Bayuningsih, A. S.; Usodo, B.; Subanti, S.
Critical thinking ability of mathematics students affected by the student’s ability in solving a specific problem. This research aims to determine the level of critical thinking (LCT) students in solving problems of geometry regarding self-regulated learning (SRL) students. This is a qualitative descriptive study with the purpose to analyze the level of Junior High School student’s critical thinking in the Regency of Banyumas. The subject is taken one student from each category SRL (high, medium and low). Data collection is given problem-solving tests to find out the level of critical thinking student, questionnaire, interview and documentation. The result of the research shows that student with SRL high is at the level of critical thinking 2, then a student with SRL medium is at the level of critical thinking 1 and student with SRL low is at the level of critical thinking 0. So students with SRL high, medium or low can solve math problems based on the critical thinking level of each student.
Full Text Available This paper discusses the level of critical thinking skills adapted from The Cornell Critical Thinking Test Level X (CCTTX by Ennis and Milan (1985 among final year diploma students from the Faculty of Business Management, UiTM Melaka taking the course of Office Administration and Introduction to Critical Thinking. This paper aims to encourage students to become critical thinkers and to provide lecturers with the best approach to develop students’ critical thinking skills at tertiary level. Findings have shown that their critical thinking ability ranged from low to moderate level. Thus, strategies of teaching and learning which stresses on student-centered learning must be adopted to stimulate student’s thinking by encouraging critical and creative thinking and the construction of new knowledge. 61 students taking Diploma in Office Management and Technology were chosen as samples of this study. The data was collected through observation and classroom based activities namely debates, discussions, article analysis, problem-solving situations and case studies.
Critical thinking is believed to be a 21 st century skill that many employers consider crucial when hiring recent graduates. However, it is debated whether critical thinking should be taught in academic foreign language courses at the tertiary level, which primarily aim to develop students’ language and communication skills. This localized, exploratory research examines Finnish university students’ self-reported critical thinking skills a...
Domenech, Manuel A; Watkins, Phillip
Students who enter a physical therapist (PT) entry-level program with weak critical thinking skills may not be prepared to benefit from the educational training program or successfully engage in the future as a competent healthcare provider. Therefore, assessing PT students' entry-level critical thinking skills and/or disposition toward critical thinking may be beneficial to identifying students with poor, fair, or good critical thinking ability as one of the criteria used in the admissions process into a professional program. First-year students (n=71) from the Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT) program at Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center completed the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST), the California Critical Thinking Dispositions Inventory (CCTDI), and demographic survey during orientation to the DPT program. Three students were lost from the CCTST (n=68), and none lost from the CCTDI (n=71). Analysis indicated that the majority of students had a positive disposition toward critical thinking, yet the overall CCTST suggested that these students were somewhat below the national average. Also, individuals taking math and science prerequisites at the community-college level tended to have lower overall CCTST scores. The entering DPT class demonstrated moderate or middle range scores in critical thinking and disposition toward critical thinking. This result does not indicate, but might suggest, the potential for learning challenges. Assessing critical thinking skills as part of the admissions process may prove advantageous.
Kim, Dong Hee; Moon, Seongmi; Kim, Eun Jung; Kim, Young-Ju; Lee, Sunhee
The development of critical thinking dispositions has become an important issue in nursing education in Korea. Nursing colleges in Korea have developed teaching strategies and curricula that focus on developing critical thinking dispositions. It is an imperative step that evaluates the changing pattern and development of students' critical thinking dispositions. This study identified critical thinking dispositions of Korean nursing students according to academic level and satisfaction with nursing. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among 1074 students in four colleges who completed the self-reported Critical Thinking Disposition Scale. Descriptive and univariate general linear model analyses were performed. The critical thinking disposition score increased according to academic level until junior year, after which it decreased in the senior year. Nursing students who were satisfied with nursing reported higher levels of critical thinking than those who were not satisfied or who responded neutrally. The critical thinking scores of nursing students not satisfied with nursing dropped greatly in the senior year. These results suggest the importance of targeting the development of curriculum and teaching methods for seniors and students who have a lower level of satisfaction with nursing to increase their critical thinking dispositions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mulnix, Jennifer Wilson
As a philosophy professor, one of my central goals is to teach students to think critically. However, one difficulty with determining whether critical thinking can be taught, or even measured, is that there is widespread disagreement over what critical thinking actually is. Here, I reflect on several conceptions of critical thinking, subjecting…
Kane, Danielle; Otto, Kristin
We argue that the literature on critical thinking in sociology has conflated two different skill sets: critical sociological thinking and higher-level thinking. To begin to examine how sociologists weigh and cultivate these skill sets, we interviewed 20 sociology instructors and conducted a content analysis of 26 assignments. We found that while…
B. Jean Mandernach
Full Text Available The value and importance of critical thinking is clearly established; the challenge for instructors lies in successfully promoting students’ critical thinking skills within the confines of a traditional classroom experience. Since instructors are faced with limited student contact time to meet their instructional objectives and facilitate learning, they are often forced to make instructional decisions between content coverage, depth of understanding, and critical analysis of course material. To address this dilemma, it is essential to integrate instructional strategies and techniques that can efficiently and effectively maximize student learning and critical thinking. Modern advances in educational technology have produced a range of online tools to assist instructors in meeting this instructional goal. This review will examine the theoretical foundations of critical thinking in higher education, discuss empirically-based strategies for integrating online instructional supplements to enhance critical thinking, offer techniques for expanding instructional opportunities outside the limitations of traditional class time, and provide practical suggestions for the innovative use of critical thinking strategies via online resources.
Asuman Aypek Arslan
Full Text Available Critical thinking is an organized process aiming at obtaining knowledge in an original way, comparing, using and evaluating it. Critical thinking is a power triggering the knowledge production process and is the energy of knowledge. Science cannot be improved with the verification and repetition of what is known. It is only improved through questioning, emerging new information and new views. One of the high level needs of man in Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy is the realization of oneself. Individuals being able to realize themselves can decide what is true, what is wrong with their free wills. The most important task of education and the education of visual arts is to train creative and productive individuals being able to think all-round, learn how to learn, solve problems, respectful to humans, tolerant, having improved communication skills. It is of great importance to improve critical thinking skills at students in making them attain it. In making them attain these behaviours, it is of vital importance to improve critical thinking skills at students. In the current study, it was aimed to determine critical thinking levels of the candidates of visual arts and to determine whether the tendency of critical thinking differed in terms of gender. The data of the study was gathered through California Critical Thinking Tendency Scale. At the end of the study, it was found that candidate teachers of visual arts had tendency at medium level in general critical thinking. It was also found that the critical thinking tendencies of the candidate teachers of visual arts did not differ in terms of gender.
Loni Kreis Taglieber
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide, for L1 and L2 reading and writing teachers, a brief overview of the literature about critical reading and higher level thinking skills. The teaching of these skills is still neglected in some language classes in Brazil, be it in L1 or in L2 classes. Thus, this paper may also serve as a resource guide for L1 and/or L2 reading and writing teachers who want to incorporate critical reading and thinking into their classes. In modern society, even in everyday life people frequently need to deal with complicated public and political issues, make decisions, and solve problems. In order to do this efficiently and effectively, citizens must be able to evaluate critically what they see, hear, and read. Also, with the huge amount of printed material available in all areas in this age of “information explosion” it is easy to feel overwhelmed. But often the information piled up on people’s desks and in their minds is of no use due to the enormous amount of it. The purpose of this paper is to provide, for L1 and L2 reading and writing teachers, a brief overview of the literature about critical reading and higher level thinking skills. The teaching of these skills is still neglected in some language classes in Brazil, be it in L1 or in L2 classes. Thus, this paper may also serve as a resource guide for L1 and/or L2 reading and writing teachers who want to incorporate critical reading and thinking into their classes. In modern society, even in everyday life people frequently need to deal with complicated public and political issues, make decisions, and solve problems. In order to do this efficiently and effectively, citizens must be able to evaluate critically what they see, hear, and read. Also, with the huge amount of printed material available in all areas in this age of “information explosion” it is easy to feel overwhelmed. But often the information piled up on people’s desks and in their minds is of
Swanwick, Ruth; Kitchen, Ruth; Jarvis, Joy; McCracken, Wendy; O'Neil, Rachel; Powers, Steve
This paper presents a flexible framework of principles for teaching critical thinking and reflective practice skills at the postgraduate level. It reports on a collaborative project between four UK institutions providing postgraduate programmes in deaf education. Through a critical review of current theories of critical thinking and reflective…
Zulfaneti; Edriati, S.; Mukhni
This study aims to determine the development of students’ critical thinking skills through the implementation of critical thinking instruments in Calculus lectures. The instruments consist of observation sheets, critical thinking test, self-assessment, peer assessment and portfolio. The research was a qualitative research; with the participants were 53 first-year students who take Integral Calculus in Mathematics Education Department STKIP PGRI Sumatera Barat representing high-ability students, medium and low. The data in this study were collected by tests, interviews, observations and field notes. Data were analyzed descriptively; data reduction, data presentation, and conclusions. For testing the validity of data, it was used credibility test data by increasing persistence and triangulation. The results showed that in high-level students there is a change of ability from Critical enough to be Very Critical, in the students with moderate and low ability there is a change of ability from Uncritical to Critical. So it can be concluded that the assessment instruments have a good contribution and can improve the ability of critical thinking.
Simpson, Elaine; Courtney, Mary
The purpose of this study was to develop, implement and evaluate critical thinking strategies to enhance critical thinking skills in Middle Eastern nurses. Critical thinking strategies such as questioning, debate, role play and small group activity were developed and used in a professional development programme, which was trialled on a sample of Middle Eastern nurses (n = 20), to promote critical thinking skills, encourage problem solving, development of clinical judgment making and care prioritization in order to improve patient care and outcomes. Classroom learning was transformed from memorization to interaction and active participation. The intervention programme was successful in developing critical thinking skills in both the nurse educators and student nurses in this programme. This programme successfully integrated critical thinking strategies into a Middle Eastern nursing curriculum. Recommendations are as follows: (1) utilize evidence-based practice and stem questions to encourage the formulation of critical thinking questions; (2) support the needs of nurse educators for them to effectively implement teaching strategies to foster critical thinking skills; and (3) adopt creative approaches to (i) transform students into interactive participants and (ii) open students' minds and stimulate higher-level thinking and problem-solving abilities.
B. Jean Mandernach, PhD
The value and importance of critical thinking is clearly established; the challenge for instructors lies in successfully promoting students’ critical thinking skills within the confines of a traditional classroom experience. Since instructors are faced with limited student contact time to meet their instructional objectives and facilitate learning, they are often forced to make instructional decisions between content coverage, depth of understanding, and critical analysis of course material. ...
Bloch, Janel; Spataro, Sandra E.
Critical thinking is an essential component of managerial literacy, yet business school graduates struggle to apply critical-thinking skills at work to the level that employers desire. This article argues for a dispositional approach to teaching critical thinking, rooted in cultivating a critical-thinking culture. We suggest a two-pronged approach…
Kowalczyk, Nina; Hackworth, Ruth; Case-Smith, Jane
To identify the perceived level of competence in teaching and assessing critical thinking skills and the difficulties facing radiologic science program directors in implementing student-centered teaching methods. A total of 692 program directors received an invitation to complete an electronic survey soliciting information regarding the importance of critical thinking skills, their confidence in applying teaching methods and assessing student performance, and perceived obstacles. Statistical analysis included descriptive data, correlation coefficients, and ANOVA. Responses were received from 317 participants indicating program directors perceive critical thinking to be an essential element in the education of the student; however, they identified several areas for improvement. A high correlation was identified between the program directors' perceived level of skill and their confidence in critical thinking, and between their perceived level of skill and ability to assess the students' critical thinking. Key barriers to implementing critical thinking teaching strategies were identified. Program directors value the importance of implementing critical thinking teaching methods and perceive a need for professional development in critical thinking educational methods. Regardless of the type of educational institution in which the academic program is located, the level of education held by the program director was a significant factor regarding perceived confidence in the ability to model critical thinking skills and the ability to assess student critical thinking skills.
Shaw, Ryan D.
Recent educational discourse is full of references to the value of critical thinking as a 21st-century skill. In music education, critical thinking has been discussed in relation to problem solving and music listening, and some researchers suggest that training in critical thinking can improve students' responses to music. But what exactly is…
Dewanto, W. K.; Agustianto, K.; Sari, B. E.
Vocational students must have practical skills in accordance with the purpose of vocational school that creating the skilled graduates according to their field. Graduates of vocational education are required not just as users, but be able to create. Thus requiring critical and creative thinking skills to assist students in generating ideas, analyzing and creating a product of value. Based on this, then this research aims to develop a system to know the level of ability to think critically and creative students, that resulted students can do self-reflection in improving the ability to think critically and creatively as a supporter of practical ability. The system testing using Naïve Bayes Correlation shown an average accuracy of 93.617% in assessing the students’ critical and creative thinking ability. By using modeling with this system will be known level of students’ critical and creative thinking ability, then the output of the system is used to determine the type of innovation in the learning process to improve the critical and creative thinking skills to support the practical skills of students as skilled vocational students.
Widyaningsih, E.; Waluya, S. B.; Kurniasih, A. W.
This study aims to know mastery learning of students’ critical thinking ability with learning cycle 7E, determine whether the critical thinking ability of the students with learning cycle 7E is better than students’ critical thinking ability with expository model, and describe the students’ critical thinking phases based on the mathematical anxiety level. The method is mixed method with concurrent embedded. The population is VII grade students of SMP Negeri 3 Kebumen academic year 2016/2017. Subjects are determined by purposive sampling, selected two students from each level of mathematical anxiety. Data collection techniques include test, questionnaire, interview, and documentation. Quantitative data analysis techniques include mean test, proportion test, difference test of two means, difference test of two proportions and for qualitative data used Miles and Huberman model. The results show that: (1) students’ critical thinking ability with learning cycle 7E achieve mastery learning; (2) students’ critical thinking ability with learning cycle 7E is better than students’ critical thinking ability with expository model; (3) description of students’ critical thinking phases based on the mathematical anxiety level that is the lower the mathematical anxiety level, the subjects have been able to fulfil all of the indicators of clarification, assessment, inference, and strategies phases.
Bruce Dietrick Price
Full Text Available Critical Thinking basically says to be suspicious of everything, except the fad known as Critical Thinking. It is perhaps best understood as a new and watered-down version of an earlier fad called Deconstruction. That was just a fancy word for debunking. After you strip away all the high-minded rhetoric, Critical Thinking is typically used to tell students that they should not trust conventional wisdom, tradition, religion, parents, and all that irrelevant, old-fashioned stuff. Critical Thinking, somewhat surprisingly, also turns out to be highly contemptuous of facts and knowledge. The formulation in public schools goes like this: children must learn how to think, not what to think. WHAT is, of course, all the academic content and scholarly knowledge that schools used to teach.
Bahram Jalilzadeh Amin
Full Text Available Introduction: Critical thinking is rational and sound thinking that involves investigation and review of opinions followed by actions and decision-making based on reasons with accurate and rational results. In our modern, complex world, we encounter multiple changes and competition in society, especially when it comes to using the latest technology; society must progress in this trend. Medical science is not exempt in this regard, considering that critical thinking is necessary in fulfilling its goals. This research aims to investigate the physicians’ critical thinking and patient satisfaction level in the Tabriz Sina Treatment and Educational Center.Methods: This study is both descriptive and analytical, and the statistical population involves all physicians and the patients of the Tabriz Sina Treatment and Educational Center in 2013. About 30 physicians and 170 patients were selected randomly, and data were collected using the Watson and Glaser critical thinking questionnaire, as well as the Mogimi and Ramazan patient satisfaction questionnaire. The data were then analyzed by Pearson correlation and regression analysis. Results: The results showed that there was a significant and positive relationship between critical thinking and patient satisfaction in all dimensions except identification. Changes in critical thinking dimensions also changed patient satisfaction. The regression test showed that the critical thinking independent variable effect on the dependent variable was 0.558, which indicated a relatively strong correlation between these variables.Conclusion: Although the critical thinking of the physicians and medical staff is important in patient satisfaction, there is no progress towards these goals in the health system. Healthcare authorities should try to empower critical thinking in order to achieve organizational goals.
Bers, Trudy; Chun, Marc; Daly, William T.; Harrington, Christine; Tobolowsky, Barbara F.
"Foundations for Critical Thinking" explores the landscape of critical-thinking skill development and pedagogy through foundational chapters and institutional case studies involving a range of students in diverse settings. By establishing a link between active learning and improved critical thinking, this resource encourages all higher…
Ward, Terry D; Morris, Tiffany
Critical thinking is essential in the practice of the nurse generalist, today. Nursing faculty is frequently trying to identify teaching strategies in promoting critical thinking and engaging students in active learning. To close the gap between critical thinking and student success, a school in the south east United States implemented the use of the 'think like a nurse initiative" for incoming junior nursing students. Faculty collaborated to adopt the fundamental and essential nursing concepts for nursing students to support thinking like a nurse.
Asuman Aypek Arslan
Critical thinking is an organized process aiming at obtaining knowledge in an original way, comparing, using and evaluating it. Critical thinking is a power triggering the knowledge production process and is the energy of knowledge. Science cannot be improved with the verification and repetition of what is known. It is only improved through questioning, emerging new information and new views. One of the high level needs of man in Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy is the realization of oneself. Individ...
Andrea Sullivan, E
Nurse educators recognize that many nursing students have difficulty in making decisions in clinical practice. The ability to make effective, informed decisions in clinical practice requires that nursing students know and apply the processes of critical thinking. Critical thinking is a skill that develops over time and requires the conscious application of this process. There are a number of models in the nursing literature to assist students in the critical thinking process; however, these models tend to focus solely on decision making in hospital settings and are often complex to actualize. In this paper, Paul's Model of Critical Thinking is examined for its application to nursing education. I will demonstrate how the model can be used by clinical nurse educators to assist students to develop critical thinking skills in all health care settings in a way that makes critical thinking skills accessible to students. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
We agree that training the next generation of leaders of the society, who have the ability to think critically and form a better judgment is an important goal. It is a long-standing concern of Educators and a long-term desire of teachers to establish a method in order to teach to think critically. To this end, many questions arise on three central aspects: the definition, the evaluation and the design of the course: What is Critical Thinking? How can we define Critical Thinking? How can we evaluate Critical Thinking? Therefore, we want to implement Critical Thinking in physics education. How can we teach for Critical Thinking in physics? What should the course syllabus and materials be? We present examples from classical physics and give perspectives for astro-particle physics. The main aim of this paper is to answer the questions and provide teachers with the opportunity to change their classroom to an active one, in which students are encouraged to ask questions and learn to reach a good judgment. Key words: Critical Thinking, evaluation, judgment, design of the course.
Rathakrishnan, Mohan; Ahmad, Rahayu; Suan, Choo Ling
Online discussion has become one of the important strategies for the teacher to teach the students to think critically when conveying their ideas and become more proactive and creative. In this paper, padlet online discussion communication was conducted to examine its effectiveness in enhancing critical thinking. In this study, there are two types of critical thinking: macro and micro critical thinking. A total of 70 Universiti Utara Malaysia Management Foundation Programme students involved in this experimental research design. The students in treatment class are divided to few groups. Every group uses padlet online discussion to discuss the topic given. All the group members discuss and write their ideas in padlet. Ideas that are posted in padlet will be displayed in front of the class so that the entire group in the treatment class could see the given ideas. Paul's (1993) model was used to analyze student's macro and micro critical thinking in padlet online discussion and communication. The finding shows that students who used padlet online discussion backchannel communication have greater macro and micro critical thinking level than students who do not use online discussion.
Javed, Muhammad; Nawaz, Muhammad Atif; Qurat-Ul-Ain, Ansa
This paper addresses to assess the critical thinking ability of postgraduate students. The target population was the male and female students at University level in Pakistan. A small sample of 45 male and 45 female students were selected randomly from The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Pakistan. Cornell Critical Thinking Test Series, The…
Critical thinking skills in the healthcare field are imperative when making quick-thinking decisions. This descriptive comparative study investigated to what extent completing a critical thinking course improved college students' critical thinking skills. The study further investigated whether the instructors' critical thinking skills were…
Bell, E A
Nurses in advanced practice require high-level critical thinking skills. Two elements of critical thinking are discovery and justification. The process of justification is focused on argumentation skills. Using the debate process to analyze, critique, and construct arguments may be an effective teaching-learning technique. Suggestions for the use of debate in graduate nursing curricula are included.
Jekins, Daniel M.; Cutchens, Amanda B.
This study describes the development of a grounded theory of applied critical thinking in leadership studies and examines how student-centered experiential learning in leadership education bridged critical thinking with action. Over three semester undergraduate students in an upper level leadership studies course at a large four-year public…
Santoso, T.; Yuanita, L.; Erman, E.
Questioning means thinking, and thinking is manifested in the form of questions. Research that studies the relationship between questioning and students’ critical thinking skills is little, if any. The aim of this study is to examine how student’s questions skill correlates to student’s critical thinking skills in learning of chemistry. The research design used was one group pretest-posttest design. The participants involved were 94 students, all of whom attended their last semesters, Chemistry Education of Tadulako University. A pre-test was administered to check participants’ ability to ask critical questions and critical thinking skills in learning chemistry. Then, the students were taught by using questioning technique. After accomplishing the lesson, a post-test was given to evaluate their progress. Obtained data were analyzed by using Pair-Samples T.Test and correlation methods. The result shows that the level of the questions plays an important role in critical thinking skills is the question levels of predictive, analysis, evaluation and inference.
Stepanovich, Paul L.
Professors in management and business are encouraged to incorporate critical thinking as an objective in their courses. "The Lobster Tale" provides an opportunity to engage students in various levels of critical thinking, ranging from a relatively superficial reading to an examination of the deeper, often hidden issues. Using the foundations of…
Kumar.R, Renjith; James, Rajani
The study aims to identify the critical level thinking of students in higher education. It is focused to evaluate the level of critical thinking variables among the students in Nizwa College of Technology and to determine whether these variables are influenced by gender and department. The data for the research is collected from 281 diploma…
Lawson, Timothy J.; Jordan-Fleming, Mary Kay; Bodle, James H.
Critical thinking is widely considered an important skill for psychology majors. However, few measures exist of the types of critical thinking that are specific to psychology majors. Lawson (1999) designed the Psychological Critical Thinking Exam (PCTE) to measure students' ability to "think critically, or evaluate claims, in a way that…
Ludin, Salizar Mohamed
A critical thinker may not necessarily be a good decision-maker, but critical care nurses are expected to utilise outstanding critical thinking skills in making complex clinical judgements. Studies have shown that critical care nurses' decisions focus mainly on doing rather than reflecting. To date, the link between critical care nurses' critical thinking and decision-making has not been examined closely in Malaysia. To understand whether critical care nurses' critical thinking disposition affects their clinical decision-making skills. This was a cross-sectional study in which Malay and English translations of the Short Form-Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory-Chinese Version (SF-CTDI-CV) and the Clinical Decision-making Nursing Scale (CDMNS) were used to collect data from 113 nurses working in seven critical care units of a tertiary hospital on the east coast of Malaysia. Participants were recruited through purposive sampling in October 2015. Critical care nurses perceived both their critical thinking disposition and decision-making skills to be high, with a total score of 71.5 and a mean of 48.55 for the SF-CTDI-CV, and a total score of 161 and a mean of 119.77 for the CDMNS. One-way ANOVA test results showed that while age, gender, ethnicity, education level and working experience factors significantly impacted critical thinking (pnurses' critical thinking and clinical decision-making (r=0.637, p=0.001). While this small-scale study has shown a relationship exists between critical care nurses' critical thinking disposition and clinical decision-making in one hospital, further investigation using the same measurement tools is needed into this relationship in diverse clinical contexts and with greater numbers of participants. Critical care nurses' perceived high level of critical thinking and decision-making also needs further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Critical thinking and writing are skills that are not easy to acquire. The term 'critical' is used differently in social and clinical contexts. Nursing students need time to master the inquisitive and ruminative aspects of critical thinking that are required in academic environments. This article outlines what is meant by critical thinking in academic settings, in relation to both theory and reflective practice. It explains how the focus of a question affects the sort of critical thinking required and offers two taxonomies of learning, to which students can refer when analysing essay requirements. The article concludes with examples of analytical writing in reference to theory and reflective practice.
de Bie, Hannie; Wilhelm, P.; van der Meij, Hans
Critical thinking is a vital component of 21st century skills. To assess this skill, a valid and reliable instrument is needed. This study focuses on the psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the Halpern Critical Thinking Assessment (HCTA). The HCTA was administered to university students
Developing students' critical-thinking skills has recently received attention at all levels of education. This article proposes the use of concept-mapping tools to improve students' critical-thinking skills. The article introduces a Web-based concept-mapping tool--Popplet--and demonstrates its application for teaching critical-thinking skills in…
Oermann, M H
Although much has been written about measurement instruments for evaluating critical thinking in nursing, this article describes clinical evaluation strategies for critical thinking. Five methods are discussed: 1) observation of students in practice; 2) questions for critical thinking, including Socratic questioning; 3) conferences; 4) problem-solving strategies; and 5) written assignments. These methods provide a means of evaluating students' critical thinking within the context of clinical practice.
Introduction Sociology of Teaching sociology is seen as a fresh new place to explore the importance and role of critical thinking in the sociology of education has been one of the most important issues to consider.Principles of Sociology course ample opportunities for students to develop critical thinking skills and attitudes and serves as a missionary spirit, critical thinking has suggested an alternative,Areas has brought the development of critical thinking. Learn the basics of critical...
Critical information is needed to inform radiation science educators regarding successful critical thinking educational strategies. From an evidence-based research perspective, systematic reviews are identified as the most current and highest level of evidence. Analysis at this high level is crucial in analyzing those teaching methods most appropriate to the development of critical thinking skills. To conduct a systematic literature review to identify teaching methods that demonstrate a positive effect on the development of students' critical thinking skills and to identify how these teaching strategies can best translate to radiologic science educational programs. A comprehensive literature search was conducted resulting in an assessment of 59 full reports. Nineteen of the 59 reports met inclusion criteria and were reviewed based on the level of evidence presented. Inclusion criteria included studies conducted in the past 10 years on sample sizes of 20 or more individuals demonstrating use of specific teaching interventions for 5 to 36 months in postsecondary health-related educational programs. The majority of the research focused on problem-based learning (PBL) requiring standardized small-group activities. Six of the 19 studies focused on PBL and demonstrated significant differences in student critical thinking scores. PBL, as described in the nursing literature, is an effective teaching method that should be used in radiation science education. ©2011 by the American Society of Radiologic Technologists.
Raymond, Christy; Profetto-McGrath, Joanne; Myrick, Florence; Strean, William B
The role of nurse educators in the development of students' critical thinking has been overlooked despite the emphasized need for effective teaching methods. An integrative review was performed to examine both quantitative and qualitative research published from 2000 to 2015 related to nurse educators' critical thinking. Many barriers and facilitators existing on individual, interpersonal, and contextual levels affected nurse educators' critical thinking. Various tools have been used to measure nurse educators' critical thinking. This review also highlighted the continued lack of a consensus definition of critical thinking and the limited presence of conceptual models to guide the use of critical thinking in nursing education. Continued examination of nurse educators' critical thinking is needed, given the limited number of studies that have been completed. Much needs to be explored further, including conceptualizations of critical thinking and confirmation of emerging themes identified in this review. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(11):648-654.]. © 2017 Raymond, Profetto-McGrath, Myrick, et al.
The main purpose of the research was to determine the contributions of the teachers' thinking styles to critical thinking dispositions. Hence, it is aimed to determine whether thinking styles are related to critical thinking dispositions and thinking styles measure critical thinking dispositions or not. The research was designed in relational…
Published online ahead of print: 12/16/2010) 39 Beyer, B.K. Practical Strategies for the Teaching of Thinking, Allyn and Bacon , Boston, MA, 1987, p. 32...or critical thinking as such has no part in this linkage.78 David Schum and Francis Hume discussed critical reasoning within the context of...Teaching of Thinking, Allyn and Bacon , Boston, MA, 1987, p. 211. 110 Dewey, J. How We Think: A Restatement of the Relation of Reflective Thinking to
A comparison of educational strategies for the acquisition of nursing student's performance and critical thinking: simulation-based training vs. integrated training (simulation and critical thinking strategies).
Zarifsanaiey, Nahid; Amini, Mitra; Saadat, Farideh
There is a need to change the focus of nursing education from traditional teacher-centered training programs to student-centered active methods. The integration of the two active learning techniques will improve the effectiveness of training programs. The objective of this study is to compare the effects of the integrated training (simulation and critical thinking strategies) and simulation-based training on the performance level and critical thinking ability of nursing students. The present quasi-experimental study was performed in 2014 on 40 students who were studying practical nursing principles and skills course in the first half of the academic year in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Students were randomly divided into control (n = 20) and experimental (n = 20) groups. After training students through simulation and integrated education (simulation and critical thinking strategies), the students' critical thinking ability and performance were evaluated via the use of California Critical Thinking Ability Questionnaire B (CCTST) and Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) comprising 10 stations, respectively. The external reliability of the California Critical Thinking questionnaire was reported by Case B.to be between 0.78 and 0.80 and the validity of OSCE was approved by 5 members of the faculty. Furthermore, by using Split Half method (the correlation between odd and even stations), the reliability of the test was approved with correlation coefficient of 0.66. Data were analyzed using t-test and Mann-Whitney test. A significance level of 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. The mean scores of the experimental group performance level were higher than the mean score of the control group performance level. This difference was statistically significant and students in the experimental group in OSCE stations had significantly higher performance than the control group (P critical thinking did not increase before and after the
Full Text Available Central to Halpern’s definition is the idea that the critical thinker must have not only the necessary analytical tools but also the inclination to use them. Implicit in this argument is the reality that as educators, we must facilitate the learning of both critical thinking skills and dispositions. Critical thinking may also involve the dialectical confrontation between two conflicting forces. The first is what we know and believe; the second is that which is different, new, or contrary to what we know or believe. Braman (1998 uses the phrase “disorienting dilemma” to describe the situation when one critically examines a well-formulated position that is directly at odds with a long held, and perhaps cherished, belief (p. 30. It is this dynamic process of exposure, exploration, and evaluation that is central to the liberal arts educator committed to the practice and to the instruction of critical thinking. However, the evaluation of differing perspectives is a necessary but not sufficient condition of critical thinking. Hatcher and Spencer (2000 address this concern in their succinct but compelling definition. They write that critical thinking “attempts to arrive at a decision or judgment only after honestly evaluating alternatives with respect to available evidence and arguments” (p.1. This definition is particularly satisfying because it refers both to a process (the honest evaluation of alternatives and to an advocacy-based result (a decision that is informed by the evidence and arguments.
Cone, Catherine; Godwin, Donald; Salazar, Krista; Bond, Rucha; Thompson, Megan; Myers, Orrin
Objective. The Health Sciences Reasoning Test (HSRT) is a validated instrument to assess critical-thinking skills. The objective of this study was to determine if HSRT results improved in second-year student pharmacists after exposure to an explicit curriculum designed to develop critical-thinking skills. Methods. In December 2012, the HSRT was administered to students who were in their first year of pharmacy school. Starting in August 2013, students attended a 16-week laboratory curriculum using simulation, formative feedback, and clinical reasoning to teach critical-thinking skills. Following completion of this course, the HSRT was readministered to the same cohort of students. Results. All students enrolled in the course (83) took the HSRT, and following exclusion criteria, 90% of the scores were included in the statistical analysis. Exclusion criteria included students who did not finish more than 60% of the questions or who took less than 15 minutes to complete the test. Significant changes in the HSRT occurred in overall scores and in the subdomains of deduction, evaluation, and inference after students completed the critical-thinking curriculum. Conclusions. Significant improvement in HSRT scores occurred following student immersion in an explicit critical-thinking curriculum. The HSRT was useful in detecting these changes, showing that critical-thinking skills can be learned and then assessed over a relatively short period using a standardized, validated assessment tool like the HSRT.
Godwin, Donald; Salazar, Krista; Bond, Rucha; Thompson, Megan; Myers, Orrin
Objective. The Health Sciences Reasoning Test (HSRT) is a validated instrument to assess critical-thinking skills. The objective of this study was to determine if HSRT results improved in second-year student pharmacists after exposure to an explicit curriculum designed to develop critical-thinking skills. Methods. In December 2012, the HSRT was administered to students who were in their first year of pharmacy school. Starting in August 2013, students attended a 16-week laboratory curriculum using simulation, formative feedback, and clinical reasoning to teach critical-thinking skills. Following completion of this course, the HSRT was readministered to the same cohort of students. Results. All students enrolled in the course (83) took the HSRT, and following exclusion criteria, 90% of the scores were included in the statistical analysis. Exclusion criteria included students who did not finish more than 60% of the questions or who took less than 15 minutes to complete the test. Significant changes in the HSRT occurred in overall scores and in the subdomains of deduction, evaluation, and inference after students completed the critical-thinking curriculum. Conclusions. Significant improvement in HSRT scores occurred following student immersion in an explicit critical-thinking curriculum. The HSRT was useful in detecting these changes, showing that critical-thinking skills can be learned and then assessed over a relatively short period using a standardized, validated assessment tool like the HSRT. PMID:27170812
Miekley, Joshua P.
Critical-thinking skills help to prepare adult education students for a successful transition to college degree programs and for job advancement. Yet fostering critical thinking poses a challenge to ESL instructors. Brookfield (2012) provides a way forward for adult educators when he explains that the crux of critical thinking is to discover one's…
This research aims to determine the leveling of critical thinking abilities of students of mathematics education in mathematical problem solving. It includes qualitative-explorative study that was conducted at University of PGRI Semarang. The generated data in the form of information obtained problem solving question and interview guides. The…
Zori, Susan; Morrison, Barbara
Formal education and support is needed for nurse managers to effectively function in their role in the current health care environment. Many nurse managers assume their positions based on expertise in a clinical role with little expertise in managerial and leadership skills. Operating as a manager and leader requires ongoing development of critical thinking skills and the inclination to use those skills. Critical thinking can have a powerful influence on the decision making and problem solving that nurse managers are faced with on a daily basis. The skills that typify critical thinking include analysis, evaluation, inference, and deductive and inductive reasoning. It is intuitive that nurse managers require both the skills and the dispositions of critical thinking to be successful in this pivotal role at a time of transformation in health care. Incorporating critical thinking into education and support programs for the nurse manager is necessary to position the nurse manager for success.
How school librarians focus on activating critical thinking through traditional literacy development can proactively set the stage for the deep thinking that occurs in all literacy development. The critical-thinking skills students build while becoming accomplished readers and writers provide the foundation for learning in a variety of…
Murawski, Linda M.
Critical thinking in the classroom is a common term used by educators. Critical thinking has been called "the art of thinking about thinking" (Ruggiero, V. R., 2012) with the intent to improve one's thinking. The challenge, of course, is to create learning environments that promote critical thinking both in the classroom and beyond.…
Rogal, Sonya M; Young, Jeanne
Critical care nurses process vast amounts of information and require well developed critical-thinking skills to make clinical decisions. Using a pretest posttest design, the critical-thinking skills of 31 postgraduate nurses were evaluated using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST). For the total group, mean critical-thinking scores improved slightly over time. The CCTST revealed a mean pretest score of 18.5 and a mean posttest score of 19.7, both of which were higher than the established norms for the test. Overall, no significant difference was observed between pretest and posttest. However, statistical significance was observed posttest for nurses whose critical-thinking scores improved (p critical-thinking skills during the course of their study.
Chang, Mei Jen; Chang, Ying-Ju; Kuo, Shih-Hsien; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Chou, Fan-Hao
To examine the relationships between critical thinking ability and nursing competence in clinical nurses. There are few evidance-based data related to the relationship between critical thinking ability and nursing competence of clinical nurses. A cross-sectional and correlation research design was used. A total of 570 clinical nurses at a medical centre in southern Taiwan were recruited into this study. Two self-report questionnaires, the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA) and the Nursing Competence Scale (NCS), were used to collect data. The critical thinking ability of clinical nurses was at the middle level. The highest score for the subscales of the WGCTA was 'interpretation ability' and the lowest was 'inference ability'. The nursing competence of clinical nurses was at the middle level and above. The highest score for the subscales was 'caring ability' and the lowest was 'research ability'. Critical thinking ability had a significantly positive correlation with nursing competence. Critical thinking, working years, educational levels and position/title were the significant predictors of nursing competence, accounting for 32·9% of the variance. Critical thinking ability had a significantly positive correlation with nursing competence. The critical thinking ability of clinical nurses with a master's degree was significantly better than those with a bachelor's degree or a diploma and nurses with over five working years was significantly better than those with under five years. The findings of this study can further serve as a reference for nursing education to improve nursing curricula and teaching strategies for nurse preparation. It could also be a guideline for nursing administration personnel in on-the-job training and orientation programs for nursing staff. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
A comparison of educational strategies for the acquisition of nursing student’s performance and critical thinking: simulation-based training vs. integrated training (simulation and critical thinking strategies
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a need to change the focus of nursing education from traditional teacher-centered training programs to student-centered active methods. The integration of the two active learning techniques will improve the effectiveness of training programs. The objective of this study is to compare the effects of the integrated training (simulation and critical thinking strategies and simulation-based training on the performance level and critical thinking ability of nursing students. Methods The present quasi-experimental study was performed in 2014 on 40 students who were studying practical nursing principles and skills course in the first half of the academic year in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. Students were randomly divided into control (n = 20 and experimental (n = 20 groups. After training students through simulation and integrated education (simulation and critical thinking strategies, the students' critical thinking ability and performance were evaluated via the use of California Critical Thinking Ability Questionnaire B (CCTST and Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE comprising 10 stations, respectively. The external reliability of the California Critical Thinking questionnaire was reported by Case B.to be between 0.78 and 0.80 and the validity of OSCE was approved by 5 members of the faculty. Furthermore, by using Split Half method (the correlation between odd and even stations, the reliability of the test was approved with correlation coefficient of 0.66. Data were analyzed using t-test and Mann–Whitney test. A significance level of 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results The mean scores of the experimental group performance level were higher than the mean score of the control group performance level. This difference was statistically significant and students in the experimental group in OSCE stations had significantly higher performance than the control group (P <0
McMullen, Maureen A; McMullen, William F
Although critical thinking in undergraduate nursing education has been explored in depth, little is known about the critical thinking skills of graduate nursing students. Prior research on change in critical thinking scores is based primarily on pretest and posttest assessments that provide minimal information about change. This study used individual growth modeling to investigate how critical thinking skills change during a 2-year graduate nurse program. Scores from the evaluation, inference, and analysis subscales of the California Critical Thinking Skills Test comprised the empirical growth record. Change in the three critical thinking skills was more dynamic than that reported in previous studies. Patterns of change differed by critical thinking skill and in relation to students' initial critical thinking skill levels at program entry.
Goodfellow, L T
The purpose of this study was to assess critical-thinking behaviors of respiratory therapists through self-report. Using a quantitative survey research method, respiratory therapists rated themselves on seven critical thinking skills. The effects of personal variables on the self-assessments were also investigated. The respiratory therapists self-assessed their critical-thinking behaviors highest in the categories of prioritizing, troubleshooting, and communicating. Anticipating was self-assessed as the lowest-ranked critical-thinking behavior. Age and educational level were found to have no effect on the self-assessed behaviors, while years of experience in respiratory care and gender were found to affect self-assessed troubleshooting, decision making, and anticipating. The results of this study suggest that educators and clinicians should consider learning strategies that incorporate the use of experience when targeting novice practitioners.
Chao, Shu-Yuan; Liu, Hsing-Yuan; Wu, Ming-Chang; Clark, Mary Jo; Tan, Jung-Ying
Critical thinking is an essential skill in the nursing process. Although several studies have evaluated the critical thinking skills of nurses, there is limited information related to the indicators of critical thinking or evaluation of critical thinking in the context of the nursing process. This study investigated the potential indicators of critical thinking and the attributes of critical thinkers in clinical nursing practice. Knowledge of these indicators can aid the development of tools to assess nursing students' critical thinking skills. The study was conducted between September 2009 and August 2010. In phase 1, a literature review and four focus groups were conducted to identify the indicators of critical thinking in the context of nursing and the attributes of critical thinkers. In phase 2, 30 nursing professionals participated in a modified Delphi research survey to establish consensus and the appropriateness of each indicator and attribute identified in phase 1. We identified 37 indicators of critical thinking and 10 attributes of critical thinkers. The indicators were categorized into five subscales within the context of the nursing process toreflect nursing clinical practice: assessment, 16 indicators of ability to apply professional knowledge and skills to analyze and interpret patient problems; diagnosis, five indicators of ability to propose preliminary suppositions; planning, five indicators of ability to develop problem-solving strategies; implementation, five indicators of ability to implement planning; and evaluation, six indicators of ability to self-assess and reflect. The study operationalized critical thinking into a practical indicator suitable for nursing contexts in which critical thinking is required for clinical problem solving. Identified indicators and attributes can assist clinical instructors to evaluate student critical thought skills and development-related teaching strategies.
