Sample records for critical race ethnography

  1. Racism, Public Schooling, and the Entrenchment of White Supremacy: A Critical Race Ethnography (United States)

    Vaught, Sabina E.


    Racism and inequity in U.S. education are pervasive and consistent problems, unavoidable facts of public schooling in this country. This book is a multisite critical race ethnography of institutional relationships and organization in a large, urban, West Coast school district. In this daring and provocative work, Sabina E. Vaught examines the…

  2. A Critical Ethnography of Democratic Music Listening (United States)

    Silverman, Marissa


    The purpose of this critical ethnography was to investigate how music educators can approach the development of students' music listening abilities democratically in order to deepen students' musical understandings and, by teaching through music, create pathways for student-teacher transactions that are inclusive, educative, ethical and…

  3. Nursing casualization and communication: a critical ethnography. (United States)

    Batch, Mary; Windsor, Carol


    The aim was to explore the relationship between nursing casualization and the culture of communication for nurses in a healthcare facility. Casualization, or non-standard work, is the use of temporary, contract, part-time and casual labour. An increase in casual labour has been part of a global shift in work organization aimed at creating a more flexible and cheaper workforce. It has been argued that flexibility of labour has enabled nurses to manage both non-work related needs and an increasingly complex work environment. Yet no research has explored casualization and how it impacts on the communication culture for nurses in a healthcare facility. Critical ethnography. Methods included observation, field notes, formal interviews and focus groups. Data collection was undertaken over the 2 years 2008-2009. The concepts of knowing and belonging were perceived as important to nursing teamwork and yet the traditional time/task work model, designed for a full-time workforce, marginalized non-standard workers. The combination of medical dominance and traditional stereotyping of the nurse and work as full-time shaped the behaviours of nurses and situated casual workers on the periphery. The overall finding was that entrenched systemic structures and processes shaped the physical and cultural dimensions of a contemporary work environment and contributed to an ineffective communication culture. Flexible work is an important feature of contemporary nursing. Traditional work models and nurse attitudes and practices have not progressed and are discordant with a contemporary approach to nursing labour management. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Intersectionality and Critical Race Parenting (United States)

    DePouw, Christin


    This conceptual article employs critical race theory (CRT) as a theoretical framework to explore the importance of intersectionality in critical race parenting. In particular, I focus on intersectionality to understand better how Whiteness and racial power play out in intimate relationships within the family, particularly between White parents and…

  5. Critical ethnography: An under-used research methodology in neuroscience nursing. (United States)

    Ross, Cheryl; Rogers, Cath; Duff, Diane


    Critical ethnography is a qualitative research method that endeavours to explore and understand dominant discourses that are seen as being the 'right' way to think, see, talk about or enact a particular 'action' or situation in society and recommend ways to re-dress social power inequities. In health care, vulnerable populations, including many individuals who have experienced neurological illnesses or injuries that leave them susceptible to the influence of others, would be suitable groups for study using critical ethnography methodology. Critical ethnography has also been used to study workplace culture. While ethnography has been effectively used to underpin other phenomena of interest to neuroscience nurses, only one example of the use of critical ethnography exists in the published literature related to neuroscience nursing. In our "Research Corner" in this issue of the Canadian Journal of Neuroscience Nursing (CJNN) our guest editors, Dr. Cheryl Ross and Dr. Cath Rogers will briefly highlight the origins of qualitative research, ethnography, and critical ethnography and describe how they are used and, as the third author, I will discuss the relevance of critical ethnography findings for neuroscience nurses.

  6. Nursing, sexual health and youth with disabilities: a critical ethnography. (United States)

    McCabe, Janet; Holmes, Dave


    To explore the experiences of nurses providing sexual health care to adolescents with physical and/or developmental disabilities, with attention to the institutional and social discourses that shape these interactions. Previous research has shown that nurses demonstrate a lack of attention to the impact of illness or disability on sexual health. However, in their therapeutic relationship with patients and families, nurses are in an ideal position to promote sexual health. A critical ethnography study was conducted in an urban paediatric rehabilitative facility. Field work occurred over 4 months (2008-2009) and data collection included interviews (n = 9), key informant discussions, collection of documentary evidence and observation of the institutional setting. Four themes were identified (institutional space, professional interactions, engaging with sexuality, nursing experience), which revealed that nurse-patient interactions about sexual health were affected by a complex network of discourses. These encounters were shaped by practical discourses, such as time and space and by more complex discourses, such as professional relationships, normalization and asexuality. Nurses occupy and strive to maintain, the role of a caring agent. However, aspects of the clinical, institutional and broader social environments may undermine their ability to promote sexual health. In nurses' efforts to maintain therapeutic relationships with clients, sexual health is often medicalised to legitimize it as an appropriate topic of discussion with patients and families. Facilities serving youth with disabilities should take steps to address barriers to the delivery of sexual health promotion and several solutions are proposed. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Food as Social Justice: Critical Ethnography as a Lens for Communication Activism (United States)

    Louis, Ross


    Courses: Public Speaking. Objectives: This semester-long service-learning activity examines access to affordable healthy food as a social justice issue, using critical ethnography as a framework to help students understand the link between activism and public speaking skills. After completing the project, students will be able to: (1) develop a…

  8. A case for critical ethnography: rethinking the early years of the AIDS epidemic in South Africa. (United States)

    Fassin, Didier


    The epidemic of AIDS in South Africa has been characterized not only by its rapid progression but also its impassioned controversies. Retrospectively examining a long-term anthropological project and discussing some reactions it elicited, the paper proposes a defense and illustration of a critical ethnography at three moments of the research. Ethnography is first discussed as fieldworks, proposing an alternative to the horizontal multi-sited approach via a vertical multi-layered method using various scales and locations, and thus connecting the disease endured by patients in townships and former homelands with the heated debates in scientific and political forums: this procedure substitutes a political economy of the disease for its cultural and behavioral interpretations. Ethnography is then discussed as writing, suggesting acknowledgment of the social intelligence of the agents as well as the need for a scientific distance: this principle allows the articulation of the objective historical condition of the individuals and their subjective experience of history, both revealed in the development of the epidemic. Ultimately ethnography is considered from the perspective of its afterlife, that is, the continuous process of its translation by readers and commentators, on the one hand, by the author trying to reach beyond the boundaries of the academic realm, on the other, the work of anthropology appearing as a living object open to public conversation and consequently a resource for knowledge and action. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Explaining why nurses remain in or leave bedside nursing: a critical ethnography. (United States)

    Mahon, Paula; McPherson, Gladys


    To describe the application of critical ethnography to explain nurses' decisions to remain in or leave bedside nursing, and to describe researcher positioning and reflexivity. Enquiry into hospital nurses' decisions to remain in or leave bedside nursing positions has been conducted from a variety of theoretical perspectives by researchers adopting a range of methodological approaches. This research helps to explain how work environments can affect variables such as job satisfaction and turnover, but provides less insight into how personal and professional factors shape decisions to remain in or leave bedside nursing. A critical theoretical perspective was taken to examine the employment decisions made by nurses in a paediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Data was collected from nurses (n=31) through semi-structured interviews and unobtrusive observation. The authors describe critical ethnography as a powerful research framework for enquiry that allowed them to challenge assumptions about why nurses remain in or leave their jobs, and to explore how issues of fairness and equity contribute to these decisions. Critical ethnography offers a powerful methodology for investigations into complex interactions, such as those between nurses in a PICU. In adopting this methodology, researchers should be sensitised to manifestations of power, attend to their stance and location, and reflexion. The greatest challenges from this research included how to make sense of the insider position, how to acknowledge assumptions and allow these to be challenged, and how to ensure that power relationships in the environment and in the research were attended to.

  10. Critical Race Theory and Counselor Education Pedagogy: Creating Equitable Training (United States)

    Haskins, Natoya H.; Singh, Anneliese


    Infusing critical race theory, the authors discuss specific pedagogical strategies to enhance educational experiences of counselor trainees. The authors then provide an evaluative checklist to facilitate and evaluate curricular integration of critical race theory.

  11. Patient's dignity in intensive care unit: A critical ethnography. (United States)

    Bidabadi, Farimah Shirani; Yazdannik, Ahmadreza; Zargham-Boroujeni, Ali


    Maintaining patient's dignity in intensive care units is difficult because of the unique conditions of both critically-ill patients and intensive care units. The aim of this study was to uncover the cultural factors that impeded maintaining patients' dignity in the cardiac surgery intensive care unit. The study was conducted using a critical ethnographic method proposed by Carspecken. Participants and research context: Participants included all physicians, nurses and staffs working in the study setting (two cardiac surgery intensive care units). Data collection methods included participant observations, formal and informal interviews, and documents assessment. In total, 200 hours of observation and 30 interviews were performed. Data were analyzed to uncover tacit cultural knowledge and to help healthcare providers to reconstruct the culture of their workplace. Ethical Consideration: Ethical approval for the study from Ethics committee of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences was obtained. The findings of the study fell into the following main themes: "Presence: the guarantee for giving enough attention to patients' self-esteem", "Instrumental and objectified attitudes", "Adherence to the human equality principle: value-action gap", "Paternalistic conduct", "Improper language", and "Non-interactive communication". The final assertion was "Reductionism as a major barrier to the maintaining of patient's dignity". The prevailing atmosphere in subculture of the CSICU was reductionism and paternalism. This key finding is part of the biomedical discourse. As a matter of fact, it is in contrast with dignified care because the latter necessitate holistic attitudes and approaches. Changing an ICU culture is not easy; but through increasing awareness and critical self-reflections, the nurses, physicians and other healthcare providers, may be able to reaffirm dignified care and cure in their therapeutic relationships.

  12. QuantCrit: Rectifying Quantitative Methods through Critical Race Theory (United States)

    Garcia, Nichole M.; López, Nancy; Vélez, Verónica N.


    Critical race theory (CRT) in education centers, examines, and seeks to transform the relationship that undergirds race, racism, and power. CRT scholars have applied a critical race framework to advance research methodologies, namely qualitative interventions. Informed by this work, and 15 years later, this article reconsiders the possibilities of…

  13. The Mapping of a Framework: Critical Race Theory and TESOL (United States)

    Liggett, Tonda


    In this article, I attempt to elucidate some key intersections between critical race theory (CRT) in synthesis with English language learning as a way to examine linguistic and racial identity in English language teaching. I ask: How does critical race theory apply to English language learners when language rather than race is fore-grounded? What…

  14. Targeted ethnography as a critical step to inform cultural adaptations of HIV prevention interventions for adults with severe mental illness. (United States)

    Wainberg, Milton L; Alfredo González, M; McKinnon, Karen; Elkington, Katherine S; Pinto, Diana; Gruber Mann, Claudio; Mattos, Paulo E


    As in other countries worldwide, adults with severe mental illness (SMI) in Brazil are disproportionately infected with HIV relative to the general population. Brazilian psychiatric facilities lack tested HIV prevention interventions. To adapt existing interventions, developed only in the US, we conducted targeted ethnography with adults with SMI and staff from two psychiatric institutions in Brazil. We sought to characterize individual, institutional, and interpersonal factors that may affect HIV risk behavior in this population. We conducted 350 hours of ethnographic field observations in two mental health service settings in Rio de Janeiro, and 9 focus groups (n=72) and 16 key-informant interviews with patients and staff in these settings. Data comprised field notes and audiotapes of all exchanges, which were transcribed, coded, and systematically analyzed. The ethnography identified and/or characterized the institutional culture: (1) patients' risk behaviors; (2) the institutional setting; (3) intervention content; and (4) intervention format and delivery strategies. Targeted ethnography also illuminated broader contextual issues for development and implementation of HIV prevention interventions for adults with SMI in Brazil, including an institutional culture that did not systematically address patients' sexual behavior, sexual health, or HIV sexual risk, yet strongly impacted the structure of patients' sexual networks. Further, ethnography identified the Brazilian concept of "social responsibility" as important to prevention work with psychiatric patients. Targeted ethnography with adults with SMI and institutional staff provided information critical to the adaptation of tested US HIV prevention interventions for Brazilians with SMI.

  15. A critical ethnography of doctor-patient interaction in southern Iran. (United States)

    Sadati, Ahmad Kalateh; Iman, Mohammad Taghi; Lankarani, Kamran Bagheri; Derakhshan, Soghra


    Doctor-patient interaction is a subject with ethical ramifications, besides being an important issue in medical sociology. The main goal of this critical study is to explore the interactional experience of hospital admitted patients. For this reason, the study, carried out in an educational hospital in southern Iran, entailed 156 recorded clinical consultations, 920 hours of participant observation, and six focus groups consisting of patients and their families. The research method used is Critical Ethnography, which was introduced by PF Carspecken. The results showed that negative interactional experience was common among the participants. Six related themes were: doctors' inattentiveness; weak interaction; violation of patients' privacy; unjustified pain; long waiting period and ambiguity; and faceless physicians. According to the participants' observations, poor interaction with doctors has led to these negative experiences. The findings showed that doctors were inconsiderate about patients' concerns and due to this, patients were dissatisfied. Theoretically, this form of fragmented collaboration has deep roots in the framework of modern medicine, but in the context of this study, the intensity of the fragmentation between doctors and patients was observed to be intolerable. To solve this problem, models of patient-centredness and narrative medicine are recommended. In addition, the health system should monitor and evaluate the observance of ethics by physicians.

  16. critical race theory and the question of safety in dialogues on race

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. This study seeks to combine research from critical race theory, as applied to ... Two recurring strands from this body of academic work that are of particular ..... that the above exemplars stem from an online debate in which students.

  17. Researching "race" in lesbian space: a critical reflection. (United States)

    Held, Nina


    Feminist researchers have acknowledged that racial differences between researcher and researched impact on the research process; however, there has been little concern with how "race" is actually made in/through the research process. If we think "race" as performative and as always in the process of being made then this theoretical claim has crucial implications for research encounters. In this article the author draws on her own research, which focuses on processes of racialization. This ethnographic study was conducted in two lesbian bars in the North West of England. The article illustrates different ways of how "race," in particular Whiteness, operated during the research process. The author critically reflects on her role in "race making" during this process and highlights the importance of acknowledging that researchers are also complicit in this making when doing research where "race" is not the central focus.

  18. Critical Race Theory in Education, Marxism and Abstract Racial Domination (United States)

    Cole, Mike


    In the context of the ongoing debate between critical race theory (CRT) and Marxism, I begin in this paper by examining the origins of CRT in Critical Legal Studies (CLS) in the United States. I go on to describe CRT's entry into education, first in that country, and then in the United Kingdom. I move on to a discussion of current debates between…

  19. Institutional ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rebecca; Tienari, Janne


    The study of M&As is dominated by positivist and functionalist world views and the use of quantitative methods. Although extant research also uses qualitative and mixed methods, it can be criticized for viewing its subject matter through an abstract and external lens. The researcher is placed in ......, and point to some of the problems in M&A studies identified through this lens. Finally, we argue why institutional ethnography, in comparison with other methods of inquiry, is particularly fruitful in the study of mergers and acquisitions....

  20. Towards a Research Framework for Race in Education: Critical Race Theory and Judith Butler (United States)

    Chadderton, Charlotte


    There has been much debate around the extent to which post-structuralist theory can be applied to critical research. In this article, it is argued that aspects of the two approaches can be combined, resulting in productive tensions that point towards a possible new framework for researching race and racism in education in the UK. The article…

  1. Negotiating Love and Work: A Critical Ethnography of A Gay Porn Star


    Johnson Jr., Michael


    This ethnography offers a glimpse into one person’s pornographic film career, thus rendering visible a frequently invisible sub-textual accounting of the adult film industry. And in so doing, I offer some critiques about how popular constructions of what “love” and affection mean are always tentatively related to our relationship with and exposure to pornography. This research thus argues that our popular understanding of sexual desire, lust, and love are in constant states of flux as sex is ...

