic-plastic solids using cohesive zone models to represent the fracture process is discussed.

  4. Tailored parameter optimization methods for ordinary differential equation models with steady-state constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Anna; Raeth, Sebastian; Theis, Fabian J; Hausser, Angelika; Hasenauer, Jan

    2016-08-22

    Ordinary differential equation (ODE) models are widely used to describe (bio-)chemical and biological processes. To enhance the predictive power of these models, their unknown parameters are estimated from experimental data. These experimental data are mostly collected in perturbation experiments, in which the processes are pushed out of steady state by applying a stimulus. The information that the initial condition is a steady state of the unperturbed process provides valuable information, as it restricts the dynamics of the process and thereby the parameters. However, implementing steady-state constraints in the optimization often results in convergence problems. In this manuscript, we propose two new methods for solving optimization problems with steady-state constraints. The first method exploits ideas from optimization algorithms on manifolds and introduces a retraction operator, essentially reducing the dimension of the optimization problem. The second method is based on the continuous analogue of the optimization problem. This continuous analogue is an ODE whose equilibrium points are the optima of the constrained optimization problem. This equivalence enables the use of adaptive numerical methods for solving optimization problems with steady-state constraints. Both methods are tailored to the problem structure and exploit the local geometry of the steady-state manifold and its stability properties. A parameterization of the steady-state manifold is not required. The efficiency and reliability of the proposed methods is evaluated using one toy example and two applications. The first application example uses published data while the second uses a novel dataset for Raf/MEK/ERK signaling. The proposed methods demonstrated better convergence properties than state-of-the-art methods employed in systems and computational biology. Furthermore, the average computation time per converged start is significantly lower. In addition to the theoretical results, the

  5. Joint non-linear ranging and affine synchronization basis for a network of mobile nodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajan, R.T.; Van der Veen, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Synchronization and localization are critical challenges for the coherent functioning of a wireless network of mobile nodes. In this paper, a novel joint non-linear range and affine time model is presented based on two way time stamp exchanges, extending an existing affine time-range model. For a

  6. Non-linear propagation of laser beam and focusing due to self ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... self-focusing analysis indicates that the Kerr non-linearity acts as a perturbation on the radial inhomogeneity due to fiber geometry. Analysis indicates that the paraxial rays and peripheral rays focus at different points, indicating aberration effect. Calculated critical power matches with the experimentally reported result.

  7. Non-linear second-order periodic systems with non-smooth potential

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper we study second order non-linear periodic systems driven by the ordinary vector -Laplacian with a non-smooth, locally Lipschitz potential function. Our approach is variational and it is based on the non-smooth critical point theory. We prove existence and multiplicity results under general growth conditions on ...

  8. Non-linear second-order periodic systems with non-smooth potential

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. In this paper we study second order non-linear periodic systems driven by the ordinary vector p-Laplacian with a non-smooth, locally Lipschitz potential function. Our approach is variational and it is based on the non-smooth critical point theory. We prove existence and multiplicity results under general growth ...

  9. Steady-State Thermal-Hydraulics Analyses for the Conversion of the BR2 Reactor to LEU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Licht, J. R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bergeron, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dionne, B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Van den Branden, G. [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Mol (Belgium); Kalcheva, S [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Mol (Belgium); Sikik, E [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Mol (Belgium); Koonen, E [Belgian Nuclear Research Center (SCK-CEN), Mol (Belgium)

    2016-09-01

    BR2 is a research reactor used for radioisotope production and materials testing. It’s a tank-in-pool type reactor cooled by light water and moderated by beryllium and light water. The reactor core consists of a beryllium moderator forming a matrix of 79 hexagonal prisms in a hyperboloid configuration; each having a central bore that can contain a variety of different components such as a fuel assembly, a control or regulating rod, an experimental device, or a beryllium or aluminum plug. Based on a series of tests, the BR2 operation is currently limited to a maximum allowable heat flux of 470 W/cm2 to ensure fuel plate integrity during steady-state operation and after a loss-of-flow/loss-of-pressure accident. A feasibility study for the conversion of the BR2 reactor from highly-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel was previously performed to verify it can operate safely at the same maximum nominal steady-state heat flux. An assessment was also performed to quantify the heat fluxes at which the onset of flow instability and critical heat flux occur for each fuel type. This document updates and expands these results for the current representative core configuration (assuming a fresh beryllium matrix) by evaluating the onset of nucleate boiling (ONB), onset of fully developed nucleate boiling (FDNB), onset of flow instability (OFI) and critical heat flux (CHF).

  10. Taming waveform inversion non-linearity through phase unwrapping of the model and objective functions

    KAUST Repository

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2012-09-25

    Traveltime inversion focuses on the geometrical features of the waveform (traveltimes), which is generally smooth, and thus, tends to provide averaged (smoothed) information of the model. On other hand, general waveform inversion uses additional elements of the wavefield including amplitudes to extract higher resolution information, but this comes at the cost of introducing non-linearity to the inversion operator, complicating the convergence process. We use unwrapped phase-based objective functions in waveform inversion as a link between the two general types of inversions in a domain in which such contributions to the inversion process can be easily identified and controlled. The instantaneous traveltime is a measure of the average traveltime of the energy in a trace as a function of frequency. It unwraps the phase of wavefields yielding far less non-linearity in the objective function than that experienced with conventional wavefields, yet it still holds most of the critical wavefield information in its frequency dependency. However, it suffers from non-linearity introduced by the model (or reflectivity), as reflections from independent events in our model interact with each other. Unwrapping the phase of such a model can mitigate this non-linearity as well. Specifically, a simple modification to the inverted domain (or model), can reduce the effect of the model-induced non-linearity and, thus, make the inversion more convergent. Simple numerical examples demonstrate these assertions.

  11. Steady state flow evaluations for passive auxiliary feedwater system of APR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jongha; Kim, Jaeyul; Seong, Hoje; Kang, Kyoungho

    2012-01-01

    This paper briefly introduces a methodology to evaluate steady state flow of APR+ Passive Auxiliary Feedwater System (PAFS). The PAFS is being developed as a safety grade passive system to completely replace the existing active Auxiliary Feedwater System (AFWS). Natural circulation cooling can be generally classified into the single-phase, two-phase, and boiling-condensation modes. The PAF is designed to be operated in a boiling-condensation natural circulation mode. The steady-state flow rate should be equal to the steady-state boiling/condensation rate determined by the steady-state energy and momentum balances in the PAFS. The determined steady-state flow rate can be used in the design optimization for the natural circulation loop of the PAFS through the steady-state momentum balance. Since the retarding force, which is to be balanced by the driving force in the natural circulation system design depends on the reliable evaluation of the success of a natural circulation system design depends on the reliable evaluation of the pressure loss coefficients. In PAFS, the core decay heat is released by natural circulation flow between the S G secondary side and the Passive Condensation Heat Exchanger (PCHX) that is immersed in the Passive Condensation Cooling Tank (PCCT). The PCCT is located on the top of Auxiliary building The driving force is determined by the difference between the S/G (heat Source) secondary water level and condensation liquid (heat sink) level. It will overcome retarding force at flowrate in the system, which is determined by vaporization and condensation of the steam which is generated at the S/G by the latent heat in system. In this study, the theoretical method to estimate the steady state flow rate in boiling-condensation natural circulation system is developed and compared with test results

  12. An Efficient Steady-State Analysis Method for Large Boolean Networks with High Maximum Node Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Changki; Hwang, Jeewon; Cho, Kwang-Hyun; Shin, Insik

    2015-01-01

    Boolean networks have been widely used to model biological processes lacking detailed kinetic information. Despite their simplicity, Boolean network dynamics can still capture some important features of biological systems such as stable cell phenotypes represented by steady states. For small models, steady states can be determined through exhaustive enumeration of all state transitions. As the number of nodes increases, however, the state space grows exponentially thus making it difficult to find steady states. Over the last several decades, many studies have addressed how to handle such a state space explosion. Recently, increasing attention has been paid to a satisfiability solving algorithm due to its potential scalability to handle large networks. Meanwhile, there still lies a problem in the case of large models with high maximum node connectivity where the satisfiability solving algorithm is known to be computationally intractable. To address the problem, this paper presents a new partitioning-based method that breaks down a given network into smaller subnetworks. Steady states of each subnetworks are identified by independently applying the satisfiability solving algorithm. Then, they are combined to construct the steady states of the overall network. To efficiently apply the satisfiability solving algorithm to each subnetwork, it is crucial to find the best partition of the network. In this paper, we propose a method that divides each subnetwork to be smallest in size and lowest in maximum node connectivity. This minimizes the total cost of finding all steady states in entire subnetworks. The proposed algorithm is compared with others for steady states identification through a number of simulations on both published small models and randomly generated large models with differing maximum node connectivities. The simulation results show that our method can scale up to several hundreds of nodes even for Boolean networks with high maximum node connectivity. The

  13. Steady state operation and control experiments on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saint-Laurent, F.

    2000-01-01

    The main programme of the Tore Supra tokamak is to investigate the route towards long pulse plasma discharges. Tore Supra is thus equipped with a superconducting toroidal magnet, a full set of actively cooled plasma facing components, and a heating and current drive capability based on high power RF systems connected to actively cooled antennas. After pioneering investigations using the LHCD system alone (2 min and zero loop voltage discharges), recent efforts have concentrated on finding scenarios to couple the two RF heating systems in order to perform high power, long duration discharges. To this aim, 6.5 MW, 25 s as well as 4 MW, 60 s discharges have been successfully achieved. At these high power levels, the plasma-wall interaction becomes a critical issue, and recycling fluxes must be controlled to maintain density and to avoid plasma contamination. All these results contributed to the validation of the upgrade of the Tore Supra first wall components (CIEL project) scheduled for 2000. (author)

  14. Computer modeling of batteries from non-linear circuit elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waaben, S.; Federico, J.; Moskowitz, I.

    1983-01-01

    A simple non-linear circuit model for battery behavior is given. It is based on time-dependent features of the well-known PIN change storage diode, whose behavior is described by equations similar to those associated with electrochemical cells. The circuit simulation computer program ADVICE was used to predict non-linear response from a topological description of the battery analog built from advice components. By a reasonable choice of one set of parameters, the circuit accurately simulates a wide spectrum of measured non-linear battery responses to within a few millivolts.

  15. Developing optimal non-linear scoring function for protein design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Changyu; Li, Xiang; Liang, Jie

    2004-11-22

    Motivation. Protein design aims to identify sequences compatible with a given protein fold but incompatible to any alternative folds. To select the correct sequences and to guide the search process, a design scoring function is critically important. Such a scoring function should be able to characterize the global fitness landscape of many proteins simultaneously. To find optimal design scoring functions, we introduce two geometric views and propose a formulation using a mixture of non-linear Gaussian kernel functions. We aim to solve a simplified protein sequence design problem. Our goal is to distinguish each native sequence for a major portion of representative protein structures from a large number of alternative decoy sequences, each a fragment from proteins of different folds. Our scoring function discriminates perfectly a set of 440 native proteins from 14 million sequence decoys. We show that no linear scoring function can succeed in this task. In a blind test of unrelated proteins, our scoring function misclassfies only 13 native proteins out of 194. This compares favorably with about three-four times more misclassifications when optimal linear functions reported in the literature are used. We also discuss how to develop protein folding scoring function.

  16. Quantum entanglement at high temperatures? Bosonic systems in nonequilibrium steady state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiang, Jen-Tsung [Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, Fudan University,Shanghai 200433 (China); Hu, B.L. [Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, Fudan University,Shanghai 200433 (China); Joint Quantum Institute and Maryland Center for Fundamental Physics, University of Maryland,College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

    2015-11-13

    This is the second of a series of three papers examining how viable it is for entanglement to be sustained at high temperatures for quantum systems in thermal equilibrium (Case A), in nonequilibrium (Case B) and in nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) conditions (Case C). The system we analyze here consists of two coupled quantum harmonic oscillators each interacting with its own bath described by a scalar field, set at temperatures T{sub 1}>T{sub 2}. For constant bilinear inter-oscillator coupling studied here (Case C1) owing to the Gaussian nature, the problem can be solved exactly at arbitrary temperatures even for strong coupling. We find that the valid entanglement criterion in general is not a function of the bath temperature difference, in contrast to thermal transport in the same NESS setting http://arxiv.org/abs/1405.7642. Thus lowering the temperature of one of the thermal baths does not necessarily help to safeguard the entanglement between the oscillators. Indeed, quantum entanglement will disappear if any one of the thermal baths has a temperature higher than the critical temperature T{sub c}, defined as the temperature above which quantum entanglement vanishes. With the Langevin equations derived we give a full display of how entanglement dynamics in this system depends on T{sub 1}, T{sub 2}, the inter-oscillator coupling and the system-bath coupling strengths. For weak oscillator-bath coupling the critical temperature T{sub c} is about the order of the inverse oscillator frequency, but for strong oscillator-bath coupling it will depend on the bath cutoff frequency. We conclude that in most realistic circumstances, for bosonic systems in NESS with constant bilinear coupling, ‘hot entanglement’ is largely a fiction.

  17. Quantum entanglement at high temperatures? Bosonic systems in nonequilibrium steady state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiang, Jen-Tsung; Hu, B. L.

    2015-11-01

    This is the second of a series of three papers examining how viable it is for entanglement to be sustained at high temperatures for quantum systems in thermal equilibrium (Case A), in nonequilibrium (Case B) and in nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) conditions (Case C). The system we analyze here consists of two coupled quantum harmonic oscillators each interacting with its own bath described by a scalar field, set at temperatures T 1 > T 2. For constant bilinear inter-oscillator coupling studied here (Case C1) owing to the Gaussian nature, the problem can be solved exactly at arbitrary temperatures even for strong coupling. We find that the valid entanglement criterion in general is not a function of the bath temperature difference, in contrast to thermal transport in the same NESS setting [1]. Thus lowering the temperature of one of the thermal baths does not necessarily help to safeguard the entanglement between the oscillators. Indeed, quantum entanglement will disappear if any one of the thermal baths has a temperature higher than the critical temperature T c, defined as the temperature above which quantum entanglement vanishes. With the Langevin equations derived we give a full display of how entanglement dynamics in this system depends on T 1, T 2, the inter-oscillator coupling and the system-bath coupling strengths. For weak oscillator-bath coupling the critical temperature T c is about the order of the inverse oscillator frequency, but for strong oscillator-bath coupling it will depend on the bath cutoff frequency. We conclude that in most realistic circumstances, for bosonic systems in NESS with constant bilinear coupling, `hot entanglement' is largely a fiction.

  18. Epoxide hydrolase-catalyzed enantioselective conversion of trans-stilbene oxide: Insights into the reaction mechanism from steady-state and pre-steady-state enzyme kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archelas, Alain; Zhao, Wei; Faure, Bruno; Iacazio, Gilles; Kotik, Michael

    2016-02-01

    A detailed kinetic study based on steady-state and pre-steady-state measurements is described for the highly enantioselective epoxide hydrolase Kau2. The enzyme, which is a member of the α/β-hydrolase fold family, preferentially reacts with the (S,S)-enantiomer of trans-stilbene oxide (TSO) with an E value of ∼200. The enzyme follows a classical two-step catalytic mechanism with formation of an alkyl-enzyme intermediate in the first step and hydrolysis of this intermediate in a rate-limiting second step. Tryptophan fluorescence quenching during TSO conversion appears to correlate with alkylation of the enzyme. The steady-state data are consistent with (S,S) and (R,R)-TSO being two competing substrates with marked differences in k(cat) and K(M) values. The high enantiopreference of the epoxide hydrolase is best explained by pronounced differences in the second-order alkylation rate constant (k2/K(S)) and the alkyl-enzyme hydrolysis rate k3 between the (S,S) and (R,R)-enantiomers of TSO. Our data suggest that during conversion of (S,S)-TSO the two active site tyrosines, Tyr(157) and Tyr(259), serve mainly as electrophilic catalysts in the alkylation half-reaction, polarizing the oxirane oxygen of the bound epoxide through hydrogen bond formation, however, without fully donating their hydrogens to the forming alkyl-enzyme intermediate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Dynamic evolution of initial instability during non-steady-state growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Zhibo; Zheng, Wenjian; Wei, Yanhong; Song, Kuijing

    2014-06-01

    Dynamic evolution of initial instability is investigated by an analytic model obtained by modifying the theory of Warren and Langer [Phys. Rev. E 47, 2702 (1993)] and the quantitative phase-field model in directional solidification under transient conditions for realistic parameters of a dilute alloy. The evolutions of tip velocity and concentration in the liquid side of the interface predicted by the analytic model agree very well with that from the phase-field simulation in the linear growth stage of the non-steady-state growth, indicating that the model could be used as a convenient method to study the initial instability during non-steady-state growth. The influences of non-steady-state conditions which include the increasing rate of pulling speed and temperature gradient at the onset of initial instability are investigated, and we find that, the initial instability seems to depend strongly on the non-steady-state conditions and the non-steady-state history, and thus, it should be primarily considered in the study of the transient growth.

  20. A two-step iterative method for evolving nonlinear acoustic systems to a steady-state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Willie R.; Myers, Michael K.

    1990-01-01

    A new approach for evolving two-dimensional nonlinear acoustic systems with flow to a steady state is presented. The approach is a two-step iterative method which is tested on a benchmark acoustic problem for which an exact analytical solution is available. Results are also calculated for a nonlinear acoustic problem for which an exact analytical solution is not known. Results indicate that the two-step method represents a powerful, efficient, and stable method for evolving two-dimensional acoustic systems to a steady state, and that the method is applicable to any number of spatial dimensions and to other hyperbolic systems. It is noted that for the benchmark problem only a single iteration on the method is required when the transient and steady-state field are of the same order of magnitude; however, four iterations are required when the steady-state field is several orders of magnitude smaller than the transient field. This method requires six iterations before achieving a steady state for the nonlinear test problem.