上村,崇; 木原,滋哉; 宮田,健一
We have tried to introduce critical thinking into the education in Kure National College of Technology. This article deals with significance of introduction of critical thinking into education in College of Technology. We think that the ability to think critically consists of the sum of various skills of critical thinking. We built a map of critical thinking skills and taught these skills in the classes, and most students understood these skills. We will introduce critical thinking skills int...
Joanne R. Reid
Full Text Available A pedagogical treatment was developed to teach critical thinking knowledge, skills, and strategies to college students. This treatment was implemented at a Midwestern University for a three-year period. Graduates were surveyed to determine the extent to which the treatment affected their personal, academic, and professional lives. Graduates reported that they had transferred the critical thinking knowledge, skills, and strategies they had acquired, and were using it in their personal, academic, or professional lives. The graduates also reported that this transfer was extremely beneficial to them in all aspects of their personal, academic, or professional lives, leading to high levels of satisfaction in their undergraduate education.
Raymond, Christy; Profetto-McGrath, Joanne; Myrick, Florence; Strean, William B
Nurse educator's critical thinking remains unexamined as a key factor in the development of students' critical thinking. The objective of this study is to understand how nurse educators reveal their critical thinking in the clinical setting while supervising students. This study uses a single-phase triangulation mixed methods design with multiple data gathering techniques. Participants for this study are clinical nurse educators from a large Western Canadian baccalaureate nursing program who teach 2nd or 3rd year students in medical-surgical settings. Participants for this study completed a demographic survey, the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST), the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI), participant observation in a clinical practice setting, and semi-structured interviews. The results from the California Critical Thinking assessments (CCTST and CCTDI) show that participants are positively inclined and have a moderate to strong ability to think critically, similar to other studies. Participants find it difficult to describe how they reveal their critical thinking in the clinical setting, yet all participants use role modeling and questioning to share their critical thinking with students. When the quantitative and qualitative results are compared, it is apparent that the confidence in reasoning subscale of the California Critical Thinking Skills Test is higher in those educators who more frequently demonstrate and voice engagement in reflective activities. Dispositions associated with critical thinking, as measured by the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory, are more easily observed compared to critical thinking skills. This study is a beginning exploration of nurse educators' critical thinking-in-action. Our mixed methods approach uncovers a valuable approach to understanding the complexity of nurse educators' critical thinking. Further study is needed to uncover how nurse educators' can specifically enact
Cone, Catherine; Godwin, Donald; Salazar, Krista; Bond, Rucha; Thompson, Megan; Myers, Orrin
Objective. The Health Sciences Reasoning Test (HSRT) is a validated instrument to assess critical-thinking skills. The objective of this study was to determine if HSRT results improved in second-year student pharmacists after exposure to an explicit curriculum designed to develop critical-thinking skills.
Full Text Available Due to the fact that critical thinking and problem solving skills are essential components of educational and social lives of individuals, this present study which investigate critical thinking and problem solving skills of undergraduate students of nursing was planned. This is a descriptive study. The study population consisted of undergraduate nursing students of a university during the 2011-2012 academic year. Any specific sampling method was not determined and only the voluntary students was enrolled in the study . Several participants were excluded due to incomplete questionnaires, and eventually a total of 231 nursing students were included in the final sampling. Socio Demographic Features Data Form and the California Critical Thinking Disposition Scale and Problem Solving Inventory were used for data collection. The mean age of 231 subjects (148 girls, 83 boys was 21.34. The mean score of critical thinking was 255.71 for the first-grade, 255.57 for the second-grade, 264.73 for the third-grade, and 256.468 for the forth-grade students. The mean score of critical thinking was determined as 257.41 for the sample, which can be considered as an average value. Although there are mean score differences of critical thinking between the classes , they were not statistically significant (p> 0.05. With regard to the mean score of problem solving, the first-grade students had 92.86, the second-grade students had 94. 29, the third-grade students had 87.00, and the forth-grade students had 92.87. The mean score of problem solving was determined as 92.450 for the sample. Although there are differences between the classes in terms of mean scores of problem solving, it was not found statistically significant (p> 0.05. In this study, statistically significant correlation could not be identified between age and critical thinking skills of the subjects (p>0.05. However, a negative correlation was identified at low levels between critical thinking skills and
Papathanasiou, Ioanna V; Kleisiaris, Christos F; Fradelos, Evangelos C; Kakou, Katerina; Kourkouta, Lambrini
Critical thinking is defined as the mental process of actively and skillfully perception, analysis, synthesis and evaluation of collected information through observation, experience and communication that leads to a decision for action. In nursing education there is frequent reference to critical thinking and to the significance that it has in daily clinical nursing practice. Nursing clinical instructors know that students face difficulties in making decisions related to clinical practice. The main critical thinking skills in which nursing students should be exercised during their studies are critical analysis, introductory and concluding justification, valid conclusion, distinguish of facts and opinions, evaluation the credibility of information sources, clarification of concepts and recognition of conditions. Specific behaviors are essentials for enhancing critical thinking. Nursing students in order to learn and apply critical thinking should develop independence of thought, fairness, perspicacity in personal and social level, humility, spiritual courage, integrity, perseverance, self-confidence, interest for research and curiosity. Critical thinking is an essential process for the safe, efficient and skillful nursing practice. The nursing education programs should adopt attitudes that promote critical thinking and mobilize the skills of critical reasoning.
Shin, Kyung Rim; Lee, Ja Hyung; Ha, Ju Young; Kim, Kon Hee
This paper reports an investigation into the critical thinking disposition of students enrolled in a baccalaureate nursing programme at a university in Korea. Critical thinking may be summarized as a skilled process that conceptualizes and applies information from observation, experience, reflection, inference and communication in a technical manner. It is more of a rational act used as an instrument rather than as a result. Critical thinking is a core competency in nursing and has been widely discussed in nursing education. However, the results of previous research on the effectiveness of nursing education in improving students' critical thinking have been inconsistent. A longitudinal design was used with a convenience sample of 60 nursing students; 32 students participated four times in completing a questionnaire each March from 1999 to 2002. The California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory was administered to measure disposition to critical thinking. There was a statistically significant improvement in critical thinking disposition score by academic year (F = 7.54, P = 0.0001). Among the subscales, open-mindedness, self-confidence, and maturity also showed a statistically significant difference by academic year (P = 0.0194, 0.0041, 0.0044). Teaching strategies to enhance critical thinking should be developed, in addition to further research on the effect of the nursing curriculum on students' critical thinking. Moreover, survey instruments could be adjusted to incorporate characteristics of the Korean culture.
The main purpose of this study is to develop the scale for critical thinking. The Scale of Critical Thinking was applied to 200 student. In this scale, there are total 55 items, four of which are negative and 51 of which are positive. The KMO (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin) value is 0.75, the Bartlett test value is 7145.41, and the Cronbach Alpha value is 0.90.
Kahlke, Renate; Eva, Kevin
Calls for enabling 'critical thinking' are ubiquitous in health professional education. However, there is little agreement in the literature or in practice as to what this term means and efforts to generate a universal definition have found limited traction. Moreover, the variability observed might suggest that multiplicity has value that the quest for universal definitions has failed to capture. In this study, we sought to map the multiple conceptions of critical thinking in circulation in health professional education to understand the relationships and tensions between them. We used an inductive, qualitative approach to explore conceptions of critical thinking with educators from four health professions: medicine, nursing, pharmacy, and social work. Four participants from each profession participated in two individual in-depth semi-structured interviews, the latter of which induced reflection on a visual depiction of results generated from the first set of interviews. Three main conceptions of critical thinking were identified: biomedical, humanist, and social justice-oriented critical thinking. 'Biomedical critical thinking' was the dominant conception. While each conception had distinct features, the particular conceptions of critical thinking espoused by individual participants were not stable within or between interviews. Multiple conceptions of critical thinking likely offer educators the ability to express diverse beliefs about what 'good thinking' means in variable contexts. The findings suggest that any single definition of critical thinking in the health professions will be inherently contentious and, we argue, should be. Such debates, when made visible to educators and trainees, can be highly productive.
Michael J Peeters
Full Text Available The concept of development is ubiquitous throughout higher education. Development of critical thinking, problem-solving, and clinical reasoning are noted as important outcomes in higher education, including health professions education. In this era of widening scrutiny, demonstration of this outcome within programmatic assessment is becoming increasingly important. Programmatic assessment of critical thinking is complicated because of its multiple definitions, array of theoretical frameworks, and variety of measurement instruments. Additionally, recent guidelines and standards for pharmacy education have affirmed “habits of mind,” which are not new to education and encompass analytical critical thinking. In this paper, we sought to provide: 1 an overview of various critical thinking measurement instruments with their different associated critical thinking definitions, 2 a background and framework for thinking using the Dimensions of Learning model, 3 implications and applications for assessing cognitive development (critical and complex thinking within the context of pharmacy education, and 4 specific suggestions for assessment in pharmacy education. Type: Idea Paper
Moeller, Mary; Cutler, Kay; Fiedler, Dave; Weier, Lisa
Implementation of Visual Thinking Strategies (VTS) into the Camelot Intermediate School curriculum in Brookings, South Dakota, has fostered the development of creative and critical thinking skills in 4th- and 5th-grade students. Making meaning together by observing carefully, deciphering patterns, speculating, clarifying, supporting opinions, and…
Wangensteen, Sigrid; Johansson, Inger S; Björkström, Monica E; Nordström, Gun
wangensteen s., johansson i.s., björkström m.e. & nordström g. (2010) Critical thinking dispositions among newly graduated nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing66(10), 2170–2181. Aim The aim of the study was to describe critical thinking dispositions among newly graduated nurses in Norway, and to study whether background data had any impact on critical thinking dispositions. Background Competence in critical thinking is one of the expectations of nursing education. Critical thinkers are described as well-informed, inquisitive, open-minded and orderly in complex matters. Critical thinking competence has thus been designated as an outcome for judging the quality of nursing education programmes and for the development of clinical judgement. The ability to think critically is also described as reducing the research–practice gap and fostering evidence-based nursing. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed. The data were collected between October 2006 and April 2007 using the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory. The response rate was 33% (n= 618). Pearson’s chi-square tests were used to analyse the data. Results Nearly 80% of the respondents reported a positive disposition towards critical thinking. The highest mean score was on the Inquisitiveness subscale and the lowest on the Truth-seeking subscale. A statistically significant higher proportion of nurses with high critical thinking scores were found among those older than 30 years, those with university education prior to nursing education, and those working in community health care. Conclusion Nurse leaders and nurse teachers should encourage and nurture critical thinking among newly graduated nurses and nursing students. The low Truth-seeking scores found may be a result of traditional teaching strategies in nursing education and might indicate a need for more student-active learning models. PMID:20384637
Maulida, N. I.; Firman, H.; Rusyati, L.
The aims of this study are: (1) to investigate the level of students’ critical thinking skill on living things and environmental sustainability theme for each Inch’ critical thinking elements and overall, (2) to investigate the level of students’ critical thinking skill on living things characteristic, biodiversity, energy resources, ecosystem, environmental pollution, and global warming topics. The research was conducted due to the important of critical thinking measurement to get the current skill description as the basic consideration for further critical thinking skill improvement in lower secondary science. The research method used was descriptive. 331 seventh grade students taken from five lower secondary schools in Cirebon were tested to get the critical thinking skill data by using Science Virtual Test as the instrument. Generally, the mean scores on eight Inch’ critical thinking elements and overall score from descriptive statistic reveals a moderate attainments level. Students’ critical thinking skill on biodiversity, energy resources, ecosystem, environmental pollution, and global warming topics are in moderate level. While students’ critical thinking skill on living things characteristic is identified as high level. Students’ experience in thinking critically during science learning process and the characteristic of the topic are emerged as the reason behind the students’ critical thinking skill level on certain science topic.
Full Text Available This paper describes a research project focused on identifying student-teachers’ critical thinking performance levels in scientific reasoning and, secondly, on analyzing the reliability level of the Critical Thinking Tasks test (CTT. As part of the methodology, a non-probabilistic sample of 129 teacher education students from different majors at Bio-Bio University was considered, and the Critical Thinking Task test was applied to collect data. The data analysis was conducted using descriptive statistics, reliability measures and mean score differences. The data showed that the instrument is reliable (α=0,79; there is also a relatively low performance in the global test and its dimensions; and there are differences between the different teacher education programs. It is concluded that the instrument is reliable, and findings support the idea that knowledge-based areas influence critical thinking. Finally, it is necessary to strengthen specific sub-skills to enhance critical thinking as a contribution for scientific reasoning.
Nur Aisyah Isti
Full Text Available The purpose of this research was described critical thinking stage of students grade VIII in setting PBL and scaffolding to solve mathematics problems. Critical thinking stage consists of clarification, assesment, inference, and strategy/tactics. The subject were teo students in the level of capacity to think critical (uncritical, less critical, quite critical, and critical. So that this research subject was 8 students in VIII A One State Junior High School of Temanggung. The result showed a description (1 critical thinking stage of students in setting PBL, in clarification the higher level of capacity to think critical students, students can identification information from question fully, can identificatio problem became detailed, and can explored the relationship among the information; (2 a strategy of scaffolding were given by critical thinking stage and TKBK, in assesment, scaffolding had given was given hint/key classically; and (3 transformation characteristic of the critical thinking stage of students after given scaffolding, it because of habituation in setting PBL and scaffolding.
Incikabi, Lutfi; Tuna, Abdulkadir; Biber, Abdullah Cagri
This study aimed to investigate the existence of the relationship between mathematics teacher candidates' critical thinking skills and their logical thinking dispositions in terms of the variables of grade level in college, high school type, and gender. The current study utilized relational survey model and included a total of 99 mathematics…
Schaber, Patricia; Shanedling, Janet
Teaching critical thinking (CT) skills, a goal in higher education, is seldom considered in the primary design of either classroom or online courses, and is even less frequently measured in student learning. In health professional education, CT along with clinical reasoning skills is essential for the development of clinical practitioners. This study, measuring CT skill development in an online theory course, supports using a cyclical course design to build higher level processes in student thinking. Eighty-six Masters of Occupational Therapy students in four sections of an occupation-based theory course were evaluated on elements in the Paul and Elder CT Model throughout the course and surveyed for their perceptions in their ability to think critically at course completion. Results of this study demonstrated that the online theory course design contributed to improving critical thinking skills and student's perceived CT skill development as applicable to their future professional practice. In a focus group, eight students identified four effective course design features that contributed to their CT skill development: highly structured learning, timely feedback from instructor, repetition of assignments, and active engagement with the material.
Wangensteen, Sigrid; Johansson, Inger S; Björkström, Monica E; Nordström, Gun
The aim of the study was to describe critical thinking dispositions among newly graduated nurses in Norway, and to study whether background data had any impact on critical thinking dispositions. Competence in critical thinking is one of the expectations of nursing education. Critical thinkers are described as well-informed, inquisitive, open-minded and orderly in complex matters. Critical thinking competence has thus been designated as an outcome for judging the quality of nursing education programmes and for the development of clinical judgement. The ability to think critically is also described as reducing the research-practice gap and fostering evidence-based nursing. A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed. The data were collected between October 2006 and April 2007 using the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory. The response rate was 33% (n = 618). Pearson's chi-square tests were used to analyse the data. Nearly 80% of the respondents reported a positive disposition towards critical thinking. The highest mean score was on the Inquisitiveness subscale and the lowest on the Truth-seeking subscale. A statistically significant higher proportion of nurses with high critical thinking scores were found among those older than 30 years, those with university education prior to nursing education, and those working in community health care. Nurse leaders and nurse teachers should encourage and nurture critical thinking among newly graduated nurses and nursing students. The low Truth-seeking scores found may be a result of traditional teaching strategies in nursing education and might indicate a need for more student-active learning models. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
León, Federico R.
This article deals with the concept of reflective thought or critical thinking from its initial formulation as an intellectual attitude to its current articulation as a third level of cognitive processing. Issues dealt with include critical thinking as a goal, as a cognitive process, as a part of dual cognitive processes, as a measurable…
This paper examines to explore how study by using model of Problem Based Learning ( PBL). Basically, this discussion is focussed at model of PBL as an effort in developing cognitive ability, especially critical thinking.Critical thinking including ability think high level (higher order of thinking) representing one of the component in issue intellegence of 21 st century ( Issue of The 21st literacy century). Development of ability of critical thinking in study of science of vital importance b...
Doerr, Mark, Ed.
"FACTC Focus" is a publication of Faculty Association of Community and Technical Colleges (FACTC) with the purpose of presenting diverse views on faculty issues. Included in this issue are: (1) LOL: The Easy ROUTE TO Critical Thinking (Barbara B. Parsons); (2) Critical Thinking: We Know It When We (Don't) See It (Jared Anthony); (3) Critical…
Lloyd, Margaret; Bahr, Nan
The literature on critical thinking in higher education is constructed around the fundamental assumption that, while regarded as essential, is neither clearly nor commonly understood. There is elsewhere evidence that academics and students have differing perceptions of what happens in university classrooms, particularly in regard to higher order…
Changes in American education require that teachers are evaluated more often, and expectations increasingly include teaching to develop critical thinking skills. This article uses Bloom's taxonomy in describing ways physical educators can include critical thinking in their lessons, both to enhance their teaching and to meet expectations of…
Atabaki, Ali Mohammad Siahi; Keshtiaray, Narges; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad H.
Learning critical thinking skills are the goal of educational systems so the term "critical thinking" (CT) is frequently found in educational policy documents. Despite this frequency, however, precise understandings among teachers of what CT really means do not exit. The present study is designed to answer the following question. We can…
The essential function of critical thinking in education is obvious by many studies done in this field. The main purpose of this article is to find the relationship between critical thinking levels of Iranian EFL learners and their performance on different modes of writing. The sample of the study selected among those who studying English at the…
In Critical Condition: Replacing Critical Thinking with Creativity, Patrick Finn expands upon his 2011 TEDx Talk, ‘Loving Communication’, to suggest that critical thinking implies disapproval and unnecessary judgement originating from a particular mode of Classical thought. Jodie Matthews argues that Finn’s discussion is dependent upon a crudely drawn straw man and neglects to consider thinking critically as a necessary corollary, rather than antithesis, to thinking creatively.
This study investigated the change in critical thinking (CT) skills of baccalaureate nursing students who were educated using a Think-Pair-Share (TPS) or an equivalent Non-Think-Pair-Share (Non-TPS) teaching method. Critical thinking has been an essential outcome of nursing students to prepare them to provide effective and safe quality care for…
Panofsky, Carolyn P.
Explores critical thinking as it has been constructed in schooling and in dominant traditions of psychological theory, presenting a dialectical view of critical thinking suggested in the social and philosophical writings of critical theorists (e.g., Theodor Adorno and Herbert Marcuse) and supported by the sociohistorical or cultural-historical…
Thinking, including critical thinking, is indispensable to a person so that a person can base his or her decisions on solid reasoning and facts. Even so, to think critically requires more than just being critical; it requires skills and aptitude for applying the skills in practice. In addition, to become an advanced thinker, the skills need to be practiced, and for that classroom offers a natural venue. Among numerous alternatives, Bloom’s taxonomy and Paul’s model provide two applicable ...
Cisneros, Robert M
To determine whether changes occur over 1 academic year in pharmacy students' critical thinking skills and disposition to think critically. First, second, third, and fourth-year pharmacy students completed the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) and the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI) at the beginning and end of 1 academic year. One hundred thirty-seven students completed the study. No significant changes occurred over the year in total scores on either instrument. However, scores in 3 of 12 subscale scores changed significantly and several significant correlations were found. Pharmacy students' scores on 2 critical thinking instruments showed no major improvements over 1 academic year but most scores were above average. Some areas of possible weakness were identified. Additional studies comparing scores over a longer period of time (eg, admission to graduation) are needed.
Full Text Available Critical thinking defined as the ability to think about your own thinking with a more analytical perspective, has long been an important side of education history. Recently there has been much attention devoted to this concept, particularly in the domain of language education. The present study is a review of the literature and previous studies done on the issue of critical thinking. In the first section an introduction to the study is presented. In the next section, the definitions of the notion of critical thinking from different scholars are put forth. In the third part, we discussed the features and characteristics of a real critical thinker. In the fourth part, the idea of teachability of critical thinking is discussed. It is tried to present some strategies which can enhance critical thinking in students.
Alexander, William A.
In recent years, business and industry have been vocal critics of education. Critics complain the American workforce, particularly young people, are deficient in workplace skills. A survey of 500 randomly selected Ohio businesses was used to determine opinions of respondents related to workplace skills gaps, rising skill levels, and level and type of critical thinking used on the job by all employees and entry-level employees. Four of 18 science outcomes promoted by the Ohio Department of Education had an application in business and these required critical-thinking skills to complete. These four formed the foundation in the survey because they provided a connection between thinking skills required on the Ohio 12 th Grade Proficiency Test and those required on the job. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to identify correlation between responses. The alpha level was p ≤ .05. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to identify significant (p ≤ .05) relationships between variables as represented by responses. In addition, one version of the Science Section of the Ohio 12th Grade Proficiency Test was analyzed for use of critical thinking using the SCAN's critical-thinking attributes as a standard. There were several findings related to workplace skills and critical thinking. Only 17.1% of respondents indicated dissatisfaction with the basic academic skill level of their employees. A majority (71.1%) of responding businesses perceived a lack of work ethic as more important than deficient academic skills. Only 17.1% of respondents reported the skill level of their entry-level employees was rising. Approximately 1/3 of responding businesses required no critical thinking at all from their entry-level employees. Small businesses were significantly more likely to require higher levels of critical thinking from their entry level employees than larger businesses. Employers who reported rising skill levels in entry-level employees required all of
Howes, Loene M.
Fostering critical thinking abilities amongst students is one component of preparing them to navigate uncertain and complex social lives and employment circumstances. One conceptualisation of critical thinking, valuable in higher education, draws from critical theory to promote social justice and redress power inequities. This study explored how…
Repo, Saara; Lehtinen, Taina; Rusanen, Erja; Hyytinen, Heidi
The focus of this study is on Open University students' entry-level critical thinking skills. The research questions were: how are students' age, and level and discipline of previous education related to critical thinking skills; is the level and discipline of previous education connected to the accuracy of students' self-evaluation of their…
Sulaiman, Tajularipin; a/l Kuppusamy, Suresh Kumar; Ayub, Ahmad Fauzi Mohd; Rahim, Suzieleez Syrene Abdul
This study aims to assess the level of critical thinking disposition and teaching efficacy among the Special Education Integration Programme (SEIP) teachers in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. The level of critical thinking dispositions and teaching efficacy in the SEIP were compared based on teaching experience and gender. The study also examined the relationship between critical thinking disposition and teaching efficacy at SEIP. The research adopted a quantitative survey approach. A total of 190 primary school teachers from the SEIP in Negeri Sembilan were selected using proportional sampling method. The instrument used in this study comprised of three sections; demography, critical thinking disposition and teaching efficacy. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used in the analysis. Analysis shows that the respondents have a moderate level of critical thinking disposition (M = 2.99, S.D = 0.160) and teaching efficacy (M = 3.01 S.D. = 0.128) was at a high level. For teaching experience, the analysis showed that thinking disposition of novice teachers (mean = 2.52, SD = .503) are significantly higher than experienced teachers (mean = 2.35, SD = .481, t = 2.244, p critical thinking disposition and teaching efficacy. Findings also indicated that there is a significant positive moderate relationship (r = .477) between critical thinking disposition and teaching efficacy among SEIP teachers. This study suggests that critical thinking disposition and teaching efficacy play an important role to enhance the performance of SEIP teachers.
Cuypers, Stefaan E.
This article points out an internal tension, or even conflict, in the conceptual foundations of Harvey Siegel's conception of critical thinking. Siegel justifies critical thinking, or critically rational autonomy, as an educational ideal first and foremost by an appeal to the Kantian principle of respect for persons. It is made explicit that this…
To demonstrate use of critical thinking in the diagnostic process in order to achieve accuracy of nursing diagnoses. The 7 cognitive skills and 10 habits of mind identified as important for nursing in a Delphi study by Scheffer and Rubenfeld are applied to the diagnostic process using a published case study of a woman with heart failure. Taking into account all data from the case study and using the concepts of critical thinking, two high-accuracy nursing diagnoses were selected to guide nursing interventions. Because the specific types of critical thinking needed for accurate diagnosing are not known, nurses should develop all 17 of the cognitive skills and habits of mind so these thinking abilities are available when needed. The 17 critical thinking concepts should be combined with domain knowledge, e.g., nursing diagnoses, to think about thinking, which will improve critical thinking processes.
Walters, Kerry S.
Although critical thinking has become a pedagogical industry, its endorsement by educators is uncritical. The conventional critical thinking model assumes that only logical thinking is good thinking. However, good thinking also includes rational but nonlogical cognitive functions. To ignore them is to train students in only one aspect of thinking.…
Mitchell, Shannon H; Overman, Pamela; Forrest, Jane L
Health care providers can enhance their critical thinking skills, essential to providing patient centered care, by use of motivational interviewing and evidence-based decision making techniques. The need for critical thinking skills to foster optimal patient centered care is being emphasized in educational curricula for health care professions. The theme of this paper is that evidence-based decision making (EBDM) and motivational interviewing (MI) are tools that when taught in health professions educational programs can aid in the development of critical thinking skills. This paper reviews the MI and EBDM literature for evidence regarding these patient-centered care techniques as they relate to improved oral health outcomes. Comparisons between critical thinking and EBDM skills are presented and the EBDM model and the MI technique are briefly described followed by a discussion of the research to date. The evidence suggests that EBDM and MI are valuable tools; however, further studies are needed regarding the effectiveness of EBDM and MI and the ways that health care providers can best develop critical thinking skills to facilitate improved patient care outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Andreou, Christos; Papastavrou, Evridiki; Merkouris, Anastasios
Critical thinking is a desirable competency for contemporary nurses although there are growing concerns supporting a disturbing paucity in its achievement. Learning styles reflect habitual behaviors which determine distinct preferences within learning situations. Evidence suggests that critical thinking could evolve through learning processes. Variances in critical thinking achievement by nursing students might therefore be influenced by individual learning preferences. The concepts "learning styles" and "critical thinking" have been independently examined in the nursing literature. No reviews were found however exploring their association in nursing education. To identify the potential relationships between learning styles and critical thinking in baccalaureate nursing students. Systematic review. Eleven electronic databases were utilized without geographical and time publishing filters. Hand-searching journals and scanning references from retrieved studies were also performed. Databases were searched for descriptive correlational studies which considered the relationship between learning styles and critical thinking in baccalaureate nursing students. The authors independently progressed three stage screening. Retrieved articles were reviewed at title, abstract and full text levels according to predetermined criteria. All included studies were quality appraised using a rating tool for descriptive studies. Six studies were finally included. Findings were grouped under four key themes: predominant learning styles, critical thinking scoring, critical thinking evolution across academic progress and learning styles-critical thinking correlations. Learning styles' diversities, weak critical thinking and inconsistent evolution through academic progress were revealed across studies. Critical thinking differed significantly between learning styles. Commonly accepted models in nursing education were lacking in both learning styles and critical thinking. Within studies
Vogel, Kimberly A; Geelhoed, Michael; Grice, Kimatha O; Murphy, Douglas
This study evaluated whether critical thinking ability can be improved through participation in occupational therapy (OT) and physical therapy (PT) curricula. The researchers compared levels of the critical thinking skills of OT and PT students at the beginning and end of their programs to determine whether changes occurred and to examine facets of the curricula that may have caused the differences. The curricula include teaching strategies of problem-based learning modules, small group discussion and problem-solving, case studies, clinical observation, and evidence-based practice assignments, as well as teaching about critical thinking as a process in itself. Fifty OT and PT students completed the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal at the beginning and end of 20 mos of the academic phase of their master's degree programs. Researchers analyzed the data using a one-way repeated-measures ANOVA. Results showed no differences between OT and PT students on the pretest or post-test and no differences for PT students between the pretest and post-test. OT students' scores increased significantly from pretest to post-test. The influence of the timing of teaching critical thinking skills in the resulting differences between the two curricula, as well as the validity of the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal is a valid measure of critical thinking changes in allied health students are discussed.
Full Text Available This paper examines how the discussion tool is used to promote critical thinking in an online environment at Marshall University. The significance of critical thinking in higher education has been brought to attention at both national and local levels. The paper studies the use of discussions as an approach to promote critical thinking in a number of English as a Second Language (ESL courses offered by Marshall University's Graduate School of Education and Professional Development (GSEPD program. At the end of the semester, a qualitative survey was developed to identify the effectiveness of such discussions, and the opportunities for improvement. The survey was sent to all students in these three classes. These students were all full time teachers in Elementary and Secondary schools in West Virginia. Out of 21 students, 15 of them have responded to the three questions asked in the survey. Almost all the respondents have found discussion helpful in enhancing learning and critical thinking. Most students support the involvement of an online instructor in the online discussion, and faculty members involved in these discussions function as helpers in the development of critical thinking skills.
Wagley, Spencer A.
Educators at all levels are expected to provide instruction that promotes critical thinking, but faculty are hindered by time constraints, expertise, and the attitude that critical thinking is taught and learned automatically. From Socrates to Dewey to Bloom to Facione, a firm foundation has been set for critical thinking pedagogies. This study…
Bulgurcuoglu, Ahmet Nusret
The purpose of the present research is to define the critical thinking levels and reading habits of students studying at the department of physical education and sports teaching and analysing the relationship between these. The participants of the present research are 136 pre-service physical education teachers studying at Mugla Sitki Kocman…
"Critical thinking" is frequently used to describe how social workers ought to reason. But how well has this concept helped us to develop a normative description of what it means to think like a social worker? This critical review mines the literature on critical thinking for insight into the kinds of thinking social work scholars…
Burns, Shari; Mendel, Shaun; Fisher, Rodney; Cooper, Kimball; Fisher, Michael
Critical thinking is pivotal for student success in health professions education. Knowing the critical thinking ability of the learner helps educators tailor curriculum to enhance critical thinking. A quantitative comparative pilot study assessed critical thinking ability for students at two distinct points in a nurse anesthesia program…
Lodewyk, Ken R.
Critical thinking is essentially "better thinking." When students think critically they consider complex information from numerous sources and perspectives in order to make a reasonable judgment that they can justify. It has been associated with academic qualities such as decision-making, creativity, reasoning, problem-solving, debating,…
Noone, Chris; Bunting, Brendan; Hogan, Michael J.
Mindfulness originated in the Buddhist tradition as a way of cultivating clarity of thought. Despite the fact that this behaviour is best captured using critical thinking assessments, no studies have examined the effects of mindfulness on critical thinking or the mechanisms underlying any such possible relationship. Even so, mindfulness has been suggested as being beneficial for critical thinking in higher education. Critical thinking is recognised as an important higher-order cognitive proce...
Shoemaker, Pamela J.
Describes one way of systematically teaching critical thinking skills in a journalism-mass communication program. Begins with a general discussion of critical thinking. Proceeds to the theory and structure underlying the course as it is taught at the Ohio State University School of Journalism. (RS)
Zygmont, Dolores M; Schaefer, Karen Moore
The purpose of this study was twofold: to determine the critical thinking skills of nurse faculty and to examine the relationship between epistemological position and critical thinking. Most participants reported having no education on critical thinking. Data were collected using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) and the Learning Environment Preferences (LEP). Findings from the CCTST indicated that faculty varied considerably in their ability to think critically; LEP findings suggested that participants had not reached the intellectual level needed for critical thinking. In addition, 12 faculty participated in one-hour telephone interviews in which they described experiences in which students demonstrated critical thinking. Despite a lack of clarity on the definition of critical thinking, faculty described clinical examples where students engaged in analysis, inference, and evaluation. Based on these findings, it is recommended that faculty transfer their ability to engage students in critical thinking in the clinical setting to the classroom setting. Benchmarks can be established based on the ability of faculty to engage in critical thinking.
Full Text Available Critical thinking is vital for graduates in facing the dynamic life in order to strengthen their analysis ability and providing alternative solution towards the current problem. It is essential that units, courses, and material teach the critical thinking process have to provide an opportunity for students to excoriate certain problem and present the harmonious flow of thinking. Hoax news, the trending issue in a society as the reading materials, has abundance aspect to be criticized by students. Moreover, it has its own authenticity to be brought into a critical reading class as authentic materials which was not broadly discussed yet. This study aimed at paving the ways to improve the students’ critical thinking skills through reading hoax news. It is conducted to investigate the usage of hoax news in teaching critical reading for undergraduate students as well as particularize how far hoax news can enhance studenst’ critical thinking. This study employed classroom action research design. The subject of the study was the 31 students joining the critical reading class. The data were gotten from observation, document analysis and test. The essay test was the instrument used to assess the students’ critical thinking which later adopted the model of the Holistic Critical Thinking Scoring Rubric (HCTSR. The result of the study showed that using of hoax news significantly improve the students’ critical thinking followed by the development of interpretation, analysis and identification ability. The number students posed strong thinking increased from 6.45% to 72,2%. Using critical thinking can promote students’ high order thinking since it drives students to consider the fact and fake which demanding the high analysis and deep interpretation toward the presented text. Keywords: Critical thinking, hoax news, teaching materials. INDONESIAN ABSTRACT Berpikir kritis merupakan hal yang penting dalam mengahadapi hidup yang dinamis untuk
Full Text Available Mindfulness originated in the Buddhist tradition as a way of cultivating clarity of thought. Despite the fact that this behaviour is best captured using critical thinking assessments, no studies have examined the effects of mindfulness on critical thinking or the mechanisms underlying any such possible relationship. Even so, mindfulness has been suggested as being beneficial for critical thinking in higher education. Critical thinking is recognised as an important higher-order cognitive process which involves the ability to analyse and evaluate evidence and arguments. Such non-automatic, reflective responses generally require the engagement of executive functioning which includes updating, inhibition and shifting of representations in working memory. Based on research showing that mindfulness enhances aspects of executive functioning and certain higher-order cognitive processes, we hypothesised that individuals higher in facets of dispositional mindfulness would demonstrate greater critical thinking performance, and that this relationship would be mediated by executive functioning. Cross-sectional assessment of these constructs in a sample of 178 university students was achieved using the observing and non-reactivity sub-scales of the Five Factor Mindfulness Questionnaire, a battery of executive functioning tasks and the Halpern Critical Thinking Assessment. Our hypotheses were tested by constructing a multiple meditation model which was analysed using Structural Equation Modelling. Evidence was found for inhibition mediating the relationships between both observing and non-reactivity and critical thinking in different ways. Indirect-only (or full mediation was demonstrated for the relationship between observing, inhibition and critical thinking. Competitive mediation was demonstrated for the relationship between non-reactivity, inhibition and critical thinking. This suggests additional mediators of the relationship between non-reactivity and
In this paper, the author argues that the quantity, superabundance of information, easy availability, and quick access to information in cyberspace may engender critical thinking and the optimization of reasonableness. This point is different from, but presupposes, the commonplace view that critical thinking abilities, criteria, processes, and…
Behar-Horenstein, Linda S; Schneider-Mitchell, Gail; Graff, Randy
Practical and effective faculty development programs are vital to individual and institutional success. However, there is little evidence that program outcomes result in instructional changes. The purpose of this study was to determine if and how faculty development would enhance participants' use of critical thinking skills in instruction. Seven faculty members from the University of Florida College of Dentistry and one faculty member from another health science college participated in six weekly two-hour faculty development sessions in spring 2007 that focused on enhancing critical thinking skills in instruction. Kaufman's and Rachal's principles of andragogy (adult learning) were used to design the sessions. Participants used learning journals to respond to four instructor-assigned prompts and provided one presentation to peers. With the use of qualitative methods, eight themes emerged across the learning journals: teaching goals, critical thinking, awareness of learners, planned instructional change, teaching efficacy, self-doubt, external challenges, and changes made. Five of eight participants incorporated critical thinking skills into their presentations at a mean level of 2.4 or higher on a 5-point scale using Paul and Elder's behavioral definition of critical thinking skills. Faculty development opportunities that cause participants to reason through learning journals, peer presentations, and group discussion demonstrated the incorporation of critical thinking concepts in 63 percent of this cohort group's presentations, suggesting that if evidence-based pedagogies are followed, instructional changes can result from faculty development.
Papp, Klara K; Huang, Grace C; Lauzon Clabo, Laurie M; Delva, Dianne; Fischer, Melissa; Konopasek, Lyuba; Schwartzstein, Richard M; Gusic, Maryellen
Critical thinking is essential to a health professional's competence to assess, diagnose, and care for patients. Defined as the ability to apply higher-order cognitive skills (conceptualization, analysis, evaluation) and the disposition to be deliberate about thinking (being open-minded or intellectually honest) that lead to action that is logical and appropriate, critical thinking represents a "meta-competency" that transcends other knowledge, skills, abilities, and behaviors required in health care professions. Despite its importance, the developmental stages of critical thinking have not been delineated for nurses and physicians. As part of a task force of educators who considered different developmental stage theories, the authors have iteratively refined and proposed milestones in critical thinking. The attributes associated with unreflective, beginning, practicing, advanced, accomplished, and challenged critical thinkers are conceived as independent of an individual's level of training. Depending on circumstances and environmental factors, even the most experienced clinician may demonstrate attributes associated with a challenged thinker. The authors use the illustrative case of a patient with abdominal pain to demonstrate how critical thinking may manifest in learners at different stages of development, analyzing how the learner at each stage applies information obtained in the patient interaction to arrive at a differential diagnosis and plan for evaluation. The authors share important considerations and provide this work as a foundation for the development of effective approaches to teaching and promoting critical thinking and to establishing expectations for learners in this essential meta-competency.
and bring me back to reality when I become too technical. These characteristics also apply to the MMAS board that guided me in researching this paper...curriculum 1 ProCon.org, “Critical Thinking Quote: Adrienne Rich ,” last updated August 8, 2013...ray-odierno/. 5 embraced visual learning to teach the millennial generation, to include using simulations to enhance understanding of critical
Suliman, Wafika A; Halabi, Jehad
This study aimed at exploring the existing predominant critical thinking disposition(s) of baccalaureate nursing students and the relationship among their critical thinking (CT), self-esteem (SE), and state anxiety (SA). Cross-sectional correlational design was utilized to achieve the said aim. A voluntary convenient sample consisted of first year (n=105) and fourth year (n=60) nursing students. The California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, and Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory were used for data collection after their translation to Arabic language and test for validity and reliability. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze data. Results showed that both groups overall CT was marginal indicating no serious deficiency, their SE was average, and their SA was relatively high; they reported analyticity, open-mindedness, systematicity, inquisitiveness, and truth seeking as predominant critical thinking dispositions with no significant difference between them. However, the two groups were weak with significant difference on CT self-confidence (t=-2.053, df=136.904, p=.042) with beginning students reporting poorer level of CT self-confidence. Significant correlation results showed that critical thinking is positively correlated with SE, negatively correlated with SA, and SE is negatively correlated with SA; however, all correlations were actually quite low.
Federico R. León
Full Text Available This article deals with the concept of reflective thought or critical thinking from its initial formulation as an intellectual attitude to its current articulation as a third level of cognitive processing. Issues dealt with include critical thinking as a goal, as a cognitive process, as a part of dual cognitive processes, as a measurable disposition, as a measurable ability and as an educational task.
Full Text Available Introduction: Critical Thinking Disposition indicates individual’s inclination to Critical Thinking, which is one of the domains of personality. Individual characteristics are important and influential factors in the growth and development of students’ Critical Thinking. One of these influential characteristics might be self-esteem, thus this study was to determine the correlation between Critical Thinking Disposition and self-esteem in medical students. Methods: In an analytical cross-sectional study, 289 medical students were selected through stratified random sampling method in Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2011. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire containing 3 parts: demographic data, California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory, and Cooper-Smith Self-Esteem Inventory. The results were analyzed by SPSS-16 using descriptive statistics, Pearson and Spearman Correlation Coefficient, ANOVA, Chi-Square and Fisher exact test. Results: Results showed that 98.6% (285 of students had deficiency, 1.4% (4 ambivalence and nobody had positive critical thinking disposition. There was a significantly negative correlation between Critical Thinking Disposition and self-esteem (r=-0.462, P<0.001. Also, there was no a significant relationship between two groups of low self-esteem , high self-esteem , negative and ambivalent Critical Thinking Disposition. Conclusion: It seems that Critical Thinking Disposition, like other psychological variables, is influenced by social factors and social environment plays a role in promoting or undermining it. So, similar studies are recommended to investigate the factors affecting Critical Thinking in medical students.
Huber, Christopher R.; Kuncel, Nathan R.