  2. Focused Ethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Knoblauch


    Full Text Available In this paper I focus on a distinctive kind of sociological ethnography which is particularly, though not exclusively, adopted in applied research. It has been proposed that this branch of ethno­graphy be referred to as focused ethnography. Focused ethnography shall be delineated within the context of other common conceptions of what may be called conventional ethnography. However, rather than being opposed to it, focused ethno­graphy is rather complementary to conventional ethnography, particularly in fields that are charac­teristic of socially and functionally differentiated contemporary society. The paper outlines the back­ground as well as the major methodological features of focused ethnography, such as short-term field visits, data intensity and time intensity, so as to provide a background for future studies in this area. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0503440

  3. Critical Race Parenting in the Trump Era: A Sisyphean Endeavor? A Parable (United States)

    Montoya, Roberto; Sarcedo, Geneva L.


    This article examines the complicated decisions parents make when they decide to raise critically conscious children. The article argues that critical parenting in US society is often analogous to the Greek myth of Sisyphus. Using Critical Race Parenting, Critical Race Theory, and Critical Whiteness Studies, this critically interpretive parable…

  4. A critical black feminist ethnography of treatment for women with co-occurring disorders in the psychiatric hospital. (United States)

    Creswell, Laryssa M


    The purpose of this study was to explore the perspectives of women diagnosed with co-occurring disorders on the treatments provided by a state psychiatric hospital so that appropriate recommendations for changes in treatment may be made. Critical ethnography was used and the data was viewed through the lens of intersectionality from the black feminist perspective. Seven women hospitalized in one psychiatric hospital in the Mid-Atlantic region participated in the study. Data was collected via semistructured interviews, Consumer Perceptions of Care survey, researcher's observations, and archival data. Three major findings emerged: (1) Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT) was identified as a beneficial treatment, (2) a lack of trust in the system and people in the system, and (3) housing or homelessness was perceived as a barrier. Based on the results of this study, it is recommended clinicians, administrators, and policy makers listen closely to individuals receiving treatment to make decisions regarding treatment accordingly.

  5. For Ethnography (United States)

    Walford, Geoffrey


    This article seeks to promote what might be called a traditional form of ethnography. It recognises that all traditions change, but puts forward a view that, for an activity or product to be regarded as ethnographic, there is a need for some recognisable continuity with what has been regarded as ethnography in the last century. This article thus…

  6. Criticality calculations in reactor accelerator coupling experiment (Race)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reda, M.A.; Spaulding, R.; Hunt, A.; Harmon, J.F.; Beller, D.E.


    A Reactor Accelerator Coupling Experiment (RACE) is to be performed at the Idaho State University Idaho Accelerator Center (IAC). The electron accelerator is used to generate neutrons by inducing Bremsstrahlung photon-neutron reactions in a Tungsten- Copper target. This accelerator/target system produces a source of ∼1012 n/s, which can initiate fission reactions in the subcritical system. This coupling experiment between a 40-MeV electron accelerator and a subcritical system will allow us to predict and measure coupling efficiency, reactivity, and multiplication. In this paper, the results of the criticality and multiplication calculations, which were carried out using the Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX, for different coupling design options are presented. The fuel plate arrangements and the surrounding tank dimensions have been optimized. Criticality using graphite instead of water for reflector/moderator outside of the core region has been studied. The RACE configuration at the IAC will have a criticality (k-effective) of about 0,92 and a multiplication of about 10. (authors)

  7. Auto-Interviewing, Auto-Ethnography and Critical Incident Methodology for Eliciting a Self-Conceptualised Worldview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béatrice Boufoy-Bastick


    Full Text Available Knowing oneself has been an age-old humanistic concern for many western and oriental philosophers. The same concern is now shared by modern psychologists and anthropologists who seek to understand the "self" and others by eluci­dating their worldviews. This paper presents an auto-anthropological methodology which can ef­fec­tively elucidate one's worldview. This intro­spective qualitative methodology uses integratively three methodological processes, namely auto-inter­viewing, auto-ethnography and critical incident technique to elicit baseline cultural data. The paper reports on how this methodology was used to elicit my current worldview. It first explains how emic data were educed and rendered in emo­tionally enhanced narratives, which were then deconstructed to elicit the major recurring themes in the etic interpretive content analysis. To illus­trate this auto-anthropological methodology, two cultural life events have been used: a critical incident in Singapore and a consciousness raising process in Fiji. The first event revealed my own education ideology while the second made me realise my mitigated support for cultural diversity. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0401371

  8. Race, Class, and Cultural Reproduction: Critical Theories in Urban Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine M. Walker


    Full Text Available In spite of decades of reform attempts urban education remains an intractable policy issue for educators. National and state level data continue to show disparities in educational achievement and attainment between students from affluent and poor urban communities. If past policies have not proven to be effective in substantially improving urban educational systems the question is why? In this paper the argument is raised that urban educational policies lack sound epistemological grounding. Policies are divorced from an understanding of the “urban problematic”. Functionalist in orientation these policies have for the most part sought to “fix” urban schools by focusing on micro-ecological issues. In this paper three theoretical perspectives are explored for their potential contribution to inform research and policy on urban educational issues. The three perspectives are: 1 class theories 2 critical race theory and 3 cultural reproduction theories.

  9. Understanding Critical Race Theory as a Framework in Higher Educational Research (United States)

    Savas, Gokhan


    This paper reviews the existing literature to discuss how critical race theory has been applied as a theoretical framework to higher educational research in the United States and what its contributions are. To provide necessary context, I will discuss race and racism in the United States, the background of US higher education in relation to race,…

  10. Homeless Educational Policy: Exploring a Racialized Discourse Through a Critical Race Theory Lens (United States)

    Aviles de Bradley, Ann


    A qualitative research study conducted in two public high schools in an urban area of the Midwest sought to explore the issue of race as it pertains to educational policy implementation for unaccompanied homeless youth of color. Critical Race Theory (CRT) served as the guiding frame and method, uncovering the underlying theme of race in school…

  11. Critical Pragmatism and the Appropriation of Ethnography by Philosophy of Education (United States)

    Feinberg, Walter


    In this essay I explore the potential that ethnographic methods hold for philosophy of education as a form of critical pragmatism. An aim of critical pragmatism is to help to analyze the roadblocks to fruitful communication, coordination and liberation. It does so by identifying their sources and opportunities for repair. As I have argued…

  12. "To Break Asunder along the Lesions of Race". The Critical Race Theory of W.E.B. Du Bois (United States)

    Rashid, Kamau


    In addition to its beginnings within legal scholarship, Critical Race Theory (CRT) is intimately aligned with the long tradition of African American social critique, which sought to interrogate the intractable nature of racism and White supremacy. Within this intellectual tradition, the works of W.E.B. Du Bois are of critical significance. Du…

  13. The disgrace of commodification and shameful convenience: a critical race critique of the NBA. (United States)

    Griffin, Rachel Alicia


    This essay positions sport as a pedagogical social institution from which people learn about race, gender, power, and privilege. The National Basketball Association is examined closely with a critical race lens with regard to the commodification of Black masculinity. A critical race analysis reveals the sharp contradictions between the league’s progressive image as an “industry leader” of racial diversity (Lapchick, Bustamante, & Ruiz, 2007, p.1) and the actualization of league discourse, policy, and practice.

  14. The Threat of Unexamined Secondary Data: A Critical Race Transformative Convergent Mixed Methods (United States)

    Garcia, Nichole M.; Mayorga, Oscar J.


    This article uses a critical race theory framework to conceptualize a Critical Race Transformative Convergent Mixed Methods (CRTCMM) in education. CRTCMM is a methodology that challenges normative educational research practices by acknowledging that racism permeates educational institutions and marginalizes Communities of Color. The focus of this…

  15. Utilizing Critical Race Theory to Examine Race/Ethnicity, Racism, and Power in Student Development Theory and Research (United States)

    Hernández, Ebelia


    Recognition of social forces (racism, privilege, power) to the extent that is required by critical race theory (CRT) results in a paradigm shift in the way that we theorize and research student development, specifically self-authorship. This paradigm shift moves the center of analysis from individual, to the individual in relation to her…

  16. Critical Race Design: An Emerging Methodological Approach to Anti-Racist Design and Implementation Research (United States)

    Khalil, Deena; Kier, Meredith


    This article is about introducing Critical Race Design (CRD), a research methodology that centers race and equity at the nucleus of educational opportunities by design. First, the authors define design-based implementation research (DBIR; Penuel, Fishman, Cheng, & Sabelli, 2011) as an equity-oriented education research methodology where…

  17. From Racial Stereotyping and Deficit Discourse toward a Critical Race Theory in Teacher Education. (United States)

    Solorzano, Daniel G.; Yosso, Tara J.


    Examines connections between critical race theory (CRT) and its application to the concepts of race, racial bias, and racial stereotyping in teacher education. Defines CRT, then discusses racism and stereotyping, racial stereotypes in the media, and racial stereotypes in professional environments, noting the effects on minority students. Presents…

  18. Talk the Talk, Walk the Walk: Defining Critical Race Theory in Research (United States)

    Hylton, Kevin


    Over the last decade there has been a noticeable growth in published works citing Critical Race Theory (CRT). This has led to a growth in interest in the UK of practical research projects utilising CRT as their framework. It is clear that research on "race" is an emerging topic of study. What is less visible is a debate on how CRT is…

  19. Critical race theory and the question of safety in dialogues on race ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On this foundation, the article moves on to consider the recommendations adduced by Leonardo and Porter (2010:147) and Sue (2013:666-669) as to how dialogues around race and racism can be enhanced. The article begins by contextualising its argument, followed by an overview of the guiding principles of CRT, ...

  20. Race and Historiography: Advancing a Critical-Realist Approach (United States)

    Stewart, Dafina-Lazarus


    This scholarly essay interrogates the seemingly necessary engagement of normative and essentialist characterizations of identity in the historical study of race in U.S. higher education. The author's study of the experiences of Black collegians in private, liberal arts colleges in the Midwestern Great Lakes region between 1945 and 1965 grounds…

  1. Focusing ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Woermann, Niklas


    underpinnings of focusing ethnographic research by comparing different schools of thought and suggesting a practice theory-based approach. It argues that many research projects are focused but do not reflect on the process of focusing, describes how to identify focal settings or practices, and introduces......Building theory with ethnography and filmic research increasingly requires focussing on key practices or settings, instead of painting a broad panorama of a culture. But few authors discuss why and how to focus. This article provides a systematic discussion of the theoretical and methodological...

  2. Adaptive ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berth, Mette


    This paper focuses on the use of an adaptive ethnography when studying such phenomena as young people's use of mobile media in a learning perspective. Mobile media such as PDAs and mobile phones have a number of affordances which make them potential tools for learning. However, before we begin to...... formal and informal learning contexts. The paper also proposes several adaptive methodological techniques for studying young people's interaction with mobiles.......This paper focuses on the use of an adaptive ethnography when studying such phenomena as young people's use of mobile media in a learning perspective. Mobile media such as PDAs and mobile phones have a number of affordances which make them potential tools for learning. However, before we begin...... to design and develop educational materials for mobile media platforms we must first understand everyday use and behaviour with a medium such as a mobile phone. The paper outlines the research design for a PhD project on mobile learning which focuses on mobile phones as a way to bridge the gap between...

  3. Engaging Preservice Teachers in Critical Dialogues on Race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna E. Durham-Barnes


    Full Text Available Rarely do White, middle-class Americans, the population from which most teachers are drawn, have the opportunity to consider themselves as racialized beings. Although personal experience is usually the best teacher, our increasingly homogeneous teaching population oftentimes lacks experience with diversity, and schools of education often struggle to find appropriate and meaningful diverse field experiences for their teacher candidates. This study uses a documentary in an attempt to provoke thoughtful conversations about race and racism in the United States among the mostly White teacher candidates. The study identifies racial themes that emerge from the conversations, explores the ways the groups’ racial diversity alters conversations on race, and explores how the race of the group’s facilitator may affect the conversations. The study suggested that racially diverse groups are more likely to explore greater numbers of racial themes and engage each other more deeply through polite disagreement. Although racial diversity of any kind seemed to promote deeper conversations, participants reported greater satisfaction from the conversations when the students themselves were racially diverse rather than with the facilitator alone.

  4. Education Policy as an Act of White Supremacy: Whiteness, Critical Race Theory and Education Reform (United States)

    Gillborn, David


    The paper presents an empirical analysis of education policy in England that is informed by recent developments in US critical theory. In particular, I draw on 'whiteness studies' and the application of critical race theory (CRT). These perspectives offer a new and radical way of conceptualizing the role of racism in education. Although the US…

  5. Interest Convergence or Divergence? A Critical Race Analysis of Asian Americans, Meritocracy, and Critical Mass in the Affirmative Action Debate (United States)

    Park, Julie J.; Liu, Amy


    We use the Critical Race Theory frameworks of interest convergence and divergence to critique the anti-affirmative action movement's co-option of Asian Americans. Past discussions of affirmative action and Asian Americans mainly concentrate on how Asian Americans are affected by affirmative action, whether positively or negatively. We demonstrate…

  6. Critical Race Feminism and the Complex Challenges of Educational Reform (United States)

    Childers-McKee, Cherese D.; Hytten, Kathy


    Throughout the past several decades, there has been an abundance of research about school reform, particularly in schools predominated by students of color and students experiencing poverty. Critics acknowledge that many reform efforts have failed and comprehensive solutions to school change remain elusive. In this article, we provide an overview…

  7. Critical Race Theory-Social Constructivist Bricolage: A Health-Promoting Schools Research Methodology (United States)

    Nyika, Lawrence; Murray-Orr, Anne


    While the current literature recognises the capacity of diverse methodologies to provide informative understandings of health-promoting schools (HPS), there is a paucity of examples to show how different research strategies can be used. We address this knowledge gap by examining the significance of a critical race theory-social constructivist…

  8. Critical Race Theory, Hip Hop, and "Huck Finn": Narrative Inquiry in a High School English Classroom (United States)

    Martin, Jennifer L.