  1. The Markov process admits a consistent steady-state thermodynamic formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Liangrong; Zhu, Yi; Hong, Liu

    2018-01-01

    The search for a unified formulation for describing various non-equilibrium processes is a central task of modern non-equilibrium thermodynamics. In this paper, a novel steady-state thermodynamic formalism was established for general Markov processes described by the Chapman-Kolmogorov equation. Furthermore, corresponding formalisms of steady-state thermodynamics for the master equation and Fokker-Planck equation could be rigorously derived in mathematics. To be concrete, we proved that (1) in the limit of continuous time, the steady-state thermodynamic formalism for the Chapman-Kolmogorov equation fully agrees with that for the master equation; (2) a similar one-to-one correspondence could be established rigorously between the master equation and Fokker-Planck equation in the limit of large system size; (3) when a Markov process is restrained to one-step jump, the steady-state thermodynamic formalism for the Fokker-Planck equation with discrete state variables also goes to that for master equations, as the discretization step gets smaller and smaller. Our analysis indicated that general Markov processes admit a unified and self-consistent non-equilibrium steady-state thermodynamic formalism, regardless of underlying detailed models.

  2. Paracetamol decreases steady-state exposure to lamotrigine by induction of glucuronidation in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastrup, Sandra; Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Fruekilde, Palle Bach Nielsen; Damkier, Per

    2016-04-01

    Patients receiving lamotrigine therapy frequently use paracetamol concomitantly. While one study suggests a possible, clinically relevant drug-drug interaction, practical recommendations of the concomitant use are inconsistent. We performed a systematic pharmacokinetic study in healthy volunteers to quantify the effect of 4 day treatment with paracetamol on the metabolism of steady-state lamotrigine. Twelve healthy, male volunteers participated in an open label, sequential interaction study. Lamotrigine was titrated to steady-state (100 mg daily) over 36 days, and blood and urine sampling was performed in a non-randomized order with and without paracetamol (1 g four times daily). The primary endpoint was change in steady-state area under the plasma concentration-time curve of lamotrigine. Secondary endpoints were changes in total apparent oral clearance, renal clearance, trough concentration of lamotrigine and formation clearance of lamotrigine glucuronide conjugates. Co-administration of lamotrigine and paracetamol decreased the steady-state area under the plasma concentration-time curve of lamotrigine by 20% (95% CI 10%, 25%; P steady-state lamotrigine glucuronidation, resulting in a 20% decrease in total systemic exposure and a 25% decrease in trough value of lamotrigine. This interaction may be of clinical relevance in some patients. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  3. Demonstration of the steady-state fluctuation theorem from a single trajectory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, G M; Carberry, D M; Reid, J C; Sevick, E M; Evans, D J

    2005-01-01

    The fluctuation theorem (FT) quantifies the probability of Second Law of Thermodynamics violations in small systems over short timescales. While this theorem has been experimentally demonstrated for systems that are perturbed from an initial equilibrium state, there are a number of studies suggesting that the theorem applies asymptotically in the long time limit to systems in a non-equilibrium steady state. The asymptotic application of the FT to such non-equilibrium steady-states has been referred to in the literature as the steady-state fluctuation theorem (or SSFT). In 2005 Wang et al demonstrated experimentally an integrated form of the SSFT using a colloidal bead that was weakly held in a circularly translating optical trap. Moreover, they showed that the integrated form of the FT may, for certain systems, hold under non-equilibrium steady states for all time, and not just in the long time limit, as suggested by the SSFT. While demonstration of the integrated forms of these theorems is compact and illustrative, a proper demonstration shows the theorem directly, rather than in its integrated form. In this paper, we present experimental results that demonstrate the SSFT directly, and show that the FT can hold for all time under non-equilibrium steady states

  4. Steady-state analysis of activated sludge processes with a settler model including sludge compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, S; Zambrano, J; Carlsson, B

    2016-01-01

    A reduced model of a completely stirred-tank bioreactor coupled to a settling tank with recycle is analyzed in its steady states. In the reactor, the concentrations of one dominant particulate biomass and one soluble substrate component are modelled. While the biomass decay rate is assumed to be constant, growth kinetics can depend on both substrate and biomass concentrations, and optionally model substrate inhibition. Compressive and hindered settling phenomena are included using the Bürger-Diehl settler model, which consists of a partial differential equation. Steady-state solutions of this partial differential equation are obtained from an ordinary differential equation, making steady-state analysis of the entire plant difficult. A key result showing that the ordinary differential equation can be replaced with an approximate algebraic equation simplifies model analysis. This algebraic equation takes the location of the sludge-blanket during normal operation into account, allowing for the limiting flux capacity caused by compressive settling to easily be included in the steady-state mass balance equations for the entire plant system. This novel approach grants the possibility of more realistic solutions than other previously published reduced models, comprised of yet simpler settler assumptions. The steady-state concentrations, solids residence time, and the wastage flow ratio are functions of the recycle ratio. Solutions are shown for various growth kinetics; with different values of biomass decay rate, influent volumetric flow, and substrate concentration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Linear and non-linear optics of condensed matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, T.P.

    1977-01-01

    Part I - Linear optics: 1. General introduction. 2. Frequency dependence of epsilon(ω, k vector). 3. Wave-vector dependence of epsilon(ω, k vector). 4. Tensor character of epsilon(ω, k vector). Part II - Non-linear optics: 5. Introduction. 6. A classical theory of non-linear response in one dimension. 7. The generalization to three dimensions. 8. General properties of the polarizability tensors. 9. The phase-matching condition. 10. Propagation in a non-linear dielectric. 11. Second harmonic generation. 12. Coupling of three waves. 13. Materials and their non-linearities. 14. Processes involving energy exchange with the medium. 15. Two-photon absorption. 16. Stimulated Raman effect. 17. Electro-optic effects. 18. Limitations of the approach presented here. (author)

  6. Non-linear realization of supersymmetry in de Sitter space

    CERN Document Server

    Zumino, B

    1977-01-01

    The author derives the non-linear transformation law and the non- linear Lagrangian for a Goldstone spinor corresponding to spontaneous breaking of global supersymmetry in a de Sitter space with O(3,2) invariance (anti de Sitter space). With a suitable choice of the Goldstone spinor field the Lagrangian agrees with the form suggested by the coupling to supergravity. The construction is also valid for the case of extended supersymmetry. (21 refs).

  7. Non-Linear Systems Identification Using Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, S.; Billings, S.A.; Grant, P.M.

    1989-01-01

    Multi-layered neural networks offer an exciting alternative for modelling complex non-linear systems. This paper investigates the identification of discrete-time non-linear systems using neural networks with a single hidden layer. New parameter estimation algorithms are derived for the neural network model based on a prediction error formulation and the application to both simulated and real data is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the neural network approach.

  8. Effect of steady-state faldaprevir on the pharmacokinetics of steady-state methadone and buprenorphine-naloxone in subjects receiving stable addiction management therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, David; Schobelock, Michael J; Riesenberg, Robert R; Vince, Bradley D; Webster, Lynn R; Adeniji, Abidemi; Elgadi, Mabrouk; Huang, Fenglei

    2015-01-01

    The effects of steady-state faldaprevir on the safety, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of steady-state methadone and buprenorphine-naloxone were assessed in 34 healthy male and female subjects receiving stable addiction management therapy. Subjects continued receiving a stable oral dose of either methadone (up to a maximum dose of 180 mg per day) or buprenorphine-naloxone (up to a maximum dose of 24 mg-6 mg per day) and also received oral faldaprevir (240 mg) once daily (QD) for 8 days following a 480-mg loading dose. Serial blood samples were taken for pharmacokinetic analysis. The pharmacodynamics of the opioid maintenance regimens were evaluated by the objective and subjective opioid withdrawal scales. Coadministration of faldaprevir with methadone or buprenorphine-naloxone resulted in geometric mean ratios for the steady-state area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (AUC(0-24,ss)), the steady-state maximum concentration of the drug in plasma (C(max,ss)), and the steady-state concentration of the drug in plasma at 24 h (C(24,ss)) of 0.92 to 1.18 for (R)-methadone, (S)-methadone, buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, and naloxone, with 90% confidence intervals including, or very close to including, 1.00 (no effect), suggesting a limited overall effect of faldaprevir. Although individual data showed moderate variability in the exposures between subjects and treatments, there was no evidence of symptoms of opiate overdose or withdrawal either during the coadministration of faldaprevir with methadone or buprenorphine-naloxone or after faldaprevir dosing was stopped. Similar faldaprevir exposures were observed in the methadone- and buprenorphine-naloxone-treated subjects. In conclusion, faldaprevir at 240 mg QD can be coadministered with methadone or buprenorphine-naloxone without dose adjustment, although given the relatively narrow therapeutic windows of these agents, monitoring for opiate overdose and withdrawal may still be appropriate. (This

  9. Computer program for the equations describing the steady state of enzyme reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varon, R; Garcia-Sevilla, F; Garcia-Moreno, M; Garcia-Canovas, F; Peyro, R; Duggleby, R G

    1997-04-01

    The derivation of steady-state equations is frequently carried out in enzyme kinetic studies. Done manually, this becomes tedious and prone to human error. The computer programs now available which are able to accept reaction mechanisms of some complexity are focused only on the strict steady-state approach. Here we present a computer program called REFERASS, with a short computation time and a user-friendly format for the input and output files, able to derive the strict steady-state equations and/or those corresponding to the usual assumption that one ore more of the reversible steps are in rapid equilibrium. This program handles enzyme-catalysed reactions with mechanisms involving up to 255 enzyme species connected by up to 255 reaction steps, subject to limits imposed by the memory and disk space available.

  10. Time Reversibility, Correlation Decay and the Steady State Fluctuation Relation for Dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis J. Evans

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Steady state fluctuation relations for nonequilibrium systems are under intense investigation because of their important practical implications in nanotechnology and biology. However the precise conditions under which they hold need clarification. Using the dissipation function, which is related to the entropy production of linear irreversible thermodynamics, we show time reversibility, ergodic consistency and a recently introduced form of correlation decay, called T-mixing, are sufficient conditions for steady state fluctuation relations to hold. Our results are not restricted to a particular model and show that the steady state fluctuation relation for the dissipation function holds near or far from equilibrium subject to these conditions. The dissipation function thus plays a comparable role in nonequilibrium systems to thermodynamic potentials in equilibrium systems.

  11. Sickle cell disease painful crisis and steady state differentiation by proton magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Adolfo A; Cabal, Carlos A; Lores, Manuel A; Losada, Jorge; Pérez, Enrique R

    2009-01-01

    The delay time of the Hb S polymerization process was investigated in 63 patients with sickle cell disease during steady state and 10 during painful crisis starting from spin-spin proton magnetic resonance (PMR) time behavior measured at 36 degrees C and during spontaneous deoxygenation. We found a significant decrease of delay time as a result of the crisis (36 +/- 10%) and two well-differentiated ranges of values for each state: 273-354 min for steady state and 166-229 min for crisis with an uncertainty region of 15%. It is possible to use PMR as an objective and quantitative method in order to differentiate both clinical conditions of the sickle cell patient, but a more clear differentiation can be established comparing the delay time (td) value of one patient during crisis with his own td value during steady state.

  12. Steady-state heat transfer in an inverted U-tube steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucher, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental results are presented involving U-tube steam generator tube bundle local heat transfer and fluid conditions during steady-state, full-power operations performed at high temperatures and pressures with conditions typical of a pressurized water reactor (15.0 MPa primary pressure, 600 K hot-leg fluid temperatures, 6.2 MPa secondary pressure). The MOD-2C facility represents the state-of-the-art in measurement of tube local heat transfer data and average tube bundle secondary fluid density at several elevations, which allows an estimate of the axial heat transfer and void distributions during steady-state and transient operations. The method of heat transfer data reduction is presented and the heat flux, secondary convective heat transfer coefficient, and void fraction distributions are quantified for steady-state, full-power operations

  13. Paracetamol decreases steady-state exposure to lamotrigine by induction of glucuronidation in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gastrup, Sandra; Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Fruekilde, Palle Bach Nielsen

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Patients receiving lamotrigine therapy frequently use paracetamol concomitantly. While one study suggests a possible, clinically relevant drug-drug interaction, practical recommendations of the concomitant use are inconsistent. We performed a systematic pharmacokinetic study in healthy...... volunteers to quantify the effect of 4-day treatment of paracetamol on the metabolism of steady-state lamotrigine. METHODS: Twelve healthy, male volunteers participated in an open-label, sequential interaction study. Lamotrigine was titrated to steady state (100 mg daily) over 36 days, and blood and urine...... sampling was performed in a non-randomised order with and without paracetamol (1 g four times daily). The primary endpoint was change in steady-state area under the plasma concentration-time curve of lamotrigine. Secondary endpoints were changes in total apparent oral clearance, renal clearance...

  14. Steady-State Magneto-Optical Trap with 100-Fold Improved Phase-Space Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennetts, Shayne; Chen, Chun-Chia; Pasquiou, Benjamin; Schreck, Florian

    2017-12-01

    We demonstrate a continuously loaded 88Sr magneto-optical trap (MOT) with a steady-state phase-space density of 1.3 (2 )×10-3 . This is 2 orders of magnitude higher than reported in previous steady-state MOTs. Our approach is to flow atoms through a series of spatially separated laser cooling stages before capturing them in a MOT operated on the 7.4-kHz linewidth Sr intercombination line using a hybrid slower+MOT configuration. We also demonstrate producing a Bose-Einstein condensate at the MOT location, despite the presence of laser cooling light on resonance with the 30-MHz linewidth transition used to initially slow atoms in a separate chamber. Our steady-state high phase-space density MOT is an excellent starting point for a continuous atom laser and dead-time free atom interferometers or clocks.

  15. Nonequilibrium steady states in correlated electron systems - Photoinduced insulator-metal transition and optical response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Naoto; Oka, Takashi; Aoki, Hideo

    2010-01-01

    To reveal the nature of the photoinduced insulator-metal transition, we show that an exact analysis of the Falicov-Kimball model subject to external ac electric fields becomes possible with Floquet's method combined with the nonequilibrium dynamical mean-field theory. The nonequilibrium steady state that appears during irradiation of a pump light is shown to be determined if the dissipation in a certain heat-bath model is introduced. This has enabled us to predict that novel features characteristic of the photoexcited steady states, i.e., negative weight (gain) in the low-energy region and dip structures around the photon energy of the pump light, should be observed in the optical conductivity. Special emphasis is put on the role of dissipation, for which we elaborate the dependence of the steady state on the strength of dissipation and the temperature of the heat bath.

  16. Analysis on temperature distribution in density lock on steady state without disturbance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Pei; Yan Changqi; Gu Haifeng; Chen Wei

    2010-01-01

    Temperature distribution on steady state without disturbance in density lock is simulated experimentally in this paper, and the temperature stratification end point is discovered on the temperature curve on steady state. It separated the heat conduction layer and homoiothermy layer. Only when the temperature stratification end point is in the density lock, heat can be restrained effectually. The temperature field is simulated with three methods. The first one is a method of semi-infinite flat-panel heat conduction, the second one is a method of one dimensional steady state conduction in constant cross-section straight-fin, and the last one is calculated using Fluent calculation software. The results indicated that the method of semi-infinite flat-panel heat conduction is the best one to calculate the distribution of temperature and location of temperature stratification end point. (authors)

  17. Steady-state response of the electron distribution function to an applied electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiley, J.C.; Hinton, F.L.

    1980-01-01

    Steady-state solutions to the linearized Fokker--Planck equation have been numerically investigated using two models. The Kulsrud model, in which the electron-electron collision term is simplified by evaluating the integrals using a Maxwellian distribution, is considered first. It is shown that steady-state solutions of the Kulsrud model, obtained by long time integrations of the time dependent equation, can be obtained more easily by considering a separable solution. A more physically reasonable steady-state model, which consistently describes both the thermal and runaway regimes and is readily solved numerically, is developed. The resistivity, in agreement with Spitzer and Haerm, and runaway production rates, in agreement with the Kulsrud model, are obtained

  18. Steady-state entanglement and thermalization of coupled qubits in two common heat baths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Li-Zhen; Man, Zhong-Xiao; Xia, Yun-Jie

    2018-03-01

    In this work, we study the steady-state entanglement and thermalization of two coupled qubits embedded in two common baths with different temperatures. The common bath is relevant when the two qubits are difficult to be isolated to only contact with their local baths. With the quantum master equation constructed in the eigenstate representation of the coupled qubits, we have demonstrated the variations of steady-state entanglement with respect to various parameters of the qubits' system in both equilibrium and nonequilibrium cases of the baths. The coupling strength and energy detuning of the qubits as well as the temperature gradient of the baths are found to be beneficial to the enhancement of the entanglement. We note a dark state of the qubits that is free from time-evolution and its initial population can greatly influence the steady-state entanglement. By virtues of effective temperatures, we also study the thermalization of the coupled qubits and their variations with energy detuning.

  19. The non-local Fisher–KPP equation: travelling waves and steady states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berestycki, Henri; Nadin, Grégoire; Perthame, Benoit; Ryzhik, Lenya

    2009-01-01

    We consider the Fisher–KPP equation with a non-local saturation effect defined through an interaction kernel φ(x) and investigate the possible differences with the standard Fisher–KPP equation. Our first concern is the existence of steady states. We prove that if the Fourier transform φ-circumflex(ξ) is positive or if the length σ of the non-local interaction is short enough, then the only steady states are u ≡ 0 and u ≡ 1. Next, we study existence of the travelling waves. We prove that this equation admits travelling wave solutions that connect u = 0 to an unknown positive steady state u ∞ (x), for all speeds c ≥ c * . The travelling wave connects to the standard state u ∞ (x) ≡ 1 under the aforementioned conditions: φ-circumflex(ξ) > 0 or σ is sufficiently small. However, the wave is not monotonic for σ large

  20. Mechanism of Non-Steady State Dissolution of Goethite in the Presence of Siderophores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, P. U.; Kretzschmar, R.; Kraemer, S. M.