Educators view critical thinking as an essential skill, yet it remains unclear how effectively it is being taught in college. This meta-analysis synthesizes research on gains in critical thinking skills and attitudinal dispositions over various time frames in college. The results suggest that both critical thinking skills and dispositions improve…
Santos, Luis Fernando
This review aims to respond various questions regarding the role of Critical Thinking in Science Education from aspects concerning the importance or relevance of critical thinking in science education, the situation in the classroom and curriculum, and the conception of critical thinking and fostering in science education. This review is specially…
This article proposes a Confucian conception of critical thinking by focussing on the notion of judgement. It is argued that the attainment of the Confucian ideal of "li" (normative behaviours) necessitates and promotes critical thinking in at least two ways. First, the observance of "li" requires the individual to exercise…
Chen, Shu-Yueh; Chang, Hsing-Chi; Pai, Hsiang-Chu
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of caring behaviours on critical thinking and to examine whether self-reflection mediates the effect of caring on critical thinking. We also tested whether caring behaviours moderated the relationship between self-reflection and critical thinking. For this descriptive, correlational, cross-sectional study, we recruited 293 fifth-year nursing students from a junior college in southern Taiwan. Data were collected in 2014 on critical thinking, caring behaviours and self-reflection with insight using the Taiwan Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory, a Chinese version of the Caring Assessment Report Evaluation Q-sort, and a Chinese version of the Self-Reflection and Insight Scale, respectively. Relationships among variables were analysed by structural equation modelling, with the partial least squares method and Sobel test. The results showed that caring behaviours significantly positively affected critical thinking (β = 0.56, t = 12.37, p critical thinking (β = 0.34, t = 6.48, p critical thinking. Caring behaviours did not, however, moderate the relationship between self-reflection (β = 0.001, t = 0.021, p > 0.05) and critical thinking. Caring behaviours directly affect self-reflection with insight and critical thinking. In addition, caring behaviours also indirectly affect critical thinking through self-reflection and insight. © 2017 Nordic College of Caring Science.
Critical thinking includes a process of reasoning in thinking as stated by some scholars. In the process, there is universal standard to follow: clarity, accuracy, precision, relevance, depth, breadth, logic, and fairness. In language classes, critical thinking creates active classes. To bring critical thinking to classes, Bloom’s Taxonomy and critical thinking strategies can be working definition in order critical thinking to be applied to pedagogical materials in a practical way. Steps for ...
Marin, Matias A.; de la Pava, Luisa
Critical Thinking has become an educational and social ideal. English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teaching has not been apart from the discussion on the importance of implementing Critical Thinking into the educational process. However, research on Critical Thinking has broadly been carried out in other fields of knowledge rather than in EFL.…
Chan, Zenobia C Y
This review aimed to explore how critical thinking is perceived in previous studies of nursing education, and analyse the obstacles and strategies in teaching and learning critical thinking mentioned in these studies. Systematic review. This review was based on the following five databases: The British Nursing Index, Ovid Medline, CINAHL, PsycINFO and Scopus. After the screening process and evaluation through using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool, 17 studies were identified that met the inclusion and quality criteria. The studies were read through several times and analysed through thematic synthesis. A total of three themes were developed. The first theme, components for critical thinkers, suggests the abilities and attitudes that critical thinkers should have. The other two themes, influential factors of critical thinking in nursing education, and strategies to promote critical thinking, describe the obstacles and strategies in teaching and learning critical thinking. The 17 studies illustrated that the definition and concept of critical thinking may change from time to time, and hence there is a need to clarify educators' perspective towards critical thinking. There is also a need to evaluate the efficacy of the new strategies mentioned in several selected studies, such as art-based, questioning, cross-cultural nursing experience, and preceptorship. With a better understanding of critical thinking in nursing education, educators and nursing faculty are able to develop better strategies in enhancing critical thinking development in nursing students, in turn preparing them for future clinical practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
I respond to Kamhi's (2011) conclusion in his article "Balancing Certainty and Uncertainty in Clinical Practice" that rational or critical thinking is an essential complement to evidence-based practice (EBP). I expand on Kamhi's conclusion and briefly describe what clinicians might need to know to think critically within an EBP profession. Specifically, I suggest how critical thinking is relevant to EBP, broadly summarize the relevant skills, indicate the importance of thinking dispositions, and outline the various ways our thinking can go wrong. I finish the commentary by suggesting that critical thinking skills should be considered a required outcome of our professional training programs.
As radiographers continue to extend their role and take on more procedures associated traditionally with radiologists, it is essential that their critical thinking abilities keep pace with the new practical skills they are learning. This is particularly important in ultrasound where student sonographers must master a number of new skills including the technical dexterity required to perform a scan, the ability to form and discard hypotheses when trying to interpret the image, and the communication of their findings as a written report. Interpreting the image and producing an accurate, appropriate report involves the higher level cognitive processes of analysis, synthesis and evaluation. In other words, the student sonographer must be able to think critically to become a successful practitioner. This paper attempts to define and discuss critical thinking, and considers a range of simple strategies that the clinical teacher of ultrasound can employ to help develop critical thinking skills in their students. These methods are appropriate for use not only by clinical teachers of ultrasound but for all teachers and mentors wishing to improve reasoning skills in their pupils
Beistle, Kimberly S; Palmer, Louann Bierlein
This qualitative study explores the perceptions of dental hygiene faculty regarding issues surrounding critical thinking skills integration within their associate degree dental hygiene programs. Twenty faculty participated in the study, as drawn from 11 accredited associate degree dental hygiene programs in one Midwest state. Multiple sources of data were collected, including email questionnaires, individual follow-up phone interviews and artifacts. Interpretive analysis was conducted. Data analysis revealed that faculty generally understood critical thinking, but interpretations varied. Most do not use varied teaching strategies to promote critical thinking skills, and focus on one particular strategy--that of case studies. The participants identified the need for allied health-focused faculty development opportunities, and noted that calibration of instruction was needed. Despite challenges, faculty felt responsible for teaching critical thinking skills, and identified the need for time to build critical thinking skills into the curriculum. This study was conducted in response to the American Dental Education Association Commission on Change and Innovation's challenge for dental hygiene educators to comprehend their own knowledge on the concept of critical thinking related to research-based pedagogical approaches to teaching and learning. Findings revealed a strong desire among the dental hygiene faculty in this study to incorporate critical thinking into their work. They want to do what they believe is the right thing, but their actual knowledge of the definitional and application theories about critical thinking is still in the early stages of development. Regular and targeted faculty development opportunities are needed. Copyright © 2014 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.
Chan, Zenobia C Y
Although the development of critical thinking and the development of creativity are major areas in nursing programme, little has been explored about learners' perspectives towards these two concepts, especially in Chinese contexts. This study aimed to reveal nursing learners' perspectives on creativity and critical thinking. Qualitative data collection methods were adopted, namely group interviews and concept map drawings. The process of data collection was conducted in private rooms at a University. 36 nursing students from two problem-based learning classes were recruited in two groups for the study. After data collection, content analysis with axial coding approach was conducted to explore the narrative themes, to summarise the main ideas, and to make valid inferences from the connections among critical thinking, creativity, and other exogenous variables. Based on the findings, six major themes were identified: "revisiting the meanings of critical thinking"; "critical thinking and knowledge: partners or rivals?"; "is critical thinking criticising?"; "revising the meanings of creativity"; "creativity and experience: partners or rivals?"; and "should creativity be practical?". This study showed that learners had diverse perspectives towards critical thinking and creativity, and their debate on these two domains provided implications on nursing education, since the voices of learners are crucial in teaching. By closing the gap between learners and educators, this study offered some insights on nursing education in the new curriculum, in particular to co-construct nursing knowledge which is student-driven, and to consider students' voices towards understanding and applying creativity and critical thinking in nursing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kaya, Hülya; Şenyuva, Emine; Bodur, Gönül
Emotional Intelligence is considered as an important characteristic of nurses that can affect the quality of their work including clinical decision-making, critical thinking, evidence and knowledge use in practice. The study is aimed to determine nursing students' critical thinking disposition and emotional intelligence in an academic year. A longitudinal design. The focus population of this longitudinal study consists of 197 freshman students studying at a faculty of nursing. Asymmetrical cluster sampling method was used to determine sample group and all the students registered in the first year were included in scope of the study. Information Form, California Critical Thinking Disposition Scale and Emotional Intelligence Assessment Scale were used for data collection. SPSS version 11.5 was used for data analysis. Nursing students have a low level of critical thinking disposition and intermediate level of emotional intelligence both at the beginning and end of academic year. There was no statistically significant difference in both skills at the beginning and end of year. There was a statistically significant difference between students' critical thinking disposition and emotional intelligence at the beginning of academic year. There was a positive correlation at a medium level between students' critical thinking disposition and emotional intelligence at the beginning and end of academic year. In light of these results, it is that suggested the study should be prolonged as longitudinal because development of both skills require a long time. The current study holds importance that it sheds light on other relevant studies and nursing education programs. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nur Aisyah Isti; Arief Agoestanto; Ary Woro Kurniasih
The purpose of this research was described critical thinking stage of students grade VIII in setting PBL and scaffolding to solve mathematics problems. Critical thinking stage consists of clarification, assesment, inference, and strategy/tactics. The subject were teo students in the level of capacity to think critical (uncritical, less critical, quite critical, and critical). So that this research subject was 8 students in VIII A One State Junior High School of Temanggung. The result showed a...
Full Text Available Good critical thinkers possess a core set of cognitive thinking skills, and a disposition towards critical thinking. They are able to think critically to solve complex, real-world problems effectively. Although personal emotion is important in critical thinking, it is often a neglected issue. The emotional intelligence in this study concerns our sensitivity to and artful handling of our own and others’ emotions. Engaging students emotionally is the key to strengthening their dispositions toward critical thinking. Hence, a study involving 338 male and female graduate students from a public university was carried out. They rated the Emotional Intelligence Scale and Critical Thinking Disposition Scale. Findings suggested that emotional intelligence and critical thinking disposition were positively correlated (r=.609. Differences in terms of age, gender, and course of study also formed part of the analysis. Keywords: emotional intelligence, critical thinking disposition, graduate students
Noraini Ahmad Shukri
Full Text Available Many ESL instructors are generally in agreement with the belief that it is essential that students should be assisted in developing critical thinking skills while being engaged in their language learning process especially those learning the target language at higher level (Stern, 1985; Dickinson, 1991; McKay, 2001; Terry, 2007; Van, 2009; Odenwald, 2010. As it enables language learners to engage in a more purposeful and self-regulatory in judgment, helping them in their evaluation of the arguments of others and of their own, coming to well-reasoned resolutions to any complex problems and to be able to resolve conflicts encountered in their daily lives. Critical thinking requires them to be actively involved in their own learning process as they attempt to individually understand and apply the information they are exposed to during the classroom interaction (Landsberger, 1999; Tung & Chang, 2009. The many advantageous and feasibility of teaching instruction that incorporates the study of literature in the ESL classroom which suggests that literature texts, if correctly chosen and instructed, can prove to be beneficial to ESL students’ overall level of literacy and critical thinking skills. Numerous empirical researches also asserted that literary texts that are authentic, enjoyable, and motivating would naturally increase both their knowledge of the target language patterns and cultural awareness. Keywords: Critical thinking, ESL classroom, literature, literary text
Guerra, Aida; Holgaard, Jette Egelund
Engineering education accreditation bodies emphasize the need for competencies beyond technical expertise. Critical thinking is one of these competencies, which is also considered as a precursor for the development of other competencies such as multidisciplinary collaboration, problem......-solving skills and lifelong learning. There is an urgent need to enhance engineering students’ critical thinking and one way to do this is to make use of active, student-centred learning approaches such as Problem Based Learning (PBL). This study aims to provide a model for understanding and enhancing critical...... thinking in a PBL environment. The development of the model takes its point of departure from a conceptual model for critical thinking that is concretized in a PBL context by including theoretical as well as empirical perspectives. The empirical study was conducted at the Faculty of Engineering and Science...
Williams, Ann E.
Courses: This semester long activity can be employed in any communication classroom and is designed particularly to provide first-time graduate student instructors (GSIs) with a theory-based assessment tool. As such, the article is appropriate for graduate-level pedagogy classes. Objective: To introduce a theory-based, critical thinking activity…
Hidayat, D.; Nurlaelah, E.; Dahlan, J. A.
The ability of mathematical creative and critical thinking are two abilities that need to be developed in the learning of mathematics. Therefore, efforts need to be made in the design of learning that is capable of developing both capabilities. The purpose of this research is to examine the mathematical creative and critical thinking ability of students who get rigorous mathematical thinking (RMT) approach and students who get expository approach. This research was quasi experiment with control group pretest-posttest design. The population were all of students grade 11th in one of the senior high school in Bandung. The result showed that: the achievement of mathematical creative and critical thinking abilities of student who obtain RMT is better than students who obtain expository approach. The use of Psychological tools and mediation with criteria of intentionality, reciprocity, and mediated of meaning on RMT helps students in developing condition in critical and creative processes. This achievement contributes to the development of integrated learning design on students’ critical and creative thinking processes.
Wallace, Elise D.; Jefferson, Renee N.
Critical thinking skills are required to successfully navigate the overwhelming amount of information sources available today. To address the challenge of developing critical thinking skills, this empirical study examines the effectiveness of exercises in developing thinking skills in college freshmen students. The workbook exercises were designed…
TH!NK is a new initiative at NC State University focused on enhancing students' higher-order cognitive skills. As part of this initiative, I explicitly emphasized critical and creative thinking in an existing bacteriophage discovery first-year research course. In addition to the typical activities associated with undergraduate research such as review of primary literature and writing research papers, another strategy employed to enhance students' critical thinking skills was the use of discipline-specific, real-world scenarios. This paper outlines a general "formula" for writing scenarios, as well as several specific scenarios created for the described course. I also present how embedding aspects of the scenarios in reviews of the primary literature enriched the activity. I assessed student gains in critical thinking skills using a pre-/posttest model of the Critical Thinking Assessment Test (CAT), developed by Tennessee Technological University. I observed a positive gain trend in most of the individual skills assessed in the CAT, with a statistically significant large effect on critical thinking skills overall in students in the test group. I also show that a higher level of critical thinking skills was demonstrated in research papers written by students who participated in the scenarios compared with similar students who did not participate in the scenario activities. The scenario strategy described here can be modified for use in biology and other STEM disciplines, as well as in diverse disciplines in the social sciences and humanities.
Good critical thinkers possess a core set of cognitive thinking skills, and a disposition towards critical thinking. They are able to think critically to solve complex, real-world problems effectively. Although personal emotion is important in critical thinking, it is often a neglected issue. The emotional intelligence in this study concerns our…
Rowles, Joie; Morgan, Christine; Burns, Shari; Merchant, Christine
The fostering of critical thinking skills has become an expectation of faculty, especially those teaching in the health sciences. The manner in which critical thinking is defined by faculty impacts how they will address the challenge to promote critical thinking among their students. This study reports the perceptions of critical thinking held by…
Zori, Susan; Kohn, Nina; Gallo, Kathleen; Friedman, M Isabel
Critical thinking is essential to nursing practice. This study examined differences in the critical thinking dispositions of registered nurses (RNs) in a nursing fellowship program. Control and experimental groups were used to compare differences in scores on the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI) of RNs at three points during a fellowship program: baseline, week 7, and month 5. The control group consisted of RNs who received no education in critical thinking. The experimental group received education in critical thinking using simulated scenarios and reflective journaling. CCTDI scores examined with analysis of variance showed no significant difference within groups over time or between groups. The baseline scores of the experimental group were slightly higher than those of the control group. Chi-square analysis of demographic variables between the two groups showed no significant differences. Critical thinking dispositions are a combination of attitudes, values, and beliefs that make up one's personality based on life experience. Lack of statistical significance using a quantitative approach did not capture the development of the critical thinking dispositions of participants. A secondary qualitative analysis of journal entries is being conducted. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.
Full Text Available The ability to cite reasons, to justify claims and give support to arguments is seen as primary characteristics of a critical thinker. This paper discusses how the ‘Elements of Reasoning’ is employed with Socratic Questioning to develop critical thinking in the language classroom. The principles that guide the questioning are laid out clearly, just as is the response which must be backed by valid reasons, examples, and illustrations, pushing students beyond mere recall and into abstract thinking. It is based on the notion that through questioning, the process that occurs in the student’s mind creates thinking and learning.
Brown Basone', Lauren
Nursing students need to think critically in order to pass their nursing courses and the critical thinking portion of the national licensure exam. To improve students' critical thinking skills, a nursing program in the southern United States recently required that 4th semester students take a 1-credit critical thinking course. This study evaluated…
Quitadamo, Ian J; Faiola, Celia L; Johnson, James E; Kurtz, Martha J
National stakeholders are becoming increasingly concerned about the inability of college graduates to think critically. Research shows that, while both faculty and students deem critical thinking essential, only a small fraction of graduates can demonstrate the thinking skills necessary for academic and professional success. Many faculty are considering nontraditional teaching methods that incorporate undergraduate research because they more closely align with the process of doing investigative science. This study compared a research-focused teaching method called community-based inquiry (CBI) with traditional lecture/laboratory in general education biology to discover which method would elicit greater gains in critical thinking. Results showed significant critical-thinking gains in the CBI group but decreases in a traditional group and a mixed CBI/traditional group. Prior critical-thinking skill, instructor, and ethnicity also significantly influenced critical-thinking gains, with nearly all ethnicities in the CBI group outperforming peers in both the mixed and traditional groups. Females, who showed decreased critical thinking in traditional courses relative to males, outperformed their male counterparts in CBI courses. Through the results of this study, it is hoped that faculty who value both research and critical thinking will consider using the CBI method.
Hager, Paul; Sleet, Ray; Logan, Peter; Hooper, Mal
This paper reports on the design and evaluation of a project aimed at fostering the critical thinking abilities and dispositions of first year students at an Australian university. Novel paper and pencil problems were designed to foster the range of critical thinking abilities identified by Ennis (1991). Most of these critical thinking tasks relate to applications of chemistry and physics in everyday life. Some of the tasks were developed from information and/or ideas obtained from critical incident interviews with scientists in private and government organisations. The first year university students were required to attempt the tasks in co-operative groups and to interact in these groups in ways aimed at fostering the dispositions of Ennis' ideal critical thinker (Ennis 1996).The project was evaluated from discussions with groups of students, from comments of tutors who observed the students working in groups and from a questionnaire. Evidence obtained from these data indicated that many students considered their thinking skills were enhanced by their experience of attempting the tasks in small co-operative groups.
Blondy, Laurie C
Nursing faculty members strive to teach students to think critically. It has long been assumed that nursing faculty members are good at critical thinking because they are expected to teach these skills to students, but this assumption has not been well supported empirically. Faculty members question their ability to think critically and are unsure of their skills. The purpose of this study was to address this assumption by measuring nursing faculty members' critical thinking skills and compare the faculty mean score to that of a student norming group, and to the mean scores of other nursing faculty studies. Findings can be used to increase nursing faculty members' understanding of their critical thinking skills, prompt discussion about critical thinking skills, and to help faculty members address concerns and uncertainty about the concept of critical thinking. This study also helps establish an empirical basis for future research.
This dissertation about critical thinking processes three questions. The first regards the question what critical thinking means when conceptualizing the phrase away from the dominant account in which it refers to the ability to reason well and the disposition to do so (Bailin & Siegel, 2003). A
Caring is a difficult nursing activity that involves a complex nature of a human being in need of complex decision-making and problem solving through the critical thinking process. It is mandatory that critical thinking is facilitated in general and in nursing education particularly in order to render care in diverse multicultural patient care settings. This paper aims to describe how argumentation can be used to facilitate critical thinking in learners. A qualitative, exploratory and descriptive design that is contextual was used. Purposive sampling method was used to draw a sample and Miles and Huberman methodology of qualitative analysis was used to analyse data. Lincoln and Guba's strategies were employed to ensure trustworthiness, while Dhai and McQuoid-Mason's principles of ethical consideration were used. Following data analysis the findings were integrated within literature which culminated into the formulation of guidelines that can be followed when using argumentation as a methodology to facilitate critical thinking.
Mustafa Volkan Coskun
Full Text Available This study aimed to reveal the relationship between personality values and critical thinking disposition of pre-service teachers studying in a Faculty of Education. The study was designed using the survey model. The population of this study consisted of pre-service teachers studying at the Faculty of Education at Mugla Sitki Kocman University, Turkey, during the 2015-2016 academic year. The sample of the study consisted of 570 pre-service teachers who were selected by using disproportionate cluster sampling technique. The data of the study were obtained through the administration of the Florida Critical Disposition Scale (UF/EMI and University Students Values Scale (USVS. USVS was developed within the scope of the present study. Descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA, and multivariate regression analysis were used to analyze the data. The study revealed that the pre-service teachers attributed highest value to sensitivity. These values were identified to be followed with respect to diversity, trustability, and responsibility. In addition, the level of students’ critical thinking dispositions was found to be at the average level. Furthermore, the values of students explained approximately one-third of the critical-thinking dispositions. The values of sensitivity, responsibility and respect for diversity were determined to be the significant predictors of students’ critical-thinking dispositions.
Teaching students to think critically is one of the major goals of higher education. Many educators at the college level recognize this and expect students to demonstrate critical thinking early in their college experience, however for some students, a lack of preparation for these expectations poses an immediate and substantial challenge during…
Wesp, Richard; Montgomery, Kathleen
Argues that accounts of paranormal phenomena can serve as an ideal medium in which to encourage students to develop critical-thinking skills. Describes a cooperative-learning approach used to teach critical thinking in a course on paranormal events. Reports that critical-thinking skills increased and that the course received favorable student…
Adair, Desmond; Jaeger, Martin
Critical thinking extends to all aspects of professional engineering, especially in technical development, and, since the introduction of the ABET 2000 criteria, there has been an increased emphasis in engineering education on the development of critical thinking skills. What is hoped for is that the students obtain critical thinking skills to…
Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Critical thinking is simply defined as ability for analysis and evaluation of information. Today, this skill is considered as an undeniable necessity for social life. So fostering critical thinking ability is one of the basic goals of different levels of education from primary school to higher education. Each conscious behavior is related to the theoretical and intellectual foundation and origin. Therefore, the quality and types of thought play an important role in human mental health. This research studies the relationship between female pre-university students' critical thinking skills and their mental health in the academic year 2009-2010 in Hamadan city. Materials & Methods: This study is a cross sectional research and our method is based on correlation. Using random multiple stages clustering method, we selected 331 students as statistical sample. The data gathering instruments are two standard questionnaires: California form b critical thinking questionnaire and 28-question Goldberg and Hilier general health questionnaire. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistic indexes such as frequency, percent, mean and standard deviation and inferential tests such as Pearson correlation coefficient and multiple regressions. Results: Research findings show that the average point of students' critical thinking skills is (6.51 out of 34 and their average point of mental health is (31.52 .About 61 persons(18.4 percent have not any psychological disorder, about 270 person (81.6 percent seemed to have psychological disorder symptoms. There are negative and significant differences between critical thinking skills and disorder in mental health. Multiple regression analysis show that: there is negative and significant differences between critical analysis and deductive rational skills with psychological disorder symptoms, that is when students' critical thinking skills increases, the psychological disorder symptoms decrease
León, Federico R.
This article deals with the concept of reflective thought or critical thinking from its initial formulation as an intellectual attitude to its current articulation as a third level of cognitive processing. Issues dealt with include critical thinking as a goal, as a cognitive process, as a part of dual cognitive processes, as a measurable disposition, as a measurable ability and as an educational task. Este artículo aborda el concepto de pensamiento reflexivo o crítico desde su formulación ...
Henderson Hurley, Martha; Hurley, David
This article focuses on assignments designed to enhance critical thinking skills for authoritarian personality types. This paper seeks to add to the literature by exploring instructional methods to overcome authoritarian traits that could inhibit the development of critical thinking skills. The article presents a strategy which can be employed…
Canziani, Bonnie; Tullar, William L.
The authors present survey results from faculty at 44 universities on the role of student consulting projects in developing business students' critical thinking. They conclude that students can improve critical thinking by engaging in guided primary and secondary research to inform their business assumptions that underpin business planning and…
Yin, Khoo Yin; Abdullah, Abdul Ghani Kanesan; Alazidiyeen, Naser Jamil
This research attempts to examine the collaborative problem solving methods towards critical thinking based on economy (AE) and non economy (TE) in the SPM level among students in the lower sixth form. The quasi experiment method that uses the modal of 3X2 factorial is applied. 294 lower sixth form students from ten schools are distributed…
Full Text Available The use of asynchronous discussion forums (ADFs is thought to assist in enhancing students’ collaborative learning and critical thinking throughout higher education. However, previous research has mainly focused on individual critical thinking while the investigation of critical thinking during group work has been generally overlooked. Furthermore, few studies have investigated critical thinking processes of the individual and of the group in a single study to present a comprehensive picture of collaborative critical thinking (CCT. To address these gaps, I examined the demonstration of CCT on ADFs in a graduate subject at an Australian university over two academic semesters as students discussed topics online. In this paper, I discuss the ontological and methodological challenges in conducting the above research and present possible solutions to these challenges. At the ontological level, I discuss challenges in conceptualising and defining CCT. At the methodological level, I present challenges in constructing a coding scheme to measure the demonstration of CCT on ADFs. I then discuss ways to tackle the above challenges, propose an operational definition of CCT and present a synthetic coding scheme for measuring CCT in computer-supported collaborative learning contexts such as on ADFs.
Full Text Available The study was report the findings of an only post-test control group research design and aims to analyze the influence of problem-based learning approach, school level, and students’ prior mathematical ability to student’s mathematics critical thinking ability. The research subjects were 140 grade ten senior high school students coming from excellent and moderate school level. The research instruments a set of mathematical critical thinking ability test, and the data were analyzed by using two ways ANOVA and t-test. The research found that the problem based learning approach has significant impact to the ability of students’ mathematics critical thinking in terms of school level and students’ prior mathematical abilities. Furthermore. This research also found that there is no interaction between learning approach and school level, and learning approach and students’ prior mathematics ability to students’ mathematics critical thinking ability.
This descriptive correlational study explored factors influencing job satisfaction in nursing. Relationships between educational preparation, autonomy, and critical thinking and job satisfaction were examined. A convenience sample of 140 registered nurses was drawn from medical-surgical, management, and home health nursing specialties. The nurses were asked to complete the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal and Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire. Relationships between variables were analyzed to determine which explained the most variance in job satisfaction. Results indicated significant positive correlations between total job satisfaction and perceived autonomy, critical thinking, educational preparation, and job satisfiers. Significant negative correlations between job dissatisfiers and total job satisfaction were also found. Understanding nursing job satisfaction through critical thinking, educational level, and autonomy is the key to staff retention. Further research focusing on increasing these satisfiers is needed.
Feng, Rung-Chuang; Chen, Mei-Jung; Chen, Mei-Chuan; Pai, Yu-Chu
Critical thinking is essential in nursing practice. Promoting critical thinking competence in clinical nurses is an important way to improve problem solving and decision-making competence to further improve the quality of patient care. However, using an adequate tool to test nurses' critical thinking competence and disposition may provide the reference criteria for clinical nurse characterization, training planning, and resource allocation for human resource management. The purpose of this study was to measure the critical thinking competence and critical thinking disposition of clinical nurses as well as to explore the related factors of critical thinking competence. Clinical nurses from four different clinical ladders selected from one medical center were stratified randomly. All qualified subjects who submitted valid questionnaires were included in the study. A Taiwan version of the modified Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal and Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory was developed to measure the critical thinking competence and critical thinking disposition of clinical nurses. Validity was evaluated using the professional content test (content validity index = .93). Reliability was assessed with a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of .85. Data were analyzed using the SPSS for Windows (Version 12.0; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL). Results showed that competence of interpretation was the highest critical thinking competence factor. Inference was the lowest, and reflective thinking as a critical thinking disposition was more positive. In addition, age, years of nursing experience, and experiences in other hospitals significantly influenced critical thinking competence (p critical thinking disposition scores. Clinical ladder N4 nurses had the highest scores in both competence and disposition. A significant relationship was found between critical thinking competence and disposition scores, with 29.3% of the variance in critical thinking competence potentially explained
Yanuarta, Lidya; Gofur, Abdul; Indriwati, Sri Endah
Critical thinking is a complex reflection process that helps individuals become more analytical in their thinking. Empower critical thinking in students need to be done so that students can resolve the problems that exist in their life and are able to apply alternative solutions to problems in a different situations. Therefore, Think Talk Write (TTW) combined Problem Based Learning (PBL) were needed to empowered the critical thinking skills so that students were able to face the challenges of...
Castle, Alan [University of Portsmouth, Centre for Radiography Education, St George' s Building, Portsmouth PO1 2HY (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Purpose: Enabling students to develop critical thinking skills is one of the key aims of higher education and in preparing student radiographers for the future, there are increasing demands on educators to teach critical thinking skills to facilitate reflective, evidence-based practice and inter-professional working. The aim of the paper is to attempt to compare students' self-perception of their critical thinking skills to their actual written assessment performance. Methods: Students were asked to self-report how they thought the course had developed their critical thinking skills and the outcomes of this exercise were compared to the scores of previous assessments that required the demonstration of these skills. Results: The results suggest that whilst students report having developed critical thinking skills during the course, the results of their written assessments requiring the demonstration of these skills all had a mean score of less than 60% which indicates (in terms of the university's grade criteria guidelines) 'little attempt to use critical discussion in their work.' Discussion: Thirteen components of critical thinking are proposed, together with ways in which they could be incorporated into a radiographic curriculum. Conclusions: It is suggested that educators may need to review the constructive alignment of their curricula and re-assess their teaching and assessment strategies in order to effectively develop students' critical thinking skills.
Purpose: Enabling students to develop critical thinking skills is one of the key aims of higher education and in preparing student radiographers for the future, there are increasing demands on educators to teach critical thinking skills to facilitate reflective, evidence-based practice and inter-professional working. The aim of the paper is to attempt to compare students' self-perception of their critical thinking skills to their actual written assessment performance. Methods: Students were asked to self-report how they thought the course had developed their critical thinking skills and the outcomes of this exercise were compared to the scores of previous assessments that required the demonstration of these skills. Results: The results suggest that whilst students report having developed critical thinking skills during the course, the results of their written assessments requiring the demonstration of these skills all had a mean score of less than 60% which indicates (in terms of the university's grade criteria guidelines) 'little attempt to use critical discussion in their work.' Discussion: Thirteen components of critical thinking are proposed, together with ways in which they could be incorporated into a radiographic curriculum. Conclusions: It is suggested that educators may need to review the constructive alignment of their curricula and re-assess their teaching and assessment strategies in order to effectively develop students' critical thinking skills
Shinnick, Mary Ann; Woo, Mary A
Human patient simulation (HPS) is becoming a popular teaching method in nursing education globally and is believed to enhance both knowledge and critical thinking. While there is evidence that HPS improves knowledge, there is no objective nursing data to support HPS impact on critical thinking. Therefore, we studied knowledge and critical thinking before and after HPS in prelicensure nursing students and attempted to identify the predictors of higher critical thinking scores. Using a one-group, quasi-experimental, pre-test post-test design, 154 prelicensure nursing students (age 25.7± 6.7; gender=87.7% female) from 3 schools were studied at the same point in their curriculum using a high-fidelity simulation. Pre- and post-HPS assessments of knowledge, critical thinking, and self-efficacy were done as well as assessments for demographics and learning style. There was a mean improvement in knowledge scores of 6.5 points (Pcritical thinking scores. A logistic regression with 10 covariates revealed three variables to be predictors of higher critical thinking scores: greater "age" (P=0.01), baseline "knowledge" (P=0.04) and a low self-efficacy score ("not at all confident") in "baseline self-efficacy in managing a patient's fluid levels" (P=.05). This study reveals that gains in knowledge with HPS do not equate to changes in critical thinking. It does expose the variables of older age, higher baseline knowledge and low self-efficacy in "managing a patient's fluid levels" as being predictive of higher critical thinking ability. Further study is warranted to determine the effect of repeated or sequential simulations (dosing) and timing after the HPS experience on critical thinking gains. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Basha, Sami; Drane, Denise; Light, Gregory
Critical thinking is a key learning outcome for Palestinian students. However, there are no validated critical thinking tests in Arabic. Suitability of the US developed Critical Thinking Assessment Test (CAT) for use in Palestine was assessed. The test was piloted with university students in English (n = 30) and 4 questions were piloted in Arabic…
Cole, Bronwyn; McGuire, Margit
Critical thinking is a process that can be taught. It involves "evaluating the accuracy, credibility, and worth of information and lines of reasoning. Critical thinking is reflective, logical, evidence-based, and has a purposeful quality to it--that is, the learner thinks critically in order to achieve a particular goal." The authors have found…
da Silva Bastos Cerullo, Josinete Aparecida; de Almeida Lopes Monteiro da Cruz, Diná
This study identifies and analyzes nursing literature on clinical reasoning and critical thinking. A bibliographical search was performed in LILACS, SCIELO, PUBMED and CINAHL databases, followed by selection of abstracts and the reading of full texts. Through the review we verified that clinical reasoning develops from scientific and professional knowledge, is permeated by ethical decisions and nurses values and also that there are different personal and institutional strategies that might improve the critical thinking and clinical reasoning of nurses. Further research and evaluation of educational programs on clinical reasoning that integrate psychosocial responses to physiological responses of people cared by nurses is needed.
Bellaera, Lauren; Debney, Lauren; Baker, Sara T.
Subject comprehension and critical thinking are both key goals of higher education. However, while the former is, on the whole, successfully cultivated in undergraduate students, the latter is not. Few empirical studies have investigated the relationship between subject comprehension and critical thinking. In the present article we suggest that…
Carter, Amanda G; Creedy, Debra K; Sidebotham, Mary
Test the concurrent validity of three newly developed tools (student self-rating, preceptor rating, and reflective writing) that aim to measure critical thinking in midwifery practice. A descriptive matched cohort design was used. Australian research intensive university offering a three year Bachelor of Midwifery programme. Fifty-five undergraduate midwifery students. Students assessed their ability to apply critical thinking in midwifery practice using a 25-item tool and a 5-item subscale in Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire. Clinical preceptors completed a 24-item tool assessing the students' application of critical thinking in practice. Reflective writing by students was assessed by midwifery academics using a 15-item tool. Internal reliability, and concurrent validity were assessed. Correlations, t-tests, multiple regression and confidence levels were calculated for the three scales and associations with student characteristics. The three scales achieved good internal reliability with a Cronbach's alpha coefficient between 0.93 and 0.97. Matched total scores for the three critical thinking scales were moderately correlated; student/preceptor (r=0.36, pstudent/reflective writing (r=0.38, pstudents with a previous degree, but only significant for reflective writing (t (53)=-2.35, p=0.023). Preceptor ratings were predictive of GPA (beta=0.50, pStudents' self-rating scores were predictive of year level (beta=0.32, pstudent, preceptor, and reflective writing tools were found to be reliable and valid measures of critical thinking. The three tools can be used individually or in combination to provide students with various sources of feedback to improve their practice. The tools allow formative measurement of critical thinking over time. Further testing of the tools with larger, diverse samples is recommended. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Setiawan, A.; Malik, A.; Suhandi, A.; Permanasari, A.
This research was based on the need for improving critical and creative thinking skills of student in the 21 -st century. In this research, we have implemented HOT-Lab model for topic of force. The model was characterized by problem solving and higher order thinking development through real laboratory activities. This research used a quasy experiment method with pre-test post-test control group design. Samples of this research were 60 students of Physics Education Program of Teacher Educatuon Institution in Bandung. The samples were divided into 2 classes, experiment class (HOT-lab model) and control class (verification lab model). Research instruments were essay tests for creative and critical thinking skills measurements. The results revealed that both the models have improved student’s creative and critical thinking skills. However, the improvement of the experiment class was significantly higher than that of the control class, as indicated by the average of normalized gains (N-gain) for critical thinking skills of 60.18 and 29.30 and for creative thinking skills of 70.71 and 29.40, respectively for the experimental class and the control class. In addition, there is no significant correlation between the improvement of critical thinking skills and creative thinking skills in both the classes.
Khan, Shaista Irshad
Critical thinking is seen as a highly desirable way of thinking that needs to be encouraged in all areas of higher education. However, it is not easy to conceptualise critical thinking in ways that can help in its development and in its assessment. Recent policy documents in Pakistan have laid emphasis on the development of critical thinking…
McLaughlin, Anne Collins; McGill, Alicia Ebbitt
Critical thinking skills are often assessed via student beliefs in non-scientific ways of thinking, (e.g, pseudoscience). Courses aimed at reducing such beliefs have been studied in the STEM fields with the most successful focusing on skeptical thinking. However, critical thinking is not unique to the sciences; it is crucial in the humanities and…
Sugiarti, T.; Kaniawati, I.; Aviyanti, L.
The result of preliminary study shows that the assessment of physics in school did not train students’ critical thinking skill. The assessment instrument just measured low cognitive aspects. Supposedly, critical thinking skill is trained in the assessment activity. The study aims to determine the characteristics and the quality of critical thinking skill instrument. It employs descriptive-qualitative method with research and development as the research design. The research participants are 35 students involved in the limited trial and 188 students in the wider trial from three public senior high school in Ciamis which in high level school. The data was collected through expert validation, tests and interviews. The results indicate that the characteristics of the assessment instrument of critical thinking skill is open-ended. The instrument fulfills some indicators namely analyzing argument, deduction, induction, and display information in the form of scenario, text, graphic and table. In addition, the data processing through V4 Anates program shows that the instrument reliability achieves 0.67 with high interpretation of 0.67 and the validity is 0.47 with enough interpretation. Thus, the assessment instrument of critical thinking skill in the form of open-ended essay meets the criteria of quality test, so it can use as instrument of assessment critical thinking skill.
This study investigated the critical thinking dispositions of pre-service teachers in terms of various variables. The study included 1106 participants and used the survey model and the Turkish version (CCTDI-T) of the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (CCTDI). The reliability of the scale for this study was found to be 0.82. The…
Pitt, Victoria; Powis, David; Levett-Jones, Tracy; Hunter, Sharyn
The importance of developing critical thinking skills in preregistration nursing students is recognized worldwide. Yet, there has been limited exploration of how students' critical thinking skill scores on entry to pre-registration nursing education influence their academic and clinical performance and progression. The aim of this study was to: i) describe entry and exit critical thinking scores of nursing students enrolled in a three year bachelor of nursing program in Australia in comparison to norm scores; ii) explore entry critical thinking scores in relation to demographic characteristics, students' performance and progression. This longitudinal correlational study used the Health Sciences Reasoning Test (HSRT) to measure critical thinking skills in a sample (n=134) of students, at entry and exit (three years later). A one sample t-test was used to determine if differences existed between matched student critical thinking scores between entry and exit points. Academic performance, clinical performance and progression data were collected and correlations with entry critical thinking scores were examined. There was a significant relationship between critical thinking scores, academic performance and students' risk of failing, especially in the first semester of study. Critical thinking scores were predictive of program completion within three years. The increase in critical thinking scores from entry to exit was significant for the 28 students measured. In comparison to norm scores, entry level critical thinking scores were significantly lower, but exit scores were comparable. Critical thinking scores had no significant relationship to clinical performance. Entry critical thinking scores significantly correlate to academic performance and predict students risk of course failure and ability to complete a nursing degree in three years. Students' critical thinking scores are an important determinant of their success and as such can inform curriculum development and
Grussendorf, Jeannie; Rogol, Natalie C.
In a pre/post quasi-experimental study assessing the impact of a specific curriculum on critical thinking, the authors employed a critical thinking curriculum in two sections of a U.S. foreign policy class. The authors found that the interactive and scaffolded critical thinking curriculum yielded statistically significant critical thinking…
Evens, Marie; Verburgh, An; Elen, Jan
Critical thinking is an important goal in higher education. Students are expected to grow in critical thinking during their higher education programme. The present study investigates the development of critical thinking in 1134 bachelor students in Flanders, Belgium. The study followed a mixed longitudinal design. Students' critical thinking was…
Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to measure the success rate achieved by the alumni of Open/Distance Learning (O/DL, the Bachelor Education In-service Teachers Program (BEITP, Staya Jacana Christian University(SWCU, Salatiga in their critical thinking habit that lead to their success, and to find factors which determined their critical thinking habit. The factors concerned were student factor (learning motivation, alumni’s readiness to enter ICT community, prerequisite or teacher factor (teacher’s ability in creating and using a new instructional context. This quantitative research belongs to the causality ex-post facto research. The data source was one class of O/ DL, the BEITP, SWCUstudents, who were chosen out of four classes, as many as 32 alumni in the academic year 2015/2016. Data were screened using a self-rating scale, which consisted of 40 items tested valid and reliable, and then reduced to 5 variablas. The BEITP, SWCU Salatiga had graduated most of its alumni who owned critical thinking habit at a high rate. The critical thinking habit was affected by the instructional contexts which enabled a new situation (Model 1, alumni’s readiness to enter the ICT community (Model 2, pre-requisite, i.e., mastery of previous lecture materials (Model 3, and student’s learning motivation (Model 4 to reach 81%. The alumni’s critical thinking habit of 51.20% was determined by the teacher’s role in developing instructional contexts which made a new situation possible. This finding was useful for educational quality management for the effectiveness and productivity of higher education, which should have been focused on the teacher in developing an instructional strategy based on context, alumni readiness to enter the ICT community, prerequisite, and student’s learning motivation.
