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Sample records for critical rotational speeds

  1. Dynamic balancing of super-critical rotating structures using slow-speed data via parametric excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresser, Shachar; Dolev, Amit; Bucher, Izhak

    2018-02-01

    High-speed machinery is often designed to pass several "critical speeds", where vibration levels can be very high. To reduce vibrations, rotors usually undergo a mass balancing process, where the machine is rotated at its full speed range, during which the dynamic response near critical speeds can be measured. High sensitivity, which is required for a successful balancing process, is achieved near the critical speeds, where a single deflection mode shape becomes dominant, and is excited by the projection of the imbalance on it. The requirement to rotate the machine at high speeds is an obstacle in many cases, where it is impossible to perform measurements at high speeds, due to harsh conditions such as high temperatures and inaccessibility (e.g., jet engines). This paper proposes a novel balancing method of flexible rotors, which does not require the machine to be rotated at high speeds. With this method, the rotor is spun at low speeds, while subjecting it to a set of externally controlled forces. The external forces comprise a set of tuned, response dependent, parametric excitations, and nonlinear stiffness terms. The parametric excitation can isolate any desired mode, while keeping the response directly linked to the imbalance. A software controlled nonlinear stiffness term limits the response, hence preventing the rotor to become unstable. These forces warrant sufficient sensitivity required to detect the projection of the imbalance on any desired mode without rotating the machine at high speeds. Analytical, numerical and experimental results are shown to validate and demonstrate the method.

  2. Study of the conditions affecting the critical speed of a rotating pump shaft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fardeau, P.; Huet, J.L.; Axisa, F.

    1983-01-01

    Knowing the parameters conditioning the critical speed of a pump shaft is important, both for safety and design purposes, since the shafts are often to operate beyond the first critical speed. These aims led CEA, associated with NOVATOME and FRAMATOME (with the cooperation of JEUMONT-SCHNEIDER) to carry out a test program on critical speeds of a full scale nuclear pump shaft. Fluid-structure interaction plays an important part in the setting of critical speed. Due to the coupling between the rotative fluid flow and the transverse vibrations of the shaft, inertial and stiffness forces are created, which are non conservative and proportional to the added mass of the fluid. The hydrostatic bearing effect and the influence of the water carried along by the pump wheel were also investigated, but proved unimportant in the case of the shaft studied. Experimental results are compared with calculations of critical speed. (orig.)

  3. A study of energy dissipation and critical speed of granular flow in a rotating cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragomir, Sergiu C.; Sinnott, Mathew D.; Semercigil, S. Eren; Turan, Özden F.

    2014-12-01

    Tuned vibration absorbers may improve the safety of flexible structures which are prone to excessive oscillation magnitudes under dynamic loads. A novel absorber design proposes sloshing of granular material in a rotating cylinder where the granular material is the energy dissipating agent. As the conventional dissipative elements require maintenance due to the nature of their function, the new design may represent a virtually maintenance free alternative. The angular speed of the cylinder containing particles has a critical centrifuging speed, after which particles remain permanently in contact with the walls and there can be no further dissipation. Until the critical speed, however, dissipation increases proportionally with the angular speed. It is then vital to know the value of the critical speed as the limit of dissipation. The focus of the present study is on determination of the critical centrifuge speed. This critical speed is also of practical importance in bulk-material handling rotary mills, such as dryers and crushers. Experiments and numerical simulations, using Discrete Element Method, are used to determine the critical centrifuging speed. In addition, predictions are given and guidelines are offered for the choice of material properties to maximize the energy dissipation. As a result of a parametric study, the coefficient of friction is found to have the greatest significance on the centrifuging speed.

  4. DETERMINATION OF CRITICAL ROTATIONAL SPEED OF CIRCULAR SAWS FROM NATURAL FREQUENCIES OF ANNULAR PLATE WITH ANALOGOUS DIMENSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Skoblar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available It is suitable to reduce thickness of circular saw when trying to enhance usability of wood raw material, but reducing thickness also causes reduction of permissible rotational speed which reduces sawing speed. If one increase circular saw rotational speed over permissible one the quality of machined surfaces will reduce because of enhanced vibrations. Permissible rotational speed can be calculated from critical rotational speed which can be defined from natural frequencies of the saw. In this article critical rotational speeds of standard clamped saws (with flat disk surface and without slots are calculated by using finite element method and classical theory of thin plates on annular plates. Mode shapes and natural frequencies of annular plates are determined by using Bessel functions and by using polynomial functions. Obtained results suggest that standard clamped circular saws without slots and with relatively small teeth can be determined from classical theory of thin plates for annular plates with accuracy depending on clamping ratio.

  5. Influences of the guide bearing stiffness on the critical speed of rotation in the main shaft system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, B; Zhang, L X; Zhao, L

    2012-01-01

    An analysis is carried out on the natural vibration characteristics of the main shaft system of a hydro-turbine generating set. The critical speed of rotation in different orders are calculated based on simplified real parameters and the influences of different guide bearing stiffness on the critical speed are analyzed. The results show that the up guide bearing has little influence on the critical speed; however, the down and the water guide bearings strongly affect the critical speed and to a certain extent the 'saturation' phenomenon happens; as all of these three bearings stiffness become larger at the same time, the critical speed also increases significantly. So it is necessary to consider the effect of the bearing stiffness when doing an estimation of the critical speed.

  6. The effects of an annular fluid on the critical speed of a rotating shaft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidez, J.; Axisa; Gibert; Girard; Fardeau.

    1981-11-01

    Prediction of vibrations of rotors when passing through the flexural critical velocities is important for industrial applications. Pumps of nuclear reactors are a typical example characterized by a rotor which rotates at relatively low speed in a dense fluid like water or sodium. In such configurations critical velocities and natural frequencies of the equivalent beam system may differ significantly, mainly because of fluids effects. A brief review of the physical mechanisms involved is presented and a numerical code: ROTOR, based on the finite element method, is described which allows for a linear analysis of rotors, taking into account also the non conservative forces associated with the gyroscopic and the fluid effects. Finally the practical importance of fluid is emphasized by some experimental results obtained on two pump-shaft models working in water. Results are discussed in relation with the code expectations. For completely immersed rotors the computed critical velocities are found to be in good agreement with the experimental values. However for partially immersed rotors further experimental and theoretical work is still needed

  7. Critical wind speed at which trees break

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virot, E.; Ponomarenko, A.; Dehandschoewercker, É.; Quéré, D.; Clanet, C.

    2016-02-01

    Data from storms suggest that the critical wind speed at which trees break is constant (≃42 m /s ), regardless of tree characteristics. We question the physical origin of this observation both experimentally and theoretically. By combining Hooke's law, Griffith's criterion, and tree allometry, we show that the critical wind speed indeed hardly depends on the height, diameter, and elastic properties of trees.

  8. Critical wind speed at which trees break.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virot, E; Ponomarenko, A; Dehandschoewercker, É; Quéré, D; Clanet, C

    2016-02-01

    Data from storms suggest that the critical wind speed at which trees break is constant (≃42m/s), regardless of tree characteristics. We question the physical origin of this observation both experimentally and theoretically. By combining Hooke's law, Griffith's criterion, and tree allometry, we show that the critical wind speed indeed hardly depends on the height, diameter, and elastic properties of trees.

  9. Critical Speed Control for a Fixed Blade Variable Speed Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Rossander

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A critical speed controller for avoiding a certain rotational speed is presented. The controller is useful for variable speed wind turbines with a natural frequency in the operating range. The controller has been simulated, implemented and tested on an open site 12 kW vertical axis wind turbine prototype. The controller is based on an adaptation of the optimum torque control. Two lookup tables and a simple state machine provide the control logic of the controller. The controller requires low computational resources, and no wind speed measurement is needed. The results suggest that the controller is a feasible method for critical speed control. The skipping behavior can be adjusted using only two parameters. While tested on a vertical axis wind turbine, it may be used on any variable speed turbine with the control of generator power.

  10. Design of rotating mirror for ultra-high speed camera based on dynamic characteristic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Chunbo; Chai Jinlong; Liang Yexing; Liu Chunping; Wang Hongzhi; Yu Chunhui; Li Jingzhen; Huang Hongbin

    2011-01-01

    A systematic design method has been proposed for studying the dynamic design of rotating mirror for ultra-high speed camera. With the finite element software, the numerical analyses of static, modal, harmonic responses and natural frequency sensitivity for the preliminary-designed rotating mirror were done based on the static and dynamic theories. Some experiments were done to verify the results. The physical dimensions of the rotating mirror were modified repeatedly according to the results for designing a new rotating mirror. Then simulation and experiments of fatigue life for the new rotating mirror under alternating force were done. The results show that the maximum static stress is less than the yield stress of the rotating mirror material, which proves the new rotating mirror will not be subjected to static strength failure. However, the results of modal and harmonic response analyses indicate that the dynamic characteristic of the new rotating mirror can not meet the design requirement for the first critical speed is less than the service speed. In all the physical dimensions of the rotating mirror, the circum radius of mirror body and natural frequency are negatively correlated and the degree of correlation is maximal. The first-order natural frequency in- creases from 459.4 Hz to 713.6 Hz, the rate of change is 55.3%, the first critical speed is up to 42 816 r/min, avoiding resonance successfully, and the fatigue strength of the new rotating mirror can meet the design requirement. (authors)

  11. Nugget Structure Evolution with Rotation Speed for High-Rotation-Speed Friction-Stir-Welded 6061 Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H. J.; Wang, M.; Zhu, Z.; Zhang, X.; Yu, T.; Wu, Z. Q.

    2018-03-01

    High-rotation-speed friction stir welding (HRS-FSW) is a promising technique to reduce the welding loads during FSW and thus facilitates the application of FSW for in situ fabrication and repair. In this study, 6061 aluminum alloy was friction stir welded at high-rotation speeds ranging from 3000 to 7000 rpm at a fixed welding speed of 50 mm/min, and the effects of rotation speed on the nugget zone macro- and microstructures were investigated in detail in order to illuminate the process features. Temperature measurements during HRS-FSW indicated that the peak temperature did not increase consistently with rotation speed; instead, it dropped remarkably at 5000 rpm because of the lowering of material shear stress. The nugget size first increased with rotation speed until 5000 rpm and then decreased due to the change of the dominant tool/workpiece contact condition from sticking to sliding. At the rotation speed of 5000 rpm, where the weld material experienced weaker thermal effect and higher-strain-rate plastic deformation, the nugget exhibited relatively small grain size, large textural intensity, and high dislocation density. Consequently, the joint showed superior nugget hardness and simultaneously a slightly low tensile ductility.

  12. Design of a high speed rotating mechanical shutter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stowers, I.F.; Merritt, B.T.; McFann, C.B.

    1979-01-01

    A high-speed rotating shutter was designed to operate in a 10 -6 Torr vacuum at the optical focus of a laser spatial filter. The shutter is basically a wheel, with a single 3 x 10-mm slot at the perimeter, which rotates with a peripheral speed of 1 km/s. The motor to drive the rotating wheel is magnetically suspended and synchronously wound. The wheel achieves a 4 μs opening time and a timing accuracy of better than 0.2 μs

  13. Shaf rotation speed measurement device, its checking and variations checking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gadrault, Robert.

    1976-01-01

    Appliance for measuring the rotational speed of a shaft and monitoring of this speed and its changes. The uses to be made specifically concern the nuclear field and in this field the drive shafts of water coolant feed pumps. Detecting te rotation of the shaft concerned may be resolved with electronic sensors or proximity detectors which, because they are not in mechanical connexion with the shaft the speed of which they are to help detect, do not bring any lack of precision. The accuracy of the determination them depends only on the downstream processing of the data supplied by the sensor [fr

  14. Possibilities of rotating drums in ultra-high-speed cinematography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, Michel

    A theoretical study shows that it is possible to produce a drum rotating at a peripheral speed of 500m/s. A prototype has actually reached this speed and confirmed the feasibility of the system. It is driven by an electric motor and is made of titanium covered with boron fibres. The main performances to be expected of cameras (whole-image, slit or spectrographic) using such a drum is described [fr

  15. Unsteady flow simulations of Pelton turbine at different rotational speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minsuk Choi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents numerical simulations of a small Pelton turbine suitable for desalination system. A commercial flow solver was adopted to resolve difficulties in the numerical simulation for Pelton turbine such as the relative motion of the turbine runner to the injector and two-phase flow of water and air. To decrease the numerical diffusion of the water jet, a new topology with only hexagonal mesh was suggested for the computational mesh around the complex geometry of a bucket. The predicted flow coefficient, net head coefficient, and overall efficiency showed a good agreement with the experimental data. Based on the validation of the numerical results, the pattern of wet area on the bucket inner surface has been analyzed at different rotational speeds, and an attempt to find the connection between rotational speeds, torque, and efficiency has been made.

  16. Speed of recovery after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurowicki, Jennifer; Berglund, Derek D; Momoh, Enesi; Disla, Shanell; Horn, Brandon; Giveans, M Russell; Levy, Jonathan C

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to delineate the time taken to achieve maximum improvement (plateau of recovery) and the degree of recovery observed at various time points (speed of recovery) for pain and function after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. An institutional shoulder surgery registry query identified 627 patients who underwent arthroscopic rotator cuff repair between 2006 and 2015. Measured range of motion, patient satisfaction, and patient-reported outcome measures were analyzed for preoperative, 3-month, 6-month, 1-year, and 2-year intervals. Subgroup analysis was performed on the basis of tear size by retraction grade and number of anchors used. As an entire group, the plateau of maximum recovery for pain, function, and motion occurred at 1 year. Satisfaction with surgery was >96% at all time points. At 3 months, 74% of improvement in pain and 45% to 58% of functional improvement were realized. However, only 22% of elevation improvement was achieved (P rotation. Smaller tears had higher motion and functional scores across all time points. Tear size did not influence pain levels. The plateau of maximum recovery after rotator cuff repair occurred at 1 year with high satisfaction rates at all time points. At 3 months, approximately 75% of pain relief and 50% of functional recovery can be expected. Larger tears have a slower speed of recovery. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Rotating solutions in critical Lovelock gravities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetič, M.; Feng, Xing-Hui; Lü, H.; Pope, C. N.

    2017-02-01

    For appropriate choices of the coupling constants, the equations of motion of Lovelock gravities up to order n in the Riemann tensor can be factorized such that the theories admit a single (A)dS vacuum. In this paper we construct two classes of exact rotating metrics in such critical Lovelock gravities of order n in d = 2 n + 1 dimensions. In one class, the n angular momenta in the n orthogonal spatial 2-planes are equal, and hence the metric is of cohomogeneity one. We construct these metrics in a Kerr-Schild form, but they can then be recast in terms of Boyer-Lindquist coordinates. The other class involves metrics with only a single non-vanishing angular momentum. Again we construct them in a Kerr-Schild form, but in this case it does not seem to be possible to recast them in Boyer-Lindquist form. Both classes of solutions have naked curvature singularities, arising because of the over rotation of the configurations.

  18. Rotating solutions in critical Lovelock gravities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cvetič

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available For appropriate choices of the coupling constants, the equations of motion of Lovelock gravities up to order n in the Riemann tensor can be factorized such that the theories admit a single (AdS vacuum. In this paper we construct two classes of exact rotating metrics in such critical Lovelock gravities of order n in d=2n+1 dimensions. In one class, the n angular momenta in the n orthogonal spatial 2-planes are equal, and hence the metric is of cohomogeneity one. We construct these metrics in a Kerr–Schild form, but they can then be recast in terms of Boyer–Lindquist coordinates. The other class involves metrics with only a single non-vanishing angular momentum. Again we construct them in a Kerr–Schild form, but in this case it does not seem to be possible to recast them in Boyer–Lindquist form. Both classes of solutions have naked curvature singularities, arising because of the over rotation of the configurations.

  19. Enstrophy-based proper orthogonal decomposition of flow past rotating cylinder at super-critical rotating rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Tapan K.; Gullapalli, Atchyut

    2016-11-01

    Spinning cylinder rotating about its axis experiences a transverse force/lift, an account of this basic aerodynamic phenomenon is known as the Robins-Magnus effect in text books. Prandtl studied this flow by an inviscid irrotational model and postulated an upper limit of the lift experienced by the cylinder for a critical rotation rate. This non-dimensional rate is the ratio of oncoming free stream speed and the surface speed due to rotation. Prandtl predicted a maximum lift coefficient as CLmax = 4π for the critical rotation rate of two. In recent times, evidences show the violation of this upper limit, as in the experiments of Tokumaru and Dimotakis ["The lift of a cylinder executing rotary motions in a uniform flow," J. Fluid Mech. 255, 1-10 (1993)] and in the computed solution in Sengupta et al. ["Temporal flow instability for Magnus-robins effect at high rotation rates," J. Fluids Struct. 17, 941-953 (2003)]. In the latter reference, this was explained as the temporal instability affecting the flow at higher Reynolds number and rotation rates (>2). Here, we analyze the flow past a rotating cylinder at a super-critical rotation rate (=2.5) by the enstrophy-based proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) of direct simulation results. POD identifies the most energetic modes and helps flow field reconstruction by reduced number of modes. One of the motivations for the present study is to explain the shedding of puffs of vortices at low Reynolds number (Re = 60), for the high rotation rate, due to an instability originating in the vicinity of the cylinder, using the computed Navier-Stokes equation (NSE) from t = 0 to t = 300 following an impulsive start. This instability is also explained through the disturbance mechanical energy equation, which has been established earlier in Sengupta et al. ["Temporal flow instability for Magnus-robins effect at high rotation rates," J. Fluids Struct. 17, 941-953 (2003)].

  20. Research on motor rotational speed measurement in regenerative braking system of electric vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chaofeng; Chen, Liao; Chen, Long; Jiang, Haobin; Li, Zhongxing; Wang, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    Rotational speed signals acquisition and processing techniques are widely used in rotational machinery. In order to realized precise and real-time control of motor drive and regenerative braking process, rotational speed measurement techniques are needed in electric vehicles. Obtaining accurate motor rotational speed signal will contribute to the regenerative braking force control steadily and realized higher energy recovery rate. This paper aims to develop a method that provides instantaneous speed information in the form of motor rotation. It addresses principles of motor rotational speed measurement in the regenerative braking systems of electric vehicle firstly. The paper then presents ideal and actual Hall position sensor signals characteristics, the relation between the motor rotational speed and the Hall position sensor signals is revealed. Finally, Hall position sensor signals conditioning and processing circuit and program for motor rotational speed measurement have been carried out based on measurement error analysis.

  1. Effect of rotation speed and welding speed on Friction Stir Welding of AA1100 Aluminium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, P.; Bojanampati, S.; Karthikeyan, R.; Ganithi, R.

    2018-04-01

    Aluminum AA1100 is the most widely used grade of Aluminium due to its excellent corrosion resistance, high ductility and reflective finish, the selected material was welded with Friction Stir Welding (FSW) process on a CNC machine, using a combination of different tool rotation speed (1500 rpm, 2500 rpm, 3500 rpm) and welding speed (10 mm/min, 30 mm/min, 50 mm/min) as welding parameters. The effect of FSW using this welding parameter was studied by measuring the ultimate tensile strength of the welded joints. A high-speed steel tool was prepared for welding the Aluminium AA1100 alloy having an 8mm shoulder diameter and pin dimension of 4mm diameter and 2.8 mm length. The welded joints were tested using the universal testing machine. It was found that Ultimate Tensile Strength of FSW specimen was highest with a value of 98.08 MPa when the weld was performed at rotation speed of 1500 RPM and welding speed of 50 mm/min.

  2. Liquid metal current collectors for high-speed rotating machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, S.L.

    1976-01-01

    Recent interest in superconducting motors and generators has created a renewed interest in homopolar machinery. Homopolar machine designs have always been limited by the need for compact, high-current, low-voltage, sliding electrical curent collectors. Conventional graphite-based solid brushes are inadequate for use in homopolar machines. Liquid metals, under certain conditions of relative sliding velocities, electrical currents, and magnetic fields are known to be capable of performing well in homopolar machines. An effort to explore the capabilities and limits of a tongue-and-groove style current collector, utilizing sodium-potassium eutectic alloy (NaK) as the working fluid in high sliding speed operation is reported here. A double current collector generator model with a 14.5-cm maximum rotor diameter, 20,000 rpm rotational capability, and electrical current carrying ability was constructed and operated successfully at a peripheral velocity of 125 m/s. The limiting factor in these experiments was a high-speed fluid-flow instability resulting in the ejection of the working fluid from the operating portions of the collectors. The effects of collector size and geometry, working fluid (NaK or water), and cover gas pressure are reported. Hydrodynamic frictional torque-speed curves are given for the two fluids and for several geometries. Electrical resistances as a function of peripheral velocity at 60 amperes are reported, and the phenomenology of the high-speed fluid-flow instabilities is discussed. The possibility of long-term high-speed operation of current collectors of the tongue-and-groove type, along with experimental and theoretical hydrodynamic friction losses at high peripheral velocities, is considered

  3. Variable speed control in wells turbine-based oscillating water column devices: optimum rotational speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekube, J.; Garrido, A. J.; Garrido, I.

    2018-03-01

    The effects of climate change and global warming reveal the need to find alternative sources of clean energy. In this sense, wave energy power plants, and in particular Oscillating Water Column (OWC) devices, offer a huge potential of energy harnessing. Nevertheless, the conversion systems have not reached a commercially mature stage yet so as to compete with conventional power plants. At this point, the use of new control methods over the existing technology arises as a doable way to improve the efficiency of the system. Due to the non-uniform response that the turbine shows to the rotational speed variation, the speed control of the turbo-generator may offer a feasible solution for efficiency improvement during the energy conversion. In this context, a novel speed control approach for OWC systems is presented in this paper, demonstrating its goodness and affording promising results when particularized to the Mutriku’s wave power plant.

  4. Sensitivity Analysis of the Critical Speed in Railway Vehicle Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigoni, Daniele; True, Hans; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter

    2013-01-01

    -axle Cooperrider bogie, in order to study the sensitivity of the critical speed with respect to suspension parameters. The importance of a certain suspension component is expressed by the variance in critical speed that is ascribable to it. This proves to be useful in the identification of parameters for which...

  5. Negative Magnus Effect on a Rotating Sphere at around the Critical Reynolds Number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muto, Masaya; Watanabe, Hiroaki; Tsubokura, Makoto; Oshima, Nobuyuki

    2011-01-01

    Negative Magnus lift acting on a sphere rotating about the axis perpendicular to an incoming flow is investigated using large-eddy simulation at three Reynolds numbers of 1.0× 10 4 , 2.0 × 10 5 , and 1.14 × 10 6 . The numerical methods adopted are first validated on a non-rotating sphere and the spatial resolution around the sphere is determined so as to reproduce the laminar separation, reattachment, and turbulent transition of the boundary layer observed at around the critical Reynolds number. In the rotating sphere, positive or negative Magnus effect is observed depending on the Reynolds number and the rotating speed imposed. At the Reynolds number in the subcritical or supercritical region, the direction of the lift force follows the Magnus effect to be independent of the rotational speed tested here. In contrast, negative lift is observed at the Reynolds number at the critical region when particular rotating speeds are imposed. The negative Magnus effect is discussed in the context of the suppression or promotion of boundary layer transition around the separation point.

  6. Negative Magnus lift on a rotating sphere at around the critical Reynolds number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muto, Masaya; Tsubokura, Makoto; Oshima, Nobuyuki

    2012-01-01

    Negative Magnus lift acting on a sphere rotating about the axis perpendicular to an incoming flow was investigated using large-eddy simulation at three Reynolds numbers of 1.0 × 104, 2.0 × 105, and 1.14 × 106. The numerical methods used were first validated on a non-rotating sphere, and the spatial resolution around the sphere was determined so as to reproduce the laminar separation, reattachment, and turbulent transition of the boundary layer observed in the vicinity of the critical Reynolds number. The rotating sphere exhibited a positive or negative Magnus effect depending on the Reynolds number and the imposed rotating speed. At Reynolds numbers in the subcritical or supercritical regimes, the direction of the Magnus lift force was independent of the rotational speed. In contrast, the lift force was negative in the critical regime when particular rotating speeds were imposed. This negative Magnus effect was investigated in the context of suppression or promotion of boundary layer transition around the separation point.

  7. The influence of global warming in Earth rotation speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Abarca del Rio

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The tendency of the atmospheric angular momentum (AAM is investigated using a 49-year set of monthly AAM data for the period January 1949-December 1997. This data set is constructed with zonal wind values from the reanalyses of NCEP/NCAR, used in conjunction with a variety of operationally produced AAM time series with different independent sources and lengths over 1976-1997. In all the analyzed AAM series the linear trend is found to be positive. Since the angular momentum of the atmosphere-earth system is conserved this corresponds to a net loss of angular momentum by the solid earth, therefore decreasing the Earth rotation speed and increasing the length of day (LOD. The AAM rise is significant to the budget of angular momentum of the global atmosphere-earth system; its value in milliseconds/century (ms/cy is +0.56 ms/cy, corresponding to one-third of the estimated increase in LOD (+1.7 ms/cy. The major contribution to this secular trend in AAM comes from the equatorial Tropopause. This is consistent with results from a previous study using a simplified aqua-planet model to investigate the AAM variations due to near equatorial warming conditions. During the same time interval, 1949-1997, the global marine + land-surface temperature increases by about 0.79 °C/cy, showing a linear correspondence between surface temperature increase and global AAM of about 0.07 ms per 0.1 °C. These results imply that atmospheric angular momentum may be used as an independent index of the global atmosphere's dynamical response to the greenhouse forcing, and as such, the length of day may be used as an indirect indicator of global warming.Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (general circulation · Geodesy

  8. The influence of global warming in Earth rotation speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Abarca del Rio

    Full Text Available The tendency of the atmospheric angular momentum (AAM is investigated using a 49-year set of monthly AAM data for the period January 1949-December 1997. This data set is constructed with zonal wind values from the reanalyses of NCEP/NCAR, used in conjunction with a variety of operationally produced AAM time series with different independent sources and lengths over 1976-1997. In all the analyzed AAM series the linear trend is found to be positive. Since the angular momentum of the atmosphere-earth system is conserved this corresponds to a net loss of angular momentum by the solid earth, therefore decreasing the Earth rotation speed and increasing the length of day (LOD. The AAM rise is significant to the budget of angular momentum of the global atmosphere-earth system; its value in milliseconds/century (ms/cy is +0.56 ms/cy, corresponding to one-third of the estimated increase in LOD (+1.7 ms/cy. The major contribution to this secular trend in AAM comes from the equatorial Tropopause. This is consistent with results from a previous study using a simplified aqua-planet model to investigate the AAM variations due to near equatorial warming conditions. During the same time interval, 1949-1997, the global marine + land-surface temperature increases by about 0.79 °C/cy, showing a linear correspondence between surface temperature increase and global AAM of about 0.07 ms per 0.1 °C. These results imply that atmospheric angular momentum may be used as an independent index of the global atmosphere's dynamical response to the greenhouse forcing, and as such, the length of day may be used as an indirect indicator of global warming.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (general circulation · Geodesy

  9. On the experimental prediction of the stability threshold speed caused by rotating damping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervisch, B.; Derammelaere, S.; Stockman, K.; De Baets, P.; Loccufier, M.

    2016-08-01

    An ever increasing demand for lighter rotating machinery and higher operating speeds results in a raised probability of instabilities. Rotating damping is one of the reasons, instability occurs. Rotating damping, or rotor internal damping, is the damping related to all rotating parts while non-rotating damping appearing in the non-rotating parts. The present study describes a rotating setup, designed to investigate rotating damping experimentally. An efficient experimental procedure is presented to predict the stability threshold of a rotating machine. The setup consists of a long thin shaft with a disk in the middle and clamped boundary conditions. The goal is to extract the system poles as a function of the rotating speed. The real parts of these poles are used to construct the decay rate plot, which is an indication for the stability. The efficiency of the experimental procedure relies on the model chosen for the rotating shaft. It is shown that the shaft behavior can be approximated by a single degree of freedom model that incorporates a speed dependent damping. As such low measurement effort and only one randomly chosen measurement location are needed to construct the decay rate plot. As an excitation, an automated impact hammer is used and the response is measured by eddy current probes. The proposed method yields a reliable prediction of the stability threshold speed which is validated through measurements.

  10. Flexible rotor balancing by the influence coefficient method: Multiple critical speeds with rigid or flexible supports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessarzik, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    Experimental tests were conducted to demonstrate the ability of the influence coefficient method to achieve precise balance of flexible rotors of virtually any design for operation through virtually any speed range. Various practical aspects of flexible-rotor balancing were investigated. Tests were made on a laboratory quality machine having a 122 cm (48 in.) long rotor weighing 50 kg (110 lb) and covering a speed range up to 18000 rpm. The balancing method was in every instance effective, practical, and economical and permitted safe rotor operation over the full speed range covering four rotor bending critical speeds. Improved correction weight removal methods for rotor balancing were investigated. Material removal from a rotating disk was demonstrated through application of a commercially available laser.

  11. Numerical Investigation on a Prototype Centrifugal Pump Subjected to Fluctuating Rotational Speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Liang Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The rotational speed of pumps often encounters fluctuation in engineering for some reasons. In this paper, in order to study the transient response characteristic of a prototype centrifugal pump subjected to fluctuating rotational speed, a closed-loop pipe system including the pump is built to accomplish unsteady flow calculations in which the boundary conditions at the inlet and the outlet of the pump are not required to be set. The external performance results show that the head’s responsiveness to the fluctuating rotational speed is very good, while the flow rate’s responsiveness is slightly delayed. The variation tendencies of the static pressures at the inlet and the outlet of the pump are almost completely opposite, wherein the variation tendency of the static pressure at the outlet is identical with that of the rotational speed. The intensity of the turbulence energy in each impeller channel is relatively uniform in the transient flow calculations, while, in the quasi-steady flow calculation, it becomes weaker in a channel closed to the volute tongue. The nondimensional flow rate and head coefficients are dependent on the rotational speed, and their variation tendencies are opposite to that of the fluctuating rotational speed as a whole.

  12. Measurement of instantaneous rotational speed using double-sine-varying-density fringe pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jianfeng; Zhong, Shuncong; Zhang, Qiukun; Peng, Zhike

    2018-03-01

    Fast and accurate rotational speed measurement is required both for condition monitoring and faults diagnose of rotating machineries. A vision- and fringe pattern-based rotational speed measurement system was proposed to measure the instantaneous rotational speed (IRS) with high accuracy and reliability. A special double-sine-varying-density fringe pattern (DSVD-FP) was designed and pasted around the shaft surface completely and worked as primary angular sensor. The rotational angle could be correctly obtained from the left and right fringe period densities (FPDs) of the DSVD-FP image sequence recorded by a high-speed camera. The instantaneous angular speed (IAS) between two adjacent frames could be calculated from the real-time rotational angle curves, thus, the IRS also could be obtained accurately and efficiently. Both the measurement principle and system design of the novel method have been presented. The influence factors on the sensing characteristics and measurement accuracy of the novel system, including the spectral centrobaric correction method (SCCM) on the FPD calculation, the noise sources introduce by the image sensor, the exposure time and the vibration of the shaft, were investigated through simulations and experiments. The sampling rate of the high speed camera could be up to 5000 Hz, thus, the measurement becomes very fast and the change in rotational speed was sensed within 0.2 ms. The experimental results for different IRS measurements and characterization of the response property of a servo motor demonstrated the high accuracy and fast measurement of the proposed technique, making it attractive for condition monitoring and faults diagnosis of rotating machineries.

  13. Experimental research of variable rotation speed ICE-based electric power station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dar’enkov Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Developing variable rotation speed ICE-based stand-alone electric power stations which can supply distant regions and autonomous objects with electricity are of scientific interest due to the insufficient study. The relevance of developing such electric power stations is determined by their usage is to provide a significant fuel saving as well as increase ICE motor service life. The article describes the electric station of autonomous objects with improved fuel economy. The article describes multivariate characteristic. Multivariate characteristic shows the optimal frequency of rotation of the internal combustion engine. At this rotational speed there is the greatest fuel economy.

  14. Research on monitoring technology of axial gap change about high-speed rotating machinery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaochan; Liu Fanglei; Hu Shihua; Xie Qing; Li Zhen

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes that the only measuring point of high-speed rotating machinery (speed monitoring transducer) measuring the operation of the axial gap change and application. According to mechanism analysis the speed monitoring transducer's signal, prove its amplitude changes including the axial gap change information. To carry out the speed monitoring transducer qualitative and quantitative axial gap change research, Find the output signal amplitude and clearance change corresponding relationship formula of speed monitoring transducer, define the measurement method. Based on the above analsis, manufacture the single channel measurement devices and multiple unit measurement system, provide an important fault decision of high-speed rotating machinery, it can be applied to new equipment development and production. (authors)

  15. Computational Model for Impact-Resisting Critical Thickness of High-Speed Machine Outer Protective Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huaying; Wang, Li Zhong; Wang, Yantao; Yuan, Xiaolei

    2018-05-01

    The blade or surface grinding blade of the hypervelocity grinding wheel may be damaged due to too high rotation rate of the spindle of the machine and then fly out. Its speed as a projectile may severely endanger the field persons. Critical thickness model of the protective plate of the high-speed machine is studied in this paper. For easy analysis, the shapes of the possible impact objects flying from the high-speed machine are simplified as sharp-nose model, ball-nose model and flat-nose model. Whose front ending shape to represent point, line and surface contacting. Impact analysis based on J-C model is performed for the low-carbon steel plate with different thicknesses in this paper. One critical thickness computational model for the protective plate of high-speed machine is established according to the damage characteristics of the thin plate to get relation among plate thickness and mass, shape and size and impact speed of impact object. The air cannon is used for impact test. The model accuracy is validated. This model can guide identification of the thickness of single-layer outer protective plate of a high-speed machine.

  16. A Review on the Linear and Nonlinear Critical Speeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    True, Hans

    2013-01-01

    In recent years several authors have proposed 'easier numerical methods' to find multiple attractors and the critical speed in railway dynamical problems. Actually, the methods do function in some cases, but they are not safe in the sense that you will calculate the relevant critical parameter...... values with a reasonable accuracy. In some cases the 'easier numerical methods' are really just a gamble. In this presentation the methods will be discussed. For this purpose linearisations of the nonlinear dynamical problem are made. A linearisation of the nonlinear dynamical problem simplifies...... the calculations and may give relevant answers to important questions such as the possibility of resonance phenomena in the designs, but a linearisation is not always allowed, and it does not help to find the critical speed of a railway vehicle. We shall also address the curious fact that the hunting motion...

  17. Mixed convection heat transfer simulation in a rectangular channel with a variable speed rotational cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Md Imran; Billah, Md. Mamun; Rahman, Mohammed Mizanur; Hasan, Mohammad Nasim

    2017-12-01

    Numerical simulation of steady two-dimensional heat transfer in a rectangular channel with a centered variable speed cylinder has been performed in this paper. In this setup, an isoflux heater is placed at the bottom wall of the channel while the upper wall is kept isothermal with a low temperature. The cylinder's peripheral speed to maximum inlet fluid velocity ratio (ξ) is varied from 0.5 to 1.5 for both clockwise and anticlockwise rotational cases. Air has been considered as working fluid while other system parameters such as Grashof and Reynolds numbers are varied. The effects of rotational speed, Grashof and Reynolds numbers on the streamline pattern, isothermal lines, local and average Nusselt number are analyzed and presented. It is observed the cylinder's rotational direction and speed has a significant effect on the flow pattern, temperature distribution as well as heat transfer characteristics.

  18. A stable high-speed rotational transmission system based on nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Kun; Yin, Hang; Wei, Ning; Chen, Zhen; Shi, Jiao

    2015-01-01

    A stable rotational transmission system is designed with a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT)-based motor and double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs)-based bearing. The system response is investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. It is found that the rotating motor can actuate the rotation of the inner tube in bearing because of the attraction between the two adjacent coaxial ends of motor and rotor (the inner tube in bearing). To have a stable nanostructure, each carbon atom on the adjacent ends of motor and rotor is bonded with a hydrogen atom. To obtain a stable high-speed rotational transmission system, both an armchair and a zigzag model are used in MD simulation. In each model, the motor with different diameters and rotational speeds is employed to examine the rotational transmission of corresponding DWCNTs. It is demonstrated that the long range van der Waals interaction between the adjacent ends of motor and rotor leads to a stable configuration of the adjacent ends, and further leads to a stable rotation of rotor when driven by a high-speed motor. As compared with the armchair model, the rotor in the zigzag model could reach a stable rotation mode much easier

  19. Electrical insulation characteristics of liquid helium under high speed rotating field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, I.; Fuchino, S.; Okano, M.; Tamada, N.

    1996-01-01

    Electrical breakdown behavior of liquid helium was investigated under high speed rotating field. In the development of superconducting turbine generator it is essential to get the knowledge of electrical insulation characteristics of liquid helium under high speed rotating field. When the current of the field magnet of a superconducting generator is changed, changing magnetic field generates heat in the conductor and it causes bubbles in the liquid helium around the conductor. The behavior of the bubbles is affected largely by the buoyancy which is generated by the centrifugal force. Electrical breakdown behavior of the liquid helium is strongly dependent on the gas bubbles in the liquid. Electrical breakdown voltage between electrodes was measured in a rotating cryostat with and without heater input for bubble formation. Decrease of the breakdown voltage by the heater power was smaller in the rotating field than that in the non rotating field

  20. Critical rotation of general-relativistic polytropic models revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geroyannis, V.; Karageorgopoulos, V.

    2013-09-01

    We develop a perturbation method for computing the critical rotational parameter as a function of the equatorial radius of a rigidly rotating polytropic model in the "post-Newtonia approximation" (PNA). We treat our models as "initial value problems" (IVP) of ordinary differential equations in the complex plane. The computations are carried out by the code dcrkf54.f95 (Geroyannis and Valvi 2012 [P1]; modified Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg code of fourth and fifth order for solving initial value problems in the complex plane). Such a complex-plane treatment removes the syndromes appearing in this particular family of IVPs (see e.g. P1, Sec. 3) and allows continuation of the numerical integrations beyond the surface of the star. Thus all the required values of the Lane-Emden function(s) in the post-Newtonian approximation are calculated by interpolation (so avoiding any extrapolation). An interesting point is that, in our computations, we take into account the complete correction due to the gravitational term, and this issue is a remarkable difference compared to the classical PNA. We solve the generalized density as a function of the equatorial radius and find the critical rotational parameter. Our computations are extended to certain other physical characteristics (like mass, angular momentum, rotational kinetic energy, etc). We find that our method yields results comparable with those of other reliable methods. REFERENCE: V.S. Geroyannis and F.N. Valvi 2012, International Journal of Modern Physics C, 23, No 5, 1250038:1-15.

  1. Experimental analysis of flow structure in contra-rotating axial flow pump designed with different rotational speed concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Linlin; Watanabe, Satoshi; Imanishi, Toshiki; Yoshimura, Hiroaki; Furukawa, Akinori

    2013-08-01

    As a high specific speed pump, the contra-rotating axial flow pump distinguishes itself in a rear rotor rotating in the opposite direction of the front rotor, which remarkably contributes to the energy conversion, the reduction of the pump size, better hydraulic and cavitation performances. However, with two rotors rotating reversely, the significant interaction between blade rows was observed in our prototype contra-rotating rotors, which highly affected the pump performance compared with the conventional axial flow pumps. Consequently, a new type of rear rotor was designed by the rotational speed optimization methodology with some additional considerations, aiming at better cavitation performance, the reduction of blade rows interaction and the secondary flow suppression. The new rear rotor showed a satisfactory performance at the design flow rate but an unfavorable positive slope of the head — flow rate curve in the partial flow rate range less than 40% of the design flow rate, which should be avoided for the reliability of pump-pipe systems. In the present research, to understand the internal flow field of new rear rotor and its relation to the performances at the partial flow rates, the velocity distributions at the inlets and outlets of the rotors are firstly investigated. Then, the boundary layer flows on rotor surfaces, which clearly reflect the secondary flow inside the rotors, are analyzed through the limiting streamline observations using the multi-color oil-film method. Finally, the unsteady numerical simulations are carried out to understand the complicated internal flow structures in the rotors.

  2. Influence of rotational speed on the cyclic fatigue of rotary nickel-titanium endodontic instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Hélio P; Ferreira, Alessandra A P; Elias, Carlos N; Moreira, Edson J L; de Oliveira, Júlio C Machado; Siqueira, José F

    2009-07-01

    During the preparation of curved canals, rotary nickel-titanium (NiTi) instruments are subjected to cyclic fatigue, which can lead to instrument fracture. Although several factors may influence the cyclic fatigue resistance of instruments, the role of the rotational speed remains uncertain. This study was intended to evaluate the effects of rotational speed on the number of cycles to fracture of rotary NiTi instruments. ProTaper Universal instruments F3 and F4 (Maillefer SA, Ballaigues, Switzerland) were used in an artificial curved canal under rotational speeds of 300 rpm or 600 rpm. The artificial canal was made of stainless steel, with an inner diameter of 1.5 mm, total length of 20 mm, and arc at the end with a curvature radius of 6 mm. The arc length was 9.4 mm and 10.6 mm on the straight part. The number of cycles required to fracture was recorded. Fractured surfaces and the helical shafts of the fractured instruments were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed approximately a 30% reduction in the observed number of cycles to fracture as rotational speed was increased from 300 to 600 RPM (p ductile type, and no plastic deformation was observed on the helical shaft of fractured instruments. The present findings for both F3 and F4 ProTaper instruments revealed that the increase in rotational speed significantly reduced the number of cycles to fracture.

  3. Ring rotational speed trend analysis by FEM approach in a Ring Rolling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegri, G.; Giorleo, L.; Ceretti, E.

    2018-05-01

    Ring Rolling is an advanced local incremental forming technology to fabricate directly precise seamless ring-shape parts with various dimensions and materials. In this process two different deformations occur in order to reduce the width and the height of a preform hollow ring; as results a diameter expansion is obtained. In order to guarantee a uniform deformation, the preform is forced toward the Driver Roll whose aim is to transmit the rotation to the ring. The ring rotational speed selection is fundamental because the higher is the speed the higher will be the axial symmetry of the deformation process. However, it is important to underline that the rotational speed will affect not only the final ring geometry but also the loads and energy needed to produce it. Despite this importance in industrial environment, usually, a constant value for the Driver Roll angular velocity is set so to result in a decreasing trend law for the ring rotational speed. The main risk due to this approach is not fulfilling the axial symmetric constrain (due to the diameter expansion) and to generate a high localized ring section deformation. In order to improve the knowledge about this topic in the present paper three different ring rotational speed trends (constant, linearly increasing and linearly decreasing) were investigated by FEM approach. Results were compared in terms of geometrical and dimensional analysis, loads and energies required.

  4. Numerical comparisons of the performance of a hydraulic coupling with different pump rotational speeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Y; Feng, L H; Liu, S H; Chen, T J; Fan, H G

    2013-01-01

    A hydraulic coupling is a hydrodynamic device for transmitting rotating mechanical power. It is widely used in the machinery industry because of its advantages of high energy transmission efficiency, shock absorption and good adaptability, etc. In this paper, SIMPLEC algorithm and SST k-ω turbulence model were employed to simulate the steady state flows at operating conditions of two different rotational speeds (3000r/min and 7500 r/min) of the pump of a specified hydraulic coupling model. The results indicate the existence of similarity in the distributions of the flow fields between the two speeds, but the efficiency at the optimum condition is larger with higher rotational speed. It is concluded that the similarity principle of the efficiency of the hydraulic couplings does not apply in this case due to the relatively high rotating speed and small geometric specifications. It is also shown that the radially stratified pressure distribution on the torus section becomes more obvious with larger speed ratios, since the centrifugal movement plays more dominant roles over the circulating movement in these situations. When the speed ratio is small, with the completion of the circulating flow, the pressure distribution presents in a more circular pattern around the neutral zone of the torus section

  5. A novel vibration-based fault diagnostic algorithm for gearboxes under speed fluctuations without rotational speed measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Liu; Qu, Yongzhi; Dhupia, Jaspreet Singh; Sheng, Shuangwen; Tan, Yuegang; Zhou, Zude

    2017-09-01

    The localized failures of gears introduce cyclic-transient impulses in the measured gearbox vibration signals. These impulses are usually identified from the sidebands around gear-mesh harmonics through the spectral analysis of cyclo-stationary signals. However, in practice, several high-powered applications of gearboxes like wind turbines are intrinsically characterized by nonstationary processes that blur the measured vibration spectra of a gearbox and deteriorate the efficacy of spectral diagnostic methods. Although order-tracking techniques have been proposed to improve the performance of spectral diagnosis for nonstationary signals measured in such applications, the required hardware for the measurement of rotational speed of these machines is often unavailable in industrial settings. Moreover, existing tacho-less order-tracking approaches are usually limited by the high time-frequency resolution requirement, which is a prerequisite for the precise estimation of the instantaneous frequency. To address such issues, a novel fault-signature enhancement algorithm is proposed that can alleviate the spectral smearing without the need of rotational speed measurement. This proposed tacho-less diagnostic technique resamples the measured acceleration signal of the gearbox based on the optimal warping path evaluated from the fast dynamic time-warping algorithm, which aligns a filtered shaft rotational harmonic signal with respect to a reference signal assuming a constant shaft rotational speed estimated from the approximation of operational speed. The effectiveness of this method is validated using both simulated signals from a fixed-axis gear pair under nonstationary conditions and experimental measurements from a 750-kW planetary wind turbine gearbox on a dynamometer test rig. The results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm can identify fault information from typical gearbox vibration measurements carried out in a resource-constrained industrial environment.

  6. A Soft Sensor Development for the Rotational Speed Measurement of an Electric Propeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengchao Ye

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, micro air vehicles driven by electric propellers have become a hot topic, and developed quickly. The performance of the vehicles depends on the rotational speed of propellers, thus, improving the accuracy of rotational speed measurement is beneficial to the vehicle’s performance. This paper presents the development of a soft sensor for the rotational speed measurement of an electric propeller. An adaptive learning algorithm is derived for the soft sensor by using Popov hyperstability theory, based on which a one-step-delay adaptive learning algorithm is further proposed to solve the implementation problem of the soft sensor. It is important to note that only the input signal and the commutation instant of the motor are employed as inputs in the algorithm, which makes it possible to be easily implemented in real-time. The experimental test results have demonstrated the learning performance and the accuracy of the soft sensor.

  7. The evaluation of speed skating helmet performance through peak linear and rotational accelerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karton, Clara; Rousseau, Philippe; Vassilyadi, Michael; Hoshizaki, Thomas Blaine

    2014-01-01

    Like many sports involving high speeds and body contact, head injuries are a concern for short track speed skating athletes and coaches. While the mandatory use of helmets has managed to nearly eliminate catastrophic head injuries such as skull fractures and cerebral haemorrhages, they may not be as effective at reducing the risk of a concussion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance characteristics of speed skating helmets with respect to managing peak linear and peak rotational acceleration, and to compare their performance against other types of helmets commonly worn within the speed skating sport. Commercially available speed skating, bicycle and ice hockey helmets were evaluated using a three-impact condition test protocol at an impact velocity of 4 m/s. Two speed skating helmet models yielded mean peak linear accelerations at a low-estimated probability range for sustaining a concussion for all three impact conditions. Conversely, the resulting mean peak rotational acceleration values were all found close to the high end of a probability range for sustaining a concussion. A similar tendency was observed for the bicycle and ice hockey helmets under the same impact conditions. Speed skating helmets may not be as effective at managing rotational acceleration and therefore may not successfully protect the user against risks associated with concussion injuries.

  8. Gas Bearing Control for Safe Operation in Critical Speed Regions - Experimental Verification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theisen, Lukas R. S.; Niemann, Hans H.; Galeazzi, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    supported by gas bearings to extend their operating range. Using H∞-design methods, active lubrication techniques are proposed to enhance the damping, which in turn reduces the vibrations to a desired safe level. The control design is validated experimentally on a laboratory test rig, and shown to allow...... and deceleration patterns and avoidance of operation near the critical speeds, which is a limiting factor during operation, specially during run-downs. An approach for reducing the vibrations is by feedback controlled lubrication. This paper addresses the challenge of reducing vibrations in rotating machines...

  9. Effect of Rotational Speed on the Stability of Two Rotating Side-by-side Circular Cylinders at Low Reynolds Number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Huashu; Zhang, Shuo; Yang, Hui; Setoguchi, Toshiaki; Kinoue, Yoichi

    2018-04-01

    Flow around two rotating side-by-side circular cylinders of equal diameter D is numerically studied at the Reynolds number 40≤ Re ≤200 and various rotation rate θ i . The incoming flow is assumed to be two-dimensional laminar flow. The governing equations are the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and solved by the finite volume method (FVM). The ratio of the center-to-center spacing to the cylinder diameter is T/D=2. The objective of the present work is to investigate the effect of rotational speed and Reynolds number on the stability of the flow. The simulation results are compared with the experimental data and a good agreement is achieved. The stability of the flow is analyzed by using the energy gradient theory, which produces the energy gradient function K to identify the region where the flow is the most prone to be destabilized and the degree of the destabilization. Numerical results reveal that K is the most significant at the separated shear layers of the cylinder pair. With Re increases, the length of the wake is shorter and the vortex shedding generally exhibits a symmetrical distribution for θ i < θ crit . It is also shown that the unsteady vortex shedding can be suppressed by rotating the cylinders in the counter-rotating mode.

  10. Research on rotational speed to the influence of pump as turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, S S; Kong, F Y; Jiang, W M; Qu, X Y

    2012-01-01

    Due to the problem of lacking hydraulic control devices, pump as turbine (PAT) has the disadvantage of optimum operation only within a small range discharge where the net head utilization and operating efficiency are the highest. Variable speed operation offers a good solution to this problem. Pump manufactures normally do not provide performance curves of their pumps working as turbines, especially when working at variable speed condition. Therefore, establishing a correlation between PAT's performance curve and rotational speed is essential. In this paper, a method of predicting PAT's performance at different rotational speeds was first developed using theoretical analysis. In the second step, a single stage centrifugal pump operated as a turbine was tested at different rotational speeds. Typical performance curves of PAT operating at variable speed condition were acquired. Finally computational fluid dynamics (CFD) had been used in this research. The accuracy of CFD prediction was proved when compared with experimental data. The validity of presented method by theoretical analysis was validated using test and CFD results.

  11. Regression Test on the Rotational Speed between Two Loads as the Preparation for Braking System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purwanti, B S R; Yusivar, F; Garniwa M K, I

    2013-01-01

    This paper is preparing the mathematic model of braking control, continuously of determination the error (e), delta error (de) of speed reduction [9]. Load-1 and Load-2 are driven by an electric motor located on the same shaft. Both loads are driven clock wise (CW), counter clock wise (CCW) by an asynchronous three-phase motor (M3). The mass of each load is also differentiated to simulate slip phenomena. Rotational speed of M3 is equal to Load-1, detected by Sensor-1, while speed rotation of Load-2 is detected by Sensor-2. The rotation for Load-1 and Load-2 can be adjusted on several position H j (j = 1, 2, 3). Once Load-1 and Load-2 reach a constant speed, current source will be disconnected. Speed reduction from (ω±1475 rpm) to stagnant (ω=0 rpm) on Load-1 and Load-2 is considered time function. Data collected from both load (ω (t)) known as e, de; on each position of H j . It uses covariance analysis to make sure that both loads are concurrent with each other against time difference. The objective of this research is to determine slip phenomena of speed reduction of each load. The expectations are to generate smoother braking and minimize the time needed when implemented with ANFIS.

  12. Numerical research on rotating speed influence and flow state distribution of water-lubricated thrust bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Xiao; Deng Liping; Huang Wei

    2015-01-01

    Water-lubricated thrust bearing is one of the key parts in canned motor pump, for example, the RCP in AP1000, and it functions to balance axial loads. A calculation model which can handle all flow state lubrication performance for water-lubricated thrust bearing has been presented. The model first includes laminar and turbulent Reynolds' equation. Then to get continuous viscosity coefficients cross critical Reynolds number, a transition zone which ranges based on engineering experience is put up, through which Hermite interpolation is employed. The model is numerically solved in finite difference method with uniform grids. To accelerate the calculation process, multigrid method and line relaxation is adopted within the iteration procedure. A medium sized water-lubricated tilting pad thrust bearing is exampled to verify the calculation model. Results suggest that as rotating speed enlarges, lubrication state distribution of the thrust bearing gradually tends to turbulent lubrication from the intersection corner of pad outer diameter and pad inlet to the opposite, minimum water film thickness increases approximately linearly, maximum water film pressure has little change, meanwhile the friction power grows nearly in exponential law which could result in bad effect by yielding much more heat. (author)

  13. Determination of the optimal speed of rotational display through an 180 degree arc in rotatostereoradiography and MR angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottomo, M.; Takekawa, S.D.; Sugawara, K.; Nakamura, T.; Fujimoto, M.; Nakanishi, T.

    1990-01-01

    Rotatostereoradiographic (RSRG) images are displayed in an oscillating, rotational manner. While reviewing these rotating images, the radiologist may become psychologically irritated by the rotation. A rapidly rotating display of linear subjects gives one three-dimensional depth information. This three-dimensional sense is lost if the rotation speed is too slow. The authors of this paper determined the slowest possible rotating display speed that allows perception of three-dimensional depth information minimizing psychological irritation. In the RSRG device (Shimadzu ROTATO-360), an x-ray tube coupled with an image intensifier rotates through a 180 degrees arc in 1.8 or 2.25 seconds. Both rotation times could be doubled. The images were displayed at four different speeds, covering the 180 degrees arc in 1.8, 2.25, 3.6, and 4.5 seconds

  14. Wind Turbine Generator Modeling and Simulation Where Rotational Speed is the Controlled Variable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihet-Popa, Lucian; Blaabjerg, Frede; Boldea, Ion

    2004-01-01

    the interaction between a wind turbine and the power system. The model is intended to simulate the behaviour of the wind turbine using induction generators both during normal operation. Sample simulation results for two induction generators (2/0.5 MW) validate the fundamental issues.......To optimise the power produced in a wind turbine, the speed of the turbine should vary with the wind speed. A simple control method is proposed that will allow an induction machine to run a turbine at its maximum power coefficient. Various types of power control strategies have been suggested...... for application in variable speed wind turbines. The usual strategy is to control the power or the torque acting on the wind turbine shafts. This paper presents an alternative control strategy, where the rotational speed is the controlled variable. The paper describes a model, which is being developed to simulate...

  15. A reference Pelton turbine - High speed visualization in the rotating frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solemslie, Bjørn W.; Dahlhaug, Ole G.

    2016-11-01

    To enable a detailed study the flow mechanisms effecting the flow within the reference Pelton runner designed at the Waterpower Laboratory (NTNLT) a flow visualization system has been developed. The system enables high speed filming of the hydraulic surface of a single bucket in the rotating frame of reference. It is built with an angular borescopes adapter entering the turbine along the rotational axis and a borescope embedded within a bucket. A stationary high speed camera located outside the turbine housing has been connected to the optical arrangement by a non-contact coupling. The view point of the system includes the whole hydraulic surface of one half of a bucket. The system has been designed to minimize the amount of vibrations and to ensure that the vibrations felt by the borescope are the same as those affecting the camera. The preliminary results captured with the system are promising and enable a detailed study of the flow within the turbine.

  16. Peculiarities of the thermal regime of the Russian plain depending on tidal oscillation Earth rotation speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimov, L. M.

    2018-01-01

    Typification of fields of anomaly of temperature in the central part of East European Plain depending on the main phases of the Moon taking into account these tidal fluctuations of speed of rotation of Earth is presented. The main regularities of spatial distribution of anomaly of temperature in December are revealed. The opposite dependence of distribution of anomaly of temperature on antiphases of the Moon is established.

  17. Increasing FSW join strength by optimizing feed rate, rotating speed and pin angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmadi, Djarot B.; Purnowidodo, Anindito; Siswanto, Eko

    2017-10-01

    Principally the join in Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is formed due to mechanical bonding. At least there are two factors determines the quality of this join, first is the temperature in the area around the interface and secondly the intense of mixing forces in nugget zone to create the mechanical bonding. The adequate temperature creates good flowability of the nugget zone and an intensive mixing force produces homogeneous strong bonding. Based on those two factors in this research the effects of feed rate, rotating speed and pin angle of the FSW process to the tensile strength of resulted join are studied. The true experimental method was used. Feed rate was varied at 24, 42, 55 and 74 mm/minutes and from the experimental results, it can be concluded that the higher feed rate decreases the tensile strength of weld join and it is believed due to the lower heat embedded in the material. Inversely, the higher rotating speed increases the join’s tensile strength as a result of higher heat embedded in base metal and higher mixing force in the nugget zone. The rotating speed were 1842, 2257 and 2904 RPMs. The pin angle determines the direction of mixing force. With variation of pin angle: 0°, 4°, 8° and 12° the higher pin angle generally increases the tensile strength because of more intensive mixing force. For 12° pin angle the lower tensile strength is found since the force tends to push out the nugget area from the joint gap.

  18. Effect of rotational speed modulation on heat transport in a fluid layer with temperature dependent viscosity and internal heat source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.S. Bhadauria

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a theoretical investigation has been carried out to study the combined effect of rotation speed modulation and internal heating on thermal instability in a temperature dependent viscous horizontal fluid layer. Rayleigh–Bénard momentum equation with Coriolis term has been considered to describe the convective flow. The system is rotating about it is own axis with non-uniform rotational speed. In particular, a time-periodic and sinusoidally varying rotational speed has been considered. A weak nonlinear stability analysis is performed to find the effect of modulation on heat transport. Nusselt number is obtained in terms of amplitude of convection and internal Rayleigh number, and depicted graphically for showing the effects of various parameters of the system. The effect of modulated rotation speed is found to have a stabilizing effect for different values of modulation frequency. Further, internal heating and thermo-rheological parameters are found to destabilize the system.