    2003-12-01

    Iron is an essential micronutrient for almost all known organisms. Bacteria, fungi, and graminaceous plants are capable of exuding siderophores as part of an iron acquisition strategy. The production of these strong iron chelating ligands is induced by iron limited conditions. Grasses under iron stress, for example, exude phytosiderophores into the rhizosphere in a special diurnal rhythm (Roemheld and Marschner 1986). A few hours after sunrise the exudation starts, culminates around noon and is shut down again until about 4 hours after noon. The phytosiderophores diffuse into the rhizosphere (Marschner et al. 1986) and are passively back transported to the plants by advective flow induced by high transpiration around noon. Despite a fairly short residence time of the phytosiderophores in the rhizosphere, it is a very effective strategy for iron acquisition. To investigate the effect of such pulse inputs of siderophores on iron acquisition, we studied the dissolution mechanism of goethite (alpha-FeOOH), a mineral phase common in soils, under non-steady state conditions. In consideration of the chemical complexity of the rhizosphere, we also investigated the effect of other organic ligands commonly found in the rhizosphere (e. g. oxalate) on the dissolution kinetics. The dissolution experiments were conducted in batch reactors with a constant goethite solids concentration of 2.5 g/l, an ionic strength of 0.01 M, a pH of 6 and 100 microM oxalate. To induce non-steady state conditions, 3 mM phytosiderophores were added to a batch after the goethite-oxalate suspension reacted for a certain time period. Before the siderophore was added to the goethite-oxalate suspension, no dissolution of iron was observed. But, with the addition of the siderophore, a high rate was observed for the iron mobilization under these non-steady state conditions that subsequently was followed by a slow steady state dissolution rate. The results of these non-steady state experiments are very

  1. A constitutive analysis of transient and steady-state elongational viscosities of bidisperse polystyrene blends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Manfred H.; Rolon-Garrido, Victor H.; Nielsen, Jens Kromann

    2008-01-01

    The transient and steady-state elongational viscosity data of three bidisperse polystyrene blends were investigated recently by Nielsen et al. [J. Rheol. 50, 453-476 (2006)]. The blends contain a monodisperse high molar mass component (M-L= 390 kg/ mol) in a matrix of a monodisperse small molar...... stretching potential of the long-chain component and an increasing steady-state elongational viscosity with increasing strain rate. In addition, in the dilution regime, a transition from affine chain stretch to nonaffine tube squeeze with decreasing strain rate is identified. The dilution regime ends......, and allowing (albeit by use of empirical linear-viscoelastic shift factors to correct the linear-viscoelastic predictions) for a quantitative description of the transient and steady-state elongational viscosities of the bidisperse polystyrene blends....

  2. A cross-bridge based model of force depression: Can a single modification address both transient and steady-state behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corr, David T; Herzog, Walter

    2016-03-21

    Force depression (FD), the reduction of isometric force following active shortening, is a phenomenon of skeletal muscle that has received significant attention in biomechanical and physiological literature, yet the mechanisms underlying FD remain unknown. Recent experiments identified a slower rate of force redevelopment with increasing amounts of steady-state FD, suggesting that FD may be caused, at least in part, by a decrease in cross-bridge binding rate (Corr and Herzog, 2005; Koppes et al., 2014). Herein, we develop a cross-bridge based model of FD in which the binding rate function, f, decreases with the mechanical work performed during shortening. This modification incorporates a direct relationship between steady-state FD and muscle mechanical work (Corr and Herzog, 2005; Herzog et al., 2000; Kosterina et al., 2008), and is consistent with a proposed mechanism attributing FD to stress-induced inhibition of cross-bridge attachments (Herzog, 1998; Maréchal and Plaghki, 1979). Thus, for an increase in mechanical work, the model should predict a slower force redevelopment (decreased attachment rate) to a more depressed steady-state force (fewer attached cross-bridges), and a reduction in contractile element stiffness (Ford et al., 1981). We hypothesized that since this modification affects the cross-bridge kinetics, a corresponding model would be able to account for both transient and steady-state FD behaviors. Comparisons to prior experiments (Corr and Herzog, 2005; Herzog et al., 2000; Kosterina et al., 2008) show that both steady-state and transient aspects of FD, as well as the relationship of FD with respect to speed and amplitude of shortening, are well captured by this model. Thus, this relatively simple cross-bridge based model of FD lends support to a mechanism involving the inhibition of cross-bridge binding, and indicates that cross-bridge kinetics may play a critical role in FD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Analysis of physical properties controlling steady-state infiltration rates on tropical savannah soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbagwu, J.S.C.

    1993-10-01

    A knowledge of physical properties influencing the steady-state infiltration rates (ic) of soils is needed for the hydrologic modelling of the infiltration process. In this study evidence is provided to show that effective porosity (Pe) (i.e. the proportion of macro pore spaces with equivalent radius of > 15 μm) and dry bulk density are the most important soil physical properties controlling the steady-state infiltration rates on a tropical savannah with varying land use histories. At a macro porosity value of ≤ 5.0% the steady-state infiltration rate is zero. Total porosity and the proportion of water-retaining pores explained only a small fraction of the variation in this property. Steady-state infiltration rates can also be estimated from either the saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) by the equation, i c = 31.1 + 1.06 (Ks), (R 2 = 0.8104, p ≤ 0.001) or the soil water transmissivity (A) by the equation, i c = 30.0 + 29.9(A), (R 2 = 0.8228, ρ ≤ 0.001). The Philip two-parameter model under predicted steady-state infiltration rates generally. Considering the ease of determination and reliability it is suggested that effective porosity be used to estimate the steady-state infiltration rates of these other soils with similar characteristics. The model is, i c 388.7(Pe) - 10.8(R 2 = 0.7265, p ≤ 0.001) where i c is in (cm/hr) and Pe in (cm 3 /cm 3 ). (author). 20 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

  4. The Energy Cost of Steady State Physical Activity in Acute Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Sharon Flora; Cumming, Toby; Bernhardt, Julie; Johnson, Liam

    2018-04-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness levels are very low after stroke, indicating that the majority of stroke survivors are unable to independently perform daily activities. Physical fitness training improves exercise capacity poststroke; however, the optimal timing and intensity of training is unclear. Understanding the energy cost of steady-state activity is necessary to guide training prescription early poststroke. We aimed to determine if acute stroke survivors can reach steady state (oxygen-uptake variability ≤2.0 mL O 2 /kg/min) during physical activity and if the energy cost of steady state activity differs from healthy controls. We recruited 23 stroke survivors less than 2 weeks poststroke. Thirteen were able to walk independently and performed a 6-minute walk (median age 78 years, interquartile range [IQR] 70-85), and 7 who were unable to walk independently performed 6 minutes of continuous sit-to-stands (median age 78 years, IQR 74-79) and we recruited 10 healthy controls (median age 73 years, IQR 70-77) who performed both 6 minutes of walking and sit-to-stands. Our primary outcome was energy cost (oxygen-uptake) during steady state activity (i.e., walking and continuous) sit-to-stands, measured by a mobile metabolic cart. All stroke survivors were able to reach steady state. Energy costs of walking was higher in stroke than in controls (mean difference .10 mL O 2 /kg/m, P = .02); the difference in energy costs during sit-to-stands was not significant (mean difference .11 mL O 2 /kg/sts, P = .45). Acute stroke survivors can reach a steady state during activity, indicating they are able to perform cardiorespiratory exercise. Acute stroke survivors require more energy per meter walked than controls. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Stochastic Non-Linear Flutter of Aeroelastic Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-21

    random parameters by using a pertur- o bation method and Monte Carlo simulation. They computed the deviation of * the steady state response of...Gaussian solution resulted in a strict stationary response. The accuracy of the non-Gaussian solution * required almost twenty times more computer time than...Methods In Applied Mathenatics 1, ed. A. T. Bharucha-Reid. Academic Press, New York, pp. 1-78, 1968. 13. Boyce, W. E. and Goodwin, B. E., "Random

  6. Analysis on the steady-state coherent synchrotron radiation with strong shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, R.; Bohn, C.L.; Bisognano, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    There are several papers concerning shielding of coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) emitted by a Gaussian line charge on a circular orbit centered between two parallel conducting plates. Previous asymptotic analyses in the frequency domain show that shielded steady-state CSR mainly arises from harmonics in the bunch frequency exceeding the threshold harmonic for satisfying the boundary conditions at the plates. In this paper the authors extend the frequency-domain analysis into the regime of strong shielding, in which the threshold harmonic exceeds the characteristic frequency of the bunch. The result is then compared to the shielded steady-state CSR power obtained using image charges

  7. Steady-State PMU Compliance Test under C37.118.1a-2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiga, Radu; Wu, Qiuwei; Martin, Kenneth E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a flexible testing method and the steady-state compliance of PMUs under the C37.118.1a amendment. The work is focused on the changes made to the standard for the harmonic rejection and out-of-band interference tests for which the ROCOF Error limits have been suspended. The paper...... vendors were tested simultaneously in order to provide a fair comparison of the devices. The results for the steady state tests are discussed in the paper together with the strengths and weaknesses of the PMUs and of the test setup....

  8. Modified fluctuation-dissipation and Einstein relation at nonequilibrium steady states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Debasish; Chaudhuri, Abhishek

    2012-02-01

    Starting from the pioneering work of Agarwal [G. S. Agarwal, Zeitschrift für Physik 252, 25 (1972)], we present a unified derivation of a number of modified fluctuation-dissipation relations (MFDR) that relate response to small perturbations around nonequilibrium steady states to steady-state correlations. Using this formalism we show the equivalence of velocity forms of MFDR derived using continuum Langevin and discrete master equation dynamics. The resulting additive correction to the Einstein relation is exemplified using a flashing ratchet model of molecular motors. © 2012 American Physical Society

  9. Local wettability reversal during steady-state two-phase flow in porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Santanu; Grøva, Morten; Ødegården, Torgeir Bryge; Skjetne, Erik; Hansen, Alex

    2011-09-01

    We study the effect of local wettability reversal on remobilizing immobile fluid clusters in steady-state two-phase flow in porous media. We consider a two-dimensional network model for a porous medium and introduce a wettability alteration mechanism. A qualitative change in the steady-state flow patterns, destabilizing the percolating and trapped clusters, is observed as the system wettability is varied. When capillary forces are strong, a finite wettability alteration is necessary to move the system from a single-phase to a two-phase flow regime. When both phases are mobile, we find a linear relationship between fractional flow and wettability alteration.

  10. Steady-State Numerical Modeling of Size Effects in Wire Drawing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Kristian Jørgensen; Nielsen, Kim Lau; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2016-01-01

    Wire drawing processes at micron scale receive increased interest as micro wires are increasingly required in micro electrical components. At the micron scale, size effects become important and have to be taken into consideration. The goal is to optimize the semi-cone angle of the tool in terms...... of drawing force. The present study employs a steady-state modelling technique that omits the transient regime, thus creating a basis for comprehensive parameter studies. The steady-state procedure is based on the streamline integration method presented by Dean and Hutchinson [1]. This approach allows...

  11. 7. IAEA Technical Meeting on Steady State Operation of Magnetic Fusion Devices - Booklet of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This meeting has provided an appropriate forum to discuss current issues covering a wide range of technical topics related to the steady state operation issues and also to encourage forecast of the ITER performances. The technical meeting includes invited and contributed papers. The topics that have been dealt with are: 1) Superconducting devices (ITER, KSTAR, Tore-Supra, HT-7U, EAST, LHD, Wendelstein-7-X,...); 2) Long-pulse operation and advanced tokamak physics; 3) steady state fusion technologies; 4) Long pulse heating and current drive; 5) Particle control and power exhaust, and 6) ITER-related research and development issues. This document gathers the abstracts

  12. A quaternionic map for the steady states of the Heisenberg spin-chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, Mitaxi P.; Dutta, Souvik; Tiwari, Shubhanshu

    2014-01-01

    We show that the steady states of the classical Heisenberg XXX spin-chain in an external magnetic field can be found by iterations of a quaternionic map. A restricted model, e.g., the xy spin-chain is known to have spatially chaotic steady states and the phase space occupied by these chaotic states is known to go through discrete changes as the field strength is varied. The same phenomenon is studied for the xxx spin-chain. It is seen that in this model the phase space volume varies smoothly with the external field.

  13. Transient and steady-state analyses of an electrically heated Topaz-II Thermionic Fuel Element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Genk, M.S.; Xue, H.

    1992-01-01

    Transient and steady-state analyses of electrically heated, Thermionic Fuel Elements (TFEs) for Topaz-II space power system are performed. The calculated emitter and collector temperatures, load electric power and conversion efficiency are in good agreement with reported data. In this paper the effects or Cs pressure, thermal power input, and load resistance on the steady-state performance of the TFE are also investigated. In addition, the thermal response of the ZrH moderator during a startup transient and following a change in the thermal power input is examined

  14. A quaternionic map for the steady states of the Heisenberg spin-chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, Mitaxi P., E-mail: mitaxi.mehta@ahduni.edu.in [IICT, Ahmedabad University, Opp. IIM, Navrangpura, Ahmedabad (India); Dutta, Souvik; Tiwari, Shubhanshu [BITS-Pilani, K.K. Birla Goa campus, Goa (India)

    2014-01-17

    We show that the steady states of the classical Heisenberg XXX spin-chain in an external magnetic field can be found by iterations of a quaternionic map. A restricted model, e.g., the xy spin-chain is known to have spatially chaotic steady states and the phase space occupied by these chaotic states is known to go through discrete changes as the field strength is varied. The same phenomenon is studied for the xxx spin-chain. It is seen that in this model the phase space volume varies smoothly with the external field.

  15. Seventh meeting of the ITER physics expert group on energetic particles, heating and steady state operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gormezano, C.

    1999-01-01

    The seventh meeting of the ITER Physics Group on energetic particles, heating and steady state operation was held at CEN/Cadarache from 14 to 18 September 1999. This was the first meeting following the redefinition of the Expert Group structure and it was also the first meeting without participation of US physicists. The main topics covered were: 1. Energetic Particles, 2. Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating, 3. Lower Hybrid Current Drive, 4. Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating and Current Drive, 5. Neutral Beam Injection, 6. Steady-State Aspects

  16. Steady-state pharmacokinetics of metformin is independent of the OCT1 genotype in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette Marie Hougaard; Højlund, Kurt; Hother-Nielsen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to determine the steady-state pharmacokinetics of metformin in healthy volunteers with different numbers of reduced-function alleles in the organic cation transporter 1 gene (OCT1). METHODS: The study was conducted as part of a randomized cross-over trial. Thirty......-four healthy volunteers with known OCT1 genotypes (12 with two wild-type alleles, 13 with one and 9 with two reduced-function alleles) were included. In one of the study periods, they were titrated to steady-state with 1 g metformin twice daily. RESULTS: Neither AUC(0-12), C(max) nor Cl(renal) were...

  17. SUPERENERGY-2: a multiassembly, steady-state computer code for LMFBR core thermal-hydraulic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basehore, K.L.; Todreas, N.E.

    1980-08-01

    Core thermal-hydraulic design and performance analyses for Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs) require repeated detailed multiassembly calculations to determine radial temperature profiles and subchannel outlet temperatures for various core configurations and subassembly structural analyses. At steady-state, detailed core-wide temperature profiles are required for core restraint calculations and subassembly structural analysis. In addition, sodium outlet temperatures are routinely needed for each reactor operating cycle. The SUPERENERGY-2 thermal-hydraulic code was designed specifically to meet these designer needs. It is applicable only to steady-state, forced-convection flow in LMFBR core geometries.

  18. S3C: EBT Steady-State Shooting code description and user's guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downum, W.B.

    1983-09-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) one-dimensional (1-D) Steady-State Shooting code (S3C) for ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) plasmas is described. Benchmark calculations finding the steady-state density and electron and ion temperature profiles for a known neutral density profile and known external energy sources are carried out. Good agreement is obtained with results from the ORNL Radially Resolved Time Dependent 1-D Transport code for an EBT-Q type reactor. The program logic is described, along with the physics models in each code block and the variable names used. Sample input and output files are listed, along with the main code

  19. ATC calculation with steady-state security constraints using Benders decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaaban, M.; Yan, Z.; Ni, Y.; Wu, F.; Li, W.; Liu, H.

    2003-01-01

    Available transfer capability (ATC) is an important indicator of the usable amount of transmission capacity accessible by assorted parties for commercial trading, ATC calculation is nontrivial when steady-state security constraints are included. In hie paper, Benders decomposition method is proposed to partition the AC problem with steady-state security constraints into a base case master problem and a series of subproblems relevant to various contingencies to include their impacts on ATC. The mathematical model is formulated and the two solution schemes are presented. Computer testing on the 4-bus system and IEEE 30-bus system shows the effectiveness of the proposed method and the solution schemes. (Author)

  20. High-temperature expansion for nonequilibrium steady states in driven lattice gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevere, Raphael; Tasaki, Hal

    2005-05-27

    We develop a controlled high-temperature expansion for nonequilibrium steady states of the driven lattice gas, the "Ising model" for nonequilibrium physics. We represent the steady state as P(eta) alpha e(-betaH(eta)-psi(eta)) and evaluate the lowest order contribution to the nonequilibrium effective interaction psi(eta). We see that, in dimensions d > or = 2, all models with nonsingular transition rates yield the same summable psi(eta), suggesting the possibility of describing the state as a Gibbs state similar to equilibrium. The models with the Metropolis rule show exceptional behavior.