Full Text Available This article presents more or less independent reasons why analytical and critical thinking skills should be essential part of public relations. Generally, it is considered that the analytical and critical thinking skills are part of public relations, as well as creative thinking, but they should be considered separately and given the codes of ethics of the profession used as initial criteria. For the purpose of the study, in this article is presented the result of the survey in which determine importance of using analytical and critical thinking skills in the implementation of PR projects. The second aim in the survey was to identify the target audience and how they react to the placed information.
In this research the author defines critical thinking as the set of skills and dispositions which enable one to solve problems logically and to attempt to reflect autonomously by means of Metacognitive regulation on one's own problem-solving processes. In order to develop their critical thinking, it is important for students to be able to use this…
TH!NK is a new initiative at NC State University focused on enhancing students’ higher-order cognitive skills. As part of this initiative, I explicitly emphasized critical and creative thinking in an existing bacteriophage discovery first-year research course. In addition to the typical activities associated with undergraduate research such as review of primary literature and writing research papers, another strategy employed to enhance students’ critical thinking skills was the use of discipline-specific, real-world scenarios. This paper outlines a general “formula” for writing scenarios, as well as several specific scenarios created for the described course. I also present how embedding aspects of the scenarios in reviews of the primary literature enriched the activity. I assessed student gains in critical thinking skills using a pre-/posttest model of the Critical Thinking Assessment Test (CAT), developed by Tennessee Technological University. I observed a positive gain trend in most of the individual skills assessed in the CAT, with a statistically significant large effect on critical thinking skills overall in students in the test group. I also show that a higher level of critical thinking skills was demonstrated in research papers written by students who participated in the scenarios compared with similar students who did not participate in the scenario activities. The scenario strategy described here can be modified for use in biology and other STEM disciplines, as well as in diverse disciplines in the social sciences and humanities. PMID:26753022
Moore, Betsy; Stanley, Todd
Develop your students' critical thinking skills and prepare them to perform competitively in the classroom, on state tests, and beyond. In this book, Moore and Stanley show you how to effectively instruct your students to think on higher levels, and how to assess their progress. As states move toward common achievement standards, teachers have…
Furedy, John J.; Furedy, Christine
A fourth year honors thesis research course in psychology at the University of Toronto uses the device of adversarial interaction to improve critical thinking. Course components, including thesis submission, research seminar, student relations, and supervision, are designed to simulate the constraints, criticism, and relationships of actual…
Yuliati, L.; Fauziah, R.; Hidayat, A.
This study aims to determine students’ critical thinking skills in authentic problem based learning, especially on geometric optics. The study was conducted at the vocational school. The study used a quantitative descriptive method with the open question to measure critical thinking skills. The indicators of critical thinking skills measured in this study are: formulating problems, providing simple answers, applying formulas and procedures, analyzing information, making conclusions, and synthesizing ideas. The results showed that there was a positive change in students’ critical thinking skills with the average value of N-Gain test is 0.59 and effect size test is 3.73. The critical thinking skills of students need to be trained more intensively using authentic problems in daily life.
Gibbons, Jill; Gray, Mel
The paper examines the role of critical thinking in an experience-based model of social work education. Within this model, the development of a critical approach to our own understanding of, as well as to existing knowledge about, the world is fundamental for students and educators alike. Critical thinking is defined as more than a rational,…
Sulasih; Suparmi, A.; Sarwanto
Critical thinking ability is an important part of educational goals. It has higher complex processes, such as analyzing, synthesizing and evaluating, drawing conclusion and reflection. This study is aimed to know the critical thinking ability of students in learning static fluids of senior high school students. This research uses the descriptive method which its instruments based on the indicator of critical thinking ability developed according to Ennis. The population of this research is XIth grade science class Public Senior High School, SMA N 1, Sambungmacan, Sragen, Central Java. The static fluid teaching material is delivered using Problem Based Learning Model through class experiment. The results of this study shows that the average student of XIth science class have high critical thinking skills, particularly in the ability of providing simple explanation, build basic skill, and provide advanced explanation, but they do not have high enough in ability of drawing conclusion and strategic and tactical components of critical thinking ability in the study of static fluid teaching material. The average of students critical thinking ability is 72.94, with 27,94% of students are in a low category and 72,22% of students in the high category of critical thinking ability.
Nair, Girija Gopinathan; Hellsten, Laurie-Ann M; Stamler, Lynnette Leeseberg
Critical thinking skills (CTS) are essential for nurses; assessing students' acquisition of these skills is a mandate of nursing curricula. This study aimed to develop a self-assessment instrument of critical thinking skills (Critical Thinking Self-Assessment Scale [CTSAS]) for students' self-monitoring. An initial pool of 196 items across 6 core cognitive skills and 16 subskills were generated using the American Philosophical Association definition of CTS. Experts' content review of the items and their ratings provided evidence of content relevance using the item-level content validity index (I-CVI) and Aiken's content validity coefficient (VIk). 115 items were retained (range of I-CVI values = .70 to .94 and range of VIk values = .69-.95; significant at pself-assessment purposes.
students to use critical thinking skills . The case method teaches students to evaluate ambiguous situations, make difficult choices, develop...effectiveness of critical thinking training in the DAU courses with critical thinking skills in the curriculum; • observations of students ...their observations of students ’ use of critical thinking skills . Figure 27 summarizes data on instructor comments on observed “
Chang, Yulin; Li, Bei-Di; Chen, Hsueh-Chih; Chiu, Fa-Chung
The relationship lying between critical thinking and creative thinking is opposite or complementary, results of previous relevant researches have not yet concluded. However, most of researches put the effort to compare the respective effect of the thinking methods, either the teaching of creative thinking or that of critical thinking. Less of them…
Bittencourt, Greicy Kelly Gouveia Dias; Crossetti, Maria da Graça Oliveira
The aim of this study was to identify the critical thinking skills utilized in the nursing diagnosis process. This was an exploratory descriptive study conducted with seven nursing students on the application of a clinical case to identify critical thinking skills, as well as their justifications in the nursing diagnosis process. Content analysis was performed to evaluate descriptive data. Six participants reported that analysis, scientific and technical knowledge and logical reasoning skills are important in identifying priority nursing diagnoses; clinical experience was cited by five participants, knowledge about the patient and application of standards were mentioned by three participants; Furthermore, discernment and contextual perspective were skills noted by two participants. Based on these results, the use of critical thinking skills related to the steps of the nursing diagnosis process was observed. Therefore, that the application of this process may constitute a strategy that enables the development of critical thinking skills.
Full Text Available TH!NK is a new initiative at NC State University focused on enhancing students’ higher-order cognitive skills. As part of this initiative, I explicitly emphasized critical and creative thinking in an existing bacteriophagediscovery first-year research course. In addition to the typical activities associated with undergraduate research such as review of primary literature and writing research papers, another strategy employed to enhance students’ critical thinking skills was the use of discipline-specific, real-world scenarios. This paper outlines a general “formula” for writing scenarios, as well as several specific scenarios created for the described course. I also present how embedding aspects of the scenarios in reviews of the primary literature enriched the activity. I assessed student gains in critical thinking skills using a pre-/posttest model of the Critical Thinking Assessment Test (CAT, developed by Tennessee Technological University. I observed apositive gain trend in most of the individual skills assessed in the CAT, with a statistically significant large effect on critical thinking skills overall in students in the test group. I also show that a higher level of criticalthinking skills was demonstrated in research papers written by students who participated in the scenarios compared with similar students who did not participate in the scenario activities. The scenario strategy described here can be modified for use in biology and other STEM disciplines, as well as in diverse disciplines in the social sciences and humanities.
Ross, David; Schipper, Shirley; Westbury, Chris; Linh Banh, Hoan; Loeffler, Kim; Allan, G Michael; Ross, Shelley
Our objective was to determine the relationship between critical thinking skills and objective measures of academic success in a family medicine residency program. This prospective observational cohort study was set in a large Canadian family medicine residency program. Intervention was the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST), administered at three points in residency: upon entry, at mid-point, and at graduation. Results from the CCTST, Canadian Residency Matching Service file, and interview scores were compared to other measures of academic performance (Medical Colleges Admission Test [MCAT] and College of Family Physicians of Canada [CCFP] certification examination results). For participants (n=60), significant positive correlations were found between critical thinking skills and performance on tests of knowledge. For the MCAT, CCTST scores correlated positively with full scores (n=24, r=0.57) as well as with each section score (verbal reasoning: r=0.59; physical sciences: r=0.64; biological sciences: r=0.54). For CCFP examination, CCTST correlated reliably with both sections (n=49, orals: r=0.34; short answer: r=0.47). Additionally, CCTST was a better predictor of performance on the CCFP exam than was the interview score at selection into the residency program (Fisher's r-to-z test, z=2.25). Success on a critical thinking skills exam was found to predict success on family medicine certification examinations. Given that critical thinking skills appear to be stable throughout residency training, including an assessment of critical thinking in the selection process may help identify applicants more likely to be successful on final certification exam.
Full Text Available This study aims to describe enhancement and achievement of mathematical critical thinking skills of students who received the 5E Learning Cycle with Metacognitive technique, the 5E Learning Cycle, and conventional learning. This study use experimental method with pretest-posttest control group design. Population are junior high school students in Indramayu city, Indonesia. Sample are three classes of eighth grade students from high level school and three classes from medium level school. The study reveal that in terms of overall, mathematical critical thinking skills enhancement and achievement of students who received the 5E Learning Cycle with Metacognitive technique is better than students who received the 5E Learning Cycle and conventional learning. Mathematical critical thinking skills of students who received the 5E Learning Cycle is better than students who received conventional learning. There is no interaction effect between learning model and school level toward enhancement and achievement of students’ mathematical critical thinking skills.
Wijayanti, M. D.; Raharjo, S. B.; Saputro, S.; Mulyani, S.
This study aims to examine the consistency of critical thinking ability of PGSD students in Energy material. The study population is PGSD students in UNS Surakarta. Samples are using cluster random sampling technique obtained by 101 students. Consistency of student’s response in knowing the critical thinking ability of PGSD students can be used as a benchmark of PGSD students’ understanding to see the equivalence of IPA problem, especially in energy material presented with various phenomena. This research uses descriptive method. Data are obtained through questionnaires and interviews. The research results that the average level of critical thinking in this study is divided into 3 levels, i.e.: level 1 (54.85%), level 2 (19.93%), and level 3 (25.23%). The data of the research result affect to the weak of students’ Energy materials’ understanding. In addition, indicators identify that assumptions and arguments analysis are also still low. Ideally, the consistency of critical thinking ability as a whole has an impact on the expansion of students’ conceptual understanding. The results of the study may become a reference to improve the subsequent research in order to obtain positive changes in the ability of critical thinking of students who directly improve the concept of students’ better understanding, especially in energy materials at various real problems occured.
Soros, P.; Ponkham, K.; Ekkapim, S.
This research aimed to: 1) compare the critical think and problem solving skills before and after learning using STEM Education plan, 2) compare student achievement before and after learning about force and laws of motion using STEM Education plan, and 3) the satisfaction of learning by using STEM Education. The sample used were 37 students from grade 10 at Borabu School, Borabu District, Mahasarakham Province, semester 2, Academic year 2016. Tools used in this study consist of: 1) STEM Education plan about the force and laws of motion for grade 10 students of 1 schemes with total of 14 hours, 2) The test of critical think and problem solving skills with multiple-choice type of 5 options and 2 option of 30 items, 3) achievement test on force and laws of motion with multiple-choice of 4 options of 30 items, 4) satisfaction learning with 5 Rating Scale of 20 items. The statistics used in data analysis were percentage, mean, standard deviation, and t-test (Dependent). The results showed that 1) The student with learning using STEM Education plan have score of critical think and problem solving skills on post-test higher than pre-test with statistically significant level .01. 2) The student with learning using STEM Education plan have achievement score on post-test higher than pre-test with statistically significant level of .01. 3) The student'level of satisfaction toward the learning by using STEM Education plan was at a high level (X ¯ = 4.51, S.D=0.56).
Garwood, Janet K; Ahmed, Azza H; McComb, Sara A
The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of using concept maps as a teaching and learning strategy on students' critical thinking abilities and examine students' perceptions toward concept maps utilizing the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Researchers have found that almost two thirds of nurse graduates do not have adequate critical thinking skills for a beginner nurse. Critical thinking skills are required for safe practice and mandated by accrediting organizations. Nursing educators should consider teaching and learning strategies that promote the development of critical thinking skills. A literature review was conducted using "concept maps, nursing education, and critical thinking" as the combined search terms. Inclusion criteria were studies that measured the effects of concept mapping on critical thinking in nursing students. Seventeen articles were identified. Concept maps may be useful tools to promote critical thinking in nursing education and for applying theory to practice.
Lun, Vivian Miu-Chi; Fischer, Ronald; Ward, Colleen
Critical thinking is deemed as an ideal in academic settings, but cultural differences in critical thinking performance between Asian and Western students have been reported in the international education literature. We examined explanations for the observed differences in critical thinking between Asian and New Zealand (NZ) European students, and…
Studies on critical thinking (CT) in education have been of paramount importance in recent decades to help individuals develop skills such as analyzing, synthesizing, higher-order thinking, and assessing. In line with such studies, this study aims to examine aspects of critical thinking dispositions of Turkish adult learners of English in a…
DR. EDGAR M. BAYLON, JR.
Full Text Available The study was undertaken to evaluate the classroom assessment employed by the teachers, the critical-thinking and academic performance of the students in the laboratory high schools (LHS of Central Bicol State University of Agriculture, school year 2012-2013. The descriptive-evaluative, descriptive-correlation and descriptive-comparative methods of research were used. The findings revealed that only 11 out of 50 types of classroom assessment techniques are being used in the two laboratory high schools of CBSUA, namely: CDE-LHS and CDE–CSHB. Except for the use of human tableau or class modeling and application cards in few instances, the other techniques used by the teachers were classified as low-order thinking skills like “remembering” and “understanding”. “Applying”, “analyzing”, “evaluating” and “creating” were rarely used by the teachers. There were significant differences in the levels of critical thinking among the second year students in the two LHS along remembering, understanding, analyzing and evaluating while for third year high school students in the two LHS there was significant difference in evaluating but not significantly different with the rest of the levels. In terms of students’ academic performance in Science and “remembering”; English and “evaluating” in school A, there was a significant relationship between the level of critical thinking among students and their academic performance in the three subjects. The teacher-related factors along gender, marital status, employment status, and number of awards received, were significantly associated with the questioning skills of the teachers. In general, the findings indicated that there were significant association between the student-related factors and the different levels of critical thinking.
Crane, Beverley; Markowitz, Nancy Lourie
Presents a model that uses online searching to teach critical thinking skills in elementary and secondary education based on Bloom's taxonomy. Three levels of activity are described: analyzing a search statement; defining and clarifying a problem; and focusing an information need. (Contains 13 references.) (LRW)
Nair, Girija G; Stamler, Lynnette Leeseberg
Nurses must be talented critical thinkers to cope with the challenges related to the ever-changing health care system, population trends, and extended role expectations. Several countries now recognize critical thinking skills (CTS) as an expected outcome of nursing education programs. Critical thinking has been defined in multiple ways by philosophers, critical thinking experts, and educators. Nursing experts conceptualize critical thinking as a process involving cognitive and affective domains of reasoning. Nurse educators are often challenged with teaching and measuring CTS because of their latent nature and the lack of a uniform definition of the concept. In this review of the critical thinking literature, we examine various definitions, identify a set of constructs that define critical thinking, and suggest a conceptual framework on which to base a self-assessment scale for measuring CTS. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.
Pevneva, Inna; Gavrishina, Olga; Smirnova, Anna; Rozhneva, Elena; Yakimova, Nataliya
The article is devoted to consideration of the critical thinking formation in course of foreign language teaching within the education for sustainable development as a crucial skill of perspective employee and a future leader of Russian employment market. The necessity to include the component of problem education and critical thinking methodology in course of the foreign language class is justified along with analysis of the basic principles of critical thinking and certain strategies that can be implied in class. This model targets communicative language competences of students as well as critical thinking due to interconnection of various types of cognitive activities in class. The role in personality development of the students is considered along with the formation and enhancing of critical thinking skills within the modern personality-oriented approach.
Tanaka, Yuko; Kusumi, Takashi
The present study examined when people decide to choose an expression that is based on critical thinking, and how situational and individual variables affect such a decision process. Given a conversation scenario including overgeneralization with two friends, participants decided whether to follow the conversation by a critical-thinking expression or not. The authors controlled purpose and topic as situational variables, and measured critical-thinking ability, critical-thinking disposition, and self-monitoring as individual variables. We conducted an experiment in which the situational variables were counterbalanced in a within-subject design with 60 university students. The results of logistic regression analysis showed differences within individuals in the decision process whether to choose a critical-thinking expression, and that some situational factors and some subscales of the individual measurements were related to the differences.
Von Colln-Appling, Christina; Giuliano, Danielle
In research literature, the concept of critical thinking has been widely utilized in nursing education. However, critical thinking has been defined and evaluated using a variety of methods. This paper presents a concept analysis to define and clarify the concept of critical thinking to provide a deeper understanding of how critical thinking can be incorporated into nursing education through the use of simulation exercises. A theoretical definition and sample cases were developed to illuminate the concept as well as a discussion of the antecedents, consequences, and empirical referents of critical thinking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This study was conducted to examine pre-service science teachers' critical thinking dispositions and problem solving skills based on gender, grade level and graduated high school variables. Also relationship between pre-service science teachers' critical thinking dispositions and problem solving skills was examined based on gender, grade level and…
Kim, Minsung; Bednarz, Robert
This study developed an interview-based critical spatial thinking oral test and used the test to investigate the effects of Geographic Information System (GIS) learning on three components of critical spatial thinking: evaluating data reliability, exercising spatial reasoning, and assessing problem-solving validity. Thirty-two students at a large…
Gay, Keegan D.; Terry, Bryan; Lamm, Alexa J.
Diversity in learning options can increase efficacy of volunteer development systems. The University of Florida Critical Thinking Inventory (UFCTI) is designed to explicate an individual's critical thinking style based upon a continuum from Seeking Information to Engagement. Static and interpretive materials are best used with individuals of a…
Behar-Horenstein, Linda S.; Dolan, Teresa A.; Courts, Frank J.; Mitchell, Gail S.
Used qualitative research methods to assess the frequency and nature of teaching critical thinking skills in the University of Florida College of Dentistry predoctoral student clinics. Observation of 13 faculty and 44 students in six clinics found critical thinking skills were infrequently taught and teacher-dominated instruction predominated.…
Farrar, Francisca Cisneros; Suggs, Leslie
Students struggle with the mastery of critical thinking skills which are essential to their academic success. University faculty are challenged to create teaching strategies to help students build critical thinking skills. Nursing faculty at Austin Peay State University in Clarksville, Tennessee looked to research and technology for ways to…
Poirier, Gayle; Hocker, Susan
Discussion of critical thinking skills focuses on the academic library's role in teaching critical thinking skills based on experiences with a library resources course at Louisiana State University. Teaching techniques are discussed, sample lessons are described, and evaluation of students' research papers and student retention of skills are…
Jenkins, Daniel M.; Andenoro, Anthony C.
This chapter provides the critical leadership logic model as a tool to help educators develop leadership-learning opportunities. This proactive logic model includes curricular and co-curricular educational experiences to ensure critical thinking through leadership education.
Zuriguel Pérez, Esperanza; Lluch Canut, Maria Teresa; Falcó Pegueroles, Anna; Puig Llobet, Montserrat; Moreno Arroyo, Carmen; Roldán Merino, Juan
This article seeks to analyse the current state of scientific knowledge concerning critical thinking in nursing. The methodology used consisted of a scoping review of the main scientific databases using an applied search strategy. A total of 1518 studies published from January 1999 to June 2013 were identified, of which 90 met the inclusion criteria. The main conclusion drawn is that critical thinking in nursing is experiencing a growing interest in the study of both its concepts and its dimensions, as well as in the development of training strategies to further its development among both students and professionals. Furthermore, the analysis reveals that critical thinking has been investigated principally in the university setting, independent of conceptual models, with a variety of instruments used for its measurement. We recommend (i) the investigation of critical thinking among working professionals, (ii) the designing of evaluative instruments linked to conceptual models and (iii) the identification of strategies to promote critical thinking in the context of providing nursing care. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Kershisnik, Elizabeth Irene
The purpose of this dissertation was to examine collaboration and student's critical thinking and cognitive achievement within online chemistry courses. This quantitative study focused on the apparent lack of research relating collaboration and critical thinking in online science courses. Collaboration was determined using the small group collaboration model coding scheme, which examined student postings in asynchronous discussion forums for quantity, equality, and shareness. Critical thinking was measured using the chemistry concept reasoning test, the online self-diagnostic test, and also asynchronous student homework discussion postings that were coded using the community of inquiry cognitive presence indicators. Finally cognitive achievement was determined using quiz scores and the student's final grade. Even though no significant findings were revealed in this exploratory quasi-experimental study, this research did add to the educational technology knowledge base since very few studies have investigated the chemistry discipline in an online environment. Continued research in this area is vital to understanding how critical thinking progresses, how it can be assessed, and what factors in the classroom, be it virtual or face-to-face, have the greatest effect on critical thinking.
Full Text Available The multicultural world has made intercultural teaching necessary. It should focus on students’ ability to comprehend quickly and accurately, and then act appropriately and effectively in a culturally complex environment in order to achieve the desired goal. Intercultural competence is important for successful communication across cultures, and so is critical thinking since the two, if they are not “parallel” (Bennett, 2013, at least overlap (Deardorff, 2009. This article tries to shed light on the linkage between intercultural and critical thinking skills and reports on the findings of research done on whether and to what extent EFL textbooks used in Polish schools contribute to fostering critical thinking skills in students. The study analyzed the cultural content of 20 coursebooks to check whether they go beyond merely depicting the target culture, or various foreign cultures, and involve students in practicing critical thinking, that is, prompt them to explore intercultural encounters and processes, and scrutinize how diverse cultures influence their own understanding of reality. The research revealed an insignificant and limited capacity of the textbooks to develop students’ critical thinking.
Cascio, Ted V.
This study assesses the effectiveness of critical thinking drills (CTDs), a repetitious classroom activity designed to improve methodological and statistical thinking in relation to psychological claims embedded in popular press articles. In each of four separate CTDs, students critically analyzed a brief article reporting a recent psychological…
A collection of chapters devoted to various dimensions of how new media interact with diverse conceptions of critical thinking and various traditional understandings of the relationship between critical thinking and faith traditions and claims.......A collection of chapters devoted to various dimensions of how new media interact with diverse conceptions of critical thinking and various traditional understandings of the relationship between critical thinking and faith traditions and claims....
Djiwandono, Patrisius Istiarto
Recent developments in language teaching increasingly put a stronger importance on critical thinking skills. While studies in this area have begun to emerge, it is believed that a probe into the learners' mind when they process information can contribute significantly to the effort of identifying exactly how our learners think. This study was…
These are damning charges that warrant a response within critical thinking frameworks. We suggest that the broader critical thinking literature, primarily that found within contexts of critical pedagogy and dispositional schools, can and should be harnessed within the critical thinking literature to bridge the gap between classical and feminist thinkers. We highlight several methods by which philosophy can retain the functionality of critical thinking while mitigating the obstacles presented by feminist critics and highlight how the adoption of such methods not only improves critical thinking, but is also beneficial to philosophy, philosophers and feminists alike.
Full Text Available The profession as a teacher involves experiencing a number of challenges which naturally lead to emotional tiredness and lack of reward, technically known as burnout (Colomeischi, 2015. The goal of the present study was to investigate the relationship between burnout and critical thinking ability. To this end, a sample of 40 professors of Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL filed at a number of universities in Iran was chosen. Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI was employed to assess the participants' burnout level, which is specifically evaluated by measuring three subscales of emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and personal achievement. In addition, the measures of the participants' critical thinking skills were obtained via Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA. The Pearson correlation coefficient analysis indicated that emotional exhaustion and depersonalization strongly and negatively correlated with critical thinking ability. However, a strong and positive relationship was found between personal achievement and critical thinking skills.
Boonjeam, Waraporn; Tesaputa, Kowat; Sri-ampai, Anan
The objectives of this research were: 1) to study the elements and indicators of primary school teachers' critical thinking, 2) to study current situation, desirable situation, development technique, and need for developing the primary school teachers' critical thinking, 3) to develop the program for developing the primary school teachers'…
Shaw, Cassandra S.; Holmes, Karen E.
A wealth of research is available regarding supplemental instruction; however, a dearth exists regarding online supplemental instruction and critical thinking. This case study explored what was assumed to be known of critical thinking and investigated the extent to which critical thought was promoted within a university's online supplemental…
MAFAKHERI LALEH, MAHYAR; MOHAMMADIMEHR, MOJGAN; ZARGAR BALAYE JAME, SANAZ
Introduction: In the new concept of medical education, creativity development is an important goal. The aim of this research was to identify a model for developing critical thinking among students with the special focus on learning environment and learning style. Methods: This applied and cross-sectional study was conducted among all students studying in undergraduate and professional doctorate programs in Fall Semester 2013-2014 in AJA University of Medical Sciences (N=777). The sample consisted of 257 students selected based on the proportional stratified random sampling method. To collect data, three questionnaires including Critical Thinking, Perception of Learning Environment and Learning Style were employed. The data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation statistical test, and one-sample t-test. The Structural Equation Model (SEM) was used to test the research model. SPSS software, version 14 and the LISREL software were used for data analysis. Results: The results showed that students had significantly assessed the teaching-learning environment and two components of "perception of teachers" and "perception of emotional-psychological climate" at the desirable level (pcritical thinking among students in terms of components of "commitment", "creativity" and "cognitive maturity" was at the relatively desirable level (pcritical thinking through learning style. Conclusion: One of the factors which can significantly impact the quality improvement of the teaching and learning process in AJA University of Medical Sciences is to develop critical thinking among learners. This issue requires providing the proper situation for teaching and learning critical thinking in the educational environment. PMID:27795968
Drew, Christopher T
.... This capability can be trained by making Critical Thinking the focus of officer education. Critical Thinking is the general cognitive skill of developing the best solution when there is not a single correct answer...
Iwaoka, Wayne T.; Li, Yong; Rhee, Walter Y.
The Cornell Critical Thinking Test (CCTT) is one of the many multiple-choice tests with validated questions that have been reported to measure general critical thinking (CT) ability. One of the IFT Education Standards for undergraduate degrees in Food Science is the emphasis on the development of critical thinking. While this skill is easy to list…
Astuti Muh. Amin; Romi Adiansyah
Critical thinking emerges when learners attempt to use their background knowledge to construct meaning through interpreting, analyzing, and manipulating information in responding to a problem or a question that requires more than a single correct answer. Two factors that affect the improvement of the students’ critical thinking skills are lecturers’ activities and students’ activities. This study was a descriptive quantitative study which aimed to investigate (1) how lecturers perceive the de...
Gormley, William T., Jr.
In "The Critical Advantage," noted scholar and early childhood expert William T. Gormley, Jr. takes a wide ranging look at the important role of critical thinking in preparing students for college, careers, and civic life. Drawing on research from psychology, philosophy, business, political science, neuroscience, and other disciplines,…
Hayes, Margaret M; Chatterjee, Souvik; Schwartzstein, Richard M
Critical thinking, the capacity to be deliberate about thinking, is increasingly the focus of undergraduate medical education, but is not commonly addressed in graduate medical education. Without critical thinking, physicians, and particularly residents, are prone to cognitive errors, which can lead to diagnostic errors, especially in a high-stakes environment such as the intensive care unit. Although challenging, critical thinking skills can be taught. At this time, there is a paucity of data to support an educational gold standard for teaching critical thinking, but we believe that five strategies, routed in cognitive theory and our personal teaching experiences, provide an effective framework to teach critical thinking in the intensive care unit. The five strategies are: make the thinking process explicit by helping learners understand that the brain uses two cognitive processes: type 1, an intuitive pattern-recognizing process, and type 2, an analytic process; discuss cognitive biases, such as premature closure, and teach residents to minimize biases by expressing uncertainty and keeping differentials broad; model and teach inductive reasoning by utilizing concept and mechanism maps and explicitly teach how this reasoning differs from the more commonly used hypothetico-deductive reasoning; use questions to stimulate critical thinking: "how" or "why" questions can be used to coach trainees and to uncover their thought processes; and assess and provide feedback on learner's critical thinking. We believe these five strategies provide practical approaches for teaching critical thinking in the intensive care unit.
Orique, Sabrina B; McCarthy, Mary Ann
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between critical thinking and the use of concept mapping (CM) and problem-based learning (PBL) during care plan development. A quasi-experimental study with a pretest-posttest design was conducted using a convenience sample (n = 49) of first-semester undergraduate baccalaureate nursing students. Critical thinking was measured using the Holistic Critical Thinking Scoring Rubric. Data analysis consisted of a repeated measures analysis of variance with post hoc mean comparison tests using the Bonferroni method. Findings indicated that mean critical thinking at phase 4 (CM and PBL) was significantly higher, compared with phase 1 (baseline), phase 2 (PBL), and phase 3 (CM [p < 0.001]). The results support the utilization of nontraditional instructional (CM and PBL) methodologies in undergraduate nursing curricula. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.
This study aims to develop the interactive e-book multimedia model to improve the students' critical thinking ability (KBK). Critical thinking is very important to develop because it provides a high level of reasoning thinking that provides permanent experience to students through conscious and controlled decision making in a rational, reflective, responsible manner with the optimization of potential. Flash-based e-book media is capable of interactively loading videos, pictures, practice ques...
Englehardt, Cathy Willis; Hauser, Brenda Bennett
This paper describes the chess program for elementary school students in the Daviess County School District, Kentucky. The Critical Thinking committee of the school system's Graduation 2010 initiative explored various ways to promote critical thinking in the classroom and arrived at a program to put chess boards in the classrooms and to encourage…
Hanford, George H.
Education is the best hope for peace and progress in the world, and because education is best given and received when infused with critical thinking, critical thinking can save the world. Some of the most serious problems facing humankind are overpopulation and famine. The problems of ethnicity, colonialism, and religion further complicate matters…
Aizikovitsh-Udi, Einav; Clarke, David; Kuntze, Sebastian
Even though statistical thinking and critical thinking appear to have strong links from a theoretical point of view, empirical research into the intersections and potential interrelatedness of these aspects of competence is scarce. Our research suggests that thinking skills in both areas may be interdependent. Given this interconnection, it should…
Pieter van Veuren
Full Text Available The aim of this essay is to explore the concept of thinking skills in three different contexts, i.e. Formal Logic, Informal Logic and Critical Thinking. The essay traces some contemporary historical connections between these approaches and illustrates differences and overlap between them by referring to the content pages of textbooks which are representative of the different approaches. In evaluating the historical developments sketched in the essay, the conclusion is reached that the open and pragmatic way in which Critical Thinking handles the topic of thinking skills has advantages for interdisciplinary contact and cooperation. However, this pragmatic approach also has a possible downside: the concept of thinking skills can become so vague as to be of no use.
Pai, Hsiang-Chu; Eng, Cheng-Joo; Ko, Hui-Ling
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between caring behavior and the disposition toward critical thinking of nursing students in clinical practice. A structural equation model was used to test the hypothesized relationship between caring behavior and critical thinking skills. Caring is the core of nursing practice, and the disposition toward critical thinking is needed for competent nursing care. In a fast-paced and complex environment, however, "caring" may be lost. Because nursing students will become professional nurses, it is essential to explore their caring behaviors and critical thinking skills and to understand how to improve their critical thinking skills based on their caring behavior. A cross-sectional study was used, with convenience sampling of students who were participating in associate degree nursing programs at 3 colleges of nursing. The following instruments were used: critical thinking disposition inventory Chinese version and caring behaviors scale. The study found that individuals with a higher frequency of caring behaviors had a higher score on critical thinking about nursing practice (β = .44, t = 5.14, P critical thinking. The findings of this study revealed the importance of caring behavior and its relationship with the disposition toward critical thinking. Thus, it is recommended that nursing education should emphasize a curriculum related to caring behavior to improve the disposition toward critical thinking of nursing students. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... accepted, adopted or used by students. This research project explores the reasons for this outcome and provides recommendations and techniques to enhance acceptance of critical thinking as a tool for strategic leaders...
Romeo, Elizabeth M
The concept of critical thinking has been influential in several disciplines. Both education and nursing in general have been attempting to define, teach, and measure this concept for decades. Nurse educators realize that critical thinking is the cornerstone of the objectives and goals for nursing students. The purpose of this article is to review and analyze quantitative research findings relevant to the measurement of critical thinking abilities and skills in undergraduate nursing students and the usefulness of critical thinking as a predictor of National Council Licensure Examination-Registered Nurse (NCLEX-RN) performance. The specific issues that this integrative review examined include assessment and analysis of the theoretical and operational definitions of critical thinking, theoretical frameworks used to guide the studies, instruments used to evaluate critical thinking skills and abilities, and the role of critical thinking as a predictor of NCLEX-RN outcomes. A list of key assumptions related to critical thinking was formulated. The limitations and gaps in the literature were identified, as well as the types of future research needed in this arena. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.
Full Text Available Critical thinking skills should be owned by students. Therefore, schools should be responsible to develop and evaluate critical thinking skills through teaching and learning process in schools. This study aims to identify the effects of mathematical learning modules based on problem-based learning to critical thinking skills at secondary school students in District of Bone. Assessment of critical thinking skills in mathematical problem solving non-routine includes three parts; the identification and interpretation of information, information analysis, and evaluate of evidence and arguments. This study involved a total of 68 students grade 12 science state secondary school (SMAN in Bone District of South Sulawesi, Indonesia in academic year 2014-2015. The sample consists of 38 students in the city and 30 rural students. The design of the study was quasi experimental one group pretest-posttest. The data was analysed using the inferential t-test with SPSS 20.0 for windows. The study found that there are effects of the use of mathematical learning module based PBL to enhance the ability of critical thinking skills in mathematics students in all three components, namely, identifying and interpreting information, information analysis, and evaluate of evidence and argument.
Developing critical thinking skills is a key aim of higher education and is important in preparing student radiographers for their future careers in clinical practice. The aim of this paper was to attempt to devise and assess six key components of critical thinking appropriate for radiographic practice. Each of the six components was divided into three dimensions and a Critical Thinking Skills Scoring Chart (CTSSC) devised to assess students' written performance against each dimension. Scores revealed that approximately 30% of students were rated as good and approximately 10% of students were rated as poor in each component, although there was some variability between different dimensions. It is suggested that educators need to encourage and support students to develop their critical thinking skills by reviewing their curriculum to clearly define specific skills and ensure that they are appropriately taught and assessed
Wetmore, Ann O'Kelley; Boyd, Linda D; Bowen, Denise M; Pattillo, Robin E
One challenge facing dental hygiene, as well as dental, education is to identify clinical teaching strategies promoting critical thinking and clinical reasoning. These skills are crucial elements in the practice of dental hygiene. A two-group design (intervention, n=28, and control, n=30) assessed first-year dental hygiene students using pre-and post-Health Science Reasoning Test (HSRT) scores to evaluate the effect of reflective blogging on critical thinking skills. A reflective blog rubric, based on Mezirow's levels of reflection, determined if reflective blogging increased the level of reflection for dental hygiene students. The results suggest within this nonprobability sample that reflective blogging did not produce a significant change in students' HSRT scores (p>0.05). However, analyses of reflective blog rubric scores demonstrated statistically significant improvements (pcritical thinking.
Gerber, Sue; Scott, Logan
Gaming is purported to hold promise for education, in part, because it is thought to develop 21st century skills such as critical thinking. To date, there has been a dearth of generalisable research investigating the relationship between gaming and critical thinking. Results of a survey of 121 adults found that gamers and non-gamers do not differ…
Malaysia is a multi-racial, largely Muslim, country rapidly emerging from a colonialist past and preparing itself to compete in a global society. The Malaysian government whilst striving to retain its moral and cultural identity has recently introduced long term plans through its Vision 2020 programme, giving direction to its educational thrust at primary, secondary and tertiary levels well into the new millennium. It is envisaged that important among the skills Malaysians will need to have to take advantage of their new position in the world order is the ability to think creatively and critically and be capable of solving problems and making decisions between an awesome array of choice. The importance of education in developing such skills is explicitly recognised in Vision 2020. This thesis looks specifically at how this might be accomplished in the training of secondary school science teachers. This study uses an array of instruments, including the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory, the Cornell Critical Thinking Test, Level X, the Science Teaching Observation Schedule, and a number of instruments specifically developed for the study, all of whose reliability and validity are carefully established. The study seeks to explore the effectiveness of an intervention strategy in changing pre-service science teachers' dispositions towards critical thinking, their level of professional knowledge and understanding of critical thinking in the secondary science curriculum, and their changing behaviour in the science classroom as a result of this intervention strategy. Using a quasi-experimental research design, data is collected from some 142 science student teachers in the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. The students were subdivided into a control and two experimental groups, the latter receiving two different instructional programmes. Multiple analysis of variance techniques demonstrated a correlation between intervention strategy and improved attitude
Critical thinking has drawn great concern from researchers in America and western world since 1980s. Chinese researchers have come to realize the fundamental function of critical thinking for innovation. However, it does not take effect to cultivate students' critical thinking in English classroom. English classroom activities are generally…
This paper is an investigation of understandings of critical thinking from two teaching perspectives: academic staff and tutors. It explores critical thinking as situated within an assessment task in introductory macroeconomics. This study found that while the two academic staff conceptualized critical thinking as a set of concrete cognitive…
Su, Hui Fang Huang " Ricci, Frederick A; Mnatsakanian, Mamikon
A teacher that emphasizes reasoning, logic and validity gives their students access to mathematics as an effective way of practicing critical thinking. All students have the ability to enhance and expand their critical thinking when learning mathematics. Students can develop this ability when confronting mathematical problems, identifying possible solutions and evaluating and justifying their reasons for the results, thereby allowing students to become confident critical thinkers. Critical th...
This article discusses the tension between trust, as an expression of interpersonal commitment, and critical thinking, which includes a demand for reasons. It explores the importance of each for individual flourishing, and then seeks to establish some ways in which they intersect, drawing on ideas of authority and trustworthiness. It argues that…
Gorton, Karen L; Hayes, Janice
The purpose of this study was to determine whether there was a relationship between critical thinking skills and clinical judgment in nurse practitioner students. The study used a convenience, nonprobability sampling technique, engaging participants from across the United States. Correlational analysis demonstrated no statistically significant relationship between critical thinking skills and examination-style questions, critical thinking skills and scores on the evaluation and reevaluation of consequences subscale of the Clinical Decision Making in Nursing Scale, and critical thinking skills and the preceptor evaluation tool. The study found no statistically significant relationships between critical thinking skills and clinical judgment. Educators and practitioners could consider further research in these areas to gain insight into how critical thinking is and could be measured, to gain insight into the clinical decision making skills of nurse practitioner students, and to gain insight into the development and measurement of critical thinking skills in advanced practice educational programs. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.
Zhang, Huan; Lambert, Vickie
Although considerable information exists regarding the learning styles and critical thinking dispositions of nursing students from Western countries, limited comparable information exists within China. The purposes of this study were to assess the learning styles and critical thinking dispositions of Chinese baccalaureate nursing students and to identify the relationships among the learning styles, critical thinking dispositions, and demographics. The sample consisted of 100 Chinese baccalaureate nursing students enrolled at two universities. The data were obtained through a Demographic Data Questionnaire, the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory, and the Index of Learning Styles. The primary learning style dimensions were found to be reflective, sensing, visual, and global, while the critically thinking abilities was found to be weak. A number of positive and negative correlations were found among the demographics, learning styles, and critical thinking dispositions. These findings suggest further examination on how to increase nursing students' critical thinking skills based upon their preferred learning styles.