  19. Critical speed as a predictor of aerobic performance in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner de Campos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available To compare times achieved in a 1,600m rural road run with the times predicted from critical speed, in additionto verify any association between critical speed and VO2max with the aerobic performance (1,600m time of children. The sample consisted of 25 boys and 39 girls, aged 9 to 11 years. Their critical speeds were determined using the work versus time model, performed in the 200m and 800m maximum runs. The value of VO2max was measured using a 20-meter shuttlerun test. Endurance performance was determinate from the time obtained in a rural 1,600m road run. Statistical proceduresused were descriptive analyses, Student’s t test and Pearson’s moment correlation, with signifi cance level set at p RESUMO O estudo teve como objetivo comparar o tempo obtido na prova de 1.600m com o tempo predito pela velocidade crítica, bem como verifi car a associação da velocidade crítica e da potência aeróbia (VO2máx com o desempenho aeróbio (tempo 1.600m em crianças. A amostra foi composta de 25 meninos e 39 meninas, com faixa etária entre 9 a 11 anos, classifi cadas nos estágios de maturação sexual 1 e 2 de Tanner. A velocidade crítica foi obtida pelo modelo de avaliação trabalho versus tempo, na realização de dois tiros máximos de 200m e 800m. O VO2máx foi obtido através do teste de vai-vem de 20m. O desempenho aeróbio foi obtido através do tempo de percurso em uma prova rústica de 1.600m. Utilizou-se a estatística descritiva, teste “t” student e a correlação de Pearson, adotando p<0,05. Em ambos os grupos, odesempenho obtido na prova de 1.600m foi significativamente menor que o desempenho predito pela velocidade crítica (masculino: 8,43 ± 0,78 min versus 10,16 ± 1,37 min; feminino: 9,09 ± 0,75 min versus 10,30 ± 1,09 min (p= 0,0001.Observaram-se correlações inversamente significativas entre a velocidade crítica e o desempenho aeróbio nos grupos masculino e feminino (r= -0,52 e r= -0,70, respectivamente, e entre o VO2m

  20. Simplified equations for the rotational speed response to inflow velocity variation in fixed-pitch small wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, H; Hasegawa, Y, E-mail: hsuzuki@nitech.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso-cho, Showa-ku, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)

    2015-02-01

    We propose simplified equations for the rotational speed response to inflow velocity variation in fixed-pitch small wind turbines. The present formulation is derived by introducing a series expansion for the torque coefficient at the constant tip-speed ratio. By focusing on the first- and second-order differential coefficients of the torque coefficient, we simplify the original differential equation. The governing equation based only on the first-order differential coefficient is found to be linear, whereas the second-order differential coefficient introduces nonlinearity. We compare the numerical solutions of the three governing equations for rotational speed in response to sinusoidal and normal-random variations of inflow velocity. The linear equation gives accurate solutions of amplitude and phase lag. Nonlinearity occurs in the mean value of rotational speed variation. We also simulate the rotational speed in response to a step input of inflow velocity using the conditions of two previous studies, and note that the form of this rotational speed response is a system of first-order time lag. We formulate the gain and time constant for this rotational speed response. The magnitude of the gain is approximately three when the wind turbine is operated at optimal tip-speed ratio. We discuss the physical meaning of the derived time constant. (paper)

  1. Effects of impeller diameter and rotational speed on performance of pump running in turbine mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Sanjay V.; Swarnkar, Abhishek; Motwani, Karan H.; Patel, Rajesh N.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Experiments done between 900 and 1500 rpm with original, 10% and 20% trimmed impellers. • The performance of PAT was found better in speed range of 1000–1200 rpm. • Blade rounding led to 3–4% rise in efficiency at rated speed with existing impeller. • Correlation developed has predicted η BEP within ±10% of experimental results. - Abstract: The major limitations of mini/micro hydropower schemes is the higher cost of small capacity hydro turbines. Also, it is very cumbersome, time consuming and expensive to develop the site specific turbines corresponding to local site conditions in mini/micro hydro range. In such plants, small centrifugal pumps can be used in turbine mode by running in the reverse direction. The efficiency of pump as turbines (PATs) is usually lower than the conventional hydro turbines; however, there may be substantial decrease in the capital cost of the plant. Hydropower plants usually runs at part load for several months in a year due to insufficient water availability for the power generation. The application range of PAT can be widened if its part load and/or maximum efficiency can be improved. In the present study, experimental investigations are carried out on centrifugal pump running in turbine mode to optimize its geometric and operational parameters e.g. impeller diameter and rotational speed. The experiments were performed in the wide range of rotational speeds varying from 900 to 1500 rpm with original (∅ 250 mm), 10% trimmed (∅ 225 mm) and 20% trimmed (∅ 200 mm) impellers. Impeller trimming led to improvement in efficiency at part load operating conditions. The performance of PAT was found better at the lower speeds than that at the rated speed. The effects of blade rounding were studied in all the cases and it led to 3–4% rise in efficiency at rated speed with the original impeller. The empirical correlation is also developed for prediction of efficiency in terms of impeller diameter and rotational

  2. Effects of age and pathology on shear wave speed of the human rotator cuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumer, Timothy G; Dischler, Jack; Davis, Leah; Labyed, Yassin; Siegal, Daniel S; van Holsbeeck, Marnix; Moutzouros, Vasilios; Bey, Michael J

    2018-01-01

    Rotator cuff tears are common and often repaired surgically, but post-operative repair tissue healing, and shoulder function can be unpredictable. Tear chronicity is believed to influence clinical outcomes, but conventional clinical approaches for assessing tear chronicity are subjective. Shear wave elastography (SWE) is a promising technique for assessing soft tissue via estimates of shear wave speed (SWS), but this technique has not been used extensively on the rotator cuff. Specifically, the effects of age and pathology on rotator cuff SWS are not well known. The objectives of this study were to assess the association between SWS and age in healthy, asymptomatic subjects, and to compare measures of SWS between patients with a rotator cuff tear and healthy, asymptomatic subjects. SWE images of the supraspinatus muscle and intramuscular tendon were acquired from 19 asymptomatic subjects and 11 patients with a rotator cuff tear. Images were acquired with the supraspinatus under passive and active (i.e., minimal activation) conditions. Mean SWS was positively associated with age in the supraspinatus muscle and tendon under passive and active conditions (p ≤ 0.049). Compared to asymptomatic subjects, patients had a lower mean SWS in their muscle and tendon under active conditions (p ≤ 0.024), but no differences were detected under passive conditions (p ≥ 0.783). These findings identify the influences of age and pathology on SWS in the rotator cuff. These preliminary findings are an important step toward evaluating the clinical utility of SWE for assessing rotator cuff pathology. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 36:282-288, 2018. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Proposal of a high rigidity and high speed rotating mechanism using a new concept hydrodynamic bearing in X-ray tube for high speed computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Hitoshi; Fukushima, Harunobu; Yoshii, Yasuo; Nakamuta, Hironori; Iwase, Mitsuo; Kitade, Koichi

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a high rigidity and high speed rotating mechanism using a new concept hydrodynamic bearing in X-ray tube for high speed computed tomography is proposed. In order to obtain both the stability and the high load carrying capacity, the hydrodynamic bearing lubricated by liquid metal (Gallium alloy), named as the hybrid hydrodynamic bearing generates the lubricating film by wedge effect on the plane region between the spiral grooves under high loading condition. The parallelism between the bearing and the rotating body can be secured by optimizing the rigidity distribution of stationary shaft in the proposed rotating mechanism. By carrying out the fundamental design by numerical analyses, it has been made clear that the hybrid hydrodynamic bearing and the rotating mechanism are suitable for the X-ray tube used in the CT with ever-increasingly scanning speed. (author)

  4. EVALUATION METHOD OF FUEL-EFFICIENT DRIVING IN DUMP TRUCK USING VEHICLE SPEED AND ENGINE ROTATIONAL SPEED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Masafumi; Yamamoto, Tatsuo; Yasui, Toshiaki; Hayashi, Mayu; Takebe, Atsuji; Funahashi, Masashi

    In the construction site, the light oil that the construction vehicle such as dump trucks uses accounts for 70 percent of the amount of the energy use. Therefore, the eco-driving education of the construction vehicle is effective in the fuel cost improvement and the CO2 reduction. The eco-driving education can be executed cheap and easily, and a high effect can be expected. However, it is necessary to evaluate the eco-driving situation of the construction vehicle exactly to maintain the educative effect for a long term. In this paper, the method for evaluating the effect of the fuel cost improvement was examined by using the vehicle speed and the engine rotational speed of the dump truck. In this method, "Ideal eco-driving model" that considers the difference between the vehicle model and the running condition (traffic jam etc.) is made. As a result, it is possible to evaluate the fuel consumption improvement effect of a dump truck by the same index.

  5. Rotation speed measurement for turbine governor: torsion filtering by using Kalman filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houry, M.P.; Bourles, H.

    1996-01-01

    The rotation speed of a turbogenerator is disturbed by its shaft torsion. Obtaining a filtered measure of this speed is a problem of a great practical importance for turbine governor. A good filtering of this speed must meet two requirements: it must cut frequencies of the shaft torsion oscillation and it must not reduce or delay the signal in the pass-band, i.e. at lower frequencies. At Electricite de France, the speed measure is used to set in motion the fast valving system as quickly as possible, after a short circuit close to the unit or rather an islanding. It is difficult to satisfy these two requirements by using conventional filtering methods. The standard solution consists in a first order filter: at Electricite de France, its time constant is equal to 80 ms. We have decided to improve this filtering by designing a new filter which cuts the frequencies of the shaft torsion oscillation without reducing the bandwidth to the speed measure. If one uses conventional methods to obtain a band stop filter, it is easy to obtain the desired magnitude but not a phase near zero in the whole pass-band. Therefore, we have chosen to design the filter by using Kalman'a theory. The measurement noise is modeled as a colored one, generated by a very lightly damped system driven by a while noise. The resulting Kalman filter is an effective band stop filter, whose phase nicely remains near zero in the whole pass-band. The digital simulations we made and the tests we carried out with the Electricite de France Micro Network laboratory show the advantages of the rotation speed filter we designed using Kalman's theory. With the proposed filter, the speed measure filtering is better in terms of reduction and phase shift. the result is that there are less untimely solicitations of the fast valving system. Consequently, this device improves the power systems stability by minimizing the risks of deep perturbations due to a temporary lack of generation and the risks of under-speed loss

  6. Effects of curvature and rotation on turbulence in the NASA low-speed centrifugal compressor impeller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Joan G.; Moore, John

    1992-01-01

    The flow in the NASA Low-Speed Impeller is affected by both curvature and rotation. The flow curves due to the following: (1) geometric curvature, e.g. the curvature of the hub and shroud profiles in the meridional plane and the curvature of the backswept impeller blades; and (2) secondary flow vortices, e.g. the tip leakage vortex. Changes in the turbulence and effective turbulent viscosity in the impeller are investigated. The effects of these changes on three-dimensional flow development are discussed. Two predictions of the flow in the impeller, one with, and one without modification to the turbulent viscosity due to rotation and curvature, are compared. Some experimental and theoretical background for the modified mixing length model of turbulent viscosity will also be presented.

  7. Research on Dynamic Torque Measurement of High Speed Rotating Axis Based on Whole Optical Fiber Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, H P; Jin, Y Q; Ha, Y W; Liu, L H [Department of Automatic Measurement and Control, Harbin Institute of Technology, PO Box 305, Harbin, 150001 (China)

    2006-10-15

    Non-contact torque measurement system of fiber grating is proposed in this paper. It is used for the dynamic torque measurement of the rotating axis in the spaceflight servo system. Optical fiber is used as sensing probe with high sensitivity, anti-electromagnetic interference, resistance to high temperature and corrosion. It is suitable to apply in a bad environment. Signals are processed by digital circuit and Single Chip Microcomputer. This project can realize super speed dynamic measurement and it is the first time to apply the project in the spaceflight system.

  8. Research on Dynamic Torque Measurement of High Speed Rotating Axis Based on Whole Optical Fiber Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, H. P.; Jin, Y. Q.; Ha, Y. W.; Liu, L. H.

    2006-10-01

    Non-contact torque measurement system of fiber grating is proposed in this paper. It is used for the dynamic torque measurement of the rotating axis in the spaceflight servo system. Optical fiber is used as sensing probe with high sensitivity, anti-electromagnetic interference, resistance to high temperature and corrosion. It is suitable to apply in a bad environment. Signals are processed by digital circuit and Single Chip Microcomputer. This project can realize super speed dynamic measurement and it is the first time to apply the project in the spaceflight system.

  9. Rotating speed effect on electronic transport behaviors of Ni–Nb–Zr–H glassy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuhara, Mikio

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The electronic transport behaviors of (Ni 0.39 Nb 0.25 Zr 0.35 ) 100−y H y (0 ≤ y ≤ 15) glassy alloys, which produced by rotating (or quenching) speeds of 3000 and 10,000 rpm, have been studied as a function of hydrogen content. ► The resistivity for (Ni 0.39 Nb 0.25 Zr 0.35 ) 97.8 H 2.2 alloy, produced by rotating speed of 10,000 rpm, displayed 0.1 nΩ cm, which is 0.01% of silver (1.62 μΩ cm) at room temperature, between 40 and 252 K. ► Supercooling of the molten alloy induces a superior ballistic conductor and a room-temperature Coulomb oscillation. - Abstract: The electronic transport behaviors of (Ni 0.39 Nb 0.25 Zr 0.35 ) 100−y H y (0 ≤ y ≤ 15) glassy alloys, produced by rotating (or quenching) speeds of 3000 and 10,000 rpm, have been studied as a function of hydrogen content. These alloys show semiconducting, superior ballistic transport, superconducting and electric current-induced Coulomb oscillation, as hydrogen content increases. The resistivity for (Ni 0.39 Nb 0.25 Zr 0.35 ) 97.8 H 2.2 alloy, produced by rotating speed of 10,000 rpm, displayed 0.1 nΩ cm, which is 0.01% of silver (1.62 μΩ cm) at room temperature, between 40 and 252 K. The Coulomb oscillation of the 10,000 rpm-(Ni 0.39 Nb 0.25 Zr 0.35 ) 95.2 H 4.8 alloy is about 4-fold larger than that of the 3000 rpm-(Ni 0.39 Nb 0.25 Zr 0.35 ) 91.1 H 8.9 alloy. Supercooling of the molten alloy induces a superior ballistic conductor and a room-temperature Coulomb oscillation at lower and higher hydrogen contents, respectively.

  10. Research on Dynamic Torque Measurement of High Speed Rotating Axis Based on Whole Optical Fiber Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, H P; Jin, Y Q; Ha, Y W; Liu, L H

    2006-01-01

    Non-contact torque measurement system of fiber grating is proposed in this paper. It is used for the dynamic torque measurement of the rotating axis in the spaceflight servo system. Optical fiber is used as sensing probe with high sensitivity, anti-electromagnetic interference, resistance to high temperature and corrosion. It is suitable to apply in a bad environment. Signals are processed by digital circuit and Single Chip Microcomputer. This project can realize super speed dynamic measurement and it is the first time to apply the project in the spaceflight system

  11. NOISE AS AN INDIRECT CRITERION FOR EVALUATING THE CRITICAL SPEED OF VEHICLE TIRE AT HYDROPLANING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Karpenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An alternative method for determining the critical rolling speed of automobile tires with various tread patterns during hydroplaning is considered. The critical speed of the car at which the hydroplaning process takes place is determined. This method is based on recording the tire noise emission when driving on a wet road pavement.

  12. Effect of instantaneous rotational speed on the analysis of measured diesel engine cylinder pressure data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonopoulos, Antonis K.; Hountalas, Dimitrios T.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The effect of in-cycle speed fluctuation on cylinder pressure measurement is investigated. ► A phasing error is introduced when sampling cylinder pressure at constant time intervals. ► The phasing error increases with the increase of engine load and decrease of engine speed. ► Measurement using constant sampling rate affects estimation of HRR, ignition angle etc. - Abstract: Diesel engine cylinder pressure measurements are widely used in field and lab applications to support among other control, monitoring and diagnostic applications. There are two methods to measure cylinder pressure, the use of a crank angle encoder, which guarantees pressure samples at fixed crank angles, and the use of constant time sampling rate. The last is frequently used due to its simplicity or because of practical restrictions. However, in order to perform thermodynamic calculations it is necessary to attribute a crank angle value to each measured pressure value. But if the in-cycle rotational speed fluctuates and this is neglected, an error will result in the values derived from the processing of the measured cylinder pressure. For this reason in the present work an experimental investigation is conducted on a single cylinder diesel test engine to identify the aforementioned problem. During the tests cylinder pressure and instantaneous speed were recorded using an accurate crank angle reference. These where then used to simulate the measurement of cylinder pressure digitized using a fixed time step. The comparison of the two cylinder pressure traces and the thermodynamic parameters derived from them, reveals the introduction of an error which depends on engine load and speed.

  13. Elastic dynamic research of high speed multi-link precision press considering structural stiffness of rotation joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Feng Feng; Sun, Yu; Peng, Bin Bin [School of Mechanical Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing (China)

    2016-10-15

    An elastic dynamic model of high-speed multi-link precision press considering structural stiffness of rotation joints was established by the finite element method. In the finite element model, rotation joint was established by four bar elements with equivalent stiffness, and connected link was established by beam element. Then, the elastic dynamics equation of the system was established, and modal superposition method was used to solve the dynamic response. Compared with the traditional elastic dynamic model with perfect constraint of the rotation joints, the elastic dynamic response value of the improved model is larger. To validate the presented new method of elastic dynamics analysis with stiffness of rotation joints, a related test of slider Bottom dead center (BDC) position in different speed was designed. The test shows that the model with stiffness of rotation joints is more reasonable. So it provides a reasonable theory and method for dynamic characteristics research of such a multi-link machine.

  14. Rotation speed measurement for turbine governor: torsion filtering by using Kalman filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houry, M.P.; Bourles, H.

    1995-11-01

    The rotation speed of a turbogenerator is disturbed by its shaft torsion. Obtaining a filtered measure of this sped a problem of a great practical importance for turbine governor. A good filtering of this speed must meet two requirements: it must cut frequencies of the shaft torsion oscillation and it must not reduce or delay the signal in the pass-band. i.e. at lower frequencies. At Electricite de France, the speed measure is used to set in motion the fast valving system as quickly as possible, after a short circuit close to the unit (to contribute to the stability) or after an islanding (to quickly reach a balance with the house load). It is difficult to satisfy these two requirements by using conventional filtering methods. The standard solution consists in a first order filter: at Electricite de France, its time constant is equal to 80 ms; We have decided to improve this filtering by designing a new filter which cuts the frequencies of the shaft torsion oscillation without reducing the bandwidth of the speed measure. If one uses conventional methods to obtain a band-stop filter (for instance a Butterworth, a Chebyshev or an elliptic band-stop filter),it is easy to obtain the desired magnitude but not a phase near zero in the whole pass-band. Therefore, we have chosen to design the filter by using Kalman's theory. The measurement noise is modeled as a colored one, generated by a very lightly damped system driven by a white noise. The resulting Kalman filter is an effective band-stop filter, whose phase nicely remains near zero in the whole pass-band. (authors). 13 refs., 12 figs

  15. Shoulder Rotator Muscle Dynamometry Characteristics: Side Asymmetry and Correlations with Ball-Throwing Speed in Adolescent Handball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontaga, Inese; Zidens, Janis

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to: 1) compare shoulder external/internal rotator muscles’ peak torques and average power values and their ratios in the dominant and non-dominant arm; 2) determine correlations between shoulder rotator muscles’ peak torques, average power and ball-throwing speed in handball players. Fourteen 14 to 15-year-old male athletes with injury-free shoulders participated in the study (body height: 176 ± 7 cm, body mass 63 ± 9 kg). The tests were carried out by an isokinetic dynamometer system in the shoulder internal and external rotation movements at angular velocities of 60°/s, 90°/s and 240°/s during concentric contractions. The eccentric external– concentric internal rotator muscle contractions were performed at the velocity of 90°/s. The player threw a ball at maximal speed keeping both feet on the floor. The speed was recorded with reflected light rays. Training in handball does not cause significant side asymmetry in shoulder external/internal rotator muscle peak torques or the average power ratio. Positive correlations between isokinetic characteristics of the shoulder internal and external rotator muscles and ball-throwing speed were determined. The power produced by internal rotator muscles during concentric contractions after eccentric contractions of external rotator muscles was significantly greater in the dominant than in the non-dominant arm. Thus, it may be concluded that the shoulder eccentric external/concentric internal rotator muscle power ratio is significantly greater than this ratio in the concentric contractions of these muscles. PMID:25414738

  16. Shoulder Rotator Muscle Dynamometry Characteristics: Side Asymmetry and Correlations with Ball-Throwing Speed in Adolescent Handball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pontaga Inese

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to: 1 compare shoulder external/internal rotator muscles’ peak torques and average power values and their ratios in the dominant and non-dominant arm; 2 determine correlations between shoulder rotator muscles’ peak torques, average power and ball-throwing speed in handball players. Fourteen 14 to 15- year-old male athletes with injury-free shoulders participated in the study (body height: 176 ± 7 cm, body mass 63 ± 9 kg. The tests were carried out by an isokinetic dynamometer system in the shoulder internal and external rotation movements at angular velocities of 60°/s, 90°/s and 240°/s during concentric contractions. The eccentric external- concentric internal rotator muscle contractions were performed at the velocity of 90°/s. The player threw a ball at maximal speed keeping both feet on the floor. The speed was recorded with reflected light rays. Training in handball does not cause significant side asymmetry in shoulder external/internal rotator muscle peak torques or the average power ratio. Positive correlations between isokinetic characteristics of the shoulder internal and external rotator muscles and ball-throwing speed were determined. The power produced by internal rotator muscles during concentric contractions after eccentric contractions of external rotator muscles was significantly greater in the dominant than in the non-dominant arm. Thus, it may be concluded that the shoulder eccentric external/concentric internal rotator muscle power ratio is significantly greater than this ratio in the concentric contractions of these muscles

  17. Tool geometry, rotation and travel speeds effects on the properties of dissimilar magnesium/aluminum friction stir welded lap joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, J.; Behnamian, Y.; Mostafaei, A.; Gerlich, A.P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Tool geometry, rotation and travel speeds show great effect on the microstructure stability of FSW joint. • Increasing rotation and travel speeds resulted in increasing the tensile strength and ductility of the joints. • Better intermixing between Al/Mg alloys was obtained by tapered threaded pin. • A mechanical interlocking mechanism proposed for higher ductility and superior tensile properties in FSW joints. - Abstract: Lap joint friction stir welding (FSW) between dissimilar AZ31B and Al 6061 alloys sheets was conducted using various welding parameters including tool geometry, rotation and travel speeds. Tapered threaded pin and tapered pin tools were applied to fabricate FSW joints, using different rotation and travel speeds. Metallurgical investigations including X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD), optical microscopy images (OM), scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM–EDS) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) were used to characterize joints microstructures made with different welding parameters. Intermetallic phases were detected in the weld zone (WZ). Various microstructures were observed in the stir zone which can be attributed to using different travel and rotation speeds. Mechanical evaluation including lap shear fracture load test and microhardness measurements indicated that by simultaneously increasing the tool rotation and travel speeds, the joint tensile strength and ductility reached a maximum value. Microhardness studies and extracted results from stress–strain curves indicated that mechanical properties were affected by FSW process. Furthermore, phase analyses by XRD indicated the presence of intermetallic compounds in the weld zone. Finally, in the Al/Mg dissimilar weld, fractography studies showed that intermetallic compounds formation in the weld zone had an influence on the failure mode

  18. LIDAR wind speed measurements from a rotating spinner (SpinnerEx 2009)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelou, N.; Mikkelsen, Torben; Hansen, Kasper H.; Sjoeholm, M.; Harris, M.

    2010-08-15

    In the context of the increasing application of remote sensing techniques in wind energy, the feasibility of upwind observations via a spinner-mounted wind lidar was tested during the SpinnerEx 2009 experiment. The objective was to install a QinetiQ (Natural Power) ZephIR lidar in the rotating spinner of a MW-sized wind turbine, and investigate the approaching wind fields from this vantage point. Time series of wind speed measurements from the lidar with 50 Hz sampling rate were successfully obtained for approximately 60 days, during the measurement campaign lasting from April to August 2009. In this report, information is given regarding the experimental setup and the lidar's operation parameters. The geometrical model used for the reconstruction of the scanning pattern of the lidar is described. This model takes into account the lidar's pointing direction, the spinner axis's vertical tilt and the wind turbine's yaw relative to the mean wind speed direction. The data analysis processes are documented. A methodology for the calculation of the yaw misalignment of the wind turbine relative to the wind direction, as a function of various averaging times, is proposed, using the lidar's instantaneous line-of-sight radial wind speed measurements. Two different setups have been investigated in which the approaching wind field was measured at distances of 0.58 OE and 1.24 OE rotor diameters upwind, respectively. For both setups, the instantaneous yaw misalignment of the turbine has been estimated from the lidar measurements. Data from an adjacent meteorological mast as well as data logged within the wind turbine's control system were used to evaluate the results. (author)

  19. Critical care staff rotation: outcomes of a survey and pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Annette; Douglas, Margaret; Shuttler, Rachel; Hagland, Martin R

    2003-01-01

    Staff rotation is defined as a reciprocal exchange of staff between two or more clinical areas for a predetermined period of time. The rationale for introducing a 'Critical Care Nurse Rotation Programme' includes important issues such as improving nurses' knowledge and skills, providing development opportunities, networking, the ability to recruit and retain nurses and the provision of a more versatile and flexible workforce. To gain the understanding of nurses' views and opinions on critical care rotation programmes, evidence was collected by means of questionnaires involving 153 critical care nurses and by undertaking semi-structured interviews with four nurses. On the basis of the responses, a pilot of three Critical Care Nurse Rotation Programmes was introduced. An evaluation of the pilot project assessed participants, supervisors and senior nurses' experience of rotation and revealed very positive experiences being reported. The benefits highlighted included improving clinical skills and experience, improving interdepartmental relationships, heightened motivation and opportunities to network. The disadvantages focused on the operational and managerial issues, such as difficulties maintaining supervision and providing an adequate supernumerary period. Evidence from the survey and pilot study suggests that in the future, providing rotational programmes for critical care nurses would be a valuable strategy for recruitment, retention and developing the workforce.

  20. Nonlinear Adaptive Rotational Speed Control Design and Experiment of the Propeller of an Electric Micro Air Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouzhao Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs driven by electric propellers are of interest for military and civilian applications. The rotational speed control of such electric propellers is an important factor for improving the flight performance of the vehicles, such as their positioning accuracy and stability. Therefore, this paper presents a nonlinear adaptive control scheme for the electric propulsion system of a certain MAV, which can not only speed up the convergence rates of adjustable parameters, but can also ensure the overall stability of the adjustable parameters. The significant improvement of the dynamic tracking accuracy of the rotational speed can be easily achieved through the combination of the proposed control algorithm and linear control methods. The experimental test results have also demonstrated the positive effect of the nonlinear adaptive control scheme on the flight performance of the MAV.

  1. Alignment of Electrospun Nanofibers and Prediction of Electrospinning Linear Speed Using a Rotating Jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khamforoush

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Anew and effective electrospinning method has been developed for producing aligned polymer nanofibers. The conventional electrospinning technique has been modified to fabricate nanofibers as uniaxially aligned array. The key to the success of this technique is the creation of a rotating jet by using a cylindrical collector in which the needle tip is located at its center. The unique advantage of this method among the current methods is the ability of apparatus to weave continuously nanofibers in uniaxially aligned form. Fibers produced by this method are well-aligned, with several meters in length, and can be spread over a large area. We have employed a voltage range of (6-16 kV, a collector diameter in the range of 20-50 cm and various concentrations of PAN solutions ranging from 15 wt% to 19 wt %. The electrospun nanofibers could be conveniently formed onto the surface of any thin substrate such as glass sampling plate for subsequent treatments and other applications. Therefore, the linear speed of electrospinning process is determined experimentally as a function of cylindrical collector diameter, polymer concentration and field potential  difference.

  2. Effect of tool rotational speed and penetration depth on dissimilar aluminum alloys friction stir spot welds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquín M. Piccini

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the last years, the automotive industry is looking for the use of aluminum parts in replace of steel parts in order to reduce the vehicles weight. These parts have to be joined, for instance, by welding processes. The more common welding process in the automotive industry is the Resistance Spot Welding (RSW technique. However, RSW of aluminum alloys has many disadvantages. Regarding this situation, a variant of the Friction Stir Welding process called Friction Stir Spot Welding (FSSW has been developed, showing a strong impact in welding of aluminum alloys and dissimilar materials in thin sheets. Process parameters affect the characteristics of the welded joints. However, the information available on this topic is scarce, particularly for dissimilar joints and thin sheets. The aim of this work was to study the effect of the rotational speed and the tool penetration depth on the characteristics of dissimilar FSS welded joints. Defects free joints have been achieved with higher mechanical properties than the ones reported. The maximum fracture load was 5800 N. It was observed that the effective joint length of the welded spots increased with the tool penetration depth, meanwhile the fracture load increased and then decreased. Finally, welding at 1200 RPM produced welded joints with lower mechanical properties than the ones achieved at 680 and 903 RPM.

  3. Studying the Effect of Roughness of Wet Road on Critical speed of Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali K. Mohammed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydroplaning is one the most dangerous phenomena which effect on the safety of driving cars on wet roads, then, the critical speed of slipping cars is an important parameter in the hydroplaning ,and depends on the properties of  the following three  parameters: tires, water layer and  road surface. The road texture is the main property of road specifications which affect directly on the critical speed of the vehicle. In the present work, the properties of road roughness and influence of surface texture on critical speed of vehicle are studied with variation of the following parameters: thickness and dynamic viscosity of water on the road surface and the vehicle load. The results showed that increasing the road surface roughness and the vehicle load both has a appositive influence on the critical speed (increaseof the vehicle, while increasing the dynamic viscosity and thickness of the water layer on the road surface has a negative influence on the critical speed (decrease of the vehicle. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.25130/tjes.24.2017.24

  4. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PASSIVE SHOULDER ROTATION RANGE OF MOTION, ISOMETRIC ROTATION STRENGTH AND SERVE SPEED BETWEEN ELITE TENNIS PLAYERS WITH AND WITHOUT HISTORY OF SHOULDER PAIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Pérez, V; Elvira, Jll; Fernandez-Fernandez, J; Vera-Garcia, F J

    2018-02-01

    Glenohumeral internal rotation deficit and external rotation strength have been associated with the development of shoulder pain in overhead athletes. To examine the bilateral passive shoulder rotational range of motion (ROM), the isometric rotational strength and unilateral serve speed in elite tennis players with and without shoulder pain history (PH and NPH, respectively) and compare between dominant and non-dominant limbs and between groups. Cohort study. Fifty-eight elite tennis players were distributed into the PH group (n = 20) and the NPH group (n = 38). Serve velocity, dominant and non-dominant passive shoulder external and internal rotation (ER and IR) ROM, total arc of motion (TAM: the sum of IR and ER ROM), ER and IR isometric strength, bilateral deficits and ER/IR strength ratio were measured in both groups. Questionnaires were administered in order to classify characteristics of shoulder pain. The dominant shoulder showed significantly reduced IR ROM and TAM, and increased ER ROM compared to the non-dominant shoulder in both groups. Isometric ER strength and ER/IR strength ratio were significantly lower in the dominant shoulder in the PH group when compared with the NPH group. No significant differences between groups were found for serve speed. These data show specific adaptations in the IR, TAM and ER ROM in the dominant shoulder in both groups. Isometric ER muscle weakness and ER/IR strength ratio deficit appear to be associated with history of shoulder injuries in elite tennis players. It would be advisable for clinicians to use the present information to design injury prevention programs. 2.

  5. Fast and Careless or Careful and Slow? Apparent Holistic Processing in Mental Rotation Is Explained by Speed-Accuracy Trade-Offs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesefeld, Heinrich René; Fu, Xiaolan; Zimmer, Hubert D.

    2015-01-01

    A major debate in the mental-rotation literature concerns the question of whether objects are represented holistically during rotation. Effects of object complexity on rotational speed are considered strong evidence against such holistic representations. In Experiment 1, such an effect of object complexity was markedly present. A closer look on…

  6. The characteristics analysis of torque and rotation speed of working unit of branch grinder - introductory research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warguła Łukasz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Carrying out a realistic research on working units of machines that grinder waste coming from tree and bush trimming requires designing machines that would be more efficient. It is neccesary both to introduce the analysis of already existing solutions as well as searching for innovative ones that would result in the increase of efficiency, lowering the costs and time needed as well as lower exhaust emission into the atmosphere. The results presented below will be used for the following purposes: the analysis of grinding process that supplies data to cunstruct simulating models that reflect the real working conditions of grinding machines. The results of the experiments will allow to estimate the influence of construction featrures, including the ones connected with automatisation. The importance of the carried out research is also applicable to the analisys of influence of grinding process on the form of flakes that result from the process, energy consumption. It also allows to make conclusions leading to the improvement of the processes that use grinded mass.The construction specifity of ths kind of machines and their working principles results from the fact, that the cutting process they perform concerns orthotropic plant material that has inhomogenic structure and physical-chemical properties requires further analysis. The article presents the construcion of a research stand designed to record the characteristisc of changes of the torque and rotation speed of working unit of mill chopper type MQS2800 Macalister. The introductory research results presented below point out that depending on the position of the sample (along the grain against the mill chopper significantly influences on the form of generated changes of the torque. The research stand that has been designed and constructed allows the analysis of both construction features of the chopper as well via the assessment of grinding process also separte paremeters of processed wood.

  7. A methodology for low-speed broadband rotational energy harvesting using piezoelectric transduction and frequency up-conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Hailing; Yeatman, Eric M.

    2017-01-01

    Energy harvesting from vibration for low-power electronics has been investigated intensively in recent years, but rotational energy harvesting is less investigated and still has some challenges. In this paper, a methodology for low-speed rotational energy harvesting using piezoelectric transduction and frequency up-conversion is analysed. The system consists of a piezoelectric cantilever beam with a tip magnet and a rotating magnet on a revolving host. The angular kinetic energy of the host is transferred to the vibration energy of the piezoelectric beam via magnetic coupling between the magnets. Frequency up-conversion is achieved by magnetic plucking, converting low frequency rotation into high frequency vibration of the piezoelectric beam. A distributed-parameter theoretical model is presented to analyse the electromechanical behaviour of the rotational energy harvester. Different configurations and design parameters were investigated to improve the output power of the device. Experimental studies were conducted to validate the theoretical estimation. The results illustrate that the proposed method is a feasible solution to collecting low-speed rotational energy from ambient hosts, such as vehicle tires, micro-turbines and wristwatches. - Highlights: • A topology to harvest low-frequency broad-band rotational energy is studied. • Different configurations were considered; arrangement (a)-repulsive was the best. • Theoretical analysis shows the harvester has a wide bandwidth at low frequency. • The ripples of output power are related to the beam's natural frequency. • Experimental results show a good performance (over 20 μW) from 15 Hz to 35 Hz.

  8. Speed

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Speed. The rate of information transferred per second is the speed of the information. Measured in bits per second. Need for speed on the net: You-Tube phenomenon; IPTV; 3D Video telephony. Online gaming; HDTV.

  9. The critical shoulder angle is associated with osteoarthritis in the shoulder but not rotator cuff tears

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjarnison, Arnar O; Sørensen, Thomas J; Kallemose, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2013 Moor et al introduced the concept of the critical shoulder angle (CSA) and suggested that an abnormal CSA was a leading factor in development of rotator cuff tear (RCT) and osteoarthritis (OA) of the shoulder. This study assessed whether the CSA was associated with RCT and OA...

  10. Optimization of multi-slice helical respiration-correlated CT: the effects of table speed and rotation time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wink, Nicole M; McNitt-Gray, Michael F; Solberg, Timothy D

    2005-01-01

    While respiration-correlated CT is gaining acceptance in clinical radiotherapy, the effect of scanning parameters on the image quality has yet to be addressed. The intent of this study was to characterize the effects of gantry rotation and table speed on various image quality characteristics in multi-slice, helical, retrospectively-gated CT images. Images of stationary and moving phantoms were obtained in helical mode on a 20-slice CT scanner. Motion was generated by a computer-controlled platform capable of moving simultaneously in two dimensions. Motion was monitored using a pressure gauge inserted inside an adjustable belt. Selected scans were retrospectively gated into ten phases based on the monitored motion. Gantry rotation speeds of 0.5 s and 1.0 s were evaluated with pitches ranging from 0.1 to 0.45. Several parameters, including calculated object volumes, trajectory (movement from peak to trough), deformation (actual volume divided by volume created with the maximum diameter of contoured object) and z-axis resolution, were used to characterize image quality. These studies indicate that for objects in the peak phase of a movement pattern that simulates breathing, retrospectively gated scans using fast gantry rotation speeds produce volume, trajectory, deformation and z-axis resolution results comparable with those of a stationary object

  11. Internal Flow of a High Specific-Speed Diagonal-Flow Fan (Rotor Outlet Flow Fields with Rotating Stall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norimasa Shiomi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We carried out investigations for the purpose of clarifying the rotor outlet flow fields with rotating stall cell in a diagonal-flow fan. The test fan was a high–specific-speed (ns=1620 type of diagonal-flow fan that had 6 rotor blades and 11 stator blades. It has been shown that the number of the stall cell is 1, and its propagating speed is approximately 80% of its rotor speed, although little has been known about the behavior of the stall cell because a flow field with a rotating stall cell is essentially unsteady. In order to capture the behavior of the stall cell at the rotor outlet flow fields, hot-wire surveys were performed using a single-slant hotwire probe. The data obtained by these surveys were processed by means of a double phase-locked averaging technique, which enabled us to capture the flow field with the rotating stall cell in the reference coordinate system fixed to the rotor. As a result, time-dependent ensemble averages of the three-dimensional velocity components at the rotor outlet flow fields were obtained. The behavior of the stall cell was shown for each velocity component, and the flow patterns on the meridional planes were illustrated.

  12. Dynamic Stability Analysis and Critical Speed of Rotor supported by a Worn Fluid film Journal Bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan naji jameel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of wear in the fluid film journal bearings on the dynamic stability of rotor bearing system has been studied depending on the development of new analytical equations for motion, instability threshold speed and steady state harmonic response for rotor with offset disc supported by worn journal bearings. Finite element method had been used for modeling the rotor bearing system. The analytical model is verified by comparing its results with that obtained numerically for a rotor supported on the short bearings. The analytical and numerical results showed good agreement with about 8.5% percentage error in the value of critical speed and about 3.5% percentage error in the value of harmonic response. The results obtained show that the wear in journal bearing decrease the instability threshold speed by 2.5% for wear depth 0.02 mm and 12.5% for wear depth 0.04 mm as well as decrease critical speed by 4.2% and steady state harmonic response amplitude by 4.3% for wear depth 0.02 mm and decrease the critical speed by 7.1% and steady state harmonic response amplitude by 13.9% for wear depth 0.04 mm.

  13. Computer–Aided Design of the Critical Speed of Shafts | Akpobi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A computer aided design software for the analysis of the critical speed of shaft, is developed and presented in this work. The software was designed using the principles of object oriented programming, and implemented with the Microsoft Visual Basic Language. The package was tested on a number of benchmark design ...

  14. Rotation-supported Neutrino-driven Supernova Explosions in Three Dimensions and the Critical Luminosity Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summa, Alexander; Janka, Hans-Thomas; Melson, Tobias; Marek, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    We present the first self-consistent, 3D core-collapse supernova simulations performed with the PROMETHEUS-VERTEX code for a rotating progenitor star. Besides using the angular momentum of the 15 M ⊙ model as obtained in the stellar evolution calculation with an angular frequency of ∼10‑3 rad s‑1 (spin period of more than 6000 s) at the Si/Si–O interface, we also computed 2D and 3D cases with no rotation and with a ∼300 times shorter rotation period and different angular resolutions. In 2D, only the nonrotating and slowly rotating models explode, while rapid rotation prevents an explosion within 500 ms after bounce because of lower radiated neutrino luminosities and mean energies and thus reduced neutrino heating. In contrast, only the fast-rotating model develops an explosion in 3D when the Si/Si–O interface collapses through the shock. The explosion becomes possible by the support of a powerful standing accretion shock instability spiral mode, which compensates for the reduced neutrino heating and pushes strong shock expansion in the equatorial plane. Fast rotation in 3D leads to a “two-dimensionalization” of the turbulent energy spectrum (yielding roughly a ‑3 instead of a ‑5/3 power-law slope at intermediate wavelengths) with enhanced kinetic energy on the largest spatial scales. We also introduce a generalization of the “universal critical luminosity condition” of Summa et al. to account for the effects of rotation, and we demonstrate its viability for a set of more than 40 core-collapse simulations, including 9 and 20 M ⊙ progenitors, as well as black-hole-forming cases of 40 and 75 M ⊙ stars to be discussed in forthcoming papers.

  15. Experimental study of high-speed counter-rotation propeller on low speed wind range; Dojiku hantengata kosoku propeller no teisokuiki ni okeru fudo jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    Collaborative research was conducted by National Aerospace Laboratory and Japan Aircraft Development Company in the period of fiscal 1988-1992 into methods for testing aircraft with advanced propeller in low-speed wind tunnel. The propulsion efficiency of the currently available high-bypass turbofan engine is approximately 60% in the vicinity of Mach number 0.85. Propeller-driven aircraft, whose propulsion efficiency is as high as 80% in the low Mach number domain, are scarcely in practical use in the domain of Mach number 0.75 or higher. There are studies reported abroad as well as in Japan for the propeller-driven aircraft to enjoy higher propeller propulsion efficiency even in the vicinity of Mach number 0.8 by modifying the propeller diameter, number of blades, and blade sections, etc. This paper describes the experimental research into the high-speed counter-rotation propeller. A counter-rotation propeller 0.3m in diameter and provided with coaxially arranged 8times2 SR-2 blades is evaluated for pitch angles during the takeoff and landing modes, for thrust characteristics at the pitch angle for the cruising mode, and for propeller backwash and noise. 15 refs., 72 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. Rotation stability of high speed neutron time-of-flight mechanical chopper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habib, N.; Adib, M.

    1998-01-01

    A modified rotation stabilization system has been designed to maintain the stability of a neutron time-of-flight (TOF) mechanical chopper rates from 460 rpm to 16000 rpm. The main principle of the system is based on comparing the chopper's rotation period with the preselected one from a quartz timer. The result of comparison is used to control the current driver of the chopper's motor. A 600 Hz three phase generator controlled by a magnetic amplifier was used as a current driver. The stability of the chopper's rotation rate at 16000 rpm was 0.02%. An improved method precise time scale calibration of the TOF spectrometer is applied

  17. Simulated front crawl swimming performance related to critical speed and critical power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, H M; Wakayoshi, K; Hollander, A P; Ogita, F

    1998-01-01

    Competitive pool swimming events range in distance from 50 to 1500 m. Given the difference in performance times (+/- 23-1000 s), the contribution of the aerobic and anaerobic energy systems changes considerably with race distance. In training practice the regression line between swimming distance and time (Distance = critical velocity x time + anaerobic swimming capacity) is used to determine the individual capacity of the aerobic and anaerobic metabolic pathways. Although there is confidence that critical velocity and anaerobic swimming capacity are fitness measures that separate aerobic and anaerobic components, a firm theoretical basis for the interpretation of these results does not exist. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the critical power concept and anaerobic swimming capacity as measures of the aerobic and anaerobic capacity using a modeling approach. A systems model was developed that relates the mechanics and energetics involved in front crawl swimming performance. From actual swimming flume measurements, the time dependent aerobic and anaerobic energy release was modeled. Data derived from the literature were used to relate the energy cost of front crawl swimming to swimming velocity. A balance should exist between the energy cost to swim a distance in a certain time and the concomitant aerobic and anaerobic energy release. The ensuing model was used to predict performance times over a range of distances (50-1500 m) and to calculate the regression line between swimming distance and time. Using a sensitivity analysis, it was demonstrated that the critical velocity is indicative for the capacity of the aerobic energy system. Estimates of the anaerobic swimming capacity, however, were influenced by variations in both anaerobic and aerobic energy release. Therefore, it was concluded that the anaerobic swimming capacity does not provide a reliable estimate of the anaerobic capacity.

  18. Measurement Research of Motorized Spindle Dynamic Stiffness under High Speed Rotating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaopeng Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High speed motorized spindle has become a key functional unit of high speed machine tools and effectively promotes the development of machine tool technology. The development of higher speed and more power puts forward the stricter requirement for the performance of motorized spindle, especially the dynamic performance which affects the machining accuracy, reliability, and production efficiency. To overcome the problems of ineffective loading and dynamic performance measurement of motorized spindle, a noncontact electromagnetic loading device is developed. The cutting load can be simulated by using electromagnetic force. A new method of measuring force by force sensors is presented, and the steady and transient loading force could be measured exactly. After the high speed machine spindle is tested, the frequency response curves of the spindle relative to machine table are collected at 0~12000 rpm; then the relationships between stiffness and speeds as well as between damping ratio and speeds are obtained. The result shows that not only the static and dynamic stiffness but also the damping ratio declined with the increase of speed.

  19. An Analysis of Flow in Rotating Passage of Large Radial-Inlet Centrifugal Compressor at Tip Speed of 700 Feet Per Second

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Prian, Vasily

    1951-01-01

    An analysis was made of the flow in the rotating passages of a 48-inch diameter radial-inlet centrifugal impeller at a tip speed of 700 feet per second in order to provide more knowledge on the flow...

  20. Effects of Simulated Microgravity on Otolith Growth of Larval Zebrafish using a Rotating-Wall Vessel: Appropriate Rotation Speed and Fish Developmental Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoyan; Anken, Ralf; Liu, Liyue; Wang, Gaohong; Liu, Yongding

    2017-02-01

    Stimulus dependence is a general feature of developing animal sensory systems. In this respect, it has extensively been shown earlier that fish inner ear otoliths can act as test masses as their growth is strongly affected by altered gravity such as hypergravity obtained using centrifuges, by (real) microgravity achieved during spaceflight or by simulated microgravity using a ground-based facility. Since flight opportunities are scarce, ground-based simulators of microgravity, using a wide variety of physical principles, have been developed to overcome this shortcoming. Not all of them, however, are equally well suited to provide functional weightlessness from the perspective of the biosystem under evaluation. Therefore, the range of applicability of a particular simulator has to be extensively tested. Earlier, we have shown that a Rotating-Wall Vessel (RWV) can be used to provide simulated microgravity for developing Zebrafish regarding the effect of rotation on otolith development. In the present study, we wanted to find the most effective speed of rotation and identify the appropriate developmental stage of Zebrafish, where effects are the largest, in order to provide a methodological basis for future in-depth analyses dedicated to the physiological processes underlying otolith growth at altered gravity. Last not least, we compared data on the effect of simulated microgravity on the size versus the weight of otoliths, since the size usually is measured in related studies due to convenience, but the weight more accurately approximates the physical capacity of an otolith. Maintaining embryos at 10 hours post fertilization for three days in the RWV, we found that 15 revolutions per minute (rpm) yielded the strongest effects on otolith growth. Maintenance of Zebrafish staged at 10 hpf, 1 day post fertilization (dpf), 4 dpf, 7 dpf and 14 dpf for three days at 15 rpm resulted in the most prominent effects in 7 dpf larvae. Weighing versus measuring the size of otoliths

  1. Assessing noise from wind farm developments in Ireland: A consideration of critical wind speeds and turbine choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, E.A.; Pilla, F.; Mahon, J.

    2012-01-01

    Wind farms are becoming increasingly popular in Ireland in an effort to increase the production of green energy within the state. As with any infrastructural development, wind farms must consider potential environmental impacts prior to construction. One particular issue that must be examined is the emission of noise from the development. In Ireland wind farm developments must adhere to planning conditions that usually outline permissible noise levels for both the construction and operational phases of the development. The critical wind speed is often cited as the wind speed at which these limits apply. This paper examines how the critical wind speed is determined and investigates its relationship with background noise levels and turbine choice. The study consisted of ten one-week monitoring periods during which meteorological conditions and background noise levels were simultaneously recorded. It was found that the critical wind speed is non-transferable, i.e. it depends on both the turbine choice and background noise environment and is specific to that particular turbine/site combination. Furthermore the critical wind speed during the night-time is often different to the overall critical wind speed suggesting that future noise studies should consider a range of critical wind speeds, particularly for night-time noise assessments. - Highlights: ► This paper considers the use of the critical wind speed when assessing noise impacts from wind farms. ► It was found that the critical wind speed could vary depending on the time of the day. ► The critical wind speed was found to be a non-transferable value. ► Noise assessments for wind farms should be developed over a range of critical wind speeds.

  2. Balancing of highly flexible shaft lines on their critical bending speeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevalier, R.

    1990-01-01

    The balancing of EDF shaft lines has been performed for a decade with the help of the multiplane balancing method, using coefficients of influence at nominal speed. The method makes it possible to seek the minimum level of vibrations with the smallest possible corrective weights, using the least squares pseudo-inverse optimization technique. Due to the flexibility of the large shaft lines placed into service in the last few years, it is necessary to balance not only at nominal speed but also at critical bending speeds. Accordingly, we have developed a new method which combines the efficiency of modal balancing with the simplicity of balancing with coefficients of influence and which finds an optimum balancing for nominal and critical speeds thanks to its weightings option (for machines with low modal damping). The data analysis and balancing programs can run on of desk computers such as the HP 200, 300 and 500 series and allow the corrective weights to be determined immediately, on-site, from the data provided by EDF line shaft monitoring systems [fr

  3. Correction of compressor critical speed condition through fluid-film bearing optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, J.W.; Obeid, V.E.

    1985-01-01

    A critical speed condition for an overhung centrifugal compressor was corrected through a relatively minor bearing modification. The resonant condition was evaluated analytically through rotor dynamic analyses (stability and forced response) which included fluid film bearing characterization and rotor model generation (experimentally evaluated by model analysis). The importance of adequate specification, inspection, and analytical characterization, of fluid film bearings are discussed. The effects of unbalance on the stability of plain journal bearings are also commented upon. 1 ref., 6 figs

  4. Critical Speed Analysis of Fibre Reinforced Composite Rotor Embedded with Shape Memory Alloy Wires

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, K.

    2000-01-01

    In the present analysis, the fundamental natural frequency of a Jeffcott and a two-mass rotor with fibre reinforced composite shaft embedded with shape memory alloy (SMA) wires is evaluated by Rayleigh's procedure. The flexibility of rotor supports is taken into account. The effect of three factors, either singly or in combination with each other, on rotor critical speed is studied. The three factors are: (i) increase in Young's modulus of SMA (NITINOL) wires when activated, (ii) tension in w...

  5. A New Apparatus for Measuring the Temperature at Machine Parts Rotating at High Speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnam, E.

    1945-01-01

    After a brief survey of the available methods for measuring the temperatures of machine parts at high speed, in particular turbine blades and rotors, an apparatus is described which is constructed on the principle of induction. Transmission of the measuring current by sliding contacts therefore is avoided. Up-to-date experiments show that it is possible to give the apparatus a high degree of sensitivity and accuracy. In comparison with sliding contact types, the present apparatus shows the important advantage that it operates for any length of time without wear, and that the contact difficulties, particularly occurring at high sliding speeds,are avoided.

  6. Large Critical Shoulder Angle Has Higher Risk of Tendon Retear After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Chen, Yuzhou; Chen, Jiwu; Hua, Yinghui; Chen, Shiyi

    2018-05-01

    The critical shoulder angle (CSA) is the angle created between the superior and inferior bone margins of the glenoid and the most lateral border of the acromion. A few studies recently investigated the relation between CSA and functional outcomes after rotator cuff repair. However, there is a lack of research investigating the effect of CSA on postoperative tendon integrity after rotator cuff repair. To assess the effects of the CSA on postoperative tendon integrity after rotator cuff repair. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. All patients who underwent rotator cuff repair for full-thickness supraspinatus tears by 1 senior surgeon between January 2010 and January 2014 were included in this study. All patients had standardized anteroposterior shoulder radiographs the day before surgery. CSA and acromial index (AI) were measured. AI was derived by measuring the distance from the glenoid plane to the lateral border of the acromion and dividing it by the distance from the glenoid plane to the lateral aspect of the humeral head. Functional scores-including American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons shoulder evaluation form, modified University of California at Los Angeles score, Constant-Murley score, and visual analog scale for pain-were used to evaluate shoulder function at a minimum follow-up of 2 years. Meanwhile, magnetic resonance imaging examinations were performed to evaluate rotator cuff integrity according to the Sugaya method and the signal/noise quotient (SNQ) of the rotator cuff tendon. A total of 90 patients were included in this study: 42 patients with a single-row repair and 48 with a double-row repair. There was a significant positive correlation between CSA or AI and tendon SNQ. On the basis of CSA, the patients were divided into 2 groups: large CSA (>38°) and control (CSA ≤38°). At final follow-up, the large CSA group and the control CSA group demonstrated no significant differences in American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, University of California at

  7. Limiting critical speed response on the SSME Alternate High Pressure Fuel Turbopump (ATD HPFTP) with bearing deadband

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goggin, David G.; Darden, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    Yammamoto (1954) described the influence of bearing deadband on the critical speed response of a rotor-bearing system. Practical application of these concepts to limit critical speed response of turbopump rotors is described. Nonlinear rotordynamic analyses are used to define the effect of bearing deadband and rotor unbalance on the Space Shuttle Main Engine Alternate High Pressure Fuel Turbopump. Analysis results are used with hot fire test data to verify the presence of a lightly damped critical speed within the operating speed range. With the proper control of rotor unbalance and bearing deadband, the response of this critical speed is reduced to acceptable levels without major design modifications or additional sources of damping.

  8. LIDAR wind speed measurements from a rotating spinner (SpinnerEx 2009)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelou, Nikolas; Mikkelsen, Torben; Hansen, Kasper Hjorth

    spinner of a MW-sized wind turbine, and investigate the approaching wind fields from this vantage point. Time series of wind speed measurements from the lidar with 50 Hz sampling rate were successfully obtained for approximately 60 days, during the measurement campaign lasting from April to August 2009....... In this report, information is given regarding the experimental setup and the lidar’s operation parameters. The geometrical model used for the reconstruction of the scanning pattern of the lidar is described. This model takes into account the lidar’s pointing direction, the spinner axis’s vertical tilt...... and the wind turbine’s yaw relative to the mean wind speed direction. The data analysis processes are documented. A methodology for the calculation of the yaw misalignment of the wind turbine relative to the wind direction, as a function of various averaging times, is proposed, using the lidar’s instantaneous...

  9. Kinematics analysis of vertical magnetic suspension energy storage flywheel rotor under transient rotational speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhengyi; Huang, Tong; Feng, Jiajia; Zhou, Yuanwei

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a 600Wh vertical maglev energy storage flywheel rotor system is taken as a model. The motion equation of a rigid rotor considering the gyroscopic effect and the center of mass offset is obtained by the centroid theorem, and the experimental verification is carried out. Using the state variable method, the Matlab software was used to program and simulate the radial displacement and radial electromagnetic force of the rotor system at each speed. The results show that the established system model is in accordance with the designed 600Wh vertical maglev energy storage flywheel model. The results of the simulation analysis are helpful to further understand the dynamic nature of the flywheel rotor at different transient speeds.

  10. Intra-pulp temperature increase of equine cheek teeth during treatment with motorized grinding systems: influence of grinding head position and rotational speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeussler, Silvia; Luepke, Matthias; Seifert, Hermann; Staszyk, Carsten

    2014-02-21

    In equine practice, teeth corrections by means of motorized grinding systems are standard procedure. The heat resulting from that treatment may cause irreparable damage to the dental pulp. It has been shown that a 5.5°C temperature rise may cause severe destruction in pulp cells. Hence, the capability to continuously form secondary dentine is lost, and may lead, due to equine-typical occlusal tooth abrasion, to an opening of the pulp cavity.To obtain reliable data on the intra-pulp increase in temperature during corrective treatments, equine cheek teeth (CT) were modified in a way (occlusal surface smoothed, apical parts detached, pulp horns standardized) that had been qualified in own former published studies. All parameters influencing the grinding process were standardized (force applied, initial temperatures, dimensions of pulp horns, positioning of grinding disk, rotational speed). During grinding experiments, imitating real dental treatments, the time span for an intra-pulp temperature increase of 5.5°C was determined. The minimum time recorded for an intra-pulp temperature increase of 5.5°C was 38 s in mandibular CT (buccal grinding, 12,000 rpm) and 70 s in maxillary CT (flat occlusal grinding, 12,000 rpm). The data obtained showed that doubling the rotational speed of the disk results in halving the time span after which the critical intra-pulp temperature increase in maxillary CT is reached. For mandibular CT, the time span even drops by two thirds. The use of standardized hypsodont CT enabled comparative studies of intra-pulp heating during the grinding of occlusal tooth surfaces using different tools and techniques. The anatomical structure of the natural vital hypsodont tooth must be kept in mind, so that the findings of this study do not create a deceptive sense of security with regard to the time-dependent heating of the native pulp.