  1. Progress of design studies on an LHD-type steady-state reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motojima, O.; Komori, A.; Sagara, A. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Helical Heliotrons such as the Large Helical Device (LHD) and Stellarators (H and S systems) have a high potential to realize a current-less steady-state and stable magnetic fusion energy reactor as an alternative to the tokamak DEMO-reactor. H and S systems ideally have an intrinsic property of Q=infinite. Here it is very important to remember that the understanding of the physics of 3-D toroidal magnetic confinement system is naturally extended to tokamak systems. The physics is universal among these two types of systems and the technology is common. We present our recent results from LHD experiments and reactor studies of a next generation LHD-type DEMO Reactor called FFHR. (1) Development of 3-D superconducting (SC) coil technology Due to the successful results of the LHD construction from 1990 to 2007, and steady operation over 8 years from 1998 to 2007, more than 2,000 hrs/year at a high field of around 3 Tesla, we have a large enough data base to demonstrate that 3D coil technology has become the standard technology for a fusion energy reactor. LHD is the largest SC fusion device in the world, contributing to the development of the SC technology necessary for fusion research. The poloidal coils of LHD adopted a super critical forced flow cooling system and their dimensions are almost the same as the ITER toroidal coils. (2) Extended physics understanding of high beta, high T, high n{sub {tau}}{sub T}, and steady state operation Recent LHD experiments have demonstrated the broad and advanced capabilities of LHD as a toroidal magnetic confinement device, which are highlighted by the achievements of 5% volume averaged beta, electron and ion temperatures of 10 keV, super high density of 10E15/cc and 1 hr discharges. We plan to increase the heating power up to 35 MW, and to use deuterium gas for confinement improvement. The n{sub {tau}}{sub T} will be improved to the design nominal value of Q=0.3 within several years and ultimately would approach unity. The key

  2. Accelerated solution of non-linear flow problems using Chebyshev iteration polynomial based RK recursions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorber, A.A.; Carey, G.F.; Bova, S.W.; Harle, C.H. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The connection between the solution of linear systems of equations by iterative methods and explicit time stepping techniques is used to accelerate to steady state the solution of ODE systems arising from discretized PDEs which may involve either physical or artificial transient terms. Specifically, a class of Runge-Kutta (RK) time integration schemes with extended stability domains has been used to develop recursion formulas which lead to accelerated iterative performance. The coefficients for the RK schemes are chosen based on the theory of Chebyshev iteration polynomials in conjunction with a local linear stability analysis. We refer to these schemes as Chebyshev Parameterized Runge Kutta (CPRK) methods. CPRK methods of one to four stages are derived as functions of the parameters which describe an ellipse {Epsilon} which the stability domain of the methods is known to contain. Of particular interest are two-stage, first-order CPRK and four-stage, first-order methods. It is found that the former method can be identified with any two-stage RK method through the correct choice of parameters. The latter method is found to have a wide range of stability domains, with a maximum extension of 32 along the real axis. Recursion performance results are presented below for a model linear convection-diffusion problem as well as non-linear fluid flow problems discretized by both finite-difference and finite-element methods.

  3. Experimental characterization and modelling of non-linear coupling of the lower hybrid current drive power on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preynas, M.; Goniche, M.; Hillairet, J.; Litaudon, X.; Ekedahl, A.; Colas, L.

    2013-01-01

    To achieve steady-state operation on future fusion devices, in particular on ITER, the coupling of the lower hybrid wave must be optimized on a wide range of edge conditions. However, under some specific conditions, deleterious effects on the lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) coupling are sometimes observed on Tore Supra. In this way, dedicated LHCD experiments have been performed using the LHCD system of Tore Supra, composed of two different conceptual designs of launcher: the fully active multi-junction (FAM) and the new passive active multi-junction (PAM) antennas. A non-linear interaction between the electron density and the electric field has been characterized in a thin plasma layer in front of the two LHCD antennas. The resulting dependence of the power reflection coefficient (RC) with the LHCD power is not predicted by the standard linear theory of the LH wave coupling. A theoretical model is suggested to describe the non-linear wave–plasma interaction induced by the ponderomotive effect and implemented in a new full wave LHCD code, PICCOLO-2D (ponderomotive effect in a coupling code of lower hybrid wave-2D). The code self-consistently treats the wave propagation in the antenna vicinity and its interaction with the local edge plasma density. The simulation reproduces very well the occurrence of a non-linear behaviour in the coupling observed in the LHCD experiments. The important differences and trends between the FAM and the PAM antennas, especially a larger increase in RC for the FAM, are also reproduced by the PICCOLO-2D simulation. The working hypothesis of the contribution of the ponderomotive effect in the non-linear observations of LHCD coupling is therefore validated through this comprehensive modelling for the first time on the FAM and PAM antennas on Tore Supra. (paper)

  4. Frequency-domain full-waveform inversion with non-linear descent directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yu; Pan, Wenyong; Innanen, Kristopher A.

    2018-05-01

    Full-waveform inversion (FWI) is a highly non-linear inverse problem, normally solved iteratively, with each iteration involving an update constructed through linear operations on the residuals. Incorporating a flexible degree of non-linearity within each update may have important consequences for convergence rates, determination of low model wavenumbers and discrimination of parameters. We examine one approach for doing so, wherein higher order scattering terms are included within the sensitivity kernel during the construction of the descent direction, adjusting it away from that of the standard Gauss-Newton approach. These scattering terms are naturally admitted when we construct the sensitivity kernel by varying not the current but the to-be-updated model at each iteration. Linear and/or non-linear inverse scattering methodologies allow these additional sensitivity contributions to be computed from the current data residuals within any given update. We show that in the presence of pre-critical reflection data, the error in a second-order non-linear update to a background of s0 is, in our scheme, proportional to at most (Δs/s0)3 in the actual parameter jump Δs causing the reflection. In contrast, the error in a standard Gauss-Newton FWI update is proportional to (Δs/s0)2. For numerical implementation of more complex cases, we introduce a non-linear frequency-domain scheme, with an inner and an outer loop. A perturbation is determined from the data residuals within the inner loop, and a descent direction based on the resulting non-linear sensitivity kernel is computed in the outer loop. We examine the response of this non-linear FWI using acoustic single-parameter synthetics derived from the Marmousi model. The inverted results vary depending on data frequency ranges and initial models, but we conclude that the non-linear FWI has the capability to generate high-resolution model estimates in both shallow and deep regions, and to converge rapidly, relative to a

  5. A Supervised Event-Based Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring for Non-Linear Appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuang Zheng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Smart meters generate a massive volume of energy consumption data which can be analyzed to recover some interesting and beneficial information. Non-intrusive load monitoring (NILM is one important application fostered by the mass deployment of smart meters. This paper presents a supervised event-based NILM approach for non-linear appliance activities identification. Firstly, the additive properties (stating that, when a certain amount of specific appliances’ feature is added to their belonging network, an equal amount of change in the network’s feature can be observed of three features (harmonic feature, voltage–current trajectory feature, and active–reactive–distortion (PQD power curve features were investigated through experiments. The results verify the good additive property for the harmonic features and Voltage–Current (U-I trajectory features. In contrast, PQD power curve features have a poor additive property. Secondly, based on the verified additive property of harmonic current features and the representation of waveforms, a harmonic current features based approach is proposed for NILM, which includes two main processes: event detection and event classification. For event detection, a novel model is proposed based on the Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise (DBSCAN algorithm. Compared to other event detectors, the proposed event detector not only can detect both event timestamp and two adjacent steady states but also shows high detection accuracy over public dataset with F1-score up to 98.99%. Multi-layer perceptron (MLP classifiers are then built for multi-class event classification using the harmonic current features and are trained using the data collected from the laboratory and the public dataset. The results show that the MLP classifiers have a good performance in classifying non-linear loads. Finally, the proposed harmonic current features based approach is tested in the laboratory through

  6. Analytical exact solution of the non-linear Schroedinger equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Alisson Xavier; Rocha Filho, Tarcisio Marciano da

    2011-01-01

    Full text: In this work we present how to classify and obtain analytical solutions of the Schroedinger equation with a generic non-linearity in 1+1 dimensions. Our approach is based on the determination of Lie symmetry transformation mapping solutions into solutions, and non-classical symmetry transformations, mapping a given solution into itself. From these symmetries it is then possible to reduce the equation to a system of ordinary differential equations which can then be solved using standard methods. The generic non-linearity is handled by considering it as an additional unknown in the determining equations for the symmetry transformations. This results in an over-determined system of non-linear partial differential equations. Its solution can then be determined in some cases by reducing it to the so called involutive (triangular) form, and then solved. This reduction is very tedious and can only performed using a computer algebra system. Once the determining system is solved, we obtain the explicit form for the non-linearity admitting a Lie or non-classical symmetry. The analytical solutions are then derived by solving the reduced ordinary differential equations. The non-linear determining system for the non-classical symmetry transformations and Lie symmetry generators are obtaining using the computer algebra package SADE (symmetry analysis of differential equations), developed at our group. (author)

  7. The Importance of Non-Linearity on Turbulent Fluxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2007-01-01

    Two new non-linear models for the turbulent heat fluxes are derived and developed from the transport equation of the scalar passive flux. These models are called as non-linear eddy diffusivity and non-linear scalar flux. The structure of these models is compared with the exact solution which...... is derived from the Cayley-Hamilton theorem and contains a three term-basis plus a non-linear term due to scalar fluxes. In order to study the performance of the model itself, all other turbulent quantities are taken from a DNS channel flow data-base and thus the error source has been minimized. The results...... are compared with the DNS channel flow and good agreement is achieved. It has been shown that the non-linearity parts of the models are important to capture the true path of the streamwise scalar fluxes. It has also been shown that one of model constant should have negative sign rather than positive, which had...

  8. Comparing Non-Steady State Emissions under Start-Up and Shut-Down Operating Conditions with Steady State Emissions for Several Industrial Sectors: A Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juwairia Obaid

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the emissions of various industrial facilities under start-up, shut-down, and normal operations. The industries that have been investigated include power and/or heat generation, energy-from-waste generation, nuclear power generation, sulphuric acid production, ethylene production, petrochemical production, and waste incineration. The study investigated multiple facilities worldwide for each of these industrial categories. The different potential contaminants characteristic of each industry type have been investigated and the emissions of these contaminants under non-steady state have been compared to the steady state emissions. Where available, trends have been developed to identify the circumstances, i.e., the industrial sector and contaminant, under which the assessment and consideration of emissions from start-up and shut-down events is necessary for each industry. These trends differ by industrial sector and contaminant. For example, the study shows that sulphur dioxide (SO2 emissions should be assessed for the start-up operations of sulphuric acid production plants, but may not need to be assessed for the start-up operations of a conventional power generation facility. The trends developed as part of this research paper will help air permit applicants to effectively allocate their resources when assessing emissions related to non-steady state operations. Additionally, it will ensure that emissions are assessed for the worst-case scenario. This is especially important when emissions under start-up and shut-down operations have the potential to exceed enforceable emission limits. Thus, assessing emissions for the worst-case scenario can help in preventing the emissions from adversely impacting public health and the environment.

  9. Influence of longitudinal position on the evolution of steady-state signal in cardiac cine balanced steady-state free precession imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spear, Tyler J; Stromp, Tori A; Leung, Steve W; Vandsburger, Moriel H

    2017-11-01

    Emerging quantitative cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) techniques use cine balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) to measure myocardial signal intensity and probe underlying physiological parameters. This correlation assumes that steady-state is maintained uniformly throughout the heart in space and time. To determine the effects of longitudinal cardiac motion and initial slice position on signal deviation in cine bSSFP imaging by comparing two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) acquisitions. Nine healthy volunteers completed cardiac MRI on a 1.5-T scanner. Short axis images were taken at six slice locations using both 2D and 3D cine bSSFP. 3D acquisitions spanned two slices above and below selected slice locations. Changes in myocardial signal intensity were measured across the cardiac cycle and compared to longitudinal shortening. For 2D cine bSSFP, 46% ± 9% of all frames and 84% ± 13% of end-diastolic frames remained within 10% of initial signal intensity. For 3D cine bSSFP the proportions increased to 87% ± 8% and 97% ± 5%. There was no correlation between longitudinal shortening and peak changes in myocardial signal. The initial slice position significantly impacted peak changes in signal intensity for 2D sequences ( P  cine bSSFP that is only restored at the center of a 3D excitation volume. During diastole, a transient steady-state is established similar to that achieved with 3D cine bSSFP regardless of slice location.

  10. Catalytic Mechanism of Cruzain from Trypanosoma cruzi As Determined from Solvent Kinetic Isotope Effects of Steady-State and Pre-Steady-State Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xiang; Meek, Thomas D

    2018-02-02

    Cruzain, an important drug target for Chagas disease, is a member of clan CA of the cysteine proteases. Understanding the catalytic mechanism of cruzain is vital to the design of new inhibitors. To this end, we have determined pH-rate profiles for substrates and affinity agents and solvent kinetic isotope effects in pre-steady-state and steady-state modes using three substrates: Cbz-Phe-Arg-AMC, Cbz-Arg-Arg-AMC, and Cbz-Arg-Ala-AMC. The pH-rate profile of k cat /K m for Cbz-Arg-Arg-AMC indicated pK 1 = 6.6 (unprotonated) and pK 2 ∼ 9.6 (protonated) groups were required for catalysis. The temperature dependence of the pK = 6.2-6.6 group exhibited a ΔH ion value of 8.4 kcal/mol, typical of histidine. The pH-rate profile of inactivation by iodoacetamide confirmed that the catalytic cysteine possesses a pK a of 9.8. Normal solvent kinetic isotope effects were observed for both D 2 O k cat (1.6-2.1) and D 2 O k cat /K m (1.1-1.4) for all three substrates. Pre-steady-state kinetics revealed exponential bursts of AMC production for Cbz-Phe-Arg-AMC and Cbz-Arg-Arg-AMC, but not for Cbz-Arg-Ala-AMC. The overall solvent isotope effect on k cat can be attributed to the solvent isotope effect on the deacylation step. Our results suggest that cruzain is unique among papain-like cysteine proteases in that the catalytic cysteine and histidine have neutral charges in the free enzyme. The generation of the active thiolate of the catalytic cysteine is likely preceded (and possibly triggered) by a ligand-induced conformational change, which could bring the catalytic dyad into the proximity to effect proton transfer.

  11. Non-linear pattern formation in bone growth and architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmon, Phil

    2014-01-01

    The three-dimensional morphology of bone arises through adaptation to its required engineering performance. Genetically and adaptively bone travels along a complex spatiotemporal trajectory to acquire optimal architecture. On a cellular, micro-anatomical scale, what mechanisms coordinate the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts to produce complex and efficient bone architectures? One mechanism is examined here - chaotic non-linear pattern formation (NPF) - which underlies in a unifying way natural structures as disparate as trabecular bone, swarms of birds flying, island formation, fluid turbulence, and others. At the heart of NPF is the fact that simple rules operating between interacting elements, and Turing-like interaction between global and local signals, lead to complex and structured patterns. The study of "group intelligence" exhibited by swarming birds or shoaling fish has led to an embodiment of NPF called "particle swarm optimization" (PSO). This theoretical model could be applicable to the behavior of osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes, seeing them operating "socially" in response simultaneously to both global and local signals (endocrine, cytokine, mechanical), resulting in their clustered activity at formation and resorption sites. This represents problem-solving by social intelligence, and could potentially add further realism to in silico computer simulation of bone modeling. What insights has NPF provided to bone biology? One example concerns the genetic disorder juvenile Pagets disease or idiopathic hyperphosphatasia, where the anomalous parallel trabecular architecture characteristic of this pathology is consistent with an NPF paradigm by analogy with known experimental NPF systems. Here, coupling or "feedback" between osteoblasts and osteoclasts is the critical element. This NPF paradigm implies a profound link between bone regulation and its architecture: in bone the architecture is the regulation. The former is the emergent

  12. Diffusion in coronas around clinopyroxene: modelling with local equilibrium and steady state, and a non-steady-state modification to account for zoned actinolite-hornblende

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, J. R.; Birdi, J. J.; Emmett, T. F.

    1992-01-01

    Retrograde coronas of Caledonian age, between clinopyroxene and plagioclase in the Jotun Nappe Complex, Norway, illustrate the effects of diffusion kinetics on mineral distributions among layers and on the compositions of hornblende-actinolite. One corona type comprises a symplectite of epidote + quartz adjacent to plagioclase, and a less well-organized intergrowth of amphibole + quartz replacing clinopyroxene. The observed mineral proportions imply an open-system reaction, but the similarity of Al/Si ratios in reactant plagioclase and product symplectite indicates approximate conservation of Al2O3 and SiO2. The largest inferred open-system flux is a loss of CaO, mostly derived from consumption of clinopyroxene. The approximate layer structure, Pl|Ep + Qtz|Hbl + Qtz|Act±Hbl + Qtz|Cpx, is modelled using the theory of steady-state diffusion-controlled growth with local equilibrium. To obtain a solution, it is necessary to use a reactant plagioclase composition which takes into account aluminous (epidote) inclusions. The results indicate that, in terms of Onsager diffusion coefficients L ii , Ca is more mobile than AL ( L CaCa/ L AlAl≳3.) (where ≳ means greater than or approximately equal to). This behaviour of Ca is comparable with that of Mg in previously studied coronas around olivine. Si is non-diffusing in the present modelling, because of silica saturation. Oxidation of some Fe2+ to Fe3+ occurs within the corona. Mg diffuses towards its source (clinopyroxene) to maintain local equilibrium. Other coronas consist of two layers, hornblende adjacent to plagioclase and zoned amphibole + quartz adjacent to clinopyroxene. In the zoned layer, actinolitic hornblende forms relict patches, separated from quartz blebs by more aluminous hornblende. A preliminary steady-state, local-equilibrium model of grain-boundary diffusion explains the formation of low-Al and high-Al layers as due to Al immobility. Zoning and replacement are qualitatively explained in terms of

  13. Steady-state and transient performance of HVDC link based 3-level ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrateur

    testés par des simulations à l'aide de Matlab Simulink et SimPowerSystems toolbox. Mots clé : CCHT- convertisseur à base de source de tension- MLI - technique de contrôle - charge passive. Abstract. This paper investigates the steady-state and transient performance of high-voltage DC (HVDC) transmission systems ...

  14. Einstein's steady-state theory: an abandoned model of the cosmos

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Raifeartaigh, Cormac; McCann, Brendan; Nahm, Werner; Mitton, Simon

    2014-09-01

    We present a translation and analysis of an unpublished manuscript by Albert Einstein in which he attempted to construct a `steady-state' model of the universe. The manuscript, which appears to have been written in early 1931, demonstrates that Einstein once explored a cosmic model in which the mean density of matter in an expanding universe is maintained constant by the continuous formation of matter from empty space. This model is very different to previously known Einsteinian models of the cosmos (both static and dynamic) but anticipates the later steady-state cosmology of Hoyle, Bondi and Gold in some ways. We find that Einstein's steady-state model contains a fundamental flaw and suggest that it was abandoned for this reason. We also suggest that he declined to explore a more sophisticated version because he found such theories rather contrived. The manuscript is of historical interest because it reveals that Einstein debated between steady-state and evolving models of the cosmos decades before a similar debate took place in the cosmological community.

  15. A partition-free approach to transient and steady-state charge currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornean, Horia; Gianesello, Céline; Zagrebnov, Valentin

    2010-01-01

    We construct a non-equilibrium steady state and calculate the corresponding current for a mesoscopic Fermi system in the partition-free setting. To this end we study a small sample coupled to a finite number of semi-infinite leads. Initially, the whole system of quasi-free fermions is in a grand-...