Hunter, Sharyn; Pitt, Victoria; Croce, Nic; Roche, Jan
This study investigated the critical thinking skills among undergraduate nursing students in Australia to obtain a profile and determine demographic predictors of critical thinking. There is universal agreement that being a critical thinker is an outcome requirement for many accreditation and registering nursing bodies. Most studies provide descriptive statistical information about critical thinking skills while some have studied the changes in critical thinking after an intervention. Limited research about factors that predict critical thinking skills is available. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted using convenience sampling. Two hundred and sixty-nine students were recruited across three years of an undergraduate programme in 2009. Most students' age ranged from under 20 to 34 years (58%), 87% were female, 91% were Australian and 23% of first and second year students had nursing associated experience external to the university. Data about critical thinking skills were collected via the Health Science Reasoning Test (HSRT). Linear regression analysis investigated the predictors of nursing students' critical thinking skills. The students in third year had a profile of critical thinking skills comparable with HSRT norms. Year of study predicted higher critical thinking scores for all domains (p<0.001) except the subscale, analysis. Nationality predicted higher scores for total CT skill scores (p<0.001) and subscales, inductive (p=0.001) and deductive reasoning (p=0.001). Nursing associated experience predicted higher scores for the subscale, analysis (p<0.001). Age and gender were not predictive. However, these demographic predictors only accounted for a small variance obtained for the domains of CT skills. An understanding of factors that predict nursing students' CT skills is required. Despite this study finding a number of significant predictors of nursing students' CT skills, there are others yet to be understood. Future research is recommended
Phan, Huy P
This article presents a theoretically grounded model of critical thinking and self-regulation in the context of teaching and learning. Critical thinking, deriving from an educational psychology perspective is a complex process of reflection that helps individuals become more analytical in their thinking and professional development. My conceptualisation in this discussion paper argues that both theoretical orientations (critical thinking and self-regulation) operate in a dynamic interactive system of teaching and learning. My argument, based on existing research evidence, suggests two important points: (i) critical thinking acts as another cognitive strategy of self-regulation that learners use in their learning, and (ii) critical thinking may be a product of various antecedents such as different self-regulatory strategies.
Simin Sharif; Azizollah Arbabisarjou; Nasrin Mahmoudi
Critical thinking is defined as a basic skill for nurses which leads to the best performance based on the best existing evidence. Although acquisition of this skill is highly emphasized, still there is no single definition for it. considering importance of critical thinking in performing nursing clinical care, current study was conducted aiming at investigating critical thinking progressive trend among nursing students in a nine-year period using library approach. Methods: This sy...
Tatiana V. Masharova
Full Text Available The aim of the study is to consider the problem of the improvement of the students-managers linguistic competence.Methods. The analysis of the features of the linguistic competence formation of the future managers with the help of critical thinking technology was used at the initial stage. The model of the organization of the effective foreign language practicals is developed by means of pedagogical simulation. The testing of the control and the experimental groups with the future statistical data processing is used to evaluate the developed model effectiveness.Results. Methods and teaching techniques are used in compliance with each stage of cognitive activity. The necessary requirements while the organization and the conducting of the foreign language practicals when critical thinking skills learning are stated. The role of the professionally-oriented foreign texts in the higher educational institutions for the critical thinking development and the improvement of the future managers’ linguistic competence is identified.Scientific novelty. A model of foreign language practicals for students of economics using the stages of cognitive activity and methods and techniques of critical thinking is developed. The dependence between the requirements for foreign language practicals and information mastery level is defined.Practical significance. The complex of foreign language practicals for students of economics increasing the level of language training is developed on the basis of theoretical survey and experimental data.
McDonald, Scott Douglas
Aim/Purpose: Students face many challenges improving their soft skills such as critical thinking. This paper offers one possible solution to this problem. Background: This paper considers one method of enhancing critical thinking through a problem-solving game called the Coffee Shop. Problem-solving is a key component to critical thinking, and…
This paper examined the use of critical thinking and creativity in teacher education in Nigeria. It observed that the deficit in critical and creative thinking should be of concern to stakeholders in education. The paper examined the concepts of critical thinking and creativity, which were depicted as useful in teacher education ...
Kanbay, Yalçın; Okanlı, Ayşe
The aim of this study is to examine the effect of critical thinking education on nursing students' problem-solving skills. This study was conducted with 93 nursing students, 49 in the control group and 44 in the education group. The California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory and the Problem-solving Inventory were administered to them before and after 12 weeks of critical thinking education. The education group's mean critical thinking score was 253.61 on the pretest and 268.72 on the posttest. This increase was statistically significant (p skills of education group increased significantly (p critical thinking education improves problem-solving skills.
Duncan, Dennis W.; Birdsong, Victoria; Fuhrman, Nicholas; Borron, Abigail
At perhaps all levels of education, strong leadership skills are often equated with the ability to engage in critical thinking, and effective oral and written communication. The purpose of this study was to identify the self-perceived expansion of animal health interns' leadership, critical thinking and communication competencies using the…
Radeloff, Cheryl L.; Bergman, Barbara J.
Women's studies and feminist curricula have been lauded for the development and application of critical thinking skills for social and political change in its students (Fisher; Kellner and Share; Mayberry). Critical thinking can be defined as the ability to identify and challenge assumptions, to search for alternative ways of thinking, and to…
Ojewole, Foluso O.
The purpose of this quantitative research study was to identify the critical thinking dispositions of undergraduate nursing students and nursing faculty in Southwestern Nigeria. Critical thinking dispositions are required for critical thinking skills. People who have critical thinking disposition exhibit seven traits: truth-seeking,…
Critical thinking, viewed as rational and analytic thinking, is crucial for participation in a knowledge economy and society. This article provides a brief presentation of the importance of teaching critical thinking in a knowledge economy; suggests a conceptual model for teaching thinking; examines research on the historical role of teachers in…
Rochmad; Agoestanto, A.; Kharis, M.
Critical and creative thinking give important role in learning matematics for mathematics education students. This research to explored the characteristic of critical and creative thinking of students of mathematics study program in mathematics department. Critical thinking and creative thinking can be illustrated as two sides of a coin, which one is associated to the other. In elementary linear algebra courses, however, critical thinking can be seen as a foundation to build students’ creative thinking.
The purpose of this research was to examine the effectiveness of the dialectical journal as a tool for teaching critical thinking skills, and to assess middle school teachers' perception of critical thinking. Two groups of middle school students were split into one control and one experimental group. Both groups took a critical thinking test…
Whitney, Eli M; Aleksejuniene, Jolanta; Walton, Joanne N
Critical thinking is a key element of complex problem-solving and professional behavior. An ideal critical thinking measurement instrument would be able to accurately predict which dental students are predisposed to and capable of thinking critically and applying such thinking skills to clinical situations. The aims of this study were to describe critical thinking disposition and skills in dental students at the beginning and end of their first year, examine cohort and gender effects, and compare their critical thinking test scores to their first-year grades. Volunteers from three student cohorts at the University of British Columbia were tested using the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory and California Critical Thinking Skills instruments at the beginning and end of their first year. Based on the preliminary findings, one cohort was retested at graduation when their final-year grades and clinical advisor rankings were compared to their critical thinking test scores. The results showed that students who entered dental school with higher critical thinking scores tended to complete their first year with higher critical thinking scores, achieve higher grades, and show greater disposition to think critically at the start of the program. Students who demonstrated an ability to think critically and had a disposition to do so at the start of the program were also likely to demonstrate those same attributes at the completion of their training. High critical thinking scores were associated with success in both didactic and clinical settings in dental school.
A lot of resources are spent on the development of new staff in the intensive care unit (ICU). These resources are necessary because the environment in the ICU is complex and the patients are critically ill. Nurses need an advanced knowledge base, the ability to accurately define and change priorities rapidly, good communication and teamwork skills, and the ability to work in a stressful environment in order to succeed and give their patients quality care. Critical thinking helps the nurse to navigate the complex and stressful environment of the ICU. Critical thinking includes more than just nursing knowledge. It includes the ability to think through complex, multifaceted problems to anticipate needs, recognize potential and actual complications, and to expertly communicate with the team. A nurse who is able to think critically will give better patient care. Various strategies can be used to develop critical thinking in ICU nurses. Nurse leaders are encouraged to support the development of critical-thinking skills in less experienced staff with the goal of improving the nurse's ability to work in the ICU and improving patient outcomes.
The results of study showed that there was a significantly positive correlation between Mentoring and Critical thinking disposition among faculty members. The findings showed that 67% of variance of critical thinking disposition was defined by predictive variables. The faculty members evaluated themselves in all mentoring ...
Samson, Patricia L.
In a meta-analytic review of critical thinking in social work education, findings revealed variability in research designs, methods, and subsequent findings. The 10 studies reviewed assessed different components of critical thinking and highlighted different potential moderator variables. Although there are significant limitations to all the…
Simulated learning experiences using high-fidelity human patient simulators (HPS) are increasingly being integrated into baccalaureate nursing programs. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine relationships among learning style, critical thinking disposition, critical thinking, and clinical judgment during high-fidelity human patient…
Heijltjes, Anita; van Gog, Tamara; Leppink, Jimmie; Paas, Fred
This experiment investigated the impact of critical thinking dispositions and instructions on economics students' performance on reasoning skills. Participants (. N=. 183) were exposed to one of four conditions: critical thinking instruction, critical thinking instruction with self-explanation
Saputri, A. C.; Sajidan; Rinanto, Y.
Critical thinking is an important and necessary skill to confront the challenges of the 21st century. Critical thinking skills accommodate activities that can improve high-order thinking skills. This study aims to determine senior high school students' critical thinking skills in Biology learning. This research is descriptive research using instruments developed based on the core aspects of critical thinking skills according to Facione which include interpretation, analysis, evaluation, explanation, conclusion, and self-regulation. The subjects in this study were 297 students in grade 12 of a senior high school in Surakarta selected through purposive sampling technique. The results of this study showed that the students' critical thinking skills on evaluation and self-regulation are in good criterion with 78% and 66% acquisition while 52% interpretation, 56% analysis, 52% conclusion and 42% explanation indicate sufficient criteria. The conclusion from this research is that critical thinking skill of the students still was in enough category, so that needed a way to enhance it on some indicators.
The purpose of this paper is to present some approaches to teaching critical thinking to college students for developing their Japanese academic writing skills. By examining the literature of critical thinking and writing, this paper shows the following. (1)How philosophy faculty can teach critical thinking skills to their own students the way they can improve their skills necessary for writing argumentative essays. (2)By what class and curriculum students' academic writing skills can be fost...
Speck, Angela; Ruzhitskaya, L.; Whittington, A. G.
Ability to think critically is a key ingredient to the scientific mindset. Students who take science courses may or may not be predisposed to critical thinking - the ability to evaluate information analytically. Regardless of their initial stages, students can significantly improve their critical thinking through learning and practicing their reasoning skills, critical assessments, conducting and reflecting on observations and experiments, building their questioning and communication skills, and through the use of other techniques. While, there are several of teaching methods that may help to improve critical thinking, there are only a few assessment instruments that can help in evaluating the efficacy of these methods. Critical thinking skills and improvement in those skills are notoriously difficult to measure. Assessments that are based on multiple-choice questions demonstrate students’ final decisions but not their thinking processes. In addition, during the course of studies students may develop subject-based critical thinking while not being able to extend the skills to the general critical thinking. As such, we wanted to design and conduct a study on efficacy of several teaching methods in which we would learn how students’ improve their thinking processes within a science discipline as well as in everyday life situations. We conducted a study among 20 astronomy, physics and geology majors-- both graduate and undergraduate students-- enrolled in our Solar System Science course (mostly seniors and early graduate students) at the University of Missouri. We used the Ennis-Weir Critical Thinking Essay test to assess students’ general critical thinking and, in addition, we implemented our own subject-based critical thinking assessment. Here, we present the results of this study and share our experience on designing a subject-based critical thinking assessment instrument.
The aim of this study was to evaluate and determine the critical thinking and reflective thinking skills of science teacher candidates. The study was performed with the participation of 30 teacher candidates enrolled in the science teaching department of a university in Turkey. Scales administered during the study included the California Critical…
Secondly, a significant correlation was found between political knowledge and critical thinking abilities in a political context. This implied that critical thinking ability varied directly with the amount of knowledge of the subject required by the problem. Thirdly, the results of the research indicated that gender and environment ...
Su, Hui Fang Huang; Ricci, Frederick A.; Mnatsakanian, Mamikon
A teacher that emphasizes reasoning, logic and validity gives their students access to mathematics as an effective way of practicing critical thinking. All students have the ability to enhance and expand their critical thinking when learning mathematics. Students can develop this ability when confronting mathematical problems, identifying possible…
Notgarnie, Howard M.
The complexity of decision-making in dental hygienists' practice requires critical thinking skills. Interest in raising educational standards for entry into the dental hygiene profession is a response to the demand for enhanced professional skills, including critical thinking skills. No studies found in the course of literature review compared…
Full Text Available Critical thinking skill is the priority in the goals of education. In this case, the critical thinking has the higher process, such as analyzing, synthesizing, evaluating, drawing conclusion and reflecting which enables the individual to make the reasonable assessment both in the classroom and in the daily life. This research is aimed to determine the students’ critical thinking skill in learning Chemistry at senior high school. This research used descriptive method in which the instruments were developed based on the indicators of critical thinking skill. The population of this research was 100 students of tenth, eleventh and twelfth grade from senior high schools in Surakarta which was chosen using cluster random sampling technique. The result of the research shows that the students of tenth, eleventh and twelfth grade have adequate critical thinking skills.
Puspita, I.; Kaniawati, I.; Suwarma, I. R.
This study aimed to know the critical thinking skills profil of senior high school students. This research using a descriptive study to analysis student test results of critical thinking skill of 40 students XI grade in one of the senior high school in Bogor District. The method used is survey research with sample determined by purposive sampling technique. The instrument used is test of critical thinking skill by 5 indicators on static fluid topics. Questions consist of 11 set. It is has been developed by researcher and validated by experts. The results showed students critical thinking skills are still low. Is almost every indicator of critical thinking skills only reaches less than 30%. 28% for elementary clarification, 10% for the basic for decisions/basic support, 6% for inference, 6% for advanced clarification, 4% for strategies and tactics.
Carter, Amanda G; Creedy, Debra K; Sidebotham, Mary
develop and test a tool designed for use by academics to evaluate pre-registration midwifery students' critical thinking skills in reflective writing. a descriptive cohort design was used. a random sample (n = 100) of archived student reflective writings based on a clinical event or experience during 2014 and 2015. a staged model for tool development was used to develop a fifteen item scale involving item generation; mapping of draft items to critical thinking concepts and expert review to test content validity; inter-rater reliability testing; pilot testing of the tool on 100 reflective writings; and psychometric testing. Item scores were analysed for mean, range and standard deviation. Internal reliability, content and construct validity were assessed. expert review of the tool revealed a high content validity index score of 0.98. Using two independent raters to establish inter-rater reliability, good absolute agreement of 72% was achieved with a Kappa coefficient K = 0.43 (pcritical thinking in reflective writing. Validation with large diverse samples is warranted. reflective practice is a key learning and teaching strategy in undergraduate Bachelor of Midwifery programmes and essential for safe, competent practice. There is the potential to enhance critical thinking development by assessingreflective writing with the CACTiM (reflection) tool to provide formative and summative feedback to students and inform teaching strategies. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
This study measured the change in critical thinking skills of dental students educated in a problem-based learning (PBL) pedagogical method. The quantitative analysis was focused on measuring students' critical thinking skills achievement from their first through third years of dental education at the University of Southern California. This non-experimental evaluation was based on a volunteer sample of ninety-eight dental students who completed a demographics/academic questionnaire and a psychometric assessment known as the Health Sciences Reasoning Test (HSRT). The HSRT produced the overall critical thinking skills score. Additionally, the HSRT generated five subscale scores: analysis, inference, evaluation, deductive reasoning, and inductive reasoning. The results of this study concluded that the students showed no continuous and significant incremental improvement in their overall critical thinking skills score achievement during their PBL-based dental education. Except for the inductive reasoning score, this result was very consistent with the four subscale scores. Moreover, after performing the statistical adjustment on total score and subscale scores, no significant statistical differences were found among the three student groups. However, the results of this study found some aspects of critical thinking achievements that differed by categories of gender, race, English as first language, and education level.
Phillip A. Towndrow
Full Text Available Abstract This article considers a way of enacting critical thinking in the school curriculum. An alternative to adopting a formal framework of critical thinking which may not be exhaustive or include desirable components, involves working towards the generation of wisdom—defined as the quality of having the experience, knowledge and insight to think and act aptly in a specific context for a particular purpose—as a way for learners to make meanings that potentially have personal and social significance. The article uses a real-world example to illustrate how critical thinking can be driven by inquiry and underpinned by explanation to demonstrate practical knowledge and understanding in specific circumstances. Keywords: wisdom, critical thinking, curriculum, instruction, task design, classroom practice
Full Text Available Abstract: This paper develops four related claims: 1. Critical thinking should focus more on decision making, 2. the heuristics and bias literature developed by cognitive psychologists and behavioral economists provides many insights into human irrationality which can be useful in critical thinking instruction, 3. unfortunately the “rational choice” norms used by behavioral economists to identify “biased” decision making narrowly equate rational decision making with the efficient pursuit of individual satisfaction; deviations from these norms should not be treated as an irrational bias, 4. a richer, procedural theory of rational decision making should be the basis for critical thinking instruction in decision making.
The paper will present the relation between students’ beliefs and their behaviours observed in the process of learning critical thinking skills. In the first place some consideration concerning the fundamental epistemological concepts used in the research and about the particular critical thinking skills are to be sketched. Then the testing- learning procedure will be shortly summarized. Thirdly the evaluation of beliefs, their relations with knowledge and the associated behaviors are present...
Among the challenges faced by educators in promoting critical thinking is that of cultural compatibility. Using Singapore as an illustrative case study, this paper explores the cultural challenges and recommended strategies for the teaching of critical thinking in schools. The research for this study is based on a theoretical framework that…
The ability to cite reasons, to justify claims and give support to arguments is seen as primary characteristics of a critical thinker. This paper discusses how the "Elements of Reasoning" is employed with Socratic Questioning to develop critical thinking in the language classroom. The principles that guide the questioning are laid out…
Hager, Paul; Sleet, Ray; Logan, Peter; Hooper, Mal
Explains the design and evaluation of a project aimed at fostering the critical thinking abilities and dispositions of first year students at an Australian university. Most of the tasks relate to applications of chemistry and physics in everyday life. Many students revealed that their thinking skills were enhanced by their experience in attempting…
Brodin, Eva M.
Critical and creative thinking constitute important learning outcomes at doctoral level across the world. While the literature on doctoral education illuminates this matter through the lens of experienced senior researchers, the doctoral students' own perspective is missing. Based upon interviews with 14 doctoral students from four disciplines at…
Raymond, Christy; Profetto-McGrath, Joanne; Myrick, Florence; Strean, William B
Critical thinking is an important indicator of student learning and is an essential outcome of baccalaureate nursing education. The role of nurse educators in the development of students' critical thinking has been overlooked despite the importance of their actions to facilitate critical thinking in nursing education. We used a constructivist grounded theory approach within a larger mixed methods triangulation study to explore how nurse educators revealed their critical thinking in practice. From the grounded theory approach, a model emerged from our research, outlining the important aspects of nurse educators' critical thinking and how it is revealed in the clinical setting. The important categories of this model include: a) fostering the student-educator relationship; b) role modeling critical thinking; c) mobilizing and operationalizing resources; as well as d) balancing factors that impact nurse educators' critical thinking. Our findings inform what is known about nurse educators' critical thinking and how it can be implemented in nurse educators' teaching practice. Given our findings, we offer recommendations for future nursing education practice and research, including the need to apply our findings in additional settings and further develop nurse educators' awareness of their own critical thinking. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Danczak, S. M.; Thompson, C. D.; Overton, T. L.
Good critical thinking is important to the development of students and a valued skill in commercial markets and wider society. There has been much discussion regarding the definition of critical thinking and how it is best taught in higher education. This discussion has generally occurred between philosophers, cognitive psychologists and education…
Uys, B Y; Meyer, S M
The purpose of this study was to investigate the methods of clinical accompaniment used by clinical facilitators in practice. The findings of the study also reflected facilitators' perceptions regarding critical thinking and the facilitation thereof. A quantitative research design was used. A literature study was conducted to identify the methods of accompaniment that facilitate critical thinking. Data was collected by means of a questionnaire developed for that purpose. Making a content-related validity judgment, and involving seven clinical facilitators in an academic institution, ensured the validity of the questionnaire. The results of the study indicated that various clinical methods of accompaniment were used. To a large extent, these methods correlated with those discussed in the literature review. The researcher further concluded that the concepts 'critical thinking' and 'facilitation' were not interpreted correctly by the respondents, and would therefore not be implemented in a proper manner in nursing practice. Furthermore, it seemed evident that tutor-driven learning realised more often than student-driven learning. In this regard, the requirement of outcomes-based education was not satisfied. The researcher is therefore of the opinion that a practical programme for the development of critical thinking skills during clinical accompaniment must be developed within the framework of outcomes-based education.
BY Uys; SM Meyer
The purpose of this study was to investigate the methods of clinical accompaniment used by clinical facilitators in practice. The findings of the study also reflected facilitators’ perceptions regarding critical thinking and the facilitation thereof. A quantitative research design was used. A literature study was conducted to identify the methods of accompaniment that facilitate critical thinking. Data was collected by means of a questionnaire developed for that purpose. Making a content-rela...
Wass, Rob; Harland, Tony; Mercer, Alison
This paper explores student experiences of learning to think critically. Twenty-six zoology undergraduates took part in the study for three years of their degree at the University of Otago, New Zealand. Vygotsky's developmental model of the Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) provided a framework as we examined how critical thinking was developed.…
Anit Pranita Devi
Full Text Available This study investigates how cooperative learning facilitates students in learning critical thinking in reading and to find out the benefits and challenges during the implementation of cooperative learning in one vocational school in Cimahi. A case study is utilized by using instruments of classroom observations, questionnaires, semi structured interview and students’ written tests. The findings show that the implementation of cooperative learning facilitates students develop their critical thinking and enhance critical thinking dispositions in reading. Three features which contribute to the development of students’ critical thinking in reading are: the encouragement of student-student interaction; the provision of group purposes; and the provision of stimulus to the students’ development of thought and ideas. The aforementioned features promote benefits which involved higher motivation and involvement, increased opportunity for language use, and developed interpersonal relationship. Nevertheless, these benefits are constrained by the availability of time, students’ English proficiency, and students’ contribution to the groupwork. It is recommended that further researchers conduct the similar study in a longer period to make sure that the key elements of cooperative learning are well-structured.
The daily routine requires complex thinking processes of nurses, but clinical decision making and critical thinking are underestimated in nursing. A great demand for educational measures in clinical judgement related with the diagnostic process was found in nurses. The German literature hardly describes nursing diagnoses as clinical judgements about human reactions on health problems / life processes. Critical thinking is described as an intellectual, disciplined process of active conceptualisation, application and synthesis of information. It is gained through observation, experience, reflection and communication and leads thinking and action. Critical thinking influences the aspects of clinical decision making a) diagnostic judgement, b) therapeutic reasoning and c) ethical decision making. Human reactions are complex processes and in their course, human behavior is interpreted in the focus of health. Therefore, more attention should be given to the nursing diagnostic process. This article presents the theoretical framework of the paper "Clinical decision making: Fostering critical thinking in the nursing diagnostic process through case studies".
Toppin, Ian N.; Chitsonga, Shadreck
The QEP that was implemented in this study focused on enhancing students' critical thinking skills. A pretest/posttest approach was used to assess students' critical thinking progress in freshman level core English and Math courses. An intervention was performed involving intensive instruction and assignments relating to a set of reasoning…
Zuriguel-Pérez, Esperanza; Falcó-Pegueroles, Anna; Roldán-Merino, Juan; Agustino-Rodriguez, Sandra; Gómez-Martín, Maria Del Carmen; Lluch-Canut, Maria Teresa
A complex healthcare environment, with greater need for care based on the patient and evidence-based practice, are factors that have contributed to the increased need for critical thinking in professional competence. At the theoretical level, Alfaro-LeFevre () put forward a model of critical thinking made up of four components. And although these explain the construct, instruments for their empirical measurement are lacking. The purpose of the study was to develop and validate the psychometric properties of an instrument, the Nursing Critical Thinking in Clinical Practice Questionnaire (N-CT-4 Practice), designed to evaluate the critical thinking abilities of nurses in the clinical setting. A cross-sectional survey design was used. A pool of items was generated for evaluation by a panel of experts who considered their validity for the new instrument, which was finally made up of 109 items. Following this, validation was carried out using a sample of 339 nurses at a hospital in Barcelona, Spain. Reliability was determined by means of internal consistency and test-retest stability over time, although the validity of the construct was assessed by means of confirmatory factor analysis. The content validity index of the N-CT-4 Practice was .85. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the whole instrument was .96. The intraclass correlation coefficient was .77. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the instrument was in line with the four-dimensional model proposed by Alfaro-LeFevre (). The psychometric properties of theN-CT-4 Practice uphold its potential for use in measuring critical thinking and in future research related with the examination of critical thinking. © 2017 The Authors Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Sigma Theta Tau International The Honor Society of Nursing.
Nippold, Marilyn A; Frantz-Kaspar, Megan W; Cramond, Paige M; Kirk, Cecilia; Hayward-Mayhew, Christine; MacKinnon, Melanie
This study was designed primarily to determine if a critical-thinking task involving fables would elicit greater syntactic complexity than a conversational task in adolescents. Another purpose was to determine how well adolescents understand critical-thinking questions about fables. Forty adolescents (N=20 boys and 20 girls; mean age=14 years) with typical language development answered critical-thinking questions about the deeper meanings of fables. They also participated in a standard conversational task. The syntactic complexity of their responses during the speaking tasks was analyzed for mean length of communication unit (MLCU) and clausal density (CD). Both measures of syntactic complexity, MLCU and CD, were substantially greater during the critical-thinking task compared with the conversational task. It was also found that the adolescents understood the questions quite well, earning a mean accuracy score of 80%. The critical-thinking task has potential for use as a new type of language-sampling tool to examine language production and comprehension in adolescents.
Moattari, Marzieh; Soleimani, Sara; Moghaddam, Neda Jamali; Mehbodi, Farkhondeh
Background: Enhancing nursing students’ critical thinking is a challenge faced by nurse educators. This study aimed at determining the effect of clinical concept mapping on discipline-based critical thinking of nursing students. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental post-test only design, a convenient sample of 4th year nursing students (N = 32) participated. They were randomly divided into two groups. The experimental group participated in a 1-day workshop on clinical concept mapping. They were also assigned to use at least two clinical concepts mapping during their clinical practice. Post-test was done using a specially designed package consisting of vignettes for measurement of 17 dimensions of critical thinking in nursing under two categories of cognitive critical thinking skills and habits of mind. They were required to write about how they would use a designated critical thinking skills or habits of mind to accomplish the nursing actions. The students’ responses were evaluated based on identification of critical thinking, justification, and quality of the student's response. The mean score of both groups was compared by Mann-Whitney test using SPSS version 16.5. Results: The results of the study revealed a significant difference between the two groups’ critical thinking regarding identification, justification, and quality of responses, and overall critical thinking scores, cognitive thinking skills, and habits of mind. The two groups also differed significantly from each other in 11 out of 17 dimensions of critical thinking. Conclusion: Clinical concept mapping is a valuable strategy for improvement of critical thinking of nursing students. However, further studies are recommended to generalize this result to nursing students in their earlier stage of education. PMID:24554963
Moattari, Marzieh; Soleimani, Sara; Moghaddam, Neda Jamali; Mehbodi, Farkhondeh
Enhancing nursing students' critical thinking is a challenge faced by nurse educators. This study aimed at determining the effect of clinical concept mapping on discipline-based critical thinking of nursing students. In this quasi-experimental post-test only design, a convenient sample of 4(th) year nursing students (N = 32) participated. They were randomly divided into two groups. The experimental group participated in a 1-day workshop on clinical concept mapping. They were also assigned to use at least two clinical concepts mapping during their clinical practice. Post-test was done using a specially designed package consisting of vignettes for measurement of 17 dimensions of critical thinking in nursing under two categories of cognitive critical thinking skills and habits of mind. They were required to write about how they would use a designated critical thinking skills or habits of mind to accomplish the nursing actions. The students' responses were evaluated based on identification of critical thinking, justification, and quality of the student's response. The mean score of both groups was compared by Mann-Whitney test using SPSS version 16.5. The results of the study revealed a significant difference between the two groups' critical thinking regarding identification, justification, and quality of responses, and overall critical thinking scores, cognitive thinking skills, and habits of mind. The two groups also differed significantly from each other in 11 out of 17 dimensions of critical thinking. Clinical concept mapping is a valuable strategy for improvement of critical thinking of nursing students. However, further studies are recommended to generalize this result to nursing students in their earlier stage of education.
Students' high-level thinking skills, like critical thinking, have been developed thanks to the use of technology. When the previous researches in the literature are analyzed, it will be understood that this research is original by providing significant contributions to the literature. This research aims to investigate whether techno-pedagogical…
Quitadamo, Ian J.; Kurtz, Martha J.; Cornell, Caitlyn Nicole; Griffith, Lindsay; Hancock, Julie; Egbert, Brandi
Chemistry students appear to bring significantly higher critical-thinking skill to their nonmajors course than do biology students. Knowing student preconceptions and thinking ability is essential to learning growth and effective teaching. Of the factors investigated, ethnicity and high school physics had the largest impact on critical-thinking…
GHAZIVAKILI, ZOHRE; NOROUZI NIA, ROOHANGIZ; PANAHI, FARIDE; KARIMI, MEHRDAD; GHOLSORKHI, HAYEDE; AHMADI, ZARRIN
Introduction: The Current world needs people who have a lot of different abilities such as cognition and application of different ways of thinking, research, problem solving, critical thinking skills and creativity. In addition to critical thinking, learning styles is another key factor which has an essential role in the process of problem solving. This study aimed to determine the relationship between learning styles and critical thinking of students and their academic performance in Alborz University of Medical Science. Methods: This cross-correlation study was performed in 2012, on 216 students of Alborz University who were selected randomly by the stratified random sampling. The data was obtained via a three-part questionnaire included demographic data, Kolb standardized questionnaire of learning style and California critical thinking standardized questionnaire. The academic performance of the students was extracted by the school records. The validity of the instruments was determined in terms of content validity, and the reliability was gained through internal consistency methods. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was found to be 0.78 for the California critical thinking questionnaire. The Chi Square test, Independent t-test, one way ANOVA and Pearson correlation test were used to determine relationship between variables. The Package SPSS14 statistical software was used to analyze data with a significant level of pcritical thinking of the students showed that the mean of deductive reasoning and evaluation skills were higher than that of other skills and analytical skills had the lowest mean and there was a positive significant relationship between the students’ performance with inferential skill and the total score of critical thinking skills (pcritical thinking had significant difference between different learning styles. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the learning styles, critical thinking and academic performance are significantly associated
Sanchez, Bernice; Lewis, Katie D.
Teacher Preparation Programs must work towards not only preparing preservice teachers to have knowledge of classroom pedagogy but also must expand preservice teachers understanding of content knowledge as well as to develop higher-order thinking which includes thinking critically. This mixed methods study examined how writing shapes thinking and…
Osman, Sharifah; Mohammad, Shahrin; Abu, Mohd Salleh
Mathematics and engineering are inexorably and significantly linked and essentially required in analyzing and accessing thought to make good judgment when dealing in complex and varied engineering problems. A study in the current engineering education curriculum to explore how the critical thinking and mathematical thinking relates to one another, is therefore timely crucial. Unfortunately, there is not much information available explicating about the link. This paper aims to report findings of a critical review as well as to provide brief description of an on-going research aimed to investigate the dispositions of critical thinking and the relationship and integration between critical thinking and mathematical thinking during the execution of civil engineering tasks. The first part of the paper reports an in-depth review on these matters based on rather limited resources. The review showed a considerable form of congruency between these two perspectives of thinking, with some prevalent trends of engineering workplace tasks, problems and challenges. The second part describes an on-going research to be conducted by the researcher to investigate rigorously the relationship and integration between these two types of thinking within the perspective of civil engineering tasks. A reasonably close non-participant observations and semi-structured interviews will be executed for the pilot and main stages of the study. The data will be analyzed using constant comparative analysis in which the grounded theory methodology will be adopted. The findings will serve as a useful grounding for constructing a substantive theory revealing the integral relationship between critical thinking and mathematical thinking in the real civil engineering practice context. The substantive theory, from an angle of view, is expected to contribute some additional useful information to the engineering program outcomes and engineering education instructions, aligns with the expectations of
Don Johnson, PhD
Full Text Available Background: Very little prospective randomized experimental research exists on the use of simulation as a teaching method, and no studies have compared the two strategies of using the HPS and a CD-ROM. In addition, no researchers have investigated the effects of simulation on various levels of cognition, specifically lower-level and higher-level cognition or critical thinking.Objectives: A prospective pretest-posttest experimental mixed design (within and between was used to determine if there were statistically significant differences in HPS and CD-ROM educational strategies in lower-level, higher-level cognition and critical thinking.Results: A repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (RMANOVA with LSD post-hoc tests were used to analyze the data. There were no significant differences between the HPS and CD-ROM groups on lower-level cognition scores. The HPS group did significantly better than the CD-ROM group on higher-level cognition and critical thinking scores.Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the choice of teaching strategies for lower-level cognition does not make a statistically significant difference in outcome. However, the HPS is superior to using CD-ROM and should be considered as the choice in teaching.
Mary Shriner, MLS
Full Text Available An overwhelming number of books and full-text articles on various databases are available that suggest ways to teach critical thinking. Most educators agree that this skill is becoming increasingly important as classes become more diversified and the curriculum becomes more global. An institution’s library is an often-overlooked faculty development resource; this article offers relevant articles on critical thinking from the many databases available through Park University's McAfee Memorial Library.
Salsali, Mahvash; Tajvidi, Mansooreh; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad
Critical thinking disposition represents an inclination of a person to use possessed skills in relation to critical thinking. The trend of critical thinking has been described as inner motivation to solve problems and make decisions by thinking. In nursing as a practical profession, the concept of critical thinking dispositions is important component in helping to manage complex health situations and to deal with patient issues effectively. Willingness to think critically is a prerequisite for safe and subtly performance. The results of studies show critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian countries are different from non-Asian countries. Aim of this literature review was to compare critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian and non-Asian countries. Literature review was done in English and Persian databases. The results showed of the 795 articles published in English and Persian language that studied critical thinking, 73 ones studied critical thinking skills and dispositions in nursing education, and relationship between teaching methods and critical thinking skills and dispositions in nursing education of different countries. Fifteen of seventy three articles assessed critical thinking dispositions in nursing students. Limited studies showed that the Asian nursing students had mostly undermining score of the critical thinking dispositions, while non-Asian countries tend to positive scores. The reasons for these differences could be due to issues such as environmental, educational methods and cultural differences. However, future studies should measure critical thinking disposition by discipline-based tools.
Salsali, Mahvash; Tajvidi, Mansooreh; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad
Critical thinking disposition represents an inclination of a person to use possessed skills in relation to critical thinking. The trend of critical thinking has been described as inner motivation to solve problems and make decisions by thinking. In nursing as a practical profession, the concept of critical thinking dispositions is important component in helping to manage complex health situations and to deal with patient issues effectively. Willingness to think critically is a prerequisite for safe and subtly performance. The results of studies show critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian countries are different from non-Asian countries. Aim of this literature review was to compare critical thinking dispositions of nursing students in Asian and non-Asian countries. Literature review was done in English and Persian databases. The results showed of the 795 articles published in English and Persian language that studied critical thinking, 73 ones studied critical thinking skills and dispositions in nursing education, and relationship between teaching methods and critical thinking skills and dispositions in nursing education of different countries. Fifteen of seventy three articles assessed critical thinking dispositions in nursing students. Limited studies showed that the Asian nursing students had mostly undermining score of the critical thinking dispositions, while non-Asian countries tend to positive scores. The reasons for these differences could be due to issues such as environmental, educational methods and cultural differences. However, future studies should measure critical thinking disposition by discipline-based tools. PMID:24171885
This paper presents one method for educating for critical thinking in Higher Education. It elaborates Richard Paul's method of Socratic questioning to show how students can learn to be critical thinkers. This method combines and uses the wider pedagogical and critical thinking literature in a new way: it emphasises a thinking-encouraging approach…
Ghazivakili, Zohre; Norouzi Nia, Roohangiz; Panahi, Faride; Karimi, Mehrdad; Gholsorkhi, Hayede; Ahmadi, Zarrin
The Current world needs people who have a lot of different abilities such as cognition and application of different ways of thinking, research, problem solving, critical thinking skills and creativity. In addition to critical thinking, learning styles is another key factor which has an essential role in the process of problem solving. This study aimed to determine the relationship between learning styles and critical thinking of students and their academic performance in Alborz University of Medical Science. This cross-correlation study was performed in 2012, on 216 students of Alborz University who were selected randomly by the stratified random sampling. The data was obtained via a three-part questionnaire included demographic data, Kolb standardized questionnaire of learning style and California critical thinking standardized questionnaire. The academic performance of the students was extracted by the school records. The validity of the instruments was determined in terms of content validity, and the reliability was gained through internal consistency methods. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was found to be 0.78 for the California critical thinking questionnaire. The Chi Square test, Independent t-test, one way ANOVA and Pearson correlation test were used to determine relationship between variables. The Package SPSS14 statistical software was used to analyze data with a significant level of pstudents with convergent learning style have better performance than other groups. Also learning style had a relationship with age, gender, field of study, semester and job. The results about the critical thinking of the students showed that the mean of deductive reasoning and evaluation skills were higher than that of other skills and analytical skills had the lowest mean and there was a positive significant relationship between the students' performance with inferential skill and the total score of critical thinking skills (pskills and deductive reasoning had significant
Many American students leave school without the required 21st century critical thinking skills. This qualitative case study, based on the theoretical concepts of Facione, Arheim, and Vygotsky, explored the development of thinking dispositions through the arts in science on the development of scientific thinking skills when used as a conceptual thinking routine in a rural 3rd grade classroom. Research questions examined the disposition to think critically through the arts in science and focused on the perceptions and experiences of 25 students with the Visual Thinking Strategy (VTS) process. Data were collected from classroom observations (n = 10), student interviews (n = 25), teacher interviews ( n = 1), a focus group discussion (n = 3), and artifacts of student work (n = 25); these data included perceptions of VTS, school culture, and classroom characteristics. An inductive analysis of qualitative data resulted in several emergent themes regarding disposition development and students generating questions while increasing affective motivation. The most prevalent dispositions were open-mindedness, the truth-seeking disposition, the analytical disposition, and the systematicity disposition. The findings about the teachers indicated that VTS questions in science supported "gradual release of responsibility", the internalization of process skills and vocabulary, and argumentation. This case study offers descriptive research that links visual arts inquiry and the development of critical thinking dispositions in science at the elementary level. A science curriculum could be developed, that emphasizes the development of thinking dispositions through the arts in science, which in turn, could impact the professional development of teachers and learning outcomes for students.
Snyder, Julia J.; Wiles, Jason R.
This study evaluated hypothesized effects of the Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL) instructional model on undergraduate peer leaders’ critical thinking skills. This investigation also explored peer leaders’ perceptions of their critical thinking skills. A quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test with control group design was used to determine critical thinking gains in PLTL/non-PLTL groups. Critical thinking was assessed using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) among participants who had previously completed and been successful in a mixed-majors introductory biology course at a large, private research university in the American Northeast. Qualitative data from open-ended questionnaires confirmed that factors thought to improve critical thinking skills such as interaction with peers, problem solving, and discussion were perceived by participants to have an impact on critical thinking gains. However, no significant quantitative differences in peer leaders’ critical thinking skills were found between pre- and post-experience CCTST measurements or between experimental and control groups. PMID:25629311
Julia J Snyder
Full Text Available This study evaluated hypothesized effects of the Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL instructional model on undergraduate peer leaders' critical thinking skills. This investigation also explored peer leaders' perceptions of their critical thinking skills. A quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test with control group design was used to determine critical thinking gains in PLTL/non-PLTL groups. Critical thinking was assessed using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST among participants who had previously completed and been successful in a mixed-majors introductory biology course at a large, private research university in the American Northeast. Qualitative data from open-ended questionnaires confirmed that factors thought to improve critical thinking skills such as interaction with peers, problem solving, and discussion were perceived by participants to have an impact on critical thinking gains. However, no significant quantitative differences in peer leaders' critical thinking skills were found between pre- and post-experience CCTST measurements or between experimental and control groups.
Snyder, Julia J; Wiles, Jason R
This study evaluated hypothesized effects of the Peer-Led Team Learning (PLTL) instructional model on undergraduate peer leaders' critical thinking skills. This investigation also explored peer leaders' perceptions of their critical thinking skills. A quasi-experimental pre-test/post-test with control group design was used to determine critical thinking gains in PLTL/non-PLTL groups. Critical thinking was assessed using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) among participants who had previously completed and been successful in a mixed-majors introductory biology course at a large, private research university in the American Northeast. Qualitative data from open-ended questionnaires confirmed that factors thought to improve critical thinking skills such as interaction with peers, problem solving, and discussion were perceived by participants to have an impact on critical thinking gains. However, no significant quantitative differences in peer leaders' critical thinking skills were found between pre- and post-experience CCTST measurements or between experimental and control groups.