  11. Critical Role of Monoclinic Polarization Rotation in High-Performance Perovskite Piezoelectric Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Chen, Jun; Fan, Longlong; Ren, Yang; Pan, Zhao; Lalitha, K V; Rödel, Jürgen; Xing, Xianran

    2017-07-07

    High-performance piezoelectric materials constantly attract interest for both technological applications and fundamental research. The understanding of the origin of the high-performance piezoelectric property remains a challenge mainly due to the lack of direct experimental evidence. We perform in situ high-energy x-ray diffraction combined with 2D geometry scattering technology to reveal the underlying mechanism for the perovskite-type lead-based high-performance piezoelectric materials. The direct structural evidence reveals that the electric-field-driven continuous polarization rotation within the monoclinic plane plays a critical role to achieve the giant piezoelectric response. An intrinsic relationship between the crystal structure and piezoelectric performance in perovskite ferroelectrics has been established: A strong tendency of electric-field-driven polarization rotation generates peak piezoelectric performance and vice versa. Furthermore, the monoclinic M_{A} structure is the key feature to superior piezoelectric properties as compared to other structures such as monoclinic M_{B}, rhombohedral, and tetragonal. A high piezoelectric response originates from intrinsic lattice strain, but little from extrinsic domain switching. The present results will facilitate designing high-performance perovskite piezoelectric materials by enhancing the intrinsic lattice contribution with easy and continuous polarization rotation.

  12. UN Method For The Critical Slab Problem In One-Speed Neutron Transport Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeztuerk, Hakan; Guengoer, Sueleyman

    2008-01-01

    The Chebyshev polynomial approximation (U N method) is used to solve the critical slab problem in one-speed neutron transport theory using Marshak boundary condition. The isotropic scattering kernel with the combination of forward and backward scattering is chosen for the neutrons in a uniform finite slab. Numerical results obtained by the U N method are presented in the tables together with the results obtained by the well-known P N method for comparison. It is shown that the method converges rapidly with its easily executable equations.

  13. Influence of the relative rotational speed on component features in micro rotary swaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishkina Svetlana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Micro rotary swaging is a cold forming process for production of micro components with determined geometry and surface. It is also possible to change the microstructure of wires and hence the material properties. Swaging dies revolve around the work piece with an overlaid radial oscillation. Newly developed tools (Flat Surface Dies, FSD feature plain surfaces and do not represent the geometry of the formed part as in conventional swaging. Using these tools allows for producing wires with triangle geometry (cross section as well as a circular shape. To test the influence of FSD on material properties by micro swaging a new method is investigated: the variation of the relative speed between the specimen and dies in infeed rotary swaging. During this specific process copper (C11000 and steel (304 Alloy wires with diameter d0 = 1 mm are formed. It is noticed that the mechanical characteristics such as ductility and strength differ from the characteristics after conventional swaging. Moreover this approach enables new possibilities to influence the geometry and the surface quality of wires. The impact of the relative speed on the processed wire features is described in this paper.

  14. Analysis of high-speed rotating flow inside gas centrifuge casing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Sahadev

    2017-11-01

    The generalized analytical model for the radial boundary layer inside the gas centrifuge casing in which the inner cylinder is rotating at a constant angular velocity Ωi while the outer one is stationary, is formulated for studying the secondary gas flow field due to wall thermal forcing, inflow/outflow of light gas along the boundaries, as well as due to the combination of the above two external forcing. The analytical model includes the sixth order differential equation for the radial boundary layer at the cylindrical curved surface in terms of master potential (χ) , which is derived from the equations of motion in an axisymmetric (r - z) plane. The linearization approximation is used, where the equations of motion are truncated at linear order in the velocity and pressure disturbances to the base flow, which is a solid-body rotation. Additional approximations in the analytical model include constant temperature in the base state (isothermal compressible Couette flow), high aspect ratio (length is large compared to the annular gap), high Reynolds number, but there is no limitation on the Mach number. The discrete eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the linear operators (sixth-order in the radial direction for the generalized analytical equation) are obtained. The solutions for the secondary flow is determined in terms of these eigenvalues and eigenfunctions. These solutions are compared with direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) simulations and found excellent agreement (with a difference of less than 15%) between the predictions of the analytical model and the DSMC simulations, provided the boundary conditions in the analytical model are accurately specified.

  15. Controlled hydrodynamic conditions on the formation of iron oxide nanostructures synthesized by electrochemical anodization: Effect of the electrode rotation speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas-Granados, Bianca; Sánchez-Tovar, Rita; Fernández-Domene, Ramón M.; García-Antón, Jose

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel iron anodization process under controlled dynamic conditions was evaluated. • Iron oxide nanostructures composed mainly by hematite were synthesized. • Different morphologies were obtained depending on the electrode rotation speed. • A suitable photocatalyst was obtained by stirring the electrode at 1000 rpm.. - Abstract: Iron oxide nanostructures are of particular interest because they can be used as photocatalysts in water splitting due to their advantageous properties. Electrochemical anodization is one of the best techniques to synthesize nanostructures directly on the metal substrate (direct back contact). In the present study, a novel methodology consisting of the anodization of iron under hydrodynamic conditions is carried out in order to obtain mainly hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) nanostructures to be used as photocatalysts for photoelectrochemical water splitting applications. Different rotation speeds were studied with the aim of evaluating the obtained nanostructures and determining the most attractive operational conditions. The synthesized nanostructures were characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, photoelectrochemical water splitting, stability against photocorrosion tests, Mott-Schottky analysis, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and band gap measurements. The results showed that the highest photocurrent densities for photoelectrochemical water splitting were achieved for the nanostructure synthesized at 1000 rpm which corresponds to a nanotubular structure reaching ∼0.130 mA cm −2 at 0.54 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). This is in agreement with the EIS measurements and Mott-Schottky analysis which showed the lowest resistances and the corresponding donor density values, respectively, for the nanostructure anodized at 1000 rpm.

  16. Controlled hydrodynamic conditions on the formation of iron oxide nanostructures synthesized by electrochemical anodization: Effect of the electrode rotation speed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas-Granados, Bianca; Sánchez-Tovar, Rita; Fernández-Domene, Ramón M.; García-Antón, Jose, E-mail: jgarciaa@iqn.upv.es

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Novel iron anodization process under controlled dynamic conditions was evaluated. • Iron oxide nanostructures composed mainly by hematite were synthesized. • Different morphologies were obtained depending on the electrode rotation speed. • A suitable photocatalyst was obtained by stirring the electrode at 1000 rpm.. - Abstract: Iron oxide nanostructures are of particular interest because they can be used as photocatalysts in water splitting due to their advantageous properties. Electrochemical anodization is one of the best techniques to synthesize nanostructures directly on the metal substrate (direct back contact). In the present study, a novel methodology consisting of the anodization of iron under hydrodynamic conditions is carried out in order to obtain mainly hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanostructures to be used as photocatalysts for photoelectrochemical water splitting applications. Different rotation speeds were studied with the aim of evaluating the obtained nanostructures and determining the most attractive operational conditions. The synthesized nanostructures were characterized by means of Raman spectroscopy, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, photoelectrochemical water splitting, stability against photocorrosion tests, Mott-Schottky analysis, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and band gap measurements. The results showed that the highest photocurrent densities for photoelectrochemical water splitting were achieved for the nanostructure synthesized at 1000 rpm which corresponds to a nanotubular structure reaching ∼0.130 mA cm{sup −2} at 0.54 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). This is in agreement with the EIS measurements and Mott-Schottky analysis which showed the lowest resistances and the corresponding donor density values, respectively, for the nanostructure anodized at 1000 rpm.

  17. Study on Sumbawa gold ore liberation using rod mill: effect of rod-number and rotational speed on particle size distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetya, A.; Mawadati, A.; Putri, A. M. R.; Petrus, H. T. B. M.

    2018-01-01

    Comminution is one of crucial steps in gold ore processing used to liberate the valuable minerals from gaunge mineral. This research is done to find the particle size distribution of gold ore after it has been treated through the comminution process in a rod mill with various number of rod and rotational speed that will results in one optimum milling condition. For the initial step, Sumbawa gold ore was crushed and then sieved to pass the 2.5 mesh and retained on the 5 mesh (this condition was taken to mimic real application in artisanal gold mining). Inserting the prepared sample into the rod mill, the observation on effect of rod-number and rotational speed was then conducted by variating the rod number of 7 and 10 while the rotational speed was varied from 60, 85, and 110 rpm. In order to be able to provide estimation on particle distribution of every condition, the comminution kinetic was applied by taking sample at 15, 30, 60, and 120 minutes for size distribution analysis. The change of particle distribution of top and bottom product as time series was then treated using Rosin-Rammler distribution equation. The result shows that the homogenity of particle size and particle size distribution is affected by rod-number and rotational speed. The particle size distribution is more homogeneous by increasing of milling time, regardless of rod-number and rotational speed. Mean size of particles do not change significantly after 60 minutes milling time. Experimental results showed that the optimum condition was achieved at rotational speed of 85 rpm, using rod-number of 7.

  18. Finite-thickness effect on speed of a counter-rotating vortex pair at high Reynolds numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibah, Ummu; Nakagawa, Hironori; Fukumoto, Yasuhide

    2018-03-01

    We establish a general formula for the translational speed of a counter-rotating vortex pair, valid for thick cores, moving in an incompressible fluid with and without viscosity. We extend to higher order the method of matched asymptotic expansions developed by Ting and Tung (1965 Phys. Fluids 8 1039–51). The solution of the Euler or the Navier–Stokes equations is constructed in the form of a power series in a small parameter, the ratio of the core radius to the distance between the core centers. For a viscous vortex pair, the small parameter should be \\sqrt{ν /{{Γ }}} where ν is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid and Γ is the circulation of each vortex. A correction due to the effect of finite thickness of the vortices to the traveling speed makes its appearance at fifth order. A drastic simplification is achieved of expressing it solely in terms of the strength of the second-order quadrupole field associated with the elliptical deformation of the core. For a viscous vortex pair, we exploit the conservation law for the hydrodynamic impulse to derive the growth of the distance between the vortices, which is cubic in time.

  19. The Effect of Temperature and Rotational Speed on Structure and Mechanical Properties of Cast Cu Base Alloy (Cu-Al-Si-Fe) Welded by Semisolid Stir Joining Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferasat, Keyvan; Aashuri, Hossein; Kokabi, Amir Hossein; Shafizadeh, Mahdi; Nikzad, Siamak

    2015-12-01

    Semisolid stir joining has been under deliberation as a possible method for joining of copper alloys. In this study, the effect of temperature and rotational speed of stirrer on macrostructure evaluation and mechanical properties of samples were investigated. Optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction were performed for macro and microstructural analysis. A uniform micro-hardness profile was attained by semisolid stir joining method. The ultimate shear strength and bending strength of welded samples were improved in comparison with the cast sample. There is also lower area porosity in welded samples than the cast metal. The mechanical properties were improved by increasing temperature and rotational speed of the joining process.

  20. Critical object recognition in millimeter-wave images with robustness to rotation and scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadzade, Hoda; Ghojogh, Benyamin; Faezi, Sina; Shabany, Mahdi

    2017-06-01

    Locating critical objects is crucial in various security applications and industries. For example, in security applications, such as in airports, these objects might be hidden or covered under shields or secret sheaths. Millimeter-wave images can be utilized to discover and recognize the critical objects out of the hidden cases without any health risk due to their non-ionizing features. However, millimeter-wave images usually have waves in and around the detected objects, making object recognition difficult. Thus, regular image processing and classification methods cannot be used for these images and additional pre-processings and classification methods should be introduced. This paper proposes a novel pre-processing method for canceling rotation and scale using principal component analysis. In addition, a two-layer classification method is introduced and utilized for recognition. Moreover, a large dataset of millimeter-wave images is collected and created for experiments. Experimental results show that a typical classification method such as support vector machines can recognize 45.5% of a type of critical objects at 34.2% false alarm rate (FAR), which is a drastically poor recognition. The same method within the proposed recognition framework achieves 92.9% recognition rate at 0.43% FAR, which indicates a highly significant improvement. The significant contribution of this work is to introduce a new method for analyzing millimeter-wave images based on machine vision and learning approaches, which is not yet widely noted in the field of millimeter-wave image analysis.

  1. Critical shoulder angle in an East Asian population: correlation to the incidence of rotator cuff tear and glenohumeral osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinagawa, Kiyotsugu; Hatta, Taku; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Kawakami, Jun; Shiota, Yuki; Mineta, Mitsuyoshi; Itoi, Eiji

    2018-05-03

    Focus has recently been on the critical shoulder angle (CSA) as a factor related to rotator cuff tear and osteoarthritis (OA) in the European population. However, whether this relationship is observed in the Asian population is unclear. The correlation between the CSAs measured on anteroposterior radiographs and the presence or absence of rotator cuff tears or OA changes was assessed in 295 patients. Rotator cuff tears were diagnosed with magnetic resonance imaging or ultrasonography. OA findings were classified using the Samilson-Prieto classification. The CSAs among the patients with rotator cuff tears, OA changes, and those without pathologies were compared. Multivariable analyses were used to clarify the potential risks for these pathologies. The mean CSA with rotator cuff tear (33.9° ± 4.1°) was significantly greater than that without a rotator cuff tear (32.3° ± 4.5°; P = .002). Multivariable analysis also showed that a greater CSA had a significantly increased risk of rotator cuff tears, with the odds ratio of 1.08 per degree. OA findings showed no significant correlation to the CSAs. Our study demonstrates that the CSA is greater in those with a rotator cuff tear than in those without a tear or OA changes, which may be an independent risk factor for the incidence of rotator cuff tears in the Japanese population. Copyright © 2018 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. IUPAC critical evaluation of the rotational-vibrational spectra of water vapor. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tennyson, Jonathan; Bernath, Peter F.; Brown, Linda R.; Campargue, Alain; Csaszar, Attila G.; Daumont, Ludovic; Gamache, Robert R.; Hodges, Joseph T.; Naumenko, Olga V.; Polyansky, Oleg L.; Rothman, Laurence S.; Toth, Robert A.; Vandaele, Ann Carine; Zobov, Nikolai F.; Fally, Sophie; Fazliev, Alexander Z.; Furtenbacher, Tibor; Gordon, Iouli E.; Hu, Shui-Ming

    2010-01-01

    This is the second of a series of articles reporting critically evaluated rotational-vibrational line positions, transition intensities, pressure dependences, and energy levels, with associated critically reviewed assignments and uncertainties, for all the main isotopologues of water. This article presents energy levels and line positions of the following singly deuterated isotopologues of water: HD 16 O, HD 17 O, and HD 18 O. The MARVEL (measured active rotational-vibrational energy levels) procedure is used to determine the levels, the lines, and their self-consistent uncertainties for the spectral regions 0-22 708, 0-1674, and 0-12 105 cm -1 for HD 16 O, HD 17 O, and HD 18 O, respectively. For HD 16 O, 54 740 transitions were analyzed from 76 sources, the lines come from spectra recorded both at room temperature and from hot samples. These lines correspond to 36 690 distinct assignments and 8818 energy levels. For HD 17 O, only 485 transitions could be analyzed from three sources; the lines correspond to 162 MARVEL energy levels. For HD 18 O, 8729 transitions were analyzed from 11 sources and these lines correspond to 1864 energy levels. The energy levels are checked against ones determined from accurate variational nuclear motion computations employing exact kinetic energy operators. This comparison shows that the measured transitions account for about 86% of the anticipated absorbance of HD 16 O at 296 K and that the transitions predicted by the MARVEL energy levels account for essentially all the remaining absorbance. The extensive list of MARVEL lines and levels obtained are given in the Supplementary Material of this article, as well as in a distributed information system applied to water, W-DIS, where they can easily be retrieved. In addition, the transition and energy level information for H 2 17 O and H 2 18 O, given in the first paper of this series [Tennyson, et al. J Quant Spectr Rad Transfer 2009;110:573-96], has been updated.

  3. ANALYSIS OF DISTURBANCE TORQUE INFLUENCE ON CRITICAL STATE IN ROTATIONAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogumił CHILIŃSKI

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently most of existing means of transport contains different types of rotational systems. In many cases the dynamics of such rotors substantially can influence exploitation of the whole vehicle. Moreover, in order to minimize mass of the whole object modern construction materials are applied. This causes that the dynamic phenomena may be fundamental of exploitation. The paper presents preliminary analysis of disturbance torque influence on critical state in rotational system. The consideration assumed simple physical object in the form of heavy disk embedded on weightless, elastic shaft. The shaft was supported on two bearings. In particular chapters of paper, path leading from proposition of physical model, by solution of it, to qualitative conclusions about considered object and torque disturbances influence of motion of this system, was presented. In introduction, outline of considered problem and potential opportunities of it, were demonstrated. In the next chapter, physical and mathematical model of the analysed object, was described. Next and also the last but one chapter gives a detailed discussion of mathematical model in the form of nonlinear ordinary differential equations proposed earlier. The first part of the chapter presents the possibility to solve such a problem, then it shows the simplifications which are used. Furthermore, the influence of used simplifications on the shape of analysed problem was demonstrated. Additionally, the possibility of equations solution presented in the paper was discussed. Moreover, the series of interesting properties of analysed system of equations has been shown based on founded approximate solutions. The whole paper was summarized with plans for future work and synthetic conclusions concerning the innovative control method of critical states.

  4. Computer modeling of the stalled flow of a rotating cylinder and the reverse magnus effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belotserkovskii, S. M.; Kotovskii, V. N.; Nisht, M. I.; Fedorov, R. M.

    1985-02-01

    Unsteady stalled flow around a rotating cylinder is investigated in a numerical experiment. Attention is mostly given to the reverse Magnus effect which was discovered in tube experiments at some critical rotational speed of the cylinder.

  5. Correlation between the bending strength and the thickness interlayer of alumina-mild steel friction welded at lower rotational speed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad Zaky Noh; Luay Bakir Hussain; Zainal Arifin Ahmad

    2007-01-01

    The joining of ceramic-metal could be done through a few techniques: brazing, diffusion bonding, friction welding etc. However, the mechanism of ceramic-metal joining was still not properly understood. In this study, alumina rod was bonded to mild steel rod via friction welding technique by using Al 1100 sheet as interlayer. The diameter of the rods was 10 mm. Friction pressure of 20 MPa and forging pressure of 40 MPa were used. Rotational speeds were maintained at 900 rpm and friction times of 2 to 20 seconds were applied. The joining strength was determined through four point bending test. The maximum bending strength, 240 MPa was obtained at the friction times of 20 seconds. Under optical microscope and SEM observation, the deformation of the aluminum interface was clearly obtained. Mechanical interlocking and close contact between the alumina aluminum and aluminum-mild steel were observed at magnifications of 3000X. The strength of alumina-steel bonding is much dependent on the wettability of the alumina surface by the molten aluminum and the existing of mechanical interlocking between interlayer and sample materials. (Author)

  6. Dynamic Torsional and Cyclic Fracture Behavior of ProFile Rotary Instruments at Continuous or Reciprocating Rotation as Visualized with High-speed Digital Video Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokita, Daisuke; Ebihara, Arata; Miyara, Kana; Okiji, Takashi

    2017-08-01

    This study examined the dynamic fracture behavior of nickel-titanium rotary instruments in torsional or cyclic loading at continuous or reciprocating rotation by means of high-speed digital video imaging. The ProFile instruments (size 30, 0.06 taper; Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) were categorized into 4 groups (n = 7 in each group) as follows: torsional/continuous (TC), torsional/reciprocating (TR), cyclic/continuous (CC), and cyclic/reciprocating (CR). Torsional loading was performed by rotating the instruments by holding the tip with a vise. For cyclic loading, a custom-made device with a 38° curvature was used. Dynamic fracture behavior was observed with a high-speed camera. The time to fracture was recorded, and the fractured surface was examined with scanning electron microscopy. The TC group initially exhibited necking of the file followed by the development of an initial crack line. The TR group demonstrated opening and closing of a crack according to its rotation in the cutting and noncutting directions, respectively. The CC group separated without any detectable signs of deformation. In the CR group, initial crack formation was recognized in 5 of 7 samples. The reciprocating rotation exhibited a longer time to fracture in both torsional and cyclic fatigue testing (P rotary instruments, as visualized with high-speed digital video imaging, varied between the different modes of rotation and different fatigue testing. Reciprocating rotation induced a slower crack propagation and conferred higher fatigue resistance than continuous rotation in both torsional and cyclic loads. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Eilenberger equation for rotating superfluid 3He and calculation of the upper critical angular velocity Ω/sub c/2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schopohl, N.

    1980-01-01

    On the basis of Gorkov's formulation of superconductivity theory, generalized Eilenberger equations are derived which apply to rotating superfluid 3 He in the presence of a magnetic field h and finite superflow v. In analyogy to conventional type II superconductors, the possibility of vortex solutions in discussed. An implicit equation determining the upper critical angular velocity Ω/sub c/2 as a function of temperature T, magnetic field h, and superflow v parallel to the rotation axis is-inferred from the linearized Eilenberger equations. In contrast to the case of slowly rotating 3 He-A, the solution of the eigenvalue problem determining the order parameter Δ near the the upper critical angular velocity admits no coreless vortex no coreless solutions. The space-dependent amplitude of the order parameter is analogous to Abrikosov's vortex array solution, while the spin-orbit part is given either by a polar-state type or an Anderson-Brinkman-Morel (ABM)-state-type eigensolution. Among the possible eigensolutions the polar-state type yields for vanishing superflow v the highest critical rotation frequency. For finite superflow v parallel to the rotation axis, however, the ABM-state-type solution is stabilized in comparison to the polar state for Vertical BarvVertical Bar> or approx. =0.2π(Tc/sub c/0/T/sub F/)v/sub f/ at zero temperature

  8. 风机转动速度调节的PID优化算法研究%Research on PID Optimization Algorithm for Rotating Speed Regulation of Wind Turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李家伟

    2015-01-01

    With control optimizing of the rotational speed of the wind turbine, improve the output power and the power trans-mission efficiency of the wind turbine, the interference of magnetic loss coupling by the wind turbine rotor blade in the con-trol, it is difficult to achieve effective speed regulation, The algorithm has the defects of nonlinear distortion. A wind turbine of PID based on optimal control of rotating speed adjustment optimization, analysis of rotating speed adjusting parameter model of wind turbine, the wind turbine rotor blade speed adjustment control optimization objective function, the design of three layers PID neural network, the PID variable structure control, wind turbine speed shaft connected with the rotor axis the gear box, the aerodynamic excitation brake operation, speed regulation, effectively restrain the interference of wind tur-bine rotor blade control strong coupling magnetic loss, improve the speed of rotation to adjust the output control perfor-mance of wind turbine. The simulation results show that, the method can effectively realize the wind turbine speed control, it can improve the wind turbine efficiency and output gain.%通过对风机转动速度的优化控制调节,提高风机的输出功率和电能传输效率,风机转子叶片控制中受到强耦合的磁损耗的干扰,难以实现有效的转速调节,提出一种基于PID优化控制的风机转动速度调节优化算法,分析风机转动速度调节控制参数模型,构建风机转子叶片速度调节的优化控制目标函数,设计三层前向PID神经网络,通过PID变结构控制,风机的低速轴将转子轴心与齿轮箱连接,激发空气动力闸的运行,进行转速调节,有效地抑制了风机转子叶片控制中强耦合磁损耗的干扰,提高了风机转动速度调节输出控制性能.仿真结果表明,采用该方法能有效实现风机转速调节控制,提高风机运行效率和输出增益.

  9. Effect of tool rotational speed on force generation, microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir welded Al–Mg–Cr–Mn (AA 5052-O) alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshwan, Raza; Yusof, Farazila; Hassan, M.A.; Rahmat, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • 3 mm thick AA 5052-O alloy plates were successfully joined by FSW process. • The joint was produced at 1000 rpm yielded a maximum tensile strength of 132 MPa. • The dissolution of β-Mg 2 Al 3 intermetallic phases of FSWed joints were reported. • Different axial forces acted on welding tool during welding were investigated. - Abstract: Friction stir welding (FSW) between 3 mm thick AA 5052-O aluminum alloy plates was investigated in the present study. Different welded specimens were produced by employing a constant tool traverse speed of 120 mm/min and by varying rotating speeds from 800 to 3000 rpm. The welded joints were characterized by its appearances, microstructural and mechanical properties at room temperature. The measurement of different forces acted on the tool during the FSW of AA 5052-O plates provided a significant insight to determine the quality of the welded joints. From the appearances of the welded joints it was evident that, except the tool rotational speed of 3000 rpm all other rotational speeds produced sound welded joints with smooth surface. The joint produced at 1000 rpm yielded a maximum tensile strength of 132 MPa which was 74% of the base material strength. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analyses on the stir zone suggested that, β-Mg 2 Al 3 intermetallic phases of the base material were mechanically fractured, smeared and mixed to different geometries due to tool stirring. The dissolution and redistribution of β-Mg 2 Al 3 second phase particles in the stir zone had a considerable effect on the reduction of the tensile strength of the welded joints. The reduction in hardness at the nugget zone (NZ) of the welded joints under different tool rotational speeds could be attributed to the dislocation of Mg-rich phases and segregation of Mg solute atoms at grain boundaries, which drew solute Mg atoms away from the α-aluminum matrix

  10. Critical period and risk factors for retear following arthroscopic repair of the rotator cuff

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barth, J.; Andrieu, K.; Fotiadis, E.; Hannink, G.J.; Barthelemy, R.; Saffarini, M.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The incidence of retear following rotator cuff repair remains a major concern, and the cause and timing of retear remain unclear. The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate the timing of retears following rotator cuff repair at multiple time intervals. The hypothesis was that

  11. In-process tool rotational speed variation with constant heat input in friction stir welding of AZ31 sheets with variable thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffa, Gianluca; Campanella, Davide; Forcellese, Archimede; Fratini, Livan; Simoncini, Michela

    2017-10-01

    In the present work, friction stir welding experiments on AZ31 magnesium alloy sheets, characterized by a variable thickness along the welding line, were carried out. The approach adapted during welding consisted in maintaining constant the heat input to the joint. To this purpose, the rotational speed of the pin tool was increased with decreasing thickness and decreased with increasing thickness in order to obtain the same temperatures during welding. The amount by which the rotational speed was changed as a function of the sheet thickness was defined on the basis of the results given by FEM simulations of the FSW process. Finally, the effect of the in-process variation of the tool rotational speed on the mechanical and microstructural properties of FSWed joints was analysed by comparing both the nominal stress vs. nominal strain curves and microstructure of FSWed joints obtained in different process conditions. It was observed that FSW performed by keeping constant the heat input to the joint leads to almost coincident results both in terms of the curve shape, ultimate tensile strength and ultimate elongation values, and microstructure.

  12. Granular mixing and segregation in a horizontal rotating drum: A simulation study on the impact of rotational speed and fill level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arntz, M.M.H.D.; Otter, W.K. den; Briels, W.J.; Bussmann, P.J.T.; Beeltink, H.H.; Boom, R.M.

    2008-01-01

    The rich phase behavior of granular beds of bidisperse hard spherical particles in a rotating horizontal drum is studied by Discrete Element Method (DEM) simulations. Several flow regimes and various forms of radial segregation, as well as mixing, are observed by systematically varying the

  13. Reduced critical rotation for resistive-wall mode stabilization in a near-axisymmetric configuration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimerdes, H; Garofalo, A M; Jackson, G L; Okabayashi, M; Strait, E J; Chu, M S; In, Y; La Haye, R J; Lanctot, M J; Liu, Y Q; Navratil, G A; Solomon, W M; Takahashi, H; Groebner, R J

    2007-02-02

    Recent DIII-D experiments with reduced neutral beam torque and minimum nonaxisymmetric perturbations of the magnetic field show a significant reduction of the toroidal plasma rotation required for the stabilization of the resistive-wall mode (RWM) below the threshold values observed in experiments that apply nonaxisymmetric magnetic fields to slow the plasma rotation. A toroidal rotation frequency of less than 10 krad/s at the q=2 surface (measured with charge exchange recombination spectroscopy using C VI) corresponding to 0.3% of the inverse of the toroidal Alfvén time is sufficient to sustain the plasma pressure above the ideal MHD no-wall stability limit. The low-rotation threshold is found to be consistent with predictions by a kinetic model of RWM damping.

  14. Speed dependence of CH335Cl–O2 line-broadening parameters probed on rotational transitions: Measurements and semi-classical calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buldyreva, J.; Margulès, L.; Motiyenko, R.A.; Rohart, F.

    2013-01-01

    Relaxation parameters for K-components (K≤6) of six J→J+1 rotational transitions (J=6, 10, 17, 22, 31 and 33) of CH 3 35 Cl perturbed by O 2 are measured at room temperature with Voigt, speed-dependent Voigt and Galatry profiles in order to probe the speed-dependence effects. With respect to the previous study of CH 3 35 Cl–N 2 system [Guinet et al., J Quant Spectrosc Radiat Transfer 2012;113:1113], higher active-gas pressures are reached, providing better signal-to-noise ratios, and the exact expression of the Beer–Lambert law is introduced in the fitting procedure, leading, among other advantages, to much more realistic low-pressure results. The broadening parameters of the considered lines are also computed by a semi-classical method for various relative velocities of colliders and the powers characterizing the dependence of the collisional cross-sections on relative speeds are deduced as functions of the rotational numbers J and K. Additional calculations performed with the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution of velocities show no significant difference with the earlier results [Buldyreva et al., Phys Chem Chem Phys 2011;13:20326] obtained within the mean thermal velocity approximation. Weighted sums of the presently measured Voigt-profile O 2 -broadening parameters and of the previously published N 2 -broadening ones are calculated to yield experimental air-broadening coefficients for spectroscopic databases. -- Highlights: • Analysis of the speed dependence of relaxation rates of CH 3 Cl lines. • Introduction of the Beer–Lambert law in analysis of line-shapes recorded by FM technique. • Comparison of Maxwell–Boltzmann averaging and mean thermal velocity calculations. • Estimation of air-induced broadening for CH 3 Cl rotational lines

  15. Critical parameters and decay constants for one-speed neutrons in slabs and spheres with anisotropic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildiz, C.

    2001-01-01

    Time-dependent, one-speed neutron transport equations with strong forward and backward scattering together with isotropic scattering are studied in homogeneous slabs and spheres. First, a simple formal equivalence between the transport equations for a critical and for a time-decaying system is established. Then, the transport equation is converted into a more conventional one. The F N method of solving the resulting transport equation is applied to the calculation of the critical parameters and decay constants for the fundamental mode of the flux distribution and one-speed neutrons in spheres and infinite slabs. Numerical results are given for a number of significant figures and compared with those already available in the literature. (orig.) [de

  16. Influence of Tool Rotational Speed and Post-Weld Heat Treatments on Friction Stir Welded Reduced Activation Ferritic-Martensitic Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manugula, Vijaya L.; Rajulapati, Koteswararao V.; Reddy, G. Madhusudhan; Mythili, R.; Bhanu Sankara Rao, K.

    2017-08-01

    The effects of tool rotational speed (200 and 700 rpm) on evolving microstructure during friction stir welding (FSW) of a reduced activation ferritic-martensitic steel (RAFMS) in the stir zone (SZ), thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ), and heat-affected zone (HAZ) have been explored in detail. The influence of post-weld direct tempering (PWDT: 1033 K (760 °C)/ 90 minutes + air cooling) and post-weld normalizing and tempering (PWNT: 1253 K (980 °C)/30 minutes + air cooling + tempering 1033 K (760 °C)/90 minutes + air cooling) treatments on microstructure and mechanical properties has also been assessed. The base metal (BM) microstructure was tempered martensite comprising Cr-rich M23C6 on prior austenite grain and lath boundaries with intra-lath precipitation of V- and Ta-rich MC precipitates. The tool rotational speed exerted profound influence on evolving microstructure in SZ, TMAZ, and HAZ in the as-welded and post-weld heat-treated states. Very high proportion of prior austenitic grains and martensite lath boundaries in SZ and TMAZ in the as-welded state showed lack of strengthening precipitates, though very high hardness was recorded in SZ irrespective of the tool speed. Very fine-needle-like Fe3C precipitates were found at both the rotational speeds in SZ. The Fe3C was dissolved and fresh precipitation of strengthening precipitates occurred on both prior austenite grain and sub-grain boundaries in SZ during PWNT and PWDT. The post-weld direct tempering caused coarsening and coalescence of strengthening precipitates, in both matrix and grain boundary regions of TMAZ and HAZ, which led to inhomogeneous distribution of hardness across the weld joint. The PWNT heat treatment has shown fresh precipitation of M23C6 on lath and grain boundaries and very fine V-rich MC precipitates in the intragranular regions, which is very much similar to that prevailed in BM prior to FSW. Both the PWDT and PWNT treatments caused considerable reduction in the hardness of SZ

  17. The Impact of Speed of Play in Gambling on Psychological and Behavioural Factors: A Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Andrew; Griffiths, Mark D

    2018-06-01

    Conceptually, there is a common association between gambling games with fast speeds of play and problem gambling. This relationship however, is largely correlational in nature, which comes at the expense of carefully controlled empirical investigation. Research that does exist aimed towards investigating the impact of gambling speeds on psychological and behavioural factors, is in its relative infancy, and the research possesses disparate methodologies and variables of interest. The aims of the current review is therefore to evaluate and summarise the existing body of evidence relating to speed of play in gambling, as well as discuss how this evidence can be used to inform harm minimisation approaches aimed at facilitating self-control during gambling. Eleven studies were selected for review based on the inclusion criteria, comprising nine experimental and two qualitative studies (one self-report focus group study and one observational study). There was a consistent finding across studies that games with faster speeds of play were preferred and rated as more exciting for all gamblers, ranging from non-problem to problem gamblers. Of concern, was the repeated finding that fast games are particularly appealing to those suffering with a gambling problem. Behavioural results were more inconsistent across studies, though the general trend supports the notion that games with faster speeds of play encourage more wagers, longer game play, and caused players, particularly problem gamblers, to experience difficulty in ceasing gambling. The implications of these findings for gambling policy, harm minimisation approaches, and future research are discussed.

  18. SU-F-T-457: A Filmless Method for Measurement of Couch Translation Per Gantry Rotation and Couch Speed for Tomotherapy Using ArcCheck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, B; Wong, R; Geng, H; Lam, W; Cheung, K; Yu, S

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a filmless methodology based on an ArcCheck for QA measurement of the couch translation per gantry rotation and couch speed of a Tomotherapy unit. Methods: Two test plans recommended by TG148 were chosen for this study. A helical plan with 1 cm field size opened the leaves for 180 degrees at the 2nd, 7th and 12th of total 13 rotations and was used to verify if the couch travelled the expected distance per gantry rotation. The other test plan was a static plan with the gantry at 0°, 1cm field width and constant couch movement speed of 0.5mm/s. It was used for couch speed measurement. The ArcCheck was isocentrically set up and recorded movie files which took a snapshot exposure every 50ms. Due to the spiral pattern of diodes distribution, when one of the diodes of the ArcCheck located at the beam center, the dose profile as measured by the row of diodes which surrounded the center diode should have a symmetrical pattern. We divided the profile into left half A and right half B. Then a shape parameter was defined as S=Σ|(A−B)|/Σ(A+B). By searching the local minimum of S parameter, the beam center at different time could be located. The machine trajectory log data were also collected and analyzed for comparison. Results: The mean value of measured couch translation and couch speed by ArcCheck had less than 0.05% deviation from the planned values. For couch speed measurement, our result showed a mean value of 0.5002 with an uncertainty ±0.0031, which agreed very well with both the plan setting of 0.5 mm/s and the machine log data of 0.5005 mm/s. Conclusion: Couch translation measured using ArcCheck is accurate and comparable to the film-based measurement. This filmless method also provides a convenient and independent way for measuring couch speed.

  19. SU-F-T-457: A Filmless Method for Measurement of Couch Translation Per Gantry Rotation and Couch Speed for Tomotherapy Using ArcCheck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, B; Wong, R; Geng, H; Lam, W; Cheung, K; Yu, S [Hong Kong Sanatorium & Hospital, Hong Kong, N/A, Hong Kong (China)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a filmless methodology based on an ArcCheck for QA measurement of the couch translation per gantry rotation and couch speed of a Tomotherapy unit. Methods: Two test plans recommended by TG148 were chosen for this study. A helical plan with 1 cm field size opened the leaves for 180 degrees at the 2nd, 7th and 12th of total 13 rotations and was used to verify if the couch travelled the expected distance per gantry rotation. The other test plan was a static plan with the gantry at 0°, 1cm field width and constant couch movement speed of 0.5mm/s. It was used for couch speed measurement. The ArcCheck was isocentrically set up and recorded movie files which took a snapshot exposure every 50ms. Due to the spiral pattern of diodes distribution, when one of the diodes of the ArcCheck located at the beam center, the dose profile as measured by the row of diodes which surrounded the center diode should have a symmetrical pattern. We divided the profile into left half A and right half B. Then a shape parameter was defined as S=Σ|(A−B)|/Σ(A+B). By searching the local minimum of S parameter, the beam center at different time could be located. The machine trajectory log data were also collected and analyzed for comparison. Results: The mean value of measured couch translation and couch speed by ArcCheck had less than 0.05% deviation from the planned values. For couch speed measurement, our result showed a mean value of 0.5002 with an uncertainty ±0.0031, which agreed very well with both the plan setting of 0.5 mm/s and the machine log data of 0.5005 mm/s. Conclusion: Couch translation measured using ArcCheck is accurate and comparable to the film-based measurement. This filmless method also provides a convenient and independent way for measuring couch speed.

  20. Biomechanical comparison of four double-row speed-bridging rotator cuff repair techniques with or without medial or lateral row enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, Stephan; Fiebig, David; Kieser, Bettina; Albrecht, Bjoern; Schill, Alexander; Scheibel, Markus

    2011-12-01

    Biomechanical comparison of four different Speed-Bridge configurations with or without medial or lateral row reinforcement. Reinforcement of the knotless Speed-Bridge double-row repair technique with additional medial mattress- or lateral single-stitches was hypothesized to improve biomechanical repair stability at time zero. Controlled laboratory study: In 36 porcine fresh-frozen shoulders, the infraspinatus tendons were dissected and shoulders were randomized to four groups: (1) Speed-Bridge technique with single tendon perforation per anchor (STP); (2) Speed-Bridge technique with double tendon perforation per anchor (DTP); (3) Speed-Bridge technique with medial mattress-stitch reinforcement (MMS); (4) Speed-Bridge technique with lateral single-stitch reinforcement (LSS). All repairs were cyclically loaded from 10-60 N up to 10-200 N (20 N stepwise increase) using a material testing device. Forces at 3 and 5 mm gap formation, mode of failure and maximum load to failure were recorded. The MMS-technique with double tendon perforation showed significantly higher ultimate tensile strength (338.9 ± 90.0 N) than DTP (228.3 ± 99.9 N), LSS (188.9 ± 62.5 N) and STP-technique (122.2 ± 33.8 N). Furthermore, the MMS-technique provided increased maximal force resistance until 3 and 5 mm gap formation (3 mm: 77.8 ± 18.6 N; 5 mm: 113.3 ± 36.1 N) compared with LSS, DTP and STP (P row defect by tendon sawing first, then laterally. No anchor pullout occurred. Double tendon perforation per anchor and additional medial mattress stitches significantly enhance biomechanical construct stability at time zero in this ex vivo model when compared with the all-knotless Speed-Bridge rotator cuff repair.

  1. Study and modeling of changes in volumetric efficiency of helix conveyors at different rotational speeds and inclination angels by ANFIS and statistical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Zareei

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Spiral conveyors effectively carry solid masses as free or partly free flow of materials. They create good throughput and they are the perfect solution to solve the problems of transport, due to their simple structure, high efficiency and low maintenance costs. This study aims to investigate the performance characteristics of conveyors as function of auger diameter, rotational speed and handling inclination angle. The performance characteristic was investigated according to volumetric efficiency. In another words, the purpose of this study was obtaining a suitable model for volumetric efficiency changes of steep auger to transfer agricultural products. Three different diameters of auger, five levels of rotational speed and three slope angles were used to investigate the effects of changes in these parameters on volumetric efficiency of auger. The used method is novel in this area and the results show that performance by ANFIS models is much better than common statistical models. Materials and Methods The experiments were conducted in Department of Mechanical Engineering of Agricultural Machinery in Urmia University. In this study, SAYOS cultivar of wheat was used. This cultivar of wheat had hard seeds and the humidity was 12% (based on wet. Before testing, all foreign material was separated from the wheat such as stone, dust, plant residues and green seeds. Bulk density of wheat was 790 kg m-3. The auger shaft of the spiral conveyor was received its rotational force through belt and electric motor and its rotation leading to transfer the product to the output. In this study, three conveyors at diameters of 13, 17.5, and 22.5 cm, five levels of rotational speed at 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 rpm and three handling angles of 10, 20, and 30º were tested. Adaptive Nero-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS is the combination of fuzzy systems and artificial neural network, so it has both benefits. This system is useful to solve the complex non

  2. The Comparison of the Effect of Mental Rotation and Phonological Awareness Training on Accuracy, Speed and Comprehension in Students with Dyslexia in City of Tabriz, 2015-2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Habibi-Kaleybar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The problem of learning disabilities is the reason of academic backwardness of students and dyslexia is considered the most common of these disorders.Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the comparison of the effectiveness of mental rotation and phonological awareness training on reading performance of students with dyslexia. Materials and Methods: The design of the study was quasi-experimental in pre-test and post- test with control group. Statistical population composed of all dyslexic students in the city of Tabriz in 2015-2016. The sample of present research consisted of 45 students with dyslexia who were selected via available sampling and then were assigned randomly to experimental phonological awareness and mental rotation training and control groups(n=15 in each. To collect data, revised Wechsler intelligence scale for children and reading improvement and dyslexia test were used. Multivariate Covariance (MANCOVA was used to analyze the data. Results: Findings indicated that scores of mental rotation and phonological awareness training have a significant effect on reading performance of dyslexic students compared with control group (p0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that mental rotation and phonological awareness training are effective on accuracy, speed and comprehension of reading in students with dyslexia.

  3. The method of the gas-dynamic centrifugal compressor stage characteristics recalculation for variable rotor rotational speeds and the rotation angle of inlet guide vanes blades if the kinematic and dynamic similitude conditions are not met

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanyashov, A. D.; Karabanova, V. V.

    2017-08-01

    A mathematical description of the method for obtaining gas-dynamic characteristics of a centrifugal compressor stage is proposed, taking into account the control action by varying the rotor speed and the angle of rotation of the guide vanes relative to the "basic" characteristic, if the kinematic and dynamic similitude conditions are not met. The formulas of the correction terms for the non-dimensional coefficients of specific work, consumption and efficiency are obtained. A comparative analysis of the calculated gas-dynamic characteristics of a high-pressure centrifugal stage with experimental data is performed.

  4. MOCVD growth of CdTe and HgTe on GaAs in a vertical, high-speed, rotating-disc reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tompa, G.S.; Nelson, C.R.; Reinert, P.D.; Saracino, M.A.; Terrill, L.A.; Colter, P.C.

    1989-01-01

    The metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) growth of CdTe and HgTe on GaAs (111) and (100) substrates in a vertical, high-speed, rotating-disc reactor was investigated. A range of total reactor pressure, carrier gas flow rate, chemical concentrations, deposition temperature, and rotation rate have been investigated in an attempt to optimize growth conditions. Diisopropyltelluride (DIPTe) and Dimethylcadmium (DMCd) were used as growth precursors. Thickness uniformity varies less than +/- 1.5% over 50 mm diameter wafers. Films having FWHM X-ray rocking curves less than 90 arcsec were obtained on GaAs (111) substrates. The films have excellent surface morphology, exhibiting less than 5 x 10 4 cm - 2 orange peel dents which are much-lt 1 μm in size. An elemental mercury source was added to the growth system. Initial results for the growth of HgTe and HgCdTe are discussed

  5. Influence of tool geometry and rotational speed on mechanical properties and defect formation in friction stir lap welded 5456 aluminum alloy sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salari, Emad; Jahazi, Mohammad; Khodabandeh, Alireza; Ghasemi-Nanesa, Hadi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Successful lap joint friction stir welding of AA5456 with two different tempers. • New stepped conical threaded pin for FSW of lap joints is introduced. • Investigated interactions between tool geometry and mechanical properties. • Microstructure and fracture surface analysis of dissimilar lap welds. - Abstract: Friction stir welding of AA5456 aluminum alloy in lap joint configuration is with two different tempers, T321 and O, and different thicknesses, 5 mm and 2.5 mm was investigated. The influences of tool geometry and various rotational speeds on macrostructure, microstructure and joint strength are presented. Specifically, four different tool pin profiles (a conical thread pin, a cylindrical–conical thread pin, a stepped conical thread pin and Flared Triflute pin tool) and two rotational speeds, 600 and 800 rpm, were used. The results indicated that, tool geometry influences significantly material flow in the nugget zone and accordingly control the weld mechanical properties. Of particular interest is the stepped conical threaded pin, which is introduced for the first time in the present investigation. Scanning electron microscopy investigation of the fracture location of samples was carried out and the findings correlated with tool geometry features and their influences on material flow and tension test results. The optimum microstructure and mechanical properties were obtained for the joints produced with the stepped conical thread pin profile and rotational speed of 600 rpm. The characteristics of the nugget zone microstructure, hooking height, and fracture location of the weld joints were used as criteria to quantify the influence of processing conditions on joint performance and integrity. The results are interpreted in the framework of physical metallurgy properties and compared with published literature

  6. Variation of the critical slab thickness with the degree of strongly anisotropic scattering in one-speed neutron transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildiz, C.

    1998-01-01

    The critical slab problem is studied in one-speed neutron transport theory using a linearly anisotropic kernel which combines forward and backward scattering. It is shown that, the recently observed non-monotonic variation of the thickness also exists in this strongly anisotropic case. In addition, the influence of the linear anisotropy on the critical thickness is analysed in detail. Numerical analysis for the critical thickness are performed using the spherical harmonics method and results are tabulated for selected illustrative cases as a function of different degrees of anisotropic scattering. Finally, some results are discussed and compared with those already obtained by other methods, the agreement is satisfactory. The spherical harmonic method gives generally accurate results in one dimensional geometry, and it is very suitable for the numerical solution of the neutron transport equation with linearly anisotropic scattering

  7. Numerical simulation of the temperature effects on the performance of rotational supercavitating evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Z Y; Cheng, J P; Li, F C; Zhang, M; Li, Q; Kulagin, V A

    2015-01-01

    With the application of supercavitation effect, a novel device named Rotational Supercavitating Evaporator (RSCE) has been designed for desalination. In order to study the effect of temperature on the performance of RSCE and then direct the experimental study on RSCE for the next step, numerical simulations are conducted on the supercavitating flows in RSCE under different temperatures and rotational speeds. The results show that the rotational speed, resistance moment and mechanical energy consumed by the rotational cavitator under the critical state with the largest supercavity, decrease with the increase of temperature. And the area and volume of the supercavity increase exponentially with the increase of temperature under the same rotational speed

  8. Rotating flow

    CERN Document Server

    Childs, Peter R N

    2010-01-01

    Rotating flow is critically important across a wide range of scientific, engineering and product applications, providing design and modeling capability for diverse products such as jet engines, pumps and vacuum cleaners, as well as geophysical flows. Developed over the course of 20 years' research into rotating fluids and associated heat transfer at the University of Sussex Thermo-Fluid Mechanics Research Centre (TFMRC), Rotating Flow is an indispensable reference and resource for all those working within the gas turbine and rotating machinery industries. Traditional fluid and flow dynamics titles offer the essential background but generally include very sparse coverage of rotating flows-which is where this book comes in. Beginning with an accessible introduction to rotating flow, recognized expert Peter Childs takes you through fundamental equations, vorticity and vortices, rotating disc flow, flow around rotating cylinders and flow in rotating cavities, with an introduction to atmospheric and oceanic circul...

  9. Reverse convection in helium and other fluids in the high speed rotating frame: negative and positive buoyancy effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igra, R.; Scurlock, R.G.; Wu, Y.Y.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental studies of thermo-syphon flows in radial tubes and loops between the axis and the periphery of a rotating helium cryostat have shown that when heat is supplied at an intermediate radius, the heat is carried radially inwards as A flow and radially outwards as B flow. The results with helium suggest that while the steady state patterns of the A and B flows are complex, the heat is divided approximately equally between the conventional A flow and the reverse B flow. A model of convective heating in the rotating frame is presented and two necessary conditions for reverse convection are identified and discussed. The model predicts reverse convection in liquid nitrogen and this is confirmed by experimental measurement. An array of radial ducts is proposed for the cooling of a superconducting AC generator in order to counter the effects of reverse convection in the helium refrigerant

  10. Critical collapse of a rotating scalar field in $2+1$ dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Jałmużna, Joanna; Gundlach, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    We carry out numerical simulations of the collapse of a complex rotating scalar field of the form $\\Psi(t,r,\\theta)=e^{im\\theta}\\Phi(t,r)$, giving rise to an axisymmetric metric, in 2+1 spacetime dimensions with cosmological constant $\\Lambda0$ is very different from the case $m=0$ we have considered before: the thresholds for mass scaling and Ricci scaling are significantly different (for the same family), scaling stops well above the scale set by $\\Lambda$, and the exponents depend strongly...

  11. Effects of radial distribution of entropy diffusivity on critical modes of anelastic thermal convection in rotating spherical shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Youhei; Takehiro, Shin-ichi; Ishiwatari, Masaki; Yamada, Michio

    2018-03-01

    Linear stability analysis of anelastic thermal convection in a rotating spherical shell with entropy diffusivities varying in the radial direction is performed. The structures of critical convection are obtained in the cases of four different radial distributions of entropy diffusivity; (1) κ is constant, (2) κT0 is constant, (3) κρ0 is constant, and (4) κρ0T0 is constant, where κ is the entropy diffusivity, T0 is the temperature of basic state, and ρ0 is the density of basic state, respectively. The ratio of inner and outer radii, the Prandtl number, the polytropic index, and the density ratio are 0.35, 1, 2, and 5, respectively. The value of the Ekman number is 10-3 or 10-5 . In the case of (1), where the setup is same as that of the anelastic dynamo benchmark (Jones et al., 2011), the structure of critical convection is concentrated near the outer boundary of the spherical shell around the equator. However, in the cases of (2), (3) and (4), the convection columns attach the inner boundary of the spherical shell. A rapidly rotating annulus model for anelastic systems is developed by assuming that convection structure is uniform in the axial direction taking into account the strong effect of Coriolis force. The annulus model well explains the characteristics of critical convection obtained numerically, such as critical azimuthal wavenumber, frequency, Rayleigh number, and the cylindrically radial location of convection columns. The radial distribution of entropy diffusivity, or more generally, diffusion properties in the entropy equation, is important for convection structure, because it determines the distribution of radial basic entropy gradient which is crucial for location of convection columns.

  12. Improved constraints on isotropic shift and anisotropies of the speed of light using rotating cryogenic sapphire oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohensee, Michael A.; Stanwix, Paul L.; Tobar, Michael E.; Parker, Stephen R.; Phillips, David F.; Walsworth, Ronald L.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate that Michelson-Morley tests, which detect direction-dependent anisotropies in the speed of light, can also be used to place limits upon isotropic deviations of the vacuum speed of light from c, as described by the photon-sector standard model extension parameter κ-tilde tr . A shift in the speed of light that is isotropic in one inertial frame implies anisotropic shifts in others. Using observer Lorentz covariance, we derive the time-dependent variations in the relative resonance frequencies of a pair of electromagnetic resonators that would be generated by such a shift in the rest frame of the Sun. A new analysis of a recent experimental test of relativity using this result constrains κ-tilde tr with a precision of 7.4x10 -9 . This represents the first constraint on κ-tilde tr by a Michelson-Morley experiment and the first analysis of a single experiment to simultaneously set limits on all nine nonbirefringent terms in the photon sector of the minimal standard model extension.

  13. HIGH-RESOLUTION CALCULATION OF THE SOLAR GLOBAL CONVECTION WITH THE REDUCED SPEED OF SOUND TECHNIQUE. II. NEAR SURFACE SHEAR LAYER WITH THE ROTATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hotta, H.; Rempel, M. [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Yokoyama, T., E-mail: hotta@ucar.edu [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2015-01-01

    We present a high-resolution, highly stratified numerical simulation of rotating thermal convection in a spherical shell. Our aim is to study in detail the processes that can maintain a near surface shear layer (NSSL) as inferred from helioseismology. Using the reduced speed of sound technique, we can extend our global convection simulation to 0.99 R {sub ☉} and include, near the top of our domain, small-scale convection with short timescales that is only weakly influenced by rotation. We find the formation of an NSSL preferentially in high latitudes in the depth range of r = 0.95-0.975 R {sub ☉}. The maintenance mechanisms are summarized as follows. Convection under the weak influence of rotation leads to Reynolds stresses that transport angular momentum radially inward in all latitudes. This leads to the formation of a strong poleward-directed meridional flow and an NSSL, which is balanced in the meridional plane by forces resulting from the 〈v{sub r}{sup ′}v{sub θ}{sup ′}〉 correlation of turbulent velocities. The origin of the required correlations depends to some degree on latitude. In high latitudes, a positive correlation 〈v{sub r}{sup ′}v{sub θ}{sup ′}〉 is induced in the NSSL by the poleward meridional flow whose amplitude increases with the radius, while a negative correlation is generated by the Coriolis force in bulk of the convection zone. In low latitudes, a positive correlation 〈v{sub r}{sup ′}v{sub θ}{sup ′}〉 results from rotationally aligned convection cells ({sup b}anana cells{sup )}. The force caused by these Reynolds stresses is in balance with the Coriolis force in the NSSL.

  14. Universal Faraday Rotation in HgTe Wells with Critical Thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuvaev, A; Dziom, V; Kvon, Z D; Mikhailov, N N; Pimenov, A

    2016-09-09

    The universal value of the Faraday rotation angle close to the fine structure constant (α≈1/137) is experimentally observed in thin HgTe quantum wells with a thickness on the border between trivial insulating and the topologically nontrivial Dirac phases. The quantized value of the Faraday angle remains robust in the broad range of magnetic fields and gate voltages. Dynamic Hall conductivity of the holelike carriers extracted from the analysis of the transmission data shows a theoretically predicted universal value of σ_{xy}=e^{2}/h, which is consistent with the doubly degenerate Dirac state. On shifting the Fermi level by the gate voltage, the effective sign of the charge carriers changes from positive (holes) to negative (electrons). The electronlike part of the dynamic response does not show quantum plateaus and is well described within the classical Drude model.

  15. Effect of FSW welding speed on microstructure and microhardness of Al-0.84Mg-0.69Si-0.76Fe alloy at moderate rotational tool velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chand, Suresh; Vineetha, S.; Madhusudhan, D.; Sai Krishna, CH; Kusuma Devi, G.; Bhawani; Hemarao, K.; Ganesh Naidu, G.

    2018-03-01

    The plate of 7.0 mm thickness was double side welded using friction stir welding is investigated. The rotational velocity of friction stir welding tool is used 1400 rpm. The influence of welding speed on the microstructure and microhardness values of Al-0.84Mg-0.69Si-0.76Fe aluminum alloy is presented. Two welding speeds 25 mm/min and 31.5 mm/min are used. The microhardness values of friction stir weld are measured at various locations from the weld interface. The microhardness values in stir zone of weld are found larger than lower welding speed at constant rotational velocity of 1400 rpm of friction stir welding tool. The similar effects on microhardness values are found in the thermo-mechanically affected zone and heat affected zone. The fine microstructure is observed at 31.5 mm/min welding speed compared to the 25 mm/min welding speed at 1400 rpm.

  16. Critical Shoulder Angle and Acromial Index Do Not Influence 24-Month Functional Outcome After Arthroscopic Rotator Cuff Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Merrill; Chen, Jerry Yongqian; Liow, Ming Han Lincoln; Chong, Hwei Chi; Chang, Paul; Lie, Denny

    2017-11-01

    Recent studies have shown a correlation between scapular geometry and the development of atraumatic rotator cuff tears. However, a paucity of literature is available on the effects of critical shoulder angle (CSA) and acromial index (AI) on functional outcomes after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. Hypothesis/Purpose: The purpose was to investigate the influence of CSA and AI on 24-month functional outcomes after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair. The hypothesis was that a larger CSA or AI would result in poorer postoperative outcomes. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. The study included 147 patients who underwent arthroscopic double-row rotator cuff repair for radiologically documented full-thickness supraspinatus tears. An independent reviewer measured the CSA and AI on preoperative radiographs. These patients were prospectively enrolled and were evaluated preoperatively as well as at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months postoperatively. Functional outcome was assessed with the Constant Shoulder Score (CSS), Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS), and University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) Shoulder Rating Scale. The patients were first divided based on CSA: (1) ≤35° (control CSA) and (2) >35° (increased CSA); and then based on AI: (1) ≤0.7 and (2) >0.7. The Student unpaired t test, Pearson chi-square test, and Pearson correlation were performed to examine the influence of CSA and AI on postoperative functional outcome scores. At 6 months of follow-up, the CSS, OSS, and UCLA Shoulder Rating Scale were 10 ± 1, 4 ± 2, and 3 ± 1 points poorer in the increased CSA group compared with the control CSA group ( P = .005, P = .030, and P = .035, respectively). These scores were not significantly different between both AI groups. By 24 months of follow-up, all outcome scores were comparable between both CSA groups as well as between both AI groups. No significant correlation was found between either CSA or AI when compared with CSS, OSS, or UCLA Shoulder Rating Scale at 24

  17. A Rotating Speed Controller Design Method for Power Levelling by Means of Inertia Energy in Wind Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zian; Blaabjerg, Frede; Loh, Poh Chiang

    2015-01-01

    Power fluctuation caused by wind speed variations may be harmful for the stability of the power system as well as the reliability of the wind power converter, since it may induce thermal excursions in the solder joints of the power modules. Using the wind turbine rotor inertia energy for power...... in the frequency domain for power leveling. Moreover, the impact of other parameters on power leveling, including the time constant of maximum power point tracking (MPPT) and the rotor inertia, are also studied. With the proposed optimal design, the power fluctuations are mitigated as much as possible, while...

  18. Non-whole beat correlation method for the identification of an unbalance response of a dual-rotor system with a slight rotating speed difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z. X.; Wang, L. Z.; Jin, Z. J.; Zhang, Q.; Li, X. L.