    This study explores the impact of reading "Huckleberry Finn" through the lens of critical race theory for both teacher and students in a racially diverse urban high school environment. The teacher/researcher used narrative inquiry and creative non-fiction to examine student language usage, white privilege (including her own), and student…

  9. Making the Invisible Visible: Advancing Quantitative Methods in Higher Education Using Critical Race Theory and Intersectionality (United States)

    López, Nancy; Erwin, Christopher; Binder, Melissa; Chavez, Mario Javier


    We appeal to critical race theory and intersectionality to examine achievement gaps at a large public university in the American southwest from 2000 to 2015. Using white, high-income women as our reference group, we report linear combinations of marginal effects for six-year graduation rates and developmental course taking across 20 distinct…

  10. A Critical Race Feminist Analysis of Men of Color Matriculating into a Higher Education Doctoral Program (United States)

    Squire, Dian D.; Kelly, Bridget Turner; Jourian, T. J.; Byrd, Ajani M.; Manzano, Lester J.; Bumbry, Michael


    In Fall, 2012, the Loyola University Chicago Higher Education program faculty admitted a doctoral cohort of 5 men of color. This article is a reflexive and reflective autoethnography that explores the college choice processes of 5 doctoral men of color through a Critical Race Feminist perspective. The faculty program chair's narrative supplements…

  11. Racism as Policy: A Critical Race Analysis of Education Reforms in the United States and England (United States)

    Gillborn, David


    Critical race theory (CRT) views education as one of the principal means by which white supremacy is maintained and presented as normal in society. The article applies CRT to two real-world case studies: changes to education statutes in the state of Arizona (USA) and the introduction of a new measure of educational success in England, the English…

  12. Educational Lynching: Critical Race Theory and the Suspension of Black Boys (United States)

    Payne, Macheo


    Looking at the disproportionate suspension of African American, Black male students through the lens of critical race theory, this presents arguments from a CRT how the disproportionate suspension of Black male students is rooted in white supremacy and racist policy in the United States. Local recommendations are offered for Oakland Unified School…

  13. Teach for America's Long Arc: A Critical Race Theory Textual Analysis of Wendy Kopp's Works (United States)

    Barnes, Michael C.; Germain, Emily K.; Valenzuela, Angela


    We read and analyzed 165,000 words and uncover a series of counter-stories buried within a textual corpus, authored by Teach For America (TFA) founder Wendy Kopp (Kopp, 1989, 2001; Kopp & Farr, 2011), that offers insight into the forms of racism endemic to Teach For America. All three counter-stories align with a critical race theory (CRT)…

  14. Critical Race Parenting: Understanding Scholarship/Activism in Parenting Our Children (United States)

    DePouw, Christin; Matias, Cheryl


    Parenting is often discussed in the field of education, but frequently in terms of family or community deficiency, rather than strengths (Bonilla Silva, 2006; Few, 2007), particularly when communities of color are being examined. In this conceptual article, we advocate for the use of critical race theory (CRT) in discussions of parenting and…

  15. Where Are We? Critical Race Theory in Education 20 Years Later (United States)

    Dixson, Adrienne D.; Rousseau Anderson, Celia


    This article explores the territory that has been covered since the publication of Ladson-Billings and Tate's 1995 article, "Toward a Critical Race Theory in Education." We organize our review of the CRT literature around what we are calling CRT "boundaries." We identify six boundaries for CRT and education: 1) CRT in education…

  16. Critical Race Theory and Research on Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders in Higher Education (United States)

    Teranishi, Robert T.; Behringer, Laurie B.; Grey, Emily A.; Parker, Tara L.


    In this article, the authors offer critical race theory (CRT) as an alternative theoretical perspective that permits the examination and transcendence of conceptual blockages, while simultaneously offering alternative perspectives on higher education policy and practice and the Asian American and Pacific Islander (AAPI) student population. The…

  17. Race and Culture in the Secondary School Health and Physical Education Curriculum in Ontario, Canada: A Critical Reading (United States)

    Petherick, LeAnne


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore issues of race and culture in health education in the secondary school health and physical education (HPE) curriculum in Ontario, Canada. Design/methodology/approach: Using Ontario's secondary school curriculum as a point of analysis, this paper draws from critical race theory and a whiteness lens…

  18. J-School Ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Anne Kirstine

    overlaps between journalism and academic practices like ethnography are utilized in American programs. Based on fieldwork in the United States, this paper offers an empirical study of ethnography in journalism education. Tracing the epistemic clashes between journalism and academia and showing how...

  19. Disrupting Ethnography through Rhizoanalysis (United States)

    Masny, Diana


    This article interrogates principles of ethnography in education proposed by Mills and Morton: raw tellings, analytic pattern, vignette and empathy. This article adopts a position that is uncomfortable, unconventional and interesting. It involves a deterritorialization/rupture of ethnography in education in order to reterritorialize a different…

  20. Neoliberalism, Governmentality, Ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dean, Mitchell


    A letter to the editor is presented in response to the article "Neoliberalism, Governmentality, Ethnography," by Michelle Brady in the previous issue.......A letter to the editor is presented in response to the article "Neoliberalism, Governmentality, Ethnography," by Michelle Brady in the previous issue....

  1. Critical Race Theory and the Limits of Relational Theory in Social Work with Women. (United States)

    Quinn, Camille R; Grumbach, Giesela


    The authors present a conceptual framework for expanding the use of relational theory with African-American women. Relational theory (RT) informs practice with women but is inadequate in addressing all aspects of culture and identity. RT presumes that all women desire or are able to make therapeutic connections, yet race, gender, and cultural experiences influence their ability to do so. Successful practice with minority women must address racism and its impact. Critical race theory (CRT) that incorporates a solution-focused (SF) approach is well-suited to address the limits of RT. This overview of a CRT/SF approach describes treatment for diverse women that extends RT and enhances effective social work practice to provide culturally sensitive treatment to women.

  2. Ethnography at work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    to a potential client will be preferred over that of a rival firm. The book shows how detailed ethnography can lead to an understanding of numerous different, but interlocking, theoretical issues. It demonstrates how ethnography can travel beyond the academic realm and be used by business personnel to heighten...... their understanding of their companies' organizational structures, strategies and daily work practices. Asking crucial questions about the role of the anthropologist in the field, "Ethnography at Work" introduces students to ways in which anthropologists study social systems in business....

  3. On "White Supremacy" and Caricaturing, Misrepresenting and Dismissing Marx and Marxism: A Response to David Gillborn's "Who's Afraid of Critical Race Theory in Education". (United States)

    Cole, Mike


    In this journal in 2007, the author and Alpesh Maisuria critiqued two central tenets of Critical Race Theory (CRT) from a Marxist perspective (Cole and Maisuria, 2007). These are its primacy of "race" over class, and its concept of "white supremacy". Part of the critique focused on the work of leading UK Critical Race Theorist,…

  4. Whose Side Are You on? Advocacy Ethnography: Some Methodological Aspects of Narrative Portraits of Disadvantaged Young People, in Socially Critical Research (United States)

    Smyth, John; McInerney, Peter


    This paper is primarily interested in opening up a strategy to counter the increasing silencing of perspectives resulting from the press towards "evidence-based" forms of research. We argue that all researchers have interests, declared or otherwise. What we advance in the paper is an approach to ethnography that is inclusive of the lives,…

  5. Perception and motivation in face recognition: a critical review of theories of the Cross-Race Effect. (United States)

    Young, Steven G; Hugenberg, Kurt; Bernstein, Michael J; Sacco, Donald F


    Although humans possess well-developed face processing expertise, face processing is nevertheless subject to a variety of biases. Perhaps the best known of these biases is the Cross-Race Effect--the tendency to have more accurate recognition for same-race than cross-race faces. The current work reviews the evidence for and provides a critical review of theories of the Cross-Race Effect, including perceptual expertise and social cognitive accounts of the bias. The authors conclude that recent hybrid models of the Cross-Race Effect, which combine elements of both perceptual expertise and social cognitive frameworks, provide an opportunity for theoretical synthesis and advancement not afforded by independent expertise or social cognitive models. Finally, the authors suggest future research directions intended to further develop a comprehensive and integrative understanding of biases in face recognition.

  6. Ethnography in Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossen, Claus


    The role of ethnography in system development is discussed through hte selective application of an ethnographic easy-to-use toolkit, Contextual Design, by a computer firm in the initial stages of the development of a health care system.......The role of ethnography in system development is discussed through hte selective application of an ethnographic easy-to-use toolkit, Contextual Design, by a computer firm in the initial stages of the development of a health care system....

  7. Race and Ability Talk in Early Childhood: Critical Inquiry into Shared Book Reading Practices with Pre-Service Teachers (United States)

    Beneke, Margaret Rose


    In early childhood contexts, reading literature to engage children in critical discussions about ability and race--and how it impacts their daily lives--is a promising practice. Indeed, critical literacy scholars see the use of language, text, and discourse structures as powerful ways to address inequity in educational settings (Gainer, 2013;…

  8. Producing ethnographies: workplace ethnographies in history. (United States)

    Platt, Jennifer; Crothers, Charles; Horgan, Mervyn


    Data on a large set of workplace ethnographies published from 1940 to 2002, compiled by Randy Hodson, are analyzed to show the trends over time in the production of such ethnographic work, its shifting disciplinary base, the relevance of the personal backgrounds of its authors, the contributions made by academic amateurs, the changing roles of gender and political stances, and the nature of different routes to publication. The definition of what counts as an ethnography is important to the character of the set available and has implications for its potential uses in secondary analysis. It is found that both personal and disciplinary identities and wider social factors have played roles in the production of ethnographic work that need to be understood to account for its history, though it is to be expected that the forms these take will differ for work in different subfields. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Hetland


    Full Text Available Several concepts are used to describe ethnographic approaches for investigating the Internet; competing concepts include virtual ethnography, netnography, digital ethnography, web-ethnography, online ethnography, and e-ethnography. However, as the field matures, several writers simply call their approach "ethnography" and specify new fields of practice. In this paper, we will explore the content of ethnographic approach for investigating the Internet and the direction in which this new field of ethnography is moving, that is, whether it is the study of blended worlds or online worlds. We start by introducing the emerging field sites or fields of practice. Then, we describe how participant observation and other data collection techniques are carried out. Next, we describe how ethnographic practice is understood within the emerging field. Finally, we discuss some possible changes in the ethnographic landscape: unobtrusive methods, the communal-commercial relationship, and team-ethnography.

  10. Applying Critical Race Theory to Group Model Building Methods to Address Community Violence. (United States)

    Frerichs, Leah; Lich, Kristen Hassmiller; Funchess, Melanie; Burrell, Marcus; Cerulli, Catherine; Bedell, Precious; White, Ann Marie


    Group model building (GMB) is an approach to building qualitative and quantitative models with stakeholders to learn about the interrelationships among multilevel factors causing complex public health problems over time. Scant literature exists on adapting this method to address public health issues that involve racial dynamics. This study's objectives are to (1) introduce GMB methods, (2) present a framework for adapting GMB to enhance cultural responsiveness, and (3) describe outcomes of adapting GMB to incorporate differences in racial socialization during a community project seeking to understand key determinants of community violence transmission. An academic-community partnership planned a 1-day session with diverse stakeholders to explore the issue of violence using GMB. We documented key questions inspired by critical race theory (CRT) and adaptations to established GMB "scripts" (i.e., published facilitation instructions). The theory's emphasis on experiential knowledge led to a narrative-based facilitation guide from which participants created causal loop diagrams. These early diagrams depict how violence is transmitted and how communities respond, based on participants' lived experiences and mental models of causation that grew to include factors associated with race. Participants found these methods useful for advancing difficult discussion. The resulting diagrams can be tested and expanded in future research, and will form the foundation for collaborative identification of solutions to build community resilience. GMB is a promising strategy that community partnerships should consider when addressing complex health issues; our experience adapting methods based on CRT is promising in its acceptability and early system insights.

  11. Intersectionality, critical race theory, and American sporting oppression: examining black and gay male athletes. (United States)

    Anderson, Eric; McCormack, Mark


    This article examines the influence of the racial categories of White and Black and the sexual categories of gay and straight on sporting American men. The effect of the intersection of these cultural categories is discussed by investigating the exclusion of athletes who are both Black and gay, as well as highlighting the culturally perceived differences of (straight) Black and (White) gay men. However, the analysis accounts for more than just difference, examining the commonalities of oppression between these discrete identity groups. We use the research on Black athletes to call for further empirical study on gay athletes. It is argued that critical race theory and intersectionality offer complex and nuanced understandings of these oppressions, which, when theorizing is left solely to the realm of poststructuralism, can otherwise be missed.

  12. Immersion Ethnography of Elites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrington, Brooke


    This chapter examines an innovative form of data-gathering that brings together two of the greatest methodological challenges social scientists face: conducting classical immersion ethnography and gaining access to elites. The difficulties of accessing elites for research purposes have been well......-documented (Conti and O’Neill 2007; Gilding 2010; Harrington 2003). There has been less scholarly discussion of the challenges posed by traditional ethnography, a method whose claim to scientific status is based on the length and depth of the investigator’s immersion in an organization or culture....

  13. Ethnographies of Waiting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janeja, Manpreet Kaur; Bandak, Andreas

    We all wait – in traffic jams, passport offices, school meal queues, for better weather, an end to fighting, peace. Time spent waiting produces hope, boredom, anxiety, doubt, or uncertainty. Ethnographies of Waiting explores the social phenomenon of waiting and its centrality in human society...... worth the wait?" Waiting thus conceived is intrinsic to the ethnographic method at the heart of the anthropological enterprise. Featuring detailed ethnographies from Japan, Georgia, England, Ghana, Norway, Russia and the United States, a Foreword by Craig Jeffrey and an Afterword by Ghassan Hage...

  14. Ethnography: principles, practice and potential. (United States)

    Draper, Jan


    Ethnography is a methodology that is gaining popularity in nursing and healthcare research. It is concerned with studying people in their cultural context and how their behaviour, either as individuals or as part of a group, is influenced by this cultural context. Ethnography is a form of social research and has much in common with other forms of qualitative enquiry. While classical ethnography was characteristically concerned with describing 'other' cultures, contemporary ethnography has focused on settings nearer to home. This article outlines some of the underlying principles and practice of ethnography, and its potential for nursing and healthcare practice.

  15. Critical Race Theory Counterstory as Allegory: A Rhetorical Trope to Raise Awareness about Arizona's Ban on Ethnic Studies (United States)

    Martinez, Aja Y.


    he critical race counterstory in this essay takes on the form of allegory to raise awareness about Arizona's anti-immigrant/Mexican climate, and pays particular attention to legislation targeted at Tucson Unified School District's Mexican American studies (also RAZA studies) program.

  16. "What's Going On?": A Critical Race Theory Perspective on Black Lives Matter and Activism in Education (United States)

    Dixson, Adrienne D.


    This article explores activism, education, and the #BlackLivesMatter movement. Using critical race theory (CRT), I analyze what this emergence of primarily youth-led activism means in the context of decades of neoliberal education reform. I raise specific questions about how youth-led activism, which has its genesis in and is largely shaped by…

  17. Disability Critical Race Theory: Exploring the Intersectional Lineage, Emergence, and Potential Futures of DisCrit in Education (United States)

    Annamma, Subini Ancy; Ferri, Beth A.; Connor, David J.


    In this review, we explore how intersectionality has been engaged with through the lens of disability critical race theory (DisCrit) to produce new knowledge. In this chapter, we (1) trace the intellectual lineage for developing DisCrit, (2) review the body of interdisciplinary scholarship incorporating DisCrit to date, and (3) propose the future…

  18. Through the Prism of Critical Race Theory: "Niceness" and Latina/o Leadership in the Politics of Education (United States)

    Aleman, Enrique, Jr.


    Utilizing a critical race theory (CRT) framework, I conduct a rhetorical and discursive analysis of data from a study of Utah Latino/a educational and political leaders. In analyzing how participants advocate closing the achievement gaps that affect Latina/o and Chicana/o students, I find that participants' political discourse is shaped by…

  19. Contextualizing Asian American Education through Critical Race Theory: An Example of U.S. Pilipino College Student Experiences (United States)

    Buenavista, Tracy Lachica; Jayakumar, Uma M.; Misa-Escalante, Kimberly


    In this article, the authors offer a CRT (critical race theory) perspective of the prevailing representation of Asian Americans in higher education research and acknowledge the importance of recent studies that have begun to challenge notions of a monolithic Asian American educational experience through an examination of differences among Asian…

  20. The 20th-Year Anniversary of Critical Race Theory in Education: Implications for Leading to Eliminate Racism (United States)

    Capper, Colleen A.