Tallent, Rebecca J.; Barnes, Justin J.
Critical thinking skills are crucial in the public relations profession, but teaching these skills to the Millennial Generation is vastly different from previous generations. How can a professor get past No Child Left Behind's dependence on test review guides and "everybody wins" in getting students to think for themselves? Using the…
Appropriate and effective critical thinking and problem solving is necessary for all nurses in order to make complex decisions that improve patient outcomes, safety, and quality of nursing care. With the current emphasis on quality improvement, critical thinking ability is a noteworthy concern within the nursing profession. An in-depth review of literature related to critical thinking was performed. The use of nursing care plans and concept mapping to improve critical thinking skills was among the recommendations identified. This study compares the use of nursing care plans and concept mapping as a teaching strategy for the enhancement of critical thinking skills in baccalaureate level nursing students. The California Critical Thinking Skills Test was used as a method of comparison and evaluation. Results indicate that concept mapping enhances critical thinking skills in baccalaureate nursing students.
Kristianti, Y.; Prabawanto, S.; Suhendra, S.
This study aims to examine the ability of critical thinking and students who attain learning mathematics with learning model ASSURE assisted Autograph software. The design of this study was experimental group with pre-test and post-test control group. The experimental group obtained a mathematics learning with ASSURE-assisted model Autograph software and the control group acquired the mathematics learning with the conventional model. The data are obtained from the research results through critical thinking skills tests. This research was conducted at junior high school level with research population in one of junior high school student in Subang Regency of Lesson Year 2016/2017 and research sample of class VIII student in one of junior high school in Subang Regency for 2 classes. Analysis of research data is administered quantitatively. Quantitative data analysis was performed on the normalized gain level between the two sample groups using a one-way anova test. The results show that mathematics learning with ASSURE assisted model Autograph software can improve the critical thinking ability of junior high school students. Mathematical learning using ASSURE-assisted model Autograph software is significantly better in improving the critical thinking skills of junior high school students compared with conventional models.
Scott D McDonald
Aim/Purpose: Students face many challenges improving their soft skills such as critical thinking. This paper offers one possible solution to this problem. Background: This paper considers one method of enhancing critical thinking through a problem-solving game called the Coffee Shop. Problem-solving is a key component to critical thinking, and game-playing is one method of enhancing this through an interactive teaching method. Methodology: Three classes of Vietnamese high school stude...
Bittner, Nancy Phoenix; Gravlin, Gayle
The aim of this study was to understand how nurses use critical thinking to delegate nursing care. Nurses must synthesize large amounts of information and think through complex and often emergent clinical situations when making critical decisions about patient care, including delegation. A qualitative, descriptive study was used in this article. Before delegating, nurses reported considering patient condition, competency, experience, and workload of unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP). Nurses expected UAP to report significant findings and have higher level knowledge, including assessment and prioritizing skills. Successful delegation was dependent on the relationship between the RN and the UAP, communication, system support, and nursing leadership. Nurses reported frequent instances of missed or omitted routine care. Findings from this project provide insight into factors that influence delegation effectiveness. These can guide CNOs and frontline nurse leaders to focus on implementing strategies to mitigate the consequence of missed care. Ineffective delegation of basic nursing care can result in poor patient outcomes, potentially impacting quality measures, satisfaction, and reimbursement for the institution.
Porter, Rebecca Jean
Critical thinking is a required curricular outcome for nursing education; however, the literature shows a gap related to valid and reliable tools to measure critical thinking specific to nursing and relating that critical thinking measurement to meaningful outcomes. This study examined critical thinking scores, as measured by Assessment…
Petrini, Marcia, A; Kawashima, Asako
A comparison of crirical thinking skills of baccalaureate nursing students in Japan, Chine and Samoa was conducted to measure and compare the critical thinking abilities of nursing students based on the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory
Jacob, Elisabeth; Duffield, Christine; Jacob, Darren
The aim of this study was to develop an assessment tool to measure the critical thinking ability of nurses. As an increasing number of complex patients are admitted to hospitals, the importance of nurses recognizing changes in health status and picking up on deterioration is more important. To detect early signs of complication requires critical thinking skills. Registered Nurses are expected to commence their clinical careers with the necessary critical thinking skills to ensure safe nursing practice. Currently, there is no published tool to assess critical thinking skills which is context specific to Australian nurses. A modified Delphi study will be used for the project. This study will develop a series of unfolding case scenarios using national health data with multiple-choice questions to assess critical thinking. Face validity of the scenarios will be determined by an expert reference group of clinical and academic nurses. A Delphi study will determine the answers to scenario questions. Panel members will be expert clinicians and educators from two states in Australia. Rasch analysis of the questionnaire will assess validity and reliability of the tool. Funding for the study and Research Ethics Committee approval were obtained in March and November 2016, respectively. Patient outcomes and safety are directly linked to nurses' critical thinking skills. This study will develop an assessment tool to provide a standardized method of measuring nurses' critical thinking skills across Australia. This will provide healthcare providers with greater confidence in the critical thinking level of graduate Registered Nurses. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mun, Mi Suk
The development of students' critical thinking abilities is one of the greatest challenges facing contemporary nursing educators. Nursing educators should know about what kind of contents or situations need critical thinking. The research was undertaken to identify the critical thinking contexts that nursing students confront in psychiatric clinical practices. Students were asked to document their everyday experience. The narratives were analysed and interpreted from the philosophical notion of hermeneutics. Four themes emerged as critical thinking contexts: anxiety, conflict, hyper-awareness, dilemmas. Writing narratives appear to provide opportunities for reflection in addition to facilitating critical thinking and communicative skills in students. Also, for the instructor, students' clinical narratives could provide insight to understand how students are thinking and to share student's personal difficulties.
Emil C. Alcantara
Full Text Available The study aimed to assess the academic performance, critical thinking skills, and problem solving skills in mathematics of Grade-7 students in the five central public secondary schools of Area 2, Division of Batangas, Philippines. This study utilized descriptive method of research. Three hundred forty one (341 students of the public secondary schools out of the total of 2,324 Grade-7 students were selected through systematic random sampling as the subjects of the study. It was found out that the level of performance in Mathematics of the Grade-7 students is proficient. The level of critical thinking skills of students from the different schools is above average as well as their level of problem solving skills. The mathematics performance of the students is positively correlated to their level of critical thinking skills and problem solving skills. Students considered the following learning competencies in the different content areas of Grade-7 Mathematics as difficult to master: solving problems involving sets, describing the development of measurement from the primitive to the present international system of units, finding a solution of an equation or inequality involving one variable, using compass and straightedge to bisect line segments and angles, and analyzing, interpreting accurately and drawing conclusions from graphic and tabular presentations of statistical data.
This study describes the cross-cultural applicability of a multidimensional inventory of students' evaluation of critical thinking dispositions (California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory). The goal was to assess the cross-cultural psychometric equivalency of the CCTDI through testing measurement invariance across American and Turkish…
Miele, David B.; Wigfield, Allan
The authors examine two kinds of factors that affect students' motivation to engage in critical-analytic thinking. The first, which includes ability beliefs, achievement values, and achievement goal orientations, influences the "quantitative" relation between motivation and critical-analytic thinking; that is, whether students are…
The present study assessed the associations among higher-order thinking skills (reflective thinking, critical thinking) and self-monitoring that contribute to academic achievement among university students. The sample consisted of 196 Iranian university students (mean age = 22.05, SD = 3.06; 112 females; 75 males) who were administered three…
Full Text Available An action research study was conducted among 24 Form 4 level Malaysian students, aged 16. The duration of the study was five months and constituted 16 one-hour literature lessons (short stories from the secondary level Malaysian English Language Upper Secondary Level school syllabus. This paper describes my experience as a teacher-as-researcher to assist students to respond to teacher questions through Paul’s (1993 model of Socratic Questioning which claims to develop students’ critical thinking. Data was collected through researcher’s field notes, students’ writing tasks and student interviews which were analysed after each cycle of the action research study. Changes and adaptations were consequently made based on the data collected and upon teacher reflection to improve practice. The results of this study indicate that repeated practice of Socratic Questioning had a positive effect on student responses and writing tasks. Some of the factors affecting students’ performance included students’ language proficiency, weak reading ability and students’ anxiety towards the questioning method. These issues had to be addressed and dealt with, before Socratic Questioning could be properly implemented in the classroom. Keywords: Socratic questioning, teacher questioning, critical thinking, action research
This paper critically examines the contemporary educational discourse on critical thinking as one of the primary aims of education, its modernist defence and its postmodernist criticism, so as to explore a new way of conceptualizing critical thinking for moral education. What is at stake in this task is finding a plausible answer to the question…
Zaidi, Nikki L Bibler; Grob, Karri L; Monrad, Seetha M; Kurtz, Joshua B; Tai, Andrew; Ahmed, Asra Z; Gruppen, Larry D; Santen, Sally A
Medical school assessments should foster the development of higher-order thinking skills to support clinical reasoning and a solid foundation of knowledge. Multiple-choice questions (MCQs) are commonly used to assess student learning, and well-written MCQs can support learner engagement in higher levels of cognitive reasoning such as application or synthesis of knowledge. Bloom's taxonomy has been used to identify MCQs that assess students' critical thinking skills, with evidence suggesting that higher-order MCQs support a deeper conceptual understanding of scientific process skills. Similarly, clinical practice also requires learners to develop higher-order thinking skills that include all of Bloom's levels. Faculty question writers and examinees may approach the same material differently based on varying levels of knowledge and expertise, and these differences can influence the cognitive levels being measured by MCQs. Consequently, faculty question writers may perceive that certain MCQs require higher-order thinking skills to process the question, whereas examinees may only need to employ lower-order thinking skills to render a correct response. Likewise, seemingly lower-order questions may actually require higher-order thinking skills to respond correctly. In this Perspective, the authors describe some of the cognitive processes examinees use to respond to MCQs. The authors propose that various factors affect both the question writer and examinee's interaction with test material and subsequent cognitive processes necessary to answer a question.
Stanger-Hall, Kathrin F.
Learning science requires higher-level (critical) thinking skills that need to be practiced in science classes. This study tested the effect of exam format on critical-thinking skills. Multiple-choice (MC) testing is common in introductory science courses, and students in these classes tend to associate memorization with MC questions and may not see the need to modify their study strategies for critical thinking, because the MC exam format has not changed. To test the effect of exam format, I used two sections of an introductory biology class. One section was assessed with exams in the traditional MC format, the other section was assessed with both MC and constructed-response (CR) questions. The mixed exam format was correlated with significantly more cognitively active study behaviors and a significantly better performance on the cumulative final exam (after accounting for grade point average and gender). There was also less gender-bias in the CR answers. This suggests that the MC-only exam format indeed hinders critical thinking in introductory science classes. Introducing CR questions encouraged students to learn more and to be better critical thinkers and reduced gender bias. However, student resistance increased as students adjusted their perceptions of their own critical-thinking abilities. PMID:22949426
Hung, Tsui-Mei; Tang, Lee-Chun; Ko, Chen-Ju
Critical thinking has been regarded as one of the most important elements for nurses to improve quality of patient care. The aim of this study was to use problem-based learning (PBL) as a method in a continuing education program to evaluate nurses' critical thinking skills. A quasiexperimental study design was carried out. The "Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory" in Chinese was used for data collection. The results indicated significant improvement after PBL continuous education, notably in the dimensions of systematic analysis and curiosity. Content analysis extracted four themes: (a) changes in linear thinking required, (b) logical and systematic thinking required performance improved, (3) integration of prior knowledge and clinical application, and (4) brainstorming learning strategy. The study supports PBL as a continuing education strategy for mental health nurses, and that systematic analysis and curiosity effectively facilitate the development of critical thinking.
Iván Alfonso Pinedo Cantillo
Full Text Available Human progress in general and personal development of students are indisputably linked to rigorous reflection processes, but a reflection that in education we qualify as critical and intentional. Educating with critical awareness is to educate to construct humanity through a specific intellectual orientation that makes us more free and authentic. In this context, we find critical thinking as a privileged pedagogical tool that seeks to promote the autonomy of thought and the implementation of new processes of humanization, understood as the continuous process that seeks to potentiate each and every human dimension. Thus, intentional reflection, critical thinking and humanization processes in the classroom are a pedagogical triangle that can power the noble task of educating citizens in the twenty-first century.
Chan, Zenobia C Y
Critical thinking is the ability to raise discriminating questions in an attempt to search for better ideas, a deeper understanding and better solutions relating to a given issue. This systematic review provides a summary of efforts that have been made to enhance and assess critical thinking in medical education. Nine databases [Ovid MEDLINE(R), AMED, Academic Search Premier, ERIC, CINAHL, Web of Science, JSTOR, SCOPUS and PsycINFO] were searched to identify journal articles published from the start of each database to October 2012. A total of 41 articles published from 1981 to 2012 were categorised into two main themes: (i) evaluation of current education on critical thinking and (ii) development of new strategies about critical thinking. Under each theme, the teaching strategies, assessment tools, uses of multimedia and stakeholders were analysed. While a majority of studies developed teaching strategies and multimedia tools, a further examination of their quality and variety could yield some insights. The articles on assessment placed a greater focus on learning outcomes than on learning processes. It is expected that more research will be conducted on teacher development and students' voices.
The problem-based learning (PBL) approach was implemented as a treatment for higher education visual arts students over one semester to examine its effect on the creative thinking and critical thinking disposition of these students. PBL had a significant effect on creative thinking, but critical thinking disposition was affected to a lesser…
Bushey, Dean E.
A documented shortage of technical leadership and top-tier performers in computer science jeopardizes the technological edge, security, and economic well-being of the nation. The 2005 President's Information and Technology Advisory Committee (PITAC) Report on competitiveness in computational sciences highlights the major impact of science, technology, and innovation in keeping America competitive in the global marketplace. It stresses the fact that the supply of science, technology, and engineering experts is at the core of America's technological edge, national competitiveness and security. However, recent data shows that both undergraduate and postgraduate production of computer scientists is falling. The decline is "a quiet crisis building in the United States," a crisis that, if allowed to continue unchecked, could endanger America's well-being and preeminence among the world's nations. Past research on expert performance has shown that the cognitive traits of critical thinking, creativity, and problem solving possessed by top-tier performers can be identified, observed and measured. The studies show that the identified attributes are applicable across many domains and disciplines. Companies have begun to realize that cognitive skills are important for high-level performance and are reevaluating the traditional academic standards they have used to predict success for their top-tier performers in computer science. Previous research in the computer science field has focused either on programming skills of its experts or has attempted to predict the academic success of students at the undergraduate level. This study, on the other hand, examines the critical-thinking skills found among experts in the computer science field in order to explore the questions, "What cognitive skills do outstanding performers possess that make them successful?" and "How do currently used measures of academic performance correlate to critical-thinking skills among students?" The results
Salsali, Mahvash; Tajvidi, Mansooreh; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad
Critical thinking disposition represents an inclination of a person to use possessed skills in relation to critical thinking. The trend of critical thinking has been described as inner motivation to solve problems and make decisions by thinking. In nursing as a practical profession, the concept of critical thinking dispositions is important component in helping to manage complex health situations and to deal with patient issues effectively. Willingness to think critically is a prerequisite fo...
Fero, Laura J.; O’Donnell, John M.; Zullo, Thomas G.; Dabbs, Annette DeVito; Kitutu, Julius; Samosky, Joseph T.; Hoffman, Leslie A.
Aim This paper is a report of an examination of the relationship between metrics of critical thinking skills and performance in simulated clinical scenarios. Background Paper and pencil assessments are commonly used to assess critical thinking but may not reflect simulated performance. Methods In 2007, a convenience sample of 36 nursing students participated in measurement of critical thinking skills and simulation-based performance using videotaped vignettes, high-fidelity human simulation, the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory and California Critical Thinking Skills Test. Simulation- based performance was rated as ‘meeting’ or ‘not meeting’ overall expectations. Test scores were categorized as strong, average, or weak. Results Most (75·0%) students did not meet overall performance expectations using videotaped vignettes or high-fidelity human simulation; most difficulty related to problem recognition and reporting findings to the physician. There was no difference between overall performance based on method of assessment (P = 0·277). More students met subcategory expectations for initiating nursing interventions (P ≤ 0·001) using high-fidelity human simulation. The relationship between video-taped vignette performance and critical thinking disposition or skills scores was not statistically significant, except for problem recognition and overall critical thinking skills scores (Cramer’s V = 0·444, P = 0·029). There was a statistically significant relationship between overall high-fidelity human simulation performance and overall critical thinking disposition scores (Cramer’s V = 0·413, P = 0·047). Conclusion Students’ performance reflected difficulty meeting expectations in simulated clinical scenarios. High-fidelity human simulation performance appeared to approximate scores on metrics of critical thinking best. Further research is needed to determine if simulation-based performance correlates with critical thinking skills
Fero, Laura J; O'Donnell, John M; Zullo, Thomas G; Dabbs, Annette DeVito; Kitutu, Julius; Samosky, Joseph T; Hoffman, Leslie A
This paper is a report of an examination of the relationship between metrics of critical thinking skills and performance in simulated clinical scenarios. Paper and pencil assessments are commonly used to assess critical thinking but may not reflect simulated performance. In 2007, a convenience sample of 36 nursing students participated in measurement of critical thinking skills and simulation-based performance using videotaped vignettes, high-fidelity human simulation, the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory and California Critical Thinking Skills Test. Simulation-based performance was rated as 'meeting' or 'not meeting' overall expectations. Test scores were categorized as strong, average, or weak. Most (75.0%) students did not meet overall performance expectations using videotaped vignettes or high-fidelity human simulation; most difficulty related to problem recognition and reporting findings to the physician. There was no difference between overall performance based on method of assessment (P = 0.277). More students met subcategory expectations for initiating nursing interventions (P ≤ 0.001) using high-fidelity human simulation. The relationship between videotaped vignette performance and critical thinking disposition or skills scores was not statistically significant, except for problem recognition and overall critical thinking skills scores (Cramer's V = 0.444, P = 0.029). There was a statistically significant relationship between overall high-fidelity human simulation performance and overall critical thinking disposition scores (Cramer's V = 0.413, P = 0.047). Students' performance reflected difficulty meeting expectations in simulated clinical scenarios. High-fidelity human simulation performance appeared to approximate scores on metrics of critical thinking best. Further research is needed to determine if simulation-based performance correlates with critical thinking skills in the clinical setting. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Advanced
Acharya, Kamal Prasad
This article examines the socio-cultural activities that have direct and indirect impacts on critical thinking practices in primary science classrooms and what kinds of teachers' activities help to foster the development of critical thinking practices in children. Meanwhile, the constructivist and the socio-cultural theoretical dimensions have…
Wallace, Elise D.; Jefferson, Renee N.
To address the challenge of developing critical thinking skills in college students, this empirical study examines the effectiveness of cognitive exercises in developing those skills. The study uses Critical Thinking: Building the Basics by Walter, Knudsvig, and Smith (2003). This workbook is specifically designed to exercise and develop critical…
Han, Heejeong Sophia; Brown, E. Todd
This study is based on an intervention designed to enhance early childhood teacher candidates' critical thinking abilities. The concept, elements, standards, and traits of critical thinking were integrated into the main course contents, and the effects of the intervention were examined. The results indicated that early childhood teacher…
Heinrich, William F.; Habron, Geoffrey B.; Johnson, Heather L.; Goralnik, Lissy
Today's complex societal problems require both critical thinking and an engaged citizenry. Current practices in higher education, such as service learning, suggest that experiential learning can serve as a vehicle to encourage students to become engaged citizens. However, critical thinking is not necessarily a part of every experiential learning…
Saglam, Aycan Çiçek; Çankaya, Ibrahim; Üçer, Hakan; Çetin, Muhammet
The concepts of information literacy and critical thinking are two important concepts of today's information and technology age closely related to each other and sometimes used interchangeably. The purpose of the current study is to explore the relationship between the secondary school teachers' critical thinking disposition and information…
Robertson, William Haviland
The Critical Thinking Curriculum Model (CTCM) utilizes a multidisciplinary approach that integrates effective learning and teaching practices with computer technology. The model is designed to be flexible within a curriculum, an example for teachers to follow, where they can plug in their own critical issue. This process engages students in collaborative research that can be shared in the classroom, across the country or around the globe. The CTCM features open-ended and collaborative activities that deal with current, real world issues which leaders are attempting to solve. As implemented in the Critical Issues Forum (CIF), an educational program administered by Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the CTCM encompasses the political, social/cultural, economic, and scientific realms in the context of a current global issue. In this way, students realize the importance of their schooling by applying their efforts to an endeavor that ultimately will affect their future. This study measures student attitudes toward science and technology and the changes that result from immersion in the CTCM. It also assesses the differences in student learning in science content and problem solving for students involved in the CTCM. A sample of 24 students participated in classrooms at two separate high schools in New Mexico. The evaluation results were analyzed using SPSS in a MANOVA format in order to determine the significance of the between and within-subjects effects. A comparison ANOVA was done for each two-way MANOVA to see if the comparison groups were equal. Significant findings were validated using the Scheffe test in a Post Hoc analysis. Demographic information for the sample population was recorded and tracked, including self-assessments of computer use and availability. Overall, the results indicated that the CTCM did help to increase science content understanding and problem-solving skills for students, thereby positively effecting critical thinking. No matter if the
Eakman, Teresa L.
As a high percentage of substance use counselors are in recovery, using adult learning methods such as constructivism and transformational learning are needed to neutralize any preestablished views of treatment modalities that may exist, as well as combat any possible issues of countertransference. Teaching critical thinking leads to student…
Gloudemans, Henk A; Schalk, René M J D; Reynaert, Wouter
In the Netherlands, the distinction between Bachelor degree and diploma nursing educational levels remains unclear. The added value of Bachelor degree nurses and how they develop professionally after graduation are subject to debate. The aim of this study is to investigate whether Bachelor degree nurses have higher critical thinking skills than diploma nurses do and whether there is a positive relationship between higher critical thinking skills and self-efficacy beliefs. Outcomes might provide instruments that are helpful in positioning of nursing levels in education and practice. Questionnaire data were used of a sample of 95 registered mental health staff nurses (62 diploma nurses and 33 Bachelor degree nurses). First, ANOVA was performed to test whether the two groups were comparable with respect to elements of work experience. Second, t-tests were conducted to compare the two groups of nurses on self-efficacy, perceived performance and critical thinking outcomes. Third, relationships between the study variables were investigated. Finally, structural equation modelling using AMOS was applied to test the relationships. The hypothesis that Bachelor degree nurses are better critical thinkers than diploma nurses was supported (p<0.01). Years in function turned out to be positively related to self-efficacy beliefs (p<0.01). No significant relation was found between the level of education and self-efficacy beliefs. The results of this study support career development and facilitate more efficient positioning of nursing levels. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shannon, Li-Jen; Schneider, Solomon; Bennett, Judith F.
This study examined the status of critical thinking (CT) and reasoning skills in information communication and technology (ICT) for 190 college students in a higher education system. It analyzed how the students performed in CT, reasoning, and internet copyright and ethical issues. A CT assessment was designed to analyze the CT and reasoning…
Âurea Augusto Luís Wafunga
Full Text Available Critical and reflective thinking is a necessary characteristic of the teacher in the present context. Based on observation and experience as teachers at the Institute of Education Sciences of Benguela, University of Katyavala Buíla, we see that the teaching of history in the Degree in Teaching History contributes little to the development of critical and reflective thinking. This is a very relevant aspect if we consider the need to train good critical and reflective teachers who are able to promote critical thinking in their students in a way that questions the different social contexts. The study presented here consisted in analyzing critical-reflexive thinking through the teaching of history. Non-participant observation and a questionnaire were used for this purpose. The information gathered showed that the respondents point to a low contribution of the teaching of history to the development of critical and reflective thinking. In this way, new methodological strategies need to be adapted in order to promote skills such as: analysis, criticism, reflection, reasoning and understanding of problems in a historical setting.
Leandro da Silva Almeida
Full Text Available The amount of information and variety of situations tackled on a daily basis call for new cognitive functions, namely combining knowledge, experience and intellectual abilities. Critical thinking is valued as a higher-order type of reasoning and a skill transversal to the educational organisms. We introduce some definitions suggested in the literature, and describe the cognitive functions responsible for critical thinking used in learning and problem solving situations. We then present the most used assessment procedures, illustrating with instruments as well as programs and curricular planning implemented in the classroom to teach and develop critical thinking. Finally, we highlight the importance of further investigation, in order to reach a convergence of theoretical and practical elements needed to define critical thinking.
Jan 24, 2012 ... educators as vital skills required for mastery of school subjects. However, it is observed ... thinking, communication competence and its importance for effective teaching and learning; teachers must learn to think critically and must ..... students should engage in a formal/informal discussion/debate activity on ...
Gould, J. Christine; Schoonover, Patricia F.
Creative and critical thinking have been identified by Isaksen, Dorval, and Treffinger (2000) as the ability to "perceive gaps, challenges, or concerns; think of many varied or unusual possibilities; or elaborate and extend alternatives," as well as make meaningful connections that include analyzing, evaluating, and developing options.…
This study examined the effects of participation in a 1-week, experiential, hands-on learning program on the critical thinking and clinical reasoning skills of occupational therapy students. A quasi-experimental, nonrandomized pre- and post-test design was used with a sample of 25 students. The students had completed three semesters of didactic lecture coursework in a master's level OT educational program prior to participation in a hands-on therapy program for children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy. Changes in critical thinking and clinical reasoning skills were evaluated using the following dependent measures: Self-Assessment of Clinical Reflection and Reasoning (SACRR) and the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST). Changes in pretest and posttest scores on the SACRR and the CCTST were statistically significant (p>0.05) following completion of the experiential learning program. This study supports the use of hands-on learning to develop clinical reasoning and critical thinking skills in healthcare students, who face ever more diverse patient populations upon entry-level practice. Further qualitative and quantitative investigations are needed to support the results of this study and determine which components of experiential learning programs are essential for developing clinical reasoning and critical thinking skills in future allied health professionals.
Saiz, Carlos; Rivas, Silvia F.
The objective of this research is to ascertain whether new instructional techniques can improve critical thinking. To achieve this goal, two different instruction techniques (ARDESOS--group 1--and DIAPROVE--group 2--) were studied and a pre-post assessment of critical thinking in various dimensions such as argumentation, inductive reasoning,…
Liu, Ou Lydia; Mao, Liyang; Frankel, Lois; Xu, Jun
Critical thinking is a learning outcome highly valued by higher education institutions and the workforce. The Educational Testing Service (ETS) has designed a next generation assessment, the HEIghten™ critical thinking assessment, to measure students' critical thinking skills in analytical and synthetic dimensions. This paper introduces the…
Full Text Available Introduction: The current world needs people who have a lot of different abilities such as cognition and application of different ways of thinking, research, problem solving, critical thinking skills and creativity. In addition to critical thinking, learning styles is another key factor which has an essential role in the process of problem solving. This study aimed to determine the relationship between learning styles and critical thinking of students and their academic performance in Alborz University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This cross-correlation study was performed in 2012, on 216 students of Alborz University who were selected randomly by the stratified method. The data was obtained via a three-part questionnaire included demographic data, Kolb standardized questionnaire of learning style and California critical thinking standardized questionnaire. The academic performance of the students was extracted by the school records. The validity of the instruments was determined in terms of content validity, and the reliability was gained through internal consistency methods. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was found to be 0.78 for the California critical thinking questionnaire. The Chi Square test, Independent T-test, one way ANOVA and Pearson Correlation test were used to determine relationship between variables. The Package SPSS14 statistical software was used to analyze data with a significant level of p<0.05. Results: Our findings indicated the significant difference of mean score in four learning style, suggesting university students with convergent learning style have better performance than other groups. Also learning style had a relationship with age, gender, field of study, semester and job. The results about the critical thinking of the students showed that the mean of deductive reasoning and evaluation skills were higher than that of other skills and analytical skills had the lowest mean and there was a positive significant
Buerdsell, Sherri Lynn
As an institution of higher education and as a Hispanic-serving institution, New Mexico State University has a responsibility to its students to provide the skills and experiences necessary for each and every student to become a responsible, reflective citizen, capable of making informed decisions. Postsecondary science has traditionally been taught through lectures. Traditional lecture classes simply do not meet the needs of diverse groups of students in the modern multicultural student body like New Mexico State University's. However, the implementation of nontraditional pedagogy without evaluation of the results is useless as a step to reform; it is necessary to evaluate the results of in situ nontraditional pedagogy to determine its worth. The purpose of this research is to analyze the development and change in students' critical thinking skills, and critical thinking dispositions in single semester in an introductory Environmental Science course. This study utilized a mixed methods approach. The California Critical Thinking Skills Test and the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory were administered in the beginning and at the end of the semester. The pretest was used to provide a baseline for each participant against which the posttest score was compared. In addition, student interviews, field notes, and a survey provided qualitative data, which generated themes regarding the development of student critical thinking in this course. The results indicated there were no significant differences in the critical thinking test scores. However, qualitative analysis indicated that students experienced significant changes in critical thinking. Three themes emerged from the qualitative analysis pertaining to the amount of influence on student learning. These themes are active thinking and learning, dialogue, and professor's influence. Due to the conflict between the quantitative and the qualitative results, it is suggested that the critical thinking tests
Tajvidi, Mansooreh; Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad; Salsali, Mahvash
Given the wide disagreement over the definition of critical thinking in different disciplines, defining and standardizing the concept according to the discipline of nursing is essential. Moreover, there is limited scientific evidence regarding critical thinking in the context of nursing in Iran. The aim of this study was to analyze and clarify the concept of critical thinking in nursing education in Iran. We employed the hybrid model to define the concept of critical thinking. The hybrid model has three interconnected phases--the theoretical phase, the fieldwork phase, and the final analytic phase. In the theoretical phase, we searched the online scientific databases (such as Elsevier, Wiley, CINAHL, Proquest, Ovid, and Springer as well as Iranian databases such as SID, Magiran, and Iranmedex). In the fieldwork phase, a purposive sample of 17 nursing faculties, PhD students, clinical instructors, and clinical nurses was recruited. Participants were interviewed by using an interview guide. In the analytical phase we compared the data from the theoretical and the fieldwork phases. The concept of critical thinking had many different antecedents, attributes, and consequences. Antecedents, attributes, and consequences of critical thinking concept identified in the theoretical phase were in some ways different and in some way similar to antecedents, attributes, and consequences identified in the fieldwork phase. Finally critical thinking in nursing education in Iran was clarified. Critical thinking is a logical, situational, purposive, and outcome-oriented thinking process. It is an acquired and evolving ability which develops individually. Such thinking process could lead to the professional accountability, personal development, God's consent, conscience appeasement, and personality development. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Full Text Available This study aims to obtain a valid and reliable formative evaluation model of critical thinking. The method used in this research was the research and development by integrating Borg & Gall's model and Plomp's development model. The ten steps Borg & Gall’s model were modified into five stages as the stages in the Plomp's model. The subjects in this study were 1,446 students of junior high schools in DIY, 14 mathematics teacher, and six experts. The content validity employed was expert judgment, the empirical validity and reliability used were loading factor, item analysis used PCM 1PL, and the relationship between disposition and critical thinking skill used was structural equation modeling (SEM. The developed formative evaluation model is the procedural model. There are five aspects of critical thinking skill: mathematic reasoning, interpretation, analysis, evaluation, and inference, which entirely composed of 42 items. The validity of the critical thinking skill instruments achieves a significance degree as indicated by the lowest and the highest loading factors of 0.38 and 0.74 subsequently, the reliability of every aspect in a good category. The average level of difficulty is 0.00 with the standard deviation of 0.45 which is in a good category. The peer assessment questionnaire of critical thinking disposition consists of seven aspects: truth-seeking, open-minded, analysis, systematic, self-confidence, inquisitiveness, and maturity with 23 items. The critical thinking disposition validity achieves the significance degree as indicated by the lowest and the high factor loading of 0.66 and 0.76 subsequently, and the reliability of every aspect in a good category. Based on the analysis of the structural equation model, the model fits the data.
Sendag, Serkan; Erol, Osman; Sezgin, Sezan; Dulkadir, Nihal
The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between preservice teachers' Web 2.0 competencies and their critical thinking disposition (CTD). The study employed an associational research design using California Critical Thinking Disposition-Inventory (CCTD-I) and a Web 2.0 competency questionnaire including items related to Web 2.0…
Matthews, Marsha Little
Creativity is the central source of meaning for humans and is inseparable from critical thinking. Creativity and critical thinking are required in the fields of communication, public relations, and advertising. Most college students know the "rules" of the "game" of schooling, but for the majority, creativity has been all but extinguished by the…
Developing critical thinking is an important factor in education. In this study, the author defines critical thinking as the set of skills and dispositions which enable one to solve problems logically and to attempt to reflect autonomously by means of metacognitive regulation of one's own problem-solving processes. To identify the validity and…
Wentworth, Diane Keyser; Whitmarsh, Lona
Teaching the general psychology course provides instructors with the opportunity to invite students to explore the dynamics of behavior and mental processes through the lens of theory and research. Three innovative writing assignments were developed to teach students to think like a psychologist, operationalized as enhancing critical thinking,…
Quitadamo, Ian J; Kurtz, Martha J
Increasingly, national stakeholders express concern that U.S. college graduates cannot adequately solve problems and think critically. As a set of cognitive abilities, critical thinking skills provide students with tangible academic, personal, and professional benefits that may ultimately address these concerns. As an instructional method, writing has long been perceived as a way to improve critical thinking. In the current study, the researchers compared critical thinking performance of students who experienced a laboratory writing treatment with those who experienced traditional quiz-based laboratory in a general education biology course. The effects of writing were determined within the context of multiple covariables. Results indicated that the writing group significantly improved critical thinking skills whereas the non-writing group did not. Specifically, analysis and inference skills increased significantly in the writing group but not the non-writing group. Writing students also showed greater gains in evaluation skills; however, these were not significant. In addition to writing, prior critical thinking skill and instructor significantly affected critical thinking performance, whereas other covariables such as gender, ethnicity, and age were not significant. With improved critical thinking skill, general education biology students will be better prepared to solve problems as engaged and productive citizens.
Stephenson, N. S.; Sadler-McKnight, N. P.
The Science Writing Heuristic (SWH) laboratory approach is a teaching and learning tool which combines writing, inquiry, collaboration and reflection, and provides scaffolding for the development of critical thinking skills. In this study, the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) was used to measure the critical thinking skills of…
Kunsch, David W.; Schnarr, Karin; van Tyle, Russell
Complex business problems require enhanced critical thinking skills. In a dedicated, in-person critical thinking class, argument mapping techniques were used in conjunction with business and nonbusiness case studies to build the critical thinking skills of a group of master of business administration students. Results demonstrated that the…
Lee, Weillie; Chiang, Chi-Hua; Liao, I-Chen; Lee, Mei-Li; Chen, Shiah-Lian; Liang, Tienli
Concept map is a useful cognitive tool for enhancing a student's critical thinking by encouraging students to process information deeply for understanding. However, there is limited understanding of longitudinal effects of concept map teaching on students' critical thinking. The purpose of the study was to investigate the growth and the other factors influencing the development of critical thinking in response to concept map as an interventional strategy for nursing students in a two-year registered nurse baccalaureate program. The study was a quasi-experimental and longitudinal follow-up design. A convenience sample was drawn from a university in central Taiwan. Data were collected at different time points at the beginning of each semester using structured questionnaires including Critical Thinking Scale and Approaches to Learning and Studying. The intervention of concept map teaching was given at the second semester in the Medical-Surgical Nursing course. The results of the findings revealed student started with a mean critical thinking score of 41.32 and decreased at a rate of 0.42 over time, although not significant. After controlling for individual characteristics, the final model revealed that the experimental group gained a higher critical thinking score across time than the control group. The best predictive variables of initial status in critical thinking were without clinical experience and a higher pre-test score. The growth in critical thinking was predicted best by a lower pre-test score, and lower scores on surface approach and organized study. Our study suggested that concept map is a useful teaching strategy to enhance student critical thinking. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This study tried to ascertain a possible relationship between the number of student moderators (1, 2, and 3, online interactions, and critical thinking of K-12 educators enrolled in an online course that was taught from a constructivist approach. The course topic was use of technology in special education. Social network analysis (SNA and measures of critical thinking (Newman, Webb, & Cochrane, 1995 were used to research and assess if there was a difference in interaction and critical thinking between 1, 2, or 3 student moderators who facilitated a forum discussion of an assignment in an online course. The same course was repeated over three years. Each year either 1, 2, or 3 students moderated. The analysis indicated more discussion per non-moderating student with the three student moderated group. Using SNA we found that there was only one noticeable difference among the three groups which was in the value of network centralization. Using critical thinking measures the three student moderator group scored higher in five of the eight critical thinking categories. Variations in instructor presence in the online courses may have influenced these findings.
Irina Vladimirovna Glukhova
Full Text Available The paper deals with the issue of working out and introduction in educational process of higher educational institutions of the innovative technology for developing skills of critical thinking skills of the future specialists. Research is aimed at revealing of the factors promoting formation of students’ critical thinking in high schools; the search of strategy and the receptions actualizing creative abilities of students and helping to formation of an active, independent person. The author gives the reasoned proving that it’s necessary to set up the creative educational environment and adjustment of positive dialogue between the teacher and the trainee for education of such person, development of abilities of an objective reflection, interpretation of the phenomena, formulations of adequate conclusions, well-founded evaluating. Methods. The methods involve the analysis of the philosophical, psychology-pedagogical, methodical literature and the scientific periodical publications; generalisation of the Russian and foreign background, classification and arrangement of the considered issues, supervision. Results. Current approaches to the rendering of critical thinking and a problem of its formation in the scientific literature are considered; the concept «the creative educational environment» is specified; the ways of increasing the educational process efficiency are shown. Scientific novelty. The complex of procedures and the conditions promoting effective development of critical thinking skills is theoretically proved on the basis of the analysis of various information sources. Practical significance. The research outcomes and the recommended methods of critical thinking skills formation can be useful for the professors and lecturers of higher education institutions to optimize subject matter selection, techniques and methods of education under the conditions of dynamically updated educational process.
Full Text Available Students of Mathematics education often struggle with integration problem, but yet the root of the problem related to critical thinking is rarely investigated. This article reports research where the first-year students of Mathematics Education of PGRI University Semarang were given an integral problem, then individually they were interviewed related to the answer they have made. The findings of students' difficulties in working on integration problem were confirmed through several questions in the interview which aimed to uncover their critical thinking process related to concepts, procedures, and problem solving. This study shows that student difficulties in Integration by disc method such as failure in identifying radius of a rotary object, specify partition, and integration bounds are closely related to their failure to think critically related to concept, skills, and problem solving aspects of critical thinking.
Helsdingen, A.S.; Bosch, K. van den; Gog, T. van; Merriënboer, J.J.G. van
Objective : Two field studies assessed the effects of critical thinking instruction on training and transfer of a complex decision-making skill. Background : Critical thinking instruction is based on studies of how experienced decision makers approach complex problems. Method : Participants
Constructivist pedagogies cannot achieve their critical thinking ambitions. Constructivism, and constructivist epistemological presuppositions, actively thwarts the critical thinking process. Using Wittgenstein's private language argument, this paper argues that corrective mechanisms--the ability to correct a student's propositions and cognitions…
Anderson L. Palinussa
Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of a quasi-experimental with pre-test-post-test design and control group that aims to assess students’ critical mathematical thinking skills and character through realistic mathematics education (RME culture-based. Subjects of this study were 106 junior high school students from two low and medium schools level in Ambon. The instruments of the study are: students’ early math skills test, critical thinking skills mathematical test and perception scale of students’character. Data was analyzed by using t-test and Anova. The study found that: 1 Achievements and enhancement of students’ critical mathematical thinking skills who were treated with by realistic mathematics education is better then students’ skills were treated by conventional mathematics education. The differences are considered to: a overall students, b the level of early math skills, and c schools’ level; 2 Quality of students’ character who were treated by realistic mathematics education is better then students’ character who were treated by conventional mathematics education The differences are considered to: a overall students, b the level of early math skills, and c schools’ level Keywords: Critical Thinking, Students’ Character, Realistic Mathematics Education Culture-Based DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.4.1.566.75-94
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine if Virtual-Based Training (VBT could be used to develop post-secondarystudents’ abilities in critical thinking (CRT. The participants were 26 second-year undergraduate students from fourfaculties at a government-funded university in Bangkok, Thailand and were divided into 2 groups. The experimental groupstudied 23 CRT lessons through VBT and had to hand in their exercises. There was no treatment for the control group. Thepre- and post- tests were analyzed using multiple correlations. Results revealed that there was a relationship of the preandpost- tests of language and mathematics with CRT. This means that our VBT was effective for teaching language andmathematics. Further studies will be to determine if it was the content (the type of CRT lessons or the delivery mode (VBTthat resulted in no significant difference in test scores for logical reasoning
Kaddoura, Mahmoud A
It is essential for nurses to develop critical thinking skills to ensure their ability to provide safe and effective care to patients with complex and variable needs in ever-changing clinical environments. To date, very few studies have been conducted to examine how nursing orientation programs develop the critical thinking skills of novice critical care nurses. Strikingly, no research studies could be found about the American Association of Critical Care Nurses Essentials of Critical Care Orientation (ECCO) program and specifically its effect on the development of nurses' critical thinking skills. This study explored the perceptions of new graduate nurses regarding factors that helped to develop their critical thinking skills throughout their 6-month orientation program in the intensive care unit. A convenient non-probability sample of eight new graduates was selected from a hospital that used the ECCO program. Data were collected with demographic questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. An exploratory qualitative research method with content analysis was used to analyze the data. The study findings showed that new graduate nurses perceived that they developed critical thinking skills that improved throughout the orientation period, although there were some challenges in the ECCO program. This study provides data that could influence the development and implementation of future nursing orientation programs. Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.
deNoyelles, Aimee; Reyes-Foster, Beatriz
Being actively engaged in a task is often associated with critical thinking. Cultivating critical thinking skills, such as purposefully reflecting and analyzing one's own thinking, is a major goal of higher education. However, there is a challenge in providing college students opportunities to clearly demonstrate these skills in online courses.…
The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between critical thinking and metacognition. The sample of study consists of 390 university students who were enrolled in different programs at Sakarya University, in Turkey. In this study, the Critical Thinking Disposition Scale and Metacognitive Thinking Scale were used. The relationships…
Buffington, Melanie L.