    2013-08-01

    The efficient identification of the unbalanced responses in the inner and outer rotors from the beat vibration is the key step in the dynamic balancing of a dual-rotor system with a slight rotating speed difference. This paper proposes a non-whole beat correlation method to identify the unbalance responses whose integral time is shorter than the whole beat correlation method. The principle, algorithm and parameter selection of the proposed method is emphatically demonstrated in this paper. From the numerical simulation and balancing experiment conducted on horizontal decanter centrifuge, conclusions can be drawn that the proposed approach is feasible and practicable. This method makes important sense in developing the field balancing equipment based on portable Single Chip Microcomputer (SCMC) with low expense.

  19. Adaptation of a zero-dimensional cylinder pressure model for diesel engines using the crankshaft rotational speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weißenborn, E.; Bossmeyer, T.; Bertram, T.

    2011-08-01

    Tighter emission regulations are driving the development of advanced engine control strategies relying on feedback information from the combustion chamber. In this context, it is especially seeked for alternatives to expensive in-cylinder pressure sensors. The present study addresses these issues by pursuing a simulation-based approach. It focuses on the extension of an empirical, zero-dimensional cylinder pressure model using the engine speed signal in order to detect cylinder-wise variations in combustion. As a special feature, only information available from the standard sensor configuration are utilized. Within the study, different methods for the model-based reconstruction of the combustion pressure including nonlinear Kalman filtering are compared. As a result, the accuracy of the cylinder pressure model can be enhanced. At the same time, the inevitable limitations of the proposed methods are outlined.

  20. Three-dimensional coating and rimming flow: a ring of fluid on a rotating horizontal cylinder

    KAUST Repository

    Leslie, G. A.

    2013-01-29

    The steady three-dimensional flow of a thin, slowly varying ring of Newtonian fluid on either the outside or the inside of a uniformly rotating large horizontal cylinder is investigated. Specifically, we study \\'full-ring\\' solutions, corresponding to a ring of continuous, finite and non-zero thickness that extends all of the way around the cylinder. In particular, it is found that there is a critical solution corresponding to either a critical load above which no full-ring solution exists (if the rotation speed is prescribed) or a critical rotation speed below which no full-ring solution exists (if the load is prescribed). We describe the behaviour of the critical solution and, in particular, show that the critical flux, the critical load, the critical semi-width and the critical ring profile are all increasing functions of the rotation speed. In the limit of small rotation speed, the critical flux is small and the critical ring is narrow and thin, leading to a small critical load. In the limit of large rotation speed, the critical flux is large and the critical ring is wide on the upper half of the cylinder and thick on the lower half of the cylinder, leading to a large critical load. We also describe the behaviour of the non-critical full-ring solution and, in particular, show that the semi-width and the ring profile are increasing functions of the load but, in general, non-monotonic functions of the rotation speed. In the limit of large rotation speed, the ring approaches a limiting non-uniform shape, whereas in the limit of small load, the ring is narrow and thin with a uniform parabolic profile. Finally, we show that, while for most values of the rotation speed and the load the azimuthal velocity is in the same direction as the rotation of the cylinder, there is a region of parameter space close to the critical solution for sufficiently small rotation speed in which backflow occurs in a small region on the upward-moving side of the cylinder. © 2013

  1. Three-dimensional coating and rimming flow: a ring of fluid on a rotating horizontal cylinder

    KAUST Repository

    Leslie, G. A.; Wilson, S. K.; Duffy, B. R.

    2013-01-01

    The steady three-dimensional flow of a thin, slowly varying ring of Newtonian fluid on either the outside or the inside of a uniformly rotating large horizontal cylinder is investigated. Specifically, we study 'full-ring' solutions, corresponding to a ring of continuous, finite and non-zero thickness that extends all of the way around the cylinder. In particular, it is found that there is a critical solution corresponding to either a critical load above which no full-ring solution exists (if the rotation speed is prescribed) or a critical rotation speed below which no full-ring solution exists (if the load is prescribed). We describe the behaviour of the critical solution and, in particular, show that the critical flux, the critical load, the critical semi-width and the critical ring profile are all increasing functions of the rotation speed. In the limit of small rotation speed, the critical flux is small and the critical ring is narrow and thin, leading to a small critical load. In the limit of large rotation speed, the critical flux is large and the critical ring is wide on the upper half of the cylinder and thick on the lower half of the cylinder, leading to a large critical load. We also describe the behaviour of the non-critical full-ring solution and, in particular, show that the semi-width and the ring profile are increasing functions of the load but, in general, non-monotonic functions of the rotation speed. In the limit of large rotation speed, the ring approaches a limiting non-uniform shape, whereas in the limit of small load, the ring is narrow and thin with a uniform parabolic profile. Finally, we show that, while for most values of the rotation speed and the load the azimuthal velocity is in the same direction as the rotation of the cylinder, there is a region of parameter space close to the critical solution for sufficiently small rotation speed in which backflow occurs in a small region on the upward-moving side of the cylinder. © 2013 Cambridge

  2. Determination of the critical bending speeds of a multy-rotor shaft from the vibration signal analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crâştiu, I.; Nyaguly, E.; Deac, S.; Gozman-Pop, C.; Bârgău, A.; Bereteu, L.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is the development and validation of an impulse excitation technique to determine flexural critical speeds of a single rotor shaft and multy-rotor shaft. The experimental measurement of the vibroacoustic response is carried out by using a condenser microphone as a transducer. By the means of Modal Analysis using Finite Element Method (FEM), the natural frequencies and shape modes of one rotor and three rotor specimens are determined. The vibration responses of the specimens, in simple supported conditions, are carried out using algorithms based on Fast Fourier Transform (FFT). To validate the results of the modal parameters estimated using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) these are compared with experimental ones.

  3. Critical evaluation of measured rotational-vibrational transitions of four sulphur isotopologues of S16O2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóbiás, Roland; Furtenbacher, Tibor; Császár, Attila G.; Naumenko, Olga V.; Tennyson, Jonathan; Flaud, Jean-Marie; Kumar, Praveen; Poirier, Bill

    2018-03-01

    A critical evaluation and validation of the complete set of previously published experimental rotational-vibrational line positions is reported for the four stable sulphur isotopologues of the semirigid SO2 molecule - i.e., 32S16O2, 33S16O2, 34S16O2, and 36S16O2. The experimentally measured, assigned, and labeled transitions are collated from 43 sources. The 32S16O2, 33S16O2, 34S16O2, and 36S16O2 datasets contain 40,269, 15,628, 31,080, and 31 lines, respectively. Of the datasets collated, only the extremely limited 36S16O2 dataset is not subjected to a detailed analysis. As part of a detailed analysis of the experimental spectroscopic networks corresponding to the ground electronic states of the 32S16O2, 33S16O2, and 34S16O2 isotopologues, the MARVEL (Measured Active Rotational-Vibrational Energy Levels) procedure is used to determine the rovibrational energy levels. The rovibrational levels and their vibrational parent and asymmetric-top quantum numbers are compared to ones obtained from accurate variational nuclear-motion computations as well as to results of carefully designed effective Hamiltonian models. The rovibrational energy levels of the three isotopologues having the same labels are also compared against each other to ensure self-consistency. This careful, multifaceted analysis gives rise to 15,130, 5852, and 10,893 validated rovibrational energy levels, with a typical accuracy of a few 0.0001 cm-1 , for 32S16O2, 33S16O2, and 34S16O2, respectively. The extensive list of validated experimental lines and empirical (MARVEL) energy levels of the S16O2 isotopologues studied are deposited in the Supplementary Material of this article, as well as in the distributed information system ReSpecTh (http://respecth.hu).

  4. The effect of strongly anisotropic scattering on the critical size of a slab in one-speed neutron transport theory: Modified UN method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Öztürk, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The criticality problem for one-speed neutrons in homogeneous slab is investigated. • A combination of forward–backward and linear anisotropy is used. • The effect of the strongly anisotropic scattering on the critical size is analyzed. - Abstract: The criticality problem for one-speed neutrons in a uniform finite slab is studied in the case of a combination of forward and backward scattering with linearly anisotropic scattering using U N method based on the Chebyshev polynomials of second kind. The effect of the linear anisotropy on the critical thickness of the slab is investigated. The critical slab thicknesses are calculated by using Marshak boundary condition for various values of the anisotropy parameters and they are presented in the tables. In comparison to the results obtained by other methods, the results of this study are in compatible with the former ones

  5. Effect of welding parameters (plunge depths of shoulder, pin geometry, and tool rotational speed) on the failure mode and stir zone characteristics of friction stir spot welded aluminum 2024-T3 sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paidar, Moslem; Sarab, Mahsa Lali; Taheri, Morteza; Khodabandeh, Alireza [Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of welding parameters on the failure mode and stir zone characteristics of aluminum alloy 2024-T3 joined by friction stir spot welding. The welding parameters in this work are tool rotational speed, plunge depths of shoulder, and pin geometry. In accordance with the methods of previous investigations, the rotational speeds were set to 630 rpm to 2000 rpm. Two pin geometries with concave shoulder were used: triangular and cylindrical. The plunge depths of the shoulder were 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 mm. The shoulder diameter and pin height for both geometries were 14 and 2.4 mm, respectively. The diameter of the cylindrical and triangular pins was 5 mm. Results show that the parameters mentioned earlier influence fracture mode under tension shear loading. Two different fracture modes were observed during the examinations. Low-penetration depths and low-rotational speeds lead to shear fracture, whereas high values of these factors cause the tension-shear fracture mode. Fracture of the lower sheet sometimes occurs at high rotational speeds.

  6. Everyone Deserves a Speeding Ticket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burris, Harold

    1993-01-01

    Presents a first day physics activity having students determine the fine for a speeding ticket if the speeds considered include the earth's rotation and revolution speed, and the movement through the galaxy. (MDH)

  7. Three-Dimensional Rotational Angiography of the Foot in Critical Limb Ischemia: A New Dimension in Revascularization Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jens, Sjoerd, E-mail: s.jens@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology (Netherlands); Lucatelli, Pierleone, E-mail: pierleone.lucatelli@gmail.com [' Sapienza' University of Rome, Vascular and Interventional Radiology Unit, Department of Radiological Sciences (Italy); Koelemay, Mark J. W., E-mail: m.j.koelemaij@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Center, Department of Surgery (Netherlands); Marquering, Henk A., E-mail: h.a.marquering@amc.uva.nl; Reekers, Jim A., E-mail: j.a.reekers@amc.uva.nl [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the additional value of three-dimensional rotational angiography (3DRA) of the foot compared with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI). Technique. For 3DRA, the C-arm was placed in the propeller position with the foot in an isocentric position. The patient's unaffected foot was positioned in a footrest outside the field of view. For correct timing of 3DRA, the delay from contrast injection in the popliteal artery at the level of knee joint to complete pedal arterial enhancement was assessed using DSA. With this delay, 3DRA was started after injection of 15 ml contrast. Imaging of the 3DRA could directly be reconstructed and visualized.Materials and MethodsPatients undergoing 3DRA of the foot were prospectively registered. DSA and 3DRA images were scored separately for arterial patency and presence of collaterals. Treatment strategies were proposed based on DSA with and without the availability of 3DRA. Results. Eleven patients underwent 3DRA of the foot. One 3DRA was not included because the acquisition was focused on the heel instead of the entire foot. Diagnostic quality of 3DRA was good in all ten patients. 3DRA compared with DSA showed additional patent arteries in six patients, patent plantar arch in three patients, and collaterals between the pedal arteries in five patients. Additional information from 3DRA resulted in a change of treatment strategy in six patients. Conclusion, 3DRA of the foot contains valuable additional real-time information to better guide peripheral vascular interventions in patients with CLI and nonhealing tissue lesions.

  8. Three-Dimensional Rotational Angiography of the Foot in Critical Limb Ischemia: A New Dimension in Revascularization Strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jens, Sjoerd; Lucatelli, Pierleone; Koelemay, Mark J. W.; Marquering, Henk A.; Reekers, Jim A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the additional value of three-dimensional rotational angiography (3DRA) of the foot compared with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in patients with critical limb ischemia (CLI). Technique. For 3DRA, the C-arm was placed in the propeller position with the foot in an isocentric position. The patient’s unaffected foot was positioned in a footrest outside the field of view. For correct timing of 3DRA, the delay from contrast injection in the popliteal artery at the level of knee joint to complete pedal arterial enhancement was assessed using DSA. With this delay, 3DRA was started after injection of 15 ml contrast. Imaging of the 3DRA could directly be reconstructed and visualized.Materials and MethodsPatients undergoing 3DRA of the foot were prospectively registered. DSA and 3DRA images were scored separately for arterial patency and presence of collaterals. Treatment strategies were proposed based on DSA with and without the availability of 3DRA. Results. Eleven patients underwent 3DRA of the foot. One 3DRA was not included because the acquisition was focused on the heel instead of the entire foot. Diagnostic quality of 3DRA was good in all ten patients. 3DRA compared with DSA showed additional patent arteries in six patients, patent plantar arch in three patients, and collaterals between the pedal arteries in five patients. Additional information from 3DRA resulted in a change of treatment strategy in six patients. Conclusion, 3DRA of the foot contains valuable additional real-time information to better guide peripheral vascular interventions in patients with CLI and nonhealing tissue lesions.

  9. The effect of thermal acclimation on aerobic scope and critical swimming speed in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hvas, Malthe; Folkedal, Ole; Imsland, Albert; Oppedal, Frode

    2017-08-01

    The Atlantic salmon is extensively studied owing to conservation concerns and its economic importance in aquaculture. However, a thorough report of their aerobic capacity throughout their entire thermal niche has not been described. In this study, Atlantic salmon (∼450 g) were acclimated for 4 weeks at 3, 8, 13, 18 or 23°C, and then tested in a large Brett-type swimming respirometer in groups of 10 per trial. Both standard metabolic rate and active metabolic rate continued to increase with temperature, which resulted in an aerobic scope that also increased with temperature, but was statistically similar between 13, 18 and 23°C. The critical swimming speed peaked at 18°C (93.1±1.2 cm s -1 ), and decreased significantly at the extreme temperatures to 74.8±0.5 and 84.8±1.6 cm s -1 at 3 and 23°C, respectively. At 23°C, the accumulated mortality reached 20% over 4 weeks, while no fish died during acclimation at colder temperatures. Furthermore, fish at 23°C had poor appetite and lower condition factor despite still having a high aerobic scope, suggesting that oxygen uptake was not the limiting factor in the upper thermal niche boundary. In conclusion, Atlantic salmon were able to maintain a high aerobic capacity and good swimming capabilities throughout the entire thermal interval tested, thus demonstrating a high level of flexibility in respiratory capacity towards different temperature exposures. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Meniscus Stability in Rotating Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichel, Yvonne; Dreyer, Michael

    2013-11-01

    In this study, the stability of free surfaces of fluid between two rotating coaxial, circular disks is examined. Radially mounted baffles are used to form menisci of equal size. To the center of the upper disk, a tube is connected in which a separate meniscus is formed. Assuming solid-body rotation and ignoring dynamic effects, it is observed that the free surfaces between the disks fail to remain stable once the rotation speed exceeds a critical value. In other words, Rayleigh-Taylor instability ensues when the capillary forces fail to balance centrifugal forces. Dimensionless critical rotation speeds are studied by means of the Surface Evolver via SE-FIT for varied number of baffles, the normalized distance between the disks, and the normalized central tube radius. Drop tower tests are performed to confirm some of the numerical results. The computation also reveals that there are different modes of instability as a function of the relevant parameters. This study was funded by the space agency of the German Aerospace Center with resources of the Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology on the basis of a resolution of the German Bundestag under grant number 50 RL 1320.

  11. A study of direct- and pulse-current chromium electroplating on rotating cylinder electrode (RCE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, J.H.; Hsu, F.Y.; Liao, M.J.; Huang, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    Direct- and pulse-current (DC and PC) chromium electroplating on Cr-Mo steel were performed in a sulfate-catalyzed chromic acid solution at 50 deg. C using a rotating cylinder electrode (RCE). The electroplating cathodic current densities were at 30, 40, 50 and 60 A dm -2 , respectively. The relationship between electroplating current efficiency and the rotating speed of the RCE was studied. The cross-sectional microstructure of Cr-deposit was examined by transmission electron microscope (TEM). Results showed that DC-plating exhibited higher current efficiency than the PC-plating under the same conditions of electroplating current density and the rotating speed. We found the critical rotating speed of RCE used in the chromium electroplating, above this rotating speed the chromium deposition is prohibited. At the same plating current density, the critical rotating speed for DC-plating was higher than that for PC-plating. The higher plating current density is, the larger difference in critical rotating speeds appears between DC- and PC-electroplating. Equiaxed grains, in a nanoscale size with lower dislocation density, nucleate on the cathodic surface in both DC- and PC-electroplating. Adjacent to the equiaxed grains, textured grains were found in other portion of chromium deposit. Fine columnar grains were observed in the DC-electroplated deposit. On the other hand, very long slender grains with high degree of preferred orientation were detected in PC-electroplated deposit

  12. Data acquisition in a high-speed rotating frame for New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology liquid sodium αω dynamo experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Jiahe; Colgate, Stirling A; Li, Hui; Martinic, Joe; Westpfahl, David

    2013-10-01

    New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology liquid sodium αω-dynamo experiment models the magnetic field generation in the universe as discussed in detail by Colgate, Li, and Pariev [Phys. Plasmas 8, 2425 (2001)]. To obtain a quasi-laminar flow with magnetic Reynolds number R(m) ~ 120, the dynamo experiment consists of two co-axial cylinders of 30.5 cm and 61 cm in diameter spinning up to 70 Hz and 17.5 Hz, respectively. During the experiment, the temperature of the cylinders must be maintained to 110 °C to ensure that the sodium remains fluid. This presents a challenge to implement a data acquisition (DAQ) system in such high temperature, high-speed rotating frame, in which the sensors (including 18 Hall sensors, 5 pressure sensors, and 5 temperature sensors, etc.) are under the centrifugal acceleration up to 376g. In addition, the data must be transmitted and stored in a computer 100 ft away for safety. The analog signals are digitized, converted to serial signals by an analog-to-digital converter and a field-programmable gate array. Power is provided through brush/ring sets. The serial signals are sent through ring/shoe sets capacitively, then reshaped with cross-talk noises removed. A microcontroller-based interface circuit is used to decode the serial signals and communicate with the data acquisition computer. The DAQ accommodates pressure up to 1000 psi, temperature up to more than 130 °C, and magnetic field up to 1000 G. First physics results have been analyzed and published. The next stage of the αω-dynamo experiment includes the DAQ system upgrade.

  13. CdS films deposited by chemical bath under rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva-Aviles, A.I.; Patino, R.; Oliva, A.I.

    2010-01-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) films were deposited on rotating substrates by the chemical bath technique. The effects of the rotation speed on the morphological, optical, and structural properties of the films were discussed. A rotating substrate-holder was fabricated such that substrates can be taken out from the bath during the deposition. CdS films were deposited at different deposition times (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 min) onto Corning glass substrates at different rotation velocities (150, 300, 450, and 600 rpm) during chemical deposition. The chemical bath was composed by CdCl 2 , KOH, NH 4 NO 3 and CS(NH 2 ) 2 as chemical reagents and heated at 75 deg. C. The results show no critical effects on the band gap energy and the surface roughness of the CdS films when the rotation speed changes. However, a linear increase on the deposition rate with the rotation energy was observed, meanwhile the stoichiometry was strongly affected by the rotation speed, resulting a better 1:1 Cd/S ratio as speed increases. Rotation effects may be of interest in industrial production of CdTe/CdS solar cells.

  14. CdS films deposited by chemical bath under rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliva-Aviles, A.I., E-mail: aoliva@mda.cinvestav.mx [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados Unidad Merida, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada. A.P. 73-Cordemex, 97310 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico); Patino, R.; Oliva, A.I. [Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados Unidad Merida, Departamento de Fisica Aplicada. A.P. 73-Cordemex, 97310 Merida, Yucatan (Mexico)

    2010-08-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) films were deposited on rotating substrates by the chemical bath technique. The effects of the rotation speed on the morphological, optical, and structural properties of the films were discussed. A rotating substrate-holder was fabricated such that substrates can be taken out from the bath during the deposition. CdS films were deposited at different deposition times (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 min) onto Corning glass substrates at different rotation velocities (150, 300, 450, and 600 rpm) during chemical deposition. The chemical bath was composed by CdCl{sub 2}, KOH, NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} and CS(NH{sub 2}){sub 2} as chemical reagents and heated at 75 deg. C. The results show no critical effects on the band gap energy and the surface roughness of the CdS films when the rotation speed changes. However, a linear increase on the deposition rate with the rotation energy was observed, meanwhile the stoichiometry was strongly affected by the rotation speed, resulting a better 1:1 Cd/S ratio as speed increases. Rotation effects may be of interest in industrial production of CdTe/CdS solar cells.

  15. IUPAC critical evaluation of the rotational-vibrational spectra of water vapor. Part I-Energy levels and transition wavenumbers for H217O and H218O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tennyson, Jonathan; Bernath, Peter F.; Brown, Linda R.; Campargue, Alain; Carleer, Michel R.; Csaszar, Attila G.; Gamache, Robert R.; Hodges, Joseph T.; Jenouvrier, Alain; Naumenko, Olga V.; Polyansky, Oleg L.; Rothman, Laurence S.; Toth, Robert A.; Vandaele, Ann Carine; Zobov, Nikolai F.; Daumont, Ludovic; Fazliev, Alexander Z.; Furtenbacher, Tibor; Gordon, Iouli E.; Mikhailenko, Semen N.

    2009-01-01

    This is the first part of a series of articles reporting critically evaluated rotational-vibrational line positions, transition intensities, pressure dependence and energy levels, with associated critically reviewed assignments and uncertainties, for all the main isotopologues of water. The present article contains energy levels and data for line positions of the singly substituted isotopologues H 2 17 O and H 2 18 O. The procedure and code MARVEL, standing for measured active rotational-vibrational energy levels, is used extensively in all stages of determining the validated levels and lines and their self-consistent uncertainties. The spectral regions covered for both isotopologues H 2 17 O and H 2 18 O are 0-17125cm -1 . The energy levels are checked against ones determined from accurate variational calculations. The number of critically evaluated and recommended levels and lines are, respectively, 2687 and 8614 for H 2 17 O, and 4839 and 29 364 for H 2 18 O. The extensive lists of MARVEL lines and levels obtained are deposited in the Supplementary Material, as well as in a distributed information system applied to water, W-DIS, where they can easily be retrieved. A distinguishing feature of the present evaluation of water spectroscopic data is the systematic use of all available experimental data and validation by first-principles theoretical calculations.

  16. Design Method for Contra-Rotating Propellers for High-Speed Crafts: Revising the Original Lerbs Theory in a Modern Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Brizzolara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main theoretical and numerical aspects of a design method for optimum contrar-rotating (CR propellers for fast marine crafts are presented. We propose a reformulated version of a well-known design theory for contra-rotating propellers, by taking advantage of a new fully numerical algorithm for the calculation of the mutually induced velocities and introducing new features such as numerical lifting surface corrections, use of an integrated modern cavitation/strength criteria, a modified method to consider different numbers of blades among the two propellers, and to allow for an unloading function in the search for the optimal circulation distribution. The paper first introduces the main theoretical principles of the new methods and then discusses the influence of the main design parameters on an emblematic example of application in the case of counter rotating propellers for a pod propulsor designed for fast planing crafts (35 knots and above.

  17. Earth Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Jean O.

    1995-01-01

    The study of the Earth's rotation in space (encompassing Universal Time (UT1), length of day, polar motion, and the phenomena of precession and nutation) addresses the complex nature of Earth orientation changes, the mechanisms of excitation of these changes and their geophysical implications in a broad variety of areas. In the absence of internal sources of energy or interactions with astronomical objects, the Earth would move as a rigid body with its various parts (the crust, mantle, inner and outer cores, atmosphere and oceans) rotating together at a constant fixed rate. In reality, the world is considerably more complicated, as is schematically illustrated. The rotation rate of the Earth's crust is not constant, but exhibits complicated fluctuations in speed amounting to several parts in 10(exp 8) [corresponding to a variation of several milliseconds (ms) in the Length Of the Day (LOD) and about one part in 10(exp 6) in the orientation of the rotation axis relative to the solid Earth's axis of figure (polar motion). These changes occur over a broad spectrum of time scales, ranging from hours to centuries and longer, reflecting the fact that they are produced by a wide variety of geophysical and astronomical processes. Geodetic observations of Earth rotation changes thus provide insights into the geophysical processes illustrated, which are often difficult to obtain by other means. In addition, these measurements are required for engineering purposes. Theoretical studies of Earth rotation variations are based on the application of Euler's dynamical equations to the problem of finding the response of slightly deformable solid Earth to variety of surface and internal stresses.

  18. Prior exercise speeds pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics and increases critical power during supine but not upright cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulding, Richie P; Roche, Denise M; Marwood, Simon

    2017-09-01

    What is the central question of this study? Critical power (CP) represents the highest work rate for which a metabolic steady state is attainable. The physiological determinants of CP are unclear, but research suggests that CP might be related to the time constant of phase II oxygen uptake kinetics (τV̇O2). What is the main finding and its importance? We provide the first evidence that τV̇O2 is mechanistically related to CP. A reduction of τV̇O2 in the supine position was observed alongside a concomitant increase in CP. This effect may be contingent on measures of oxygen availability derived from near-infrared spectroscopy. Critical power (CP) is a fundamental parameter defining high-intensity exercise tolerance and is related to the time constant of phase II pulmonary oxygen uptake kinetics (τV̇O2). To test the hypothesis that this relationship is causal, we determined the impact of prior exercise ('priming') on CP and τV̇O2 in the upright and supine positions. Seventeen healthy men were assigned to either upright or supine exercise groups, whereby CP, τV̇O2 and muscle deoxyhaemoglobin kinetics (τ [HHb] ) were determined via constant-power tests to exhaustion at four work rates with (primed) and without (control) priming exercise at ∼31%Δ. During supine exercise, priming reduced τV̇O2 (control 54 ± 18 s versus primed 39 ± 11 s; P exercise had no effect on τV̇O2 (control 37 ± 12 s versus primed 35 ± 8 s; P = 0.82), τ [HHb] (control 10 ± 5 s versus primed 14 ± 10 s; P = 0.10) or CP (control 235 ± 42 W versus primed 232 ± 35 W; P = 0.57) during upright exercise. The concomitant reduction of τV̇O2 and increased CP following priming in the supine group, effects that were absent in the upright group, provide the first experimental evidence that τV̇O2 is mechanistically related to critical power. The increased τ [HHb+Mb] suggests that this effect was mediated, at least in part, by improved oxygen

  19. Discriminations of critical conditions of a high speed ship in quarterings sea waves by using tools of the sea state determinations by GMS. Eisei joho kaisho settei shien tool ni motozuku chokosokusen no shatsuiha rinkai jotai no hanmei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, S.; +Ishida, T. (Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan)); Shinkai, A. (Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1991-09-04

    The documentation assumes a new type high speed ship, higher than 50kt in speed and heavier than 1000ton in dead weight, to require the ocean goingness, middle distance navigation and high speed transport. The present report dealed with how to discriminate a ship, navigating at a high speed on oceanic waves, in critical condition against the encountering waves. Navigating far distantly from the shore, the ship was generally made to positively utilize the information data from the geostationary metheorological satellite (GMS) to be applied as a support soft tool for the maritime system and other designs. As a result, the high speed ship on the quartering waves was numerically elucidated in critical condition against the encountering waves and simultaneously assumed in critical course upon discriminating the critical condition in a concretely designated oceanic area. It was shown that, if different Froude numbers are calculated and ordered of critical circular frequency, angle, wave period, etc. against the encountering, a dimensionally arbitrary ship is easily discriminatable in critical course in an arbitrary oceanic area by utilizing a GMS determination support tool. 12 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Intensive Care Unit Rotations and Predictors of Career Choice in Pulmonary/Critical Care Medicine: A Survey of Internal Medicine Residency Directors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Minter

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The United States (US is experiencing a growing shortage of critical care medicine (CCM trained physicians. Little is known about the exposures to CCM experienced by internal medicine (IM residents or factors that may influence their decision to pursue a career in pulmonary/critical care medicine (PCCM. Methods. We conducted a survey of US IM residency program directors (PDs and then used multivariable logistic regression to identify factors that were predictive of residency programs with a higher percentage of graduates pursuing careers in PCCM. Results. Of the 249 PDs contacted, 107 (43% completed our survey. University-sponsored programs more commonly had large ICUs (62.3% versus 42.2%, p=0.05, primary medical ICUs (63.9% versus 41.3%, p=0.03, and closed staffing models (88.5% versus 41.3%, p20 beds, residents serving as code leaders, and greater proportion of graduates pursuing specialization. Conclusions. While numerous differences exist between the ICU rotations at community- and university-sponsored IM residencies, the percentage of graduates specializing in PCCM was similar. Exposure to larger ICUs, serving as code leaders, and higher rates of specialization were predictive of a career choice in PCCM.

  1. Hydrodynamic sliding bearings vs. roller bearings. Segmented sliding bearings for higher rotational speed; Hydrodynamische Gleitlager versus Waelzlager. Segmentgleitlager fuer hoehere Drehzahlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagenhoff, M.; Sauer, M. [Main-Metall-Giesserei Fritz Schorr GmbH und Co. KG, Altenglan (Germany)

    2004-10-01

    Hydrodynamic sliding bearings are considered only in cases when roller bearings reach their speed limits and there is no other solution. However, this view neglects the fact that there are modern, optimised sliding bearings which have more advantages over roller bearings than should be expected. Many producers of sliding bearings also have computer programs enabling them to offer customised solutions, i.e. optimal adaptation of the bearings to their specific operating conditions. (orig.) [German] Hydrodynamische Gleitlager werden oft erst dann in Betracht gezogen, wenn man an die Drehzahlgrenzen von Waelzlagern stoesst und keine andere sinnvolle Alternative mehr in Frage kommt. Dabei uebersieht man leicht, dass es moderne, optimierte Gleitlagerkonstruktionen gibt, die weitaus haeufiger ihre Staerken im Vergleich zu Waelzlagern ausspielen koennen als zunaechst vermutet. Viele Gleitlagerhersteller haben zudem heute Berechnungsprogramme zur Verfuegung, die eine optimale Anpassung der Lager an die speziellen Betriebsbedingungen erlauben. (orig.)

  2. Comparison of high speed movie and flash x-ray measurement of the translational and rotational motions of projectiles penetrating gelatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roecker, E.T.

    1979-01-01

    Projectiles penetrating a gelatin block were simultaneously measured by a high speed movie camera, Dynafax, and by a sequential, orthogonal, flash x-ray system. The eight orthogonal views of the x-ray system provided position and orientation of the projectiles vs. time. From onset of tumble in the gelatin, owing to gyroscopic instability, the growth of yaw was the same for each round in a replicated set. This phenomenon provided a legitimate procedure for pooling the x-ray data, giving well determined curves of velocity decay and yaw growth. The movie camera observed the progress of the cavity formed by the projectile. The resulting velocity decay of the cavity tip was compared to that of the projectile as measured by the x-ray technique. (author)

  3. Comparative CFD study of the effect of the presence of downstream turbines on upstream ones using a rotational speed control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breton, S-P; Nilsson, K; Ivanell, S; Olivares-Espinosa, H; Masson, C; Dufresne, L

    2014-01-01

    The effect of a downstream turbine on the production of a turbine located upstream of the latter is studied in this work. This is done through the use of two CFD simulation codes, namely OpenFOAM and EllipSys3D, which solve the Navier-Stokes equations in their incompressible form using a finite volume approach. In both EllipSys3D and OpenFoam, the LES (Large Eddy Simulation) technique is used for modelling turbulence. The wind turbine rotors are modelled as actuator disks whose loading is determined through the use of tabulated airfoil data by applying the blade-element method. A generator torque controller is used in both simulation methods to ensure that the simulated turbines adapt, in terms of rotational velocity, to the inflow conditions they are submited to. Results from both simulation codes, although they differ slightly, show that the downstream turbine affects the upstream one when the spacing between the turbines is small. This is also suggested to be the case looking at measurements performed at the Lillgrund offshore wind farm, whose turbines are located unusually close to each other. However, for distances used in today's typical wind farms, this effect is shown by our calculations not to be significant

  4. The Experimental Identification of the Dynamic Coefficients of two Hydrodynamic Journal Bearings Operating at Constant Rotational Speed and Under Nonlinear Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breńkacz Łukasz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrodynamic bearings are commonly used in ship propulsion systems. Typically, they are calculated using numerical or experimental methods. This paper presents an experimental study through which it has been possible to estimate 24 dynamic coefficients of two hydrodynamic slide bearings operating under nonlinear conditions. During the investigation, bearing mass coefficients are identified by means of a newly developed algorithm. An impact hammer was used to excite vibration of the shaft. The approximation by means of the least squares method was applied to determine bearing dynamic coefficients. Based on the performed research, the four (i.e. two main and two crosscoupled coefficients of stiffness, damping and mass for each bearing were obtained. The mass coefficients add up to the complex shaft weight. These values are not required for modeling dynamics of the machine because the rotor mass is usually known, however, they may serve as a good indicator to validate the correctness of the stiffness and damping coefficients determined. Additionally, the experimental research procedure was described. The signals of displacements in the bearings and the excitation forces used for determination of the bearing dynamic coefficients were shown. The study discussed in this article is about a rotor supported by two hydrodynamic bearings operating in a nonlinear manner. On the basis of computations, the results of bearing dynamic coefficients were presented for a selected speed.

  5. Feedback and rotational stabilization of resistive wall modes in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Yueqiang; Bondeson, A.; Chu, M.S.; La Haye, R.J.; Favez, J.-Y.; Lister, J.B.; Gribov, Y.; Gryaznevich, M.; Hender, T.C.; Howell, D.F.

    2005-01-01

    Different models have been introduced in the stability code MARS-F in order to study the damping effect of resistive wall modes (RWM) in rotating plasmas. Benchmark of MARS-F calculations with RWM experiments on JET and D3D indicates that the semi-kinetic damping model is a good candidate for explaining the damping mechanisms. Based on these results, the critical rotation speeds required for RWM stabilization in an advanced ITER scenario are predicted. Active feedback control of the n = 1 RWM in ITER is also studied using the MARS-F code. (author)

  6. Low Speed Control for Automatic Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iceland, W. E.

    1982-01-01

    Amplifier module allows rotating positioner of automatic welding machine to operate at speeds below normal range. Low speeds are precisely regulated by a servomechanism as are normal-range speeds. Addition of module to standard welding machine makes it unnecessary to purchase new equipment for low-speed welding.

  7. Laboratory tests of catastrophic disruption of rotating bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, A. J. W.; Burchell, M. J.

    2017-11-01

    The results of catastrophic disruption experiments on static and rotating targets are reported. The experiments used cement spheres of diameter 10 cm as the targets. Impacts were by mm sized stainless steel spheres at speeds of between 1 and 7.75 km s-1. Energy densities (Q) in the targets ranged from 7 to 2613 J kg-1. The experiments covered both the cratering and catastrophic disruption regimes. For static, i.e. non-rotating targets the critical energy density for disruption (Q*, the value of Q when the largest surviving target fragment has a mass equal to one half of the pre-impact target mass) was Q* = 1447 ± 90 J kg-1. For rotating targets (median rotation frequency of 3.44 Hz) we found Q* = 987 ± 349 J kg-1, a reduction of 32% in the mean value. This lower value of Q* for rotating targets was also accompanied by a larger scatter on the data, hence the greater uncertainty. We suggest that in some cases the rotating targets behaved as static targets, i.e. broke up with the same catastrophic disruption threshold, but in other cases the rotation helped the break up causing a lower catastrophic disruption threshold, hence both the lower value of Q* and the larger scatter on the data. The fragment mass distributions after impact were similar in both the static and rotating target experiments with similar slopes.

  8. Flow past a rotating cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Sanjay; Kumar, Bhaskar

    2003-02-01

    Flow past a spinning circular cylinder placed in a uniform stream is investigated via two-dimensional computations. A stabilized finite element method is utilized to solve the incompressible Navier Stokes equations in the primitive variables formulation. The Reynolds number based on the cylinder diameter and free-stream speed of the flow is 200. The non-dimensional rotation rate, [alpha] (ratio of the surface speed and freestream speed), is varied between 0 and 5. The time integration of the flow equations is carried out for very large dimensionless time. Vortex shedding is observed for [alpha] cylinder. The results from the stability analysis for the rotating cylinder are in very good agreement with those from direct numerical simulations. For large rotation rates, very large lift coefficients can be obtained via the Magnus effect. However, the power requirement for rotating the cylinder increases rapidly with rotation rate.

  9. A computational investigation on the reducing lateral vibration of rotors with rolling-element bearings passing through critical speeds by means of tuning the stiffness of the system supports

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zapoměl, Jaroslav; Ferfecki, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 5 (2011), s. 707-724 ISSN 0094-114X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : accelerating rotors * critical speeds * tuning of the stiffness of the rotor supports Subject RIV: JR - Other Machinery Impact factor: 1.366, year: 2011 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0094114X10002314

  10. Angular momentum transfer in primordial discs and the rotation of the first stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Shingo; Bromm, Volker

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the rotation velocity of the first stars by modelling the angular momentum transfer in the primordial accretion disc. Assessing the impact of magnetic braking, we consider the transition in angular momentum transport mode at the Alfvén radius, from the dynamically dominated free-fall accretion to the magnetically dominated solid-body one. The accreting protostar at the centre of the primordial star-forming cloud rotates with close to breakup speed in the case without magnetic fields. Considering a physically motivated model for small-scale turbulent dynamo amplification, we find that stellar rotation speed quickly declines if a large fraction of the initial turbulent energy is converted to magnetic energy (≳ 0.14). Alternatively, if the dynamo process were inefficient, for amplification due to flux freezing, stars would become slow rotators if the pre-galactic magnetic field strength is above a critical value, ≃10-8.2 G, evaluated at a scale of nH = 1 cm-3, which is significantly higher than plausible cosmological seed values (˜10-15 G). Because of the rapid decline of the stellar rotational speed over a narrow range in model parameters, the first stars encounter a bimodal fate: rapid rotation at almost the breakup level, or the near absence of any rotation.

  11. Rotational seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, William H K.

    2016-01-01

    Rotational seismology is an emerging study of all aspects of rotational motions induced by earthquakes, explosions, and ambient vibrations. It is of interest to several disciplines, including seismology, earthquake engineering, geodesy, and earth-based detection of Einstein’s gravitation waves.Rotational effects of seismic waves, together with rotations caused by soil–structure interaction, have been observed for centuries (e.g., rotated chimneys, monuments, and tombstones). Figure 1a shows the rotated monument to George Inglis observed after the 1897 Great Shillong earthquake. This monument had the form of an obelisk rising over 19 metres high from a 4 metre base. During the earthquake, the top part broke off and the remnant of some 6 metres rotated about 15° relative to the base. The study of rotational seismology began only recently when sensitive rotational sensors became available due to advances in aeronautical and astronomical instrumentations.

  12. SEAL FOR HIGH SPEED CENTRIFUGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarstrom, C.W.

    1957-12-17

    A seal is described for a high speed centrifuge wherein the centrifugal force of rotation acts on the gasket to form a tight seal. The cylindrical rotating bowl of the centrifuge contains a closure member resting on a shoulder in the bowl wall having a lower surface containing bands of gasket material, parallel and adjacent to the cylinder wall. As the centrifuge speed increases, centrifugal force acts on the bands of gasket material forcing them in to a sealing contact against the cylinder wall. This arrangememt forms a simple and effective seal for high speed centrifuges, replacing more costly methods such as welding a closure in place.

  13. Are degenerative rotator cuff disorders a cause of shoulder pain? Comparison of prevalence of degenerative rotator cuff disease to prevalence of nontraumatic shoulder pain through three systematic and critical reviews

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vincent, Karl; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Gagey, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Hypothesis and Background The role of degeneration is not well understood for rotator cuff pain. If age-related degenerative changes would be the cause of symptoms, degeneration would precede or concur with self-reported pain. We performed 3 systematic literature reviews. Our objectives were...

  14. Opportunities and challenges in assessing climate change impacts on wind energy-a critical comparison of wind speed projections in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, D J; Holloway, T; Nemet, G F

    2011-01-01

    Future climate change is expected to alter the spatial and temporal distribution of surface wind speeds (SWS), with associated impacts on electricity generation from wind energy. However, the predictions for the direction and magnitude of these changes hinge critically on the assessment methods used. Many climate change impact analyses, including those focused on wind energy, use individual climate models and/or statistical downscaling methods rooted in historical observations. Such studies may individually suggest an unrealistically high level of scientific certainty due to the absence of competing projections (over the same region, time period, etc). A new public data archive, the North American Regional Climate Change Assessment Program (NARCCAP), allows for a more comprehensive perspective on regional climate change impacts, here applied to three wind farm sites in California. We employ NARCCAP regional climate model data to estimate changes in SWS expected to occur in the mid-21st century at three wind farm regions: Altamont Pass, San Gorgonio Pass, and Tehachapi Pass. We examined trends in SWS magnitude and frequency using three different global/regional model pairs, focused on model evaluation, seasonal cycle, and long-term trends. Our results, while specific to California, highlight the opportunities and limitations in NARCCAP and other publicly available meteorological data sets for energy analysis, and the importance of using multiple models for climate change impact assessment. Although spatial patterns in current wind conditions agree fairly well among models and with NARR (North American Regional Reanalysis) data, results vary widely at our three sites of interest. This poor performance and model disagreement may be explained by complex topography, limited model resolution, and differences in model physics. Spatial trends and site-specific estimates of annual average changes (1980-2000 versus 2051-71) also differed widely across models. All models

  15. On rapid rotation in stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helander, Per

    2008-01-01

    The conditions under which rapid plasma rotation may occur in a three-dimensional magnetic field, such as that of a stellarator, are investigated. Rotation velocities comparable to the ion thermal speed are found to be attainable only in magnetic fields which are approximately isometric. In an isometric magnetic field the dependence of the magnetic field strength B on the arc length l along the field is the same for all field lines on each flux surface ψ. Only in fields where the departure from exact isometry, B=B(ψ,l), is of the order of the ion gyroradius divided by the macroscopic length scale are rotation speeds comparable to the ion thermal speed possible. Moreover, it is shown that the rotation must be in the direction of the vector ∇ψx∇B. (author)

  16. Speed control at low wind speeds for a variable speed fixed pitch wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosmin, N.; Watson, S.J.; Tompson, M. [Loughborough Univ., Loughborough, Leicestershire (United Kingdom)

    2010-03-09

    The maximum power regulation below rated wind speed is regulated by changing the rotor/generator speed at large frequency range in a fixed pitch, variable speed, stall-regulated wind turbine. In order to capture the power at a maximum value the power coefficient is kept at maximum peak point by maintaining the tip speed ratio at its optimum value. The wind industry is moving from stall regulated fixed speed wind turbines to newer improved innovative versions with better reliability. While a stall regulated fixed pitch wind turbine is among the most cost-effective wind turbine on the market, its problems include noise, severe vibrations, high thrust loads and low power efficiency. Therefore, in order to improve such drawbacks, the rotation of the generator speed is made flexible where the rotation can be controlled in variable speed. This paper discussed the development of a simulation model which represented the behaviour of a stall regulated variable speed wind turbine at low wind speed control region by using the closed loop scalar control with adjustable speed drive. The paper provided a description of each sub-model in the wind turbine system and described the scalar control of the induction machine. It was concluded that by using a constant voltage/frequency ratio of the generator's stator side control, the generator speed could be regulated and the generator torque could be controlled to ensure the power coefficient could be maintained close to its maximum value. 38 refs., 1 tab., 10 figs.

  17. Rotating quantum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambruş, Victor E.; Winstanley, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    We revisit the definition of rotating thermal states for scalar and fermion fields in unbounded Minkowski space–time. For scalar fields such states are ill-defined everywhere, but for fermion fields an appropriate definition of the vacuum gives thermal states regular inside the speed-of-light surface. For a massless fermion field, we derive analytic expressions for the thermal expectation values of the fermion current and stress–energy tensor. These expressions may provide qualitative insights into the behaviour of thermal rotating states on more complex space–time geometries

  18. Global rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosquist, K.

    1980-01-01

    Global rotation in cosmological models is defined on an observational basis. A theorem is proved saying that, for rigid motion, the global rotation is equal to the ordinary local vorticity. The global rotation is calculated in the space-time homogeneous class III models, with Godel's model as a special case. It is shown that, with the exception of Godel's model, the rotation in these models becomes infinite for finite affine parameter values. In some directions the rotation changes sign and becomes infinite in a direction opposite to the local vorticity. The points of infinite rotation are identified as conjugate points along the null geodesics. The physical interpretation of the infinite rotation is discussed, and a comparison with the behaviour of the area distance at conjugate points is given. (author)

  19. Rotating electrical machines

    CERN Document Server

    Le Doeuff, René

    2013-01-01

    In this book a general matrix-based approach to modeling electrical machines is promulgated. The model uses instantaneous quantities for key variables and enables the user to easily take into account associations between rotating machines and static converters (such as in variable speed drives).   General equations of electromechanical energy conversion are established early in the treatment of the topic and then applied to synchronous, induction and DC machines. The primary characteristics of these machines are established for steady state behavior as well as for variable speed scenarios. I

  20. Comparison of fasciocutaneous V-Y and rotational flaps for defect coverage of sacral pressure sores: a critical single-centre appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djedovic, Gabriel; Metzler, Julia; Morandi, Evi M; Wachter, Tanja; Kühn, Shafreena; Pierer, Gerhard; Rieger, Ulrich M

    2017-12-01

    Pressure sore rates remain high in both nursing homes as well as in hospitals. Numerous surgical options are available for defect coverage in the sacral region. However, objective data is scarce as to whether a specific flap design is superior to another. Here, we aim to compare two fasciocutaneous flap designs for sacral defect coverage: the gluteal rotation flap and the gluteal V-Y flap. All primary sacral pressure sores of grades III-IV that were being covered with gluteal fasciocutaneous rotational or V-Y flaps between January 2008 and December 2014 at our institution were analysed. A total of 41 patients received a total of 52 flaps. Of these, 18 patients received 20 gluteal rotational flaps, and 23 patients received 32 V-Y flaps. Both groups were comparable with regards to demographics, comorbidities and complications. Significantly more V-Y flaps were needed to cover smaller defects. Mean length of hospital stay was significantly prolonged when surgical revision had to be carried out. Both flap designs have proven safe and reliable for defect coverage after sacral pressure sores. Gluteal rotational flaps appear to be more useful for larger defects. Both flap designs facilitate their reuse in case of pressure sore recurrence. Complication rates appear to be comparable in both designs and to the current literature. © 2017 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Is there really an eccentric action of the hamstrings during the swing phase of high-speed running? part I: A critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hooren, Bas; Bosch, Frans

    2017-12-01

    It is widely assumed that there is an eccentric hamstring muscle fibre action during the swing phase of high-speed running. However, animal and modelling studies in humans show that the increasing distance between musculotendinous attachment points during forward swing is primarily due to passive lengthening associated with the take-up of muscle slack. Later in the swing phase, the contractile element (CE) maintains a near isometric action while the series elastic (tendinous) element first stretches as the knee extends, and then recoils causing the swing leg to forcefully retract prior to ground contact. Although modelling studies showed some active lengthening of the contractile (muscular) element during the mid-swing phase of high-speed running, we argue that the increasing distance between the attachment points should not be interpreted as an eccentric action of the CE due to the effects of muscle slack. Therefore, there may actually be no significant eccentric, but rather predominantly an isometric action of the hamstrings CE during the swing phase of high-speed running when the attachment points of the hamstrings are moving apart. Based on this, we propose that isometric rather than eccentric exercises are a more specific way of conditioning the hamstrings for high-speed running.

  2. Rotating Wavepackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekner, John

    2008-01-01

    Any free-particle wavepacket solution of Schrodinger's equation can be converted by differentiations to wavepackets rotating about the original direction of motion. The angular momentum component along the motion associated with this rotation is an integral multiple of [h-bar]. It is an "intrinsic" angular momentum: independent of origin and…

  3. Rotating dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noe, C.

    1984-01-01

    Products to dry are introduced inside a rotating tube placed in an oven, the cross section of the tube is an arc of spiral. During clockwise rotation of the tube products are maintained inside and mixed, during anticlockwise products are removed. Application is made to drying of radioactive wastes [fr

  4. Dynamic characteristics of rotating pretwisted clamped-clamped beam under thermal stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Bo; Li, Yueming; Lu, Wei Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Effects of thermal stress on the vibration characteristics, buckling limit and critical speed of a rotating pretwisted beam clamped to rigid hub at a stagger angle were investigated. By considering the work done by thermal stress, the thermal influence on stiffness matrix was introduced in the dynamic model. The motion equations were derived based on Lagrange equation by employing three pure Cartesian deformation variables combined with nonlinear von Karman strain formula. Numerical investigations studied the modal characteristics of the beam. Numerical results calculated from a commercial finite element code and obtained with the present modeling method were in good agreement with the previous results reported in the literature. The combined softening effects due to the thermal stress and the rotation motion were observed. Furthermore, it is shown that the inclusion of thermal stress is necessary for blades operating under a high temperature field. Buckling thermal loads and the critical rotating speed were calculated through solving the corresponding nonlinear equations numerically, and some pertinent conclusions are outlined. It is also found that the peak value position of the first mode shape approaches to the tip of blade with the increment of rotating speed and hub radius. However, the variation in the environment temperature causes only a slight alteration in the mode shape

  5. Dynamic characteristics of rotating pretwisted clamped-clamped beam under thermal stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Bo; Li, Yueming [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Environment and Control for Flight Vehicle, School of Aerospace, Xi' an Jiaotong UniversityXi' an (China); Lu, Wei Zhen [Dept. of Civil and Architectural Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China)

    2016-09-15

    Effects of thermal stress on the vibration characteristics, buckling limit and critical speed of a rotating pretwisted beam clamped to rigid hub at a stagger angle were investigated. By considering the work done by thermal stress, the thermal influence on stiffness matrix was introduced in the dynamic model. The motion equations were derived based on Lagrange equation by employing three pure Cartesian deformation variables combined with nonlinear von Karman strain formula. Numerical investigations studied the modal characteristics of the beam. Numerical results calculated from a commercial finite element code and obtained with the present modeling method were in good agreement with the previous results reported in the literature. The combined softening effects due to the thermal stress and the rotation motion were observed. Furthermore, it is shown that the inclusion of thermal stress is necessary for blades operating under a high temperature field. Buckling thermal loads and the critical rotating speed were calculated through solving the corresponding nonlinear equations numerically, and some pertinent conclusions are outlined. It is also found that the peak value position of the first mode shape approaches to the tip of blade with the increment of rotating speed and hub radius. However, the variation in the environment temperature causes only a slight alteration in the mode shape.

  6. Torsional oscillator studies of rotating 3He-A in a slab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walmsley, P.M.Paul M.; Cousins, D.J.Derek J.; Hall, H.E.Henry E.; Golov, A.I.Andrei I.

    2003-01-01

    Using a rotating cryostat we have manipulated l-textures of 3 He-A in a 0.26 mm-thick slab contained in a torsional oscillator. Application of a magnetic field or a counterflow due to rotation lead to a sudden distortion of a uniform texture. The uniformity of the initial texture can be characterized by the resulting shift in frequency and bandwidth of the torsional resonance. With a certain density of vortices induced by rotation a uniform texture can be stabilized even in presence of magnetic. The optimal speed of rotation to prepare a uniform texture while cooling through T c was found. The critical velocities for the flow-induced textural transition and vortex nucleation are determined

  7. Neoclassical poloidal and toroidal rotation in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.B.; Diamond, P.H.; Groebner, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    Explicit expressions for the neoclassical poloidal and toroidal rotation speeds of primary ion and impurity species are derived via the Hirshman and Sigmar moment approach. The rotation speeds of the primary ion can be significantly different from those of impurities in various interesting cases. The rapid increase of impurity poloidal rotation in the edge region of H-mode discharges in tokamaks can be explained by a rapid steepening of the primary ion pressure gradient. Depending on ion collisionality, the poloidal rotation speed of the primary ions at the edge can be quite small and the flow direction may be opposite to that of the impurities. This may cast considerable doubts on current L to H bifurcation models based on primary ion poloidal rotation only. Also, the difference between the toroidal rotation velocities of primary ions and impurities is not negligible in various cases. In Ohmic plasmas, the parallel electric field induces a large impurity toroidal rotation close to the magnetic axis, which seems to agree with experimental observations. In the ion banana and plateau regime, there can be non-negligible disparities between primary ion and impurity toroidal rotation velocities due to the ion density and temperature gradients. Detailed analytic expressions for the primary ion and impurity rotation speeds are presented, and the methodology for generalization to the case of several impurity species is also presented for future numerical evaluation

  8. Critical Performance of Turbopump Mechanical Elements for Rocket Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Satoshi; Kikuchi, Masataka; Sudou, Takayuki; Iwasaki, Fumiya; Watanabe, Yoshiaki; Yoshida, Makoto

    It is generally acknowledged that bearings and axial seals have a tendency to go wrong compared with other rocket engine elements. And when those components have malfunction, missions scarcely succeed. However, fundamental performance (maximum rotational speed, minimum flow rate, power loss, durability, etc.) of those components has not been grasped yet. Purpose of this study is to grasp a critical performance of mechanical seal and hybrid ball bearing of turbopump. In this result, it was found that bearing outer race temperature and bearing coolant outlet temperature changed along saturation line of liquid hydrogen when flow rate was decreased under critical pressure. And normal operation of bearing was possible under conditions of more than 70,000 rpm of rotational speed and more than 0.2 liter/s of coolant flow rate. Though friction coefficient of seal surface increased several times of original value after testing, the seal showed a good performance same as before.

  9. The Using of Scientific Based Physics Module in Learning to Enhance High School Students’ Critical Thinking Skills on Rotation Dynamics and Equilibrium of Rigid Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhimas Nur Setyawan

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of using a scientific based physics module to improve high school students' critical thinking skills. This study is a quasi experimental study which uses two classes taken at random experiment consists of one class and the control class. Class experiments using the scientific study using scientific-based modules and classroom experiments using books that have been owned by students. Experimental class numbered 25 students and control class numbered 28 students. The research was conducted in the first half (one Academic Year 2016/2017. The method used is the test method with a pretest-posttest design. Data were analyzed with quantitative and qualitative methods. Data were analyzed using a pretest form of the homogeneity test to find out that the experimental class and controls used homogeneous. Posttest results were analyzed using normality test to determine the normally distributed data, N-gain to determine the increase critical thinking skills, as well as test two parties not bound to determine whether or not there is a difference in the increase in critical thinking skills. Conclusions and recommendations are the use of scientifically-based modules effectively improve the ability to think critically and use physics-based scientific modules should be adjusted to the prevailing syllabus and curriculum so that learning can take place properly.