    Purpose: Though the first published application of critical race theory (CRT) to education occurred 20 years ago, implications of CRT for educational leadership did not occur until López conducted a CRT analysis of the politics of education literature in 2003. No publications explicitly identify the implications of CRT for leadership practice.…

  1. Awakening a Dialogue: A Critical Race Theory Analysis of U.S. Nature of Science Research from 1967 to 2013 (United States)

    Walls, Leon


    As the nation's K-12 classrooms become increasingly more racially, culturally, and linguistically diverse, it is incumbent upon the science community to seize opportunities to attend to the rhetoric of reform, namely to enhance scientific literacy for all students. Using Critical Race Theory (CRT) as a framework, this study examined 112 nature of…

  2. Enact, Discard, and Transform: A Critical Race Feminist Perspective on Professional Socialization among Tenured Black Female Faculty (United States)

    Sulé, Venice Thandi


    Through an analysis informed by critical race feminism, this paper examines the intersection of professional socialization and agency among tenured Black female faculty at Predominantly White Institutions (PWIs). Professional socialization entails the transmission and reproduction of professional norms. However, within PWIs, professional…

  3. Critical Race Theory in India: "Theory Translation" and the Analysis of Social Identities and Discrimination in Indian Schooling (United States)

    Goodnight, Melissa Rae


    This article examines ethical and philosophical considerations in "theory translation," i.e. translating a theoretical framework from its original place to another national context. Critical race theory (CRT) was developed in the United States through significant struggle in order to analyze everyday racism. Marginalized groups have…

  4. (Re)defining "Good Teaching": Teacher Performance Assessments and Critical Race Theory in Early Childhood Teacher Education (United States)

    Michael Luna, Sara


    Using three tenents of Critical Race Theory, this study examines the influence of edTPAs on diverse early childhood pre-service teachers in a graduate program. Findings suggest that (1) Color-blind admissions policy and practice were at odds with edTPA's perceived academic language demands; (2) A tension emerged between financial demands of edTPA…

  5. [Ethnography and nursing research]. (United States)

    Debout, Christophe


    Ethnography, a qualitative research methodology, is used to describe culture shared by a group or to explore a cultural phenomenon. Nurse researchers seeking better understanding of the health practices of certain cultural groups became rapidly interested in it. Its application relies on a process that requires time.

  6. Why are there race/ethnic differences in adult body mass index–adiposity relationships? A quantitative critical review (United States)

    Heymsfield, S. B.; Peterson, C. M.; Thomas, D. M.; Heo, M.; Schuna, J. M.


    Summary Body mass index (BMI) is now the most widely used measure of adiposity on a global scale. Nevertheless, intense discussion centers on the appropriateness of BMI as a phenotypic marker of adiposity across populations differing in race and ethnicity. BMI-adiposity relations appear to vary significantly across race/ethnic groups, but a collective critical analysis of these effects establishing their magnitude and underlying body shape/composition basis is lacking. Accordingly, we systematically review the magnitude of these race-ethnic differences across non-Hispanic (NH) white, NH black and Mexican American adults, their anatomic body composition basis and potential biologically linked mechanisms, using both earlier publications and new analyses from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Our collective observations provide a new framework for critically evaluating the quantitative relations between BMI and adiposity across groups differing in race and ethnicity; reveal new insights into BMI as a measure of adiposity across the adult age-span; identify knowledge gaps that can form the basis of future research and create a quantitative foundation for developing BMI-related public health recommendations. PMID:26663309

  7. Why are there race/ethnic differences in adult body mass index-adiposity relationships? A quantitative critical review. (United States)

    Heymsfield, S B; Peterson, C M; Thomas, D M; Heo, M; Schuna, J M


    Body mass index (BMI) is now the most widely used measure of adiposity on a global scale. Nevertheless, intense discussion centers on the appropriateness of BMI as a phenotypic marker of adiposity across populations differing in race and ethnicity. BMI-adiposity relations appear to vary significantly across race/ethnic groups, but a collective critical analysis of these effects establishing their magnitude and underlying body shape/composition basis is lacking. Accordingly, we systematically review the magnitude of these race-ethnic differences across non-Hispanic (NH) white, NH black and Mexican American adults, their anatomic body composition basis and potential biologically linked mechanisms, using both earlier publications and new analyses from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Our collective observations provide a new framework for critically evaluating the quantitative relations between BMI and adiposity across groups differing in race and ethnicity; reveal new insights into BMI as a measure of adiposity across the adult age-span; identify knowledge gaps that can form the basis of future research and create a quantitative foundation for developing BMI-related public health recommendations. © 2015 World Obesity.

  8. Campus Climate and the Underrepresented Minority Engineering Student Experience: A Critical Race Study (United States)

    Mayes, Terrance

    In the current technological era, the number of minorities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is a crucial factor in predetermining the economic growth of the United States. Since the minority population is growing at much faster rates than the non-minority population, the lack of proportionate production of minority engineers poses a threat to the United States' ability to remain a global competitor in technological innovation. Sixty-three per cent (63%) of undergraduate students who enter engineering majors continue on to graduate in that major. The graduation rate, however, for African-American, Hispanic, and Native-American students in engineering is significantly lower at 39%. As this group represents only a small fraction of the annual student enrollment, engineering programs are graduating these minority groups at rates that are greatly disproportionate to United States demographics. Therefore, researchers are thoroughly investigating certain initiatives that promote academic success among underrepresented minority students in engineering. Colleges and universities have attempted to address the growing achievement gap between underrepresented minority and non-minority engineering students, predominately through various deficit-based interventions, focusing on the student's flaws and problems. As the pipeline for minorities in engineering continues to narrow, it begs the question of whether institutions are focusing on the right solutions to the problem. Critical Race Theory scholars argue that colleges and universities must address institutional climate issues around students, such as racism, microaggressions, and marginalization, before members of oppressed groups can truly succeed. This dissertation explored the unique experiences of underrepresented minority engineering students in a predominately White and Asian campus.

  9. Race, Ethnicity, and Higher Education Policy: The Use of Critical Quantitative Research (United States)

    Teranishi, Robert T.


    Cross-sectional frameworks, or between-group approaches, in quantitative research in higher education have limitations that hinder what we know about the intersection of race and educational opportunities and outcomes. (Contains 5 figures.)

  10. [Reflections on ethnography in the emergency department]. (United States)

    Aredes, Janaína de Souza; Firmo, Josélia Oliveira Araújo; Leibing, Annette; Giacomin, Karla Cristina


    : Ethnography is the principal research method in Anthropology. With a broad scope, it allows using different data collection techniques and incorporates elements observed and obtained in the field into the analysis. In Public Health, it can contribute to understanding the health/disease process and health professionals' and patients' values and attitudes in different healthcare settings. The aim of this article is to present and discuss the ethnographic method based on an empirical study of physicians' hospital work in the face of the limits between life and death. Data collection involved nine months of participant observation and interviews with 43 physicians (25 men and 18 women), 28 to 69 years of age, treating critical patients in different departments of a metropolitan emergency hospital. The various social and cultural aspects experienced by the researcher and obtained from the interlocutors in the field provide a dense description of this hospital ethnography.

  11. What Makes School Ethnography "Ethnographic?" (United States)

    Erickson, Frederick

    Ethnography as an inquiry process guided by a point of view rather than as a reporting process guided by a standard technique or set of techniques is the main point of this essay which suggests the application of Malinowski's theories and methods to an ethnology of the school, indicates reasons why traditional ethnography is inadequate to the…

  12. Writing Critical Race Theory and Method: A Composite Counterstory on the Experiences of Black Teachers in New Orleans Post-Katrina (United States)

    Cook, Daniella Ann; Dixson, Adrienne D.


    Using a critical race theory lens, the authors propose a way of writing race research using composite counterstories. Drawing on data from a yearlong study of school rebuilding in the time period immediately after Hurricane Katrina devastated the City of New Orleans, the authors examine the experiences of African-American educators in the school…

  13. A critical review of Richard Lynn's reports on reaction time and race. (United States)

    Thomas, Drew M


    In the early 1990s, psychologist Richard Lynn published papers documenting average reaction times and decision times in samples of nine-year-olds taken from across the world. After summarizing these data, Lynn interpreted his results as evidence of national and racial differences in decision time and general intelligence. Others have also interpreted Lynn's data as evidence of racial differences in decision time and intelligence. However, comparing Lynn's summaries with his original reports shows that Lynn misreported and omitted some of his own data. Once these errors are fixed the rankings of nations in Lynn's datasets are unstable across different decision time measures. This instability, as well as within-race heterogeneity and between-race overlap in decision times, implies that Lynn's reaction time data do not permit generalizations about the decision times and intelligence of people of different races.

  14. Introduction: Re-Igniting Critical Race In Canadian Legal Spaces: Introduction To The Special Symposium Issue Of Contemporary Accounts Of Racialization In Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanthi Senthe


    Full Text Available Osgoode Hall Law School, York University’s Challenging Conventions! Speaker Series organized Re-Igniting Critical Race: A Symposium on Contemporary Accounts of Racialization in Canada on November 2, 2012.  The symposium sought to explore critical race theory and its praxis within the Canadian legal academy by inviting emerging scholars and practitioners to engage with the scholarship of Professor Patricia Williams.

  15. Disrupting Ethnography through Rhizoanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Masny


    Full Text Available This article interrogates principles of ethnography in education proposed by Mills and Morton: raw tellings, analytic pattern, vignette and empathy. This article adopts a position that is uncomfortable, unconventional and interesting. It involves a deterritorialization/ rupture of ethnography in education in order to reterritorialize a different concept: rhizoanalysis, a way to position theory and data that is multilayered, complex and messy. Rhizoanalysis, the main focus of this article is not a method. It is an approach to research conditioned by a reality in which Deleuze and Guattari disrupt representation, interpretation and subjectivity. In this article, Multiple Literacies Theory, a theoretical and practical framework, becomes a lens to examine a rhizomatic study of a Korean family recently arrived to Australia and attending English as a second language classes. Observations and interviews recorded the daily lives of the family. The vignettes were selected by reading data intensively and immanently through a process of palpation, an innovative approach to educational research. Rhizoanalysis proposes to abandon the given and invent different ways of thinking about and doing research and what might happen when reading data differently, intensively and immanently, through Multiple Literacies Theory. Rhizoanalysis, a game-changer in the way research can be conducted, affords a different lens to tackle issues in education through research.

  16. Color-Blind Leadership: A Critical Race Theory Analysis of the ISLLC and ELCC Standards (United States)

    Davis, Bradley W.; Gooden, Mark A.; Micheaux, Donna J.


    Purpose: Working from the driving research question--"is the explicit consideration of race present in the ISLLC and ELCC standards?"--this article explores the implications of a school leadership landscape reliant on a collection of color-blind leadership standards to guide the preparation and practice of school leaders. In doing so, we…

  17. "It Doesn't Speak to Me": Understanding Student of Color Resistance to Critical Race Pedagogy (United States)

    Alemán, Sonya M.; Gaytán, Sarita


    Scholars maintain that when race and racism are addressed as factors that continue to shape inequality in the classroom, white students often deny the validity of these claims, while Students of Color tend to feel empowered by them. However, drawing on open-ended interviews, focus group discussions, and survey data, we argue that some Students of…

  18. The Business of Ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeran, Brian

    not only on social behavior and human relations in general but, more specifically, on the importance of strategic exchange to all business practices. Moeran's fieldwork, rooted in participant-observation of business life in communities and corporations, leads him to an original theory of how business...... operates. Culture is not all-powerful, Moeran shows. Instead, social structures strongly influence behavior. At the heart of Moeran's analysis is a firm belief in fieldwork and ethnography - terms much bandied about in business, management and cultural studies, but rarely undertaken in depth. The Business......Can an anthropologist help us understand the world of business? Armed with this question, veteran anthropologist Brian Moeran embarks on an in-depth study of cultural production and creative industries in Japan. At once the blundering ethnographer and shrewd observer, Moeran is able to shed light...

  19. Mental Health Ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringer, Agnes


    hospitalized, but to get inside the contemporary psychiatric institution and to participate in the social world of patients and professionals, I had to experiment with different ethnographic approaches. Ethnographies of mental health have become increasingly rare, and much research on language in psychiatric...... institutions is done by interview research. My study involved observing and participating in the day-to-day life at two mental health facilities: an outpatient clinic and an inpatient closed ward. The case study provides an account of some of the specific methodological problems and unanticipated events...... that emerged in the course of the study. It discusses the particular challenges involved in negotiating access in a hierarchical and conflict-ridden setting with tangible power differences between professionals and patients. I pay particular attention to the positions that became available to the researcher...

  20. Shared worlds: multi-sited ethnography and nursing research. (United States)

    Molloy, Luke; Walker, Kim; Lakeman, Richard


    Background Ethnography, originally developed for the study of supposedly small-scale societies, is now faced with an increasingly mobile, changing and globalised world. Cultural identities can exist without reference to a specific location and extend beyond regional and national boundaries. It is therefore no longer imperative that the sole object of the ethnographer's practice should be a geographically bounded site. Aim To present a critical methodological review of multi-sited ethnography. Discussion Understanding that it can no longer be taken with any certainty that location alone determines culture, multi-sited ethnography provides a method of contextualising multi-sited social phenomena. The method enables researchers to examine social phenomena that are simultaneously produced in different locations. It has been used to undertake cultural analysis of diverse areas such as organ trafficking, global organisations, technologies and anorexia. Conclusion The authors contend that multi-sited ethnography is particularly suited to nursing research as it provides researchers with an ethnographic method that is more relevant to the interconnected world of health and healthcare services. Implications for practice Multi-sited ethnography provides nurse researchers with an approach to cultural analysis in areas such as the social determinants of health, healthcare services and the effects of health policies across multiple locations.

  1. !Claro, se puede! Critical resilience: A critical race perspective on resilience in the baccalaureate achievement of Latino/a engineering and life science students (United States)

    Cruz, Gary Anthony

    An under representation of Latino/as in the fields of science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) still persists. In Rising Above the Gathering Storm, the National Academies sounded an alarm in response to data indicating a "troubling decline" in the number of U.S. citizens trained to become scientists and engineers at a time when the number of technical jobs is outpacing the rate of the U.S. workforce. The shrinking technical talent pipeline threatens the country's future in technology innovation, energy alternatives, national security, and education. This study purported to contextualize resilience and discern the cultural capital and persistence behaviors of STEM Latino/a students succeeding in two adverse environments---higher education and science and engineering. Through a critical race perspective the student cuentos were thematically analyzed. Student narratives were then triangulated with the narrative of the researcher---a Mexican American, first-generation college student, who pursued a life science bachelor's degree through the two institutions in this study. The theoretical framework was guided by Critical Race Theory, Resiliency, Persistence Theory, and Social Construction of Technology. The study consisted of a pilot survey and narrative inquiry. The survey contained pilot questions on the use and perception of information technologies in STEM education. The narrative inquiry was guided by critical race that enabled both positionality and storytelling through narratives and counter-narratives. Twenty-two Latino/a graduating seniors majoring in the biological sciences or engineering/engineering technology at a Hispanic-Serving Institution (HSI) and a Predominantly-White Institution (PWI) in Texas were recruited. The narratives of these students were collected through one-time, semi-structured interviews during the last semester of their studies. Results from the study indicate that these Latino/a STEM students are conscious of their ethnicity

  2. Introducing 'Ethnography and Self-Exploration'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Geest, S.; Gerrits, T.; Aaslid, F.S.


    This introduction presents three broad themes in this special issue about subjectivity and ethnography: 1. How subjectivity affects anthropological research and analysis; 2. How - conversely - ethnographic fieldwork affects the researcher’s personal life; and 3. How ethnography feeds

  3. Extending the Field of College Access: A Critical Ethnography on the Organizational Habitus of College-Going in an Urban Catholic High School (United States)

    Rodriguez, Paul Joseph


    Through a critical ethnographic methodology, this dissertation study utilizes a P-20 lens in analyzing the organizational habitus of college-going in an urban Catholic high school in South Texas. The primary theoretical framework of this study is Bourdieuian Social Reproduction Theory, which supports the study's impetus to demonstrate how school…

  4. Ethnographies of Youth and Temporality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgård, Anne Line; Frederiksen, Martin Demant; Højlund, Susanne

    As we experience and manipulate time—be it as boredom or impatience—it becomes an object: something materialized and social, something that affects perception, or something that may motivate reconsideration and change. The editors and contributors to this important new book, Ethnographies of Youth...... emotional unrest and violence but also creativity and hope are responses to troubling times. The chapters discuss notions of time and its “objectification” in diverse locales including the Georgian Republic, Brazil, Denmark, and Uganda. Based on long-term ethnographic fieldwork, the essays in Ethnographies...... of Youth and Temporality use youth as a prism to understand time and its subjective experience....