Teaching critical thinking skills is often endorsed as a means to help students develop their abilities to navigate the complex world in which people live and, in addition, as a way to help students succeed in school. Over the past few years, this author explored the idea of teaching critical thinking using the World Wide Web (WWW). She began…
Full Text Available This research is aimed to 1 develop simple sciences instrument device based on a guided inquiry to improve the skill of the students on critical thinking. 2 to know the appropriateness of physic instrument based on guided inquiry.3 to know increase critical thinking skill by using the appropriateness of this instruments. This research is research and development with 4D models. The average score in an aspect based on the whole result of the assessment by media expert is 99,33%, the material expert is 88,20%, peer reviewer 83,02%, and science teacher upon the simple props is 88,41%, then it can be stated as Good (B. There is an improvement in the student’s result when doing pretest and posttest. The average score of the students when doing pretest is 5,29, and posttest is 7,9. The level of critical thinking skill of the students is on the level medium because the criteria are 0,54.
Unita S. Zuliani Nasution
Full Text Available The purposes of this research were to analyze the different between physic resolving problem ability by using problem based learning model and direct instruction model, the different of physic resolving problem ability between the students that have critical thinking ability upper the average and the students that have critical thinking ability under the average, and the interaction of problem based learning model toward critical thinking ability and students’ physic resolving problem ability. This research was quasy experimental research that use critical thinking ability tests and physic resolving problem ability tests as the instruments. Result of the research showed that the students’ physic resolving problem ability by using problem based learning model was better than by using direct instruction model, students’ physic resolving problem ability and critical thinking ability upper the average showed better different and result than students’ critical thinking ability under the average, besides there was an interaction between problem based learning model and critical thinking ability in improving students’ physic resolving problem ability.
Huang, Lei; Wang, Zhaoxin; Yao, Yuhong; Shan, Chang; Wang, Haojie; Zhu, Mengyi; Lu, Yuan; Sun, Pengfei; Zhao, Xudong
Critical thinking is an essential ability for medical students. However, the relationship between parental rearing styles and medical students' critical thinking disposition has rarely been considered. The aim of this study was to investigate whether parental rearing styles were significant predictors of critical thinking disposition among Chinese medical students. 1,075 medical students from the first year to the fifth year attending one of three medical schools in China were recruited via multistage stratified cluster sampling. The Chinese Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory(CTDI-CV) and The Egna Minnen av Barndoms Uppfostran (EMBU) questionnaire were applied to collect data and to conduct descriptive analysis. Stepwise multiple linear regression was used to analyze the data. The critical thinking disposition average mean score was 287.44 with 632 participants (58.79%) demonstrating positive critical thinking disposition. Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis revealed that the rearing styles of fathers, including "overprotection", "emotional warmth and understanding", "rejection" and "over-interference" were significant predictors of medical students' critical thinking disposition that explained 79.0% of the variance in critical thinking ability. Rearing styles of mothers including "emotional warmth and understanding", "punishing" and "rejection" were also found to be significant predictors, and explained 77.0% of the variance. Meaningful association has been evidenced between parental rearing styles and Chinese medical students' critical thinking disposition. Parental rearing styles should be considered as one of the many potential determinant factors that contribute to the cultivation of medical students' critical thinking capability. Positive parental rearing styles should be encouraged in the cultivation of children's critical thinking skills.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the methods of clinical accompaniment used by clinical facilitators in practice. The findings of the study also reflected facilitators’ perceptions regarding critical thinking and the facilitation thereof. A quantitative research design was used. A literature study was conducted to identify the methods of accompaniment that facilitate critical thinking. Data was collected by means of a questionnaire developed for that purpose. Making a content-related validity judgment, and involving seven clinical facilitators in an academic institution, ensured the validity of the questionnaire. The results of the study indicated that various clinical methods of accompaniment were used. To a large extent, these methods correlated with those discussed in the literature review. The researcher further concluded that the concepts ‘critical thinking’ and ‘facilitation’ were not interpreted correctly by the respondents, and would therefore not be implemented in a proper manner in nursing practice. Furthermore, it seemed evident that tutor-driven learning realised more often than student-driven learning. In this regard, the requirement of outcomes-based education was not satisfied. The researcher is therefore of the opinion that a practical programme for the development of critical thinking skills during clinical accompaniment must be developed within the framework of outcomes-based education.
Full Text Available Reading-to-write, a term taken from language testing studies, puts great emphasis on a student-centered learning atmosphere, on the situational context and cooperative learning, on an authentic learning environment, on making use of various information resources, and on the process of the individuals’ meaning construction and critical thinking. The application of this model in class will shed lights on College English teaching in China, providing the English teachers with a new perception of language teaching: Reading and writing can be integrated to elicit more authentic language use, and skill training and critical thinking are not two separate stages.
Swing, Velmarie K.
Critical thinking (CT) in the new nursing graduate continues to be a topic of concern in the academic and acute care settings. While research studies have analyzed critical thinking skills (CTS) at the beginning and end of nursing programs, few have focused on early program evaluation of CT. In this non-experimental, explanatory, quantitative…
Walter, Christel; Walter, Paul
The study explores the influences of critical thinking and interests on students' performance at school. The tested students attended German grammar schools ("Gymnasien"). Separate regression analyses showed the expected moderate positive influences of critical thinking and interests on school performance. But analyzed simultaneously,…
Peerbolte, Stacy L; Collins, Matthew Lloyd
Emergency managers must be able to think critically in order to identify and anticipate situations, solve problems, make judgements and decisions effectively and efficiently, and assume and manage risk. Heretofore, a critical thinking skills assessment of local emergency managers had yet to be conducted that tested for correlations among age, gender, education, and years in occupation. An exploratory descriptive research design, using the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal-Short Form (WGCTA-S), was employed to determine the extent to which a sample of 54 local emergency managers demonstrated the critical thinking skills associated with the ability to assume and manage risk as compared to the critical thinking scores of a group of 4,790 peer-level managers drawn from an archival WGCTA-S database. This exploratory design suggests that the local emergency managers, surveyed in this study, had lower WGCTA-S critical thinking scores than their equivalents in the archival database with the exception of those in the high education and high experience group. © 2013 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2013.
Full Text Available Teaching critical thinking skill is a central pedagogical aim in many courses. These skills, it is hoped, will be both portable (applicable in a wide range of contexts and durable (not forgotten quickly. Yet, both of these virtues are challenged by pervasive and potent cognitive biases, such as motivated reasoning, false consensus bias and hindsight bias. In this paper, I argue that a focus on the development of metacognitive skill shows promise as a means to inculcate debiasing habits in students. Such habits will help students become more critical reasoners. I close with suggestions for implementing this strategy.
Goodrich, Amy; Wagner-Johnston, Nina; Delibovi, Dana
Multiple treatment options, combined with disease heterogeneity, have created nursing challenges in the management of adverse events (AEs) during antilymphoma therapy. Testing has revealed that less than half of participating nurses correctly graded peripheral neuropathy and neutropenia related to antilymphoma regimens. This article identifies nursing challenges in the management of AEs associated with therapy for lymphomas and describes how strategies in critical thinking can help meet those challenges. A comprehensive literature search in oncology nursing, nursing education, and critical thinking was conducted; participant responses to pre- and post-tests at nursing education programs were evaluated; and a roundtable meeting of authors was convened. Oncology nurses can cultivate critical thinking skills, practice thinking critically in relation to team members and patients, leverage information from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, and manage workflow to allow more opportunity for critical thinking.
Anwar, Yunita Arian Sani; Senam, Laksono, Endang W.
This work aims to (1) identify the critical thinking skills of student based on their ability to set up laboratory work reports, and (2) analyze the implementation of biochemistry laboratory work. The method of quantitative content analysis was employed. Quantitative data were in the form of critical thinking skills through the assessment of students' laboratory work reports and questionnaire data. Hoyo rubric was used to measure critical thinking skills with 10 indicators, namely clarity, accuracy, precision, consistency, relevance, evidence, reason, depth, breadth, and fairness. The research sample consisted of 105 students (35 male, 70 female) of Mataram University who took a Biochemistry course and 2 lecturers of Biochemistry course. The results showed students' critical thinking skills through laboratory work reports were still weak. Analysis of the questionnaire showed that three indicators become the biggest problems during the laboratory work implementation, namely, lecturers' involved in laboratory work implementation, the integration of laboratory work implementation of learning in the classroom has not been done optimally and laboratory work implementation as an effort to train critical thinking skills is not optimal yet.
Sumarna, N.; Wahyudin; Herman, T.
Some research findings on critical thinking skills of prospective elementary teachers, showed a response that is not optimal. On the other hand, critical thinking skills will lead a student in the process of analysis, evaluation and synthesis in solving a mathematical problem. This study attempts to perform an alternative solution with a focus on mathematics learning conditions that is held in the lecture room through mathematical investigation approach. This research method was Quasi-Experimental design with pre-test post-test design. Data analysis using a mixed method with Embedded design. Subjects were regular students enrolled in 2014 at the study program of education of primary school teachers. The number of research subjects were 111 students consisting of 56 students in the experimental group and 55 students in the control group. The results of the study showed that (1) there is a significant difference in the improvement of critical thinking ability of students who receive learning through mathematical investigation approach when compared with students studying through expository approach, and (2) there is no interaction effect between prior knowledge of mathematics and learning factors (mathematical investigation and expository) to increase of critical thinking skills of students.
Gordon, Joanne M.
Nurse educators (n=201) identified their concept of critical thinking and agreement with nonnurse experts (a Delphi panel of academic scholars) on critical thinking items. They agreed on skills and dispositions, but nurse educators were more likely to consider research, problem solving, decision making, and planning as critical thinking…
Systems Thinking, Critical Realism and Philosophy: A Confluence of Ideas seeks to re-address the whole question of philosophy and systems thinking for the twenty first century and provide a new work that would be of value to both systems and philosophy. This is a highly opportune time when different fields - critical realism, philosophy of science and systems thinking - are all developing around the same set of concepts and yet not realizing it. This book will be of interest to the academic systems community worldwide and due to it's interdisciplinary coverage, it will also
The aim of this study was two-fold. The first aim was to determine the levels of critical thinking disposition and perception of problem-solving ability of pre-service teachers. The second aim was to compare the effects of problem-based learning and traditional teaching methods on the critical thinking dispositions and perceptions of…
Full Text Available Background and Objective: Development of critical thinking and practical skills has remained a serious and considerable challenge throughout the nursing educational system in Iran. Conventional methods of teaching such as lectures as the dominant method used in higher education system is a passive style which ignores critical thinking. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the effect of instruction by Concept-Mapping and conventional Method on critical thinking skills of nursing students. Materials and Methods:This quasi-experimental study was carried out on 70 nursing students of Tehran Nursing and Midwifery schoolwho were selected through convenient sampling method, then were divided randomly into the two equal Experimental and Control groups. Educational content was presented in the form of Concept-Mapping in the Experimental group and Lecture,Demonstration and Practicalexercises in the control group. Data collection included a demographic information and California Critical Thinking Skills (form B questionnairewhich was completed at the beginning and at the end of the fourth week of Instructional period. Data were analyzed using SPSS software (V: 21, descriptive and analytical Statistics; at the significant level P<0.05. Results: Before the intervention, the mean of critical thinking skill score was 9.71±2.66 in concept mapping group and 9.64 ± 2.14 in conventional group and the difference was not significant (P=0.121, but after the intervention, a significant difference was found between the intervention and conventionalgroup (15.20±2.71 vs 10.25±2.06, P=0.003. Conclusion: Using Concept mapping strategy in the education of nursing students may lead to developing critical thinking skills as one of the important missions of higher education. So it is recommended to usethis method in clinical nursing education.
Nurismawati, R.; Sanjaya, Y.; Rusyati, L.
The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between students’ critical thinking skill and students’ logical thinking skill of Junior High School students in Tasikmalaya city. The respondent consists of 168 students from eighth grade at three public schools in Tasikmalaya City. Science Virtual Test and Test of Logical Thinking were used in this research study. Science virtual test instrument consist of 26 questions with 5 different topics. IBM SPSS 23.00 program was used for analysis of the data. By the findings; students’ critical thinking skill has significant differences in elements of generating purpose, embodying point of view, utilizing concept and making implication and consequence. By Post Hoc LSD Test, from those four elements, there are significant differences between concrete - transitional groups and transitional – concrete groups. There is positive and weak correlation between students’ critical thinking and students’ logical thinking attainment.
Full Text Available Since Socrates’ time, reasoning is considered valuable for the justification of speaker’s belief along with Thomas Aquinas’ testing of his thinking to answer his own thinking. Critical thinking has been part of discussion among the educators for its significance and application for last many decades. Many educators have conducted researches on the assessment of critical thinking within a domain or across the domain in order to test students’ critical thinking skills and its effect on their learning. Similarly, critical thinking is highly valuable for the study of literature as it explicitly asked for learners’ beliefs, perceptions, and judgments in order to remove the ambiguity of thought. Perfection of thought can be achieved with the use of critical thinking skills while training of mind needs interaction between literary text and the reader as literature has the capacity to achieve mental traits specified to critical thinking. Accordingly, this report presents a relationship between critical thinking skills and English literature study along with reader response theory techniques considering that without the use of critical thinking skills and reader response theory, study of literature is haphazard hence for the application of reader response theory, literary text is inevitable. In essence, I aim to highlight the effectiveness of critical thinking skills for the study of literature while emphasizing the significance of reader response theory which is also inevitable for the study of literature and for the use of critical thinking skills.
Nippold, Marilyn A.; Frantz-Kaspar, Megan W.; Cramond, Paige M.; Kirk, Cecilia; Hayward-Mayhew, Christine; MacKinnon, Melanie
Purpose: This study was designed primarily to determine if a critical-thinking task involving fables would elicit greater syntactic complexity than a conversational task in adolescents. Another purpose was to determine how well adolescents understand critical-thinking questions about fables. Method: Forty adolescents (N = 20 boys and 20 girls;…
The implementation of genre theory in the business communication classroom could lead to the cultivation of critical thinking skills in students. The lack of a common definition of critical thinking skills across academia and the workplace creates a difficult end goal to pursue; therefore, teachers should consider explicitly teaching to the…
Ralston, Patricia A.; Bays, Cathy L.
Faculty in a large, urban school of engineering designed a longitudinal study to assess the critical thinking skills of undergraduate students as they progressed through the engineering program. The Paul-Elder critical thinking framework was used to design course assignments and develop a holistic assessment rubric. The curriculum was re-designed…
Kopzhassarova, Umit; Akbayeva, Gulden; Eskazinova, Zhanar; Belgibayeva, Gulbarshyn; Tazhikeyeva, Akerke
The article focuses on the problem of developing students' critical thinking skills, which help them become independent learners. Analysis of research works of educators and scholars enable the authors to reveal qualities, necessary for students to enhance their critical thinking skills and become independent learners. Different points of view on…
Bassett, Molly H.
In this essay, I explore an exam format that pairs multiple-choice questions with required rationales. In a space adjacent to each multiple-choice question, students explain why or how they arrived at the answer they selected. This exercise builds the critical thinking skill known as metacognition, thinking about thinking, into an exam that also…
Johnson, David Kenneth
The critical thinker is one who is, according to Harvey Siegel, "appropriately moved by reasons." This characterization of critical thinking combines a "reason assessment" component (the principled assessment of reasons and their ability to warrant beliefs, claims and actions) and a "critical attitude" component (the…
Wagner, Elissa A
This article reports the outcomes of a kinesthetic learning strategy used during a cardiac lecture to engage students and to improve the use of classroom-acquired knowledge in today's challenging clinical settings. Nurse educators are constantly faced with finding new ways to engage students, stimulate critical thinking, and improve clinical application in a rapidly changing and complex health care system. Educators who deviate from the traditional pedagogy of didactic, content-driven teaching to a concept-based, student-centered approach using active and kinesthetic learning activities can enhance engagement and improve clinical problem solving, communication skills, and critical thinking to provide graduates with the tools necessary to be successful. The goals of this learning activity were to decrease the well-known classroom-clinical gap by enhancing engagement, providing deeper understanding of cardiac function and disorders, enhancing critical thinking, and improving clinical application. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.
Prayogi, S.; Yuanita, L.; Wasis
This study aimed to develop Critical-Inquiry-Based-Learning (CIBL) learning model to promote critical thinking (CT) ability of preservice teachers. The CIBL learning model was developed by meeting the criteria of validity, practicality, and effectiveness. Validation of the model involves 4 expert validators through the mechanism of the focus group discussion (FGD). CIBL learning model declared valid to promote CT ability, with the validity level (Va) of 4.20 and reliability (r) of 90,1% (very reliable). The practicality of the model was evaluated when it was implemented that involving 17 of preservice teachers. The CIBL learning model had been declared practice, its measuring from learning feasibility (LF) with very good criteria (LF-score = 4.75). The effectiveness of the model was evaluated from the improvement CT ability after the implementation of the model. CT ability were evaluated using the scoring technique adapted from Ennis-Weir Critical Thinking Essay Test. The average score of CT ability on pretest is - 1.53 (uncritical criteria), whereas on posttest is 8.76 (critical criteria), with N-gain score of 0.76 (high criteria). Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that developed CIBL learning model is feasible to promote CT ability of preservice teachers.
Santika, A. R.; Purwianingsih, W.; Nuraeni, E.
Critical thinking is a skills the which students should have in order to face 21st century demands. Critical thinking skills can help people in facing their daily problems, especially problems roommates relate to science. This research is aimed to analyze students critical thinking skills in socio-scientific issues of biodiversity subject. The method used in this research was descriptive method. The research subject is first-grade students’ in senior high school. The data collected by interview and open-ended question the which classified based on framework : (1) question at issue, (2) information (3) purpose (4) concepts (5) assumptions, (6) point of view, (7) interpretation and inference, and (8) implication and consequences, then it will be assessed by using rubrics. The result of the data showed students critical thinking skills in socio-scientific issues of biodiversity subject is in low and medium category. Therefore we need a learning activity that is able to develop student’s critical thinking skills, especially regarding issues of social science.
Full Text Available The main aim of this research was to investigate the effect of computer games on student’ critical thinking disposition and educational achievement. The research method was descriptive, and its type was casual-comparative. The sample included 270 female high school students in Andimeshk town selected by multistage cluster method. Ricketts questionnaire was used to test critical thinking and the researcher made questionnaires were used to test computer games. T-test and one-way ANOVA were employed to analysis of the data. The findings of the study showed that playing computer games has no significant effect on critical thinking, however, there were a significant effect of playing computer games on students’ educational achievement (P<0/05. Furthermore, the results showed that the type of computer game has no significant effect on students’ disposition to critical thinking and their educational achievement. Keywords: Computer games, disposition to critical thinking, educational achievement, secondary students
Errington, Alison; Bubna-Litic, David
Critical thinking is widely regarded as a crucial capability for competent management and also for any leadership role in society. In this article, we ask, "How do textbooks play a role in the weakness of many management graduates' critical thinking skills?" Management teachers can find plentiful advice about best teaching practices, yet…
Ahern, A.; O'Connor, T.; McRuairc, G.; McNamara, M.; O'Donnell, D.
Critical thinking is a graduate attribute that many courses, including engineering courses, claim to produce in students. As a graduate attribute it is seen by academics as a particularly desirable outcome of student learning and is said by researchers to be a defining characteristic of university education. However, how critical thinking is…
In this era of information and economic globalization, developing critical thinking skills in college students has been set as a primary goal and learning outcome in higher education. Teaching critical thinking, however, is a great challenge to most EFL teachers. This article, therefore, attempts to examine the nature and teachability of critical…
Concepts of critical thinking, clinical reasoning, and clinical judgment are often used interchangeably. However, they are not one and the same, and understanding subtle difference among them is important. Following a review of the literature for definitions and uses of the terms, the author provides a summary focused on similarities and differences in the processes of critical thinking, clinical reasoning, and clinical judgment and notes suggested methods of measuring each.
Higher-order thinking is an instructional strategy supported by research. Often referred to as critical thinking skills, it is more than simple recall of facts or information. It is a function of the interaction between cognitive strategies, meta-cognition, and nonstrategic knowledge when solving problems. Higher-order thinking is based on the…
Buur, Jennifer L; Schmidt, Peggy; Smylie, Dean; Irizarry, Kris; Crocker, Carlos; Tyler, John; Barr, Margaret
With medical education transitioning from knowledge-based curricula to competency-based curricula, critical thinking skills have emerged as a major competency. While there are validated external instruments for assessing critical thinking, many educators have created their own custom assessments of critical thinking. However, the face validity of these assessments has not been challenged. The purpose of this study was to compare results from a custom assessment of critical thinking with the results from a validated external instrument of critical thinking. Students from the College of Veterinary Medicine at Western University of Health Sciences were administered a custom assessment of critical thinking (ACT) examination and the externally validated instrument, California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST), in the spring of 2011. Total scores and sub-scores from each exam were analyzed for significant correlations using Pearson correlation coefficients. Significant correlations between ACT Blooms 2 and deductive reasoning and total ACT score and deductive reasoning were demonstrated with correlation coefficients of 0.24 and 0.22, respectively. No other statistically significant correlations were found. The lack of significant correlation between the two examinations illustrates the need in medical education to externally validate internal custom assessments. Ultimately, the development and validation of custom assessments of non-knowledge-based competencies will produce higher quality medical professionals.
Carvalho, Diana Paula de Souza Rego Pinto; Vitor, Allyne Fortes; Cogo, Ana Luísa Petersen; Santos, Viviane Euzébia Pereira; Ferreira, Marcos Antonio
Reflections on some assumptions of the theory of Communicative Action and the development of Critical Thinking in the context of training students in undergraduate nursing courses. The perspective is based on concepts of Jürgen Habermas, as a possibility for the development of critical thinking among the students of these courses. Communication is therefore understood as inherent in the training of nurses in a continuous, dynamic, dialogical process, with interventions that are related to the context of the students and that have meaning for them, in order to contribute to the promotion of Critical Thinking.
The conjunction of three events has encouraged me to devote significant time to thinking about the pedagogical framework in my introductory courses. The three events were: doing a workshop addressing the Advanced Placement restructuring of the Physics B course with a stronger focus on critical thinking, finding out that "The Physics…
Jaya Nur Iman
Full Text Available The research was aimed to find out whether or not using debate significantly improved the students’ critical thinking and speaking skill achievements and how much debate contributed to each aspect of critical thinking and speaking skill. A quasi-experimental study of non-equivalent pretest- posttest control group design was used in this research. The findings showed that (1 there was a significant improvement in critical thinking and speaking skill, (2 there was also a significant mean difference between the experimental and control groups, (3 there was high contribution of the debate toward the whole aspects of critical thinking (0.821 or 82.1%. Partially, the contribution of each aspect of Critical Thinking (CT toward critical thinking (total achievement was as follows: context was 32.3%, issue was 26.2%, implication was 20.1%, and assumption was 6.6%. On the other side, there was high contribution of the debate toward the whole aspects of Speaking Skill (0.961 or 96.1%. Partially, the contribution of each aspect of Speaking Skill (SS toward Speaking Skill (total achievement was as follows: fluency was 67.4%, grammar was 13.7%, pronunciation was 8.3%, comprehension was 5.4%, and vocabulary was 1.4%.
Facilitating critical thinking within the nursing process framework: A literature review. ... Journal Home > Vol 12, No 4 (2007) > ... critical clinical decisions and also make astute clinical judgment that are logical to solve health related problems.
Sukaesih, S.; Sutrisno
The aim of the study was to analyse the effect of the application of Conceptual Understanding Procedures (CUPs) learning to the students’ critical thinking skills in the matter of categorisaed in SMA Negeri 1 Larangan. This study was quasi-experimental design using nonequivalent control group design. The population in this study was entire class X. The samples that were taken by convenience sampling were class X MIA 1 and X MIA 2. Primary data in the study was the student’s critical thinking skills, which was supported by student activity, the level of adherence to the CUPs learning model, student opinion and teacher opinion. N-gain test results showed that the students’ critical thinking skills of experimental class increased by 89.32%, while the control group increased by 57.14%. Activity grade of experimental class with an average value of 72.37 was better than that of the control class with an average of only 22.69 student and teacher opinions to the learning were excellegoodnt. Based on this study concluded that the model of Conceptual Understanding Procedures (CUPs) had an effect on the student’s critical thinking skills in the matter of protest in SMA Negeri 1 Larangan.
This column addresses the importance of developing critical thinking to meet the demands of 21st-century literacies and participatory democracy. The author argues for a critical approach to digital literacies that explores the sociological nature of literacy practices. Students examine examples of new literacies and analyze how ideologies are…
Athari, Zeinab-Sadat; Sharif, Sayyed-Mostafa; Nasr, Ahmad Reza; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi
Critical thinking is an important outcome criterion of higher education in any discipline. Medical and paramedical students always encounter with many new problems in clinical settings and medicinal laboratory, and critical thinking is an essential skill in obtaining a better approach for problem solving. We performed a pre-and post-test to evaluate the change of critical thinking skills in medical sciences students who enrolled in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in Iran during the academic years 2008-2010. In a longitudinal design study, the critical thinking skills were compared in medical sciences students in two sequential semesters using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test. The test is divided into two parts (parts 1 and 2), including 17 items in each part. Based on proportional stratified sampling, a groups of students (group 1, n=159) were selected from the university population, who enrolled in medicine, pharmacy, nursing, and rehabilitation colleges. The students in group 1 were asked to complete the part 1 of the test (phase I). After one semester, another group (group 2, n=138) from the same population was randomly selected, and they were asked to complete the part two (phase II). The students' demographic data also were recorded. The California critical thinking skills test was translated and it validity and reliability were approved before. No significant difference was observed between the two groups in the demographic data. The students critical thinking scores in phase II significantly reduced in comparison with phase 1 (pstudents' critical thinking.
Dowd, Jason E; Thompson, Robert J; Schiff, Leslie A; Reynolds, Julie A
Developing critical-thinking and scientific reasoning skills are core learning objectives of science education, but little empirical evidence exists regarding the interrelationships between these constructs. Writing effectively fosters students' development of these constructs, and it offers a unique window into studying how they relate. In this study of undergraduate thesis writing in biology at two universities, we examine how scientific reasoning exhibited in writing (assessed using the Biology Thesis Assessment Protocol) relates to general and specific critical-thinking skills (assessed using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test), and we consider implications for instruction. We find that scientific reasoning in writing is strongly related to inference , while other aspects of science reasoning that emerge in writing (epistemological considerations, writing conventions, etc.) are not significantly related to critical-thinking skills. Science reasoning in writing is not merely a proxy for critical thinking. In linking features of students' writing to their critical-thinking skills, this study 1) provides a bridge to prior work suggesting that engagement in science writing enhances critical thinking and 2) serves as a foundational step for subsequently determining whether instruction focused explicitly on developing critical-thinking skills (particularly inference ) can actually improve students' scientific reasoning in their writing. © 2018 J. E. Dowd et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2018 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
Bates, Dana K.; Sikkema, Jill A.; Nynas, Suzette M.; Culp, Clinton
Context: The Examination of Professional Degree Level document presented to the National Athletic Trainers' Association Board of Directors states that research in athletic training education has not investigated differences in the critical-thinking skills of professional athletic training students. Objective: Investigate the differences in…
Full Text Available The paper will present the relation between students’ beliefs and their behaviours observed in the process of learning critical thinking skills. In the first place some consideration concerning the fundamental epistemological concepts used in the research and about the particular critical thinking skills are to be sketched. Then the testing- learning procedure will be shortly summarized. Thirdly the evaluation of beliefs, their relations with knowledge and the associated behaviors are presented. The results of the periodic testing procedures that were taking place according to the established methodology are to be discussed. Finally, some general considerations concerning the relations between beliefs, behaviors and knowledge that have emerged in the process of learning are going to be presented.
Huang, Grace C; Newman, Lori R; Schwartzstein, Richard M
Critical thinking is central to the function of health care professionals. However, this topic is not explicitly taught or assessed within current programs, yet the need is greater than ever, in an era of information explosion, spiraling health care costs, and increased understanding about metacognition. To address the importance of teaching critical thinking in health professions education, the Shapiro Institute for Education and Research and the Josiah Macy Jr. Foundation jointly sponsored the Millennium Conference 2011 on Critical Thinking. Teams of physician and nurse educators were selected through an application process. Attendees proposed strategies for integrating principles of critical thinking more explicitly into health professions curricula. Working in interprofessional, multi-institutional groups, participants tackled questions about teaching, assessment, and faculty development. Deliberations were summarized into consensus statements. Educational leaders participated in a structured dialogue about the enhancement of critical thinking in health professions education and recommend strategies to teach critical thinking.
Naber, Jessica L; Hall, Joanne; Schadler, Craig Matthew
This study sought to identify characteristics of clinically situated critical thinking in nursing students' reflections, originally part of a study guided by Richard Paul's model of critical thinking. Nurses are expected to apply critical thinking in all practice situations to improve health outcomes, including patient safety and satisfaction. In a previous study, Paul's model of critical thinking was used to develop questions for reflective writing assignments. Within that study, 30 nursing students completed six open-ended narratives of nurse-patient clinical encounters during an 8-week period. Improvements were seen in critical thinking scores after the intervention. This article reports the qualitative analysis of the content of six open-ended narratives. Six overarching themes were identified and combined into a tentative conceptual model. Faculty's understanding of the characteristics of critical thinking in the context of clinical education will help them to teach and evaluate students' progress and competencies for future practice.
Chan, Zenobia C Y
To explore students' attitude towards problem-based learning, creativity and critical thinking, and the relevance to nursing education and clinical practice. Critical thinking and creativity are crucial in nursing education. The teaching approach of problem-based learning can help to reduce the difficulties of nurturing problem-solving skills. However, there is little in the literature on how to improve the effectiveness of a problem-based learning lesson by designing appropriate and innovative activities such as composing songs, writing poems and using role plays. Exploratory qualitative study. A sample of 100 students participated in seven semi-structured focus groups, of which two were innovative groups and five were standard groups, adopting three activities in problem-based learning, namely composing songs, writing poems and performing role plays. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. There are three themes extracted from the conversations: 'students' perceptions of problem-based learning', 'students' perceptions of creative thinking' and 'students' perceptions of critical thinking'. Participants generally agreed that critical thinking is more important than creativity in problem-based learning and clinical practice. Participants in the innovative groups perceived a significantly closer relationship between critical thinking and nursing care, and between creativity and nursing care than the standard groups. Both standard and innovative groups agreed that problem-based learning could significantly increase their critical thinking and problem-solving skills. Further, by composing songs, writing poems and using role plays, the innovative groups had significantly increased their awareness of the relationship among critical thinking, creativity and nursing care. Nursing educators should include more types of creative activities than it often does in conventional problem-based learning classes. The results could help nurse educators design an appropriate
Wilkin, Carla L.
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how assessment design was used to enhance students' critical thinking in a subject concerned with business enterprise systems. The study shows positive results and favorable perceptions of the merit of the approach. Design/Methodology/Approach: A case study approach was used to examine how the…
Adams, M H; Whitlow, J F; Stover, L M; Johnson, K W
Critical thinking, an outcome criterion of the National League for Nursing and the Council of Baccalaureate and Higher Degree Programs, is an abstract skill difficult to measure. The authors provide a comprehensive review of four instruments designed to measure critical thinking and summarize research in which the tools were used. Analysis of this information will empower nursing faculty members to select a critical-thinking instrument that is individualized to the needs of their respective nursing programs.
Baldwin, Dolly Angela Serreno
There has been little research which shows that students use critical thinking skills when they write. The use of journal writing has been studied for a variety of purposes, but little evidence exists that journal writing can enhance critical thinking skills. The writing assignments presented in this study were designed to enhance the critical thinking skills of college students enrolled in a reading methods course at a small college in southern West Virginia. Case studies were used to descri...
In this article, the author argues first, that critical-thinking skills do exist independent of disciplinary thinking skills and are not compromised by interaction effects with the major; and second, that standardized tests (e.g., the Collegiate Learning Assessment, or CLA, which is his example throughout the article) are the best way to measure…
Nursing graduates (n=65) completed a critical thinking instrument and clinical decision-making scale. The critical thinking subscales of inference and inductive reasoning were positively correlated to clinical judgment. A significant relationship was found between critical thinking score and grade point average in nursing. (SK)
Cornell, Paul; Riordan, Monica; Townsend-Gervis, Mary; Mobley, Robin
Nurses are increasingly called upon to engage in critical thinking. However, current workflow inhibits this goal with frequent task switching and unpredictable demands. To assess workflow's cognitive impact, nurses were observed at 2 hospitals with different patient loads and acuity levels. Workflow on a medical/surgical and pediatric oncology unit was observed, recording tasks, tools, collaborators, and locations. Nineteen nurses were observed for a total of 85.2 hours. Tasks were short with a mean duration of 62.4 and 81.6 seconds on the 2 units. More than 50% of the recorded tasks were less than 30 seconds in length. An analysis of task sequence revealed few patterns and little pairwise repetition. Performance on specific tasks differed between the 2 units, but the character of the workflow was highly similar. The nonrepetitive flow and high amount of switching indicate nurses experience a heavy cognitive load with little uninterrupted time. This implies that nurses rarely have the conditions necessary for critical thinking.
Parker, Steve; Mayner, Lidia; Michael Gillham, David
Background: Undergraduate nursing students are often confused by multiple understandings of critical thinking. In response to this situation, the Critiique for critical thinking (CCT) project was implemented to provide consistent structured guidance about critical thinking. Objectives: This paper introduces Critiique software, describes initial validation of the content of this critical thinking tool and explores wider applications of the Critiique software. Materials and Methods: Critiique is flexible, authorable software that guides students step-by-step through critical appraisal of research papers. The spelling of Critiique was deliberate, so as to acquire a unique web domain name and associated logo. The CCT project involved implementation of a modified nominal focus group process with academic staff working together to establish common understandings of critical thinking. Previous work established a consensus about critical thinking in nursing and provided a starting point for the focus groups. The study was conducted at an Australian university campus with the focus group guided by open ended questions. Results: Focus group data established categories of content that academic staff identified as important for teaching critical thinking. This emerging focus group data was then used to inform modification of Critiique software so that students had access to consistent and structured guidance in relation to critical thinking and critical appraisal. Conclusions: The project succeeded in using focus group data from academics to inform software development while at the same time retaining the benefits of broader philosophical dimensions of critical thinking. PMID:26835469
Parker, Steve; Mayner, Lidia; Michael Gillham, David
Undergraduate nursing students are often confused by multiple understandings of critical thinking. In response to this situation, the Critiique for critical thinking (CCT) project was implemented to provide consistent structured guidance about critical thinking. This paper introduces Critiique software, describes initial validation of the content of this critical thinking tool and explores wider applications of the Critiique software. Critiique is flexible, authorable software that guides students step-by-step through critical appraisal of research papers. The spelling of Critiique was deliberate, so as to acquire a unique web domain name and associated logo. The CCT project involved implementation of a modified nominal focus group process with academic staff working together to establish common understandings of critical thinking. Previous work established a consensus about critical thinking in nursing and provided a starting point for the focus groups. The study was conducted at an Australian university campus with the focus group guided by open ended questions. Focus group data established categories of content that academic staff identified as important for teaching critical thinking. This emerging focus group data was then used to inform modification of Critiique software so that students had access to consistent and structured guidance in relation to critical thinking and critical appraisal. The project succeeded in using focus group data from academics to inform software development while at the same time retaining the benefits of broader philosophical dimensions of critical thinking.
Eugenia Arazo Boa
Full Text Available Enhancing critical thinking skills is one of the paramount goals of many educational institutions. This study presents the development and validation of the Blended Socratic Method of Teaching (BSMT, a teaching model intended to foster critical thinking skills of business students in the undergraduate level. The main objectives of the study were to 1 to survey the critical thinking skills of undergraduate business students, and 2 to develop and validate the BSMT model designed to enhance critical thinking skills. The research procedure comprised of two phases related to the two research objectives: 1 surveying the critical thinking skills of 371 undergraduate business students at Naresuan University International College focusing on the three critical thinking competencies of the RED model—recognize assumptions, evaluate arguments, and draw conclusion, and the determination of the level of their critical thinking; and 2 developing the instructional model followed by validation of the model by five experts. The results of the study were: 1 the undergraduate business students have deficient critical thinking based on the RED Model competencies as they scored “below average” on the critical thinking appraisal, and 2 the developed model comprised six elements: focus, syntax, principles of reaction, the social system, the support system, and application. The experts were in complete agreement that the model is “highly appropriate” in improving the critical thinking skills of the business students. The main essence of the model is the syntax comprising of five steps: group assignment, analysis and writing of case studies; group presentation of the business case analysis in class; Socratic discussion/questioning in class; posting of the case study on the class Facebook account; and online Socratic discussion/questioning. The BSMT model is an authentic and comprehensive model combining the Socratic method of teaching, information and
Tiruneh, Dawit Tibebu; De Cock, Mieke; Weldeslassie, Ataklti G.; Elen, Jan; Janssen, Rianne
Although the development of critical thinking (CT) is a major goal of science education, adequate emphasis has not been given to the measurement of CT skills in specific science domains such as physics. Recognizing that adequately assessing CT implies the assessment of both domain-specific and domain-general CT skills, this study reports on the…
Niu, Lian; Behar-Horenstein, Linda S.; Garvan, Cyndi W.
Promoting students' critical thinking skills is an important task of higher education. Colleges and universities have designed various instructional interventions to enhance students' critical thinking skills. Empirical studies have yielded inconsistent results in terms of the effects of such interventions. This meta-analysis presents a synthesis…
Broome, Jeffrey; Pereira, Adriane; Anderson, Tom
Recent educational initiatives have emphasised the importance of fostering critical thinking skills in today's students in order to provide strategies for becoming successful problem solvers throughout life. Other scholars advocate the use of critical thinking skills on the grounds that such tools can be used effectively when considering social…
Full Text Available Many current researches have sought to explore the thought and contributions of Ibn Khaldūn to the various disciplines of human knowledge including philosophy of history, historiography, politics, economics, and education. Little interest, however, is given to his contributions to the theory of critical thinking. This research investigates Ibn Khaldūn’s perspective on critical thinking and critique of intellectual disciplines while exploring its origin and dimensions. The research shows that Ibn Khaldūn’s critical thinking is essentially entrenched in the fundamental vision and origins of Islam, and reflective of the broad Islamic scholarship and the practices of Muslim scholars across the different religious and rational disciplines. What characterises Ibn Khaldūn’s contribution to the field of critical thinking is his ability to apply it across various fields of scholarship yet with a conscious attention to society’s dynamics, particularly the practical dimensions and implications of his theory of human society (‘umrān basharī.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to offer a view of the assumptions that guide the practice of claiming sex differences in the brain. After the realization that much of the research and publication of neuroscientific findings assume such a difference, we found a great deal of what has been called neurosexism. As a way to overcome it and from a feminist theory with a political commitment we propose a critical approach to the neurosciences. This is understood as a reflective collaboration between disciplines that could provide a framework for overcoming prejudices in thinking and designing science.