  10. Rotation induced flow suppression around two tandem circular cylinders at low Reynolds number

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, Dipankar [Advanced Design and Analysis Group, CSIR—Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur-713209 (India); Gupta, Krishan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sardar Vallabhai National Institute of Technology Surat, Surat-395007 (India); Kumar, Virendra [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Patna, Patna-800013 (India); Varghese, Sachin Abraham, E-mail: d_chatterjee@cmeri.res.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Durgapur, Durgapur-713209 (India)

    2017-08-15

    The rotation to a bluff object is known to have a stabilizing effect on the fluid dynamic transport around the body. An unsteady periodic flow can be degenerated into a steady flow pattern depending on the rate of rotation imparted to the body. On the other hand, multiple bodies placed in tandem arrangement with respect to an incoming flow can cause destabilization to the flow as a result of the complicated wake interaction between the bodies. Accordingly, the spacing between the bodies and the rate of rotation have significant impact on the overall fluid dynamic transport around them. The present work aims to understand how these two competing factors are actually influencing the fluidic transport across a pair of identical rotating circular cylinders kept in tandem arrangement in an unconfined medium. The cylinders are subjected to a uniform free stream flow and the gaps between the cylinders are varied as 0.2, 0.7, 1.5 and 3.0. Both the cylinders are made to rotate in the clockwise sense. The Reynolds number based on the free stream flow is taken as 100. A two-dimensional finite volume based transient computation is performed for a range of dimensionless rotational speeds of the cylinders (0 ≤ Ω ≤ 2.75). The results show that the shedding phenomena can be observed up to a critical rate of rotation (Ω{sub cr}) depending on the gap spacing. Beyond Ω{sub cr}, the flow becomes stabilized and finally completely steady as Ω increases further. Increasing the gap initially causes a slight decrease in the critical rotational speed, however, it increases at a rapid rate for larger gap spacing. (paper)

  11. Monitoring of argatroban and lepirudin anticoagulation in critically ill patients by conventional laboratory parameters and rotational thromboelastometry - a prospectively controlled randomized double-blind clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiderlinden, Martin; Werner, Patrick; Bahlmann, Astrid; Kemper, Johann; Brezina, Tobias; Schäfer, Maximilian; Görlinger, Klaus; Seidel, Holger; Kienbaum, Peter; Treschan, Tanja A

    2018-02-09

    Argatroban or lepirudin anticoagulation therapy in patients with heparin induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) or HIT suspect is typically monitored using the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). Although aPTT correlates well with plasma levels of argatroban and lepirudin in healthy volunteers, it might not be the method of choice in critically ill patients. However, in-vivo data is lacking for this patient population. Therefore, we studied in vivo whether ROTEM or global clotting times would provide an alternative for monitoring the anticoagulant intensity effects in critically ill patients. This study was part of the double-blind randomized trial "Argatroban versus Lepirudin in critically ill patients (ALicia)", which compared critically ill patients treated with argatroban or lepirudin. Following institutional review board approval and written informed consent, for this sub-study blood of 35 critically ill patients was analysed. Before as well as 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after initiation of argatroban or lepirudin infusion, blood was analysed for aPTT, aPTT ratios, thrombin time (TT), INTEM CT,INTEM CT ratios, EXTEM CT, EXTEM CT ratios and maximum clot firmness (MCF) and correlated with the corresponding plasma concentrations of the direct thrombin inhibitor. To reach a target aPTT of 1.5 to 2 times baseline, median [IQR] plasma concentrations of 0.35 [0.01-1.2] μg/ml argatroban and 0.17 [0.1-0.32] μg/ml lepirudin were required. For both drugs, there was no significant correlation between aPTT and aPTT ratios and plasma concentrations. INTEM CT, INTEM CT ratios, EXTEM CT, EXTEM CT ratios, TT and TT ratios correlated significantly with plasma concentrations of both drugs. Additionally, agreement between argatroban plasma levels and EXTEM CT and EXTEM CT ratios were superior to agreement between argatroban plasma levels and aPTT in the Bland Altman analysis. MCF remained unchanged during therapy with both drugs. In critically ill patients, TT and ROTEM parameters

  12. Rotating preventers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tangedahl, M.J.; Stone, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that recent changes in the oil and gas industry and ongoing developments in horizontal and underbalanced drilling necessitated development of a better rotating head. A new device called the rotating blowout preventer (RBOP) was developed by Seal-Tech. It is designed to replace the conventional rotating control head on top of BOP stacks and allows drilling operations to continue even on live (underbalanced) wells. Its low wear characteristics and high working pressure (1,500 psi) allow drilling rig crews to drill safely in slightly underbalanced conditions or handle severe well control problems during the time required to actuate other BOPs in the stack. Drilling with a RBOP allows wellbores to be completely closed in tat the drill floor rather than open as with conventional BOPs

  13. Speed mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Handley, Bill

    2012-01-01

    This new, revised edition of the bestselling Speed Mathematics features new chapters on memorising numbers and general information, calculating statistics and compound interest, square roots, logarithms and easy trig calculations. Written so anyone can understand, this book teaches simple strategies that will enable readers to make lightning-quick calculations. People who excel at mathematics use better strategies than the rest of us; they are not necessarily more intelligent. With Speed Mathematics you'll discover methods to make maths easy and fun. This book is perfect for stud

  14. Wave-Driven Rotation In Centrifugal Mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Centrifugal mirrors use supersonic rotation to provide axial confinement and enhanced stability. Usually the rotation is produced using electrodes, but these electrodes have limited the rotation to the Alfven critical ionization velocity, which is too slow to be useful for fusion. Instead, the rotation could be produced using radio frequency waves. A fixed azimuthal ripple is a simple and efficient wave that could produce rotation by harnessing alpha particle energy. This is an extension of the alpha channeling effect. The alpha particle power and efficiency in a simulated devices is sufficient to produce rotation without external energy input. By eliminating the need for electrodes, this opens new opportunities for centrifugal traps.

  15. High-Speed Videography Instrumentation And Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, C. E.

    1982-02-01

    High-speed videography has been an electronic analog of low-speed film cameras, but having the advantages of instant-replay and simplicity of operation. Recent advances have pushed frame-rates into the realm of the rotating prism camera. Some characteristics of videography systems are discussed in conjunction with applications in sports analysis, and with sports equipment testing.

  16. A theoretical study of rotatable renewable energy system for stratospheric airship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv, Mingyun; Li, Jun; Zhu, Weiyu; Du, Huafei; Meng, Junhui; Sun, Kangwen

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new rotatable renewable energy system is designed for stratospheric airship. • A theoretical model of optimal rotation angle and required area are studied. • The effects of latitude and date on output energy per day are investigated. • The advantages of the rotatable renewable energy system are studied. - Abstract: Renewable energy system is very critical for solving the energy problem of a long endurance stratospheric airship. Output performance of the traditional solar array fixed on the upper surface of the airship remains to be improved to reduce the area and weight of renewable energy system. Inspired by the solar tracking system and kirigami, a rotatable renewable energy system (mainly including solar array) is designed to improve the current status of the energy system. The advantages of the rotatable solar array are studied using a MATLAB computer program based on the theoretical model established in this paper. The improvements in output energy and required area of the solar array were compared between the traditional airship and improved one. Studies had shown that the rotatable renewable energy system made the total weight of energy system decreased by 1000 kg when the maximum design speed of the airship was greater than 22 m/s. The results demonstrate that the rotatable renewable energy system for the airship can be a good way to improve the output performance of solar array, and the conceptual design and theoretical model suggest a pathway towards solving the energy problem of a stratospheric airship.

  17. Vibration properties of a rotating piezoelectric energy harvesting device that experiences gyroscopic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Haohui; Chai, Tan; Cooley, Christopher G.

    2018-03-01

    This study investigates the vibration of a rotating piezoelectric device that consists of a proof mass that is supported by elastic structures with piezoelectric layers. Vibration of the proof mass causes deformation in the piezoelectric structures and voltages to power the electrical loads. The coupled electromechanical equations of motion are derived using Newtonian mechanics and Kirchhoff's circuit laws. The free vibration behavior is investigated for devices with identical (tuned) and nonidentical (mistuned) piezoelectric support structures and electrical loads. These devices have complex-valued, speed-dependent eigenvalues and eigenvectors as a result of gyroscopic effects caused by their constant rotation. The characteristics of the complex-valued eigensolutions are related to physical behavior of the device's vibration. The free vibration behaviors differ significantly for tuned and mistuned devices. Due to gyroscopic effects, the proof mass in the tuned device vibrates in either forward or backward decaying circular orbits in single-mode free response. This is proven analytically for all tuned devices, regardless of the device's specific parameters or operating speed. For mistuned devices, the proof mass has decaying elliptical forward and backward orbits. The eigenvalues are shown to be sensitive to changes in the electrical load resistances. Closed-form solutions for the eigenvalues are derived for open and close circuits. At high rotation speeds these devices experience critical speeds and instability.

  18. Elastic-plastic transition on rotating spherical shells in dependence of compressibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakur Pankaj

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to establish the mathematical model on the elastic-plastic transitions occurring in the rotating spherical shells based on compressibility of materials. The paper investigates the elastic-plastic stresses and angular speed required to start yielding in rotating shells for compressible and incompressible materials. The paper is based on the non-linear transition theory of elastic-plastic shells given by B.R. Seth. The elastic-plastic transition obtained is treated as an asymptotic phenomenon at critical points & the solution obtained at these points generates stresses. The solution obtained does not require the use of semi-empirical yield condition like Tresca or Von Mises or other certain laws. Results are obtained numerically and depicted graphically. It has been observed that Rotating shells made of the incompressible material are on the safer side of the design as compared to rotating shells made of compressible material. The effect of density variation has been discussed numerically on the stresses. With the effect of density variation parameter, rotating spherical shells start yielding at the internal surface with the lower values of the angular speed for incompressible/compressible materials.

  19. Think Spatial: The Representation in Mental Rotation Is Nonvisual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesefeld, Heinrich R.; Zimmer, Hubert D.

    2013-01-01

    For mental rotation, introspection, theories, and interpretations of experimental results imply a certain type of mental representation, namely, visual mental images. Characteristics of the rotated representation can be examined by measuring the influence of stimulus characteristics on rotational speed. If the amount of a given type of information…

  20. Signature of a possible relationship between the maximum CME speed index and the critical frequencies of the F1 and F2 ionospheric layers: Data analysis for a mid-latitude ionospheric station during the solar cycles 23 and 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilcik, Ali; Ozguc, Atila; Yiǧit, Erdal; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl; Donmez, Burcin

    2018-06-01

    We analyze temporal variations of two solar indices, the monthly mean Maximum CME Speed Index (MCMESI) and the International Sunspot Number (ISSN) as well as the monthly median ionospheric critical frequencies (foF1, and foF2) for the time period of 1996-2013, which covers the entire solar cycle 23 and the ascending branch of the cycle 24. We found that the maximum of foF1 and foF2 occurred respectively during the first and second maximum of the ISSN solar activity index in the solar cycle 23. We compared these data sets by using the cross-correlation and hysteresis analysis and found that both foF1 and foF2 show higher correlation with ISSN than the MCMESI during the investigated time period, but when significance levels are considered correlation coefficients between the same indices become comparable. Cross-correlation analysis showed that the agreement between these data sets (solar indices and ionospheric critical frequencies) is better pronounced during the ascending phases of solar cycles, while they display significant deviations during the descending phase. We conclude that there exists a signature of a possible relationship between MCMESI and foF1 and foF2, which means that MCMESI could be used as a possible indicator of solar and geomagnetic activity, even though other investigations are needed.

  1. Propeller rotation noise due to torque and thrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Arthur F

    1940-01-01

    Sound pressure of the first four harmonics of rotation from a full-scale two-blade propeller were measured and are compared with values calculated from theory. The comparison is made (1) for the space distribution with constant tip speed and (2) for fixed space angles with variable tip speed. A relation for rotation noise from an element of radius developed by Gutin is given showing the effect of number of blades on the rotation noise.

  2. Influence of a cylindrical column of rotating plasma on stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossato, L.C.

    1975-01-01

    The kink instability of a cylindrical column of rotating plasma, liable to a perturbation of the form f (r) exp [i(m -kz) + wt], under a condition kr<< m, was studied. It was concluded that as we increase the rotation, the interval of possible instabilities decreases. When the speed of rotation in the outlines of the plasma is equal to the speed of Alfven we will surely have stability. (author)

  3. Forced vibrations of rotating circular cylindrical shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igawa, Hirotaka; Maruyama, Yoshiyuki; Endo, Mitsuru

    1995-01-01

    Forced vibrations of rotating circular cylindrical shells are investigated. Basic equations, including the effect of initial stress due to rotation, are formulated by the finite-element method. The characteristic relations for finite elements are derived from the energy principle by considering the finite strain. The equations of motion can be separated into quasi-static and dynamic ones, i.e., the equations in the steady rotating state and those in the vibration state. Radial concentrated impulses are considered as the external dynamic force. The transient responses of circular cylindrical shells are numerically calculated under various boundary conditions and rotating speeds. (author)

  4. Learning Rotation for Kernel Correlation Filter

    KAUST Repository

    Hamdi, Abdullah

    2017-08-11

    Kernel Correlation Filters have shown a very promising scheme for visual tracking in terms of speed and accuracy on several benchmarks. However it suffers from problems that affect its performance like occlusion, rotation and scale change. This paper tries to tackle the problem of rotation by reformulating the optimization problem for learning the correlation filter. This modification (RKCF) includes learning rotation filter that utilizes circulant structure of HOG feature to guesstimate rotation from one frame to another and enhance the detection of KCF. Hence it gains boost in overall accuracy in many of OBT50 detest videos with minimal additional computation.

  5. Polygons on a rotating fluid surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansson, Thomas R.N.; Haspang, Martin P.; Jensen, Kåre H.

    2006-01-01

    We report a novel and spectacular instability of a fluid surface in a rotating system. In a flow driven by rotating the bottom plate of a partially filled, stationary cylindrical container, the shape of the free surface can spontaneously break the axial symmetry and assume the form of a polygon...... rotating rigidly with a speed different from that of the plate. With water, we have observed polygons with up to 6 corners. It has been known for many years that such flows are prone to symmetry breaking, but apparently the polygonal surface shapes have never been observed. The creation of rotating...

  6. Broadband Rotational Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pate, Brooks

    2014-06-01

    The past decade has seen several major technology advances in electronics operating at microwave frequencies making it possible to develop a new generation of spectrometers for molecular rotational spectroscopy. High-speed digital electronics, both arbitrary waveform generators and digitizers, continue on a Moore's Law-like development cycle that started around 1993 with device bandwidth doubling about every 36 months. These enabling technologies were the key to designing chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave (CP-FTMW) spectrometers which offer significant sensitivity enhancements for broadband spectrum acquisition in molecular rotational spectroscopy. A special feature of the chirped-pulse spectrometer design is that it is easily implemented at low frequency (below 8 GHz) where Balle-Flygare type spectrometers with Fabry-Perot cavity designs become technologically challenging due to the mirror size requirements. The capabilities of CP-FTMW spectrometers for studies of molecular structure will be illustrated by the collaborative research effort we have been a part of to determine the structures of water clusters - a project which has identified clusters up to the pentadecamer. A second technology trend that impacts molecular rotational spectroscopy is the development of high power, solid state sources in the mm-wave/THz regions. Results from the field of mm-wave chirped-pulse Fourier transform spectroscopy will be described with an emphasis on new problems in chemical dynamics and analytical chemistry that these methods can tackle. The third (and potentially most important) technological trend is the reduction of microwave components to chip level using monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC) - a technology driven by an enormous mass market in communications. Some recent advances in rotational spectrometer designs that incorporate low-cost components will be highlighted. The challenge to the high-resolution spectroscopy community - as posed by Frank De

  7. The effect of rotations on Michelson interferometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maraner, Paolo, E-mail: pmaraner@unibz.it

    2014-11-15

    In the contest of the special theory of relativity, it is shown that uniform rotations induce a phase shift in Michelson interferometers. The effect is second order in the ratio of the interferometer’s speed to the speed of light, further suppressed by the ratio of the interferometer’s arms length to the radius of rotation and depends on the interferometer’s position in the co-rotating frame. The magnitude of the phase shift is just beyond the sensitivity of turntable rotated optical resonators used in present tests of Lorentz invariance. It grows significantly large in Earth’s rotated kilometer-scale Fabry–Perot enhanced interferometric gravitational-wave detectors where it appears as a constant bias. The effect can provide the means of sensing center and radius of rotations. - Highlights: • Rotations induce a phase shift in Michelson interferometers. • Earth’s rotation induces a constant bias in Michelson interferometers. • Michelson interferometers can be used to sense center and radius of rotations.

  8. The effect of rotations on Michelson interferometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraner, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    In the contest of the special theory of relativity, it is shown that uniform rotations induce a phase shift in Michelson interferometers. The effect is second order in the ratio of the interferometer’s speed to the speed of light, further suppressed by the ratio of the interferometer’s arms length to the radius of rotation and depends on the interferometer’s position in the co-rotating frame. The magnitude of the phase shift is just beyond the sensitivity of turntable rotated optical resonators used in present tests of Lorentz invariance. It grows significantly large in Earth’s rotated kilometer-scale Fabry–Perot enhanced interferometric gravitational-wave detectors where it appears as a constant bias. The effect can provide the means of sensing center and radius of rotations. - Highlights: • Rotations induce a phase shift in Michelson interferometers. • Earth’s rotation induces a constant bias in Michelson interferometers. • Michelson interferometers can be used to sense center and radius of rotations

  9. Magneto-rotational instability in differentially rotating liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikhov, E.P.; Ivanov, A.A.; Lakhin, V.P.; Serebrennikov, K.S.

    2006-01-01

    We study the stability of Couette flow between two cylinders in the presence of axial magnetic field in local WKB approximation. We find the analytical expression of the critical angular velocity minimized over the wave number and the imposed magnetic field as a function of the measure of deviation of the rotation law from the Rayleigh line. The result found is in a good agreement with the previously known numerical results based on the global analysis. We perform a minimization of the critical Reynolds number over the wave number at fixed magnetic field both analytically and numerically. We show that a compromise between resistive suppression of magneto-rotational instability at weak magnetic field and the increase of the critical Reynolds number with the increase of magnetic field is possible. It takes place at moderate values of magnetic field of order 3x10 2 gauss giving the critical Reynolds number of order 4x10 4

  10. CARS measurement of vibrational and rotational temperature with high power laser and high speed visualization of total radiation behind hypervelocity shock waves of 5-7km/s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Kotaro; Bindu, Venigalla Hima; Niinomi, Shota; Ota, Masanori; Maeno, Kazuo

    2010-09-01

    Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy (CARS) method is commonly used for measuring molecular structure or condition. In the aerospace technology, this method is applies to measure the temperature in thermic fluid with relatively long time duration of millisecond or sub millisecond. On the other hand, vibrational/rotational temperatures behind hypervelocity shock wave are important for heat-shield design in phase of reentry flight. The non-equilibrium flow with radiative heating from strongly shocked air ahead of the vehicles plays an important role on the heat flux to the wall surface structure as well as convective heating. In this paper CARS method is applied to measure the vibrational/rotational temperature of N2 behind hypervelocity shock wave. The strong shock wave in front of the reentering space vehicles can be experimentally realigned by free-piston, double-diaphragm shock tube with low density test gas. However CARS measurement is difficult for our experiment. Our measurement needs very short pulse which order of nanosecond and high power laser for CARS method. It is due to our measurement object is the momentary phenomena which velocity is 7km/s. In addition the observation section is low density test gas, and there is the strong background light behind the shock wave. So we employ the CARS method with high power, order of 1J/pulse, and very short pulse (10ns) laser. By using this laser the CARS signal can be acquired even in the strong radiation area. Also we simultaneously try to use the CCD camera to obtain total radiation with CARS method.

  11. Low speed phaselock speed control system. [for brushless dc motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulcher, R. W.; Sudey, J. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A motor speed control system for an electronically commutated brushless dc motor is provided which includes a phaselock loop with bidirectional torque control for locking the frequency output of a high density encoder, responsive to actual speed conditions, to a reference frequency signal, corresponding to the desired speed. The system includes a phase comparator, which produces an output in accordance with the difference in phase between the reference and encoder frequency signals, and an integrator-digital-to-analog converter unit, which converts the comparator output into an analog error signal voltage. Compensation circuitry, including a biasing means, is provided to convert the analog error signal voltage to a bidirectional error signal voltage which is utilized by an absolute value amplifier, rotational decoder, power amplifier-commutators, and an arrangement of commutation circuitry.

  12. Structural Characteristics of Rotate Vector Reducer Free Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For RV reducer widely used in robots, vibration significantly affects its performance. A lumped parameter model is developed to investigate free vibration characteristics without and with gyroscopic effects. The dynamic model considers key factors affecting vibration such as involute and cycloid gear mesh stiffness, crankshaft bending stiffness, and bearing stiffness. For both nongyroscopic and gyroscopic systems, free vibrations are examined and compared with each other. Results reveal the specific structure of vibration modes for both systems, which results from symmetry structure of RV reducer. According to vibration of the central components, vibration modes of two systems can be classified into three types, rotational, translational, and planetary component modes. Different from nongyroscopic system, the eigenvalues with gyroscopic effects are complex-valued and speed-dependent. The eigenvalue for a range of carrier speeds is obtained by numerical simulation. Divergence and flutter instability is observed at speeds adjacent to critical speeds. Furthermore, the work studies effects of key factors, which include crankshaft eccentricity and the number of pins, on eigenvalues. Finally, experiment is performed to verify the effectiveness of the dynamic model. The research of this paper is helpful for the analysis on free vibration and dynamic design of RV reducer.

  13. Polygons on a rotating fluid surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Thomas R N; Haspang, Martin P; Jensen, Kåre H; Hersen, Pascal; Bohr, Tomas

    2006-05-05

    We report a novel and spectacular instability of a fluid surface in a rotating system. In a flow driven by rotating the bottom plate of a partially filled, stationary cylindrical container, the shape of the free surface can spontaneously break the axial symmetry and assume the form of a polygon rotating rigidly with a speed different from that of the plate. With water, we have observed polygons with up to 6 corners. It has been known for many years that such flows are prone to symmetry breaking, but apparently the polygonal surface shapes have never been observed. The creation of rotating internal waves in a similar setup was observed for much lower rotation rates, where the free surface remains essentially flat [J. M. Lopez, J. Fluid Mech. 502, 99 (2004). We speculate that the instability is caused by the strong azimuthal shear due to the stationary walls and that it is triggered by minute wobbling of the rotating plate.

  14. Full Dynamic Ball Bearing Model with Elastic Outer Ring for High Speed Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Wagner

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ball bearings are commonly used in high speed turbomachinery and have a critical influence on the rotordynamic behavior. Therefore, a simulation model of the bearing to predict the dynamic influence is essential. The presented model is a further step to develop an accurate and efficient characterization of the ball bearing’s rotor dynamic parameters such as stiffness and deflections as well as vibrational excitations induced by the discrete rolling elements. To make it applicable to high speed turbomachinery, the model considers centrifugal forces, gyroscopic effects and ball spinning. The consideration of an elastic outer ring makes the bearing model suitable for integrated lightweight bearing constructions used in modern aircraft turbines. In order to include transient rotordynamic behavior, the model is built as a full dynamic multibody simulation with time integration. To investigate the influence of the elasticity of the outer ring, a comparison with a rigid formulation for several rotational speeds and loads is presented.

  15. Current status of rotational atherectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomey, Matthew I; Kini, Annapoorna S; Sharma, Samin K

    2014-04-01

    Rotational atherectomy facilitates percutaneous coronary intervention for complex de novo lesions with severe calcification. A strategy of routine rotational atherectomy has not, however, conferred reduction in restenosis or major adverse cardiac events. As it is technically demanding, rotational atherectomy is also uncommon. At this 25-year anniversary since the introduction of rotational atherectomy, we sought to review the current state-of-the-art in rotational atherectomy technique, safety, and efficacy data in the modern era of drug-eluting stents, strategies to prevent and manage complications, including slow-flow/no-reflow and burr entrapment, and appropriate use in the context of the broader evolution in the management of stable ischemic heart disease. Fundamental elements of optimal technique include use of a single burr with burr-to-artery ratio of 0.5 to 0.6-rotational speed of 140,000 to 150,000 rpm, gradual burr advancement using a pecking motion, short ablation runs of 15 to 20 s, and avoidance of decelerations >5,000 rpm. Combined with meticulous technique, optimal antiplatelet therapy, vasodilators, flush solution, and provisional use of atropine, temporary pacing, vasopressors, and mechanical support may prevent slow-flow/no-reflow, which in contemporary series is reported in 0.0% to 2.6% of cases. On the basis of the results of recent large clinical trials, a subset of patients with complex coronary artery disease previously assigned to rotational atherectomy may be directed instead to medical therapy alone or bypass surgery. For patients with de novo severely calcified lesions for which rotational atherectomy remains appropriate, referral centers of excellence are required. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Plasma rotation under a driven radial current in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.S.

    1999-01-01

    The neoclassical behaviour of plasma rotation under a driven radial electrical current is studied in a tokamak geometry. An ambipolar radial electric field develops instantly in such a way that the driven current is balanced by a return current j p in the plasma. The j p x B torque pushes the plasma into a new rotation state both toroidally and poloidally. An anomalous toroidal viscosity is needed to avoid an extreme toroidal rotation speed. It is shown that the poloidal rotation relaxes to a new equilibrium speed, which is in general smaller than the E x B poloidal speed, and that the timescale for the relaxation of poloidal rotation is the same as that of toroidal rotation generation, which is usually much longer than the ion-ion collision time. (author)

  17. Study on hydrodynamics and mass transfer of the critically safe multistage mixer-settler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Weibo; Jiao Rongzhou; Liu Bingren

    1992-08-01

    The study on structure of critically safe multistage mixer-settler for the extraction process of high enriched uranium and plutonium has been completed. The mixer-settler has simple structure, good critical safety, flexibility in operation (O/A from 0.5 to 5) and high extraction efficiency (E x > 90%). These performances have been proved in the hydrodynamics and mass transfer experiments at a three stages cascade mixer-settler. Based on the others experience, a trapezoidal impeller combined with half-open turbine is developed which has stronger pumping and well mixing function at low rotating speed. The optimal rotating speed is 250 to 280 r/min obtained by experiments

  18. Simulating Lahars Using A Rotating Drum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neather, Adam; Lube, Gert; Jones, Jim; Cronin, Shane

    2014-05-01

    complex flow geometry and process of erosion and deposition seen in our high speed videos is more complicated than previously reported in the literature. We identify two layers only in the slowest flows (< 0.5 rad s-1), while faster ones (< 4 rad s-1) include between three and five. As the rotational velocity of the drum increases, the curvature of the free surface increases. In the central part of the drum, the primary interfaces occasionally merges into an elliptical zone rather than a linear shear boundary. Inside this zone is a complete circulation of material. These zones' size and number appears to be a function of the rotational velocity of the drum. These "Neather cells" (as we tentatively name these phenomena) can reach as large as 20 mm in thickness. The centre of mass' deflection from vertical is linearly dependent on rotational velocity, whilst the typical flow regimes as identified by Mellmann [2001] show no influence. The frequency of avalanches increases with velocity up to a critical velocity (approximately 1.1 rad s-1), after which the avalanche frequency remains constant. 1 References J Mellmann. The transverse motion of solids in rotating cylinders-forms of motion and transition behavior. Powder Technology, 118(3):251-270, 2001.

  19. Differential Rotation within the Earth's Outer Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hide, R.; Boggs, D. H.; Dickey, J. O.

    1998-01-01

    Non-steady differential rotation drive by bouyancy forces within the Earth's liquid outer core (OC) plays a key role not only in the generation of the main geomagnetic field by the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) dynamo process but also in the excitation of irregular fluctuations in the angular speed of rotation of the overlying solid mantle, as evidenced by changes in the length of the day (LOD) on decadal and longer timescales (1-8).

  20. Visual perception of axes of head rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoldussen, D. M.; Goossens, J.; van den Berg, A. V.

    2013-01-01

    Registration of ego-motion is important to accurately navigate through space. Movements of the head and eye relative to space are registered through the vestibular system and optical flow, respectively. Here, we address three questions concerning the visual registration of self-rotation. (1) Eye-in-head movements provide a link between the motion signals received by sensors in the moving eye and sensors in the moving head. How are these signals combined into an ego-rotation percept? We combined optic flow of simulated forward and rotational motion of the eye with different levels of eye-in-head rotation for a stationary head. We dissociated simulated gaze rotation and head rotation by different levels of eye-in-head pursuit. We found that perceived rotation matches simulated head- not gaze-rotation. This rejects a model for perceived self-rotation that relies on the rotation of the gaze line. Rather, eye-in-head signals serve to transform the optic flow's rotation information, that specifies rotation of the scene relative to the eye, into a rotation relative to the head. This suggests that transformed visual self-rotation signals may combine with vestibular signals. (2) Do transformed visual self-rotation signals reflect the arrangement of the semi-circular canals (SCC)? Previously, we found sub-regions within MST and V6+ that respond to the speed of the simulated head rotation. Here, we re-analyzed those Blood oxygenated level-dependent (BOLD) signals for the presence of a spatial dissociation related to the axes of visually simulated head rotation, such as have been found in sub-cortical regions of various animals. Contrary, we found a rather uniform BOLD response to simulated rotation along the three SCC axes. (3) We investigated if subject's sensitivity to the direction of the head rotation axis shows SCC axes specifcity. We found that sensitivity to head rotation is rather uniformly distributed, suggesting that in human cortex, visuo-vestibular integration is

  1. Visual perception of axes of head rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mattijs Arnoldussen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Registration of ego-motion is important to accurately navigate through space. Movements of the head and eye relative to space are registered through the vestibular system and optical flow, respectively. Here, we address three questions concerning the visual registration of self-rotation. 1. Eye-in-head movements provide a link between the motion signals received by sensors in the moving eye and sensors in the moving head. How are these signals combined into an ego-rotation percept? We combined optic flow of simulated forward and rotational motion of the eye with different levels of eye-in-head rotation for a stationary head. We dissociated simulated gaze rotation and head rotation by different levels of eye-in-head pursuit.We found that perceived rotation matches simulated head- not gaze-rotation. This rejects a model for perceived self-rotation that relies on the rotation of the gaze line. Rather, eye-in-head signals serve to transform the optic flow’s rotation information, that specifies rotation of the scene relative to the eye, into a rotation relative to the head. This suggests that transformed visual self-rotation signals may combine with vestibular signals.2. Do transformed visual self-rotation signals reflect the arrangement of the semicircular canals (SCC? Previously, we found sub-regions within MST and V6+ that respond to the speed of the simulated head rotation. Here, we re-analyzed those BOLD signals for the presence of a spatial dissociation related to the axes of visually simulated head rotation, such as have been found in sub-cortical regions of various animals. Contrary, we found a rather uniform BOLD response to simulated rotation along the three SCC axes.3. We investigated if subject’s sensitivity to the direction of the head rotation axis shows SCC axes specifcity. We found that sensitivity to head rotation is rather uniformly distributed, suggesting that in human cortex, visuo-vestibular integration is not arranged into

  2. Flicker Mitigation by Speed Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Variable-Speed Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Zhang, Yunqian; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    operation. A new method of flicker mitigation by controlling the rotational speed is proposed. It smoothes the 3p active power oscillations from wind shear and tower shadow effects of the wind turbine by varying the rotational speed of the PMSG. Simulation results show that damping the 3p active power...... oscillation by using the flicker mitigation speed controller is an effective means for flicker mitigation of variable speed wind turbines with full-scale back-to-back power converters and PMSG during continuous operation.......Grid-connected wind turbines are fluctuating power sources that may produce flicker during continuous operation. This paper presents a simulation model of a MW-level variable speed wind turbine with a full-scale back-to-back power converter and permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG...

  3. Development of NTD Hydraulic Rotation System for Kijang Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Hanok; Park, Kijung; Park, Yongsoo; Kim, Seong Hoon; Park, Cheol

    2014-01-01

    The KJRR will be mainly utilized for isotope production, NTD (Neutron Transmutation Doping) production, and related research activities. During irradiation for the NTD process, the irradiation rigs containing the silicon ingot rotate at a constant speed to ensure precisely defined homogeneity of the irradiation. The NTDHRS requires only hydraulic piping conveniently routed to the rotating devices inside the reactor pool. The resulting layout leaves the pool area clear of obstructions which might obscure vision and hinder target handling for operators. Pump banks and control valves are located remotely in a dedicated plant room allowing easy access and online maintenance. The necessities and major characteristic of NTD hydraulic rotation system are described in this study. A new NTD hydraulic rotation system are being developed to rotate the irradiation rigs at a constant speed and supply cooling flow for the irradiation rigs and reflector assembly. The configuration of the NTD hydraulic rotation device is discussed and practical methods to improve the rotational performance are suggested

  4. Development of NTD Hydraulic Rotation System for Kijang Research Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hanok; Park, Kijung; Park, Yongsoo; Kim, Seong Hoon; Park, Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The KJRR will be mainly utilized for isotope production, NTD (Neutron Transmutation Doping) production, and related research activities. During irradiation for the NTD process, the irradiation rigs containing the silicon ingot rotate at a constant speed to ensure precisely defined homogeneity of the irradiation. The NTDHRS requires only hydraulic piping conveniently routed to the rotating devices inside the reactor pool. The resulting layout leaves the pool area clear of obstructions which might obscure vision and hinder target handling for operators. Pump banks and control valves are located remotely in a dedicated plant room allowing easy access and online maintenance. The necessities and major characteristic of NTD hydraulic rotation system are described in this study. A new NTD hydraulic rotation system are being developed to rotate the irradiation rigs at a constant speed and supply cooling flow for the irradiation rigs and reflector assembly. The configuration of the NTD hydraulic rotation device is discussed and practical methods to improve the rotational performance are suggested.

  5. Triggered streak and framing rotating-mirror cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huston, A.E.; Tabrar, A.

    1975-01-01

    A pulse motor has been developed which enables a mirror to be rotated to speeds in excess of 20,000 rpm with 10 -4 s. High-speed cameras of both streak and framing type have been assembled which incorporate this mirror drive, giving streak writing speeds up to 2,000ms -1 , and framing speeds up to 500,000 frames s -1 , in each case with the capability of triggering the camera from the event under investigation. (author)

  6. Rotator cuff exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 25560729 . Read More Frozen shoulder Rotator cuff problems Rotator cuff repair Shoulder arthroscopy Shoulder CT scan Shoulder MRI scan Shoulder pain Patient Instructions Rotator cuff - self-care Shoulder surgery - discharge Using your ...

  7. Analysis of counter-rotating wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Wen Zhong; Zakkam, Vinod Arun Kumar; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the performance of a wind turbine with two counter-rotating (CRWT) rotors. The characteristics of the two counter-rotating rotors are on a 3-bladed Nordtank 500 kW rotor. The analysis has been carried out by using an Actuator Line technique implemented in the Navier......-Stokes code EllipSys3D. The analysis shows that the Annual Energy Production can be increased to about 43.5 %, as compared to a wind turbine with a single rotor. In order to determine the optimal settings of the CRWT turbine, parameters such as distance between two rotors and rotational speed have been...

  8. Rotating Polygons on a Fluid Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Tomas; Jansson, Thomas; Haspang, Martin

    spontaneously and the surface can take the shape of a rigidly rotating polygon. With water we have observed polygons with up to 6 corners. The rotation speed of the polygons does not coincide with that of the plate, but it is often mode-locked, such that the polygon rotates by one corner for each complete...... and R. Miraghaie, ”Symmetry breaking in free-surface cylinder flows”, J. Fluid Mech., 502, 99 (2004)). The polygons occur at much larger Reynolds numbers, for water around 500.000. Correspondingly, the dependence on viscosity is rather small....

  9. High speed superconducting flywheel system for energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornemann, H. J.; Urban, C.; Boegler, P.; Ritter, T.; Zaitsev, O.; Weber, K.; Rietschel, H.

    1994-12-01

    A prototype of a flywheel system with auto stable high temperature superconducting bearings was built and tested. The bearings offered good vertical and lateral stability. A metallic flywheel disk, ø 190 mm x 30 mm, was safely rotated at speeds up to 15000 rpm. The disk was driven by a 3 phase synchronous homopolar motor/generator. Maximum energy capacity was 3.8 Wh, maximum power was 1.5 KW. The dynamic behavior of the prototype was tested, characterized and evaluated with respect to axial and lateral stiffness, decay torques (bearing drag), vibrational modes and critical speeds. The bearings supports a maximum weight of 65 N at zero gap, axial and lateral stiffness at 1 mm gap were 440 N/cm and 130 N/cm, respectively. Spin down experiments were performed to investigate the energy efficiency of the system. The decay rate was found to depend upon background pressure in the vacuum chamber and upon the gap width in the bearing. At a background pressure of 5x10 -4 Torr, the coefficient of friction (drag-to-lift ratio) was measured to be 0.000009 at low speeds for 6 mm gap width in the bearing. Our results indicate that further refinement of this technology will allow operation of higly efficient superconducting flywheels in the kWh range.

  10. Control design for axial flux permanent magnet synchronous motor which operates above the nominal speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Minh Tran

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The axial flux permanent magnet synchronous motor (AFPM motor using magnet bearings instead of ball-bearings at both two shaft ends could allow rotational speed of shaft much greater than nominal speed. One of the solutions to increase motor speed higher than its nameplate speed is reducing rotor’s pole magnetic flux of rotor (Yp. This paper proposes a method to boost the speed of AFPM motor above nominal speed by adding a reversed current isd of (Yp.

  11. A Diagnostic System for Speed-Varying Motor Rotary Faults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chwan-Lu Tseng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposed an intelligent rotary fault diagnostic system for motors. A sensorless rotational speed detection method and an improved dynamic structural neural network are used. Moreover, to increase the convergence speed of training, a terminal attractor method and a hybrid discriminant analysis are also adopted. The proposed method can be employed to detect the rotary frequencies of motors with varying speeds and can enhance the discrimination of motor faults. To conduct the experiments, this study used wireless sensor nodes to transmit vibration data and employed MATLAB to write codes for functional modules, including the signal processing, sensorless rotational speed estimation, neural network, and stochastic process control chart. Additionally, Visual Basic software was used to create an integrated human-machine interface. The experimental results regarding the test of equipment faults indicated that the proposed novel diagnostic system can effectively estimate rotational speeds and provide superior ability of motor fault discrimination with fast training convergence.

  12. Influence of defects on the vibrations of rotating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarus, A.

    2008-01-01

    For high rotation speeds, the imperfections (cracks, anisotropy...) of rotating machinery of the energy sector lead to a specific vibratory behavior which can damage the machine. The simulation of rotating machinery are usually realized for systems without defect. The aim of this thesis is to understand the influence of defects and to propose an algorithm to predict the dynamical behavior. In a first part the author studies the simplified rotating oscillators to propose a numerical method in order to taking into account the dynamic of these systems. This method is then applied to real rotating machinery with the Cast3m software. The numerical results are validated with experiments. (A.L.B.)

  13. Rotated balance in humans due to repetitive rotational movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakynthinaki, M. S.; Madera Milla, J.; López Diaz De Durana, A.; Cordente Martínez, C. A.; Rodríguez Romo, G.; Sillero Quintana, M.; Sampedro Molinuevo, J.

    2010-03-01

    We show how asymmetries in the movement patterns during the process of regaining balance after perturbation from quiet stance can be modeled by a set of coupled vector fields for the derivative with respect to time of the angles between the resultant ground reaction forces and the vertical in the anteroposterior and mediolateral directions. In our model, which is an adaption of the model of Stirling and Zakynthinaki (2004), the critical curve, defining the set of maximum angles one can lean to and still correct to regain balance, can be rotated and skewed so as to model the effects of a repetitive training of a rotational movement pattern. For the purposes of our study a rotation and a skew matrix is applied to the critical curve of the model. We present here a linear stability analysis of the modified model, as well as a fit of the model to experimental data of two characteristic "asymmetric" elite athletes and to a "symmetric" elite athlete for comparison. The new adapted model has many uses not just in sport but also in rehabilitation, as many work place injuries are caused by excessive repetition of unaligned and rotational movement patterns.

  14. Maximum speed of dewetting on a fiber

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chan, Tak Shing; Gueudre, Thomas; Snoeijer, Jacobus Hendrikus

    2011-01-01

    A solid object can be coated by a nonwetting liquid since a receding contact line cannot exceed a critical speed. We theoretically investigate this forced wetting transition for axisymmetric menisci on fibers of varying radii. First, we use a matched asymptotic expansion and derive the maximum speed

  15. Generation speed in Raven's Progressive Matrices Test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verguts, T.; Boeck, P. De; Maris, E.G.G.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the role of response fluency on a well-known intelligence test, Raven's (1962) Advanced Progressive Matrices (APM) test. Critical in solving this test is finding rules that govern the items. Response fluency is conceptualized as generation speed or the speed at which a

  16. Speeds in school zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    School speed zones are frequently requested traffic controls for school areas, based on the common belief : that if the transportation agency would only install a reduced speed limit, then drivers would no longer : speed through the area. This resear...

  17. Rotational motion in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohr, A.

    1977-01-01

    History is surveyed of the development of the theory of rotational states in nuclei. The situation in the 40's when ideas formed of the collective states of a nucleus is evoked. The general rotation theory and the relation between the single-particle and rotational motion are briefly discussed. Future prospects of the rotation theory development are indicated. (I.W.)

  18. Rotational motion in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohr, A.

    1976-01-01

    Nuclear structure theories are reviewed concerned with nuclei rotational motion. The development of the deformed nucleus model facilitated a discovery of rotational spectra of nuclei. Comprehensive verification of the rotational scheme and a successful classification of corresponding spectra stimulated investigations of the rotational movement dynamics. Values of nuclear moments of inertia proved to fall between two marginal values corresponding to rotation of a solid and hydrodynamic pattern of an unrotating flow, respectively. The discovery of governing role of the deformation and a degree of a symmetry violence for determining rotational degrees of freedon is pointed out to pave the way for generalization of the rotational spectra

  19. Intensity modulated operating mode of the rotating gamma system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Bishwambhar; Gulyas, Laszlo; Medlin, Donald; Koroknai, Tibor; Takacs, David; Filep, Gyorgy; Panko, Peter; Godo, Bence; Hollo, Tamas; Zheng, Xiao Ran; Fedorcsak, Imre; Dobai, Jozsef; Bognar, Laszlo; Takacs, Endre

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this work was to explore two novel operation modalities of the rotating gamma systems (RGS) that could expand its clinical application to lesions in close proximity to critical organs at risk (OAR). The approach taken in this study consists of two components. First, a Geant4-based Monte Carlo (MC) simulation toolkit is used to model the dosimetric properties of the RGS Vertex 360™ for the normal, intensity modulated radiosurgery (IMRS), and speed modulated radiosurgery (SMRS) operation modalities. Second, the RGS Vertex 360™ at the Rotating Gamma Institute in Debrecen, Hungary is used to collect experimental data for the normal and IMRS operation modes. An ion chamber is used to record measurements of the absolute dose. The dose profiles are measured using Gafchromic EBT3 films positioned within a spherical water equivalent phantom. A strong dosimetric agreement between the measured and simulated dose profiles and penumbra was found for both the normal and IMRS operation modes for all collimator sizes (4, 8, 14, and 18 mm diameter). The simulated falloff and maximum dose regions agree better with the experimental results for the 4 and 8 mm diameter collimators. Although the falloff regions align well in the 14 and 18 mm collimators, the maximum dose regions have a larger difference. For the IMRS operation mode, the simulated and experimental dose distributions are ellipsoidal, where the short axis aligns with the blocked angles. Similarly, the simulated dose distributions for the SMRS operation mode also adopt an ellipsoidal shape, where the short axis aligns with the angles where the orbital speed is highest. For both modalities, the dose distribution is highly constrained with a sharper penumbra along the short axes. Dose modulation of the RGS can be achieved with the IMRS and SMRS modes. By providing a highly constrained dose distribution with a sharp penumbra, both modes could be clinically applicable for the treatment of lesions in close

  20. Stability analysis of internally damped rotating composite shafts using a finite element formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Arab, Safa; Rodrigues, José Dias; Bouaziz, Slim; Haddar, Mohamed

    2018-04-01

    This paper deals with the stability analysis of internally damped rotating composite shafts. An Euler-Bernoulli shaft finite element formulation based on Equivalent Single Layer Theory (ESLT), including the hysteretic internal damping of composite material and transverse shear effects, is introduced and then used to evaluate the influence of various parameters: stacking sequences, fiber orientations and bearing properties on natural frequencies, critical speeds, and instability thresholds. The obtained results are compared with those available in the literature using different theories. The agreement in the obtained results show that the developed Euler-Bernoulli finite element based on ESLT including hysteretic internal damping and shear transverse effects can be effectively used for the stability analysis of internally damped rotating composite shafts. Furthermore, the results revealed that rotor stability is sensitive to the laminate parameters and to the properties of the bearings.

  1. Copper electrodeposition in a through-silicon via evaluated by rotating disc electrode techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, Tzu-Hsuan; Huang, Jui-Hsiung

    2010-01-01

    Via filling is a critical process for metallization of a through-silicon via (TSV) in a 3D MEMS device. This study uses a rotating disc electrode (RDE) at 1000 rpm, 100 rpm and 10 rpm to simulate the mass-transfer environment of metallization on the wafer surface, at the bottom of shallow vias and the deep vias, respectively. RDE techniques display the difference of suppression action among three rotation speeds clearly. The calculated filling power is higher over a wide surface current density using the plating bath of 50 g L −1 Cu 2+ than that of 25 or 75 g L −1 Cu 2+ . TSV filling in a wafer-segment scale, with 15 µm via diameter and 150 µm via depth, verifies the performance predicted by the RDE techniques

  2. Dynamic Speed Adaptation for Path Tracking Based on Curvature Information and Speed Limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámez Serna, Citlalli; Ruichek, Yassine

    2017-06-14

    A critical concern of autonomous vehicles is safety. Different approaches have tried to enhance driving safety to reduce the number of fatal crashes and severe injuries. As an example, Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) systems warn the driver when the vehicle exceeds the recommended speed limit. However, these systems only take into account fixed speed limits without considering factors like road geometry. In this paper, we consider road curvature with speed limits to automatically adjust vehicle's speed with the ideal one through our proposed Dynamic Speed Adaptation (DSA) method. Furthermore, 'curve analysis extraction' and 'speed limits database creation' are also part of our contribution. An algorithm that analyzes GPS information off-line identifies high curvature segments and estimates the speed for each curve. The speed limit database contains information about the different speed limit zones for each traveled path. Our DSA senses speed limits and curves of the road using GPS information and ensures smooth speed transitions between current and ideal speeds. Through experimental simulations with different control algorithms on real and simulated datasets, we prove that our method is able to significantly reduce lateral errors on sharp curves, to respect speed limits and consequently increase safety and comfort for the passenger.

  3. Measures for speed management.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    Measures for speed management are essential for limiting the negative effects of driving too fast and at inappropriate speeds. To begin with, safe and credible speed limits need to be determined. Dynamic and variable speed limits that take into account the current circumstances, such as weather

  4. Relationship of frontal plane rotation of first metatarsal to proximal articular set angle and hallux alignment in patients undergoing tarsometatarsal arthrodesis for hallux abducto valgus: a case series and critical review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayton, Paul; Feilmeier, Mindi; Kauwe, Merrell; Hirschi, Jordan

    2013-01-01

    Rotation of the first metatarsal, as a component of hallux abducto valgus, is rarely discussed and is not addressed as a component of most hallux valgus corrective procedures. We believe frontal plane rotation of the first metatarsal to be an integral component of hallux abducto valgus deformity (the "third plane of deformity") and believe de-rotation is necessary for complete deformity correction. We observed the change in angular measurements commonly used in the evaluation of hallux valgus deformity in patients who underwent a modified lapidus procedure. We measured the intermetatarsal angle, hallux abductus angle, proximal articular set angle, and tibial sesamoid position on weightbearing radiographs of 25 feet in 24 patients who had undergone tarsal metatarsal corrective arthrodesis and lateral capsular release. Specific attention was given to reduction of the frontal plane rotation of the first metatarsal during correction. Our results showed a change in the angular measurements observed by 4 investigators as follows. The mean change in the intermetatarsal angle was 10.1° (p hallux abductus angle was 17.8° (p valgus, or everted position of the first metatarsal, was noted as a component of the hallux abducto valgus deformity in our patient population and was corrected by varus rotation or inversion of the metatarsal. We also reviewed the current literature related to anatomic changes in the first ray in the patient with hallux valgus deformity and reviewed our hypothesis regarding the reduction in the proximal articular set angle, which we believe to be related to frontal plane rotation of the first metatarsal, resulting in a radiographic artifact. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Rotationally invariant correlation filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schils, G.F.; Sweeney, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    A method is presented for analyzing and designing optical correlation filters that have tailored rotational invariance properties. The concept of a correlation of an image with a rotation of itself is introduced. A unified theory of rotation-invariant filtering is then formulated. The unified approach describes matched filters (with no rotation invariance) and circular-harmonic filters (with full rotation invariance) as special cases. The continuum of intermediate cases is described in terms of a cyclic convolution operation over angle. The angular filtering approach allows an exact choice for the continuous trade-off between loss of the correlation energy (or specificity regarding the image) and the amount of rotational invariance desired

  6. Characterizing occipital condyle loads under high-speed head rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintar, Frank A; Yoganandan, Narayan; Baisden, Jamie

    2005-11-01

    Because of the need to evaluate anthropomorphic test device (ATD) biofidelity under high-head angular accelerations, the purpose of the present investigation was to develop appropriate instrumentation for intact post mortem human subject (PMHS) testing, validate the instrumentation, and obtain information to characterize the response of the head-neck complex under this loading scenario. A series of rigid-arm pendulum, inertially loaded ATD tests was conducted. Head and neck ATD hydraulic piston chin pull tests were conducted. Subsequently, a series of PMHS tests was conducted to derive the response of the human head-neck under high-rate chin loading. Finally, Hybrid III and THOR-NT ATD head-neck systems were evaluated under the same scenario as the PMHS. A parametric analysis for center of gravity (CG) location and accelerometer orientation determined that even small errors (+/- 3 mm or 2 degrees), produced errors in the force and moment calculations by as much as 17 %. If the moment of inertia (MOI) term was varied by 5 %, resulting moment calculations were affected by as much as 8 %. If the 5 % error in MOI was used to compute occipital condyle moments, and results compared to upper load cell derived moments, peaks differed by as much as 24 %. The head CG and mass MOI should be directly measured for each preparation to obtain accurate results. The injury run on each specimen resulted in predominantly C1-C2 separations or partial separations. The 50(th) percentile probability of AIS=2+ neck injury using tensile force was about 2400 N; for AIS=3+ neck injury the 50(th) percentile risk was about 3180 N. When inserting extension moment as the criteria, the 50(th) percentile probability of an AIS=2+ injury was 51 Nm. The AIS=3+ extension moment at the 50(th) percentile probability was 75 Nm. The new THOR-NT ATD head-neck produced more biofidelic responses with an alternate head-neck junction design compared to the Hybrid III ATD.

  7. Rotor-dynamic design aspects for a variable frequency drive based high speed cryogenic centrifugal pump in fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Jotirmoy; Vaghela, Hitensinh; Bhattacharya, Ritendra; Patel, Pratik; Shukla, Vinit; Shah, Nitin; Sarkar, Biswanath

    2015-01-01

    Superconducting magnets of large size are inevitable for fusion devices due to high magnetic field requirements. Forced flow cooling of the superconducting magnets with high mass flowrate of the order ∼3 kg/s is required to keep superconducting magnets within its safe operational boundaries during various plasma scenarios. This important requirement can be efficiently fulfilled by employing high capacity and high efficiency cryogenic centrifugal pumps. The efficiency > 70% will ensure overall lower heat load to the cryoplant. Thermo-hydraulic design of cryogenic centrifugal pump revealed that to achieve the operational regime with high efficiency, the speed should be ∼ 10,000 revolutions per minute. In this regard, the rotor-dynamic design aspect is quite critical from the operational stability point of view. The rotor shaft design of the cryogenic pump is primarily an outcome of optimization between thermal heat-in leak at cryogenic temperature level from ambient, cryogenic fluid impedance and designed rotation speed of the impeller wheel. The paper describes the basic design related to critical speed of the rotor shaft, rotor whirl and system instability prediction to explore the ideal operational range of the pump from the system stability point of view. In the rotor-dynamic analysis, the paper also describes the Campbell plots to ensure that the pump is not disturbed by any of the critical speeds, especially while operating near the nominal and enhanced operating modes. (author)

  8. Physics of rotation: problems and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeder, Andre; Meynet, Georges

    2015-01-01

    We examine some debated points in current discussions about rotating stars: the shape, the gravity darkening, the critical velocities, the mass loss rates, the hydrodynamical instabilities, the internal mixing and N-enrichments. The study of rotational mixing requires high quality data and careful analysis. From recent studies where such conditions are fulfilled, rotational mixing is well confirmed. Magnetic coupling with stellar winds may produce an apparent contradiction, i.e. stars with a low rotation and a high N-enrichment. We point out that it rather confirms the large role of shears in differentially rotating stars for the transport processes. New models of interacting binaries also show how shears and mixing may be enhanced in close binaries which are either spun up or down by tidal interactions.

  9. Control system for several rotating mirror camera synchronization operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ningwen; Wu, Yunfeng; Tan, Xianxiang; Lai, Guoji

    1997-05-01

    This paper introduces a single chip microcomputer control system for synchronization operation of several rotating mirror high-speed cameras. The system consists of four parts: the microcomputer control unit (including the synchronization part and precise measurement part and the time delay part), the shutter control unit, the motor driving unit and the high voltage pulse generator unit. The control system has been used to control the synchronization working process of the GSI cameras (driven by a motor) and FJZ-250 rotating mirror cameras (driven by a gas driven turbine). We have obtained the films of the same objective from different directions in different speed or in same speed.

  10. Parameterization of rotational spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Chunmei; Liu Tong

    1992-01-01

    The rotational spectra of the strongly deformed nuclei with low rotational frequencies and weak band mixture are analyzed. The strongly deformed nuclei are commonly encountered in the rare-earth region (e. g., 150 220). A lot of rotational band knowledge are presented

  11. Rotating reactors : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, F.; Schaaf, van der J.; Nijhuis, T.A.; Schouten, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    This review-perspective paper describes the current state-of-the-art in the field of rotating reactors. The paper has a focus on rotating reactor technology with applications at lab scale, pilot scale and industrial scale. Rotating reactors are classified and discussed according to their geometry:

  12. Critical behavior of collapsing surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Kasper; Sourdis, C.

    2009-01-01

    We consider the mean curvature evolution of rotationally symmetric surfaces. Using numerical methods, we detect critical behavior at the threshold of singularity formation resembling that of gravitational collapse. In particular, the mean curvature simulation of a one-parameter family of initial...... data reveals the existence of a critical initial surface that develops a degenerate neckpinch. The limiting flow of the type II singularity is accurately modeled by the rotationally symmetric translating soliton....

  13. Physics of Rotating and Expanding Black Hole Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seshavatharam U. V. S.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Throughout its journey universe follows strong gravity. By unifying general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics a simple derivation is given for rotating black hole's temperature. It is shown that when the rotation speed approaches light speed temperature approaches Hawking's black hole temperature. Applying this idea to the cosmic black hole it is noticed that there is "no cosmic temperature" if there is "no cosmic rotation". Starting from the Planck scale it is assumed that universe is a rotating and expanding black hole. Another key assumption is that at any time cosmic black hole rotates with light speed. For this cosmic sphere as a whole while in light speed rotation "rate of decrease" in temperature or "rate of increase" in cosmic red shift is a measure of "rate of cosmic expansion". Since 1992, measured CMBR data indicates that, present CMB is same in all directions equal to $2.726^circ$ K, smooth to 1 part in 100,000 and there is no continuous decrease! This directly indicates that, at present rate of decrease in temperature is practically zero and rate of expansion is practically zero. Universe is isotropic and hence static and is rotating as a rigid sphere with light speed. At present galaxies are revolving with speeds proportional to their distances from the cosmic axis of rotation. If present CMBR temperature is $2.726^circ$ K, present value of obtained angular velocity is $2.17 imes 10^{-18}$ rad/sec $cong$ 67 Km/sec$imes$Mpc. Present cosmic mass density and cosmic time are fitted with a $ln (volume ratio$ parameter. Finally it can be suggested that dark matter and dark energy are ad-hoc and misleading concepts.

  14. The analysis on centrifugal compressor rotating stall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Hwan; Kim, Kwang Ho; Shin, You Hwan

    2003-01-01

    In the present study, the performance characteristics and the number of stall cell during rotating stall of a centrifugal air compressor were experimentally investigated. Rotating stall in the vaneless diffuser were investigated by measuring unsteady pressure fluctuations at several different diffuser radius using a high frequency pressure transducer. The number of stall cell and their rotational speeds are distinctive features of the rotating stall phenomenon. The present study is mainly forced on the analysis for the stall cell number and its propagation speed unstable operating region of the compressor. The interpretation method of visualization is based on the pressure distribution in the circumference pressure fields while plotting the pressure and its harmonics variations in time in polar coordinates. To obtain the visualize the existence rotating stall, auto-correlation function and the frequency spectra of the pressure fluctuations were measured at r/r2=1.52. When the flow coefficient is lower than 0.150, the static pressure at impeller inlet is higher than that at inlet duct of the compressor. And the flow coefficient is lower than 0.086, several stall cell groups of discrete frequencies are observed

  15. Critical-point nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that a change of nuclear shape may be described in terms of a phase transition and that specific nuclei may lie close to the critical point of the transition. Analytical descriptions of such critical-point nuclei have been introduced recently and they are described briefly. The results of extensive searches for possible examples of critical-point behavior are presented. Alternative pictures, such as describing bands in the candidate nuclei using simple ΔK = 0 and ΔK = 2 rotational-coupling models, are discussed, and the limitations of the different approaches highlighted. A possible critical-point description of the transition from a vibrational to rotational pairing phase is suggested

  16. Pool boiling from rotating and stationary spheres in liquid nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuan, Winston M.; Schwartz, Sidney H.

    1988-01-01

    Results are presented for a preliminary experiment involving saturated pool boiling at 1 atm from rotating 2 and 3 in. diameter spheres which were immersed in liquid nitrogen (LN2). Additional results are presented for a stationary, 2 inch diameter sphere, quenched in LN2, which were obtained utilizing a more versatile and complete experimental apparatus that will eventually be used for additional rotating sphere experiments. The speed for the rotational tests was varied from 0 to 10,000 rpm. The stationary experiments parametrically varied pressure and subcooling levels from 0 to 600 psig and from 0 to 50 F, respectively. During the rotational tests, a high speed photographic analysis was undertaken to measure the thickness of the vapor film surrounding the sphere. The average Nusselt number over the cooling period was plotted against the rotational Reynolds number. Stationary sphere results included local boiling heat transfer coefficients at different latitudinal locations, for various pressure and subcooling levels.