  16. Technical challenges in the construction of the steady-state stellarator Wendelstein 7-X

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, H. S.; R C Wolf,; Andreeva, T.; Baldzuhn, J.; Birus, D.; Bluhm, T.; Brauer, T.; Braune, H.; Bykov, V.; Cardella, A.; Durodie, F.; Endler, M.; Erckmann, V.; Gantenbein, G.; Hartmann, D.; Hathiramani, D.; Heimann, P.; Heinemann, B.; Hennig, C.; Hirsch, M.; Holtum, D.; Jagielski, J.; Jelonnek, J.; Kasparek, W.; Klinger, T.; Konig, R.; Kornejew, P.; Kroiss, H.; Krom, J. G.; Kuhner, G.; Laqua, H.; Laqua, H. P.; Lechte, C.; Lewerentz, M.; Maier, J.; McNeely, P.; Messiaen, A.; Michel, G.; Ongena, J.; Peacock, A.; Pedersen, T. S.; Riedl, R.; Riemann, H.; Rong, P.; Rust, N.; Schacht, J.; Schauer, F.; Schroeder, R.; Schweer, B.; Spring, A.; Stabler, A.; Thumm, M.; Turkin, Y.; Wegener, L.; Werner, A.; Zhang, D.; Zilker, M.; Akijama, T.; Alzbutas, R.; Ascasibar, E.; Balden, M.; Banduch, M.; Baylard, C.; Behr, W.; Beidler, C.; Benndorf, A.; Bergmann, T.; Biedermann, C.; Bieg, B.; Biel, W.; Borchardt, M.; Borowitz, G.; Borsuk, V.; Bozhenkov, S.; Brakel, R.; Brand, H.; Brown, T.; Brucker, B.; Burhenn, R.; Buscher, K. P.; Caldwell-Nichols, C.; Cappa, A.; Cardella, A.; Carls, A.; Carvalho, P.; Ciupinski, L.; Cole, M.; Collienne, J.; Czarnecka, A.; Czymek, G.; Dammertz, G.; Dhard, C. P.; Davydenko, V. I.; Dinklage, A.; Drevlak, M.; Drotziger, S.; Dudek, A.; Dumortier, P.; Dundulis, G.; von Eeten, P.; Egorov, K.; Estrada, T.; Faugel, H.; Fellinger, J.; Feng, Y.; Fernandes, H.; Fietz, W. H.; Figacz, W.; Fischer, F.; Fontdecaba, J.; Freund, A.; Funaba, T.; Funfgelder, H.; Galkowski, A.; Gates, D.; Giannone, L.; Regana, J. M. G.; Geiger, J.; Geissler, S.; Greuner, H.; Grahl, M.; Gross, S.; Grosman, A.; Grote, H.; Grulke, O.; R. Jaspers,; Szabo, V.

    2013-01-01

    The next step in the Wendelstein stellarator line is the large superconducting device Wendelstein 7-X, currently under construction in Greifswald, Germany. Steady-state operation is an intrinsic feature of stellarators, and one key element of the Wendelstein 7-X mission is to demonstrate

  17. Differential Cell Count of Bone Marrow Aspirates in Steady-state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bone marrow was aspirated from the posterior superior iliac spine. Slides were stained with MayGrünwald-Giemsa stain. Proportions of erythroid, myeloid, lymphoid and megakaryocytic cells out of 250 nucleated bone marrow cells were determined. Results: Steady state mean packed cell volume (PCV) was 0.2 ± 0.017 L/L.

  18. Analysis of steady state creep of southeastern New Mexico bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, W.; Wawersik, W.R.; Lauson, H.S.

    1980-03-01

    Steady state creep rates have been obtained from a large suite of existing experimental creep data relating to bedded rock salt from the Salado formation of S.E. New Mexico. Experimental conditions covered an intermediate temperature range from 22 0 C to 200 0 C, and shear stresses from 1000 psi (7 MPa) to 6000 psi (31 MPa). An expression, based on a single diffusion controlled dislocation climb mechanism, has been found to fit the observed dependence of steady state creep rate on shear stress and temperature, yielding an activation energy of 12 kcal/mole (50 kJ/mole) and a stress exponent of 4.9. Multiple regression analysis revealed a dependence on stratigraphy, but no statistically significant dependence on pressure of specimen size. No consistent dilatancy or compaction associated with steady state creep was found, although some individual specimens dilated or compacted during creep. The steady state creep data were found to agree very well with creep data for both bedded and dome salt from a variety of other locations

  19. Experimental study of vaporization effect on steady state and dynamic behavior of catalytic pellets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulikov, A.V.; Kuzin, N.A.; Shigarov, A.B.; Kirillov, V.A.; Westerterp, K.R.; Kronberg, Alexandre E.

    2001-01-01

    The impact of the combined evaporation of the liquid phase and reaction on single catalyst pellet performance has been studied experimentally. The exothermic, catalyzed hydrogenation of α-methylstyrene (AMS) to cumene has been employed as a model reaction. Steady state and dynamic experiments have

  20. Steady State Investigations of DPF Soot Burn Rates and DPF Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordtz, Rasmus Lage; Ivarsson, Anders; Schramm, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the experimental investigation of Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) regeneration and a calibration procedure of a 1D DPF simulation model based on the commercial software AVL BOOST v. 5.1. Model constants and parameters are fitted on the basis of a number of steady state DPF expe...

  1. Steady-State Fluorescence Anisotropy to Investigate Flavonoids Binding to Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Christine M.; Strollo, Christen M.

    2007-01-01

    The steady-state fluorescence anisotropy is employed to study the binding of protein of a model protein, human serum albumin, to a commonly used flavonoid, quercetin. The experiment describes the thermodynamics, as well as the biochemical interactions of such binding effectively.

  2. Efficient decoding with steady-state Kalman filter in neural interface systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Wasim Q; Truccolo, Wilson; Brown, Emery N; Hochberg, Leigh R

    2011-02-01

    The Kalman filter is commonly used in neural interface systems to decode neural activity and estimate the desired movement kinematics. We analyze a low-complexity Kalman filter implementation in which the filter gain is approximated by its steady-state form, computed offline before real-time decoding commences. We evaluate its performance using human motor cortical spike train data obtained from an intracortical recording array as part of an ongoing pilot clinical trial. We demonstrate that the standard Kalman filter gain converges to within 95% of the steady-state filter gain in 1.5±0.5 s (mean ±s.d.). The difference in the intended movement velocity decoded by the two filters vanishes within 5 s, with a correlation coefficient of 0.99 between the two decoded velocities over the session length. We also find that the steady-state Kalman filter reduces the computational load (algorithm execution time) for decoding the firing rates of 25±3 single units by a factor of 7.0±0.9. We expect that the gain in computational efficiency will be much higher in systems with larger neural ensembles. The steady-state filter can thus provide substantial runtime efficiency at little cost in terms of estimation accuracy. This far more efficient neural decoding approach will facilitate the practical implementation of future large-dimensional, multisignal neural interface systems.

  3. Molecular control of steady-state dendritic cell maturation and immune homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Gianna Elena; Ma, Averil

    2013-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized sentinels responsible for coordinating adaptive immunity. This function is dependent upon coupled sensitivity to environmental signs of inflammation and infection to cellular maturation-the programmed alteration of DC phenotype and function to enhance immune cell activation. Although DCs are thus well equipped to respond to pathogens, maturation triggers are not unique to infection. Given that immune cells are exquisitely sensitive to the biological functions of DCs, we now appreciate that multiple layers of suppression are required to restrict the environmental sensitivity, cellular maturation, and even life span of DCs to prevent aberrant immune activation during the steady state. At the same time, steady-state DCs are not quiescent but rather perform key functions that support homeostasis of numerous cell types. Here we review these functions and molecular mechanisms of suppression that control steady-state DC maturation. Corruption of these steady-state operatives has diverse immunological consequences and pinpoints DCs as potent drivers of autoimmune and inflammatory disease.

  4. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION & LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HU, T.A.

    2005-10-27

    Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. The hydrogen generation rate was calculated for 177 tanks using the rate equation model. Flammability calculations based on hydrogen, ammonia, and methane were performed for 177 tanks for various scenarios.

  5. STEADY STATE FLAMMABLE GAS RELEASE RATE CALCULATION AND LOWER FLAMMABILITY LEVEL EVALUATION FOR HANFORD TANK WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HU TA

    2009-10-26

    Assess the steady-state flammability level at normal and off-normal ventilation conditions. The hydrogen generation rate was calculated for 177 tanks using the rate equation model. Flammability calculations based on hydrogen, ammonia, and methane were performed for 177 tanks for various scenarios.

  6. Radioactivity computation of steady-state and pulsed fusion reactors operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attaya, H.

    1994-06-01

    Different mathematical methods are used to calculate the nuclear transmutation in steady-state and pulsed neutron irradiation. These methods are the Schuer decomposition, the eigenvector decomposition, and the Pade approximation of the matrix exponential function. In the case of the linear decay chain approximation, a simple algorithm is used to evaluate the transition matrices

  7. Isoforms of human cytochrome-c oxidase. Subunit composition and steady-state kinetic properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kuilenburg, A. B.; Dekker, H. L.; van den Bogert, C.; Nieboer, P.; van Gelder, B. F.; Muijsers, A. O.

    1991-01-01

    The subunit pattern and the steady-state kinetics of cytochrome-c oxidase from human heart, muscle, kidney and liver were investigated. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of immunopurified cytochrome-c oxidase preparations suggest that isoforms of subunit VIa exist, which show differences in

  8. Applications of mixed Petrov-Galerkin finite element methods to transient and steady state creep analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerreiro, J.N.C.; Loula, A.F.D.

    1988-12-01

    The mixed Petrov-Galerkin finite element formulation is applied to transiente and steady state creep problems. Numerical analysis has shown additional stability of this method compared to classical Galerkin formulations. The accuracy of the new formulation is confirmed in some representative examples of two dimensional and axisymmetric problems. (author) [pt

  9. System and method for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bers, A.

    1981-01-01

    A system for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor providing steady-state generation of the thermonuclear power. A dense, hot toroidal plasma is initially prepared with a confining magnetic field with toroidal and poloidal components. Continuous wave rf energy is injected into said plasma to estalish a spectrum of traveling waves in the plasma, where the traveling waves have momentum components substantially either all parallel, or all anti-parallel to the confining magnetic field. The injected rf energy is phased to couple to said traveling waves with both a phase velocity component and a wave momentum component in the direction of the plasma traveling wave components. The injected rf energy has a predetermined spectrum selected so that said traveling waves couple to plasma electrons having velocities in a predetermined range delta . The velocities in the range are substantially greater than the thermal electron velocity of the plasma. In addition, the range is sufficiently broad to produce a raised plateau having width delta in the plasma electron velocity distribution so that the plateau electrons provide steady-state current to generate a poloidal magnetic field component sufficient for confining the plasma. In steady state operation of the fusion reactor, the fusion power density in the plasma exceeds the power dissipated inthe plasma

  10. Analysis of Plasticity, Fracture and Friction in Steady State Plate Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Wierzbicki, Tomasz

    1996-01-01

    A closed form solution to the problem of steady state wedge cutting through a ductile metal plate is presented. The considered problem is an idealization of a ship bottom raking process, i.e. a continuous cutting damage of a ship bottom by a hard knife-like rock in a grounding event. A new...

  11. Real-time dynamic hydraulic model for water distribution networks: steady state modelling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Osman, Mohammad S

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available steady state hydraulic model that will be used within a real-time dynamic hydraulic model (DHM). The Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) water distribution network (WDN) is used as a pilot study for this purpose. A hydraulic analysis...

  12. The total quasi-steady-state approximation for fully competitive enzyme reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten Gram; Bersani, A.M.; Bersani, E.

    2007-01-01

    The validity of the Michaelis-Menten-Briggs-Haldane approximation for single enzyme reactions has recently been improved by the formalism of the total quasi-steady-state approximation. This approach is here extended to fully competitive systems, and a criterion for its validity is provided. We show...

  13. Reliable and Efficient Procedure for Steady-State Analysis of Nonautonomous and Autonomous Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Dobes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The majority of contemporary design tools do not still contain steady-state algorithms, especially for the autonomous systems. This is mainly caused by insufficient accuracy of the algorithm for numerical integration, but also by unreliable steady-state algorithms themselves. Therefore, in the paper, a very stable and efficient procedure for the numerical integration of nonlinear differential-algebraic systems is defined first. Afterwards, two improved methods are defined for finding the steady state, which use this integration algorithm in their iteration loops. The first is based on the idea of extrapolation, and the second utilizes nonstandard time-domain sensitivity analysis. The two steady-state algorithms are compared by analyses of a rectifier and a C-class amplifier, and the extrapolation algorithm is primarily selected as a more reliable alternative. Finally, the method based on the extrapolation naturally cooperating with the algorithm for solving the differential-algebraic systems is thoroughly tested on various electronic circuits: Van der Pol and Colpitts oscillators, fragment of a large bipolar logical circuit, feedback and distributed microwave oscillators, and power amplifier. The results confirm that the extrapolation method is faster than a classical plain numerical integration, especially for larger circuits with complicated transients.

  14. Rate sensitivity of mixed mode interface toughness of dissimilar metallic materials: Studied at steady state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim Lau; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2012-01-01

    the SSV model [Suo, Z., Shih, C., Varias, A., 1993. A theory for cleavage cracking in the presence of plastic flow. Acta Metall. Mater. 41, 1551–1557] embedded in a steady state finite element formulation, here assuming plane strain conditions and small-scale yielding. Results are presented for a wide...

  15. Spectrally selective imaging with wideband balanced steady-state free precession MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çukur, Tolga

    2016-03-01

    Unwanted, bright fat signals in balanced steady-state free precession sequences are commonly suppressed using spectral shaping. Here, a new spectral-shaping method is proposed to significantly improve the uniformity of stopband suppression without compromising the level of passband signals. The proposed method combines binomial-pattern excitation pulses with a wideband balanced steady-state free precession sequence kernel. It thereby increases the frequency separation between the centers of pass and stopbands by π radians, enabling improved water-fat contrast. Simulations were performed to find the optimal flip angles and subpulse spacing for the binomial pulses that maximize contrast and signal efficiency. Comparisons with a conventional binomial balanced steady-state free precession sequence were performed in simulations as well as phantom and in vivo experiments at 1.5 T and 3 T. Enhanced fat suppression is demonstrated in vivo with an average improvement of 58% in blood-fat and 68% in muscle-fat contrast (P steady-state free precession method is a promising candidate for spectrally selective imaging with enhanced reliability against field inhomogeneities. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Steady state drift vortices in plasmas with shear flow in equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakrabarti, N.

    1999-01-01

    The Hasegawa-Mima equation in the presence of sheared poloidal flow is solved for two-dimensional steady state vortex. It is shown that when the phase velocity of the vortex is the same as the diamagnetic drift velocity, an exact solution in the form of counter-rotating vortices may appear...

  17. Mechanistic assessment of hillslope transpiration controls of diel subsurface flow: a steady-state irrigation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.R. Barnard; C.B. Graham; W.J. van Verseveld; J.R. Brooks; B.J. Bond; J.J. McDonnell

    2010-01-01

    Mechanistic assessment of how transpiration influences subsurface flow is necessary to advance understanding of catchment hydrology. We conducted a 24-day, steady-state irrigation experiment to quantify the relationships among soil moisture, transpiration and hillslope subsurface flow. Our objectives were to: (1) examine the time lag between maximum transpiration and...

  18. A Steady State Visually Evoked Potential Investigation of Memory and Ageing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Helen; Pipingas, Andrew; Silberstein, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Old age is generally accompanied by a decline in memory performance. Specifically, neuroimaging and electrophysiological studies have revealed that there are age-related changes in the neural correlates of episodic and working memory. This study investigated age-associated changes in the steady state visually evoked potential (SSVEP) amplitude and…

  19. Molecular Control of Steady-State Dendritic Cell Maturation and Immune Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Gianna Elena; Ma, Averil

    2014-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized sentinels responsible for coordinating adaptive immunity. This function is dependent upon coupled sensitivity to environmental signs of inflammation and infection to cellular maturation—the programmed alteration of DC phenotype and function to enhance immune cell activation. Although DCs are thus well equipped to respond to pathogens, maturation triggers are not unique to infection. Given that immune cells are exquisitely sensitive to the biological functions of DCs, we now appreciate that multiple layers of suppression are required to restrict the environmental sensitivity, cellular maturation, and even life span of DCs to prevent aberrant immune activation during the steady state. At the same time, steady-state DCs are not quiescent but rather perform key functions that support homeostasis of numerous cell types. Here we review these functions and molecular mechanisms of suppression that control steady-state DC maturation. Corruption of these steady-state operatives has diverse immunological consequences and pinpoints DCs as potent drivers of autoimmune and inflammatory disease. PMID:23330953

  20. Steady-state choice between four alternatives obeys the constant-ratio rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bensemann, Joshua; Lobb, Brenda; Podlesnik, Christopher A; Elliffe, Douglas

    2015-07-01

    We investigated why violations to the constant-ratio rule, an assumption of the generalized matching law, occur in procedures that arrange frequent changes to reinforcer ratios. Our investigation produced steady-state data and compared them with data from equivalent, frequently changing procedures. Six pigeons responded in a four-alternative concurrent-schedule experiment with an arranged reinforcer-rate ratio of 27:9:3:1. The same four variable-interval schedules were used in every condition, for 50 sessions, and the physical location of each schedule was changed across conditions. The experiment was a steady-state version of a frequently changing procedure in which the locations of four VI schedules were changed every 10 reinforcers. We found that subjects' responding was consistent with the constant-ratio rule in the steady-state procedure. Additionally, local analyses showed that preference after reinforcement was towards the alternative that was likely to produce the next reinforcer, instead of being towards the just-reinforced alternative as in frequently changing procedures. This suggests that the effect of a reinforcer on preference is fundamentally different in rapidly changing and steady-state environments. Comparing this finding to the existing literature suggests that choice is more influenced by reinforcer-generated signals when the reinforcement contingencies often change. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  1. Quantifying biases in non-steady state chamber measurements of soil-atmosphere gas exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limitations of non-steady state (NSS) chamber methods for determining soil-to-atmosphere trace gas exchange rates have been recognized for several decades. Of these limitations, the so-called “chamber effect” is one of the most challenging to overcome. The chamber effect can be defined as the inhere...