  5. Inclusive Education and Critical Pedagogy at the Intersections of Disability, Race, Gender and Class (United States)

    Liasidou, Anastasia


    The paper aims to use insights from critical pedagogy to forge and exemplify links with the movement of educational inclusion. The struggles for change, theorised in terms of the emancipatory and liberating potential of schooling, set out the conceptual and analytical backdrop against which issues of exclusion and marginalisation are discussed and…

  6. Transcending race?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Fiona


    Using accounts of militant schoolteachers from a province in the central sierra of Peru, this article attempts to show how and why concepts of race and political commitment among teachers changed at three critical moments in Peruvian history: agrarian reform, mass unionisation, and Maoist...

  7. Ethnography in a Virtual World (United States)

    Shumar, Wesley; Madison, Nora


    This article situates the discussion of virtual ethnography within the larger political/economic changes of twenty-first century consumer capitalism and suggests that increasingly our entire social world is a virtual world and that there were very particular utopian and dystopian framings of virtual community growing out of that history. The…

  8. Doing Ethnography: Studying Everyday Life (United States)

    Pawluch, Dorothy, Ed.; Shaffir, William, Ed.; Miall, Charlene E., Ed.


    This original contributed book will become an essential text for those teaching Ethnography, Research Methods (qualitative emphasis), applied sociology, and related subjects across Canada. Chapters in the first section of this volume consider the merits of qualitative research, profile interviewing strategies, and discuss the relationship to…

  9. (Auto)Ethnographies and Cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jonas


    , habits and affective capacities of cycling are cultivated and performed. The article argues that autoethnography is particularly apt at illuminating the embodied qualities of movement, and it sits within established ethnographies of ‘excising’ and ‘mobile bodies’. In the second part of the article, I...

  10. A critical ethnography of communication processes involving the management of oral chemotherapeutic agents by patients with a primary diagnosis of colorectal cancer: study protocol. (United States)

    Mitchell, Gary; Porter, Sam; Manias, Elizabeth


    To describe the protocol used to examine the processes of communication between health professionals, patients and informal carers during the management of oral chemotherapeutic medicines to identify factors that promote or inhibit medicine concordance. Ideally communication practices about oral medicines should incorporate shared decision-making, two-way dialogue and an equality of role between practitioner and patient. While there is evidence that healthcare professionals are adopting these concordant elements in general practice there are still some patients who have a passive role during consultations. Considering oral chemotherapeutic medications, there is a paucity of research about communication practices which is surprising given the high risk of toxicity associated with chemotherapy. A critical ethnographic design will be used, incorporating non-participant observations, individual semi-structured and focus-group interviews as several collecting methods. Observations will be carried out on the interactions between healthcare professionals (physicians, nurses and pharmacists) and patients in the outpatient departments where prescriptions are explained and supplied and on follow-up consultations where treatment regimens are monitored. Interviews will be conducted with patients and their informal carers. Focus-groups will be carried out with healthcare professionals at the conclusion of the study. These several will be analysed using thematic analysis. This research is funded by the Department for Employment and Learning in Northern Ireland (Awarded February 2012). Dissemination of these findings will contribute to the understanding of issues involved when communicating with people about oral chemotherapy. It is anticipated that findings will inform education, practice and policy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Using Critical Race Theory to Analyze How Disney Constructs Diversity: A Construct for the Baccalaureate Human Behavior in the Social Environment Curriculum (United States)

    Cappiccie, Amy; Chadha, Janice; Lin, Muh Bi; Snyder, Frank


    Utilizing the basic tenets of critical race theory, the authors draw upon the expertise of multicultural scholars to raise consciousness and facilitate BSW classroom dialogue about microagressions perpetrated in Disney animations. Microaggressions pervade our media partly because they typically operate outside the threshold of the dominant…

  12. Perceived Culpability in Critical Multicultural Education: Understanding and Responding to Race Informed Guilt and Shame to Further Learning Outcomes among White American College Students (United States)

    Estrada, Fernando; Matthews, Geneva


    In this investigation we explored among a U.S. sample of White college students the effect of perceived race-informed culpability--conceptualized as the self-conscious emotions known as White guilt and shame--on two critical multicultural education outcomes: modern prejudicial attitudes and demonstrated anti-racist knowledge. Interaction effects…

  13. Ethnographies of Education: anthropological knowledge production in education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pradhan, Uma; Valentin, Karen


    This paper critically examines the situated nature of ethnography for anthropological knowledge production in education and to discuss complex educational processes and meanings within and beyond institutions of formal learning central to the field of educational anthropology. The paper extends...... ongoing debates in educational anthropology on the importance of a localized, comparative and historically grounded approach to ethnographic studies of education, thereby acknowledging the anthropology of education in plural. It adds an intersubjective dimension to this through the biographical...

  14. Review: Giampietro Gobo (2008. Doing Ethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Thomas


    Full Text Available Doing Ethnography, by Giampietro GOBO, provides an introduction into ethnography from a practice perspective. The author discusses central topics, definitions, procedures, and reflections on the research process. The book thereby offers a thorough overview of the academic discourse on ethnographic research methods, along with a general outlook on recent developments at the cutting edge of methodological trends. Ethnography is elaborated through the integration of method into a constructivist research perspective. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1002234

  15. Towards Gonzo Anthropology : Ethnography as Cultural Performance


    Fedorowicz Steven C


    This essay provides an" ethnography of ethnography" through investigating and advocating certain research methodologies referred to as "Gonzo Anthropology." Ethnography is viewed as a process entailing both actual research, especially participant observation, and discourse, i.e. some form of cultural representation. In this way the ethnographic process can be seen as a form of cultural performance; the ethnographer is an actor, director, recorder of events, writer, artist and audience all in ...

  16. Review: Giampietro Gobo (2008). Doing ethnography


    Thomas, Stefan


    Doing Ethnography, by Giampietro GOBO, provides an introduction into ethnography from a practice perspective. The author discusses central topics, definitions, procedures, and reflections on the research process. The book thereby offers a thorough overview of the academic discourse on ethnographic research methods, along with a general outlook on recent developments at the cutting edge of methodological trends. Ethnography is elaborated through the integration of method into a constructivist ...

  17. "Race" and Early Childhood Education: An International Approach to Identity, Politics, and Pedagogy. Critical Cultural Studies of Childhood (United States)

    Mac Naughton, Glenda, Ed.; Davis, Karina, Ed.


    This book explores the prominence of "race" in the lives of young children and their early childhood educators. It critiques the often presumed racial innocence of young children and shows instead how young children actively engage with the politics of race as they form their own identities. It challenges early childhood educators to engage with…

  18. Automethodology: Tracing a Home for Praxis-Oriented Ethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra L. Pensoneau-Conway


    Full Text Available The authors trace the development of ethnographic practices according to the methodological assumptions of ethnographers within different historical periods. As communication scholars, the authors find Calvin O. Schrag's conceptualization of the self to be informative and advantageous for navigating an ethnographic sense of ‘self in the current status of the methodological contestation. Borrowing from Schrag’ s work, which focuses on communicative praxis in understanding the self, this article explores an innovative methodological framework called automethodology. By examining the deployment and emplotment of the self within the automethods of autobiography, autoethnography, narrative co-construction, community autoethnography, critical complete-member ethnography, reflexive ethnography, autoperformance, and layered account, the authors develop epistemological foundations for praxis-oriented ethnographers. Throughout this journey, the authors end up situating themselves in a place they consider home-in the practices of automethodology.

  19. Educational Ethnography in Blended Learning Environments (United States)

    Antoniadou, Victoria; Dooly, Melinda


    This chapter aims to answer some of the questions that emerge when carrying out educational ethnography in a blended learning environment. The authors first outline how Virtual Ethnography (VE) has been developed and applied by other researchers. Then, to better illustrate the approach, they describe a doctoral research project that implemented…

  20. Critical race theory as a bridge in science training: the California State University, Northridge BUILD PODER program. (United States)

    Saetermoe, Carrie L; Chavira, Gabriela; Khachikian, Crist S; Boyns, David; Cabello, Beverly


    Unconscious bias and explicit forms of discrimination continue to pervade academic institutions. Multicultural and diversity training activities have not been sufficient in making structural and social changes leading to equity, therefore, a new form of critical consciousness is needed to train diverse scientists with new research questions, methods, and perspectives. The purpose of this paper is to describe Building Infrastructure Leading to Diversity (BUILD); Promoting Opportunities for Diversity in Education and Research (PODER), which is an undergraduate biomedical research training program based on transformative framework rooted in Critical Race Theory (CRT). By employing a CRT-informed curriculum and training in BUILD PODER, students are empowered not only to gain access but also to thrive in graduate programs and beyond. Poder means "power" or "to be able to" in Spanish. Essentially, we are "building power" using students' strengths and empowering them as learners. The new curriculum helps students understand institutional policies and practices that may prevent them from persisting in higher education, learn to become their own advocates, and successfully confront social barriers and instances of inequities and discrimination. To challenge these barriers and sustain campus changes in support of students, BUILD PODER works toward changing campus culture and research mentoring relationships. By joining with ongoing university structures such as the state university Graduation Initiative, we include CRT tenets into the campus dialogue and stimulate campus-wide discussions around institutional change. Strong ties with five community college partners also enrich BUILD PODER's student body and strengthen mentor diversity. Preliminary evaluation data suggest that BUILD PODER's program has enhanced the racial/ethnic consciousness of the campus community, is effective in encouraging more egalitarian and respectful faculty-student relationships, and is a rigorous

  1. Ethnography in Foreign Language Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huszti Ilona


    Full Text Available The aim of the present article is to describe ethnography as a qualitative approach frequently applied in foreign language acquisition research (Pollard,1985; Smith, 1992; Robinson-Stuart and Nocon, 1996. Reviews of two studies having used ethnographic techniques are presented in the paper to highlight the theoretical background for such an investigative method. The first study discusses issues about participant observation, while the second depicts the language learner in the role of the ethnographer. The paper also tries to throw light on the various tasks of the ethnographer as well as the values (emic and holistic view and limitations (the insider/outsider dilemma of ethnography. Key words: Culture, Ethnography, Ethnographer, Qualitative Research- Techniques, Participant Observation El objetivo de este artículo es describir la etnografía como un método cualitativo que es utilizado frecuentemente en la investigación de la adquisición de una lengua extranjera (Pollard, 1985; Smith, 1992; Robinson-Stuart and Nocon, 1996. En el documento se presentan reseñas de dos estudios que implementaron técnicas etnográficas, con el propósito de resaltar los antecedentes históricos de este tipo de método de investigación. El primer estudio trata acerca de temas relacionados con la observación de los participantes, mientras que el segundo estudio presenta al aprendiz de lengua en el rol de etnógrafo. El documento también da varias pautas sobre las tareas del etnógrafo, así como los valores (el punto de vista émico y holístico y las limitaciones (el dilema interno y externo de la etnografía. Palabras claves: Cultura, Etnografía, Etnógrafo, Técnicas InvestigaciónCualitativa, Observación Participativa

  2. The New Political Economy of Urban Education: Neoliberalism, Race, and the Right to the City. Critical Social Thought (United States)

    Lipman, Pauline


    Urban education and its contexts have changed in powerful ways. Old paradigms are being eclipsed by global forces of privatization and markets and new articulations of race, class, and urban space. These factors and more set the stage for Pauline Lipman's insightful analysis of the relationship between education policy and the neoliberal economic,…

  3. Using Ethnography of Communication in Organizational Research


    Sadler-Smith, E; Kalou, Z


    Ethnography of Communication offers new analytical and interpretive possibilities for contextually sensitized, language- and communication-based ethnographic studies of management and organization. In this article we provide an introduction and overview of relevant linguistic and related fields, positioning Ethnography of Communication within the broader context of anthropology, ethnomethodology, and sociolinguistics. We describe Dell Hymes’s seminal contribution to theory and method of Ethno...

  4. Ethnography in community psychology: promises and tensions. (United States)

    Case, Andrew D; Todd, Nathan R; Kral, Michael J


    Community psychology recognizes the need for research methods that illuminate context, culture, diversity, and process. One such method, ethnography, has crossed into multiple disciplines from anthropology, and indeed, community psychologists are becoming community ethnographers. Ethnographic work stands at the intersection of bridging universal questions with the particularities of people and groups bounded in time, geographic location, and social location. Ethnography is thus historical and deeply contextual, enabling a rich, in-depth understanding of communities that is aligned with the values and goals of community psychology. The purpose of this paper is to elucidate the potential of ethnography for community psychology and to encourage its use within the field as a method to capture culture and context, to document process, and to reveal how social change and action occur within and through communities. We discuss the method of ethnography, draw connections to community psychology values and goals, and identify tensions from our experiences doing ethnography. Overall, we assert that ethnography is a method that resonates with community psychology and present this paper as a resource for those interested in using this method in their research or community activism.

  5. Meta-Ethnography of Autoethnographies: A Worked Example of the Method Using Educational Studies (United States)

    Hughes, Sherick; Noblit, George


    Despite questions about autoethnography in the ethnography and education research family, autoethnography is published in selective peer-reviewed journals in education and in the social and health sciences. Even critics of autoethnographic studies note their "rising acceptance in the past 15 years" [Delamont, S. 2009. "The Only…

  6. Negotiating Power Relations and Ethnicity in a Sociolinguistic Ethnography in Madrid (United States)

    Santos, Adriana Patino


    One of the major dilemmas when practising critical sociolinguistic ethnography within the field of education is the ethnographer's degree of implication within the studied site (Goldstein, 2003; Martin Rojo, 2003; Unamuno, 2004). How far should the researcher intervene within the daily practices he/she is observing? This exercise of methodological…

  7. Race: Deflate or pop? (United States)

    Hochman, Adam


    Neven Sesardic has recently defended his arguments in favour of racial naturalism-the view that race is a valid biological category-in response to my criticism of his work. While Sesardic claims that a strong version of racial naturalism can survive critique, he has in fact weakened his position considerably. He concedes that conventional racial taxonomy is arbitrary and he no longer identifies 'races' as human subspecies. Sesardic now relies almost entirely on Theodosius Dobzhansky's notion of race-as-population. This weak approach to 'race'-according to which all genetic difference between populations is 'racial' and 'the races' are simply the populations we choose to call races-survived its early critiques. As it is being mobilised to support racial naturalism once more, we need to continue the debate about whether we should weaken the concept of race to mean 'population', or abandon it as a failed biological category. I argue that Sesardic's case for racial naturalism is only supported by his continued mischaracterisation of anti-realism about biological race and his appeal to Dobzhansky's authority. Rather than deflating the meaning of 'race', it should be eliminated from our biological ontology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Methodological Imperatives of Feminist Ethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richelle D. Schrock


    Full Text Available Feminist ethnography does not have a single, coherent definition and is caught between struggles over the definition and goals of feminism and the multiple practices known collectively as ethnography. Towards the end of the 1980s, debates emerged that problematized feminist ethnography as a productive methodology and these debates still haunt feminist ethnographers today. In this article, I provide a concise historiography of feminist ethnography that summarizes both its promises and its vulnerabilities. I address the three major challenges I argue feminist ethnographers currently face, which include responding productively to feminist critiques of representing "others," accounting for feminisms' commitment to social change while grappling with poststructuralist critiques of knowledge production, and confronting the historical and ongoing lack of recognition for significant contributions by feminist ethnographers. Despite these challenges, I argue that feminist ethnography is a productive methodology and I conclude by delineating its methodological imperatives. These imperatives include producing knowledge about women's lives in specific cultural contexts, recognizing the potential detriments and benefits of representation, exploring women's experiences of oppression along with the agency they exercise in their own lives, and feeling an ethical responsibility towards the communities in which the researchers work. I argue that this set of imperatives enables feminist ethnographers to successfully navigate the challenges they face.