  17. Rotational loss of a ring-shaped flywheel supported by high Tc superconducting levitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teshima, Hidekazu; Tawara, Taichi; Shimada, Ryuichi.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental results for the rotational loss of a ring-shaped flywheel supported by high T c superconducting levitation. Superconducting levitation is appropriate for rotating a ring-shaped flywheel which has neither shaft nor hub because it is a non-contact and automatically stable levitation without any control systems. The rotational loss has been investigated using a small-scaled experimental machine consisting of 16 bulk superconductors 46 mm in diameter and a ring-shaped flywheel about 300 mm in diameter. The rotational loss decreased as the levitation gap height increased. In low-speed rotational regions, the rotational loss was in proportion to the rotation speed and depended more on the levitation gap. In high-speed rotational regions, the rotational loss was in proportion to the third power of the rotation speed and depended less on the levitation gap. The cubic rotational loss in He was reduced to one-fifth of that in air. The magnetic field pinned in bulk superconductors induces a loss in the materials composing the ring-shaped flywheel. The rotational loss of a ring-shaped flywheel supported by superconducting levitation can be reduced by improving the uniformity of the magnetic fields along the ring, enlargement of the bulk superconductor(s), and densely arranging the bulk superconductors. (author)

  18. High-resolution LES of the rotating stall in a reduced scale model pump-turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacot, Olivier; Avellan, François; Kato, Chisachi

    2014-01-01

    Extending the operating range of modern pump-turbines becomes increasingly important in the course of the integration of renewable energy sources in the existing power grid. However, at partial load condition in pumping mode, the occurrence of rotating stall is critical to the operational safety of the machine and on the grid stability. The understanding of the mechanisms behind this flow phenomenon yet remains vague and incomplete. Past numerical simulations using a RANS approach often led to inconclusive results concerning the physical background. For the first time, the rotating stall is investigated by performing a large scale LES calculation on the HYDRODYNA pump-turbine scale model featuring approximately 100 million elements. The computations were performed on the PRIMEHPC FX10 of the University of Tokyo using the overset Finite Element open source code FrontFlow/blue with the dynamic Smagorinsky turbulence model and the no-slip wall condition. The internal flow computed is the one when operating the pump-turbine at 76% of the best efficiency point in pumping mode, as previous experimental research showed the presence of four rotating cells. The rotating stall phenomenon is accurately reproduced for a reduced Reynolds number using the LES approach with acceptable computing resources. The results show an excellent agreement with available experimental data from the reduced scale model testing at the EPFL Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines. The number of stall cells as well as the propagation speed corroborates the experiment

  19. Effects of fixture rotation on coating uniformity for high-performance optical filter fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Binyamin; George, Jason; Singhal, Riju

    2018-04-01

    Coating uniformity is critical in fabricating high-performance optical filters by various vacuum deposition methods. Simple and planetary rotation systems with shadow masks are used to achieve the required uniformity [J. B. Oliver and D. Talbot, Appl. Optics 45, 13, 3097 (2006); O. Lyngnes, K. Kraus, A. Ode and T. Erguder, in `Method for Designing Coating Thickness Uniformity Shadow Masks for Deposition Systems with a Planetary Fixture', 2014 Technical Conference Proceedings, Optical Coatings, August 13, 2014, DOI: 10.14332/svc14.proc.1817.]. In this work, we discuss the effect of rotation pattern and speed on thickness uniformity in an ion beam sputter deposition system. Numerical modeling is used to determine statistical distribution of random thickness errors in coating layers. The relationship between thickness tolerance and production yield are simulated theoretically and demonstrated experimentally. Production yields for different optical filters produced in an ion beam deposition system with planetary rotation are presented. Single-wavelength and broadband optical monitoring systems were used for endpoint monitoring during filter deposition. Limitations of thickness tolerances that can be achieved in systems with planetary rotation are shown. Paths for improving production yield in an ion beam deposition system are described.

  20. High-resolution LES of the rotating stall in a reduced scale model pump-turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacot, Olivier; Kato, Chisachi; Avellan, François

    2014-03-01

    Extending the operating range of modern pump-turbines becomes increasingly important in the course of the integration of renewable energy sources in the existing power grid. However, at partial load condition in pumping mode, the occurrence of rotating stall is critical to the operational safety of the machine and on the grid stability. The understanding of the mechanisms behind this flow phenomenon yet remains vague and incomplete. Past numerical simulations using a RANS approach often led to inconclusive results concerning the physical background. For the first time, the rotating stall is investigated by performing a large scale LES calculation on the HYDRODYNA pump-turbine scale model featuring approximately 100 million elements. The computations were performed on the PRIMEHPC FX10 of the University of Tokyo using the overset Finite Element open source code FrontFlow/blue with the dynamic Smagorinsky turbulence model and the no-slip wall condition. The internal flow computed is the one when operating the pump-turbine at 76% of the best efficiency point in pumping mode, as previous experimental research showed the presence of four rotating cells. The rotating stall phenomenon is accurately reproduced for a reduced Reynolds number using the LES approach with acceptable computing resources. The results show an excellent agreement with available experimental data from the reduced scale model testing at the EPFL Laboratory for Hydraulic Machines. The number of stall cells as well as the propagation speed corroborates the experiment.

  1. Quantization in rotating co-ordinates revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, F.; Qadir, A.

    1982-07-01

    Recent work on quantization in rotating co-ordinates showed that no radiation would be seen by an observer rotating with a constant angular speed. This work used a Galilean-type co-ordinate transformation. We show that the same result holds for a Lorentz-type co-ordinate system, in spite of the fact that the metric has a co-ordinate singularity at rΩ = 1. Further, we are able to define positive and negative energy modes for a particular case of a non-static, non-stationary metric. (author)

  2. Rotating Stars in Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stergioulas Nikolaos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotating relativistic stars have been studied extensively in recent years, both theoretically and observationally, because of the information they might yield about the equation of state of matter at extremely high densities and because they are considered to be promising sources of gravitational waves. The latest theoretical understanding of rotating stars in relativity is reviewed in this updated article. The sections on the equilibrium properties and on the nonaxisymmetric instabilities in f-modes and r-modes have been updated and several new sections have been added on analytic solutions for the exterior spacetime, rotating stars in LMXBs, rotating strange stars, and on rotating stars in numerical relativity.

  3. Speed management program plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Changing public attitudes regarding speeding and speed management will require a comprehensive and concerted effort, involving a wide variety of strategies. This plan identifies six primary focus areas: : A. Data and Data-Driven Approaches, : B. Rese...

  4. Small portable speed calculator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, J. L.; Billions, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    Calculator is adapted stopwatch calibrated for fast accurate measurement of speeds. Single assembled unit is rugged, self-contained, and relatively inexpensive to manufacture. Potential market includes automobile-speed enforcement, railroads, and field-test facilities.

  5. Electric vehicle speed control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krueger, W.R.; Mc Auliffe, G.N.; Schlageter, G.A.

    1987-06-23

    This patent describes an electric vehicle driven by a DC motor. The vehicle has a field winding, an electric resistance element in circuit with the field winding, a switch in the circuit operative when closed to place. The element in parallel with the field winding weakens the field and increases potential motor speed. Also are relay means for operating the switch, means to determine motor speed, computer means for determining whether the motor speed is increasing or decreasing, and means for operating the relay means to close the switch at a first speed. If the motor speed is increased, it actuates the switch at a second speed lower than the first speed but only if switch has been closed previously and motor speed is decreasing.

  6. On Averaging Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramkow, Claus

    1999-01-01

    In this article two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very offten the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belo...... approximations to the Riemannian metric, and that the subsequent corrections are inherient in the least squares estimation. Keywords: averaging rotations, Riemannian metric, matrix, quaternion......In this article two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very offten the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong...

  7. Vortex formation in a rotating two-component Fermi gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warringa, Harmen J.; Sedrakian, Armen [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt am Main, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    A two-component Fermi gas with attractive s-wave interactions forms a superfluid at low temperatures. When this gas is confined in a rotating trap, fermions can unpair at the edges of the gas and vortices can arise beyond certain critical rotation frequencies. We compute these critical rotation frequencies and construct the phase diagram in the plane of scattering length and rotation frequency for different total numbers of particles. We work at zero temperature and consider a cylindrically symmetric harmonic trapping potential. The calculations are performed in the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approximation which implies that our results are quantitatively reliable for weak interactions.

  8. Rotary Speed Sensor for Antilocking Brakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berdahl, C. M.

    1986-01-01

    Sensor based on fluidic principles produces negative pressure approximately proportional to rotational speed. Sensor developed as part of antilocking brake system for motorcycles. Uses inlet pressure rather than outlet pressure as braking-control signal, eliminating pressure pulsations caused by pump vanes and ensuring low-noise signal. Sensor is centrifugal air pump turned by one of motorcycle wheels. Air enters pump through orifice plates, and suction taken off through port in pump inlet plenum.

  9. Rotator cuff pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigeau, I.; Doursounian, L.; Maigne, J.Y.; Guinet, C.; Meary, E.; Buy, J.N.; Touzard, R.C.; Vadrot, D.; Laval-Jeantet, M.

    1989-01-01

    Fifteen volunteers and 73 patients with suspected rotator cuff lesions were examined at 0.5 T with T2 * -weighted gradient-echo (GE) MR imaging (700/33/30 degrees) (oblique coronal and sagittal 3 mm thick, surface coil). Results were compared with those of arthrography (all cases), T1-weighted GE imaging (400/20/90 degrees) (35 cases), surgery (28 cases), and T2-weighted spin-echo (SE) images (2,000/60-120) (17 cases). GE images demonstrated all tears (complete, 32, partial, 12) and was superior to arthrography in determining site and size and in displaying muscles (critical point in surgical planning). In 20 cases without tears on arthrography, GE imaging demonstrated five cases of tendinitis, five cases of bursitis, and six probable intratendinous or superficial partial tears. T2 * -weighted GE imaging was superior to T2-weighted SE and T1-weighted GE imaging, with higher fluid contrast and a low fat signal. Therefore, it might replace arthrography in the diagnosis and surgical approach to this pathology

  10. Flicker Mitigation by Speed Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator Variable-Speed Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanting Hu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Grid-connected wind turbines are fluctuating power sources that may produce flicker during continuous operation. This paper presents a simulation model of a MW-level variable speed wind turbine with a full-scale back-to-back power converter and permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG developed in the simulation tool of PSCAD/EMTDC. Flicker emission of this system is investigated. The 3p (three times per revolution power oscillation due to wind shear and tower shadow effects is the significant part in the flicker emission of variable speed wind turbines with PMSG during continuous operation. A new method of flicker mitigation by controlling the rotational speed is proposed. It smoothes the 3p active power oscillations from wind shear and tower shadow effects of the wind turbine by varying the rotational speed of the PMSG. Simulation results show that damping the 3p active power oscillation by using the flicker mitigation speed controller is an effective means for flicker mitigation of variable speed wind turbines with full-scale back-to-back power converters and PMSG during continuous operation.

  11. Design of Stirrer Impeller with Variable Operational Speed for a Food Waste Homogenizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idris A. Kayode

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A conceptualized impeller called KIA is designed for impact agitation of food waste in a homogenizer. A comparative analysis of the performance of KIA is made with three conventional impeller types, Rushton, Anchor, and Pitched Blade. Solid–liquid mixing of a moisture-rich food waste is simulated under various operational speeds, in order to compare the dispersions and thermal distributions at homogenous slurry conditions. Using SolidWorks, the design of the impellers employs an Application Programming Interface (API which acts as the canvas for creating a graphical user interface (GUI for automation of its assembly. A parametric analysis of the homogenizer, at varying operational speeds, enables the estimation of the critical speed of the mixing shaft diameter and the deflection under numerous mixing conditions and impeller configurations. The numerical simulation of the moisture-rich food waste (approximated as a Newtonian carrot–orange soup is performed with ANSYS CFX v.15.0. The velocity and temperature field distribution of the homogenizer for various impeller rotational speeds are analyzed. It is anticipated that the developed model will help in the selection of a suitable impeller for efficient mixing of food waste in the homogenizer.

  12. Transverse mixing of ellipsoidal particles in a rotating drum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Siyuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotating drums are widely used in industry for mixing, milling, coating and drying processes. In the past decades, mixing of granular materials in rotating drums has been extensively investigated, but most of the studies are based on spherical particles. Particle shape has an influence on the flow behaviour and thus mixing behaviour, though the shape effect has as-yet received limited study. In this work, discrete element method (DEM is employed to study the transverse mixing of ellipsoidal particles in a rotating drum. The effects of aspect ratio and rotating speed on mixing quality and mixing rate are investigated. The results show that mixing index increases exponentially with time for both spheres and ellipsoids. Particles with various aspect ratios are able to reach well-mixed states after sufficient revolutions in the rolling or cascading regime. Ellipsoids show higher mixing rate when rotational speed is set between 25 and 40 rpm. The relationship between mixing rate and aspect ratio of ellipsoids is established, demonstrating that, particles with aspect ratios of 0.5 and 2.0 achieve the highest mixing rates. Increasing rotating speed from 15 rpm to 40 rpm does not necessarily increase the mixing speed of spheres, while monotonous increase is observed for ellipsoids.

  13. Physics of Rotating and Expanding Black Hole Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seshavatharam U. V. S.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Throughout its journey universe follows strong gravity. By unifying general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics a simple derivation is given for rotating black hole’s temperature. It is shown that when the rotation speed approaches light speed temperature approaches Hawking’s black hole temperature. Applying this idea to the cosmic black hole it is noticed that there is “no cosmic temperature” if there is “no cosmic rotation”. Starting from the Planck scale it is assumed that- universe is a rotating and expanding black hole. Another key assumption is that at any time cosmic black hole rotates with light speed. For this cosmic sphere as a whole while in light speed rotation “rate of decrease” in temperature or “rate of increase” in cosmic red shift is a measure of “rate of cosmic expansion”. Since 1992, measured CMBR data indicates that, present CMB is same in all directions equal to 2 : 726 K ; smooth to 1 part in 100,000 and there is no continuous decrease! This directly indicates that, at present rate of decrease in temperature is practically zero and rate of expansion is practically zero. Universe is isotropic and hence static and is rotating as a rigid sphere with light speed. At present galaxies are revolving with speeds proportional to their distances from the cosmic axis of rotation. If present CMBR temperature is 2 : 726 K, present value of obtained angular velocity is 2 : 17 10 Present cosmic mass density and cosmic time are fitted with a ln ( volume ratio parameter. Finally it can be suggested that dark matter and dark energy are ad-hoc and misleading concepts.

  14. Speed in Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meglio, Olimpia; King, David R.; Risberg, Annette

    2017-01-01

    The advantage of speed is often invoked by academics and practitioners as an essential condition during post-acquisition integration, frequently without consideration of the impact earlier decisions have on acquisition speed. In this article, we examine the role speed plays in acquisitions across...... the acquisition process using research organized around characteristics that display complexity with respect to acquisition speed. We incorporate existing research with a process perspective of acquisitions in order to present trade-offs, and consider the influence of both stakeholders and the pre......-deal-completion context on acquisition speed, as well as the organization’s capabilities to facilitating that speed. Observed trade-offs suggest both that acquisition speed often requires longer planning time before an acquisition and that associated decisions require managerial judgement. A framework for improving...

  15. Rotation Frequencies of Small Jovian Trojan Asteroids: An Excess of Slow Rotators

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Linda M.; Stephens, Robert D.; James, David J.; Coley, Daniel; Connour, Kyle

    2015-11-01

    Several lines of evidence support a common origin for, and possible hereditary link between, cometary nuclei and jovian Trojan asteroids. Due to their distance and low albedos, few comet-sized Trojans have been studied. We discuss the rotation properties of Jovian Trojan asteroids less than 30 km in diameter. Approximately half the 131 objects discussed here were studied using densely sampled lightcurves (French et al. 2015a, b); Stephens et al. 2015), and the other half were sparse lightcurves obtained by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF; Waszcazk et al. 2015).A significant fraction (~40%) of the objects in the ground-based sample rotate slowly (P > 24h), with measured periods as long as 375 h (Warner and Stephens 2011). The PTF data show a similar excess of slow rotators. Only 5 objects in the combined data set have rotation periods of less than six hours. Three of these fast rotators were contained in the data set of French et al. these three had a geometric mean rotation period of 5.29 hours. A prolate spheroid held together by gravity rotating with this period would have a critical density of 0.43 gm/cm3, a density similar to that of comets (Lamy et al. 2004).Harris et al. (2012) and Warner et al. (2011) have explored the possible effects on asteroid rotational statistics with the results from wide-field surveys. We will examine Trojan rotation statistics with and without the results from the PTF.

  16. Electro-mechanical coupling of rotating 3D beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoykov S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A rotating thin-walled beam with piezoelectric element is analysed. The beam is considered to vibrate in space, hence the longitudinal, transverse and torsional deformations are taken into account. The bending deformations of the beam are modelled by assuming Timoshenko's theory. Torsion is included by considering that the cross section rotates as a rigid body but can deform in longitudinal direction due to warping. The warping function is computed preliminary by the finite element method. The equation of motion is derived by the principle of virtual work and discretized in space by the Ritz method. Electro-mechanical coupling is included in the model by considering the internal electrical energy and the electric charge output. The piezo-electric constitutive relations are used in reduced form. The beam is assumed to rotate about a fixed axis with constant speed. The equation of motion is derived in rotating coordinate system, but the influence of the rotation of the coordinate system is taken into account through the inertia forces. Results in time domain are presented for different speeds of rotation and frequencies of vibration. The influence of the speed of rotation and of the frequency of vibration on the electrical output is presented and analysed.

  17. Rotations with Rodrigues' vector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, E

    2011-01-01

    The rotational dynamics was studied from the point of view of Rodrigues' vector. This vector is defined here by its connection with other forms of parametrization of the rotation matrix. The rotation matrix was expressed in terms of this vector. The angular velocity was computed using the components of Rodrigues' vector as coordinates. It appears to be a fundamental matrix that is used to express the components of the angular velocity, the rotation matrix and the angular momentum vector. The Hamiltonian formalism of rotational dynamics in terms of this vector uses the same matrix. The quantization of the rotational dynamics is performed with simple rules if one uses Rodrigues' vector and similar formal expressions for the quantum operators that mimic the Hamiltonian classical dynamics.

  18. On Averaging Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramkow, Claus

    2001-01-01

    In this paper two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very often the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong ...... approximations to the Riemannian metric, and that the subsequent corrections are inherent in the least squares estimation.......In this paper two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very often the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong...

  19. Dynamic response of high speed centrifuge for reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, Gaurav; Satish Kumar, V.; Selvaraj, T.; Ananda Rao, S.M.; Ravisankar, A.

    2012-01-01

    The standard for balancing the rotating bowl describes only the details about the selection of balance quality grade and the permissible residual unbalance for different operating speeds. This paper presents the effects of unbalance on the rotating bowl of high speed centrifuge used in reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. In this study, the residual unbalance is evaluated for different recommended balancing grades in accordance with the ISO 1940. This unbalance mass generates dynamic force which acts on the rotor. The dynamic response of the rotor like displacements and stresses under this dynamic force are studied by numerical simulation. Finally, the effect of residual unbalance on the rotating bowl performance for different balancing grades is discussed. The experimental measurements are also carried out for the case of G 1.0 grade balanced rotating bowl to validate the resonance frequency as well as vibration amplitudes. (author)

  20. Effect of rotating electric field on 3D complex (dusty) plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wörner, L.; Nosenko, V.; Ivlev, A. V.; Zhdanov, S. K.; Thomas, H. M.; Morfill, G. E.; Kroll, M.; Schablinski, J.; Block, D.

    2011-06-01

    The effect of rotating electric field on 3D particle clusters suspended in rf plasma was studied experimentally. Spheroidal clusters were suspended inside a glass box mounted on the lower horizontal rf electrode, with gravity partially balanced by thermophoretic force. Clusters rotated in the horizontal plane, in response to rotating electric field that was created inside the box using conducting coating on its inner surfaces ("rotating wall" technique). Cluster rotation was always in the direction of applied field and had a shear in the vertical direction. The angular speed of rotation was 104-107 times lower than applied frequency. The experiment is compared to a recent theory.

  1. High-speed Maglev studies in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atherton, D.L.; Eastham, A.R.

    1974-01-01

    This paper reports on Canadian studies of superconducting magnetic levitation and variable-speed linear synchronous motor propulsion for high-speed inter-city guided ground transport. Levitation is obtained by the interaction of vehicle-mounted superconducting magnets and the eddy currents induced in aluminium strip conductors on the guideway. Non-contact propulsion by linear synchronous motor (LSM) is obtained by using vehicle-borne superconducting magnets and powered guideway coils. A suggested guidance scheme uses a flat guideway with 'null-flux' loops overlying the LSM windings. The propulsion magnets interact with the loops and the edges of the levitation strips to provide lateral stabilization. The test facility is a 7.6m wheel, rotating with a peripheral speed of 33m/s. (author)

  2. Vibration of imperfect rotating disk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Půst L.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is concerned with the theoretical and numerical calculations of the flexural vibrations of a bladed disk. The main focus of this study is to elaborate the basic background for diagnostic and identification methods for ascertaining the main properties of the real structure or an experimental model of turbine disks. The reduction of undesirable vibrations of blades is proposed by using damping heads, which on the experimental model of turbine disk are applied only on a limited number of blades. This partial setting of damping heads introduces imperfection in mass, stiffness and damping distribution on the periphery and leads to more complicated dynamic properties than those of a perfect disk. Calculation of FEM model and analytic—numerical solution of disk behaviour in the limited (two modes frequency range shows the splitting of resonance with an increasing speed of disk rotation. The spectrum of resonance is twice denser than that of a perfect disk.

  3. CriticalEd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellberg, Caspar Mølholt; Meredith, David

    2014-01-01

    . Since the comments are not input sequentially, with regard to position, but in arbitrary order, this list must be sorted by copy/pasting the rows into place—an error-prone and time-consuming process. Scholars who produce critical editions typically use off-the-shelf music notation software......The best text method is commonly applied among music scholars engaged in producing critical editions. In this method, a comment list is compiled, consisting of variant readings and editorial emendations. This list is maintained by inserting the comments into a document as the changes are made......, consisting of a Sibelius plug-in, a cross-platform application, called CriticalEd, and a REST-based solution, which handles data storage/retrieval. A prototype has been tested at the Danish Centre for Music Publication, and the results suggest that the system could greatly improve the efficiency...

  4. Mobile app reading speed test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsnorth, Alec; Wolffsohn, James S

    2015-04-01

    To validate the accuracy and repeatability of a mobile app reading speed test compared with the traditional paper version. Twenty-one subjects wearing their full refractive correction glasses read 14 sentences of decreasing print size between 1.0 and -0.1 logMAR, each consisting of 14 words (Radner reading speed test) at 40 cm with a paper-based chart and twice on iPad charts. Time duration was recorded with a stop watch for the paper chart and on the App itself for the mobile chart allowing critical print size (CPS) and optimal reading speed (ORS) to be derived objectively. The ORS was higher for the mobile app charts (194±29 wpm; 195±25 wpm) compared with the paper chart (166±20 wpm; F=57.000, pmobile app charts (0.17±0.20 logMAR; 0.18±0.17 logMAR) compared with the paper chart (0.25±0.17 logMAR; F=5.406, p=0.009). The mobile app test had a mean difference repeatability of 0.30±22.5 wpm, r=0.917 for ORS, and a CPS of 0.0±0.2 logMAR, r=0.769. Repeatability of the app reading speed test is as good (ORS) or better (CPS) than previous studies on the paper test. While the results are not interchangeable with paper-based charts, mobile app tablet-based tests of reading speed are reliable and rapid to perform, with the potential to capture functional visual ability in research studies and clinical practice. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Design and application on experimental platform for high-speed bearing with grease lubrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Qiang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The experimental platform for high-speed grease is an important tool for research and development of high-speed motorized spindle with grease lubrication. In this article, the experimental platform for high-speed grease is designed and manufactured which consists of the drive system, the test portion, the loading system, the lubrication system, the control system, and so on. In the meantime, the high-speed angular contact ceramic ball bearings B7005C/HQ1P4 as the research object are tested and contrasted in the grease lubrication and oil mist lubrication. The experimental platform performance is validated by contrast experiment, and the high-speed lubricated bearing performance is also studied especially in the relationship among the rotating speed,load and temperature rise. The results show that the experimental platform works steadily, accurate, and reliable in the experimental testing. And the grease lubrication ceramic ball bearings B7005C/HQ1P4 can be used in high-speed motorized spindle in the circular water cooling conditions when the rotating speed is lower than 40,000 r/min or the DN value (the value of the bearing diameter times the rotating speed is lower than the 1.44 × 106 mm r/min. Grease lubrication instead of oil mist lubrication under high-speed rotating will simplify the structure design of the high-speed motorized spindle and reduce the pollution to the environment.

  6. Developing an Asteroid Rotational Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geis, Gena; Williams, Miguel; Linder, Tyler; Pakey, Donald

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this project is to develop a theoretical asteroid rotational theory from first principles. Starting at first principles provides a firm foundation for computer simulations which can be used to analyze multiple variables at once such as size, rotation period, tensile strength, and density. The initial theory will be presented along with early models of applying the theory to the asteroid population. Early results confirm previous work by Pravec et al. (2002) that show the majority of the asteroids larger than 200m have negligible tensile strength and have spin rates close to their critical breakup point. Additionally, results show that an object with zero tensile strength has a maximum rotational rate determined by the object’s density, not size. Therefore, an iron asteroid with a density of 8000 kg/m^3 would have a minimum spin period of 1.16h if the only forces were gravitational and centrifugal. The short-term goal is to include material forces in the simulations to determine what tensile strength will allow the high spin rates of asteroids smaller than 150m.

  7. Interplay between intrinsic plasma rotation and magnetic island evolution in disruptive discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronchi, G.; Severo, J. H. F. [Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Física (Brazil); Salzedas, F. [Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Engenharia (Portugal); Galvão, R. M. O., E-mail: rgalvao@if.usp.br; Sanada, E. K. [Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Física (Brazil)

    2016-05-15

    The behavior of the intrinsic toroidal rotation of the plasma column during the growth and eventual saturation of m/n = 2/1 magnetic islands, triggered by programmed density rise, has been carefully investigated in disruptive discharges in TCABR. The results show that, as the island starts to grow and rotate at a speed larger than that of the plasma column, the angular frequency of the intrinsic toroidal rotation increases and that of the island decreases, following the expectation of synchronization. As the island saturates at a large size, just before a major disruption, the angular speed of the intrinsic rotation decreases quite rapidly, even though the island keeps still rotating at a reduced speed. This decrease of the toroidal rotation is quite reproducible and can be considered as an indicative of disruption.

  8. Speed and income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens

    2005-01-01

    The relationship between speed and income is established in a microeconomic model focusing on the trade-off between travel time and the risk of receiving a penalty for exceeding the speed limit. This is used to determine when a rational driver will choose to exceed the speed limit. The relationship...... between speed and income is found again in the empirical analysis of a cross-sectional dataset comprising 60,000 observations of car trips. This is used to perform regressions of speed on income, distance travelled, and a number of controls. The results are clearly statistically significant and indicate...... an average income elasticity of speed of 0.02; it is smaller at short distances and about twice as large at the longest distance investigated of 200 km....

  9. High speed atom source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshino, Hitoshi.

    1990-01-01

    In a high speed atom source, since the speed is not identical between ions and electrons, no sufficient neutralizing effect for ionic rays due to the mixing of the ionic rays and the electron rays can be obtained failing to obtain high speed atomic rays at high density. In view of the above, a speed control means is disposed for equalizing the speed of ions forming ionic rays and the speed of electrons forming electron rays. Further, incident angle of the electron rays and/or ionic rays to a magnet or an electrode is made variable. As a result, the relative speed between the ions and the electrons to the processing direction is reduced to zero, in which the probability of association between the ions and the electrons due to the coulomb force is increased to improve the neutralizing efficiency to easily obtain fine and high density high speed electron rays. Further, by varying the incident angle, a track capable of obtaining an ideal mixing depending on the energy of the neutralized ionic rays is formed. Since the high speed electron rays has such high density, they can be irradiated easily to the minute region of the specimen. (N.H.)

  10. Computer ray tracing speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, P; Pawlowski, B

    1990-05-01

    The results of measuring the ray trace speed and compilation speed of thirty-nine computers in fifty-seven configurations, ranging from personal computers to super computers, are described. A correlation of ray trace speed has been made with the LINPACK benchmark which allows the ray trace speed to be estimated using LINPACK performance data. The results indicate that the latest generation of workstations, using CPUs based on RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) technology, are as fast or faster than mainframe computers in compute-bound situations.

  11. Asteroid rotation rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binzel, R.P.; Farinella, P.

    1989-01-01

    Within the last decade the data base of asteroid rotation parameters (rotation rates and lightcurve amplitudes) has become sufficiently large to identify some definite rends and properties which can help us to interpret asteroid collisional evolution. Many significant correlations are found between rotation parameters and diameter, with distinct changes occurring near 125 km. The size range, which is also the diameter above which self-gravity may become important, perhaps represents a division between surviving primordial asteroids and collisional fragments. A Maxwellian is able to fit the observed rotation rate distributions of asteroids with D>125 km, implying that their rotation rates may be determined by collisional evolution. Asteroids with D<125 km show an excess of slow rotators and their non-Maxwellian distributions suggests that their rotation rates are more strongly influenced by other processes, such as the distribution resulting from their formation in catastrophic disruption events. Other correlations observed in the data set include different mean rotation rates for C, S and M type asteroids implying that their surface spectra are indicative of bulk properties

  12. The spatial rotator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmusson, Allan; Hahn, Ute; Larsen, Jytte Overgaard

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new local volume estimator, the spatial rotator, which is based on measurements on a virtual 3D probe, using computer assisted microscopy. The basic design of the probe builds upon the rotator principle which requires only a few manual intersection markings, thus making...

  13. Superconducting rotating machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.L. Jr.; Kirtley, J.L. Jr.; Thullen, P.

    1975-01-01

    The opportunities and limitations of the applications of superconductors in rotating electric machines are given. The relevant properties of superconductors and the fundamental requirements for rotating electric machines are discussed. The current state-of-the-art of superconducting machines is reviewed. Key problems, future developments and the long range potential of superconducting machines are assessed

  14. Fundamental Relativistic Rotator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staruszkiewicz, A.

    2008-01-01

    Professor Jan Weyssenhoff was Myron Mathisson's sponsor and collaborator. He introduced a class of objects known in Cracow as '' kreciolki Weyssenhoffa '', '' Weyssenhoff's rotating little beasts ''. The Author describes a particularly simple object from this class. The relativistic rotator described in the paper is such that its both Casimir invariants are parameters rather than constants of motion. (author)

  15. SMAP Faraday Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Vine, David

    2016-01-01

    Faraday rotation is a change in the polarization as signal propagates through the ionosphere. At L-band it is necessary to correct for this change and measurements are made on the spacecraft of the rotation angle. These figures show that there is good agreement between the SMAP measurements (blue) and predictions based on models (red).

  16. Units of rotational information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuxiang; Chiribella, Giulio; Hu, Qinheping

    2017-12-01

    Entanglement in angular momentum degrees of freedom is a precious resource for quantum metrology and control. Here we study the conversions of this resource, focusing on Bell pairs of spin-J particles, where one particle is used to probe unknown rotations and the other particle is used as reference. When a large number of pairs are given, we show that every rotated spin-J Bell state can be reversibly converted into an equivalent number of rotated spin one-half Bell states, at a rate determined by the quantum Fisher information. This result provides the foundation for the definition of an elementary unit of information about rotations in space, which we call the Cartesian refbit. In the finite copy scenario, we design machines that approximately break down Bell states of higher spins into Cartesian refbits, as well as machines that approximately implement the inverse process. In addition, we establish a quantitative link between the conversion of Bell states and the simulation of unitary gates, showing that the fidelity of probabilistic state conversion provides upper and lower bounds on the fidelity of deterministic gate simulation. The result holds not only for rotation gates, but also to all sets of gates that form finite-dimensional representations of compact groups. For rotation gates, we show how rotations on a system of given spin can simulate rotations on a system of different spin.

  17. Quantum speed limits for Bell-diagonal states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Wei; Jiang Ke-Xia; Zhang Ying-Jie; Xia Yun-Jie

    2015-01-01

    The lower bounds of the evolution time between two distinguishable states of a system, defined as quantum speed limit time, can characterize the maximal speed of quantum computers and communication channels. We study the quantum speed limit time between the composite quantum states and their target states in the presence of nondissipative decoherence. For the initial states with maximally mixed marginals, we obtain the exact expressions of the quantum speed limit time which mainly depend on the parameters of the initial states and the decoherence channels. Furthermore, by calculating the quantum speed limit time for the time-dependent states started from a class of initial states, we discover that the quantum speed limit time gradually decreases in time, and the decay rate of the quantum speed limit time would show a sudden change at a certain critical time. Interestingly, at the same critical time, the composite system dynamics would exhibit a sudden transition from classical decoherence to quantum decoherence. (paper)

  18. The rotating universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruben, G.; Treder, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    For a long time the question whether the universe rotates or not is discussed. Aspects of Huygens, Newton, Mach and other important historical scientists in this field are reported. The investigations of the mathematician Kurt Groedel in order to prove the rotation of the universe are illustrated. Kurt Groedel has shown that Einstein's gravitational equations of general relativity theory and the cosmological postulate of global homogeneity of cosmic matter (that is the Copernical principle) are not contradictionary to a rotating universe. Abberation measurements, position determination by means of radiointerferometry and methods for the determination of the rotation of the universe from the isotropy of the background radiation are presented. From these experiments it can be concluded that the universe seems not to rotate as already Einstein expected

  19. Rotation sensor switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevec, J.B.

    1978-01-01

    A protective device to provide a warning if a piece of rotating machinery slows or stops is comprised of a pair of hinged weights disposed to rotate on a rotating shaft of the equipment. When the equipment is rotating, the weights remain in a plane essentially perpendicular to the shaft and constitute part of an electrical circuit that is open. When the shaft slows or stops, the weights are attracted to a pair of concentric electrically conducting disks disposed in a plane perpendicular to the shaft and parallel to the plane of the weights when rotating. A disk magnet attracts the weights to the electrically conducting plates and maintains the electrical contact at the plates to complete an electrical circuit that can then provide an alarm signal

  20. Rotating stars in relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschalidis, Vasileios; Stergioulas, Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    Rotating relativistic stars have been studied extensively in recent years, both theoretically and observationally, because of the information they might yield about the equation of state of matter at extremely high densities and because they are considered to be promising sources of gravitational waves. The latest theoretical understanding of rotating stars in relativity is reviewed in this updated article. The sections on equilibrium properties and on nonaxisymmetric oscillations and instabilities in f -modes and r -modes have been updated. Several new sections have been added on equilibria in modified theories of gravity, approximate universal relationships, the one-arm spiral instability, on analytic solutions for the exterior spacetime, rotating stars in LMXBs, rotating strange stars, and on rotating stars in numerical relativity including both hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic studies of these objects.

  1. Pictorial Visual Rotation Ability of Engineering Design Graphics Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Jeremy Vaughn; Lane, Diarmaid; Clark, Aaron C.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to rotate visual mental images is a complex cognitive skill. It requires the building of graphical libraries of information through short or long term memory systems and the subsequent retrieval and manipulation of these towards a specified goal. The development of mental rotation skill is of critical importance within engineering…

  2. Correction of rotational distortion for catheter-based en face OCT and OCT angiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsen, Osman O.; Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Giacomelli, Michael G.; Wang, Zhao; Liang, Kaicheng; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Potsaid, Benjamin; Mashimo, Hiroshi; Fujimoto, James G.

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a computationally efficient method for correcting the nonuniform rotational distortion (NURD) in catheter-based imaging systems to improve endoscopic en face optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography. The method performs nonrigid registration using fiducial markers on the catheter to correct rotational speed variations. Algorithm performance is investigated with an ultrahigh-speed endoscopic OCT system and micromotor catheter. Scan nonuniformity is quantitatively characterized, and artifacts from rotational speed variations are significantly reduced. Furthermore, we present endoscopic en face OCT and OCT angiography images of human gastrointestinal tract in vivo to demonstrate the image quality improvement using the correction algorithm. PMID:25361133

  3. Bayesian analysis of rotating machines - A statistical approach to estimate and track the fundamental frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Thorkild Find

    2003-01-01

    frequency and the related frequencies as orders of the fundamental frequency. When analyzing rotating or reciprocating machines it is important to know the running speed. Usually this requires direct access to the rotating parts in order to mount a dedicated tachometer probe. In this thesis different......Rotating and reciprocating mechanical machines emit acoustic noise and vibrations when they operate. Typically, the noise and vibrations are concentrated in narrow frequency bands related to the running speed of the machine. The frequency of the running speed is referred to as the fundamental...

  4. The influence of chamfering and corner radiusing on the discharge coefficient of rotating axial orifices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idris, A; Pullen, K

    2013-01-01

    The effects of chamfering and corner radiusing on the discharge coefficient of rotating axial orifices are presented in this paper. Both experimental and CFD results show that chamfering and corner radiusing improve the discharge coefficient of rotating orifices. For non-inclined rotating orifices, the discharge coefficient reduces with increasing speed, but chamfered and radiused orifices manage to have higher discharge coefficient (C d ) than the straight edge orifices. Comparing between chamfering and corner radiusing, the radiused corner orifice has the highest C d at every rotational speed. This is because the inlet radius helps guiding the flow into the orifice and avoiding flow separation at the inlet.

  5. Endurance in speed skating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, G.H.; Sterken, E.

    2002-01-01

    We analyse the development of world records speed skating from 1893 to 2000 for bothmen and women. The historical data show that it is likely that the relation betweenskating speed and distance of the various events is non-linear and converges to a limitvalue. We pay special attention to technical

  6. Endurance in speed skating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, Gerard H.; Sterken, Elmer

    2001-01-01

    We analyse the development of world records speed skating from 1893 to 2000 for both men and women. The historical data show that it is likely that the relation between skating speed and distance of the various events is non-linear and converges to a limit value. We pay special attention to

  7. Effectiveness of Motorcycle speed controlled by speed hump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornsiri Urapa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Speed humps are one of the traffic calming measures widely accepted to control vehicle speed in the local road. Humps standards from the western countries are designed mainly for the passenger car. This study, therefore, aims to reveal the effectiveness of speed hump to control the motorcycle speed. This study observes the free-flow speed of the riders at the total of 20 speed bumps and humps. They are 0.3-14.8 meter in width and 5-18 centimeter in height. The results reveal that the 85th percentile speeds reduce 15-65 percent when crossing the speed bumps and speed humps. Besides, this study develops the speed model to predict the motorcycle mean speed and 85th percentile speed. It is found that speed humps follow the ITE standard can control motorcycle crossing speeds to be 25-30 Kph which are suitable to travel on the local road.

  8. Rotating-Sleeve Triboelectric-Electromagnetic Hybrid Nanogenerator for High Efficiency of Harvesting Mechanical Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Ran; Zhou, Tao; Wang, Bin; Yin, Yingying; Yuan, Zuqing; Li, Congju; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-08-22

    Currently, a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) and an electromagnetic generator (EMG) have been hybridized to effectively scavenge mechanical energy. However, one critical issue of the hybrid device is the limited output power due to the mismatched output impedance between the two generators. In this work, impedance matching between the TENG and EMG is achieved facilely through commercial transformers, and we put forward a highly integrated hybrid device. The rotating-sleeve triboelectric-electromagnetic hybrid nanogenerator (RSHG) is designed by simulating the structure of a common EMG, which ensures a high efficiency in transferring ambient mechanical energy into electric power. The RSHG presents an excellent performance with a short-circuit current of 1 mA and open-circuit voltage of 48 V at a rotation speed of 250 rpm. Systematic measurements demonstrate that the hybrid nanogenerator can deliver the largest output power of 13 mW at a loading resistance of 8 kΩ. Moreover, it is demonstrated that a wind-driven RSHG can light dozens of light-emitting diodes and power an electric watch. The distinctive structure and high output performance promise the practical application of this rotating-sleeve structured hybrid nanogenerator for large-scale energy conversion.

  9. Jet Engine Bird Ingestion Simulations: Comparison of Rotating to Non-Rotating Fan Blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Samuel A.; Hammer, Jeremiah T.; Carney, Kelly S.; Pereira, J. Michael

    2013-01-01

    Bird strike events in commercial airliners are a fairly common occurrence. According to data collected by the US Department of Agriculture, over 80,000 bird strikes were reported in the period 1990 to 2007 in the US alone (Ref. 1). As a result, bird ingestion is an important factor in aero engine design and FAA certification. When it comes to bird impacts on engine fan blades, the FAA requires full-scale bird ingestion tests on an engine running at full speed to pass certification requirements. These rotating tests are complex and very expensive. To reduce development costs associated with new materials for fan blades, it is desirable to develop more cost effective testing procedures than full-scale rotating engine tests for material evaluation. An impact test on a nonrotating single blade that captures most of the salient physics of the rotating test would go a long way towards enabling large numbers of evaluative material screening tests. NASA Glenn Research Center has been working to identify a static blade test procedure that would be effective at reproducing similar results as seen in rotating tests. The current effort compares analytical simulations of a bird strike on various non-rotating blades to a bird strike simulation on a rotating blade as a baseline case. Several different concepts for simulating the rotating loads on a non-rotating blade were analyzed with little success in duplicating the deformation results seen in the rotating case. The rotating blade behaves as if it were stiffer than the non-rotating blade resulting in less plastic deformation from a given bird impact. The key factor limiting the success of the non-rotating blade simulations is thought to be the effect of gyroscopics. Prior to this effort, it was anticipated the difficulty would be in matching the prestress in the blade due to centrifugal forces Additional work is needed to verify this assertion, and to determine if a static test procedure can simulate the gyroscopic effects in

  10. Rotation, Stability and Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, J. W.

    2007-07-01

    Tokamak plasmas can frequently exhibit high levels of rotation and rotation shear. This can usually be attributed to various sources: injection of momentum, e.g. through neutral beams, flows driven by plasma gradients or torques resulting from non-ambipolar particle loss; however, the source sometimes remains a mystery, such as the spontaneous rotation observed in Ohmic plasmas. The equilibrium rotation profile is given by the balance of these sources with transport and other losses; the edge boundary conditions can play an important role in determining this profile . Such plasma rotation, particularly sheared rotation, is predicted theoretically to have a significant influence on plasma behaviour. In the first place, sonic flows can significantly affect tokamak equilibria and neoclassical transport losses. However, the influence of rotation on plasma stability and turbulence is more profound. At the macroscopic level it affects the behaviour of the gross MHD modes that influence plasma operational limits. This includes sawteeth, the seeding of neoclassical tearing modes, resistive wall modes and the onset of disruptions through error fields, mode locking and reconnection. At the microscopic level it has a major effect on the stability of ballooning modes, both ideal MHD and drift wave instabilities such as ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes. In the non-linear state, as unstable drift waves evolve into turbulent structures, sheared rotation also tears apart eddies, thereby reducing the resulting transport. There is considerable experimental evidence for these effects on both MHD stability and plasma confinement. In particular, the appearance of improved confinement modes with transport barriers, such as edge H-mode barriers and internal transport barriers (ITBs) appears to correlate well with the presence of sheared plasma rotation. This talk will describe the theory underlying some of these phenomena involving plasma rotation, on both macroscopic and microscopic

  11. On Job Rotation

    OpenAIRE

    Metin M. Cosgel; Thomas J. Miceli

    1998-01-01

    A fundamental principle of economics with which Adam Smith begins The Wealth of Nations is the division of labor. Some firms, however, have been pursuing a practice called job rotation, which assigns each worker not to a single and specific task but to a set of several tasks among which he or she rotates with some frequency. We examine the practice of job rotation as a serious alternative to specialization, with three objectives. The first is to consider current and historical examples of job...

  12. Speed controller for an alternating - current motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolie, V.W.

    1984-01-01

    A controller for a multi-phase ac motor that is subject to a large inertial load, e.g. an induction motor driving a heavy spinning rotor of a neutron chopper that must be rotated in phase-locked synchronism with a reference pulse train that is representative of an ac power supply signal Esub(L) having a meandering line frequency, includes a sensor which provides a feedback pulse train representative of the actual speed of the motor which is compared (by counting clock pulses between feedback pulses) with a reference clock signal in a computing unit to provide a motor control signal Esub(c). The motor control signal is a weighted linear sum of a speed error signal, a phase error signal, and a drift error signal, the magnitudes of which are recalculated and updated with each revolution of the motor shaft. The speed error signal is constant for large speed errors but highly sensitive to small speed errors. The stator windings of the motor are driven by variable-frequency power amplifiers which are controlled by the motor control signal Esub(c) via PROMs which store digital representations of sine and cosine waveforms in quadrature. (author)

  13. Airfoil shape for flight at subsonic speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitcomb, Richard T.

    1976-01-01

    An airfoil having an upper surface shaped to control flow accelerations and pressure distribution over the upper surface and to prevent separation of the boundary layer due to shock wave formulation at high subsonic speeds well above the critical Mach number. A highly cambered trailing edge section improves overall airfoil lifting efficiency.

  14. Rotator cuff - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000358.htm Rotator cuff - self-care To use the sharing features on ... and shoulder exercises may help ease your symptoms. Rotator Cuff Problems Common rotator cuff problems include: Tendinitis , which ...

  15. Rotational loss of a ring-shaped flywheel supported by high T{sub c} superconducting levitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teshima, Hidekazu [Nippon Steel Corp., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan). Advanced Materials and Technology Research Labs.; Tawara, Taichi; Shimada, Ryuichi

    1997-08-01

    This paper describes the experimental results for the rotational loss of a ring-shaped flywheel supported by high T{sub c} superconducting levitation. Superconducting levitation is appropriate for rotating a ring-shaped flywheel which has neither shaft nor hub because it is a non-contact and automatically stable levitation without any control systems. The rotational loss has been investigated using a small-scaled experimental machine consisting of 16 bulk superconductors 46 mm in diameter and a ring-shaped flywheel about 300 mm in diameter. The rotational loss decreased as the levitation gap height increased. In low-speed rotational regions, the rotational loss was in proportion to the rotation speed and depended more on the levitation gap. In high-speed rotational regions, the rotational loss was in proportion to the third power of the rotation speed and depended less on the levitation gap. The cubic rotational loss in He was reduced to one-fifth of that in air. The magnetic field pinned in bulk superconductors induces a loss in the materials composing the ring-shaped flywheel. The rotational loss of a ring-shaped flywheel supported by superconducting levitation can be reduced by improving the uniformity of the magnetic fields along the ring, enlargement of the bulk superconductor(s), and densely arranging the bulk superconductors. (author)

  16. Synchronization of coupled active rotators by common noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolmatova, Anastasiya V.; Goldobin, Denis S.; Pikovsky, Arkady

    2017-12-01

    We study the effect of common noise on coupled active rotators. While such a noise always facilitates synchrony, coupling may be attractive (synchronizing) or repulsive (desynchronizing). We develop an analytical approach based on a transformation to approximate angle-action variables and averaging over fast rotations. For identical rotators, we describe a transition from full to partial synchrony at a critical value of repulsive coupling. For nonidentical rotators, the most nontrivial effect occurs at moderate repulsive coupling, where a juxtaposition of phase locking with frequency repulsion (anti-entrainment) is observed. We show that the frequency repulsion obeys a nontrivial power law.

  17. Preliminary Test on Hydraulic Rotation Device for Neutron Transmutation Doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ki-Jung; Kang, Han-Ok; Kim, Seong Hoon; Park, Cheol

    2014-01-01

    The Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is developing a new Research Reactor (KJRR) which will be located at KIJANG in the south-eastern province of Korea. The KJRR will be mainly utilized for isotope production, NTD production, and the related research activities. During the NTD process, the irradiation rig containing the silicon ingot rotates at the constant speed to ensure precisely defined homogeneity of the irradiation. A new NTD Hydraulic Rotation Device (NTDHRD) is being developed to rotate the irradiation rigs at the required speed. In this study, the preliminary test and the analysis for the rotation characteristic of the NTDHRD, which is developed through the conceptual design, are described. A new NTD hydraulic rotation device is being developed for the purpose of application to the KIJANG research reactor (KJRR). The preliminary test and analysis for the rotation characteristic of the NTDHRD, which is developed through the conceptual design, are conducted in experimental apparatus. The film thickness by the thrust bearing is measured and the minimum required mass flow rate for stable rotation is determined

  18. Traffic speed management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subotić Jovana Lj.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Speed, and vehicles themselves, affect the level of service and road safety, quality of life, noise from traffic, the environment, health, air pollution, emission of carbon dioxide, global warming, the economy and consumption of non-renewable energy such as oil. Therefore, the speed management of the traffic of multiple significance and that should be primarily to provide effective and economical conditions of the modern and preventive protection of human life as the greatest treasure and then the material resources. The way to accomplish this is by using various (different measures such as: appropriate planning and projecting roads and streets, speed control, the legislation, enforcement, campaigns, education, advanced technologies (ITS.

  19. Compensations for increased rotational inertia during human cutting turns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Mu; Brown, Brian; Jindrich, Devin L

    2014-02-01

    Locomotion in a complex environment is often not steady state, but unsteady locomotion (stability and maneuverability) is not well understood. We investigated the strategies used by humans to perform sidestep cutting turns when running. Previous studies have argued that because humans have small yaw rotational moments of inertia relative to body mass, deceleratory forces in the initial velocity direction that occur during the turning step, or 'braking' forces, could function to prevent body over-rotation during turns. We tested this hypothesis by increasing body rotational inertia and testing whether braking forces during stance decreased. We recorded ground reaction force and body kinematics from seven participants performing 45 deg sidestep cutting turns and straight running at five levels of body rotational inertia, with increases up to fourfold. Contrary to our prediction, braking forces remained consistent at different rotational inertias, facilitated by anticipatory changes to body rotational speed. Increasing inertia revealed that the opposing effects of several turning parameters, including rotation due to symmetrical anterior-posterior forces, result in a system that can compensate for fourfold changes in rotational inertia with less than 50% changes to rotational velocity. These results suggest that in submaximal effort turning, legged systems may be robust to changes in morphological parameters, and that compensations can involve relatively minor adjustments between steps to change initial stance conditions.

  20. Rotating universe models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tozini, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    A review is made of some properties of the rotating Universe models. Godel's model is identified as a generalized filted model. Some properties of new solutions of the Einstein's equations, which are rotating non-stationary Universe models, are presented and analyzed. These models have the Godel's model as a particular case. Non-stationary cosmological models are found which are a generalization of the Godel's metrics in an analogous way in which Friedmann is to the Einstein's model. (L.C.) [pt

  1. Rotation Invariance Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shiyuan

    2017-01-01

    Rotation invariance and translation invariance have great values in image recognition tasks. In this paper, we bring a new architecture in convolutional neural network (CNN) named cyclic convolutional layer to achieve rotation invariance in 2-D symbol recognition. We can also get the position and orientation of the 2-D symbol by the network to achieve detection purpose for multiple non-overlap target. Last but not least, this architecture can achieve one-shot learning in some cases using thos...

  2. Development of a fast response rotating polarimeter for a faraday rotation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeno, Masaki; Ogiwara, Norio; Ogawa, Hiroaki; Matsuda, Toshiaki

    1994-03-01

    This paper describes a method for using a spindle sustained with active magnetic bearing to make a rotating half waveplate frequency more fast. The time interval of the zero-cross phase measurement is 189 μsec in this experiment. The magnetic bearing is applicable to increase the rotating waveplate frequency by a factor of 2-3 compared with the conventional one. The waveplate speed as well as the deviation with respect to the stationary laser beam has no influence on the amplitude and phase shift of the rotating polarized beam signal. There is also no influence of the mirror reflections on the phase shift. The overall phase resolution is estimated to be about 0.1 degrees. (author)

  3. High-Speed Photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paisley, D.L.; Schelev, M.Y.

    1998-01-01

    The applications of high-speed photography to a diverse set of subjects including inertial confinement fusion, laser surgical procedures, communications, automotive airbags, lightning etc. are briefly discussed. (AIP) copyright 1998 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers

  4. Wind_Speeds_Master

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set included wind speeds for each subregion in the study (Georges Bank, Gulf of Maine, Southern New England, Middle Atlantic Bight) . The data came from...

  5. High speed data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, P.S.

    1997-07-01

    A general introduction to high speed data acquisition system techniques in modern particle physics experiments is given. Examples are drawn from the SELEX(E78 1) high statistics charmed baryon production and decay experiment now taking data at Fermilab

  6. High speed heterostructure devices

    CERN Document Server

    Beer, Albert C; Willardson, R K; Kiehl, Richard A; Sollner, T C L Gerhard

    1994-01-01

    Volume 41 includes an in-depth review of the most important, high-speed switches made with heterojunction technology. This volume is aimed at the graduate student or working researcher who needs a broad overview andan introduction to current literature. Key Features * The first complete review of InP-based HFETs and complementary HFETs, which promise very low power and high speed * Offers a complete, three-chapter review of resonant tunneling * Provides an emphasis on circuits as well as devices.

  7. Modeling of high speed micro rotors in moderate flow confinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dikmen, E.; van der Hoogt, Peter; Aarts, Ronald G.K.M.; Sas, P.; Bergen, B.

    2008-01-01

    The recent developments in high speed micro rotating machinery lead to the need for multiphysical modeling of the rotor and the surrounding medium. In this study, thermal and flow induced effects on rotor dynamics of geometries with moderate flow confinement are studied. The structure is modeled via

  8. NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS FOR THE CASE OF RIGID ROTATING KINEMATIC COUPLING WITH BIG CLEARANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Cristian GRIGORE

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an algorithm based on [1] [2] are numerical simulations, achieving generalized coordinates of motion, positions, speeds of a rigid rotating kinematic coupling with big clearance in joint, case without friction

  9. Optimization of powered Stirling heat engine with finite speed thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadi, Mohammad H.; Ahmadi, Mohammad Ali; Pourfayaz, Fathollah; Bidi, Mokhtar; Hosseinzade, Hadi; Feidt, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Based on finite speed method and direct method, the optimal performance is investigated. • The effects of major parameters on the optimal performance are investigated. • The accuracy of the results was compared with previous works. - Abstract: Popular thermodynamic analyses including finite time thermodynamic analysis was lately developed based upon external irreversibilities while internal irreversibilities such as friction, pressure drop and entropy generation were not considered. The aforementioned disadvantage reduces the reliability of the finite time thermodynamic analysis in the design of an accurate Stirling engine model. Consequently, the finite time thermodynamic analysis could not sufficiently satisfy researchers for implementing in design and optimization issues. In this study, finite speed thermodynamic analysis was employed instead of finite time thermodynamic analysis for studying Stirling heat engine. The finite speed thermodynamic analysis approach is based on the first law of thermodynamics for a closed system with finite speed and the direct method. The effects of heat source temperature, regenerating effectiveness, volumetric ratio, piston stroke as well as rotational speed are included in the analysis. Moreover, maximum output power in optimal rotational speed was calculated while pressure losses in the Stirling engine were systematically considered. The result reveals the accuracy and the reliability of the finite speed thermodynamic method in thermodynamic analysis of Stirling heat engine. The outcomes can help researchers in the design of an appropriate and efficient Stirling engine.

  10. Simple Models for the Dynamic Modeling of Rotating Tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. Delamotte

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Large Finite Element (FE models of tires are currently used to predict low frequency behavior and to obtain dynamic model coefficients used in multi-body models for riding and comfort. However, to predict higher frequency behavior, which may explain irregular wear, critical rotating speeds and noise radiation, FE models are not practical. Detailed FE models are not adequate for optimization and uncertainty predictions either, as in such applications the dynamic solution must be computed a number of times. Therefore, there is a need for simpler models that can capture the physics of the tire and be used to compute the dynamic response with a low computational cost. In this paper, the spectral (or continuous element approach is used to derive such a model. A circular beam spectral element that takes into account the string effect is derived, and a method to simulate the response to a rotating force is implemented in the frequency domain. The behavior of a circular ring under different internal pressures is investigated using modal and frequency/wavenumber representations. Experimental results obtained with a real untreaded truck tire are presented and qualitatively compared with the simple model predictions with good agreement. No attempt is made to obtain equivalent parameters for the simple model from the real tire results. On the other hand, the simple model fails to represent the correct variation of the quotient of the natural frequency by the number of circumferential wavelengths with the mode count. Nevertheless, some important features of the real tire dynamic behavior, such as the generation of standing waves and part of the frequency/wavenumber behavior, can be investigated using the proposed simplified model.

  11. High Speed Gear Sized and Configured to Reduce Windage Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Robert F. (Inventor); Medvitz, Richard B. (Inventor); Hill, Matthew John (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A gear and drive system utilizing the gear include teeth. Each of the teeth has a first side and a second side opposite the first side that extends from a body of the gear. For each tooth of the gear, a first extended portion is attached to the first side of the tooth to divert flow of fluid adjacent to the body of the gear to reduce windage losses that occur when the gear rotates. The gear may be utilized in drive systems that may have high rotational speeds, such as speeds where the tip velocities are greater than or equal to about 68 m/s. Some embodiments of the gear may also utilize teeth that also have second extended portions attached to the second sides of the teeth to divert flow of fluid adjacent to the body of the gear to reduce windage losses that occur when the gear rotates.

  12. High speed drying of saturated steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marty, C.; Peyrelongue, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the drying process for the saturated steam used in the PWR nuclear plant turbines in order to prevent negative effects of water on turbine efficiency, maintenance costs and equipment lifetime. The high speed drying concept is based on rotating the incoming saturated steam in order to separate water which is more denser than the steam; the water film is then extracted through an annular slot. A multicellular modular equipment has been tested. Applications on high and low pressure extraction of various PWR plants are described (Bugey, Loviisa)

  13. DC motor speed control using fuzzy logic controller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, N. L.; Zakaria, K. A.; Nazar, N. S. Moh; Syaripuddin, M.; Mokhtar, A. S. N.; Thanakodi, S.

    2018-02-01

    The automatic control has played a vital role in the advance of engineering and science. Nowadays in industries, the control of direct current (DC) motor is a common practice thus the implementation of DC motor controller speed is important. The main purpose of motor speed control is to keep the rotation of the motor at the present speed and to drive a system at the demand speed. The main purpose of this project is to control speed of DC Series Wound Motor using Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC). The expectation of this project is the Fuzzy Logic Controller will get the best performance compared to dc motor without controller in terms of settling time (Ts), rise time (Tr), peak time (Tp) and percent overshoot (%OS).

  14. Organizing for creativity, quality and speed in product creation processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijnatten, van F.M.; Simonse, W.L.