Siles-González, José; Solano-Ruiz, Carmen
In accordance with the principles of the European Higher Education Area, the aim of this study was to contribute to the implementation of self-assessment through the application of reflection on learning and critical thinking. The theoretical framework employed was Habermas's critical theory and emancipatory interest as a preliminary step to generate educational transformations. The methodological contribution is the design a student self-assessment document that promotes reflection on action and critical thinking. The development of assessment through peer evaluation and other intermediate solutions until achieving self-assessment entails a shift in the educational and scientific paradigm, but also involves the implementation in practice of democratic and ethical principles, values and premises in society. Self-assessment is a novel concept for students, and obliges them to reinterpret their role. Due to the diversity of students' principles, values, motivations, interests and aspirations, this reinterpretation of their role can have a positive outcome, stimulating an active and critical attitude towards group work and self-assessment; or, on the contrary, can generate a stance characterised by disinterest, passivity and lack of critical thinking. The forms of assessment adopted in a given educational system reflect ways of thinking related to ideologies, values, ethical principles and educational paradigms: in order to render implementation of effective self-assessment feasible, it is necessary to undertake structural and regulatory reforms. Students have little experience of reflection on practice or critical thinking. Massification and cultural and structural factors determine the form of assessment. In this context, it would seem advisable to move towards self-assessment gradually and cautiously. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Handhika, J.; Cari, C.; Sunarno, W.; Suparmi, A.; Kurniadi, E.
This research revealed the influence of project-based learning (PjBL) to increasing the level of the conception. The research method used the pre-experimental design with one group pre-test post-test. PjBL applied to students of physics education program of IKIP PGRI Madiun (23 Students). The test used to determine the level of conception is multiple choice tests and index of certainty. Activities on PjBL described. Obtained that the PjBL model can increase the level of conception and Critical thinking skills with the average normalized gain 0.49 and 0.57 (Medium category). It can be concluded that the PjBL could improve the level of conception and critical thinking ability of the students. Implementation of each model phase following learning objectives and needs analysis is the key to improve both.
Sundararajan, NarayanKripa; Adesope, Olusola; Cavagnetto, Andy
To develop and nurture critical thinking, students must have opportunities to observe and practice critical thinking in the classroom. In this parallel mixed method classroom study, we investigate the role of collaborative concept mapping in the development of kindergarten learners' critical thinking skills of analysis and interpretation over a…
Marchigiano, Gail; Eduljee, Nina; Harvey, Kimberly
Clinical assignments in nursing education provide opportunities for students to develop thinking skills vital to the effective delivery of patient care. The purpose of the present study was to examine students' perceived levels of confidence for using thinking skills when completing two types of clinical assignments. Clinical educators and managers are challenged to develop teaching and learning strategies that help students think critically and reflectively and transfer these skills into sound nursing practice. This study is based on the theoretical framework of critical thinking within the nursing process framework. Undergraduate nursing students (n=51) completed surveys indicating their confidence in using seven thinking skills for nursing care. Students indicated significantly more confidence when implementing the journal format as compared with the care plan format when analysing information, determining relevance, making connections, selecting appropriate information, applying relevant knowledge and evaluating outcomes. The findings of the present study propose a new approach for enhancing students' thinking skills. Journaling is an effective strategy for enhancing students' thinking skills. Nursing managers are in key organisational positions for supporting and promoting the use of the journal format and building supportive and collaborative learning environments for students to develop thinking skills for managing patient care. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Adult learning, critical thinking, and decision-making are fields that receive attention individually, although they are interspersed with elements of each other's theories and philosophies. In addressing adult learning precepts, it is essential to include critical thinking and decision-making. One without the other creates weakness; all must be…
Saeed, Tanveer; Khan, Shehla; Ahmed, Azra; Gul, Raisa; Cassum, Shanaz; Parpio, Yasmin
To enhance the Critical Thinking skills of educators associated with the nursing baccalaureate programmes in Pakistan. By focusing on the type and level of questions asked by the educators. Ninety-one faculty members from 14 out of 17 schools participated in the study. Data on the faculty's questioning skills was obtained through classroom observations and field notes. The duration of the observations was 45-60 minutes. Using Bloom's Taxonomy for cognitive thinking, questions were categorised into high and low categories. Most of the questions (68.9 %) asked by the participants were of lower levels, while some (5.37 %) were ambiguous. In many instances, the participants did not allow a sufficient wait-time for students to think and respond. The findings suggest that educators must learn to use the questioning strategy effectively. They should ask higher level questions if they wish to inculcate Critical Thinking in students.
Perry, Dustin K.; Retallick, Michael S.; Paulsen, Thomas H.
Due to an ever changing world where technology seemingly provides endless answers, today's higher education students must master a new skill set reflecting an emphasis on critical thinking, problem solving, and communications. The purpose of this study was to establish a departmental benchmark for critical thinking abilities of students majoring…
Carrithers, David; Ling, Teresa; Bean, John C.
This article investigates the critical thinking difficulties of finance majors when asked to address ill-structured finance problems. The authors build on previous research in which they asked students to analyze an ill-structured investment problem and recommend a course of action. The results revealed numerous critical thinking weaknesses,…
Evens, Marie; Verburgh, An; Elen, Jan
Critical thinking helps students to confront a multitude of challenges they will face in their careers and personal lives. It is therefore an important task of higher education to promote students' critical thinking. However, students do not enter higher education with a blank page. Background characteristics of students are important in…
Full Text Available This study aims to develop the interactive e-book multimedia model to improve the students' critical thinking ability (KBK. Critical thinking is very important to develop because it provides a high level of reasoning thinking that provides permanent experience to students through conscious and controlled decision making in a rational, reflective, responsible manner with the optimization of potential. Flash-based e-book media is capable of interactively loading videos, pictures, practice questions and learning with directed directions from the teacher. The research method developed is research and development. The output products are learning plan, KBK evaluation question, flash-based interactive e-book multimedia, and quasi experiment to see media effectiveness to KBK. The results showed that e-book multimedia is able to significantly increase the KBK of high school students in economic learning.
Burkhalter, Nancy; Shegebayev, Maganat R.
This paper explores the question of whether critical thinking can eventually become part of the cultural fabric in Kazakhstan, a country whose Soviet educational system not only trained teachers to memorise, lecture and intimidate students but also created a culture in educational institutions fraught with many fear-based behaviours engendering competitiveness, intolerance and other hostile behaviours antithetical to critical thinking and an open, democratic society. While educational reform can have profound effects on a nation, education is but one system in a complex network of governmental and cultural systems, and change must be borne by many. This paper reviews literature and presents qualitative data gathered through interviews with Soviet-trained teachers. The authors recommend that teachers should embrace student-centred techniques and critical thinking methodologies, as well as shift from a fear-based, authoritarian, top-down system of relating to students and colleagues to one of cooperation, openness and fairness. Such a reform will take repetitive, intensive and experiential training as well as regular assessments of progress.
Azizi-Fini, Ismail; Hajibagheri, Ali; Adib-Hajbaghery, Mohsen
Critical thinking is one of the most important concepts in the field of education. Despite studies published on nursing students' critical thinking skills (CTS), some suggest that there is not enough evidence supporting the relationship between content of nursing education programs and nursing students' CTS. Given the existing discrepancies, this study aimed to compare the critical thinking skills of freshmen and senior nursing students. This comparative study was conducted on 150 undergraduate freshmen and senior nursing students in Kashan University of Medical Sciences, during 2012. The students in the first and the last semesters of their study in nursing were entered in the study using the census method. Data were collected using a questionnaire including questions on demographic data and the California Critical Thinking Skills Test, form B. Data analysis was performed using the SPSS v.13 software. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Moreover, independent sample t-test and Spearman and Pearson's correlation coefficients were used in the data analysis. Both the freshmen and senior nursing students had low CTS. The mean critical thinking scores were 11.79 ± 4.80 and 11.21 ± 3.17 for the freshmen and the senior students, respectively (P = 0.511). Moreover, no significant correlation was found between the students' score in CTS and their age, gender, high school grade point average (GPA), rank in university entrance examination (RUEE) and interest in the nursing profession. The students were low skilled in critical thinking and their CTS did not significantly change during their nursing degree. Thus it may be concluded that the nursing education program did not affect the CTS of its students. Longitudinal studies are suggested for assessing nursing students' critical thinking over time. Moreover, revising the curriculum and preparing nursing educators for implementing innovative and active teaching strategies are suggested.
R. Surya Damayanti
Full Text Available This study aims to develop an authentic assessment instrument to measure critical thinking skills in global warming learning and to describe the suitability, easiness, and usefulness of the use instruments which are developed base on the teacher’s opinion. The development design is carried out by Borg & Gall (2003 development model, which is conducted with seven stages: information gathering stage, planning stage, product development stage, product test stage, product revision stage, field trial stage, and final product. The test subjects are students and teachers in SMA Lampung Tengah by using purposive sampling technique. Global warming learning using authentic assessment consists of a series of learning activities, including observing, discussing, exploring, associating and communicating. The results show the authentic assessment techniques global warming to measure and cultivate critical thinking skills consisting of written tests, performance, portfolios, projects, and attitudes. The developed assessment model meets content and constructs validity, and effectively improves students' critical thinking skills and has a high level of suitability, easiness, and usefulness well-being. The assessment techniques are used in global warming learning are performance assessment techniques, portfolios, projects, products, and attitude that together contribute to the improvement of critical thinking skills on 97,4% of global warming learning.
Kassem, Cherrie L.
To improve students' critical-thinking skills, an interdisciplinary team of educators collaborated with a specialist. The result: a new model for infusing thinking-skills instruction. This paper describes the change process, the CRTA model's evolution, derivation of its acronym, and early qualitative results. (Contains 31 references.) (MLH)
Kaddoura, Mahmoud; Van-Dyke, Olga; Yang, Qing
Nurses confront complex problems and decisions that require critical thinking in order to identify patient needs and implement best practices. An active strategy for teaching students the skills to think critically is the concept map. This study explores the development of critical thinking among nursing students in a required pathophysiology and pharmacology course during the first year of a Bachelor of Science in Nursing in response to concept mapping as an interventional strategy, using the Health Education Systems, Incorporated critical thinking test. A two-group experimental study with a pretest and posttest design was used. Participants were randomly divided into a control group (n = 42) taught by traditional didactic lecturing alone, and an intervention group (n = 41), taught by traditional didactic lecturing with concept mapping. Students in the concept mapping group performed much better on the Health Education Systems, Incorporated than students in the control group. It is recommended that deans, program directors, and nursing faculties evaluate their curricula to integrate concept map teaching strategies in courses in order to develop critical thinking abilities in their students. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Michael J Peeters
Full Text Available Objective: The investigators aimed to summarize prior studies of critical thinking development among pharmacy students, using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST, Health Sciences Reasoning Test (HSRT, and Defining Issues Test (DIT. Methods: Independently, two investigators (KLZ, MJP systematically searched available literature using PubMed, Google Scholar, ERIC, PsychInfo, as well as pharmacy education conference abstracts in American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. Their search terms were ‘pharmacy’, and [‘critical thinking’, ‘HSRT’, ‘CCTST’, and ‘DIT’]. Studies included were those that investigated pharmacy students, used one of the tests (CCTST, HSRT, DIT, and used a longitudinal design with test administration at two or more time-points for the same subjects (i.e., development. On review, the CCTST and HSRT seem more foundational to analytical/critical thinking, while the DIT appears to measure moral/complex thinking. Summarizing used meta-analysis with Cohen’s d and random-effects modelling. Results: Five studies involved thinking development with 10 separate cohorts for meta-analysis (8 cohorts for CCTST, 2 for DIT, and 0 for HSRT. At 5 institutions, 407 and 1148 students were included (CCTST and DIT, respectively. For the CCTST, the overall effect was 0.33 (0.19-0.47 95%CI with some heterogeneity among study cohorts (I2=52%. For the DIT, the overall effect was -0.23 (-0.83-0.37 95%CI with considerable heterogeneity between study cohorts (I2=95%. For the CCTST and DIT, some studies showed effect-sizes greater than 0.5. Meta-analysis of the HSRT could not be conducted (i.e., 0 studies found. Implications: While measuring different aspects of “critical thinking”, the CCTST and DIT showed responsiveness to change and appear to be promising measures of cognitive development. These tests should be used in further well-designed research studies that explore strategies for improving cognitive
Blue, Jennifer; Taylor, Beverley; Yarrison-Rice, Jan
Enhancing critical thinking skills for undergraduate students is important across the curriculum and between disciplines. We report on a method of improving critical thinking skills, which was studied through an Ethics and Science First-Year Seminar course. We used full cycle assessment over a three-year period to assess students' development and…
Shannon, Li-Jen; Bennett, Judith
A majority of incoming college freshmen and sophomores have not applied their critical thinking skills as part of their learning process. This paper investigates how students acquire their critical thinking skills while facing the copyright, fair use, and internet security challenges in this contemporary digital society. The findings show that 90…
Nur Miftahul Fuad
Full Text Available The aims of this study were (1 to find out the differences in critical thinking skills among students who were given three different learning models: differentiated science inquiry combined with mind map, differentiated science inquiry model, and conventional model, (2 to find out the differences of critical thinking skills among male and female students. This study is a quasi-experimental research with pretest-posttest nonequivalent control group design. The population in this research is the seventh grade students of junior high schools in Kediri, Indonesia. The sample of the research is in the number of 96 students distributed in three classes at different schools. The data of critical thinking skills are gained from test scores and then analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics through ANCOVA. The results of research revealed that there are different skills in critical thinking in different models. The highest skills in critical thinking are reached by students who were given differentiated science inquiry model combined with mind map in their learning. There are also differences in critical thinking skills between male and female students.
Ven, J.G.M. van de; Neef, R.M.
Building up a proper understanding of a large-scale incident is an important and difficult process. We envision a working environment for decision makers in crisis management situations that allows them to work with information in various ways. That will stimulate them to think critically in
Mogk, D. W.; Geissman, J. W.
There is a compelling need to develop the geoscience workforce of the future to address the "grand challenges" that face humanity. This workforce must have a strong understanding of Earth history, processes and materials and be able to communicate effectively and responsibly to inform public policy and personal and societal actions, particularly with regard to geohazards and natural resources. Curricula to train future geoscientists must be designed to help students develop critical thinking skills across the curriculum, from introductory to senior capstone courses. Students will be challenged in their pre-professional training as geoscientists as they encounter an incomplete geologic record, ambiguity and uncertainty in observed and experimental results, temporal reasoning ("deep time", frequency, recurrence intervals), spatial reasoning (from microns to mountains), and complex system behavior. Four instructional approaches can be combined to address these challenges and help students develop critical thinking skills: 1) Geoethics and ethical decision making includes review and integration of the context/facts of the situation, stakeholders, decision-makers, and possible alternative actions and expected outcomes; 2) The affective domain which encompasses factors such as student motivation to learn, curiosity, fear, attitudes, perceptions, social barriers and values; 3) Metacognition which encourages students to be aware about their own thinking processes, and to develop self-monitoring and self-regulating behaviors; and 4) Systems thinking which requires integrative thinking about the interactions between physical, chemical, biological and human processes, feedback mechanisms and emergent phenomena. Guided inquiry and scaffolded exercises can be used to present increasingly complex situations that require a thorough understanding of geologic principles and processes as applied to issues of societal concern. These approaches are not "owned" by any single course or
Danvers, Emily Clair
Critical thinking is often understood as a set of tangible, transferrable and measurable skills and competencies. Yet, it is also an intensely affective experience that is complex, contingent and contextualised. Using interview, focus group and observation data conducted with 15 first-year undergraduate social science students at a UK…
Sumarni, W.; Supardi, K. I.; Widiarti, N.
Assessment instruments that is commonly used in the school generally have not been orientated on critical thinking skills. The purpose of this research is to develop assessment instruments to measure critical thinking skills, to test validity, reliability, and practicality. This type of research is Research and Development. There are two stages on the preface step, which are field study and literacy study. On the development steps, there some parts, which are 1) instrument construction, 2) expert validity, 3) limited scale tryout and 4) narrow scale try-out. The developed assessment instrument are analysis essay and problem solving. Instruments were declared valid, reliable and practical.
Papathanasiou, Ioanna V.; Kleisiaris, Christos F.; Fradelos, Evangelos C.; Kakou, Katerina; Kourkouta, Lambrini
Critical thinking is defined as the mental process of actively and skillfully perception, analysis, synthesis and evaluation of collected information through observation, experience and communication that leads to a decision for action. In nursing education there is frequent reference to critical thinking and to the significance that it has in daily clinical nursing practice. Nursing clinical instructors know that students face difficulties in making decisions related to clinical practice. Th...
nurul, didin; zahra anasha, zara
Critical mathematic thinking ability is very important to solve daily problems. But in reality, junior high school students' critical mathematic thinking ability is still low. Ability measurement such as measurement of critical mathematic thinking ability cannot be measured through multiple choices test. In that case, an essay test in which graded scoring is used as scoring technique more suitable than multiple choices test. The result of the essay test will be analyzed to describe...
Schipke, Rae Carrington
This article discusses how cooperative learning as a socioinstructional approach, relates to both socially-based emerging technologies (i.e. Web 2.0) and to critical thinking with respect to co-cognition. It begins with a discussion of the importance of connecting cooperative learning, Web 2.0, and critical thinking. This is followed by the need…
The task of developing vocational nursing students' critical thinking abilities is one of the greatest challenges facing nurse educators today. Licensed vocational nurses (LVNs) must be trained to think critically in order to provide safe patient care. Due to the expanded role and functions in the LVN's scope of practice, LVNs are making more…
Since Socrates’ time, reasoning is considered valuable for the justification of speaker’s belief along with Thomas Aquinas’ testing of his thinking to answer his own thinking. Critical thinking has been part of discussion among the educators for its significance and application for last many decades. Many educators have conducted researches on the assessment of critical thinking within a domain or across the domain in order to test students’ critical thinking skills and its effect on their le...
Kabeel, Abeer Refaat; Eisa, Sahar Abd El-Mohsen Mosa
Background: Part of the 21st century skills is critical thinking and learning approaches of students. A part of that resurgence can be attributable to several studies on critical thinking, logic, and thinking skills. Health care professionals are challenged by the complexities of the health care environment. The practice of nursing requires…
Stedman, Nicole L. P.; Andenoro, Anthony C.
Engaging students emotionally is the key to strengthening their dispositions toward critical thinking. Elder (1997) contends that it is critical thinking which leads us to a rational and reasonable emotional life. The link between thinking and emotions is essential in leadership education. With this in mind, the researchers sought to examine the…
Ferguson, Duncan C; McNeil, Leslie Klis; Schaeffe, David J; Mills, Eric M
First-year didactic course instructors at the University of Illinois College of Veterinary Medicine leverage earlier clinical rotation experiences with weekly "Clinical Correlations" exercises to provide early exposure to critical clinical thinking (CCT). This study evaluated the efficacy of individual and paired group exercises on CCT development. Before and after instruction, the Cornell Critical Thinking Test (Level Z) (CCTTZ) was administered. Based on the hypothesis that students with higher scores would coach lower-scoring colleagues during group exercises, heterogeneous groups with similar mean scores were established for the year. Students completed 14 individual and paired group exercises over 6 months. Exercises were designed to increase in complexity and decline in scaffolding. Seven of the exercises were cases using the Applied Learning Platform (ALP) at http://www.whenknowingmatters.com . Student analyses were scored according to a six-category critical-thinking rubric using a 5-point scale. Consistent with our hypothesis, individual and group rubric scores increased significantly, plateauing near the end of the year. Contrary to our hypothesis, mean overall CCTTZ scores did not change, but there was a small statistically significant increase in the ability to assess the validity of an argument. Student attitudes were mixed. Positive comments focused on reinforcement of prior didactic instruction, while negative comments focused on preparation time needed to conduct research on clinical concepts, and on a lack of explicit evaluation by summative examinations. Nonetheless, end-of-year GPAs correlated linearly with cumulative individual rubric scores. In summary, the value of early curriculum CCT training was confirmed when discipline-specific criteria were applied.
This article calls for the devolution of power by large organizations to their subsidiaries or subordinate units – mainly Strategic Business Units (SBUs). It proposes more decentralized models of management and outlines a new theory taking a critical systems thinking approach. Corporations are advised to attack and ...
Full Text Available Instilling critical thinking skills in language learners’ mind and enhancing second language writing are gaining momentum in the field of English language teaching. Though some approaches to meeting these objectives have been proposed, review of the literature revealed that the contributory role of collaborative assessment in fostering critical thinking and second language writing has been overlooked to date. Thus, this study was conducted to delve into this issue. To this aim, two intact intermediate EFL classes in Iran, each of which contains 18 learners, were included in the study; they were randomly assigned to Student-Student (S-S collaborative assessment and Teacher-Student (T-S collaborative assessment groups. After receiving six sessions of treatment, both groups wrote an essay on an IELTS topic. Results of the study indicated that collaborative assessment, regardless of its type, has the potential to foster critical thinking and writing proficiency. Further, it came to light that S-S collaborative assessment group significantly outperformed the T-S collaborative assessment group in terms of gains in critical thinking and writing proficiency. In light of the findings, language teachers are suggested to involve learners in collaborative assessment processes; further, some suggestions are offered at the end to show some fruitful avenues for further research.
Choo, Lay Hiok; Jewell, Paul D.
This paper examines similarities between the goals of Aikido, a martial art, and critical thinking and argues that Aikido promotes the development of thinking in its training and practice. It applies these ideas to the gifted education curriculum. First the paper introduces characteristics of Aikido, Aikido movement and techniques. It equates…
Vieira, Rui Marques; Tenreiro-Vieira, Celina
Scientific literacy (SL) and critical thinking (CT) are key components of science education aiming to prepare students to think and to function as responsible citizens in a world increasingly affected by science and technology (S&T). Therefore, students should be given opportunities in their science classes to be engaged in learning…
Heidari, Mohammad; Ebrahimi, Parvin
Critical-thinking ability would enable students to think creatively and make better decisions and makes them make a greater effort to concentrate on situations related to clinical matters and emergencies. This can bridge the gap between the clinical and theoretical training. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to examine the relationship between critical-thinking ability and decision-making skills of the students of Emergency Medicine. This descriptive and analytical research was conducted on all the students of medical emergency students ( n = 86) in Shahrekord, Iran. The demographic information questionnaire, the California Critical Thinking Skills Test, and a decision-making researcher-made questionnaire were used to collect data. The data were analyzed by SPSS software version 16 using descriptive and analytical statistical tests and Pearson's correlation coefficient. The results of the present study indicate that the total mean score for the critical thinking was 8.32 ± 2.03 and for decision making 8.66 ± 1.89. There is a significant statistical relationship between the critical-thinking score and decision-making score ( P critical-thinking skills and decision-making ability are essential for medical emergency professional competence, the results of this study show that these skills are poor among the students.
Helsdingen, Anne; Van Gog, Tamara; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen
Helsdingen, A. S., Van Gog, T., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2009). Critical thinking instruction and contextual interference to increase cognitive flexibility in complex judgment. Paper presented at the Joint meeting of the Scientific Network on "Developing critical and flexible thinking" and the
Brown, F. William; Bielinska-Kwapisz, Agnieszka
The authors examine the dimensions and determinants of critical thinking skills, as measured by the California Critical Thinking Skills Test, among graduating senior students enrolled in an Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business-accredited undergraduate business program. Utilizing explanatory variables, a methodology for predicting…
Kuncorowati, R. H.; Mardiyana; Saputro, D. R. S.
Creative thinking ability was one of student’s ability to determine various alternative solutions toward mathematics problem. One of indicators related to creative thinking ability was interpersonal intelligence. Student’s interpersonal intelligence would influence to student’s creativity. This research aimed to analyze creative thinking ability level of junior high school students in Karanganyar using descriptive method. Data was collected by test, questionnaire, interview, and documentation. The result showed that students with high interpersonal intelligence achieved third and fourth level in creative thinking ability. Students with moderate interpersonal intelligence achieved second level in creative thinking ability and students with low interpersonal intelligence achieved first and zero level in creative thinking ability. Hence, students with high, moderate, and low interpersonal intelligence could solve mathematics problem based on their mathematics creative thinking ability.
Critical thinking, clinical decision making, and critical reflection have been identified as skills required of nurses in every clinical situation. The Educating Nurses: A Call for Radical Transformation report suggested that critical reflection is a key to improving the educational process. Reflective journaling is a tool that helps develop such skills. This article presents the tool of reflective journaling and the use of this process by educators working with students. It describes the use of reflective journaling in graduate nursing education, as well as a scoring process to evaluate the reflection and provide feedback. Students and faculty found the journaling to be helpful for reflection of a clinical situation focused on critical thinking skill development. The rubric scoring tool provided faculty with a method for feedback. Reflective journaling is a tool that faculty and students can use to develop critical thinking skills for the role of the advanced practice RN. A rubric scoring system offers a consistent format for feedback. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Mabruroh, F.; Suhandi, A.
This study aimed to construct test instrument of critical thinking skills of high school students related the concept on sound wave. This research using a mixed methods with sequential exploratory design, consists of: 1) a preliminary study; 2) design and review of test instruments. The form of test instruments in essay questions, consist of 18 questions that was divided into 5 indicators and 8 sub-indicators of the critical thinking skills expressed by Ennis, with questions that are qualitative and contextual. Phases of preliminary study include: a) policy studies; b) survey to the school; c) and literature studies. Phases of the design and review of test instruments consist of two steps, namely a draft design of test instruments include: a) analysis of the depth of teaching materials; b) the selection of indicators and sub-indicators of critical thinking skills; c) analysis of indicators and sub-indicators of critical thinking skills; d) implementation of indicators and sub-indicators of critical thinking skills; and e) making the descriptions about the test instrument. In the next phase of the review test instruments, consist of: a) writing about the test instrument; b) validity test by experts; and c) revision of test instruments based on the validator.
Clarke, David J.; Holt, Janet
A learning module for nursing attempts to prepare nurses to understand philosophical inquiry and develop critical thinking skills. Teaching strategies used included exercises involving verbal disagreement and ambiguity and critical examination of publications. (Contains 42 references.) (SK)
Simon, Thomas C.
Although critical thinking skills are important for all citizens participating in a democratic society, many community college students appear to lack these skills. This study addressed the apparent lack of research relating critical thinking instruction to campus climate. Critical thinking theory and Moos's organizational climate theory served as…
Jenicek, Milos; Croskerry, Pat; Hitchcock, David L
Obtaining and critically appraising evidence is clearly not enough to make better decisions in clinical care. The evidence should be linked to the clinician's expertise, the patient's individual circumstances (including values and preferences), and clinical context and settings. We propose critical thinking and decision-making as the tools for making that link. Critical thinking is also called for in medical research and medical writing, especially where pre-canned methodologies are not enough. It is also involved in our exchanges of ideas at floor rounds, grand rounds and case discussions; our communications with patients and lay stakeholders in health care; and our writing of research papers, grant applications and grant reviews. Critical thinking is a learned process which benefits from teaching and guided practice like any discipline in health sciences. Training in critical thinking should be a part or a pre-requisite of the medical curriculum.
Jenicek, Milos; Croskerry, Pat; Hitchcock, David L.
Summary Obtaining and critically appraising evidence is clearly not enough to make better decisions in clinical care. The evidence should be linked to the clinician’s expertise, the patient’s individual circumstances (including values and preferences), and clinical context and settings. We propose critical thinking and decision-making as the tools for making that link. Critical thinking is also called for in medical research and medical writing, especially where pre-canned methodologies are not enough. It is also involved in our exchanges of ideas at floor rounds, grand rounds and case discussions; our communications with patients and lay stakeholders in health care; and our writing of research papers, grant applications and grant reviews. Critical thinking is a learned process which benefits from teaching and guided practice like any discipline in health sciences. Training in critical thinking should be a part or a pre-requisite of the medical curriculum. PMID:21169920
Wahl, Stacy E; Thompson, Anita M
Newly graduated registered nurses who were hired into a critical care intensive care unit showed a lack of critical thinking skills to inform their clinical decision-making abilities. This study evaluated the effectiveness of concept mapping as a teaching tool to improve critical thinking and clinical decision-making skills in novice nurses. A self-evaluation tool was administered before and after the learning intervention. The 25-item tool measured five key indicators of the development of critical thinking skills: problem recognition, clinical decision-making, prioritization, clinical implementation, and reflection. Statistically significant improvements were seen in 10 items encompassing all five indicators. Concept maps are an effective tool for educators to use in assisting novice nurses to develop their critical thinking and clinical decision-making skills. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.
Wu, Defang; Luo, Yang; Liao, Xinyu
There is universal agreement on the essential role of critical thinking in nursing practice. Most studies into this topic have provided descriptive statistical information and insights on related external factors such as educational environment and teaching strategies. However, there has been limited research into the psychological factors that may predict the disposition of students toward critical thinking. This study explored the relationship between the disposition of nursing students toward critical thinking and their mental self-supporting ability to obtain a profile and determine the psychological predictors of critical thinking. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in 2013 using a convenience sample from four nursing schools. Four hundred six Chinese nursing undergraduates completed two questionnaires including (a) the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory (Chinese version) and (b) the Mental Self-Supporting Questionnaire for University Students. Pearson's correlation and linear regression analysis were used to investigate the relationship between these two variables and the predicted positive psychological qualities for the critical thinking disposition of participants. Average participant scores for critical thinking disposition and mental self-supporting were 280.91 ± 28.43 and 76.40 ± 8.47, respectively. Positive correlations were observed between these two variables (r = .583, p critical thinking disposition (R = .435, p critical thinking and mental self-supporting abilities.The four factors that had a major influence on critical thinking disposition included self-decision, self-cognition, self-confidence, and self-responsibility. Nursing educators should focus on improving the critical thinking ability of their students in these four aspects.
This article explains and analyzes the practical application of the Socratic method in the context of inmate education, and identifies core critical thinking elements that emerge from four transcribed Socratic discussions with prison inmates. The paper starts with a detailed examination of the stages of the Socratic method as practiced by the…
Full Text Available The present study was an attempt, in the first place, to observe whether there was any significant relationship among teachers’ critical thinking, self-efficacy, and perception of effective teaching. Moreover, the researchers tried to examine which variable was a better predictor of perception of effective teaching. To this end, the measures of the critical thinking ability of 143 EFL teachers were obtained using Honey’s (2000 Critical Thinking Questionnaire(adopted from Naieni, 2005. Also, their sense of efficacy was estimated utilizing Tschannen-Moran and Hoy’s (2001 Teachers’ Sense of Efficacy Scale. Moreover, their perception of effective teaching was determined employing Bell’s (2005 Effective Teaching Questionnaire. The results revealed a statistically significant relationship between both critical thinking and self efficacy of teachers and their perception of effective teaching. However, only two of the components of critical thinking, namely analysis and evaluation, were correlated with perception of effective teaching. Also, critical thinking components had a significant relationship with perception of effective teaching components. Additionally, it was found that there was a positive relationship between all components of self efficacy and perception of effective teaching and its components. Finally, the regression analysis showed that self efficacy was a better predictor of teachers’ perception of effective teaching in comparison with critical thinking though the margin of difference was not that large. This study has implications for the EFL teacher preparation and education programs.
Zhao, Cairan; Pandian, Ambigapathy; Singh, Manjet Kaur Mehar
In English as first language contexts, clear requirement for critical thinking (CT) has been listed in teaching guidelines and assessment criteria in higher education. At present, fostering language learners to be critical thinkers is valued in English as a foreign language (EFL) teaching as well; yet how to achieve the objective remains a…
Muhlisin, Ahmad; Susilo, Herawati; Amin, Mohamad; Rohman, Fatchur
The purposes of this study were to: 1) Examine the effect of RMS learning model towards critical thinking skills. 2) Examine the effect of different academic abilities against critical thinking skills. 3) Examine the effect of the interaction between RMS learning model and different academic abilities against critical thinking skills. The research…
Mangena, Agnes; Chabeli, Mary M
This paper seeks to describe strategies that can be used to overcome obstacles in the facilitation of critical thinking in nursing education. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual design was used to conduct the research in which fourth year basic comprehensive students and nurse educators volunteered to take part in the study by signing an informed consent. The participants were purposively selected. Focus group interviews were used to collect data from both groups. Tesch's descriptive method of open coding described in (Creswell, J. 1994. Qualitative and quantitative approach. Sage, London.) was used to analyse data. (Democratic Nursing Organisation of South Africa, 1998. Ethical standards for nurse researchers. Denosa, Pretoria) ethical standards for research were observed to maintain the standard and quality of the research. (Lincoln, Y.S., Guba, E.G. 1985. Naturalistic inquiry. Sage, London.) framework was used to ensure trustworthiness of the study. The following obstacles were identified and recontextualised within the existing literature to be able to describe the strategies to overcome the identified obstacles to the facilitation of critical thinking of students: the educators' lack of knowledge; use of teaching and assessment methods that do not facilitate critical thinking of learners; the negative attitudes of educators and their resistance to change; inappropriate selection process and poor educational background that did not facilitate critical thinking of students; inadequate socialisation, cultural and instructional language incompetence. Findings indicated that there is a need for nurse educators to model critical thinking in all aspects of nursing education. It is recommended that there be a whole paradigm shift in nursing education from the traditional teacher-centred methods to a more learner-centred approach that will facilitate critical thinking of student nurses.
Critical thinking, while highly valued as an ability of health care providers, remains a skill that many educators find difficult to teach. This review provides an analysis examining why current methods of teaching critical thinking to health care students (primarily medical and pharmacy students) often fail and describes a premise and potential utility of the Socratic method as a tool to teach critical thinking in health care education. PMID:25258449
Oyler, Douglas R; Romanelli, Frank
Critical thinking, while highly valued as an ability of health care providers, remains a skill that many educators find difficult to teach. This review provides an analysis examining why current methods of teaching critical thinking to health care students (primarily medical and pharmacy students) often fail and describes a premise and potential utility of the Socratic method as a tool to teach critical thinking in health care education.
Ashraf Haji Maibodi
Full Text Available This experimental study examined the effect of critical thinking skills on reading English novels and its influence on EFL learners reading proficiency. For the purpose of this study participants in addition to their text book read and received instructions on the unabridged short novels for one semester. Sixty Iranian EFL junior undergraduates participated in this study and were randomly divided to two groups of thirty each. To test the hypothesis, two independent t-tests were conducted to see the difference between the two groups. The results of the study showed that students in group A were more critically oriented than their counterparts in group B. The pedagogical implication of this study suggests that direct instruction in critical thinking has an impact on EFL learners’ reading proficiency. This article is intended to help teachers who are interested in developing and encouraging critical thinking in their language classrooms. EFL learners need to learn how to establish realistic goals, monitor their own learning and reflect and challenge their own attitudes so that they may get closer to the idea of being good language learners. The findings of this study revealed that there was a significant improvement in students’ attitudes, confidence, and interest especially, in their novel-reading ability.
Özelçi, Serap Yilmaz; Saracaloglu, A. Seda
This research aims to develop an independent scale that measures the critical thinking attitudes of classroom teacher candidates. The research was designed in a screening model. The universe of the research was composed of 384 prospective teachers who are studying in the education faculty of a university in the western part of Turkey. In the…
Han, Kyung-Ja; Kim, Hesook Suzie; Kim, Mae-Ja; Hong, Kyung-Ja; Park, Sungae; Yun, Soon-Nyoung; Song, Misoon; Jung, Yoenyi; Kim, Haewon; Kim, Dong-Oak Debbie; Choi, Heejung; Kim, Kyungae
The purpose of the paper is to discover the patterns and processes of decision-making in clinical nursing practice. A set of think-aloud data from five critical care nurses during 40 to 50 minutes of caregiving in intensive care units were obtained and analyzed by applying the procedures recommended by Ericsson and Simon for protocol analysis. Four thinking processes before acting were identified to constitute various sorts of thoughts in which the nurses were engaged during patient care: reviewing, validation, consideration, rationalization, and action. In addition, three patterns of sequential streaming of thinking (short, intermediate, long) were identified to reveal various ways the nurses dealt with clinical situations involving nursing tasks and responsibilities. This study specifies the initial categories of thoughts for each of the processes and various patterns with which these processes are sequentially combined, providing insights into the ways nurses think about problems and address their concerns. The findings suggest that the thinking in clinical practice involves more than focused decision-making and reasoning, and needs to be examined from a broader perspective.
Roksa, Josipa; Trolian, Teniell L.; Pascarella, Ernest T.; Kilgo, Cindy A.; Blaich, Charles; Wise, Kathleen S.
While racial inequalities in college entry and completion are well documented, much less is known about racial disparities in the development of general collegiate skills, such as critical thinking. Using data from the Wabash National Study of Liberal Arts Education, we find substantial inequality in the development of critical thinking skills…
Sholikhati, Rahadian; Mardiyana; Retno Sari Saputro, Dewi
This research aims to determine the students’ thinking level based on bloom taxonomy guidance and reviewed from students' Intrapersonal Intelligence. Taxonomy bloom is a taxonomy that classifies the students' thinking level into six, ie the remembering, understanding, applying, analyzing, creating, and evaluating levels. Students' Intrapersonal Intelligence is the intelligence associated with awareness and knowledge of oneself. The type of this research is descriptive research with qualitative approach. The research subject were taken by one student in each Intrapersonal Intelligence category (high, moderate, and low) which then given the problem solving test and the result was triangulated by interview. From this research, it is found that high Intrapersonal Intelligence students can achieve analyzing thinking level, subject with moderate Intrapersonal Intelligence being able to reach the level of applying thinking, and subject with low Intrapersonal Intelligence able to reach understanding level.
Shin, Sujin; Jung, Dukyoo; Kim, Sungeun
The purpose of this study was to develop a revised version of the clinical critical thinking skills test (CCTS) and to subsequently validate its performance. This study is a secondary analysis of the CCTS. Data were obtained from a convenience sample of 284 college students in June 2011. Thirty items were analyzed using item response theory and test reliability was assessed. Test-retest reliability was measured using the results of 20 nursing college and graduate school students in July 2013. The content validity of the revised items was analyzed by calculating the degree of agreement between instrument developer intention in item development and the judgments of six experts. To analyze response process validity, qualitative data related to the response processes of nine nursing college students obtained through cognitive interviews were analyzed. Out of initial 30 items, 11 items were excluded after the analysis of difficulty and discrimination parameter. When the 19 items of the revised version of the CCTS were analyzed, levels of item difficulty were found to be relatively low and levels of discrimination were found to be appropriate or high. The degree of agreement between item developer intention and expert judgments equaled or exceeded 50%. From above results, evidence of the response process validity was demonstrated, indicating that subjects respondeds as intended by the test developer. The revised 19-item CCTS was found to have sufficient reliability and validity and will therefore represents a more convenient measurement of critical thinking ability.
Fitriana, L. D.; Fuad, Y.; Ekawati, R.
Critical thinking plays an important role for students in solving open-ended problems. This research aims at describing student’s critical thinking in solving open-ended problems based on Keirsey’s personality types, namely rational, idealist, guardian, and artisan. Four students, with the higher rank in the mathematics’ test and representing each type of Keirsey personality, were selected as the research subjects. The data were collected from the geometry problem and interviews. The student’s critical thinking is described based on the FRISCO criteria. The result underlines that rational and idealist students fulfilled all FRISCO criteria, and but not for guardian and artisan students. Related to the inference criteria, guardian and artisan students could not make reasonable conclusions and connect the concepts. Related to the reason of criteria, rational student performed critical thinking by providing logical reason that supported his strategy to solve the problem. In contrast, the idealist student provided subjective reason. This results suggest that teachers should frequently train the students’ logical thinkingin every lesson and activity to develop student’s critical thinking and take the student’s personality character into account, especially for guardian and artisan students.
Lee, Daphne Sk; Abdullah, Khatijah Lim; Subramanian, Pathmawathi; Bachmann, Robert Thomas; Ong, Swee Leong
To explore whether there is a correlation between critical thinking ability and clinical decision-making among nurses. Critical thinking is currently considered as an essential component of nurses' professional judgement and clinical decision-making. If confirmed, nursing curricula may be revised emphasising on critical thinking with the expectation to improve clinical decision-making and thus better health care. Integrated literature review. The integrative review was carried out after a comprehensive literature search using electronic databases Ovid, EBESCO MEDLINE, EBESCO CINAHL, PROQuest and Internet search engine Google Scholar. Two hundred and 22 articles from January 1980 to end of 2015 were retrieved. All studies evaluating the relationship between critical thinking and clinical decision-making, published in English language with nurses or nursing students as the study population, were included. No qualitative studies were found investigating the relationship between critical thinking and clinical decision-making, while 10 quantitative studies met the inclusion criteria and were further evaluated using the Quality Assessment and Validity Tool. As a result, one study was excluded due to a low-quality score, with the remaining nine accepted for this review. Four of nine studies established a positive relationship between critical thinking and clinical decision-making. Another five studies did not demonstrate a significant correlation. The lack of refinement in studies' design and instrumentation were arguably the main reasons for the inconsistent results. Research studies yielded contradictory results as regard to the relationship between critical thinking and clinical decision-making; therefore, the evidence is not convincing. Future quantitative studies should have representative sample size, use critical thinking measurement tools related to the healthcare sector and evaluate the predisposition of test takers towards their willingness and ability to think