  9. "More Complicated than a Numbers Game": A Critical Race Theory Examination of Asian Americans and Campus Racial Climate (United States)

    Poon, Oi Yan Anita


    In the Grutter and Gratz Supreme Court decision, proponents of affirmative action claimed that a critical mass of minority students could effectively counter racial marginalization often experienced by students of color due to their racial status. On some campuses, Asian Americans as a pan-ethnic population enjoy a critical mass in undergraduate…

  10. Ethnography by Design: On Goals and Mediating Artefacts (United States)

    Segelström, Fabian; Holmlid, Stefan


    Design ethnography is the appropriation of ethnography for the purposes of informing design. This paper investigates the effects of these appropriations, through a comparative study of how designers and anthropologists approach the same field site and by a review of new techniques introduced by designers to do ethnography. The techniques reviewed…

  11. Border Crossing in the Classroom through Performed Ethnography (United States)

    Goldstein, Tara


    In this essay I share the ways I have used performed ethnography to explore the notion of border crossing in an undergraduate course called "Equity and Activism in Education." Performed ethnography involves turning the findings of ethnographic research into a play script. My students read two performed ethnographies, "Harriet's…

  12. The Fifty Minute Ethnography: Teaching Theory through Fieldwork (United States)

    Trnka, Susanna


    Ethnography is becoming an increasingly popular research methodology used across a number of disciplines. Typically, teaching students how to write an ethnography, much less how to undertake "fieldwork" (or the ethnographic research upon which ethnographies are based), is reserved for senior- or MA-level research methods courses. This…

  13. Ethnographies of pain: culture, context and complexity (United States)


    This article briefly introduces and discusses the value of ethnographic research, particularly research hailing from the discipline of social and cultural anthropology. After an introduction to ethnography in general, key ethnographic studies of pain are described. These show that ethnography provides a set of techniques for data collection and analysis, as well as a way of thinking about pain as socially and culturally embedded. Modern ethnographic writing is far removed from the literature of the past that sometimes described stereotypes rather than process and complexity. Ethnography provides the chance to describe the complexity and nuance of culture, which serves to counter stereotypes. The article concludes with an example from pain research conducted in a clinical setting. Through the use of ethnographic techniques, the research study provided greater insight than other methods alone might have achieved. The article includes references for further reading should readers be interested in developing their engagement with ethnographic method and interpretation. PMID:26516554

  14. The Framing of Women and Health Disparities: A Critical Look at Race, Gender, and Class from the Perspectives of Grassroots Health Communicators. (United States)

    Vardeman-Winter, Jennifer


    As women's health has received significant political and media attention recently, I proposed an expanded structural theory of women's communication about health. Women's health communication and critical race and systemic racism research framed this study. I interviewed 15 communicators and community health workers from grass-roots organizations focused on women's health to learn of their challenges of communicating with women from communities experiencing health disparities. Findings suggest that communicators face difficulties in developing meaningful messaging for publics because of disjunctures between medical and community frames, issues in searching for health among women's many priorities, Whiteness discourses imposed on publics' experiences, and practices of correcting for power differentials. A structural theory of women's health communication, then, consists of tenets around geographic, research/funding, academic/industry, and social hierarchies. Six frames suggesting racial biases about women and health disparities are also defined. This study also includes practical solutions in education, publishing, and policy change for addressing structural challenges.

  15. Conceptualizing Color-Evasiveness: Using Dis/Ability Critical Race Theory to Expand a Color-Blind Racial Ideology in Education and Society (United States)

    Annamma, Subini Ancy; Jackson, Darrell D.; Morrison, Deb


    Color-blind racial ideology has historically been conceptualized as an ideology wherein race is immaterial. Efforts not to "see" race insinuate that recognizing race is problematic; therefore, scholars have identified and critiqued color-blindness ideology. In this paper, we first examine Gotanda's (1991) identification and critique of…

  16. On sitting and doing: ethnography as action in global health. (United States)

    Pigg, Stacy Leigh


    Contemporary discussions within the arenas of medical anthropology and global health are often restricted by the driving imperatives to "do something" about a particular health problem. Drawing on ethnographic fieldwork conducted in Nepal in 1997, which sought to follow the translation of AIDS prevention policies into local awareness, this paper addresses the need to revitalize theories of ethnography for an understanding of global health goals. The Nepal example underscores how the path toward decisions is never entirely clear, nor is it always obvious who benefits or loses from different approaches, even as public health discourse seeks to set a strict agenda around what the problem is and what should be done about it. Ethnography shows that definitions of what matters as well as understandings of why certain things matter are formulated from specific social locations. The paper therefore advocates for a practice of patient ethnographic "sitting" as a means to understanding, as a form of critical reflexivity, and as a diagnostic of the politics of relevance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Newsroom Ethnography in a Field Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willig, Ida


    in ethnographic research: how should we theorise and empirically investigate context? The question is, not least, practical in nature. When it comes to newsroom ethnography, one of the traditional problems concerns the ‘invisibility’ of certain structures such as the political economy of everyday news work which...

  18. Ethnography of Language Planning and Policy (United States)

    Hornberger, Nancy H.; Tapia, Aldo Anzures; Hanks, David H.; Dueñas, Frances Kvietok


    A decade ago, Hornberger & Johnson proposed that the ethnography of language planning and policy (ELPP) offers a useful way to understand how people create, interpret, and at times resist language policy and planning (LPP). They envisioned ethnographic investigation of layered LPP ideological and implementational spaces, taking up Hornberger's…

  19. Educational Ethnography in the Field of Health Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Tina

    -site ethnography' and involving a mix of Methods (Borgnakke 1996 & 2013, Hammersley and Atkinson 2007, Marcus 1995), including participant observations, interviews, videos, audio logbooks and documents. The research project’s practice orientation is emphasized as the interprofessional practice is studied.......ed. Marcus GE. 1995. Ethnography in/of the World System: The Emergence of Multi-Sited Ethnography. Annual Review of Anthropology, Vol.24, p. 96‐117....

  20. Respecifying lab ethnography an ethnomethodological study of experimental physics

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    Sormani, Philippe


    Respecifying Lab Ethnography delivers the first ethnomethodological study of current experimental physics in action, describing the disciplinary orientation of lab work and exploring the discipline in its social order, formal stringency and skilful performance - in situ and in vivo. In bringing together two major strands of ethnomethodological inquiry, reflexive ethnography and video analysis, which have hitherto existed in parallel, Respecifying Lab Ethnography introduces a practice-based video analysis. In doing so, the book recasts conventional distinctions to shed fresh light on methodolog

  1. Ethnography as Method, Methodology, and "Deep Theorizing" Closing the Gap between Text and Context in Academic Writing Research (United States)

    Lillis, Theresa


    This article critically explores the value of ethnography for enhancing context-sensitive approaches to the study of academic writing. Drawing on data from two longitudinal studies, student writing in the United Kingdom and professional academic writing in Hungary, Slovakia, Spain, and Portugal, the author illustrates the different contributions…

  2. Review: Giampietro Gobo (2008). Doing Ethnography


    Thomas, Stefan


    Das Buch "Doing Ethnography" von Giampietro GOBO bietet eine Einführung in die Ethnografie vonseiten der Praxis her. In systematischer Weise behandelt er zentrale Themen wie Definition, Umsetzung und Reflexion ethnografischen Forschens. Das Buch bietet einen umfassenden Überblick über die ethnografische Methodendebatte, was immer auch einen Blick auf zukunftsweisende Entwicklungen einschließt. Dabei erfährt der Methodendiskurs eine Einordnung in eine konstruktivistische Forschungsperspektive....

  3. Beyond the Culture of Exclusion: Using Critical Race Theory to Examine the Perceptions of British "Minority Ethnic" and Eastern European "Immigrant" Young People in English Schools (United States)

    Thomas, Emel


    In England there are minority ethnic students with past family connections to the former British Empire, as well as recent Eastern European students, economic migrants, asylum seekers and refugees. One may wish to ask, do newly emerging racial identities conceptualise race and race relations in similar ways to existing minority ethnic communities?…

  4. The use of focused ethnography in nursing research. (United States)

    Cruz, Edward Venzon; Higginbottom, Gina


    To provide an overview of the relevance and strengths of focused ethnography in nursing research. The paper provides descriptions of focused ethnography and discusses using exemplars to show how focused ethnographies can enhance and understand nursing practice. Orthodox ethnographic approaches may not always be suitable or desirable for research in diverse nursing contexts. Focused ethnography has emerged as a promising method for applying ethnography to a distinct issue or shared experience in cultures or sub-cultures and in specific settings, rather than throughout entire communities. Unfortunately, there is limited guidance on using focused ethnography, particularly as applied to nursing research. Research studies performed by nurses using focused ethnography are summarised to show how they fulfilled three main purposes of the genre in nursing research. Additional citations are provided to help demonstrate the versatility of focused ethnography in exploring distinct problems in a specific context in different populations and groups of people. The unique role that nurses play in health care, coupled with their skills in enquiry, can contribute to the further development of the discipline. Focused ethnography offers an opportunity to gain a better understanding and appreciation of nursing as a profession, and the role it plays in society. Focused ethnography has emerged as a relevant research methodology that can be used by nurse researchers to understand specific societal issues that affect different facets of nursing practice. As nurse researchers endeavour to understand experiences in light of their health and life situations, focused ethnography enables them to understand the interrelationship between people and their environments in the society in which they live.

  5. Therapeutic Alliances in Stroke Rehabilitation: A Meta-Ethnography. (United States)

    Lawton, Michelle; Haddock, Gillian; Conroy, Paul; Sage, Karen


    To synthesize qualitative studies exploring patients' and professionals' perspectives and experiences of developing and maintaining therapeutic alliances in stroke rehabilitation. A systematic literature search was conducted using the following electronic databases: PsycINFO, CINAHL, Embase, MEDLINE, Allied and Complementary Medicine Database, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts, and ComDisDome from inception to May 2014. This was supplemented by hand searching, reference tracking, generic web searching, and e-mail contact with experts. Qualitative peer reviewed articles reporting experiences or perceptions of the patient or professional in relation to therapeutic alliance construction and maintenance in stroke rehabilitation were selected for inclusion. After a process of exclusion, 17 publications were included in the synthesis. All text identified in the results and discussion sections of the selected studies were extracted verbatim for analysis in a qualitative software program. Studies were critically appraised independently by 2 reviewers. Articles were synthesized using a technique of meta-ethnography. Four overarching themes emerged from the process of reciprocal translation: (1) the professional-patient relationship: degree of connectedness; (2) asymmetrical contributions; (3) the process of collaboration: finding the middle ground; and (4) system drivers. The findings from the meta-ethnography suggest that the balance of power between the patient and professional is asymmetrically distributed in the construction of the alliance. However, given that none of the studies included in the review addressed therapeutic alliance as a primary research area, further research is required to develop a conceptual framework relevant to stroke rehabilitation, in order to determine how this construct contributes to treatment efficacy. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Collaborative ethnography for information systems research Studying knowledge work practices and designing supportive information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Maier


    Full Text Available Understanding knowledge work and supporting it with information systems (ISs are challenging tasks. Knowledge work has changed substantially recently and studies on how knowledge work is currently performed are scarce. Ethnography is the most suitable qualitative research method for studying knowledge work, yet too time-consuming, costly and unfocused for the fast changing IS domain. Moreover, results from qualitative studies need to be transformed into artefacts useful for IS requirements engineering and design. This paper proposes a procedure for collaborative ethnography to study knowledge work practices and inform IS requirements gathering and design illustrated with the case of a collaborative ethnographic study of seven organisations in four European countries performed in a large-scale international IS research and development project. The paper also critically discusses the procedure’s applicability and limitations.

  7. Designing with ethnography : an integrative approach to CSCW design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iqbal, Rahat; James, A.; Gatward, R.


    This paper presents a part of wider research endeavor within the field of Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) to leverage the use of ethnography for systems design. It investigates the role of ethnography in the development of CSCW systems and its relevance to real world problems,

  8. Organizational ethnography between toolbox and world-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yanow, D.


    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to take account of organizational ethnography in its historical and methodological context, on the occasion of the inauguration of the Journal of Organizational Ethnography. Design/methodology/approach – This essay brings together some current issues and

  9. Ethnographies of Higher Education: Introduction to the Special Issue (United States)

    Pabian, Petr


    While acknowledging that ethnography has been a rarely adopted approach in the field of higher education research, I will try to demonstrate the contributions that ethnographies have made to higher education studies. I will introduce readers to several of the most important and interesting ethnographic studies of university settings, focusing on…

  10. Ethnography in Educational Research: The Dynamics of Diffusion. (United States)

    Fetterman, David M.


    Ascribes difficulties associated with the use of ethnography in educational research to faulty or partial transmission of traits from one sociocultural system to another. Maintains that the appropriate use of ethnography demands that the whole trait complex be borrowed. Describes educational studies that used ethnographic methods. (Author/MJL)

  11. Relay race

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 19th May starting at 12:15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details on the course, and how to register your team for the relay race, can be found at: Some advice for all runners from the medical service can also be found here:

  12. Relay race

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association


    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 19th May starting at 12·15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details on the course, and how to register your team for the relay race, can be found at: Some advice for all runners from the medical service can also be found here:


    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    Well done to all runners, the fans and the organizers of this great race which took place on Thursday 23rd May! You were many to participate in the run or by supporting your colleagues. The Staff Association contributed with its team of runners and also with its information stall where you could meet with your delegates.  

  14. An introduction to the origins, history and principles of ethnography. (United States)

    Sinead Ryan, Gemma


    Background Ethnography is embedded in the history of research and has been considered a methodology in its own right. Its long history means those new to ethnography may find it complex to navigate the differing perspectives and its historical context. Philosophical perspectives further compound the complexities of understanding and making decisions about method. Aim To introduce the historical context of ethnography and its wide-ranging and differing perspectives. Discussion This paper provides an overview of the historical context of ethnography and discusses the different approaches to ethnography based on philosophical paradigms. Examples of ethnographic research in nursing literature are used to illustrate how these different approaches and types of ethnography can be used in nursing. Conclusion Ethnographic research has much to contribute to nursing knowledge. However, it is important to understand the philosophical influences when making decisions about research approach. Implications for practice This article provides an overview of the historic context of ethnography and may improve the knowledge of nurses wishing to employ ethnographic approaches in their own post-graduate and doctoral research.

  15. Combining ethnography and object-orientation for mobile interaction design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldskov, Jesper; Stage, Jan


    There has been a lot of interest in ethnography within human–computer interaction over the last two decades, and its relevance within systems development is today beyond question. However, one of the challenges reported is that ethnography generates findings and knowledge with such contextual...... richness that it can be hard to transfer into system design. In the light of recent years' push for the use of ethnography within the area of mobile human–computer interaction, this challenge has resurfaced and is of renewed importance to the research field. In this article we describe an interdisciplinary...