    1999-01-01

    Current research in industrial engineering and management sciences shows that organizational architectures are of critical importance for a better performance of product creation processes in terms of creativity, quality and speed. For many companies, streamlining those processes - including

  15. Mental object rotation in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Gregory P; Barrett, Anna M; Burks, David W; Riestra, Alonso R; Roth, Heidi L; Schwartz, Ronald L; Triggs, William J; Bowers, Dawn; Friedman, William; Greer, Melvin; Heilman, Kenneth M

    2003-11-01

    Deficits in visual-spatial ability can be associated with Parkinson's disease (PD), and there are several possible reasons for these deficits. Dysfunction in frontal-striatal and/or frontal-parietal systems, associated with dopamine deficiency, might disrupt cognitive processes either supporting (e.g., working memory) or subserving visual-spatial computations. The goal of this study was to assess visual-spatial orientation ability in individuals with PD using the Mental Rotations Test (MRT), along with other measures of cognitive function. Non-demented men with PD were significantly less accurate on this test than matched control men. In contrast, women with PD performed similarly to matched control women, but both groups of women did not perform much better than chance. Further, mental rotation accuracy in men correlated with their executive skills involving mental processing and psychomotor speed. In women with PD, however, mental rotation accuracy correlated negatively with verbal memory, indicating that higher mental rotation performance was associated with lower ability in verbal memory. These results indicate that PD is associated with visual-spatial orientation deficits in men. Women with PD and control women both performed poorly on the MRT, possibly reflecting a floor effect. Although men and women with PD appear to engage different cognitive processes in this task, the reason for the sex difference remains to be elucidated.

  16. Nonlinear dead water resistance at subcritical speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grue, John

    2015-08-01

    The dead water resistance F 1 = /1 2 C d w ρ S U 2 (ρ fluid density, U ship speed, S wetted body surface, Cdw resistance coefficient) on a ship moving at subcritical speed along the upper layer of a two-layer fluid is calculated by a strongly nonlinear method assuming potential flow in each layer. The ship dimensions correspond to those of the Polar ship Fram. The ship draught, b0, is varied in the range 0.25h0-0.9h0 (h0 the upper layer depth). The calculations show that Cdw/(b0/h0)2 depends on the Froude number only, in the range close to critical speed, Fr = U/c0 ˜ 0.875-1.125 (c0 the linear internal long wave speed), irrespective of the ship draught. The function Cdw/(b0/h0)2 attains a maximum at subcritical Froude number depending on the draught. Maximum Cdw/(b0/h0)2 becomes 0.15 for Fr = 0.76, b0/h0 = 0.9, and 0.16 for Fr = 0.74, b0/h0 = 1, where the latter extrapolated value of the dead water resistance coefficient is about 60 times higher than the frictional drag coefficient and relevant for the historical dead water observations. The nonlinear Cdw significantly exceeds linear theory (Fr < 0.85). The ship generated waves have a wave height comparable to the upper layer depth. Calculations of three-dimensional wave patterns at critical speed compare well to available laboratory experiments. Upstream solitary waves are generated in a wave tank of finite width, when the layer depths differ, causing an oscillation of the force. In a wide ocean, a very wide wave system develops at critical speed. The force approaches a constant value for increasing time.

  17. Rotating positron tomographs revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, D.; Defrise, M.; Geissbuhler, A.

    1994-01-01

    We have compared the performance of a PET scanner comprising two rotating arrays of detectors with that of the more conventional stationary-ring design. The same total number of detectors was used in each, and neither scanner had septa. For brain imaging, we find that the noise-equivalent count rate is greater for the rotating arrays by a factor of two. Rotating arrays have a sensitivity profile that peaks in the centre of the field of view, both axially and transaxially. In the transaxial plane, this effect offsets to a certain extent the decrease in the number of photons detected towards the centre of the brain due to self-absorption. We have also compared the performance of a rotating scanner to that of a full-ring scanner with the same number of rings. We find that a full-ring scanner with an axial extent of 16.2 cm (24 rings) is a factor of 3.5 more sensitive than a rotating scanner with 40% of the detectors and the same axial extent. (Author)

  18. Actomyosin contractility rotates the cell nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhishek; Maitra, Ananyo; Sumit, Madhuresh; Ramaswamy, Sriram; Shivashankar, G V

    2014-01-21

    The cell nucleus functions amidst active cytoskeletal filaments, but its response to their contractile stresses is largely unexplored. We study the dynamics of the nuclei of single fibroblasts, with cell migration suppressed by plating onto micro-fabricated patterns. We find the nucleus undergoes noisy but coherent rotational motion. We account for this observation through a hydrodynamic approach, treating the nucleus as a highly viscous inclusion residing in a less viscous fluid of orientable filaments endowed with active stresses. Lowering actin contractility selectively by introducing blebbistatin at low concentrations drastically reduced the speed and coherence of the angular motion of the nucleus. Time-lapse imaging of actin revealed a correlated hydrodynamic flow around the nucleus, with profile and magnitude consistent with the results of our theoretical approach. Coherent intracellular flows and consequent nuclear rotation thus appear to be an intrinsic property of cells.

  19. Realization of mechanical rotation in superfluid helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, E. B.; Kulish, M. I.; Karabulin, A. V.; Matyushenko, V. I.; Dyatlova, E. V.; Gordienko, A. S.; Stepanov, M. E.

    2017-09-01

    The possibility of using miniaturized low-power electric motors submerged in superfluid helium for organization of rotation inside a cryostat has been investigated. It has been revealed that many of commercial micromotors can operate in liquid helium consuming low power. Turret with 5 sample holders, assembled on the base of stepper motor, has been successfully tested in experiments on the nanowire production in quantized vortices of superfluid helium. Application of the stepper motor made it possible in a single experiment to study the effect of various experimental parameters on the yield and quality of the nanowires. The promises for continuous fast rotation of the bath filled by superfluid helium by using high-speed brushless micromotor were outlined and tested. Being realized, this approach will open new possibility to study the guest particles interaction with the array of parallel linear vortices in He II.

  20. Rotating flux compressor for energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhuri, P.; Linton, T.W.; Phillips, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    The rotating flux compressor (RFC) converts rotational kinetic energy into an electrical output pulse which would have higher energy than the electrical energy initially stored in the compressor. An RFC has been designed in which wedge-shaped rotor blades pass through the air gaps between successive turns of a solenoid, the stator. Magnetic flux is generated by pulsing the stator solenoids when the inductance is a maximum, i.e., when the flux fills the stator-solenoid volume. Connecting the solenoid across a load conserves the flux which is compressed within the small volume surrounding the stator periphery when the rotor blades cut into the free space between the stator plates, creating a minimum-inductance condition. The unique features of this design are: (1) no electrical connections (brushes) to the rotor; (2) no conventional windings; and (3) no maintenance. The device has been tested up to 5000 rpm of rotor speed

  1. Knee Angle and Stride Length in Association with Ball Speed in Youth Baseball Pitchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart van Trigt

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether stride length and knee angle of the leading leg at foot contact, at the instant of maximal external rotation of the shoulder, and at ball release are associated with ball speed in elite youth baseball pitchers. In this study, fifty-two elite youth baseball pitchers (mean age 15.2 SD (standard deviation 1.7 years pitched ten fastballs. Data were collected with three high-speed video cameras at a frequency of 240 Hz. Stride length and knee angle of the leading leg were calculated at foot contact, maximal external rotation, and ball release. The associations between these kinematic variables and ball speed were separately determined using generalized estimating equations. Stride length as percentage of body height and knee angle at foot contact were not significantly associated with ball speed. However, knee angles at maximal external rotation and ball release were significantly associated with ball speed. Ball speed increased by 0.45 m/s (1 mph with an increase in knee extension of 18 degrees at maximal external rotation and 19.5 degrees at ball release. In conclusion, more knee extension of the leading leg at maximal external rotation and ball release is associated with higher ball speeds in elite youth baseball pitchers.

  2. Material properties of Al-Si-Cu aluminium alloy produced by the rotational cast technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Syahid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to explore microstructural and mechanical properties of cast Al-Si-Cu aluminum alloy (ADC12. To obtain excellent material properties, the cast Al alloys were produced by an originally developed mold rotational machine, namely liquid aluminum alloy is solidified during high speed rotating. The casting process was conducted under various casting conditions, in which the following factors were altered, e.g., melt temperature, metal mold temperature and different rotational speed. Microstructural characteristics were examined by direct observation using an optical microscope and a scanning electron microscope (SEM, and the secondary dendrite arm spacing of alpha-Al phase (SDAS and the size of Si eutectic phase were identified. Mechanical properties were investigated by micro-hardness and tensile tests. Rotation speed and melt temperature were directly attributed to the SDAS, and severe shear stress arising from the rotation made fine and complicated grain structure, leading to the high mechanical properties. The extent of the shear stress was altered depending on the area of the sample due to the different shear stress. Furthermore, high melt temperature and high rotational speed decrease the size of Si eutectic phases. The high mechanical properties were detected for the cast samples produced by the casting condition as follows: melt temperature 700oC, mold temperature 400oC and rotation speed 400 rpm

  3. Study on design and cutting parameters of rotating needles for core biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, Marco; Ren, Huaqing; Cao, Jian; Ehmann, Kornel

    2018-06-15

    Core needle biopsies are widely adopted medical procedures that consist in the removal of biological tissue to better identify a lesion or an abnormality observed through a physical exam or a radiology scan. These procedures can provide significantly more information than most medical tests and they are usually performed on bone lesions, breast masses, lymph nodes and the prostate. The quality of the samples mainly depends on the forces exerted by the needle during the cutting process. The reduction of these forces is critical to extract high-quality tissue samples. The most critical factors that affect the cutting forces are the geometry of the needle tip and its motion while it is penetrating the tissue. However, optimal needle tip configurations and cutting parameters are not well established for rotating insertions. In this paper, the geometry and cutting forces of hollow needles are investigated. The fundamental goal of this study is to provide a series of guidelines for clinicians and surgeons to properly select the optimal tip geometries and speeds. Analytical models related to the cutting angles of several needle tip designs are presented and compared. Several needle tip geometries were manufactured from a 14-gauge cannula, commonly adopted during breast biopsies. The needles were then tested at different speeds and on different phantom tissues. According to these experimental measurements recommendations were formulated for rotating needle insertions. The findings of this study can be applied and extended to several biopsy procedures in which a cannula is used to extract tissue samples. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Unsteady flow over a decelerating rotating sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkyilmazoglu, M.

    2018-03-01

    Unsteady flow analysis induced by a decelerating rotating sphere is the main concern of this paper. A revolving sphere in a still fluid is supposed to slow down at an angular velocity rate that is inversely proportional to time. The governing partial differential equations of motion are scaled in accordance with the literature, reducing to the well-documented von Kármán equations in the special circumstance near the pole. Both numerical and perturbation approaches are pursued to identify the velocity fields, shear stresses, and suction velocity far above the sphere. It is detected that an induced flow surrounding the sphere acts accordingly to adapt to the motion of the sphere up to some critical unsteadiness parameters at certain latitudes. Afterward, the decay rate of rotation ceases such that the flow at the remaining azimuths starts revolving freely. At a critical unsteadiness parameter corresponding to s = -0.681, the decelerating sphere rotates freely and requires no more torque. At a value of s exactly matching the rotating disk flow at the pole identified in the literature, the entire flow field around the sphere starts revolving faster than the disk itself. Increasing values of -s almost diminish the radial outflow. This results in jet flows in both the latitudinal and meridional directions, concentrated near the wall region. The presented mean flow results will be useful for analyzing the instability features of the flow, whether of a convective or absolute nature.

  5. Maximizing Energy Capture of Fixed-Pitch Variable-Speed Wind Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, K.; Migliore, P.

    2000-08-01

    Field tests of a variable-speed, stall-regulated wind turbine were conducted at a US Department of Energy Laboratory. A variable-speed generating system, comprising a doubly-fed generator and series-resonant power converter, was installed on a 275-kW, downwind, two-blade wind turbine. Gearbox, generator, and converter efficiency were measured in the laboratory so that rotor aerodynamic efficiency could be determined from field measurement of generator power. The turbine was operated at several discrete rotational speeds to develop power curves for use in formulating variable-speed control strategies. Test results for fixed-speed and variable-speed operation are presented along with discussion and comparison of the variable-speed control methodologies. Where possible, comparisons between fixed-speed and variable-speed operation are shown.

  6. On selection rules in vibrational and rotational molecular spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guichardet, A.

    1986-01-01

    The aim of this work is a rigorous proof of the Selection Rules in Molecular Spectroscopy (Vibration and Rotation). To get this we give mathematically rigorous definitions of the (tensor) transition operators, in this case the electric dipole moment; this is done, firstly by considering the molecule as a set of point atomic kernels performing arbitrary motions, secondly by limiting ourselves either to infinitesimal vibration motions, or to arbitrary rotation motions. Then the selection rules follow from an abstract formulation of the Wigner-Eckart theorem. In a last paragraph we discuss the problem of separating vibration and rotation motions; very simple ideas from Differential Geometry, linked with the ''slice theorem'', allow us to define the relative speeds, the solid motions speeds, the Coriolis energies and the moving Eckart frames [fr

  7. Modifications in Wheelchair Propulsion Technique with Speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Ian M; Raina, Shashank; Requejo, Philip S; Wilcox, Rand R; Mulroy, Sara; McNitt-Gray, Jill L

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive loading of the upper limb joints during manual wheelchair (WC) propulsion (WCP) has been identified as a factor that contributes to shoulder pain, leading to loss of independence and decreased quality of life. The purpose of this study was to determine how individual manual WC users with paraplegia modify propulsion mechanics to accommodate expected increases in reaction forces (RFs) generated at the pushrim with self-selected increases in WCP speed. Upper extremity kinematics and pushrim RFs were measured for 40 experienced manual WC users with paraplegia while propelling on a stationary ergometer at self-selected free and fast propulsion speeds. Upper extremity kinematics and kinetics were compared within subject between propulsion speeds. Between group and within-subject differences were determined (α = 0.05). Increased propulsion speed was accompanied by increases in RF magnitude (22 of 40, >10 N) and shoulder net joint moment (NJM, 15 of 40, >10 Nm) and decreases in pushrim contact duration. Within-subject comparison indicated that 27% of participants modified their WCP mechanics with increases in speed by regulating RF orientation relative to the upper extremity segments. Reorientation of the RF relative to the upper extremity segments can be used as an effective strategy for mitigating rotational demands (NJM) imposed on the shoulder at increased propulsion speeds. Identification of propulsion strategies that individuals can use to effectively accommodate for increases in RFs is an important step toward preserving musculoskeletal health of the shoulder and improving health-related quality of life.

  8. The optical rotator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tandrup, T; Gundersen, Hans Jørgen Gottlieb; Jensen, Eva B. Vedel

    1997-01-01

    further discuss the methods derived from this principle and present two new local volume estimators. The optical rotator benefits from information obtained in all three dimensions in thick sections but avoids over-/ underprojection problems at the extremes of the cell. Using computer-assisted microscopes......The optical rotator is an unbiased, local stereological principle for estimation of cell volume and cell surface area in thick, transparent slabs, The underlying principle was first described in 1993 by Kieu Jensen (T. Microsc. 170, 45-51) who also derived an estimator of length, In this study we...... the extra measurements demand minimal extra effort and make this estimator even more efficient when it comes to estimation of individual cell size than many of the previous local estimators, We demonstrate the principle of the optical rotator in an example (the cells in the dorsal root ganglion of the rat...

  9. Vibrations of rotating machinery

    CERN Document Server

    Matsushita, Osami; Kanki, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Masao; Keogh, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    This book opens with an explanation of the vibrations of a single degree-of-freedom (dof) system for all beginners. Subsequently, vibration analysis of multi-dof systems is explained by modal analysis. Mode synthesis modeling is then introduced for system reduction, which aids understanding in a simplified manner of how complicated rotors behave. Rotor balancing techniques are offered for rigid and flexible rotors through several examples. Consideration of gyroscopic influences on the rotordynamics is then provided and vibration evaluation of a rotor-bearing system is emphasized in terms of forward and backward whirl rotor motions through eigenvalue (natural frequency and damping ratio) analysis. In addition to these rotordynamics concerning rotating shaft vibration measured in a stationary reference frame, blade vibrations are analyzed with Coriolis forces expressed in a rotating reference frame. Other phenomena that may be assessed in stationary and rotating reference frames include stability characteristic...

  10. Ordered structures in rotating ultracold Bose gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barberan, N.; Dagnino, D.; Lewenstein, M.; Osterloh, K.

    2006-01-01

    Two-dimentional systems of trapped samples of few cold bosonic atoms submitted to strong rotation around the perpendicular axis may be realized in optical lattices and microtraps. We investigate theoretically the evolution of ground state structures of such systems as the rotational frequency Ω increases. Various kinds of ordered structures are observed. In some cases, hidden interference patterns exhibit themselves only in the pair correlation function; in some other cases explicit broken-symmetry structures appear that modulate the density. For N<10 atoms, the standard scenario, valid for large sytems is absent, and is only gradually recovered as N increases. On the one hand, the Laughlin state in the strong rotational regime contains ordered structures much more similar to a Wigner molecule than to a fermionic quantum liquid. On the other hand, in the weak rotational regime, the possibility to obtain equilibrium states, whose density reveals an array of vortices, is restricted to the vicinity of some critical values of the rotational frequency Ω

  11. Measurements of Drag Coefficients and Rotation Rates of Free-Falling Helixes

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Omari, Abdulrhaman A.

    2016-01-01

    in water, glycerol and a mixture of 30% glycerol in water. That generated rotation due to helical angle in water. However, we observe the rotation disappear in glycerol. The movement of the solid helical shapes is imaged using a high-speed video camera

  12. On Stationary Navier-Stokes Flows Around a Rotating Obstacle in Two-Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higaki, Mitsuo; Maekawa, Yasunori; Nakahara, Yuu

    2018-05-01

    We study the two-dimensional stationary Navier-Stokes equations describing the flows around a rotating obstacle. The unique existence of solutions and their asymptotic behavior at spatial infinity are established when the rotation speed of the obstacle and the given exterior force are sufficiently small.

  13. Rotating bubble membrane radiator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Brent J.; Coomes, Edmund P.

    1988-12-06

    A heat radiator useful for expelling waste heat from a power generating system aboard a space vehicle is disclosed. Liquid to be cooled is passed to the interior of a rotating bubble membrane radiator, where it is sprayed into the interior of the bubble. Liquid impacting upon the interior surface of the bubble is cooled and the heat radiated from the outer surface of the membrane. Cooled liquid is collected by the action of centrifical force about the equator of the rotating membrane and returned to the power system. Details regarding a complete space power system employing the radiator are given.

  14. Unbalance influence on the rotating assembly dynamics of a hydro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurcu, M.; Pădureanu, I.; Campian, C. V.; Haţiegan, C.

    2018-01-01

    The dynamics of the rotating parts of a hydro is characterized by the dynamic interaction between the rotor, the stator and the working fluid in order to operate the hydro. The main factors influencing the dynamics of the rotating parts of a hydro are: rotor unbalance, unbalanced magnetic pull, shaft misalignment and hydraulic flow regime. Rotor unbalanced is one of the most common factors influencing the dynamic stability of the rotating parts of a hydro. The unbalanced is determined by: uneven distribution of rotating masses, displacement of parts in the rotor during rotation, inhomogeneity of rotor component materials, expansion of the rotor due to heating, and rising speed during the transient discharge of the load. The mechanical imbalance of a rotor can lead to important forces, responsible for the vibration of the machine, which ultimately leads to a shorter operating time. Even a low unbalance can lead, in the case of high speed machines, to major unbalance forces that cause significant damage to the equipment. The unbalance forces cause additional vibrations in the bearings as well as in the foundation plate. To avoid these vibrations, it is necessary in the first stage to balance the static rotor in the construction plant and then to a dynamic rotation balancing.

  15. Simulation of Alpha Particles in Rotating Plasma Interacting with a Stationary Ripple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Superthermal ExB rotation can provide magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability and enhanced confinement to axisymmetric mirrors. However, the rotation speed has been limited by phenomena at end electrodes. A new prediction is that rotation might instead be produced using a magnetic ripple and alpha particle kinetic energy, in an extension of the alpha channeling concept. The interaction of alpha particles with the ripple results in visually interesting and practically useful orbits.

  16. PERSONALITY AND SPEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard TAY

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available While there has been extensive research on the effect of sensation seeking on risky driving, relatively little research has been conducted on Type-A personality. The motivations for speeding are likely to be different for each group and these differences have important implications for the design, implementation and expected efficacy of road safety countermeasures. This paper examines the influence of sensation seeking and Type-A behavior pattern on speeding behaviour. A sample of 139 staff and students in an Australian university were surveyed in July 2001 to gather information on their gender, age, personality and self-reported speeding behaviour. The data were analysed using correlations and analysis of variance procedures. Finally, some implications for road safety are discussed.

  17. Multi-relaxation-time Lattice Boltzman model for uniform-shear flow over a rotating circular cylinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemati Hasan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical investigation of the two-dimensional laminar flow and heat transfer a rotating circular cylinder with uniform planar shear, where the free-stream velocity varies linearly across the cylinder using Multi-Relaxation-Time Lattice Boltzmann method is conducted. The effects of variation of Reynolds number, rotational speed ratio at shear rate 0.1, blockage ratio 0.1 and Prandtl number 0.71 are studied. The Reynolds number changing from 50 to 160 for three rotational speed ratios of 0, 0.5, 1 is investigated. Results show that flow and heat transfer depends significantly on the rotational speed ratio as well as the Reynolds number. The effect of Reynolds number on the vortex-shedding frequency and period-surface Nusselt numbers is overall very strong compared with rotational speed ratio. Flow and heat conditions characteristics such as lift and drag coefficients, Strouhal number and Nusselt numbers are studied.

  18. The Stability of Magnetized Rotating Plasmas with Superthermal Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pessah, Martin Elias; Psaltis, Dimitrios

    2005-01-01

    be taken fully into account. We demonstrate that the presence of a strong toroidal component in the magnetic field plays a non-trivial role. When strong fields are considered, the strength of the toroidal magnetic field not only modifies the growth rates of the unstable modes but also determines which...... modes are subject to instabilities. We find that, for rotating configurations with Keplerian laws, the magnetorotational instability is stabilized at low wavenumbers for toroidal Alfven speeds exceeding the geometric mean of the sound speed and the rotational speed. We discuss the significance of our......During the last decade it has become evident that the magnetorotational instability is at the heart of the enhanced angular momentum transport in weakly magnetized accretion disks around neutron stars and black holes. In this paper, we investigate the local linear stability of differentially...

  19. Speed-calming measures and their Effect on driving speed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Niels; Knudsen, Daniel; Variyeswaran, Kajan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights •Speed humps and chicanes are widespread speed-calming measures. •Humps and chicanes have virtually the same reducing effect on mean speed. •Chicanes reduce speed variation less than humps and might therefore be a less safe measure....

  20. Motion stability of high-speed maglev systems in consideration of aerodynamic effects: a study of a single magnetic suspension system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Han; Zeng, Xiao-Hui; Yu, Yang

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the intrinsic mechanism of aerodynamic effects on the motion stability of a high-speed maglev system was investigated. The concept of a critical speed for maglev vehicles considering the aerodynamic effect is proposed. The study was carried out based on a single magnetic suspension system, which is convenient for proposing relevant concepts and obtaining explicit expressions. This study shows that the motion stability of the suspension system is closely related to the vehicle speed when aerodynamic effects are considered. With increases of the vehicle speed, the stability behavior of the system changes. At a certain vehicle speed, the stability of the system reaches a critical state, followed by instability. The speed corresponding to the critical state is the critical speed. Analysis reveals that when the system reaches the critical state, it takes two forms, with two critical speeds, and thus two expressions for the critical speed are obtained. The conditions of the existence of the critical speed were determined, and the effects of the control parameters and the lift coefficient on the critical speed were analyzed by numerical analysis. The results show that the first critical speed appears when the aerodynamic force is upward, and the second critical speed appears when the aerodynamic force is downward. Moreover, both critical speeds decrease with the increase of the lift coefficient.

  1. Rotations and angular momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyborg, P.; Froyland, J.

    1979-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the analysis of rotational invariance and the properties of angular momentum in quantum mechanics. In particular, the problem of addition of angular momenta is treated in detail, and tables of Clebsch-Gordan coefficients are included

  2. Negative Rotation Cinch Strap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This project discloses an improved unitary parachute torso harness, having a single fastening means, wherein an auxillary tightening strap is...attached to the groin straps of said harness. Said auxillary straps are used to prevent torso rotation or harness slippage and to prevent harness elongation

  3. A rotating string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, B.

    1993-06-01

    The author presents a global solution of Einstein's equations which represents a rotating cosmic string with a finite coreradius. The importance of pressure for the generation of closed timelike curves outside the coreregion of such strings is clearly displayed in this model due to the simplicity of the source. 10 refs

  4. Rotator Cuff Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connors, G. Patrick

    Many baseball players suffer from shoulder injuries related to the rotator cuff muscles. These injuries may be classified as muscular strain, tendonitis or tenosynovitis, and impingement syndrome. Treatment varies from simple rest to surgery, so it is important to be seen by a physician as soon as possible. In order to prevent these injuries, the…

  5. Rotational dynamics with Tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eadkhong, T; Danworaphong, S; Rajsadorn, R; Jannual, P

    2012-01-01

    We propose the use of Tracker, freeware for video analysis, to analyse the moment of inertia (I) of a cylindrical plate. Three experiments are performed to validate the proposed method. The first experiment is dedicated to find the linear coefficient of rotational friction (b) for our system. By omitting the effect of such friction, we derive I for a cylindrical plate rotated around its central axis from the other two experiments based on the relation between torque and angular acceleration of rotational motion and conservation of energy. Movies of the rotating plate and hung masses are recorded. As a result, we have the deviation of I from its theoretical value of 0.4% and 3.3%, respectively. Our setup is completely constructed from locally available inexpensive materials and the experimental results indicate that the system is highly reliable. This work should pave the way for those who prefer to build a similar setup from scratch at relatively low cost compared to commercial units. (paper)

  6. The Axial Curve Rotator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Walter M.

    This document contains detailed directions for constructing a device that mechanically produces the three-dimensional shape resulting from the rotation of any algebraic line or curve around either axis on the coordinate plant. The device was developed in response to student difficulty in visualizing, and thus grasping the mathematical principles…

  7. Can planetary nebulae rotate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinin, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    It is shown that the inclination of spectral lines observed in a number of planetary nebulae when the spectrograph slit is placed along the major axis, which is presently ascribed to nonuniform expansion of the shells, actually may be due to rotation of the nebulae about their minor axes, as Campbell and Moore have suggested in their reports. It is assumed that the rotation of the central star (or, if the core is a binary system, circular motions of gas along quasi-Keplerian orbits) serves as the source of the original rotation of a protoplanetary nebula. The mechanism providing for strengthening of the original rotation in the process of expansion of the shell is the tangential pressure of L/sub α/ radiation due to the anisotropic properties of the medium and radiation field. The dynamic effect produced by them is evidently greatest in the epoch when the optical depth of the nebula in the L/sub c/ continuum becomes on the order of unity in the course of its expansion

  8. Intelligent Speed Assistance (ISA).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    Intelligent Speed Assistance (ISA) has been a promising type of advanced driver support system for some decades. From a technical point of view, large scale ISA implementation is possible in the short term. The different types of ISA are expected to have different effects on behaviour and traffic

  9. Speed mathematics simplified

    CERN Document Server

    Stoddard, Edward

    1994-01-01

    Entertaining, easy-to-follow suggestions for developing greater speed and accuracy in doing mathematical calculations. Surefire methods for multiplying without carrying, dividing with half the pencil work of long division, plus advice on how to add and subtract rapidly, master fractions, work quickly with decimals, handle percentages, and much more.

  10. High speed metal removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, R. F.; Pohl, R. F.

    1982-10-01

    Four types of steel (AISI 1340, 4140, 4340, and HF-1) which are commonly used in large caliber projectile manufacture were machined at different hardness ranges representing the as-forged and the heat treated condition with various ceramic tools using ceramic coated tungsten carbide as a reference. Results show that machining speeds can be increased significantly using present available tooling.

  11. Variable speed generators

    CERN Document Server

    Boldea, Ion

    2005-01-01

    With the deregulation of electrical energy production and distribution, says Boldea (Polytechnical Institute, Timisoara, Romania) producers are looking for ways to tailor their electricity for different markets. Variable-speed electric generators are serving that purpose, up to the 400 megavolt ampere unit size, in Japan since 1996 and Germany sinc

  12. Tip Speed Ratio Based Maximum Power Tracking Control of Variable Speed Wind Turbines; A Comprehensive Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Karabacak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The most primitive control method of wind turbines used to generate electric energy from wind is the fixed speed control method. With this method, it is not possible that turbine input power is transferred to grid at maximum rate. For this reason, Maximum Power Tracking (MPT schemes are proposed. In order to implement MPT, the propeller has to rotate at a different speed for every different wind speed. This situation has led MPT based systems to be called Variable Speed Wind Turbine (VSWT systems. In VSWT systems, turbine input power can be transferred to grid at rates close to maximum power. When MPT based control of VSWT systems is the case, two important processes come into prominence. These are instantaneously determination and tracking of MPT point. In this study, using a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT method based on tip speed ratio, power available in wind is transferred into grid over a back to back converter at maximum rate via a VSWT system with permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG. Besides a physical wind turbine simulator is modelled and simulated. Results show that a time varying MPPT point is tracked with a high performance.

  13. Speed of light demonstration using Doppler beat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Luis; Bilbao, Luis

    2018-05-01

    From an apparatus previously designed for measuring the Doppler shift using a rotating mirror, an improved, versatile version was developed for speed of light demonstrations in a classroom or a teaching laboratory. By adding a second detector and adequate beam-splitter and mirrors, three different configurations are easily assembled. One configuration is used for time-of-flight measurements between a near and a far detector, allowing one to measure the speed of light provided that the path length between detectors is known. Another variation is the interferometric method obtained by superposing the far and near signals in such a way that a minimum of the combined signal is obtained when the time delay makes the signals arrive out of phase by π radians. Finally, the standard Doppler configuration allows the measurement of the frequency beat as a function of the rotation frequency. The main advantages of the apparatus are (a) the experimental setup is simple and completely accessible to undergraduate students, (b) the light is visible, students can see the rays, which, with the use of appropriate screens, can be blocked at any point along their paths, (c) the experiment can take place entirely within the teaching laboratory or demonstration room (using the interferometric method, the shortest distance to the far mirror was as small as 0.5 m), and (d) different configurations can be built, including some economical setups within the budget of teaching laboratories.

  14. Small Jovian Trojan Asteroids: An Excess of Slow Rotators

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Linda M.

    2016-01-01

    Several lines of evidence support a common origin for, and possible hereditary link between, cometary nuclei and jovian Trojan asteroids. Due to their distance and low albedos, few comet-sized Trojans have been studied. We discuss the rotation properties of Jovian Trojan asteroids less than 30 km in diameter. Approximately half of the objects discussed here were studied using densely sampled lightcurves (French et al. 2015a, b); Stephens et al. 2015), and the other half were sparse lightcurves obtained by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF; Waszcazk et al. 2015). A significant fraction (~40%) of the objects in the ground-based sample rotate slowly (P > 24h), with measured periods as long as 375 h (Warner and Stephens 2011). The PTF data show a similar excess of slow rotators. Only 5 objects in the combined data set have rotation periods of less than six hours. Three of these fast rotators were contained in the data set of French et al. these three had a geometric mean rotation period of 5.29 hours. A prolate spheroid held together by gravity rotating with this period would have a critical density of 0.43 gm/cm3, a density similar to that of comets (Lamy et al. 2004). Harris et al. (2012) and Warner et al. (2011) have explored the possible effects on asteroid rotational statistics with the results from wide-field surveys. We will examine Trojan rotation statistics with and without the results from the PTF.

  15. Hydromagnetic stability of rotating stratified compressible fluid flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, V; Kandaswamy, P [Dept. of Mathematics, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India; Debnath, L [Dept. of Mathematics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, USA

    1984-09-01

    The hydromagnetic stability of a radially stratified compressible fluid rotating between two coaxial cylinders is investigated. The stability with respect to axisymmetric disturbances is examined. The fluid system is found to be thoroughly stable to axisymmetric disturbances provided the fluid rotates very rapidly. The system is shown to be unstable to non-axisymmetric disturbances, and the slow amplifying hydromagnetic wave modes propagate against the basic rotation. The lower and upper bounds of the azimuthal phase speeds of the amplifying waves are determined. A quadrant theorem on the slow waves characteristic of a rapidly rotating fluid is derived. Special attention is given to the effects of compressibility of the fluid. Some results concerning the stability of an incompressible fluid system are obtained as special cases of the present analysis.

  16. Surface acoustic wave micromotor with arbitrary axis rotational capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjeung, Ricky T.; Hughes, Mark S.; Yeo, Leslie Y.; Friend, James R.

    2011-11-01

    A surface acoustic wave (SAW) actuated rotary motor is reported here, consisting of a millimeter-sized spherical metal rotor placed on the surface of a lead zirconate titanate piezoelectric substrate upon which the SAW is made to propagate. At the design frequency of 3.2 MHz and with a fixed preload of 41.1 μN, the maximum rotational speed and torque achieved were approximately 1900 rpm and 5.37 μN-mm, respectively, producing a maximum output power of 1.19 μW. The surface vibrations were visualized using laser Doppler vibrometry and indicate that the rotational motion arises due to retrograde elliptical motions of the piezoelectric surface elements. Rotation about orthogonal axes in the plane of the substrate has been obtained by using orthogonally placed interdigital electrodes on the substrate to generate SAW impinging on the rotor, offering a means to generate rotation about an arbitrary axis in the plane of the substrate.

  17. Thinking Critically about Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulnix, Jennifer Wilson

    2012-01-01

    As a philosophy professor, one of my central goals is to teach students to think critically. However, one difficulty with determining whether critical thinking can be taught, or even measured, is that there is widespread disagreement over what critical thinking actually is. Here, I reflect on several conceptions of critical thinking, subjecting…

  18. Dynamics of a discrete geotropic sensor subject to rotation-induced gravity compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, I.L.

    1976-01-01

    A clinostat achieves gravity compensation by providing circular rotation with uniform speed, about a horizontal axis. The dynamics of an assumed, discrete and free-moving subcellular gravity receptor, subject to clinostat rotation, is analyzed. The results imply that there is an optimum rotation rate; higher speeds result in circular motions with diameters more comparable to thermal noise fluctuations, but with greater linear velocities due to increasing centrifugal forces. An optimizing function is proposed. The nucleolus and mitochondrion is chosen as a gravity receptor for illustrating the use of this theory. The characteristics of their clinostat-induced motions are incorporated with experimental results on Avena plant shoots in an illustrative example.

  19. MPPT Algorithm for Small Wind Systems based on Speed Control Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian VLAD

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents experimental results of an autonomous low-power wind energy conversion system (WECS, based on a permanent-magnet synchronous generator (PMSG connected directly to the wind turbine. The purpose of this paper is to present an improving method for MPPT (Maximum Power Point Tracking algorithm based shaft rotational speed optimal control. The proposed method concern the variable delay compensation between measured wind speed from anemometer and wind shaft rotational speed proportional signal. Experimental results aiming to prove the efficiency of the proposed method are presented.

  20. Wave-driven Rotation in Supersonically Rotating Mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Fetterman and N.J. Fisch

    2010-02-15

    Supersonic rotation in mirrors may be produced by radio frequency waves. The waves produce coupled diffusion in ion kinetic and potential energy. A population inversion along the diffusion path then produces rotation. Waves may be designed to exploit a natural kinetic energy source or may provide the rotation energy on their own. Centrifugal traps for fusion and isotope separation may benefit from this wave-driven rotation.

  1. Wave-driven Rotation in Supersonically Rotating Mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, A.; Fisch, N.J.

    2010-01-01

    Supersonic rotation in mirrors may be produced by radio frequency waves. The waves produce coupled diffusion in ion kinetic and potential energy. A population inversion along the diffusion path then produces rotation. Waves may be designed to exploit a natural kinetic energy source or may provide the rotation energy on their own. Centrifugal traps for fusion and isotope separation may benefit from this wave-driven rotation.

  2. A Mathematical Model of Marine Diesel Engine Speed Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Rajendra Prasad; Balaji, Rajoo

    2018-02-01

    Diesel engine is inherently an unstable machine and requires a reliable control system to regulate its speed for safe and efficient operation. Also, the diesel engine may operate at fixed or variable speeds depending upon user's needs and accordingly the speed control system should have essential features to fulfil these requirements. This paper proposes a mathematical model of a marine diesel engine speed control system with droop governing function. The mathematical model includes static and dynamic characteristics of the control loop components. Model of static characteristic of the rotating fly weights speed sensing element provides an insight into the speed droop features of the speed controller. Because of big size and large time delay, the turbo charged diesel engine is represented as a first order system or sometimes even simplified to a pure integrator with constant gain which is considered acceptable in control literature. The proposed model is mathematically less complex and quick to use for preliminary analysis of the diesel engine speed controller performance.

  3. Improving speed behaviour : the potential of in-car speed assistance and speed limit credibility.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nes, C.N. van Houtenbos, M. & Schagen, I.N.L.G. van

    2009-01-01

    Speeding is still a common practice on many roads and it contributes to a significant number of crashes. Two new approaches to solve speeding issues are focused on: intelligent speed assistance systems (ISA) and speed limit credibility. Research has indicated that ISA is promising with respect to

  4. Motion-induced eddy current thermography for high-speed inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianbo Wu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This letter proposes a novel motion-induced eddy current based thermography (MIECT for high-speed inspection. In contrast to conventional eddy current thermography (ECT based on a time-varying magnetic field created by an AC coil, the motion-induced eddy current is induced by the relative motion between magnetic field and inspected objects. A rotating magnetic field created by three-phase windings is used to investigate the heating principle and feasibility of the proposed method. Firstly, based on Faraday’s law the distribution of MIEC is investigated, which is then validated by numerical simulation. Further, experimental studies are conducted to validate the proposed method by creating rotating magnetic fields at different speeds from 600 rpm to 6000 rpm, and it is verified that rotating speed will increase MIEC intensity and thereafter improve the heating efficiency. The conclusion can be preliminarily drawn that the proposed MIECT is a platform suitable for high-speed inspection.

  5. Improper trunk rotation sequence is associated with increased maximal shoulder external rotation angle and shoulder joint force in high school baseball pitchers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Sakiko; Yu, Bing; Blackburn, J Troy; Padua, Darin A; Li, Li; Myers, Joseph B

    2014-09-01

    In a properly coordinated throwing motion, peak pelvic rotation velocity is reached before peak upper torso rotation velocity, so that angular momentum can be transferred effectively from the proximal (pelvis) to distal (upper torso) segment. However, the effects of trunk rotation sequence on pitching biomechanics and performance have not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of trunk rotation sequence on ball speed and on upper extremity biomechanics that are linked to injuries in high school baseball pitchers. The hypothesis was that pitchers with improper trunk rotation sequence would demonstrate lower ball velocity and greater stress to the joint. Descriptive laboratory study. Three-dimensional pitching kinematics data were captured from 72 high school pitchers. Subjects were considered to have proper or improper trunk rotation sequences when the peak pelvic rotation velocity was reached either before or after the peak upper torso rotation velocity beyond the margin of error (±3.7% of the time from stride-foot contact to ball release). Maximal shoulder external rotation angle, elbow extension angle at ball release, peak shoulder proximal force, shoulder internal rotation moment, and elbow varus moment were compared between groups using independent t tests (α ways that may influence injury risk. As such, exercises that reinforce the use of a proper trunk rotation sequence during the pitching motion may reduce the stress placed on the structures around the shoulder joint and lead to the prevention of injuries. © 2014 The Author(s).

  6. Stability Analysis for Rotating Stall Dynamics in Axial Flow Compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    modes determines collectively local stability of the compressor model. Explicit conditions are obtained for local stability of rotating stall which...critical modes determines the stability for rotating stall collectively . We point out that although in a special case our stability condition for...strict crossing assumption implies that the zero solution changes its stability as ~, crosses ~’c. For instance, odk (yc ) > 0 implies that the zero

  7. Dependence of Shear and Concentration on Fouling in a Membrane Bioreactor with Rotating Membrane Discs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mads Koustrup; Pedersen, Malene Thostrup; Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard

    2014-01-01

    Rotating ceramic membrane discs were fouled with lab-scale membrane bioreactors (MBR) sludge. Sludge filtrations were performed at varying rotation speeds and in different concentric rings of the membranes on different sludge concentrations. Data showed that the back transport expressed by limiting...... flux increased with rotation speed and distance from membrane center as an effect of shear. Further, the limiting flux decreased with increasing sludge concentration. A model was developed to link the sludge concentration and shear stress to the limiting flux. The model was able to simulate the effect...... of shear stress and sludge concentration on the limiting flux. The model was developed by calculating the shear rate at laminar flow regime at different rotation speeds and radii on the membrane. Furthermore, through the shear rate and shear stress, the non-Newtonian behavior of MBR sludge was addressed...

  8. Single rotating stars and the formation of bipolar planetary nebula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Segura, G. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, Km. 103 Carr. Tijuana-Ensenada, 22860 Ensenada, B. C. (Mexico); Villaver, E. [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Langer, N. [Argelander-Institut für Astronomie, Universität Bonn, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Yoon, S.-C. [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Manchado, A., E-mail: ggs@astrosen.unam.mx [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Via Láctea s/n, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2014-03-10

    We have computed new stellar evolution models that include the effects of rotation and magnetic torques under different hypotheses. The goal is to test whether a single star can sustain the rotational velocities needed in the envelope for magnetohydrodynamical(MHD) simulations to shape bipolar planetary nebulae (PNe) when high mass-loss rates take place. Stellar evolution models with main sequence masses of 2.5 and 5 M {sub ☉} and initial rotational velocities of 250 km s{sup –1} have been followed through the PNe formation phase. We find that stellar cores have to be spun down using magnetic torques in order to reproduce the rotation rates observed for white dwarfs. During the asymptotic giant branch phase and beyond, the magnetic braking of the core has a practically null effect on increasing the rotational velocity of the envelope since the stellar angular momentum is efficiently removed by the wind. We have also tested the best possible case scenarios in rather non-physical contexts to give enough angular momentum to the envelope. We find that we cannot get the envelope of a single star to rotate at the speeds needed for MHD simulations to form bipolar PNe. We conclude that single stellar rotators are unlikely to be the progenitors of bipolar PNe under the current MHD model paradigm.

  9. Rotating gravity currents. Part 1. Energy loss theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J. R.; Lane-Serff, G. F.

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive energy loss theory for gravity currents in rotating rectangular channels is presented. The model is an extension of the non-rotating energy loss theory of Benjamin (J. Fluid Mech. vol. 31, 1968, p. 209) and the steady-state dissipationless theory of rotating gravity currents of Hacker (PhD thesis, 1996). The theory assumes the fluid is inviscid, there is no shear within the current, and the Boussinesq approximation is made. Dissipation is introduced using a simple method. A head loss term is introduced into the Bernoulli equation and it is assumed that the energy loss is uniform across the stream. Conservation of momentum, volume flux and potential vorticity between upstream and downstream locations is then considered. By allowing for energy dissipation, results are obtained for channels of arbitrary depth and width (relative to the current). The results match those from earlier workers in the two limits of (i) zero rotation (but including dissipation) and (ii) zero dissipation (but including rotation). Three types of flow are identified as the effect of rotation increases, characterized in terms of the location of the outcropping interface between the gravity current and the ambient fluid on the channel boundaries. The parameters for transitions between these cases are quantified, as is the detailed behaviour of the flow in all cases. In particular, the speed of the current can be predicted for any given channel depth and width. As the channel depth increases, the predicted Froude number tends to surd 2, as for non-rotating flows.

  10. Rotator Cuff Injuries - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Rotator Cuff Injuries URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Rotator Cuff Injuries - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features ...

  11. Asteroid rotation. IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, A.W.; Young, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    The results from the year 1979 of an ongoing program of asteroid photometry at Table Mountain Observatory are presented. The results for 53 asteroids are summarized in a table, showing the number, name, opposition date, taxonomic class, diameter, absolute magnitude, mean absolute magnitude at zero phase angle and values of the absolute magnitude and linear phase coefficient derived from it, the rotation period in hours, peak-to-peak amplitude of variation, difference between mean and maximum brightness, and reliability index. Another table presents data on aspect and comparison stars, including brightness and distance data. Reliable rotation periods are reported for 22 asteroids for which no previous values are known. For seven asteroids, periods are reported which are revisions of previously reported values

  12. Rotatable seal assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibaldi, J.L.; Logan, C.M.

    1982-01-01

    An assembly is provided for rotatably supporting a rotor on a stator so that vacuum chambers in the rotor and stator remain in communication while the chambers are sealed from ambient air, which enables the use of a ball bearing or the like to support most of the weight of the rotor. The apparatus includes a seal device mounted on the rotor to rotate therewith, but shiftable in position on the rotor while being sealed to the rotor as by an oring. The seal device has a flat face that is biased towards a flat face on the stator, and pressurized air is pumped between the faces to prevent contact between them while spacing them a small distance apart to avoid the inflow of large amounts of air between the faces and into the vacuum chambers

  13. Rotator cuff disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziatkin, M.B.; Iannotti, J.P.; Roberts, M.; Dalinka, M.K.; Esterhai, J.L.; Kressel, H.Y.; Lenkinski, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    A dual-surface-coil array in a Helmholtz configuration was used to evaluate th rotator cuff in ten normal volunteers and 44 patients. Studies were performed with a General Electric 1.5-T MR imager. Thirty-two patients underwent surgery, 25 of whom also underwent arthrography. In comparison with surgery, MR imaging was more sensitive than arthrography for rotator cuff tears (91% vs 71%). The specificity and accuracy of MR imaging were 88% and 91%. The accuracy increased with use of an MR grading system. MR findings correlated with surgical findings with regard to the size and site of tears. MR findings of cuff tears were studied with multivariate analysis. Correlation was also found between a clinical score, the MR grade, and the clinical outcome

  14. The Spatiale Rotator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmusson, Allan

    2009-01-01

    it is embedded and sectioned. This has the unfortunate side effect that all information about positioning within the object is lost for blocks and sections. For complex tissue, like the mammalian brain, this information is of utmost importance to ensure measurements are performed in the correct region......The inherent demand for unbiasedness for some stereological estimators imposes a demand of not only positional uniform randomness but also isotropic randomness, i.e. directional uniform randomness. In order to comply with isotropy, one must perform a random rotation of the object of interest before...... is obeyed by randomizing the orientation of the virtual probe itself within the thick section. Overall, the benefit is that positional information is kept for any block and section of the specimen. As the Spatial Rotator is a 3D probe, data must be gathered from sections thicker than 25 micro meters to form...

  15. Rotational spectrum of tryptophan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanz, M. Eugenia, E-mail: maria.sanz@kcl.ac.uk; Cabezas, Carlos, E-mail: ccabezas@qf.uva.es; Mata, Santiago, E-mail: santiago.mata@uva.es; Alonso, Josè L., E-mail: jlalonso@qf.uva.es [Grupo de Espectroscopia Molecular (GEM), Edificio Quifima, Laboratorios de Espectroscopia y Bioespectroscopia, Unidad Asociada CSIC, Parque Científico Uva, Universidad de Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2014-05-28

    The rotational spectrum of the natural amino acid tryptophan has been observed for the first time using a combination of laser ablation, molecular beams, and Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy. Independent analysis of the rotational spectra of individual conformers has conducted to a definitive identification of two different conformers of tryptophan, with one of the observed conformers never reported before. The analysis of the {sup 14}N nuclear quadrupole coupling constants is of particular significance since it allows discrimination between structures, thus providing structural information on the orientation of the amino group. Both observed conformers are stabilized by an O–H···N hydrogen bond in the side chain and a N–H···π interaction forming a chain that reinforce the strength of hydrogen bonds through cooperative effects.

  16. Critical Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critical care helps people with life-threatening injuries and illnesses. It might treat problems such as complications from surgery, ... attention by a team of specially-trained health care providers. Critical care usually takes place in an ...

  17. A computational procedure to define the incidence angle on airfoils rotating around an axis orthogonal to flow direction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianchini, Alessandro; Balduzzi, Francesco; Ferrara, Giovanni; Ferrari, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • New method to calculate the incidence angle from a computed CFD flow field. • Applicable to each airfoil rotating around an axis orthogonal to flow direction. • Composed by four, easily automatable steps explained in details. • Robustness of the model assessed on two Darrieus turbine study cases. - Abstract: Numerical simulations provided in the last few years a significant contribution for a better understanding of many phenomena connected to the flow past rotating blades. In case of airfoils rotating around an axis orthogonal to flow direction, one of the most critical issues is represented by the definition of the incidence angle on the airfoil from the computed flow field. Incidence indeed changes continuously as a function of the azimuthal position of the blade and a distribution of peripheral speed is experienced along the airfoil’s thickness due to radius variation. The possibility of reducing the flow to lumped parameters (relative speed modulus and direction), however, would be of capital relevance to transpose accurate CFD numerical results into effective inputs to low-order models that are often exploited for preliminary design analyses. If several techniques are available for this scope in the case of blades rotating around an axis parallel to flow direction (e.g., horizontal-axis wind turbines), the definition of a robust procedure in case the revolution axis is orthogonal to the flow is still missing. In the study, a novel technique has been developed using data from Darrieus-like rotating airfoils. The method makes use of the virtual camber theory to define a virtual airfoil whose pressure coefficient distributions in straight flow are used to match those of the real airfoil in curved flow. Even if developed originally for vertical-axis wind turbines, the method is of general validity and is thought to represent in the near future a valuable tool for researchers to get a new insight on many complex phenomena connected to flow

  18. HPOTP low-speed flexible rotor balancing, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, J.; Zorzi, E.

    1985-01-01

    A method was developed that shows promise in overcoming many balancing limitations. This method establishes one or more windows for low speed, out-of-housing balancing of flexible rotors. These windows are regions of speed and support flexibility where two conditions are simultaneously fulfilled. First, the rotor system behaves flexibly; therefore, there is separation among balance planes. Second, the response due to balance weights is large enough to reliably measure. The analytic formulation of the low-speed flexible rotor balancing method is described. The results of proof-of-principle tests conducted under the program are presented. Based on this effort, it is concluded that low speed flexible rotor balancing is a viable technology. In particular, the method can be used to balance a rotor bearing system at low speed which results in smooth operation above more than one bending critical speed. Furthermore, this balancing methodology is applicable to SSME turbopump rotors.

  19. Rotator cuff tendon connections with the rotator cable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahu, Madis; Kolts, Ivo; Põldoja, Elle; Kask, Kristo

    2017-07-01

    The literature currently contains no descriptions of the rotator cuff tendons, which also describes in relation to the presence and characteristics of the rotator cable (anatomically known as the ligamentum semicirculare humeri). The aim of the current study was to elucidate the detailed anatomy of the rotator cuff tendons in association with the rotator cable. Anatomic dissection was performed on 21 fresh-frozen shoulder specimens with an average age of 68 years. The rotator cuff tendons were dissected from each other and from the glenohumeral joint capsule, and the superior glenohumeral, coracohumeral, coracoglenoidal and semicircular (rotator cable) ligaments were dissected. Dissection was performed layer by layer and from the bursal side to the joint. All ligaments and tendons were dissected in fine detail. The rotator cable was found in all specimens. It was tightly connected to the supraspinatus (SSP) tendon, which was partly covered by the infraspinatus (ISP) tendon. The posterior insertion area of the rotator cable was located in the region between the middle and inferior facets of the greater tubercle of the humerus insertion areas for the teres minor (TM), and ISP tendons were also present and fibres from the SSP extended through the rotator cable to those areas. The connection between the rotator cable and rotator cuff tendons is tight and confirms the suspension bridge theory for rotator cuff tears in most areas between the SSP tendons and rotator cable. In its posterior insertion area, the rotator cable is a connecting structure between the TM, ISP and SSP tendons. These findings might explain why some patients with relatively large rotator cuff tears can maintain seamless shoulder function.

  20. High speed network sampling

    OpenAIRE

    Rindalsholt, Ole Arild

    2005-01-01

    Master i nettverks- og systemadministrasjon Classical Sampling methods play an important role in the current practice of Internet measurement. With today’s high speed networks, routers cannot manage to generate complete Netflow data for every packet. They have to perform restricted sampling. This thesis summarizes some of the most important sampling schemes and their applications before diving into an analysis on the effect of sampling Netflow records.

  1. The rotational spectrum of IBr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiemann, E.; Moeller, T.

    1975-01-01

    The microwave spectrum of IBr was measured in the low rotational transition J = 3 → 2 in order to resolve the hyperfine structure as completely as possible. Rotational constants and quadrupole coupling constants were derived for both nuclei. The observation of the rotational spectrum in different vibrational states yields the vibrational dependence of the rotational constants as well as of the hyperfine parameters. The Dunham potential coefficients α 0 , α 1 , α 2 , α 3 are given. (orig.) [de

  2. Snakes and spin rotators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.

    1990-01-01

    The generalized snake configuration offers advantages of either shorter total snake length and smaller orbit displacement in the compact configuration or the multi-functions in the split configuration. We found that the compact configuration can save about 10% of the total length of a snake. On other hand, the spilt snake configuration can be used both as a snake and as a spin rotator for the helicity state. Using the orbit compensation dipoles, the spilt snake configuration can be located at any distance on both sides of the interaction point of a collider provided that there is no net dipole rotation between two halves of the snake. The generalized configuration is then applied to the partial snake excitation. Simple formula have been obtained to understand the behavior of the partial snake. Similar principle can also be applied to the spin rotators. We also estimate the possible snake imperfections are due to various construction errors of the dipole magnets. Accuracy of field error of better than 10 -4 will be significant. 2 refs., 5 figs

  3. Rotational instability in a linear theta pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekdahl, C.; Bartsch, R.R.; Commisso, R.J.; Gribble, R.F.; McKenna, K.F.; Miller, G.; Siemon, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    The m=1 ''wobble'' instability of the plasma column in a 5-m linear theta pinch has been studied using an axial array of orthogonally viewing position detectors to resolve the wavelength and frequency of the column motion. The experimental results are compared with recent theoretical predictions that include finite Larmor orbit effects. The frequency and wavelength characteristics at saturation agree with the predicted dispersion relation for a plasma rotating faster than the diamagnetic drift speed. Measurements of the magnetic fields at the ends of the pinch establish the existence of currents flowing in such a way that they short out the radial electric fields in the plasma column. The magnitude of rotation, the observed delay in the onset of m=1 motion, and the magnitude of end-shorting currents can all be understood in terms of the torsional Alfven waves that communicate to the central plasma column the information that the ends have been shorted. The same waves are responsible for the torque which rotates the plasma and leads to the observed m=1 instability. Observations of the plasma in the presence of solid end plugs indicate a stabilization of high-m number modes and a reduction of the m=1 amplitude

  4. A Peristaltic Micro Pump Driven by a Rotating Motor with Magnetically Attracted Steel Balls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoying Zhou

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a membrane peristaltic micro pump driven by a rotating motor with magnetically attracted steel balls for lab-on-a-chip applications. The fabrication process is based on standard soft lithography technology and bonding of a PDMS layer with a PMMA substrate. A linear flow rate range ~490 μL/min was obtained by simply varying the rotation speed of a DC motor, and a maximum back pressure of 592 Pa was achieved at a rotation speed of 43 rpm. The flow rate of the pump can also be adjusted by using steel balls with different diameters or changing the number of balls. Nevertheless, the micro pump can also work in high speed mode. A high back pressure up to 10 kPa was achieved at 500 rpm using a high speed DC motor, and an utmost flow rate up to 5 mL/min was reached.

  5. Sensitivity Analysis of the Critical Speed in Railway Vehicle Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bigoni, Daniele; True, Hans; Engsig-Karup, Allan Peter

    2014-01-01

    We present an approach to global sensitivity analysis aiming at the reduction of its computational cost without compromising the results. The method is based on sampling methods, cubature rules, High-Dimensional Model Representation and Total Sensitivity Indices. The approach has a general applic...

  6. Ultraspinning instability of rotating black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Oscar J. C.; Figueras, Pau; Monteiro, Ricardo; Santos, Jorge E.

    2010-01-01

    Rapidly rotating Myers-Perry black holes in d≥6 dimensions were conjectured to be unstable by Emparan and Myers. In a previous publication, we found numerically the onset of the axisymmetric ultraspinning instability in the singly spinning Myers-Perry black hole in d=7, 8, 9. This threshold also signals a bifurcation to new branches of axisymmetric solutions with pinched horizons that are conjectured to connect to the black ring, black Saturn and other families in the phase diagram of stationary solutions. We firmly establish that this instability is also present in d=6 and in d=10, 11. The boundary conditions of the perturbations are discussed in detail for the first time, and we prove that they preserve the angular velocity and temperature of the original Myers-Perry black hole. This property is fundamental to establishing a thermodynamic necessary condition for the existence of this instability in general rotating backgrounds. We also prove a previous claim that the ultraspinning modes cannot be pure gauge modes. Finally we find new ultraspinning Gregory-Laflamme instabilities of rotating black strings and branes that appear exactly at the critical rotation predicted by the aforementioned thermodynamic criterium. The latter is a refinement of the Gubser-Mitra conjecture.

  7. Elastic Stress Analysis of Rotating Functionally Graded Annular Disk of Variable Thickness Using Finite Difference Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hadi Jalali

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Elastic stress analysis of rotating variable thickness annular disk made of functionally graded material (FGM is presented. Elasticity modulus, density, and thickness of the disk are assumed to vary radially according to a power-law function. Radial stress, circumferential stress, and radial deformation of the rotating FG annular disk of variable thickness with clamped-clamped (C-C, clamped-free (C-F, and free-free (F-F boundary conditions are obtained using the numerical finite difference method, and the effects of the graded index, thickness variation, and rotating speed on the stresses and deformation are evaluated. It is shown that using FG material could decrease the value of radial stress and increase the radial displacement in a rotating thin disk. It is also demonstrated that increasing the rotating speed can strongly increase the stress in the FG annular disk.

  8. Balancing High-Speed Rotors at Low Speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, J.; Zorzi, E.

    1986-01-01

    Flexible balancing reduces vibrations at operating speeds. Highspeed rotors in turbomachines dynamically balanced at fraction of operating rotor speed. New method takes into account rotor flexible rather than rigid.