  2. Theoretical comparison of advanced methods for calculating nitrous oxide fluxes using non-steady state chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several flux-calculation (FC) schemes are available for determining soil-to-atmosphere emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and other trace gases using data from non-steady-state flux chambers. Recently developed methods claim to provide more accuracy in estimating the true pre-deployment flux (f0) comp...

  3. quasi-steady state thermal performances of a solar air heater with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-01-17

    Jan 17, 2017 ... For low temperature solar heating applications two kind of solar air ... very low heat transfer rate because of small exchange surfaces ... In the study, mean temperatures and thermal performances of the solar air heater are modelled in quasi-steady state and compared to experimental data. Nomenclature.

  4. Differential contribution of monocytes to heart macrophages in steady-state and after myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidt, Timo; Courties, Gabriel; Dutta, Partha; Sager, Hendrik B.; Sebas, Matt; Iwamoto, Yoshiko; Sun, Yuan; Da Silva, Nicolas; Panizzi, Peter; van der Lahn, Anja M.; Swirski, Filip K.; Weissleder, Ralph; Nahrendorf, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages populate the steady-state myocardium. Previously, all macrophages were thought to arise from monocytes; however, it emerged that, in several organs, tissue-resident macrophages may self-maintain through local proliferation. Our aim was to study the contribution of monocytes to

  5. Transient and Steady-State Responses of an Asymmetric Nonlinear Oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Elías-Zúñiga

    2013-01-01

    oscillator that describes the motion of a damped, forced system supported symmetrically by simple shear springs on a smooth inclined bearing surface. We also use the percentage overshoot value to study the influence of damping and nonlinearity on the transient and steady-state oscillatory amplitudes.

  6. A quasi-steady state shrinking core model of "whole tree" combustion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Remember me, or Register. DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. A quasi-steady state shrinking core model of "whole tree" combustion. A. Ouédraogo, JC Mulligan, JG Cleland. Abstract. (J. de la Recherche Scientifique de l'Université de Lomé, 2000, 4(2): 199-208) ...

  7. Incorporation of wind generation to the Mexican power grid: Steady state analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tovar, J.H.; Guardado, J.L.; Cisneros, F. [Inst. Tecnologico de Morelia (Mexico); Cadenas, R.; Lopez, S. [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia (Mexico)

    1997-09-01

    This paper describes a steady state analysis related with the incorporation of large amounts of eolic generation into the Mexican power system. An equivalent node is used to represent individual eolic generators in the wind farm. Possible overloads, losses, voltage and reactive profiles and estimated severe contingencies are analyzed. Finally, the conclusions of this study are presented.

  8. System and method for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisch, N.J.

    1981-01-01

    A system for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor providing steady-state generation of the thermonuclear power. A dense, hot toroidal plasma is initially prepared with a confining magnetic field with toroidal and poloidal components. Continuous wave rf energy is injected into said plasma to establish a spectrum of traveling waves in the plasma, where the traveling waves have momentum components substantially either all parallel, or all anti-parallel to the confining magnetic field. The injected rf energy is phased to couple to said traveling waves with both a phase velocity component and a wave momentum component in the direction of the plasma traveling wave components. The injected rf energy has a predetermined spectrum selected so that said traveling waves couple to plasma electrons having velocities in a predetermined range delta . The velocities in the range are substantially greater than the thermal electron velocity of the plasma. In addition, the range is sufficiently broad to produce a raised plateau having width delta in the plasma electron velocity distribution so that the plateau electrons provide steady-state current to generate a poloidal magnetic field component sufficient for confining the plasma. In steady state operation of the fusion reactor, the fusion power density in the plasma exceeds the power dissipated in the plasma

  9. Single-dose and steady-state pharmacokinetics of diltiazem administered in two different tablet formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christrup, Lona Louring; Bonde, J; Rasmussen, S N

    1992-01-01

    Single-dose and steady state pharmacokinetics of diltiazem administered in two different oral formulations were assessed with particular reference to rate and extent of absorption. Following single dose administration a significant difference in tmax was observed (2.9 +/- 1.9 and 6.8 +/- 2.6 hr r...

  10. Transient and steady state photoelectronic analysis in TlInSe{sub 2} crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qasrawi, A.F., E-mail: aqasrawi@atilim.edu.tr [Group of Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Atilim University, 06836 Ankara (Turkey); Department of Physics, Arab-American University, Jenin, West Bank, Palestine (Country Unknown); Gasanly, N.M. [Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} The steady state and time dependent photoconductivity kinetics of the TlInSe{sub 2} crystals are investigated in the temperature region of 100-350 K. {yields} The photocurrent of the sample exhibited linear, sublinear, and supralinear recombination mechanisms, at, above and below 160 K, respectively. {yields} Steady state photoconductivity revealed two recombination centres located at 234 and 94 meV. {yields} The transient photoconductivity is limited by a trapping center located at 173 meV. {yields} The capture coefficient of the trap for holes was determined as 3.11 x 10{sup -22} cm{sup -2}. -- Abstract: The temperature and illumination effects on the transient and steady state photoconductivities of TlInSe{sub 2} crystals have been studied. Namely, two recombination centres located at 234 and at 94 meV and one trap center located at 173 meV were determined from the temperature-dependent steady state and transient photoconductivities, respectively. The illumination dependence of photoconductivity indicated the domination of sublinear and supralinear recombination mechanisms above and below 160 K, respectively. The change in the recombination mechanism is attributed to the exchange of roles between the linear recombination at the surface and trapping centres in the crystal, which become dominant as temperature decreases. The transient photoconductivity measurement allowed the determination of the capture coefficient of traps for holes as 3.11 x 10{sup -22} cm{sup -2}.

  11. Steady-state, elastic-plastic growth of slanted cracks in symmetrically loaded plates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim Lau; Hutchinson, J. W.

    2017-01-01

    of the plate, the problem would be mode I, but due to the slant the local conditions along the crack front are a combination of mode I and mode III. A three-dimensional formulation for steady-state crack propagation is employed to generate distributions of effective stress, stress triaxiality and Lode...

  12. Post-CHF heat transfer during steady-state and transient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fung, K.K.

    1978-06-01

    This review extends previous reviews of steady-state post-CHF literature by Groeneveld, Gardiner, and Fung by including more recent data. A review of the literature on transient post-CHF data is also included by extending the work of Yadigaroglu

  13. Quasi-steady state thermal performances of a solar air heater with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quasi-steady state thermal performance of a solar air heater with a combined absorber is studied. The whole energy balance equations related to the system were articulated as a linear system of temperature equations. Solutions to this linear system were assessed from program based on an iterative process. The mean ...

  14. Coagulation profile of children with sickle cell anemia in steady state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sickle cell anemia is associated with a hypercoagulable state that may lead to alterations in a coagulation profile. Measurements of coagulation factors are known to have some predictive value for clinical outcome. Objectives: To determine the coagulation profile of children with SCA in steady state and crisis ...

  15. Controlling Unknown Saddle Type Steady States of Dynamical Systems with Latency in the Feedback Loop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamasevicius, Arunas; Bumeliene, Skaidra; Tamaseviciute, Elena

    2009-01-01

    We suggest an adaptive control technique for stabilizing saddle type unstable steady states of dynamical systems. The controller is composed of an unstable and a stable high-pass filters operating in parallel. The mathematical model is considered analytically and numerically. The conjoint...

  16. Pre-steady state transients in the Drosophila alcohol dehydrogenase catalyzed reaction: isotope effects and stereospecificity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Place, A.R.; Eccleston, J.F.

    1987-01-01

    The alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) isolated from Drosophila is unique among alcohol metabolizing enzymes by not requiring metals for catalysis, by showing 4-pro-S (B-sided) hydride transfer stereospecificity, and by possessing a greater catalytic turnover rate for secondary alcohols than for primary alcohols. They have extended their studies on the kinetic mechanism for this enzyme by examining the pre-steady state transients of ternary complex interconversion using stopped-flow fluorescence methods. When enzyme and a 30-fold molar excess of NADH is mixed with excess acetadehyde, methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), or cyclohexanone a rapid (> 100 s -1 ) transient is observe before the steady-state. The rates are insensitive to isotope substitution. With the substrate MEK, the rate and amplitude suggests a single turnover of the enzyme. Similar pre-steady state transients are observed when enzyme and a 50-fold molar excess of NAD + is mixed with ethanol, 2-propanol, and cyclohexanol. The rates show a hyperbolic concentration dependence and a deuterium isotope effect. With d 6 -deuteroethanol the transient no longer occurs in the pre-steady state. When the optical isomers of secondary alcohols are used as substrates, transients are observed only in the R-(-) isomers for all chain lengths. With 2-S(+)-heptanol and 2-S(+)-octanol no transients occur

  17. Effect of stacking fault energy on steady-state creep rate of face ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuum elastic theory was used to establish the relationships between the force of interaction required to constrict dislocation partials, energy of constriction and climb velocity of the constricted thermal jogs, in order to examine the effect of stacking fault energy (SFE) on steady state creep rate of face centered cubic ...

  18. Steady-state transport equation resolution by particle methods, and numerical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, B.

    1985-10-01

    A method to solve steady-state transport equation has been given. Principles of the method are given. The method is studied in two different cases; estimations given by the theory are compared to numerical results. Results got in 1-D (spherical geometry) and in 2-D (axisymmetric geometry) are given [fr

  19. Stability of non-linear constitutive formulations for viscoelastic fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Siginer, Dennis A

    2014-01-01

    Stability of Non-linear Constitutive Formulations for Viscoelastic Fluids provides a complete and up-to-date view of the field of constitutive equations for flowing viscoelastic fluids, in particular on their non-linear behavior, the stability of these constitutive equations that is their predictive power, and the impact of these constitutive equations on the dynamics of viscoelastic fluid flow in tubes. This book gives an overall view of the theories and attendant methodologies developed independently of thermodynamic considerations as well as those set within a thermodynamic framework to derive non-linear rheological constitutive equations for viscoelastic fluids. Developments in formulating Maxwell-like constitutive differential equations as well as single integral constitutive formulations are discussed in the light of Hadamard and dissipative type of instabilities.

  20. Non-linear behaviour of large-area avalanche photodiodes

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandes, L M P; Monteiro, C M B; Santos, J M; Morgado, R E

    2002-01-01

    The characterisation of photodiodes used as photosensors requires a determination of the number of electron-hole pairs produced by scintillation light. One method involves comparing signals produced by X-ray absorptions occurring directly in the avalanche photodiode with the light signals. When the light is derived from light-emitting diodes in the 400-600 nm range, significant non-linear behaviour is reported. In the present work, we extend the study of the linear behaviour to large-area avalanche photodiodes, of Advanced Photonix, used as photosensors of the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) scintillation light produced by argon (128 nm) and xenon (173 nm). We observed greater non-linearities in the avalanche photodiodes for the VUV scintillation light than reported previously for visible light, but considerably less than the non-linearities observed in other commercially available avalanche photodiodes.

  1. Non linear identification applied to PWR steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poncet, B.

    1982-11-01

    For the precise industrial purpose of PWR nuclear power plant steam generator water level control, a natural method is developed where classical techniques seem not to be efficient enough. From this essentially non-linear practical problem, an input-output identification of dynamic systems is proposed. Through Homodynamic Systems, characterized by a regularity property which can be found in most industrial processes with balance set, state form realizations are built, which resolve the exact joining of local dynamic behaviors, in both discrete and continuous time cases, avoiding any load parameter. Specifically non-linear modelling analytical means, which have no influence on local joined behaviors, are also pointed out. Non-linear autoregressive realizations allow us to perform indirect adaptive control under constraint of an admissible given dynamic family [fr

  2. Non-linear development of secular gravitational instability in protoplanetary disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Ryosuke T.; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro; Takahashi, Sanemichi Z.

    2018-01-01

    We perform non-linear simulation of secular gravitational instability (GI) in protoplanetary disks, which has been proposed as a mechanism of planetesimal and multiple ring formation. Since the timescale of the growth of the secular GI is much longer than the Keplerian rotation period, we develop a new numerical scheme for a long-term calculation utilizing the concept of symplectic integration. With our new scheme, we first investigate the non-linear development of the secular GI in a disk without a pressure gradient in the initial state. We find that the surface density of dust increases by more than a factor of 100 while that of gas does not increase even by a factor of 2, which results in the formation of dust-dominated rings. A line mass of the dust ring tends to be very close to the critical line mass of a self-gravitating isothermal filament. Our results indicate that the non-linear growth of the secular GI provides a powerful mechanism to concentrate the dust. We also find that the dust ring formed via the non-linear growth of the secular GI migrates inward with a low velocity, which is driven by the self-gravity of the ring. We give a semi-analytical expression for the inward migration speed of the dusty ring.

  3. FORMULATION OF NON-STEADY-STATE DUST FORMATION PROCESS IN ASTROPHYSICAL ENVIRONMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozawa, Takaya; Kozasa, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    The non-steady-state formation of small clusters and the growth of grains accompanied by chemical reactions are formulated under the consideration that the collision of key gas species (key molecule) controls the kinetics of dust formation process. The formula allows us to evaluate the size distribution and condensation efficiency of dust formed in astrophysical environments. We apply the formulation to the formation of C and MgSiO 3 grains in the ejecta of supernovae, as an example, to investigate how the non-steady effect influences the formation process, condensation efficiency f con, ∞ , and average radius a ave, ∞ of newly formed grains in comparison with the results calculated with the steady-state nucleation rate. We show that the steady-state nucleation rate is a good approximation if the collision timescale of key molecule τ coll is much smaller than the timescale τ sat with which the supersaturation ratio increases; otherwise the effect of the non-steady state becomes remarkable, leading to a lower f con, ∞ and a larger a ave, ∞ . Examining the results of calculations, we reveal that the steady-state nucleation rate is applicable if the cooling gas satisfies Λ ≡ τ sat /τ coll ∼> 30 during the formation of dust, and find that f con, ∞ and a ave, ∞ are uniquely determined by Λ on at the onset time t on of dust formation. The approximation formulae for f con, ∞ and a ave, ∞ as a function of Λ on could be useful in estimating the mass and typical size of newly formed grains from observed or model-predicted physical properties not only in supernova ejecta but also in mass-loss winds from evolved stars

  4. Steady-state analysis of the nickel oxide in neutral and weakly alkaline solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albu, C.; Deconinck, D.; Hotoiu, L.; Deconinck, J.; Topa, V.

    2013-01-01

    Thin passive nickel oxides are investigated in neutral and weakly alkaline pH solutions under steady-state conditions. The chemical species considered in the oxide film are nickel interstitials and vacancies, as well as oxygen vacancies. The set of differential equations used in this study is solved using the finite element method (FEM) and is able to reproduce the experimental data present in the literature. Steady-state oxide thickness variation with the applied electrode potential presents a linear behavior with an average slope of 2 nm/V. The role of dominant species in these thin films is investigated in terms of current density produced by the reactions at the interfaces, the reactions involving production and consumption of Ni 2+ vacancies playing a major role in the steady-state properties of the oxide. We show that the mass transport of species in the oxide is influenced more by the migration component of the flux than the diffusion component. Our results also show that the flux of Ni 2+ vacancies is approximately two orders of magnitude higher than the flux of oxygen vacancies and Ni 2+ interstitials, making them the dominant defects in the oxide (thus the p-type electronic character is present). Also, the Ni 2+ vacancies were found to have density levels of 10 20 –10 21 cm −3 close to the metal–film interface. Variations of the steady-state thickness and logarithm of the current density with the electrolyte pH, show a linear increase and decrease respectively. Some of these results are compared with data from experiments and simulations done on the iron oxide, showing that Ni forms steady-state passive films that are thinner than the ones formed on Fe under the same environment conditions (pH, temperature, and applied potential)

  5. STEADY-STATE RELATIVISTIC STELLAR DYNAMICS AROUND A MASSIVE BLACK HOLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bar-Or, Ben; Alexander, Tal

    2016-01-01

    A massive black hole (MBH) consumes stars whose orbits evolve into the small phase-space volume of unstable orbits, the “loss cone,” which take them into the MBH, or close enough to interact strongly with it. The resulting phenomena, e.g., tidal heating and disruption, binary capture and hyper-velocity star ejection, gravitational wave (GW) emission by inspiraling compact remnants, or hydrodynamical interactions with an accretion disk, can produce observable signatures and thereby reveal the MBH, affect its mass and spin evolution, test strong gravity, and probe stars and gas near the MBH. These continuous stellar loss and resupply processes shape the central stellar distribution. We investigate relativistic stellar dynamics near the loss cone of a non-spinning MBH in steady state, analytically and by Monte Carlo simulations of the diffusion of the orbital parameters. These take into account Newtonian mass precession due to enclosed stellar mass, in-plane precession due to general relativity, dissipation by GW, uncorrelated two-body relaxation, correlated resonant relaxation (RR), and adiabatic invariance due to secular precession, using a rigorously derived description of correlated post-Newtonian dynamics in the diffusion limit. We argue that general maximal entropy considerations strongly constrain the orbital diffusion in steady state, irrespective of the relaxation mechanism. We identify the exact phase-space separatrix between plunges and inspirals, and predict their steady-state rates. We derive the dependence of the rates on the mass of the MBH, show that the contribution of RR in steady state is small, and discuss special cases where unquenched RR in restricted volumes of phase-space may affect the steady state substantially

  6. Factor Xa inhibition by rivaroxaban in the trough steady state can significantly reduce thrombin generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horinaka, Shigeo; Sugawara, Rie; Yonezawa, Yutaka; Ishimitsu, Toshihiko

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to demonstrate evidence of reduced thrombin generation at the trough plasma rivaroxaban concentration. A single-centre, prospective, nonrandomized, drug-intervention, self-controlled study was conducted in 51 anticoagulation therapy-naïve patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. Plasma rivaroxaban concentration was measured by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and the anti-factor Xa chromogenic assay. Partial thrombin time (PT), protein C activity, and protein S antigen, prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 (F1 + 2), D-dimer, thrombomodulin (TM), thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) levels were also measured at the trough steady state after 4 weeks of rivaroxaban treatment and compared with baseline. Plasma concentrations obtained by the LC-MS/MS and anti-Xa assays were correlated (r = 0.841, P steady state was 23.6 ng ml -1 , at which F1 + 2, TAT and D-dimer had decreased from the baseline values (P steady state in the first to third quartile groups (+0.79 pg ml -1 , P = 0.048). By contrast, PAI-1, protein C activity, protein S antigen and TM remained within the normal range at the trough steady state. Residual plasma rivaroxaban at the trough steady state may explain the antithrombin effect of rivaroxaban in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. © 2017 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Pharmacological Society.