  16. Beyond the aberrant city. Towards a critical ethnography of Naples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Dines


    Full Text Available How might the question of contemporary urban change be approached from an ethnographic perspective? Before engaging with the weighty questions of, say, gentrification or deindustrialization, it requires, at a very elementary level, starting from the premise that every city, however defined, is a dynamic place embedded in and shaped by multiple historical contexts, be these socioeconomic changes, technological innovations, shifts in public discourse or fluctuating fads. While this may sound like a truism, the fact of the matter is that many of the world’s cities are not perceived – at least in the eyes of the West – to be dynamic. Rather, they are lodged in a perpetual catch-up game, compelled to imitate a select group of trendsetters.

  17. Auto/Ethnography and the Question of Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolff-Michael Roth


    Full Text Available Auto/ethnography has emerged as an important method in the social sciences for contributing to the project of understanding human actions and concerns. Although the name of the method includes "ethnography," auto/ethnography often is concerned exclusively with an abstract (i.e., undeveloped and abstracting understanding, and therefore the writing, of the Self rather than the writing of the "ethno." Auto/ethnography, such conceived, is a form of therapy, in the best case, and a form of narcissism and autoerotic relation, in the worst case. But because the Self exists in relation to the world, becomes in and through participation in everyday events, and because the human relation is inherently ethical, there are inherent ethical questions where the Other may come to be harmed as much as the Self. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0901381

  18. How the Ethnography of Communication Provides Resources for Design (United States)

    Leighter, James L.; Rudnick, Lisa; Edmonds, Theresa J.


    Designing solutions to social problems requires some degree of interpretive accountability to the sociocultural systems in which design solutions must live. Our case studies show how ethnography of communication research generates distinctive resources for design. (Contains 5 notes.)

  19. Linguistic Ethnography, Literacy Teaching and Teacher Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Grete; Nielsen, Henrik Balle

    in current attempts to research-base teacher education. Lefstein, A. & J. Snell. 2014. Better than best practice. Developing teaching and learning through dialogue. London: Routledge. Keywords: literacy teaching classroom dialogue teacher feedback linguistic ethnography research-based teacher education...... material consists of field notes and video observations from the literacy classroom combined with reflective interviews with the literacy teacher and analyses of pupils’ oral and written texts. Taking a linguistic ethnographic approach, the case study investigates the interplay between teacher, pupil...... eclecticism, openness and systematicity characteristic of a linguistic ethnographic analysis (Lefstein & Snell 2014, 185-86). In the poster, we will focus on emergent data analysis. Our main points of interest are 1) the classroom dialogue between teacher and pupils and 2) the literacy teacher’s assessment...

  20. Practice development using video-reflexive ethnography: promoting safe space(s towards the end of life in hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aileen Collier


    Full Text Available Background: There is international consensus of the need for improved palliative and end-of-life care in hospital settings. What is less clear is how such improvements might be realised in practice. Research and practice improvement methodologies need to acknowledge the relational, spiritual, moral and ethical as well as physical dimensions of death and dying if improvements in care are to be achieved. Aims and objectives: The aim of this article is to explore the potential of video-reflexive ethnography as a practice development methodology to improve care of people with a life-limiting illness in the hospital setting. Methods: The study used video-reflexive ethnography and was underpinned by an indigenous research ethical framework. Findings: Study findings highlight the potential of video-reflexive ethnography as a practice development methodology. The reach of video extended internally and externally beyond immediate practice research sites to make hospital dying tangible. The research acted as a disruptive innovation, foregrounding peoples’ (patients and families expertise as well as that of healthcare workers. For some patient and family participants, the research offered a visual legacy. Conclusions: The theories underpinning video-reflexive ethnography and practice development are closely aligned; the former has potential as a practice development methodology to promote person-centred palliative and end-of-life care. The underpinning philosophical, ethical and values framework through which it is applied, along with the skills and aptitude of facilitation, are critical if its potential is to be realised. Implications for practice development: The delivery of person-centred end-of-life care may be facilitated by: Healthcare workers seeing themselves and those they care for differently Healthcare organisations seeing their employees as well as patients and families differently Researchers also being prepared to see themselves differently

  1. Relay race

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association


    The CERN Relay Race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 24th May at 12:00. This annual event is for teams of six runners covering distances of 1000 m, 800 m, 800 m, 500 m, 500 m and 300 m respectively. Teams may be entered in the Seniors, Veterans, Ladies, Mixed or Open categories. There will also this year be a Nordic Walking event, as part of the Medical Service’s initiative “Move more, eat better!” The registration fee is 10 CHF per runner, and each runner will receive a souvenir prize. There will be a programme of entertainment from 12:00 on the arrival area (the lawn in front of Restaurant 1): 12:00 - 12:45  Music from the Old Bottom Street band 12:15 Start of the race 12:45 - 13h Demonstrations by the Fitness club and Dancing club 13:00 Results and prize giving (including a raffle to win an iPad2 3G offered by the Micro club) 13:20 à 14:00 Music from “What’s next” And many information st...

  2. Critical race theory as a tool for understanding poor engagement along the HIV care continuum among African American/Black and Hispanic persons living with HIV in the United States: a qualitative exploration. (United States)

    Freeman, Robert; Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Silverman, Elizabeth; Kutnick, Alexandra; Leonard, Noelle R; Ritchie, Amanda S; Reed, Jennifer; Martinez, Belkis Y


    African American/Black and Hispanic persons living with HIV (AABH-PLWH) in the U.S. evidence insufficient engagement in HIV care and low uptake of HIV antiretroviral therapy, leading to suboptimal clinical outcomes. The present qualitative study used critical race theory, and incorporated intersectionality theory, to understand AABH-PLWH's perspectives on the mechanisms by which structural racism; that is, the macro-level systems that reinforce inequities among racial/ethnic groups, influence health decisions and behaviors. Participants were adult AABH-PLWH in New York City who were not taking antiretroviral therapy nor well engaged in HIV care (N = 37). Participants were purposively sampled for maximum variation from a larger study, and engaged in semi-structured in-depth interviews that were audio-recorded and professionally transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using a systematic content analysis approach. We found AABH-PLWH experienced HIV care and medication decisions through a historical and cultural lens incorporating knowledge of past and present structural racism. This contextual knowledge included awareness of past maltreatment of people of color in medical research. Further, these understandings were linked to the history of HIV antiretroviral therapy itself, including awareness of the first HIV antiretroviral regimen; namely, AZT (zidovudine) mono-therapy, which was initially prescribed in unacceptably high doses, causing serious side effects, but with only modest efficacy. In this historical/cultural context, aspects of structural racism negatively influenced health care decisions and behavior in four main ways: 1) via the extent to which healthcare settings were experienced as overly institutionalized and, therefore, dehumanizing; 2) distrust of medical institutions and healthcare providers, which led AABH-PLWH to feel pressured to take HIV antiretroviral therapy when it was offered; 3) perceptions that patients are excluded from the health

  3. Hybrid Scenarios, Transmedia Storytelling, Expanded Ethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Domínguez Figaredo


    Full Text Available The transformation of social scenarios due to the impact of digital technologies, introduces new possibilities for ethnographic research. Once the initial approaches focused on the dichotomy of “physical-virtual spaces” have been overcame, it comes a stage of maturity that allows the ethnographers to open new avenues for conceptual and analytical methodology applied in techno-social scenarios. This article discusses the evolution of some key dimensions of ethnography according to the new social and epistemological framework. The discussion is based on the analysis of expanded practices that take place in the new techno-social spaces, defined as hybrid environments, where technologies are embedded in the physical life of the subjects. On the one hand, we consider the production of actions based on the assembly of ideas, meanings and objects through digital mediation devices. It is also analysed the transmedia component of the narratives that make sense to allow the experiments. Underlying the analysis, some elements are introduced for discussion on the scope of expanded ethnographic research, the influence of transmedia phenomenon in the notion of “field” and the methods for determining the significance through digital storytelling.

  4. Ethnography in qualitative educational research: AMEE Guide No. 80. (United States)

    Reeves, Scott; Peller, Jennifer; Goldman, Joanne; Kitto, Simon


    Ethnography is a type of qualitative research that gathers observations, interviews and documentary data to produce detailed and comprehensive accounts of different social phenomena. The use of ethnographic research in medical education has produced a number of insightful accounts into its role, functions and difficulties in the preparation of medical students for clinical practice. This AMEE Guide offers an introduction to ethnography - its history, its differing forms, its role in medical education and its practical application. Specifically, the Guide initially outlines the main characteristics of ethnography: describing its origins, outlining its varying forms and discussing its use of theory. It also explores the role, contribution and limitations of ethnographic work undertaken in a medical education context. In addition, the Guide goes on to offer a range of ideas, methods, tools and techniques needed to undertake an ethnographic study. In doing so it discusses its conceptual, methodological, ethical and practice challenges (e.g. demands of recording the complexity of social action, the unpredictability of data collection activities). Finally, the Guide provides a series of final thoughts and ideas for future engagement with ethnography in medical education. This Guide is aimed for those interested in understanding ethnography to develop their evaluative skills when reading such work. It is also aimed at those interested in considering the use of ethnographic methods in their own research work.

  5. Lessons from a Postcritical Ethnography, Burundian Children with Refugee Status, and Their Teachers (United States)

    Anders, Allison


    This article represents one orientation to postcritical ethnography. Framing research with Burundian children and their teachers in a small city in Appalachia, the author shares the ways postcritical ethnography informed the process and representations of her work. After introducing postcritical ethnography and early beginnings to the research,…

  6. Towards a doubly reflexive ethnography: A proposal from the anthropology of interculturality


    Gunther Dietz


    Starting from the contemporary debate on ethnographic methodology in anthropology, this paper analyses how new methodological options arise throughout processes of educational interculturality and how these can nourish, rejuvenate and decolonize classica anthropological ethnography. The contrast between a postmodern anthropology and activist ethnography reveals possibilities for fruitfully complement social and political en gagement with the classical canon of ethnography, which ...

  7. Newly graduated nurses' use of knowledge sources: a meta-ethnography. (United States)

    Voldbjerg, Siri Lygum; Grønkjaer, Mette; Sørensen, Erik Elgaard; Hall, Elisabeth O C


    To advance evidence on newly graduated nurses' use of knowledge sources. Clinical decisions need to be evidence-based and understanding the knowledge sources that newly graduated nurses use will inform both education and practice. Qualitative studies on newly graduated nurses' use of knowledge sources are increasing though generated from scattered healthcare contexts. Therefore, a metasynthesis of qualitative research on what knowledge sources new graduates use in decision-making was conducted. Meta-ethnography. Nineteen reports, representing 17 studies, published from 2000-2014 were identified from iterative searches in relevant databases from May 2013-May 2014. Included reports were appraised for quality and Noblit and Hare's meta-ethnography guided the interpretation and synthesis of data. Newly graduated nurses' use of knowledge sources during their first 2-year postgraduation were interpreted in the main theme 'self and others as knowledge sources,' with two subthemes 'doing and following' and 'knowing and doing,' each with several elucidating categories. The metasynthesis revealed a line of argument among the report findings underscoring progression in knowledge use and perception of competence and confidence among newly graduated nurses. The transition phase, feeling of confidence and ability to use critical thinking and reflection, has a great impact on knowledge sources incorporated in clinical decisions. The synthesis accentuates that for use of newly graduated nurses' qualifications and skills in evidence-based practice, clinical practice needs to provide a supportive environment which nurtures critical thinking and questions and articulates use of multiple knowledge sources. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Doing laboratory ethnography: reflections on method in scientific workplaces. (United States)

    Stephens, Neil; Lewis, Jamie


    Laboratory ethnography extended the social scientist's gaze into the day-to-day accomplishment of scientific practice. Here we reflect upon our own ethnographies of biomedical scientific workspaces to provoke methodological discussion on the doing of laboratory ethnography. What we provide is less a 'how to' guide and more a commentary on what to look for and what to look at. We draw upon our empirical research with stem cell laboratories and animal houses, teams producing robotic surgical tools, musicians sonifying data science, a psychiatric genetics laboratory, and scientists developing laboratory grown meat. We use these cases to example a set of potential ethnographic themes worthy of pursuit: science epistemics and the extended laboratory, the interaction order of scientific work, sensory realms and the rending of science as sensible, conferences as performative sites, and the spaces, places and temporalities of scientific work.

  9. Racial Differences in College Students' Assessments of Campus Race Relations (United States)

    Lo, Celia C.; McCallum, Debra M.; Hughes, Michael; Smith, Gabrielle P. A.; McKnight, Utz


    Guided by the principles of critical race theory, we sought to understand how race and racism help explain differences in White and Black students' assessments of race relations on a predominantly White college campus. The authors employed data from a campus-wide survey conducted in Spring 2013 at the University of Alabama; the sample numbered…

  10. Facebook Ethnography: The Poststructural Ontology of Transnational (Im Migration Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Joseph Piacenti PhD


    Full Text Available This theoretical article discusses the creative utility of Facebook as a new ethnographic tool in which to study transnational (im migration. Facebook ethnography allows the (im migration researcher to transcend the four structural dualities that constrain transnational ethnographic research: (a geographic constraints, (b travel funding constraints, (c travel time constraints, and (d the logistical constraints of entrée into new ethnographic contexts. Facebook ethnography also allows the qualitative researcher to temporarily transcend the ontological structuralist dualities of traditional research methods, producing a new poststructural epistemological and ontological methodology.

  11. African Woman Rises from the Ashes: Alice Walker’s Mimicry of Classic Ethnography in Possessing the Secret of Joy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Ramin


    Full Text Available Before the advent of deconstructive schools of thought in the second half of the twentieth century, anthropology and ethnography were hailed as scientific disciplines whose major consideration was to provide an objective analysis of other cultures. However, the launch of such critical approaches as postcolonialism, feminism, and postmodernism has nullified the two disciplines’ claim to scientificity and objectivity by laying bare their sexist, racist backdrop. In the postist zeitgeist, new ethnographies have been promoted in an attempt to disrupt the hierarchical relationship between the researcher and the studied subject of classic ethnography through including first-hand marginalized voices. Moreover, they blur the long-held generic boundaries between science and fiction via establishing the “ethnographic novel” as a medium that committedly voices the subalterns. Alice Walker’s Possessing the Secret of Joy (1992 is one of these new ethnographic novels which has as its protagonist an oppressed African woman. What makes Walker’s work distinct and notable is that the feminist writer subversively employs the conventional mode of ethnographic writing to stand up to African patriarchy and its horrific ritual of female circumcision.