  9. Speed, speed variation and crash relationships for urban arterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuesong; Zhou, Qingya; Quddus, Mohammed; Fan, Tianxiang; Fang, Shou'en

    2018-04-01

    Speed and speed variation are closely associated with traffic safety. There is, however, a dearth of research on this subject for the case of urban arterials in general, and in the context of developing nations. In downtown Shanghai, the traffic conditions in each direction are very different by time of day, and speed characteristics during peak hours are also greatly different from those during off-peak hours. Considering that traffic demand changes with time and in different directions, arterials in this study were divided into one-way segments by the direction of flow, and time of day was differentiated and controlled for. In terms of data collection, traditional fixed-based methods have been widely used in previous studies, but they fail to capture the spatio-temporal distributions of speed along a road. A new approach is introduced to estimate speed variation by integrating spatio-temporal speed fluctuation of a single vehicle with speed differences between vehicles using taxi-based high frequency GPS data. With this approach, this paper aims to comprehensively establish a relationship between mean speed, speed variation and traffic crashes for the purpose of formulating effective speed management measures, specifically using an urban dataset. From a total of 234 one-way road segments from eight arterials in Shanghai, mean speed, speed variation, geometric design features, traffic volume, and crash data were collected. Because the safety effects of mean speed and speed variation may vary at different segment lengths, arterials with similar signal spacing density were grouped together. To account for potential correlations among these segments, a hierarchical Poisson log-normal model with random effects was developed. Results show that a 1% increase in mean speed on urban arterials was associated with a 0.7% increase in total crashes, and larger speed variation was also associated with increased crash frequency. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  10. Some results on rotating fluid balls of Petrov type D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, M [Department of Physics, Umeaa University, SE-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden); Eriksson, D [Department of Physics, Umeaa University, SE-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden); Fodor, G [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, H-1525, Budapest 114, P.O.B. 49 (Hungary); Racz, I [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, H-1525, Budapest 114, P.O.B. 49 (Hungary)

    2007-05-15

    The second order perturbative field equations for slowly and rigidly rotating perfect fluid balls of Petrov type D are solved numerically. It is found that all the slowly and rigidly rotating perfect fluid balls up to second order, irrespective of Petrov type, may be matched to a possibly non-asymptotically flat stationary axisymmetric vacuum exterior. A subspace of the parameter space is identified for which the solutions can be matched to an asymptotically flat exterior vacuum region. The physical properties like equations of state, shapes and speeds of sound are determined for a number of solutions.

  11. Plasma rotation and rf heating in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeGrassie, J.S.; Baker, D.R.; Burrell, K.H.

    1999-05-01

    In a variety of discharge conditions on DIII-D it is observed that rf electron heating reduces the toroidal rotation speed and core ion temperature. The rf heating can be with either fast wave or electron cyclotron heating and this effect is insensitive to the details of the launched toroidal wavenumber spectrum. To date all target discharges have rotation first established with co-directed neutral beam injection. A possible cause is enhanced ion momentum and thermal diffusivity due to electron heating effectively creating greater anomalous viscosity. Another is that a counter directed toroidal force is applied to the bulk plasma via rf driven radial current

  12. Numerical simulation of VAWT on the effects of rotation cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Shuda; Cao, Yang; Ren, Fuji

    2017-06-01

    Based on Finite Element Analysis Method, studying on Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) which is added rotating cylinder in front of its air foils, especially focusing on the analysis of NACA6 series air foils about variation of lift to drag ratio. Choosing the most suitable blades with rotary cylinder added on leading edge. Analysis indicates that the front rotating cylinders on the VAWT is benefit to lift rise and drag fall. The most suitable air foil whose design lift coefficient is 0.8, the blades relative thickness is 20%, and the optimistic tip speed ratio is about 7.

  13. Bubble Pinch-Off in a Rotating Flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergmann, Raymond; Andersen, Anders Peter; van der Meer, Devaraj

    2009-01-01

    We create air bubbles at the tip of a "bathtub vortex" which reaches to a finite depth. The bathtub vortex is formed by letting water drain through a small hole at the bottom of a rotating cylindrical container. The tip of the needlelike surface dip is unstable at high rotation rates and releases...... bubbles which are carried down by the flow. Using high-speed imaging we find that the minimal neck radius of the unstable tip decreases in time as a power law with an exponent close to 1/3. This exponent was found by Gordillo et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 194501 (2005)] to govern gas flow driven pinch...

  14. Plasma rotation and rf heating in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassie, J. S. de; Baker, D. R.; Burrell, K. H.; Greenfield, C. M.; Lin-Liu, Y. R.; Luce, T. C.; Petty, C. C.; Prater, R.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Rice, B. W.

    1999-01-01

    In a variety of discharge conditions on DIII-D it is observed that rf electron heating reduces the toroidal rotation speed and core ion temperature. The rf heating can be with either fast wave or electron cyclotron heating and this effect is insensitive to the details of the launched toroidal wavenumber spectrum. To date all target discharges have rotation first established with co-directed neutral beam injection. A possible cause is enhanced ion momentum and thermal diffusivity due to electron heating effectively creating greater anomalous viscosity. Another is that a counter directed toroidal force is applied to the bulk plasma via rf driven radial current. (c) 1999 American Institute of Physics

  15. Secondary Flow Phenomena in Rotating Radial Straight Pipes

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, K. C.; Wang, Liqiu

    1995-01-01

    Flow visualization results for secondary flow phenomena near the exit of a rotating radial-axis straight pipe (length ࡁ = 82 cm, inside diameter d = 3.81 cm, ࡁ/d 21.52) are presented to study the stabilizing (relaminarization) and destabilizing (early transition from laminar to turbulent flow) effects of Coriolis forces for Reynolds numbers Re = 500 ∼ 4,500 and rotating speeds n = 0 ∼ 200 rpm. The flow visualization was realised by smoke injection method. The main features of the trans...

  16. Finite-element analysis and modal testing of a rotating wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carne, T. G.; Lobitz, D. W.; Nord, A. R.; Watson, R. A.

    1982-10-01

    A finite element procedure, which includes geometric stiffening, and centrifugal and Coriolis terms resulting from the use of a rotating coordinate system, was developed to compute the mode shapes and frequencies of rotating structures. Special applications of this capability was made to Darrieus, vertical axis wind turbines. In a parallel development effort, a technique for the modal testing of a rotating vertical axis wind turbine is established to measure modal parameters directly. Results from the predictive and experimental techniques for the modal frequencies and mode shapes are compared over a wide range of rotational speeds.

  17. Finite element analysis and modal testing of a rotating wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carne, T. G.; Lobitz, D. W.; Nord, A. R.; Watson, R. A.

    A finite element procedure, which includes geometric stiffening, and centrifugal and Coriolis terms resulting from the use of a rotating coordinate system, has been developed to compute the mode shapes and frequencies of rotating structures. Special application of this capability has been made to Darrieus, vertical axis wind turbines. In a parallel development effort, a technique for the modal testing of a rotating vertical axis wind turbine has been established to measure modal parameters directly. Results from the predictive and experimental techniques for the modal frequencies and mode shapes are compared over a wide range of rotational speeds.

  18. Analysis of toroidal rotation data for the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St John, H.; Stroth, U.; Burrell, K.H.; Groebner, R.J.; DeBoo, J.C.; Gohil, P.

    1989-01-01

    Both poloidal and toroidal rotation are observed during routine neutral beam heating operation of the DIII-D tokamak. Poloidal rotation results and the empirical techniques used to measure toroidal and poloidal rotation speeds are described by Groebner. Here we concentrate on the analysis of recent measurements of toroidal rotation made during diverted, H-mode operation of the DIII-D tokamak during co- and counter-neutral beam injection of hydrogen into deuterium plasmas. Our results are based on numerical inversions using the transport code ONETWO, modified to account for the radial diffusion of toroidal angular momentum. 13 refs., 4 figs

  19. Analysis of toroidal rotation data for the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, H.St.; Burrell, K.H.; Groebner, R.; DeBoo, J.; Gohil, P.

    1989-01-01

    Both poloidal and toroidal rotation are observed during routine neutral beam heating operation of the DIII-D tokamak. Poloidal rotation results and the empirical techniques used to measure toroidal and poloidal rotation speeds are described by Groebner et al. Here we concentrate on the analysis of recent measurements of toroidal rotation made during diverted, H-mode operation of the DIII-D tokamak during co- and counter-neutral beam injection of hydrogen into deuterium plasmas. Similar studies have been previously reported for Doublet III, ASDEX, TFTR, JET and other tokamaks. (author) 13 refs., 4 figs

  20. The role of visual processing speed in reading speed development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobier, Muriel; Dubois, Matthieu; Valdois, Sylviane

    2013-01-01

    A steady increase in reading speed is the hallmark of normal reading acquisition. However, little is known of the influence of visual attention capacity on children's reading speed. The number of distinct visual elements that can be simultaneously processed at a glance (dubbed the visual attention span), predicts single-word reading speed in both normal reading and dyslexic children. However, the exact processes that account for the relationship between the visual attention span and reading speed remain to be specified. We used the Theory of Visual Attention to estimate visual processing speed and visual short-term memory capacity from a multiple letter report task in eight and nine year old children. The visual attention span and text reading speed were also assessed. Results showed that visual processing speed and visual short term memory capacity predicted the visual attention span. Furthermore, visual processing speed predicted reading speed, but visual short term memory capacity did not. Finally, the visual attention span mediated the effect of visual processing speed on reading speed. These results suggest that visual attention capacity could constrain reading speed in elementary school children.

  1. Monitoring speed before and during a speed publicity campaign.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schagen, I.N.L.G. van Commandeur, J.J.F. Goldenbeld, C. & Stipdonk, H.

    2016-01-01

    Driving speeds were monitored during a period of 16 weeks encompassing different stages of an anti-speeding campaign in the Netherlands. This campaign targeted speed limit violations in built-up areas. The observation periods differed in terms of intensity and media used for the campaign. Small

  2. The role of visual processing speed in reading speed development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Lobier

    Full Text Available A steady increase in reading speed is the hallmark of normal reading acquisition. However, little is known of the influence of visual attention capacity on children's reading speed. The number of distinct visual elements that can be simultaneously processed at a glance (dubbed the visual attention span, predicts single-word reading speed in both normal reading and dyslexic children. However, the exact processes that account for the relationship between the visual attention span and reading speed remain to be specified. We used the Theory of Visual Attention to estimate visual processing speed and visual short-term memory capacity from a multiple letter report task in eight and nine year old children. The visual attention span and text reading speed were also assessed. Results showed that visual processing speed and visual short term memory capacity predicted the visual attention span. Furthermore, visual processing speed predicted reading speed, but visual short term memory capacity did not. Finally, the visual attention span mediated the effect of visual processing speed on reading speed. These results suggest that visual attention capacity could constrain reading speed in elementary school children.

  3. CISM Course on Rotating Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    1992-01-01

    The volume presents a comprehensive overview of rotation effects on fluid behavior, emphasizing non-linear processes. The subject is introduced by giving a range of examples of rotating fluids encountered in geophysics and engineering. This is then followed by a discussion of the relevant scales and parameters of rotating flow, and an introduction to geostrophic balance and vorticity concepts. There are few books on rotating fluids and this volume is, therefore, a welcome addition. It is the first volume which contains a unified view of turbulence in rotating fluids, instability and vortex dynamics. Some aspects of wave motions covered here are not found elsewhere.

  4. COMMISSIONING SPIN ROTATORS IN RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MACKAY, W.W.; AHRENS, L.; BAI, M.; COURANT, E.D.; FISCHER, W.; HUANG, H.; LUCCIO, A.; MONTAG, C.; PILAT, F.; PTITSYN, V.; ROSER, T.; SATOGATA, T.; TRBOJEVIC, D.; VANZIEJTS, J.

    2003-01-01

    During the summer of 2002, eight superconducting helical spin rotators were installed into RHIC in order to control the polarization directions independently at the STAR and PHENIX experiments. Without the rotators, the orientation of polarization at the interaction points would only be vertical. With four rotators around each of the two experiments, we can rotate either or both beams from vertical into the horizontal plane through the interaction region and then back to vertical on the other side. This allows independent control for each beam with vertical, longitudinal, or radial polarization at the experiment. In this paper, we present results from the first run using the new spin rotators at PHENIX

  5. Effects of tool speeds and corresponding torque/energy on stir zone formation during friction stir welding/processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, S; Chen, Z W

    2009-01-01

    The way processing parameters and the measurable thermomechanical responses relate to the individual and combined flows forming the different processed zones during friction stir welding/processing has been studied. Experimentally, a cast Al-7Si-0.3Mg alloy was used to provide readily identifiable processed zones. A series of friction stir experiments covering a wide range of tool forward and rotation speeds were conducted followed by the measurement of individual and combined stir areas. It has been found that the basic modes of material flow did not change but the relative volume of each flow depended on both forward and rotation speeds. The trends observed in the present data explain how pin rotation relates to the material transportation mechanism and the associated torque required. This data also explains how forward speed, not rotation speed, relates to specific energy and the volume of the total stir zone.

  6. How Critical Is Critical Thinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Ryan D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent educational discourse is full of references to the value of critical thinking as a 21st-century skill. In music education, critical thinking has been discussed in relation to problem solving and music listening, and some researchers suggest that training in critical thinking can improve students' responses to music. But what exactly is…

  7. Understanding Resident Performance, Mindfulness, and Communication in Critical Care Rotations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, Kevin; Fields-Elswick, Katelyn; Bernard, Andrew C

    Evidence from the medical literature suggests that surgical trainees can benefit from mindful practices. Surgical educators are challenged with the need to address resident core competencies, some of which may be facilitated by higher levels of mindfulness. This study explores whether mindful residents perform better than their peers as members of the health care team. This study employed a multiphase, multimethod design to assess resident mindfulness, communication, and clinical performance. Academic, tertiary medical center. Residents (N = 51) working in an intensive care unit. In phase I, medical residents completed a self-report survey of mindfulness, communication, emotional affect, and clinical decision-making. In phase II, resident performance was assessed using independent ratings of mindfulness and clinical decision-making by attending physicians and registered nurses. In phase 1, a significant positive relationship was found between resident performance and mindfulness, positive affect (PA), and communication. In phase 2, attending physicians/registered nurses' perceptions of residents' mindfulness were positively correlated with communication and inversely related to negative affect (NA). The top quartile of residents for performance and mindfulness had the lowest NA. Higher-rated residents underestimated their performance/mindfulness, whereas those in the lowest quartile overestimated these factors. This study offers a number of implications for medical resident education. First, mindfulness was perceived to be a significant contributor to self-assessments of competency and performance. Second, both PA and NA were important to mindfulness and performance. Third, communication was associated with resident performance, mindfulness, and PA. These implications suggest that individual characteristics of mindfulness, communication, and affect, all potentially modifiable, influence care quality and safety. To improve low performers, surgical educators could screen and identify residents with inaccurate self-assessments. Residents open to feedback will improve faster and develop awareness toward situations and interactions with patients, colleagues, attending physicians, and staff. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Modal Analysis in Periodic, Time-Varying Systems with emphasis to the Coupling between Flexible Rotating Beams and Non-Rotating Flexible Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saracho, C. M.; Santos, Ilmar

    2003-01-01

    The analysis of dynamical response of a system built by a non-rotating structure coupled to flexible rotating beams is the purpose of this work. The effect of rotational speed upon the beam natural frequencies is well-known, so that an increase in the angular speeds leads to an increase in beam...... natural frequencies, the so-called centrifugal stiffening. The equations of motion of such a global system present matrices with time-depending coefficients, which vary periodically with the angular rotor speed, and introduce parametric vibrations into the system response. The principles of modal analysis...... for time-invariant linear systems are expanded to investigate time-varying systems. Concepts as eigenvalues and eigenvectors, which in this special case are also time-varying, are used to analyse the dynamical response of global system. The time-varying frequencies and modes are also illustrated....

  9. Speeding Fermat's factoring method

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, James

    A factoring method is presented which, heuristically, splits composite n in O(n^{1/4+epsilon}) steps. There are two ideas: an integer approximation to sqrt(q/p) provides an O(n^{1/2+epsilon}) algorithm in which n is represented as the difference of two rational squares; observing that if a prime m divides a square, then m^2 divides that square, a heuristic speed-up to O(n^{1/4+epsilon}) steps is achieved. The method is well-suited for use with small computers: the storage required is negligible, and one never needs to work with numbers larger than n itself.

  10. High Speed Photomicrography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyzer, William G.

    1983-03-01

    One of the most challenging areas in applying high-speed photography and videography in the plant and laboratory is in the recording of rapid events at macro and microscopic scales. Depth of field, exposure efficiency, working distance, and required exposure time are all reduced as optical magnification is increased, which severely taxes the skill and ingenuity of workers interested in recording any fast moving phenomena through the microscope or with magnifying lenses. This paper defines the problems inherent in photographing within macro and microscopic ranges and offers a systematic approach to optimizing the selection of equipment and choice of applicable techniques.

  11. Speeding Up Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming; Mattsson, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Minimisation of time-to-market strategies can provide companies with a competitive advantage in dynamic and competitive environments. Using parallel innovation processes has been emphasised as one strategy to speed up innovation processes and consequently minimise the time-to-market of innovations....... Much innovation today takes place in open structures in which networks play an important role. However, little is known about how innovation networks can facilitate parallel innovation processes. This paper discusses how innovation network structures develop and support exploration and exploitation...... of the network facilitate the parallel innovation process but also how such processes place new requirements on such networks and their management....

  12. High speed rotary drum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagara, H

    1970-03-25

    A high speed rotary drum is disclosed in which the rotor vessel is a double-wall structure comprising an inner wave-shaped pipe inserted coaxially within an outer straight pipe, the object being to provide a strengthened composite light-weight structure. Since force induced axial deformation of the straight pipe and radial deformation of the corrugated pipe are small, the composite effectively resists external forces and, if the waves of the inner pipe are given a sufficient amplitude, the thickness of both pipes may be reduced to lower the overall weight. Thus high angular velocities can be obtained to separate U/sup 235/ from gaseous UF/sub 6/.

  13. Giant resonances in hot rotating nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ring, P.

    1992-01-01

    Present theoretical descriptions of the giant resonances in hot rotating nuclei are reviewed. Mean field theory is used as a basis for the description of the hot compound states. Starting from the static solution at finite temperature and with fixed angular momentum small amplitude collective vibrations are calculated in the frame work of finite temperature random phase approximation for quasi-particles. The effect of pairing at low temperatures as well as the effect of rotations on the position of the resonance maxima are investigated. Microscopic and phenomenological descriptions of the damping mechanisms are reviewed. In particular it turns out that fluctuations play an important role in understanding of the behaviour of the width as a function of the temperature. Motional narrowing is critically discussed. (author). 99 refs., 5 figs

  14. Semiclassical shell structure in rotating Fermi systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magner, A. G.; Sitdikov, A. S.; Khamzin, A. A.; Bartel, J.

    2010-01-01

    The collective moment of inertia is derived analytically within the cranking model for any rotational frequency of the harmonic-oscillator potential well and at a finite temperature. Semiclassical shell-structure components of the collective moment of inertia are obtained for any potential by using the periodic-orbit theory. We found semiclassically their relation to the free-energy shell corrections through the shell-structure components of the rigid-body moment of inertia of the statistically equilibrium rotation in terms of short periodic orbits. The shell effects in the moment of inertia exponentially disappear with increasing temperature. For the case of the harmonic-oscillator potential, one observes a perfect agreement of the semiclassical and quantum shell-structure components of the free energy and the moment of inertia for several critical bifurcation deformations and several temperatures.

  15. A modification design and adjusting test for instruments and control system of critical assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Manrong; Li Guangjian

    1996-12-01

    A more reliable and safe control system and it's instruments for HFETRCA (high flux engineering test reactor critical assembly) have been built. In the system high performance CMOS unit was used, which has high integration, strong anti-interference and high trigger threshold. In the design of control rod driving circuit, the speed negative feedback principle was applied that results in more stable rotating rate of motors of transmission mechanism and more flexibility of adjusting rod speed. In order to improve reactor safety in accident, additional control circuit is equipped, by which not only control rods with electromagnet will rapidly drop but also other control rods will insert at the speed of 2∼6 times faster than the normal inserting speed. The key technique in the adjustment and new method of anti-interference are also introduced. After more than 40 times physical experiments with (4 x 4 - 4) fuel element in HFETRC, it is proved that the design and adjustment of the system is successful and they can be used as a reference to others. (3 figs., 2 tabs.)

  16. Design optimization of MR-compatible rotating anode x-ray tubes for stable operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Mihye [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Lillaney, Prasheel [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Hinshaw, Waldo; Fahrig, Rebecca [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    increase the fundamental frequency past the operating range at 50 Hz.Results: The first large vibration during the prototype motor operation was obtained at 21.64±0.68 Hz in the power spectrum. An abrupt decrease in acceleration occurred at 21.5 Hz due to struggling against the resonance vibrations. A bearing stiffness of 1.2×10{sup 5} N/m in the FEM simulation was used to obtain a critical speed of 21.4 Hz providing 1.1% error. This bearing stiffness value and the 3D model were then confirmed by the experiments with the anode removed, demonstrating an agreement within 6.4% between simulation results and measurements. A calculated first critical frequency (fundamental frequency) of 68.5 Hz was obtained by increasing the bearing stiffness to 1×10{sup 7} N/m and increasing the shaft diameter by 68.0%. Reducing the number of bearings in the design permits decreasing the total length of the motor by 1.7 in., and results in a fundamental frequency of 68.3 Hz in concert with additional changes (shaft diameter of 0.625 in., rotor diameter of 2.4 in., and bearing stiffness of 1×10{sup 6} N/m).Conclusions: An FEM model of the x-ray tube motor has been implemented and experimentally validated. A fundamental frequency above the operational rotation speed can be achieved through modification of multiple design parameters, which allows the motor to operate stably and safely in the MR environment during the repeated acceleration/deceleration cycles required for an interventional procedure. The validated 3D FEM model can now be used to investigate trade-offs between generated torque, maximum speed, and motor inertia to further optimize motor design.

  17. Design optimization of MR-compatible rotating anode x-ray tubes for stable operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Mihye; Lillaney, Prasheel; Hinshaw, Waldo; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    the fundamental frequency past the operating range at 50 Hz.Results: The first large vibration during the prototype motor operation was obtained at 21.64±0.68 Hz in the power spectrum. An abrupt decrease in acceleration occurred at 21.5 Hz due to struggling against the resonance vibrations. A bearing stiffness of 1.2×10 5 N/m in the FEM simulation was used to obtain a critical speed of 21.4 Hz providing 1.1% error. This bearing stiffness value and the 3D model were then confirmed by the experiments with the anode removed, demonstrating an agreement within 6.4% between simulation results and measurements. A calculated first critical frequency (fundamental frequency) of 68.5 Hz was obtained by increasing the bearing stiffness to 1×10 7 N/m and increasing the shaft diameter by 68.0%. Reducing the number of bearings in the design permits decreasing the total length of the motor by 1.7 in., and results in a fundamental frequency of 68.3 Hz in concert with additional changes (shaft diameter of 0.625 in., rotor diameter of 2.4 in., and bearing stiffness of 1×10 6 N/m).Conclusions: An FEM model of the x-ray tube motor has been implemented and experimentally validated. A fundamental frequency above the operational rotation speed can be achieved through modification of multiple design parameters, which allows the motor to operate stably and safely in the MR environment during the repeated acceleration/deceleration cycles required for an interventional procedure. The validated 3D FEM model can now be used to investigate trade-offs between generated torque, maximum speed, and motor inertia to further optimize motor design

  18. CONFERENCE: Muon spin rotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlsson, Erik

    1986-11-15

    An international physics conference centred on muons without a word about leptons, weak interactions, EMC effects, exotic decay modes or any other standard high energy physics jargon. Could such a thing even have been imagined ten years ago? Yet about 120 physicists and chemists from 16 nations gathered at the end of June in Uppsala (Sweden) for their fourth meeting on Muon Spin Rotation, Relaxation and Resonance, without worrying about the muon as an elementary particle. This reflects how the experimental techniques based on the muon spin interactions have reached maturity and are widely recognized by condensed matter physicists and specialized chemists as useful tools.

  19. Autonomous quantum rotator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fogedby, Hans C.; Imparato, Alberto

    2018-01-01

    to a directed rotary motion. At variance with the classical case, the thermal fluctuations in the baths give rise to a non-vanishing average torque contribution; this is a genuine quantum effect akin to the Casimir effect. In the steady state the heat current flowing between the two baths is systematically......, the rotator cannot work either as a heat pump or as a heat engine. We finally use our exact results to extend an ab initio quantum simulation algorithm to the out-of-equilibrium regime. Copyright (C) EPLA, 2018...

  20. Rotating specimen rack repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.E.; Rogers, P.J.; Nabor, W.G.; Bair, H.

    1984-01-01

    In 1980, an operator at the UCI TRIGA Reactor noticed difficulties with the rotation of the specimen rack. Investigations showed that the drive bearing in the rack had failed and allowed the bearings to enter the rack. After some time of operation in static mode it was decided that installation of a bearing substitute - a graphite sleeve - would be undertaken. Procedures were written and approved for removal of the rack, fabrication and installation of the sleeve, and re-installation of the rack. This paper describes these procedures in some detail. Detailed drawings of the necessary parts may be obtained from the authors

  1. Rotational anomalies without anyons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, C.R.

    1985-01-01

    A specific field theory is proposed in two spatial dimensions which has anomalous rotational properties. Although this might be expected to lead to a concrete realization of what Wilczek refers to as the anyon, it is shown by utilizing the transformation properties of the system and the statistics of the underlying charge fields that anyonic interpolations between bosons and fermions do not occur. This leads to the suggestion that anyons inferred from semiclassical considerations will not survive the transition to a fully relativistic field theory

  2. Critical Jostling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pippin Barr

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Games can serve a critical function in many different ways, from serious games about real world subjects to self-reflexive commentaries on the nature of games themselves. In this essay we discuss critical possibilities stemming from the area of critical design, and more specifically Carl DiSalvo’s adversarial design and its concept of reconfiguring the remainder. To illustrate such an approach, we present the design and outcomes of two games, Jostle Bastard and Jostle Parent. We show how the games specifically engage with two previous games, Hotline Miami and Octodad: Dadliest Catch, reconfiguring elements of those games to create interactive critical experiences and extensions of the source material. Through the presentation of specific design concerns and decisions, we provide a grounded illustration of a particular critical function of videogames and hope to highlight this form as another valuable approach in the larger area of videogame criticism.

  3. Speed control variable rate irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speed control variable rate irrigation (VRI) is used to address within field variability by controlling a moving sprinkler’s travel speed to vary the application depth. Changes in speed are commonly practiced over areas that slope, pond or where soil texture is predominantly different. Dynamic presc...

  4. Safe Speeds and Credible Speed Limits (SaCredSpeed): New Vision for Decision Making on Speed Management.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, L. Nes, N. van Wegman, F.C.M. Schagen, I.N.L.G. van & Louwerse, R.

    2009-01-01

    Speed is an inherent characteristic of mobility and a hazard to safety. Several approaches exist of how to manage speed. In the Netherlands, the emphasis has mainly been on harm minimisation during the last decades, due to the implementation of the Sustainable Safety vision. Speed management remains

  5. Pay as You Speed, ISA with incentives for not speeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahrmann, Harry Spaabæk; Agerholm, Niels; Tradisauskas, Nerius

    2012-01-01

    The Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) project we describe in this article is based on Pay as You Drive principles. These principles assume that the ISA equipment informs a driver of the speed limit, warns the driver when speeding and calculates penalty points. Each penalty point entails the redu......The Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) project we describe in this article is based on Pay as You Drive principles. These principles assume that the ISA equipment informs a driver of the speed limit, warns the driver when speeding and calculates penalty points. Each penalty point entails...... the reduction of a 30% discount on the driver's car insurance premium, which therefore produced the name, Pay as You Speed. The ISA equipment consists of a GPS-based On Board Unit with a mobile phone connection to a web server. The project was planned for a three-year test period with 300 young car drivers...

  6. Critical Proximity

    OpenAIRE

    Simon, Jane

    2010-01-01

    This essay considers how written language frames visual objects. Drawing on Michel Foucault’s response to Raymond Roussel’s obsessive description, the essay proposes a model of criticism where description might press up against its objects. This critical closeness is then mapped across the conceptual art practice and art criticism of Ian Burn. Burn attends to the differences between seeing and reading, and considers the conditions which frame how we look at images, including how w...

  7. Behavior of a heavy cylinder in a horizontal cylindrical liquid-filled cavity at modulated rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, Nikolai V; Vlasova, Olga A

    2016-01-01

    The behavior of a heavy cylindrical solid in a horizontal cylindrical cavity is experimentally investigated. The cavity is filled with a viscous liquid and rotates. Two rotation regimes are considered. The first one is steady rotation. A number of body motion regimes are found depending on the cavity rotation speed. The second regime is a modulated rotation, in which the rotation speed is varying periodically. It can be presented as a sum of steady rotation and librations. On the whole, three different cases of the body repulsion from the cavity wall are observed. In the first case, the repulsion occurs when the body slides over a rotating cavity wall. In the second case, the body being in the centrifuged state—when it rotates with the fluid—detaches from the cavity wall under the action of gravity. In the third case, at librations, the wall performs oscillations and the body is repulsed from the wall due to the nonlinear viscous interaction with the fluid. (paper)

  8. Criticality Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alsaed, A.

    2004-01-01

    The ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' (YMP 2003) presents the methodology for evaluating potential criticality situations in the monitored geologic repository. As stated in the referenced Topical Report, the detailed methodology for performing the disposal criticality analyses will be documented in model reports. Many of the models developed in support of the Topical Report differ from the definition of models as given in the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management procedure AP-SIII.10Q, ''Models'', in that they are procedural, rather than mathematical. These model reports document the detailed methodology necessary to implement the approach presented in the Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report and provide calculations utilizing the methodology. Thus, the governing procedure for this type of report is AP-3.12Q, ''Design Calculations and Analyses''. The ''Criticality Model'' is of this latter type, providing a process evaluating the criticality potential of in-package and external configurations. The purpose of this analysis is to layout the process for calculating the criticality potential for various in-package and external configurations and to calculate lower-bound tolerance limit (LBTL) values and determine range of applicability (ROA) parameters. The LBTL calculations and the ROA determinations are performed using selected benchmark experiments that are applicable to various waste forms and various in-package and external configurations. The waste forms considered in this calculation are pressurized water reactor (PWR), boiling water reactor (BWR), Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Training Research Isotope General Atomic (TRIGA), Enrico Fermi, Shippingport pressurized water reactor, Shippingport light water breeder reactor (LWBR), N-Reactor, Melt and Dilute, and Fort Saint Vrain Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The scope of this analysis is to document the criticality computational method. The criticality

  9. Influence of defects on the vibrations of rotating systems; Influence de defauts sur le comportement vibratoire des systemes tournants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarus, A. [CEA Saclay, Dept. Modelisation de Systemes et Structures (DEN/DANS/DM2S/SEMT), 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France)

    2008-07-01

    For high rotation speeds, the imperfections (cracks, anisotropy...) of rotating machinery of the energy sector lead to a specific vibratory behavior which can damage the machine. The simulation of rotating machinery are usually realized for systems without defect. The aim of this thesis is to understand the influence of defects and to propose an algorithm to predict the dynamical behavior. In a first part the author studies the simplified rotating oscillators to propose a numerical method in order to taking into account the dynamic of these systems. This method is then applied to real rotating machinery with the Cast3m software. The numerical results are validated with experiments. (A.L.B.)

  10. Sex differences in mental rotation with polygons of different complexity: Do men utilize holistic processes whereas women prefer piecemeal ones?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, Martin; Jansen-Osmann, Petra

    2008-05-01

    Sex differences in mental rotation were investigated as a function of stimulus complexity with a sample size of N = 72. Replicating earlier findings with polygons, mental rotation was faster for males than for females, and reaction time increased with more complex polygons. Additionally, sex differences increased for complex polygons. Most importantly, however, mental rotation speed decreased with increasing complexity for women but did not change for men. Thus, the sex effects reflect a difference in strategy, with women mentally rotating the polygons in an analytic, piecemeal fashion and men using a holistic mode of mental rotation.

  11. Exterior rotor permanent magnet generator in variable speed applications

    OpenAIRE

    Sattar, Rauf

    2016-01-01

    This thesis explores approaches for converting rotational mechanical power from diesel engines into electrical power of fixed frequency and voltage. Advances in high energy permanent magnets and power electronics are enabling technologies that provide opportunities for electrical machines with increased efficiency and compact size for variable speed power generation. The overall objective was to design a permanent magnet machine with concentrated winding that could be used in variable spe...

  12. The influence of the tangential velocity of inner rotating wall on axial velocity profile of flow through vertical annular pipe with rotating inner surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharf Abdusalam M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the oil and gas industries, understanding the behaviour of a flow through an annulus gap in a vertical position, whose outer wall is stationary whilst the inner wall rotates, is a significantly important issue in drilling wells. The main emphasis is placed on experimental (using an available rig and computational (employing CFD software investigations into the effects of the rotation speed of the inner pipe on the axial velocity profiles. The measured axial velocity profiles, in the cases of low axial flow, show that the axial velocity is influenced by the rotation speed of the inner pipe in the region of almost 33% of the annulus near the inner pipe, and influenced inversely in the rest of the annulus. The position of the maximum axial velocity is shifted from the centre to be nearer the inner pipe, by increasing the rotation speed. However, in the case of higher flow, as the rotation speed increases, the axial velocity is reduced and the position of the maximum axial velocity is skewed towards the centre of the annulus. There is a reduction of the swirl velocity corresponding to the rise of the volumetric flow rate.

  13. Orbit effects on impurity transport in a rotating plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, K.L.; Cheng, C.Z.

    1988-01-01

    In 1985, very high ion temperature plasmas were first produced in TFTR with co-injecting neutral beams in low current, low density plasmas. This mode of operation is called the energetic ion mode in which the plasma rotates at very high speed. It was found that heavy impurities injected into these plasmas diffused out very quickly. In this paper, the authors calculate the impurity ion orbits in a rotating tokamak plasma based on the equation of motion in the frame that rotates with the plasma. It is shown that heavy particles in a rotating plasma can drift away from magnetic surfaces significantly faster. Particle orbits near the surface of a rotating tokamak are also analyzed. During impurity injection experiments, freshly ionized impurities near the plasma surface are essentially stationary in the laboratory frame and they are counter-rotating in the plasma frame with co-beam injection. The results are substantiated by numeral particle simulation. The computer code follows the impurity guiding center positions by integrating the equation of motion with the second order predictor-corrector method

  14. Observations on rotating needle insertions using a brachytherapy robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meltsner, M A; Ferrier, N J; Thomadsen, B R

    2007-01-01

    A robot designed for prostate brachytherapy implantations has the potential to greatly improve treatment success. Much of the research in robotic surgery focuses on measuring accuracy. However, there exist many factors that must be optimized before an analysis of needle placement accuracy can be determined. Some of these parameters include choice of the needle type, insertion velocity, usefulness of the rotating needle and rotation speed. These parameters may affect the force at which the needle interacts with the tissue. A reduction in force has been shown to decrease the compression of the prostate and potentially increase the accuracy of seed position. Rotating the needle as it is inserted may reduce frictional forces while increasing accuracy. However, needle rotations are considered to increase tissue damage due to the drilling nature of the insertion. We explore many of the factors involved in optimizing a brachytherapy robot, and the potential effects each parameter may have on the procedure. We also investigate the interaction of rotating needles in gel and suggest the rotate-cannula-only method of conical needle insertion to minimize any tissue damage while still maintaining the benefits of reduced force and increased accuracy

  15. Critical Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2018-01-01

    Manipulation and mistakes in LCA studies are as old as the tool itself, and so is its critical review. Besides preventing misuse and unsupported claims, critical review may also help identifying mistakes and more justifiable assumptions as well as generally improve the quality of a study. It thus...... supports the robustness of an LCA and increases trust in its results and conclusions. The focus of this chapter is on understanding what a critical review is, how the international standards define it, what its main elements are, and what reviewer qualifications are required. It is not the objective...... of this chapter to learn how to conduct a critical review, neither from a reviewer nor from a practitioner perspective. The foundation of this chapter and the basis for any critical review of LCA studies are the International Standards ISO 14040:2006, ISO 14044:2006 and ISO TS 14071:2014....

  16. Rotation invariant fast features for large-scale recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takacs, Gabriel; Chandrasekhar, Vijay; Tsai, Sam; Chen, David; Grzeszczuk, Radek; Girod, Bernd

    2012-10-01

    We present an end-to-end feature description pipeline which uses a novel interest point detector and Rotation- Invariant Fast Feature (RIFF) descriptors. The proposed RIFF algorithm is 15× faster than SURF1 while producing large-scale retrieval results that are comparable to SIFT.2 Such high-speed features benefit a range of applications from Mobile Augmented Reality (MAR) to web-scale image retrieval and analysis.

  17. Lunar Rotation, Orientation and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. G.; Ratcliff, J. T.; Boggs, D. H.

    2004-12-01

    The Moon is the most familiar example of the many satellites that exhibit synchronous rotation. For the Moon there is Lunar Laser Ranging measurements of tides and three-dimensional rotation variations plus supporting theoretical understanding of both effects. Compared to uniform rotation and precession the lunar rotational variations are up to 1 km, while tidal variations are about 0.1 m. Analysis of the lunar variations in pole direction and rotation about the pole gives moment of inertia differences, third-degree gravity harmonics, tidal Love number k2, tidal dissipation Q vs. frequency, dissipation at the fluid-core/solid-mantle boundary, and emerging evidence for an oblate boundary. The last two indicate a fluid core, but a solid inner core is not ruled out. Four retroreflectors provide very accurate positions on the Moon. The experience with the Moon is a starting point for exploring the tides, rotation and orientation of the other synchronous bodies of the solar system.

  18. A compact rotating dilution refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fear, M. J.; Walmsley, P. M.; Chorlton, D. A.; Zmeev, D. E.; Gillott, S. J.; Sellers, M. C.; Richardson, P. P.; Agrawal, H.; Batey, G.; Golov, A. I.

    2013-10-01

    We describe the design and performance of a new rotating dilution refrigerator that will primarily be used for investigating the dynamics of quantized vortices in superfluid 4He. All equipment required to operate the refrigerator and perform experimental measurements is mounted on two synchronously driven, but mechanically decoupled, rotating carousels. The design allows for relative simplicity of operation and maintenance and occupies a minimal amount of space in the laboratory. Only two connections between the laboratory and rotating frames are required for the transmission of electrical power and helium gas recovery. Measurements on the stability of rotation show that rotation is smooth to around 10-3 rad s-1 up to angular velocities in excess of 2.5 rad s-1. The behavior of a high-Q mechanical resonator during rapid changes in rotation has also been investigated.

  19. Effect of substrate rotation on domain structure and magnetic relaxation in magnetic antidot lattice arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallick, Sougata; Mallik, Srijani; Bedanta, Subhankar

    2015-01-01

    Microdimensional triangular magnetic antidot lattice arrays were prepared by varying the speed of substrate rotation. The pre-deposition patterning has been performed using photolithography technique followed by a post-deposition lift-off. Surface morphology taken by atomic force microscopy depicted that the growth mechanism of the grains changes from chain like formation to island structures due to the substrate rotation. Study of magnetization reversal via magneto optic Kerr effect based microscopy revealed reduction of uniaxial anisotropy and increase in domain size with substrate rotation. The relaxation measured under constant magnetic field becomes faster with rotation of the substrate during deposition. The nature of relaxation for the non-rotating sample can be described by a double exponential decay. However, the relaxation for the sample with substrate rotation is well described either by a double exponential or a Fatuzzo-Labrune like single exponential decay, which increases in applied field

  20. Wormholes immersed in rotating matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Hoffmann

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate that rotating matter sets the throat of an Ellis wormhole into rotation, allowing for wormholes which possess full reflection symmetry with respect to the two asymptotically flat spacetime regions. We analyze the properties of this new type of rotating wormholes and show that the wormhole geometry can change from a single throat to a double throat configuration. We further discuss the ergoregions and the lightring structure of these wormholes.

  1. Internal rotation of the Sun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duvall, T.L. Jr.; Goode, P.R.; Gouch, D.O.

    1984-01-01

    The frequency difference between prograde and retrograde sectoral solar oscillations is analysed to determine the rotation rate of the solar interior, assuming no latitudinal dependence. Much of the solar interior rotates slightly less rapidly than the surface, while the innermost part apparently rotates more rapidly. The resulting solar gravitational quadrupole moment is J 2 = (1.7 +- 0.4) x 10 -7 and provides a negligible contribution to current planetary tests of Einstein's theory of general relativity. (author)

  2. Velocity and rotation measurements in acoustically levitated droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Abhishek [University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Basu, Saptarshi [Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Kumar, Ranganathan, E-mail: ranganathan.kumar@ucf.edu [University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    The velocity scale inside an acoustically levitated droplet depends on the levitator and liquid properties. Using Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV), detailed velocity measurements have been made in a levitated droplet of different diameters and viscosity. The maximum velocity and rotation are normalized using frequency and amplitude of acoustic levitator, and droplet viscosity. The non-dimensional data are fitted for micrometer- and millimeter-sized droplets levitated in different levitators for different viscosity fluids. It is also shown that the rotational speed of nanosilica droplets at an advanced stage of vaporization compares well with that predicted by exponentially fitted parameters. -- Highlights: ► Demonstrates the importance of rotation in a levitated droplet that leads to controlled morphology. ► Provides detailed measurements of Particle Image Velocimetry inside levitated droplets. ► Shows variation of vortex strength with the droplet diameter and viscosity of the liquid.

  3. Velocity and rotation measurements in acoustically levitated droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, Abhishek; Basu, Saptarshi; Kumar, Ranganathan

    2012-01-01

    The velocity scale inside an acoustically levitated droplet depends on the levitator and liquid properties. Using Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV), detailed velocity measurements have been made in a levitated droplet of different diameters and viscosity. The maximum velocity and rotation are normalized using frequency and amplitude of acoustic levitator, and droplet viscosity. The non-dimensional data are fitted for micrometer- and millimeter-sized droplets levitated in different levitators for different viscosity fluids. It is also shown that the rotational speed of nanosilica droplets at an advanced stage of vaporization compares well with that predicted by exponentially fitted parameters. -- Highlights: ► Demonstrates the importance of rotation in a levitated droplet that leads to controlled morphology. ► Provides detailed measurements of Particle Image Velocimetry inside levitated droplets. ► Shows variation of vortex strength with the droplet diameter and viscosity of the liquid.

  4. Precise measurement of velocity dependent friction in rotational motion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Junaid; Hassan, Hafsa; Shamim, Sohaib; Mahmood, Waqas; Anwar, Muhammad Sabieh, E-mail: sabieh@lums.edu.pk [School of Science and Engineering, Lahore University of Management Sciences (LUMS), Opposite Sector U, D.H.A, Lahore 54792 (Pakistan)

    2011-09-15

    Frictional losses are experimentally determined for a uniform circular disc exhibiting rotational motion. The clockwise and anticlockwise rotations of the disc, that result when a hanger tied to a thread is released from a certain height, give rise to vertical oscillations of the hanger as the thread winds and unwinds over a pulley attached to the disc. It is thus observed how the maximum height is achieved by the hanger decrements in every bounce. From the decrements, the rotational frictional losses are measured. The precision is enhanced by correlating vertical motion with the angular motion. This method leads to a substantial improvement in precision. Furthermore, the frictional torque is shown to be proportional to the angular speed. The experiment has been successfully employed in the undergraduate lab setting.

  5. Rotational microfluidic motor for on-chip microcentrifugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilton, Richie J.; Glass, Nick R.; Chan, Peggy; Yeo, Leslie Y.; Friend, James R.

    2011-06-01

    We report on the design of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) driven fluid-coupled micromotor which runs at high rotational velocities. A pair of opposing SAWs generated on a lithium niobate substrate are each obliquely passed into either side of a fluid drop to drive rotation of the fluid, and the thin circular disk set on the drop. Using water for the drop, a 5 mm diameter disk was driven with rotation speeds and start-up torques up to 2250 rpm and 60 nN m, respectively. Most importantly for lab-on-a-chip applications, radial accelerations of 172 m/s2 was obtained, presenting possibilities for microcentrifugation, flow sequencing, assays, and cell culturing in truly microscale lab-on-a-chip devices.

  6. Fouling in a MBR system with rotating membrane discs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mads Koustrup; Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard

    concentrations and a clear effluent with no bacteria present in the permeate [1]. However, the process performance is limited by membrane fouling, which results in a lower productivity and higher energy demand and hence places demands for limitation of fouling and/or cleaning of the membranes. One way to do...... uses rotating ceramic membrane discs for creation of shear, which can be changed by controlling the membrane rotation speed of the membrane. Furthermore, the influence of shear on fouling is studied at different radii from the center of rotation, by dividing membranes into different concentric rings......Membrane bioreactors (MBR) are an attractive alternative solution for municipal and industrial wastewater treatment. The MBR, which is a combination of a bioreactor for sludge degradation and a membrane for separation, has the advantages of a low footprint, ability to handle high sludge...

  7. Sensorless Estimation and Nonlinear Control of a Rotational Energy Harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunna, Kameswarie; Toh, Tzern T.; Mitcheson, Paul D.; Astolfi, Alessandro

    2013-12-01

    It is important to perform sensorless monitoring of parameters in energy harvesting devices in order to determine the operating states of the system. However, physical measurements of these parameters is often a challenging task due to the unavailability of access points. This paper presents, as an example application, the design of a nonlinear observer and a nonlinear feedback controller for a rotational energy harvester. A dynamic model of a rotational energy harvester with its power electronic interface is derived and validated. This model is then used to design a nonlinear observer and a nonlinear feedback controller which yield a sensorless closed-loop system. The observer estimates the mechancial quantities from the measured electrical quantities while the control law sustains power generation across a range of source rotation speeds. The proposed scheme is assessed through simulations and experiments.

  8. Earth's variable rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hide, Raymond; Dickey, Jean O.

    1991-01-01

    Recent improvements in geodetic data and practical meteorology have advanced research on fluctuations in the earth's rotation. The interpretation of these fluctuations is inextricably linked with studies of the dynamics of the earth-moon system and dynamical processes in the liquid metallic core of the earth (where the geomagnetic field originates), other parts of the earth's interior, and the hydrosphere and atmosphere. Fluctuations in the length of the day occurring on decadal time scales have implications for the topographay of the core-mantle boundary and the electrical, magnetic, ande other properties of the core and lower mantle. Investigations of more rapid fluctuations bear on meteorological studies of interannual, seasonal, and intraseasonal variations in the general circulation of the atmosphere and the response of the oceans to such variations.

  9. Sporcularda rotator cuff problemleri

    OpenAIRE

    Guven, Osman; Guven, Zeynep; Gundes, Hakan; Yalcin, Selim

    2004-01-01

    Rotator cuff tendinitinin etyolojisinde genellikle birden çok faktörün kombinasyonu görülür. Yüzme, raket sporları ve fırlatma sporlarının özellikle gelişmiş ülkelerde giderek yaygınlaşması bu konuya olan ilginin artmasına sebep olmuştur. Eski konseptlerde aktif bir sporcuda tedavinin başarısı genellikle eski atletik seviyesine dönmesi ile ölçülürdü. Son zamanlarda atletik tekniklerin analizi, atroskopik evaluasyon gibi yeni bir Iükse sahip olmamız ve Iiteratürün yeniden gözden geçirilmesi il...

  10. Improved Rotor Speed Brushless DC Motor Using Fuzzy Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Mostafapour

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A brushless DC (BLDC Motors have advantages over brushed, Direct current (DC Motors and , Induction motor (IM. They have better speed verses torque characteristics, high dynamic response, high efficiency, long operating life, noiseless operation, higher speed ranges, and rugged construction. Also, torque delivered to motor size is higher, making it useful in application where space and weight are critical factors. With these advantages BLDC motors find wide spread application in automotive appliance, aerospace medical, and instrumentation and automation industries This paper can be seen as fuzzy controllers compared to PI control BLDC motor rotor speed has improved significantly and beter result can be achieve.

  11. Rotator Cuff Strength Ratio and Injury in Glovebox Workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, Amelia M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-30

    Rotator cuff integrity is critical to shoulder health. Due to the high workload imposed upon the shoulder while working in an industrial glovebox, this study investigated the strength ratio of the rotator cuff muscles in glovebox workers and compared this ratio to the healthy norm. Descriptive statistics were collected using a short questionnaire. Handheld dynamometry was used to quantify the ratio of forces produced in the motions of shoulder internal and external rotation. Results showed this population to have shoulder strength ratios that were significantly different from the healthy norm. The deviation from the normal ratio demonstrates the need for solutions designed to reduce the workload on the rotator cuff musculature of glovebox workers in order to improve health and safety. Assessment of strength ratios can be used to screen for risk of symptom development.

  12. Risk Factors, Pathobiomechanics and Physical Examination of Rotator Cuff Tears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, Samuel G.; Greenspoon, Joshua A.; Millett, Peter J.; Petri, Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is important to appreciate the risk factors for the development of rotator cuff tears and specific physical examination maneuvers. Methods: A selective literature search was performed. Results: Numerous well-designed studies have demonstrated that common risk factors include age, occupation, and anatomic considerations such as the critical shoulder angle. Recently, research has also reported a genetic component as well. The rotator cuff axially compresses the humeral head in the glenohumeral joint and provides rotational motion and abduction. Forces are grouped into coronal and axial force couples. Rotator cuff tears are thought to occur when the force couples become imbalanced. Conclusion: Physical examination is essential to determining whether a patient has an anterosuperior or posterosuperior tear. Diagnostic accuracy increases when combining a series of examination maneuvers. PMID:27708731

  13. Uniocular and binocular fields of rotation measures: Octopus versus Goldmann.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Fiona J; Hanif, Sahira

    2011-06-01

    To compare the range of ocular rotations measured by Octopus versus Goldmann perimetry. Forty subjects (20 controls and 20 patients with impaired ocular movements) were prospectively recruited, age range 21-83 years. Range of uniocular rotations was measured in six vectors corresponding to extraocular muscle actions: 0°, 67°, 141°, 180°, 216°, 293°. Fields of binocular single vision were assessed at 30° intervals. Vector measurements were utilised to calculate an area score for the field of uniocular rotations or binocular field of single vision. Two test speeds were used for Octopus testing: 3°/ and 10°/second. Test duration was two thirds quicker for Octopus 10°/second than for 3°/second stimulus speed, and slightly quicker for Goldmann. Mean area for control subjects for uniocular field was 7910.45 degrees(2) for Goldmann, 7032.14 for Octopus 3°/second and 7840.66 for Octopus 10°/second. Mean area for patient subjects of right uniocular field was 8567.21 degrees(2) for Goldmann, 5906.72 for Octopus 3°/second and 8806.44 for Octopus 10°/second. Mean area for left uniocular field was 8137.49 degrees(2) for Goldmann, 8127.9 for Octopus 3°/second and 8950.54 for Octopus 10°/second. Range of measured rotation was significantly larger for Octopus 10°/second speed. Our results suggest that the Octopus perimeter is an acceptable alternative method of assessment for uniocular ductions and binocular field of single vision. Speed of stimulus significantly alters test duration for Octopus perimetry. Comparisons of results from both perimeters show that quantitative measurements differ, although qualitatively the results are similar. Differences per mean vectors were less than 5° (within clinically accepted variances) for both controls and patients when comparing Goldmann to Octopus 10°/second speed. However, differences were almost 10° for the patient group when comparing Goldmann to Octopus 3°/second speed. Thus, speed of stimulus must be considered

  14. Plasma rotation in plasma centrifuge with an annular gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.Y.; Hong, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    The steady-state rotation of plasma centrifuge is theoretically analyzed to understand the physics of rotating plasma and its feasibility for isotope separation. The centriguge system under consideration consists of an annular gap between coaxial cylindrical anode and cathod in the presence of an externally-applied axial magnetic field. A problem for coupled partial differential equations describing centrifuge fields is formulated on the basis of the magnetohydrodynamic equations. Two-dimensional solutions are found analytically in the form of Fourier-Bessel series. The current density and velocity distributions are discussed in terms of the Hartmann number and the geometrical parameter of the system. At typical conditions, rotational speeds of the plasma up to the order of 10 4 m/sec are achievable, and increase either with increasing Hartmann number, or with increasing ratio of the axial length to the inner radius of the cylinder. In view of much higher speeds of rotation which can be achieved in plasma centrifuge, it is expected that its efficiency is superior to mechanically driven gas centrifuges. (Author)

  15. Evolution of Patterns in Rotating Bénard Convection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantz, M.; Friedrich, R.; Bestehorn, M.; Haken, H.

    We present an extension of the Swift-Hohenberg equation to the case of a high Prandtl number Bénard experiment in rotating fluid containers. For the case of circular containers we find complex spatio-temporal behaviour at Taylor numbers smaller than the critical one for the onset of the Küppers-Lortz instability. Furthermore, above the critical Taylor number the experimentally well-known time dependent and spatially disordered patterns in form of local patches of rolls are reproduced.

  16. Assessment of C-Type Darrieus Wind Turbine Under Low Wind Speed Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misaran, M. S.; Rahman, Md. M.; Muzammil, W. K.; Ismail, M. A.

    2017-07-01

    Harvesting wind energy in in a low wind speed region is deem un-economical if not daunting task. Study shows that a minimum cut in speed of 3.5 m/s is required to extract a meaningful wind energy for electricity while a mean speed of 6 m/s is preferred. However, in Malaysia the mean speed is at 2 m/s with certain potential areas having 3 m/s mean speed. Thus, this work aims to develop a wind turbine that able to operate at lower cut-in speed and produce meaningful power for electricity generation. A C-type Darrieus blade is selected as it shows good potential to operate in arbitrary wind speed condition. The wind turbine is designed and fabricated in UMS labs while the performance of the wind turbine is evaluated in a simulated wind condition. Test result shows that the wind turbine started to rotate at 1 m/s compared to a NACA 0012 Darrieus turbine that started to rotate at 3 m/s. The performance of the turbine shows that it have good potential to be used in an intermittent arbitrary wind speed condition as well as low mean wind speed condition.

  17. Multispecies transport theory for axisymmetric rotating plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tessarotto, M.; White, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    A reduced gyrokinetic equation is derived for a multi-species toroidal axisymmetric plasma with arbitrary toroidal differential rotation speeds and in the presence of a finite induced electric field. The kinetic equation obtained, extending previous results obtained by Hinton and Wong and by Catto, Bernstein and Tessarotto, has a form suited for transport applications, via variational techniques; in particular it exhibits the feature that all source terms, including the Spitzer source term, carrying the contribution due to the inductive electric field, appear to be acted upon by the collision operator. Moreover, the equation displays a new contribution due to ''explicit'' velocity perturbations, here proven to be consistent with transport ordering, whose evaluation appears relevant for transport calculations. In addition, general expressions are obtained for the neoclassical fluxes in terms of a variational principle, as well as for the classical ones, retaining, in both cases, the contributions due to the Spitzer's inductive terms

  18. Surface dimpling on rotating work piece using rotation cutting tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhapkar, Rohit Arun; Larsen, Eric Richard

    2015-03-31

    A combined method of machining and applying a surface texture to a work piece and a tool assembly that is capable of machining and applying a surface texture to a work piece are disclosed. The disclosed method includes machining portions of an outer or inner surface of a work piece. The method also includes rotating the work piece in front of a rotating cutting tool and engaging the outer surface of the work piece with the rotating cutting tool to cut dimples in the outer surface of the work piece. The disclosed tool assembly includes a rotating cutting tool coupled to an end of a rotational machining device, such as a lathe. The same tool assembly can be used to both machine the work piece and apply a surface texture to the work piece without unloading the work piece from the tool assembly.

  19. Fractal properties of critical invariant curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, B.R.; Yorke, J.A.; Khanin, K.M.; Sinai, Y.G.

    1996-01-01

    We examine the dimension of the invariant measure for some singular circle homeomorphisms for a variety of rotation numbers, through both the thermodynamic formalism and numerical computation. The maps we consider include those induced by the action of the standard map on an invariant curve at the critical parameter value beyond which the curve is destroyed. Our results indicate that the dimension is universal for a given type of singularity and rotation number, and that among all rotation numbers, the golden mean produces the largest dimension

  20. Velocidade crítica de natação (Ucrit de matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus após exposição à hipoxia Critical swimming speed of matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus exposed to hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Soares Ferreira

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A primeira resposta ao estresse é a fuga, que depende do desempenho natatório e de ajustes fisiológicos. Este estudo investigou a velocidade crítica de natação (Ucrit de matrinxã após exposição à hipoxia. Para isso, os peixes foram expostos à hipoxia, sendo uma parte do grupo analisada antes e outra após natação forçada, por meio da Ucrit. A hipoxia resultou no aumento de lactato, glicose, cortisol e hematócrito. Mudanças nos níveis de sódio e potássio, bem como os valores de Ucrit não foram observadas. Sugere-se que o matrinxã seja sensível à hipoxia, mas os ajustes fisiológicos são suficientes para manter seu desempenho natatório.Escape is the first response of fish to stress, that depends on the swimming performance and the physiological adjustments. This study has investigated the critical swimming speed (Ucrit of matrinxã after exposure to hypoxia. To achieve that, the fishes were exposed to hypoxia and analyzed before and after forced swimming, using Ucrit. The hypoxia caused an increase of lactate, glucose, cortisol and hematocrit. No changes of plasma sodium and potassium levels, as well as the Ucrit, were observed. We suggest that matrinxã is sensitive to hypoxia, but the physiological adjustments are sufficient to keep its swimming performance.