  7. Intracellular CHO Cell Metabolite Profiling Reveals Steady-State Dependent Metabolic Fingerprints in Perfusion Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karst, Daniel J; Steinhoff, Robert F; Kopp, Marie R G; Serra, Elisa; Soos, Miroslav; Zenobi, Renato; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2017-07-01

    Perfusion cell culture processes allow the steady-state culture of mammalian cells at high viable cell density, which is beneficial for overall product yields and homogeneity of product quality in the manufacturing of therapeutic proteins. In this study, the extent of metabolic steady state and the change of the metabolite profile between different steady states of an industrial Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line producing a monoclonal antibody (mAb) was investigated in stirred tank perfusion bioreactors. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) of daily cell extracts revealed more than a hundred peaks, among which 76 metabolites were identified by tandem MS (MS/MS) and high resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) MS. Nucleotide ratios (Uridine (U)-ratio, nucleotide triphosphate (NTP)-ratio and energy charge (EC)) and multivariate analysis of all features indicated a consistent metabolite profile for a stable culture performed at 40 × 10 6 cells/mL over 26 days of culture. Conversely, the reactor was operated continuously so as to reach three distinct steady states one after the other at 20, 60, and 40 × 10 6 cells/mL. In each case, a stable metabolite profile was achieved after an initial transient phase of approximately three days at constant cell density when varying between these set points. Clear clustering according to cell density was observed by principal component analysis, indicating steady-state dependent metabolite profiles. In particular, varying levels of nucleotides, nucleotide sugar, and lipid precursors explained most of the variance between the different cell density set points. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:879-890, 2017. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  8. Fluctuation Theorem, Nonequilibrium Steady States and MacLennan-Zubarev Ensembles of $L^1$-Asymptotic Abelian C$^*$ Dynamical Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tasaki, S

    2002-01-01

    For an infinitely extended system divisable into a finite subsystem and several reservoirs, the time evolution of initial states, where the reservoirs are in equilibrium with different temperatures and chemical potentials, is studied. Under the assumption that the time evolution is $L^1$-asymptotic abelian, (i) \\ the existence of the steady states, (ii) \\ the division independence of the steady states and their relative entropy production, and (iii) \\ the stability of steady states against local perturbations are shown. The explicit expression of the relative entropy production and a KMS characterization of the steady states are given. Without the $L^1$-asymptotic abelian property, a noncommutative analog to the fluctuation theorem is derived as well.

  9. Existence and instability of steady states for a triangular cross-diffusion system: A computer-assisted proof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breden, Maxime; Castelli, Roberto

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we present and apply a computer-assisted method to study steady states of a triangular cross-diffusion system. Our approach consist in an a posteriori validation procedure, that is based on using a fixed point argument around a numerically computed solution, in the spirit of the Newton-Kantorovich theorem. It allows to prove the existence of various non homogeneous steady states for different parameter values. In some situations, we obtain as many as 13 coexisting steady states. We also apply the a posteriori validation procedure to study the linear stability of the obtained steady states, proving that many of them are in fact unstable.

  10. Steady-state domain wall motion driven by adiabatic spin-transfer torque with assistance of microwave field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xi-guang; Guo, Guang-hua, E-mail: guogh@mail.csu.edu.cn; Nie, Yao-zhuang; Xia, Qing-lin; Tang, Wei [School of Physics and Electronics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Wang, D. [Department of Physics, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Zeng, Zhong-ming [Suzhou Institute of Nano-tech and Nano-bionics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2013-12-23

    We have studied the current-induced displacement of a 180° Bloch wall by means of micromagnetic simulation and analytical approach. It is found that the adiabatic spin-transfer torque can sustain a steady-state domain wall (DW) motion in the direction opposite to that of the electron flow without Walker Breakdown when a transverse microwave field is applied. This kind of motion is very sensitive to the microwave frequency and can be resonantly enhanced by exciting the domain wall thickness oscillation mode. A one-dimensional analytical model was established to account for the microwave-assisted wall motion. These findings may be helpful for reducing the critical spin-polarized current density and designing DW-based spintronic devices.

  11. Thermal Conductivity Change Kinetics of Ceramic Thermal Barrier Coatings Determined by the Steady-State Laser Heat Flux Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongming; Miller, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    A steady-state laser heat flux technique has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field to obtain critical thermal conductivity data of ceramic thermal barrier coatings under the temperature and thermal gradients that are realistically expected to be encountered in advanced engine systems. In this study, thermal conductivity change kinetics of a plasma-sprayed, 254-mm-thick ZrO2-8 wt % Y2O3 ceramic coating were obtained at high temperatures. During the testing, the temperature gradients across the coating system were carefully measured by the surface and back pyrometers and an embedded miniature thermocouple in the substrate. The actual heat flux passing through the coating system was determined from the metal substrate temperature drop (measured by the embedded miniature thermocouple and the back pyrometer) combined with one-dimensional heat transfer models.

  12. Análise das velocidades: referencial de 4mM, de equilíbrio de 30 min e velocidade crítica em nadadoras adolescentes Velocities analysis: 4 mM reference, 30 min steady-state and critical velocity in female adolescent swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilson Colantonio

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar os resultados do cálculo da velocidade de limiar anaeróbio (Lan, correspondente a 4mM de lactato, obtidos em testes de 2 x 400m (V4-2, 4 x 400m (V4-4 e a velocidade crítica (VC relacionando-as com a velocidade média determinada no teste de 30 min (VMT30 em nadadoras adolescentes. METODOLOGIA: Participaram deste estudo 20 nadadoras (14,36 ± 1,22 anos; 52,75 ± 5,32kg; 159,97 ± 11,26cm; 22,5 ± 4,73% gordura corporal de nível regional e estadual com pelo menos dois anos de treinamento sistemático. Testes realizados: Teste de 30 min (VMT30, Teste de duas distâncias (V4-2, Teste de quatro distâncias (V4-4 e Velocidade Crítica (VC. Análise estatística: o procedimento adotado para a comparação de todas as metodologias, duas a duas, foi a técnica de análise de regressão simples. RESULTADOS: As velocidades médias dos testes foram: VMT30: 1,12 ± 0,06m/s; V4-2: 1,14 ± 0,12m/s; V4-4: 1,12 ± 0,06m/s e a VC média: 1,14 ± 0,07m/s. Análise de regressão simples entre as metodologias duas a duas: V4-4 e V4-2 (r = 0,324, VC e V4-2 (r = 0,058, VMT30 e V4-2 (r = 0,595, VC e V4-4 (r = 0,807, VMT30 e V4-4 (r = 0,796 e VMT30 e VC (r = 0,677. As retas de regressão ajustadas apresentaram em relação à bissetriz os valores de p = 0,3060; 0,1716 e 0,0058. CONCLUSÕES: A determinação da VMT30 constitui-se em um bom instrumento para a prescrição de treinamento para as nadadoras estudadas, o que nem sempre ocorre com o modelo V4-2; a [La] de 4mM com quatro pontos e o cálculo do limiar de lactato através da técnica de efeitos aleatórios, mostrou-se viável para a determinação do Lan para as nadadoras, quando comparada com a VMT30; a VC e V4-4 apresentaram boa correlação assim como a VC e VMT30.OBJECTIVE: To compare the results of the calculation of the anaerobic threshold velocity (AT, corresponding to 4 mM lactate, obtained in 2 x 400 m (V4-2, 4 x 400 m (V4-4 tests and critical velocity (CV relating to the mean

  13. Non Linear Analysis on Multi Lobe Journal Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udaya Bhaskar, S.; Manzoor Hussian, M.; Yousuf Ali, Md.

    2017-08-01

    Multi lobe journal bearings are used in machines which operate at high speeds and high loads. In this paper the multi lobe bearing are analyzed to determine the effect of surface roughness during non linear loading. A non-linear time transient analysis is performed using the fourth order Runge Kutta method. The finite difference method is used to predict the pressure distribution over the bearing surface. The effect of eccentric ratio is studied and the variation of attitude angle is discussed. The journal center trajectories were calculated and plotted.

  14. Stochastic development regression on non-linear manifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kühnel, Line; Sommer, Stefan Horst

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a regression model for data on non-linear manifolds. The model describes the relation between a set of manifold valued observations, such as shapes of anatomical objects, and Euclidean explanatory variables. The approach is based on stochastic development of Euclidean diffusion...... processes to the manifold. Defining the data distribution as the transition distribution of the mapped stochastic process, parameters of the model, the non-linear analogue of design matrix and intercept, are found via maximum likelihood. The model is intrinsically related to the geometry encoded...

  15. Mathematical problems in non-linear Physics: some results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The basic results presented in this report are the following: 1) Characterization of the range and Kernel of the variational derivative. 2) Determination of general conservation laws in linear evolution equations, as well as bounds for the number of polynomial conserved densities in non-linear evolution equations in two independent variables of even order. 3) Construction of the most general evolution equation which has a given family of conserved densities. 4) Regularity conditions for the validity of the Lie invariance method. 5) A simple class of perturbations in non-linear wave equations. 6) Soliton solutions in generalized KdV equations. (author)

  16. E11 and the non-linear dual graviton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumanov, Alexander G.; West, Peter

    2018-04-01

    The non-linear dual graviton equation of motion as well as the duality relation between the gravity and dual gravity fields are found in E theory by carrying out E11 variations of previously found equations of motion. As a result the equations of motion in E theory have now been found at the full non-linear level up to, and including, level three, which contains the dual graviton field. When truncated to contain fields at levels three and less, and the spacetime is restricted to be the familiar eleven dimensional space time, the equations are equivalent to those of eleven dimensional supergravity.

  17. Implementation of neural network based non-linear predictive control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Paul Haase; Nørgård, Peter Magnus; Ravn, Ole

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a control method for non-linear systems based on generalized predictive control. Generalized predictive control (GPC) was developed to control linear systems, including open-loop unstable and non-minimum phase systems, but has also been proposed to be extended for the control...... of non-linear systems. GPC is model based and in this paper we propose the use of a neural network for the modeling of the system. Based on the neural network model, a controller with extended control horizon is developed and the implementation issues are discussed, with particular emphasis...

  18. Implementation of neural network based non-linear predictive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Paul Haase; Nørgård, Peter Magnus; Ravn, Ole

    1998-01-01

    The paper describes a control method for non-linear systems based on generalized predictive control. Generalized predictive control (GPC) was developed to control linear systems including open loop unstable and non-minimum phase systems, but has also been proposed extended for the control of non-linear...... systems. GPC is model-based and in this paper we propose the use of a neural network for the modeling of the system. Based on the neural network model a controller with extended control horizon is developed and the implementation issues are discussed, with particular emphasis on an efficient Quasi...

  19. Foundations of the non-linear mechanics of continua

    CERN Document Server

    Sedov, L I

    1966-01-01

    International Series of Monographs on Interdisciplinary and Advanced Topics in Science and Engineering, Volume 1: Foundations of the Non-Linear Mechanics of Continua deals with the theoretical apparatus, principal concepts, and principles used in the construction of models of material bodies that fill space continuously. This book consists of three chapters. Chapters 1 and 2 are devoted to the theory of tensors and kinematic applications, focusing on the little-known theory of non-linear tensor functions. The laws of dynamics and thermodynamics are covered in Chapter 3.This volume is suitable

  20. Realization of non-linear coherent states by photonic lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehdashti, Shahram, E-mail: shdehdashti@zju.edu.cn; Li, Rujiang; Chen, Hongsheng, E-mail: hansomchen@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Modern Optical Instrumentations, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); The Electromagnetics Academy at Zhejiang University, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Liu, Jiarui, E-mail: jrliu@zju.edu.cn; Yu, Faxin [School of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, first, by introducing Holstein-Primakoff representation of α-deformed algebra, we achieve the associated non-linear coherent states, including su(2) and su(1, 1) coherent states. Second, by using waveguide lattices with specific coupling coefficients between neighbouring channels, we generate these non-linear coherent states. In the case of positive values of α, we indicate that the Hilbert size space is finite; therefore, we construct this coherent state with finite channels of waveguide lattices. Finally, we study the field distribution behaviours of these coherent states, by using Mandel Q parameter.

  1. BEAM-BASED NON-LINEAR OPTICS CORRECTIONS IN COLLIDERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PILAT, R.; LUO, Y.; MALITSKY, N.; PTITSYN, V.

    2005-01-01

    A method has been developed to measure and correct operationally the non-linear effects of the final focusing magnets in colliders, that gives access to the effects of multi-pole errors by applying closed orbit bumps, and analyzing the resulting tune and orbit shifts. This technique has been tested and used during 4 years of RHIC (the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at BNL) operations. I will discuss here the theoretical basis of the method, the experimental set-up, the correction results, the present understanding of the machine model, the potential and limitations of the method itself as compared with other non-linear correction techniques

  2. BEAM-BASED NON-LINEAR OPTICS CORRECTIONS IN COLLIDERS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PILAT, R.; LUO, Y.; MALITSKY, N.; PTITSYN, V.

    2005-05-16

    A method has been developed to measure and correct operationally the non-linear effects of the final focusing magnets in colliders, that gives access to the effects of multi-pole errors by applying closed orbit bumps, and analyzing the resulting tune and orbit shifts. This technique has been tested and used during 4 years of RHIC (the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at BNL) operations. I will discuss here the theoretical basis of the method, the experimental set-up, the correction results, the present understanding of the machine model, the potential and limitations of the method itself as compared with other non-linear correction techniques.

  3. A pre-steady state and steady state kinetic analysis of the N-ribosyl hydrolase activity of hCD157.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preugschat, Frank; Carter, Luke H; Boros, Eric E; Porter, David J T; Stewart, Eugene L; Shewchuk, Lisa M

    2014-12-15

    hCD157 catalyzes the hydrolysis of nicotinamide riboside (NR) and nicotinic acid riboside (NAR). The release of nicotinamide or nicotinic acid from NR or NAR was confirmed by spectrophotometric, HPLC and NMR analyses. hCD157 is inactivated by a mechanism-based inhibitor, 2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-nicotinamide arabinoside (fNR). Modification of the enzyme during the catalytic cycle by NR, NAR, or fNR increased the intrinsic protein fluorescence by approximately 50%. Pre-steady state and steady state data were used to derive a minimal kinetic scheme for the hydrolysis of NR. After initial complex formation a reversible step (360 and 30s(-1)) is followed by a slow irreversible step (0.1s(-1)) that defined the rate limiting step, or kcat. The calculated KMapp value for NR in the hydrolytic reaction is 6nM. The values of the kinetic constants suggest that one biological function of cell-surface hCD157 is to bind and slowly hydrolyze NR, possibly converting it to a ligand-activated receptor. Differences in substrate preference between hCD157 and hCD38 were rationalized through a comparison of the crystal structures of the two proteins. This comparison identified several residues in hCD157 (F108 and F173) that can potentially hinder the binding of dinucleotide substrates (NAD+). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Dynamic stability of a vertically excited non-linear continuous system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Náprstek, Jiří; Fischer, Cyril

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 155, July (2015), s. 106-114 ISSN 0045-7949 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01035S Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : non-linear systems * auto-parametric systems * semi-trivial solution * dynamic stability * system recovery * post- critical response Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering Impact factor: 2.425, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045794915000024

  5. Stochastic development regression on non-linear manifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kühnel, Line; Sommer, Stefan Horst

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a regression model for data on non-linear manifolds. The model describes the relation between a set of manifold valued observations, such as shapes of anatomical objects, and Euclidean explanatory variables. The approach is based on stochastic development of Euclidean diffusion proce...

  6. Non-Linear Vibration of Euler-Bernoulli Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barari, Amin; Kaliji, H. D.; Domairry, G.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, variational iteration (VIM) and parametrized perturbation (PPM)methods have been used to investigate non-linear vibration of Euler-Bernoulli beams subjected to the axial loads. The proposed methods do not require small parameter in the equation which is difficult to be found...

  7. A non-linear dissipative model of magnetism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Durand, P.; Paidarová, Ivana

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 6 (2010), s. 67004 ISSN 1286-4854 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100400501 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : non-linear dissipative model of magnetism * thermodynamics * physical chemistry Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry http://epljournal.edpsciences.org/

  8. Quantum-dot-based integrated non-linear sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernard, Alice; Mariani, Silvia; Andronico, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    The authors report on the design and the preliminary characterisation of two active non-linear sources in the terahertz and near-infrared range. The former is associated to difference-frequency generation between whispering gallery modes of an AlGaAs microring resonator, whereas the latter...

  9. Non-linear Behavior of Curved Sandwich Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berggreen, Carl Christian; Jolma, P.; Karjalainen, J. P.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the non-linear behavior of curved sandwich panels is investigated both numerically and experimentally. Focus is on various aspects of finite element modeling and calculation procedures. A simply supported, singly curved, CFRP/PVC sandwich panel is analyzed under uniform pressure load...

  10. Smoothing identification of systems with small non-linearities

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kozánek, Jan; Piranda, J.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 1 (2003), s. 71-84 ISSN 0025-6455 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/00/1471 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2076919 Keywords : identification * small non-linearities * smoothing methods Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 0.237, year: 2003

  11. Non-linear excitation of gravitational radiation antennae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, D.G.

    1982-01-01

    A mechanism of non-linear excitation is proposed to explain observed excess noise in gravitational radiation antennae, driven by low frequency vibration. The mechanism is analogous to the excitation of a violin string by low frequency bowing. Numerical estimates for Weber bars suspended by cables are in good agreement with observations. (Auth.)

  12. Utilization of non-linear converters for audio amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Niels Elkjær; Birch, Thomas; Knott, Arnold

    2012-01-01

    . The introduction of non-linear converters for audio amplification defeats this limitation. A Cuk converter, designed to deliver an AC peak output voltage twice the supply voltage, is presented in this paper. A 3V prototype has been developed to prove the concept. The prototype shows that it is possible to achieve...

  13. Effect of Integral Non-Linearity on Energy Calibration of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The integral non-linearity (INL) of four spectroscopy systems, two integrated (A1 and A2) and two classical (B1 and B2) systems was determined using pulses from a random pulse generator. The effect of INL on the system's energy calibration was also determined. The effect is minimal in the classical system at high ...

  14. Multispectral face recognition using non linear dimensionality reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhloufi, Moulay A.; Bendada, Abdelhakim; Batsale, Jean-Christophe

    2009-05-01

    Face recognition in the infrared spectrum has attracted a lot of interest in recent years. Many of the techniques used in infrared are based on their visible counterpart, especially linear techniques like PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and LDA (Linear Discriminant Analysis). In this work, we introduce non linear dimensionality reduction approaches for multispectral face recognition. For this purpose, the following techniques were developed: global non linear techniques (Kernel-PCA, Kernel-LDA) and local non linear techniques (Local Linear Embedding, Locality Preserving Projection). The performances of these techniques were compared to classical linear techniques for face recognition like PCA and LDA. Two multispectral face recognition databases were used in our experiments: Equinox Face Recognition Database and Laval University Database. Equinox database contains images in the Visible, Short, Mid and Long waves infrared spectrums. Laval database contains images in the Visible, Near, Mid and Long waves infrared spectrums with variations in time and metabolic activity of the subjects. The obtained results are interesting and show the increase in recognition performance using local non linear dimensionality reduction techniques for infrared face recognition, particularly in near and short wave infrared spectrums.

  15. Geometrically non linear analysis of functionally graded material ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    when compared to the other engineering materials (Akhavan and Hamed, 2010). However, FGM plates under mechanical loading may undergo elastic instability. Hence, the non-linear behavior of functionally graded plates has to be understood for their optimum design. Reddy (2000) proposed the theoretical formulation ...

  16. Non-linear thermal fluctuations in a diode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, N.G. van

    As an example of non-linear noise the fluctuations in a circuit consisting of a diode and a condenser C are studied. From the master equation for this system the following results are derived. 1. (i) The equilibrium distribution of the voltage is rigorously Gaussian, the average voltage being

  17. Canonical structure of evolution equations with non-linear ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The dispersion produced is compensated by non-linear effects resulting in the formation of exponentially localized .... determining the values of Lagrange's multipliers αis. We postulate that a slightly .... c3 «w2x -v. (36). To include the effect of the secondary constraint c3 in the total Hamiltonian H we modify. (33) as. 104.

  18. About one non linear generalization of the compression reflection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Both cases of stage and spiral iterations are considered. A geometrical interpretation of a convergence of a generalize method of iteration is brought, the case of stage and spiral iterations are considered. The formula for the non linear generalize compression reflection operator as a function from one variable is obtained.

  19. Current algebra of classical non-linear sigma models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forger, M.; Laartz, J.; Schaeper, U.

    1992-01-01

    The current algebra of classical non-linear sigma models on arbitrary Riemannian manifolds is analyzed. It is found that introducing, in addition to the Noether current j μ associated with the global symmetry of the theory, a composite scalar field j, the algebra closes under Poisson brackets. (orig.)

  20. Geometrically non linear analysis of functionally graded material ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geometrically non linear analysis of functionally graded material plates using higher order theory. ... International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology. Journal Home ... The analysis of functionally graded material (FGM) plates with material variation parameter (n), boundary conditions, aspect ratios and side to ...

  1. Efficient algorithms for non-linear four-wave interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Vledder, G.P.

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the on-going activities in the development of efficient methods for computing the non-linear four-wave interactions in operational discrete third-generation wind-wave models. It is generally assumed that these interactions play an important role in the evolution of wind

  2. Applications of non-linear methods in astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martens, P.C.H.

    1984-01-01

    In this review I discuss catastrophes, bifurcations and strange attractors in a non-mathematical manner by giving very simple examples that st ill contain the essence of the phenomenon. The salientresults of the applications of these non-linear methods in astrophysics are reviewed and include such

  3. On iterative solution of non-linear equation | Ogbereyivwe | Journal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    5] developed a new algorithm based on cubic interpolation for solving non- linear equations of degree 1 to 3. The algorithm was found to be faster than the Regular falsi and the Newton Raphason method. This paper extend the algorithm to ...

  4. An inhomogeneous wave equation and non-linear Diophantine approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beresnevich, V.; Dodson, M. M.; Kristensen, S.

    2008-01-01

    A non-linear Diophantine condition involving perfect squares and arising from an inhomogeneous wave equation on the torus guarantees the existence of a smooth solution. The exceptional set associated with the failure of the Diophantine condition and hence of the existence of a smooth solution...

  5. Non-linear dynamics in pulse combustor: A review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-02-19

    Feb 19, 2015 ... Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 84; Issue 3. Non-linear dynamics in ... Mechanical Engineering Department, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032, India ... Proceedings of the International Workshop/Conference on Computational Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science

  6. Optimization of lift gas allocation in a gas lifted oil field as non-linear optimization problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roshan Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper allocation and distribution of lift gas is necessary for maximizing total oil production from a field with gas lifted oil wells. When the supply of the lift gas is limited, the total available gas should be optimally distributed among the oil wells of the field such that the total production of oil from the field is maximized. This paper describes a non-linear optimization problem with constraints associated with the optimal distribution of the lift gas. A non-linear objective function is developed using a simple dynamic model of the oil field where the decision variables represent the lift gas flow rate set points of each oil well of the field. The lift gas optimization problem is solved using the emph'fmincon' solver found in MATLAB. As an alternative and for verification, hill climbing method is utilized for solving the optimization problem. Using both of these methods, it has been shown that after optimization, the total oil production is increased by about 4. For multiple oil wells sharing lift gas from a common source, a cascade control strategy along with a nonlinear steady state optimizer behaves as a self-optimizing control structure when the total supply of lift gas is assumed to be the only input disturbance present in the process. Simulation results show that repeated optimization performed after the first time optimization under the presence of the input disturbance has no effect in the total oil production.

  7. Response of tungsten surfaces to helium and hydrogen plasma exposure under ITER relevant steady state and repetitive transient conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buzi, L.; De Temmerman, G.; Huisman, A. E.; Bardin, S.; Morgan, T. W.; Rasinski, M.; Pitts, R. A.; Van Oost, G.

    2017-01-01

    The effect of helium (He) plasma exposure, and associated surface modifications, on the thermal shock resistance of tungsten (W) under ITER relevant steady state and transient heat and particle loads was studied. W samples were exposed to steady state and pulsed He plasmas at surface base

  8. Steady state bioequivalence of generic and innovator formulations of stavudine, lamivudine, and nevirapine in HIV-infected Ugandan adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayne Byakika-Tusiime

    Full Text Available Generic antiretroviral therapy is the mainstay of HIV treatment in resource-limited settings, yet there is little evidence confirming the bioequivalence of generic and brand name formulations. We compared the steady-state pharmacokinetics of lamivudine, stavudine and nevirapine in HIV-infected subjects who were receiving a generic formulation (Triomune or the corresponding brand formulations (Epivir, Zerit, and Viramune.An open-label, randomized, crossover study was carried out in 18 HIV-infected Ugandan subjects stabilized on Triomune-40. Subjects received lamivudine (150 mg, stavudine (40 mg, and nevirapine (200 mg in either the generic or brand formulation twice a day for 30 days, before switching to the other formulation. At the end of each treatment period, blood samples were collected over 12 h for pharmacokinetic analysis. The main outcome measures were the mean AUC(0-12h and C(max. Bioequivalence was defined as a geometric mean ratio between the generic and brand name within the 90% confidence interval of 0.8-1.25. The geometric mean ratios and the 90% confidence intervals were: stavudine C(max, 1.3 (0.99-1.71 and AUC(0-12h, 1.1 (0.87-1.38; lamivudine C(max, 0.8 (0.63-0.98 and AUC(0-12h, 0.8 (0.65-0.99; and nevirapine C(max, 1.1 (0.95-1.23 and AUC(0-12h, 1.1 (0.95-1.31. The generic formulation was not statistically bioequivalent to the brand formulations during steady state, although exposures were comparable. A mixed random effects model identified about 50% intersubject variability in the pharmacokinetic parameters.These findings provide support for the use of Triomune in resource-limited settings, although identification of the sources of intersubject variability in these populations is critical.

  9. Method development for detecting divertor failures during steady state operation of Wendelstein 7X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodatos, Alexander; Jakubowski, Marcin; Sunn Pedersen, Thomas [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Wendelsteinstr. 1, Greifswald (Germany); Greuner, Henri [Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, Boltzmannstr. 2, Garching (Germany)

    2015-05-01

    Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) is stellarator fusion experiment, which will start operation in 2015. One of its goals is the demonstration of the stellarator concepts steady state capability while operating with fusion relevant plasma parameters. For particle and heat exhaust from the plasma a set of 10 island divertor units is installed in the machine. During the steady state operation they are exposed to a heat flux of up to 10MW/m{sup 2} for up to 30 min. Transient, even higher heat fluxes are possible. To guarantee the save operation of W7-X a continues surveillance of the divertor is mandatory, which is realized by a set of 10 infrared cameras observing the divertor surface. These data needs to be evaluated during the experiment identifying defects, surface layers and actual hot spots caused by overheating.

  10. An equation oriented approach to steady state flowsheeting of methanol synthesis loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fathikalajahi, J.; Baniadam, M.; Rahimpour, M.R.

    2008-01-01

    An equation-oriented approach was developed for steady state flowsheeting of a commercial methanol plant. The loop consists of fixed bed reactor, flash separator, preheater, coolers, and compressor. For steady sate flowsheeting of the plant mathematical model of reactor and other units are needed. Reactor used in loop is a Lurgi type and its configuration is rather complex. Previously reactor and flash separator are modeled as two important units of plant. The model is based on mass and energy balances in each equipment and utilizing some auxiliary equations such as rate of reaction and thermodynamics model for activity coefficients of liquid. In order to validate the mathematical model for the synthesis loop, some simulation data were performed using operating conditions and characteristics of the commercial plant. The good agreement between the steady state simulation results and the plant data shows the validity of the model

  11. Stability of periodic steady-state solutions to a non-isentropic Euler-Poisson system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cunming; Peng, Yue-Jun

    2017-06-01

    We study the stability of periodic smooth solutions near non-constant steady-states for a non-isentropic Euler-Poisson system without temperature damping term. The system arises in the theory of semiconductors for which the doping profile is a given smooth function. In this stability problem, there are no special restrictions on the size of the doping profile, but only on the size of the perturbation. We prove that small perturbations of periodic steady-states are exponentially stable for large time. For this purpose, we introduce new variables and choose a non-diagonal symmetrizer of the full Euler equations to recover dissipation estimates. This also allows to make the proof of the stability result very simple and concise.

  12. Comparing Interval Management Control Laws for Steady-State Errors and String Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitz, Lesley A.; Swieringa, Kurt A.

    2018-01-01

    Interval Management (IM) is a future airborne spacing concept that leverages avionics to provide speed guidance to an aircraft to achieve and maintain a specified spacing interval from another aircraft. The design of a speed control law to achieve the spacing goal is a key aspect in the research and development of the IM concept. In this paper, two control laws that are used in much of the contemporary IM research are analyzed and compared to characterize steady-state errors and string stability. Numerical results are used to illustrate how the choice of control laws gains impacts the size of steady-state errors and string performance and the potential trade-offs between those performance characteristics.

  13. Steady-State Somatosensory Evoked Potential for Brain-Computer Interface–Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangtae eAhn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain-computer interface (BCI performance has achieved continued improvement over recent decades, and sensorimotor rhythm-based BCIs that use motor function have been popular subjects of investigation. However, it remains problematic to introduce them to the public market because of their low reliability. As an alternative resolution to this issue, visual-based BCIs that use P300 or steady-state visually evoked potentials seem promising; however, the inherent visual fatigue that occurs with these BCIs may be unavoidable. For these reasons, steady-state somatosensory evoked potential (SSSEP BCIs, which are based on tactile selective attention, have gained increasing attention recently. These may reduce the fatigue induced by visual attention and overcome the low reliability of motor activity. In this literature survey, recent findings on SSSEP and its methodological uses in BCI are reviewed. Further, existing limitations of SSSEP BCI and potential future directions for the technique are discussed.

  14. Steady-state and transient heat transfer through fins of complex geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taler Dawid

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Various methods for steady-state and transient analysis of temperature distribution and efficiency of continuous-plate fins are presented. For a constant heat transfer coefficient over the fin surface, the plate fin can be divided into imaginary rectangular or hexangular fins. At first approximate methods for determining the steady-state fin efficiency like the method of equivalent circular fin and the sector method are discussed. When the fin geometry is complex, thus transient temperature distribution and fin efficiency can be determined using numerical methods. A numerical method for transient analysis of fins with complex geometry is developed. Transient temperature distributions in continuous fins attached to oval tubes is computed using the finite volume - finite element methods. The developed method can be used in the transient analysis of compact heat exchangers to calculate correctly the heat flow rate transferred from the finned tubes to the fluid.

  15. Basis adaptation and domain decomposition for steady-state partial differential equations with random coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tipireddy, R.; Stinis, P.; Tartakovsky, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    We present a novel approach for solving steady-state stochastic partial differential equations (PDEs) with high-dimensional random parameter space. The proposed approach combines spatial domain decomposition with basis adaptation for each subdomain. The basis adaptation is used to address the curse of dimensionality by constructing an accurate low-dimensional representation of the stochastic PDE solution (probability density function and/or its leading statistical moments) in each subdomain. Restricting the basis adaptation to a specific subdomain affords finding a locally accurate solution. Then, the solutions from all of the subdomains are stitched together to provide a global solution. We support our construction with numerical experiments for a steady-state diffusion equation with a random spatially dependent coefficient. Our results show that highly accurate global solutions can be obtained with significantly reduced computational costs.

  16. Composing Problem Solvers for Simulation Experimentation: A Case Study on Steady State Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leye, Stefan; Ewald, Roland; Uhrmacher, Adelinde M.

    2014-01-01

    Simulation experiments involve various sub-tasks, e.g., parameter optimization, simulation execution, or output data analysis. Many algorithms can be applied to such tasks, but their performance depends on the given problem. Steady state estimation in systems biology is a typical example for this: several estimators have been proposed, each with its own (dis-)advantages. Experimenters, therefore, must choose from the available options, even though they may not be aware of the consequences. To support those users, we propose a general scheme to aggregate such algorithms to so-called synthetic problem solvers, which exploit algorithm differences to improve overall performance. Our approach subsumes various aggregation mechanisms, supports automatic configuration from training data (e.g., via ensemble learning or portfolio selection), and extends the plugin system of the open source modeling and simulation framework James II. We show the benefits of our approach by applying it to steady state estimation for cell-biological models. PMID:24705453

  17. Steady-state pulses and superradiance in short-wavelength, swept-gain amplifiers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonifacio, R.; Hopf, F.A.; Meystre, P.; Scully, M.O.

    1975-01-01

    The steady-state behavior of amplifiers in which the excitation is swept at the speed of light is discussed in the semiclassical approximation. In the present work the case where the decay time of the population is comparable to that of the polarization is examined. Pulse propagation is shown to obey a generalized sine-Gordon equation which contains the effects of atomic relaxations. The analytical expression of the steady-state pulses (SSP) gives two threshold conditions. In the region of limited gain the SSP is a broad pulse with small area which can be obtained by small signal theory. In the second region of high gain the SSP is the superradiant π pulse. Its pulse power is not limited as in usual superradiant theory because, as is shown, for a swept excitation the cooperation-length limit does not exist

  18. Basis adaptation and domain decomposition for steady-state partial differential equations with random coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipireddy, R.; Stinis, P.; Tartakovsky, A. M.

    2017-12-01

    We present a novel approach for solving steady-state stochastic partial differential equations in high-dimensional random parameter space. The proposed approach combines spatial domain decomposition with basis adaptation for each subdomain. The basis adaptation is used to address the curse of dimensionality by constructing an accurate low-dimensional representation of the stochastic PDE solution (probability density function and/or its leading statistical moments) in each subdomain. Restricting the basis adaptation to a specific subdomain affords finding a locally accurate solution. Then, the solutions from all of the subdomains are stitched together to provide a global solution. We support our construction with numerical experiments for a steady-state diffusion equation with a random spatially dependent coefficient. Our results show that accurate global solutions can be obtained with significantly reduced computational costs.

  19. PEBBLE: a two-dimensional steady-state pebble bed reactor thermal hydraulics code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vondy, D.R.

    1981-09-01

    This report documents the local implementation of the PEBBLE code to treat the two-dimensional steady-state pebble bed reactor thermal hydraulics problem. This code is implemented as a module of a computation system used for reactor core history calculations. Given power density data, the geometric description in (RZ), and basic heat removal conditions and thermal properties, the coolant properties, flow conditions, and temperature distributions in the pebble fuel elements are predicted. The calculation is oriented to the continuous fueling, steady state condition with consideration of the effect of the high energy neutron flux exposure and temperature history on the thermal conductivity. The coolant flow conditions are calculated for the same geometry as used in the neutronics calculation, power density and fluence data being used directly, and temperature results are made available for subsequent use.

  20. Steady State Thermo-Hydrodynamic Analysis of Two-Axial groove and Multilobe Hydrodynamic Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bhagat

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Steady state thermo-hydrodynamic analysis of two axial groove and multi lobe oil journal bearings is performed in this paper. To study the steady state thermo-hydrodynamic characteristics Reynolds equation is solved simultaneously along with the energy equation and heat conduction equation in bush and shaft. The effect of groove geometry, cavitation in the fluid film, the recirculation of lubricant, shaft speed has also been taken into account. Film temperature in case of three-lobe bearing is found to be high as compared to other studied bearing configurations. The data obtained from this analysis can be used conveniently in the design of such bearings, which are presented in dimensionless form.