  12. Connecting Gender, Race, Class, and Immigration Status to Disease Management at the Workplace (United States)

    Rosemberg, Marie-Anne S.; Tsai, Jenny Hsin-Chun


    Objective Chronic diseases are the leading causes of death in the United States. Chronic disease management occurs within all aspects of an individual's life, including the workplace. Though the social constructs of gender, race, class, and immigration status within the workplace have been considered, their connection to disease management among workers has been less explicitly explored. Using a sample of immigrant hotel housekeepers, we explored the connections between these four social constructs and hypertension management. Methods This qualitative research study was guided by critical ethnography methodology. Twenty-seven hotel room cleaners and four housemen were recruited (N = 31) and invited to discuss their experiences with hypertension and hypertension management within the context of their work environments. Results Being a woman worker within the hotel industry was perceived to negatively influence participants’ experience with hypertension and hypertension management. In contrast, being a woman played a protective role outside the workplace. Being an immigrant played both a positive and a negative role in hypertension and its management. Being black and from a low socioeconomic class had only adverse influences on participants’ experience with hypertension and its management. Conclusion Being a woman, black, lower class, and an immigrant simultaneously contribute to immigrant hotel housekeepers’ health and their ability to effectively manage their hypertension. The connection between these four constructs (gender, race, class, and immigration status) and disease management must be considered during care provision. Hotel employers and policy stakeholders need to consider those constructs and how they impact workers’ well-being. More studies are needed to identify what mitigates the associations between the intersectionality of these constructs and immigrant workers’ health and disease management within their work environment. PMID:27695659

  13. Connecting Gender, Race, Class, and Immigration Status to Disease Management at the Workplace. (United States)

    Rosemberg, Marie-Anne S; Tsai, Jenny Hsin-Chun


    Chronic diseases are the leading causes of death in the United States. Chronic disease management occurs within all aspects of an individual's life, including the workplace. Though the social constructs of gender, race, class, and immigration status within the workplace have been considered, their connection to disease management among workers has been less explicitly explored. Using a sample of immigrant hotel housekeepers, we explored the connections between these four social constructs and hypertension management. This qualitative research study was guided by critical ethnography methodology. Twenty-seven hotel room cleaners and four housemen were recruited ( N = 31) and invited to discuss their experiences with hypertension and hypertension management within the context of their work environments. Being a woman worker within the hotel industry was perceived to negatively influence participants' experience with hypertension and hypertension management. In contrast, being a woman played a protective role outside the workplace. Being an immigrant played both a positive and a negative role in hypertension and its management. Being black and from a low socioeconomic class had only adverse influences on participants' experience with hypertension and its management. Being a woman, black, lower class, and an immigrant simultaneously contribute to immigrant hotel housekeepers' health and their ability to effectively manage their hypertension. The connection between these four constructs (gender, race, class, and immigration status) and disease management must be considered during care provision. Hotel employers and policy stakeholders need to consider those constructs and how they impact workers' well-being. More studies are needed to identify what mitigates the associations between the intersectionality of these constructs and immigrant workers' health and disease management within their work environment.

  14. Digital-Visual-Sensory-Design Anthropology: Ethnography, Imagination and Intervention (United States)

    Pink, Sarah


    In this article I outline how a digital-visual-sensory approach to anthropological ethnography might participate in the making of relationship between design and anthropology. While design anthropology is itself coming of age, the potential of its relationship with applied visual anthropology methodology and theory has not been considered in the…

  15. Sociolinguistic Documentation of Endangered Ethnography of Communication in Yoruba Language (United States)

    Olaoye, Anthony Ayodele


    The ethnography of communication, particularly of greetings, among speakers of some Yoruba dialects is the major concern of this paper. The author observed that the much-cherished, rich culture of greetings, among Yoruba, which the author grew up to know, by linguistic globalization and modernization is being eroded fast. The study and…

  16. Ethnographic Locations: The Geographies of Feminist Post-Structural Ethnography (United States)

    Cairns, Kate


    The feminist post-structuralist emphasis on social location has yielded crucial insights within debates about power and reflexivity in educational research; however, spatial location is also at play in the formation of educational ethnographies. Reflecting upon various aspects of a research project with rural students in Ontario, Canada, this…

  17. Multi-Sited Ethnography and the Field of Educational Research (United States)

    Pierides, Dean


    This paper responds to the challenge of how educational research might be practised in a contemporary world that is no longer necessarily organised by nearness and unity. Focusing on ethnography, it argues for what a multi-sited imaginary contributes to research in the field of education. By giving prominence to the notion of multi-sited…

  18. What Is Ethnography? Can It Survive? Should It? (United States)

    Hammersley, Martyn


    This paper notes that, in the field of education and beyond, the term "ethnography" has acquired a range of meanings, and comes in many different versions, these often reflecting sharply divergent orientations. I argue that this is a major problem that requires attention; particularly since today there are some serious threats to the…

  19. The Virtual Workplace Ethnography: Positioning Student Writers as Knowledge Makers (United States)

    Sommers, Jeff


    The Virtual Workplace Ethnography is a first-year composition assignment that positions students as knowledge makers by requiring them to apply a theoretical lens ("Working Knowledge") to a video representation of a workplace. The lens provides multiple terms for analysis of workplace behaviors in context, providing a scaffolding for…

  20. Identifying and Comparing Scandinavian Ethnography: Comparisons and Influences (United States)

    Beach, Dennis


    In recent years, there has been a significant growth in the volume of research production in education ethnography in Scandinavia due partly to a regionally financed network. The present article makes some comparisons between Scandinavian and other education research contexts in relation to aspects of general ethnographic design to try to analyse…

  1. Ethnography of Communication in Praxis in the Literature Classroom (United States)

    Hepburn, Carol


    In this article, I suggest that an applied communication approach using Dell Hymes' framework of "ethnography of communication" could serve as an intervention strategy in order to promote a greater sense of shared community within the college literature classroom. I explore this framework with consideration on how this communication…

  2. Breaking Classroom Silences: A View from Linguistic Ethnography (United States)

    Rampton, Ben; Charalambous, Constadina


    This paper addresses potentially problematic classroom episodes in which someone foregrounds a social division that is normally taken for granted. It illustrates the way in which linguistic ethnography can unpack the layered processes that collide in the breaking of silence, showing how linguistic form and practice, individual positioning, local…

  3. Voice and Meaning-Making in Team Ethnography (United States)

    Creese, Angela; Blackledge, Adrian


    Drawing on research on complementary schools in the United Kingdom, this presentation considers some of the issues in the research method used in studying this after-school community site. Processes of analysis employed by the ethnography team are disclosed so as to illuminate the dynamics of theory building in a large research team. (Contains 2…

  4. Doing Multisensory Ethnography In Classroom Study In Danish Secondary Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkenberg, Helene

    The thesis of this Ph.D. is new forms of organizing the secondary school in Denmark and the potential of these organizational forms as inclusive learning environments. I´m inspired by multisensory ethnography (Pink, 2011a, 2011b) in my study of the ways the students are categorized into included...

  5. "Animals like us": Revisiting organizational ethnography and research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wels, H.


    Purpose – Now that the human-animal distinction is increasingly critiqued from various disciplinary perspectives, to the point where some suggest even letting go of the distinction completely, the purpose of this paper is to argue that organizational ethnography should start to explore in more

  6. Institutional Ethnography: A Holistic Approach to Understanding Systems (United States)

    Wright, Ursula T.; Rocco, Tonette S.


    This paper introduces institutional ethnography (IE) as a useful and systematic process for examining organizations and work data through the lens of stakeholders, at different levels, and considering the different forces at play. Drawing from ethnomethodology, IE focuses on how everyday experience is socially organized. Ideological shifts have…

  7. Educational Evaluation: Ethnography in Theory, Practice, and Politics. (United States)

    Fetterman, David M., Ed.; Pitman, Mary Anne, Ed.

    Ten essays on the use of ethnography in educational assessment are presented. Overview essays include: (1) "Beyond the Status Quo in Ethnographic Educational Evaluation" (David M. Fetterman) and (2) "The Ethnographic Evaluator" (David M. Fetterman). Theoretical papers include: (3) "Theory in Education Evaluation: Or,…

  8. Ethnographies across Virtual and Physical Spaces: A Reflexive Commentary on a Live Canadian/UK Ethnography of Distributed Medical Education (United States)

    Tummons, Jonathan; Macleod, Anna; Kits, Olga


    This article draws on an ongoing ethnography of distributed medical education (DME) provision in Canada in order to explore the methodological choices of the researchers as well as the wider pluralisation of ethnographic frameworks that is reflected within current research literature. The article begins with a consideration of the technologically…

  9. “They think you’re lazy,” and Other Messages Black Parents Send Their Black Sons: An Exploration of Critical Race Theory in the Examination of Educational Outcomes for Black Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rema Reynolds


    Full Text Available Parents play an integral role in the social, emotional, physical, and intellectual development of their children. We know that school success has been associated with parents’ involvement and engagement1 practices. Studies have shown that despite socioeconomic disparities, children whose parents are involved perform markedly better than those whose parents are not. Little research has looked exclusively at parent involvement and its effects on the educational outcomes of Black males. A qualitative study conducted with Black parents and their involvement and engagement practices as the focus proved that this relationship warrants scholarly attention using Critical Race Theory as a tool for examination. Parents in this study were involved in their children’s educational processes in ways not always validated or valued by schools. Instead of engaging in conventional forms of involvement such as volunteering in the classroom, parents spent time and resources supplementing their children’s education at home. Subtle acts of racism manifested through microaggressions were detected by parents when interfacing with school officials2 and these exchanges prompted candid conversations with their sons. According to the parents in this study, deliberate messages about racism and educator expectations were often critical supplements for their Black sons in order to ensure educational success.

  10. Bridged Race Population Estimates (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Population estimates from "bridging" the 31 race categories used in Census 2000, as specified in the 1997 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) race and ethnicity...

  11. Yacht Race Monitoring (United States)


    Observer Single-handed Transatlantic Race (OSTAR) participants were aided by a French-American space-based monitoring system which reported the yacht's positions throughout the race, and also served as an emergency locator service. Originating from NASA's Nimbus 6 Satellite, use of this system, called ARGOS made the OSTAR competition the most accurately reported sea race ever conducted. Each boat carried a portable transmitter allowing 88 new sources of oceanographic data available during the race.

  12. Entangled ethnography: imagining a future for young adults with learning disabilities. (United States)

    Ginsburg, Faye; Rapp, Rayna


    Our article draws on one aspect of our multi-sited long-term ethnographic research in New York City on cultural innovation and Learning Disabilities (LD). We focus on our efforts to help create two innovative transition programs that also became sites for our study when we discovered that young adults with disabilities were too often "transitioning to nowhere" as they left high school. Because of our stakes in this process as parents of children with learning disabilities as well as anthropologists, we have come to think of our method as entangled ethnography, bringing the insights of both insider and outsider perspectives into productive dialog, tailoring a longstanding approach in critical anthropology to research demedicalizing the experience of disability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Mihailo Lalić and Serbian Ethnology: Ethnography and Mimesis of Patriarchal Society in Montenegrin Highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Gorunović


    Full Text Available My starting point is the yet unexplored supposition that Lalić’s realistic writing about the reality contains also a real ethnological and anthropological reference, first of all comments on the Serbian ethnology of the first half of the 20th century, its traditional paradigm, and strategy of ethnographic writing. My second supposition is that the deeper structure of Lalić’s historical novels is “inscribed” by the genre of ethnography which, together with other text types and stylistic means, contributes to the virtuoso construction of great narratives about the Montenegrin life world in historical perspective. Finally, an analysis of Lalić’s discourse reveals that despite the Marxist inspired criticism of ethnology as part of the Serbian national science, the discipline was an inevitable point of reference in the narrative construction of Montenegrin identity. 

  14. Race, populations, and genomics: Africa as laboratory. (United States)

    Braun, Lundy; Hammonds, Evelynn


    Much of the recent debate over race, genetics, and health has focused on the extent to which typological notions of race have biological meaning. Less attention, however, has been paid to the assumptions about the nature of "populations" that both inform contemporary biological and medical research and that underlie the concept of race. Focusing specifically on Africa in the 1930s and 1940s, this paper explores the history of how fluid societies were transformed into bounded units amenable to scientific analysis. In the so-called "Golden Age of Ethnography," university-trained social anthropologists, primarily from Britain and South Africa, took to the field to systematically study, organize, and order the world's diverse peoples. Intent on creating a scientific methodology of neutral observation, they replaced amateur travelers, traders, colonial administrators, and missionaries as authoritative knowledge producers about the customs, beliefs, and languages of indigenous peoples. At the same time, linguists were engaged in unifying African languages and mapping language onto primordial "tribal" territories. We argue that the notion of populations or "tribes" as discrete units suitable for scientific sampling and classification emerged in the 1930s and 1940s with the ethnographic turn in social anthropology and the professionalization and institutionalization of linguistics in Western and South African universities. Once named and entered into international atlases and databases by anthropologists in the U.S., the existence of populations as bounded entities became self-evident, thus setting the stage for their use in large-scale population genetic studies and the contemporary reinvigoration of broad claims of difference based on population identification.

  15. Polymedia and Ethnography: Understanding the Social in Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirca Madianou


    Full Text Available In this essay I argue that social media need to be understood as part of complex environments of communicative opportunities which I conceptualize as polymedia. This approach shifts our attention from social media as discrete platforms to the ways users navigate environments of affordances in order to manage their social relationships. Ethnography emerges as the most appropriate method to capture the relational dynamics that underpin social media practices within polymedia.

  16. Comparing Case Study and Ethnography as Qualitative Research Approaches


    Suryani, Anne


    Abstract: This article reviews several differences between case study and ethnography in terms of definitions, characteristics, strengths and limitations. It provides current information by comparing these approaches from various social researchers’ perspectives. Although each method has strong points, they both have differences in conducting observation and interview as data collection techniques; choosing the length of time of data gathering and reporting details of a particular reality....

  17. Comparing Case Study and Ethnography as Qualitative Research Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Suryani


    Full Text Available Abstract: This article reviews several differences between case study and ethnography in terms of definitions, characteristics, strengths and limitations. It provides current information by comparing these approaches from various social researchers’ perspectives. Although each method has strong points, they both have differences in conducting observation and interview as data collection techniques; choosing the length of time of data gathering and reporting details of a particular reality.

  18. Speculative prototypes and exogenous ethnographies: Experiencing relationships beyond the human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Li; Ulv Lenskjold, Tau


    This article deals with the role that speculative design prototypes have as means to intervene in contexts of everyday life in order to explore, and possibly facilitate, new types of relationships between human and non-human beings. Focusing on an off-centered design of the human, it seeks to exp...... to explore what types of new possibilities may arise when speculation in design meets the practice of doing what might be termed an "exogenous ethnography"....

  19. Crossroads Poetics : Édouard Glissant and Ethnography


    Kullberg, Christina


    Édouard Glissant’s work seems to actualize the metaphor used by French ethnographer and writer Michel Leiris to capture the Caribbean: it is a poetics of the crossroads between several discourses and forms of expression. But the intersection between history, sociology, philosophy, poetry, and other areas often occurs without the author fully explaining the mechanisms behind his appropriations of discourses that usually lie outside the realm of literature. Ethnography, for example, appears wit...

  20. Conducting a meta-ethnography of qualitative literature: lessons learnt. (United States)

    Atkins, Salla; Lewin, Simon; Smith, Helen; Engel, Mark; Fretheim, Atle; Volmink, Jimmy


    Qualitative synthesis has become more commonplace in recent years. Meta-ethnography is one of several methods for synthesising qualitative research and is being used increasingly within health care research. However, many aspects of the steps in the process remain ill-defined. We utilized the seven stages of the synthesis process to synthesise qualitative research on adherence to tuberculosis treatment. In this paper we discuss the methodological and practical challenges faced; of particular note are the methods used in our synthesis, the additional steps that we found useful in clarifying the process, and the key methodological challenges encountered in implementing the meta-ethnographic approach. The challenges included shaping an appropriate question for the synthesis; identifying relevant studies; assessing the quality of the studies; and synthesising findings across a very large number of primary studies from different contexts and research traditions. We offer suggestions that may assist in undertaking meta-ethnographies in the future. Meta-ethnography is a useful method for synthesising qualitative research and for developing models that interpret findings across multiple studies. Despite its growing use in health research, further research is needed to address the wide range of methodological and epistemological questions raised by the approach.

  1. Protocol-developing meta-ethnography reporting guidelines (eMERGe). (United States)

    France, E F; Ring, N; Noyes, J; Maxwell, M; Jepson, R; Duncan, E; Turley, R; Jones, D; Uny, I


    Designing and implementing high-quality health care services and interventions requires robustly synthesised evidence. Syntheses of qualitative research studies can provide evidence of patients' experiences of health conditions; intervention feasibility, appropriateness and acceptability to patients; and advance understanding of health care issues. The unique, interpretive, theory-based meta-ethnography synthesis approach is suited to conveying patients' views and developing theory to inform service design and delivery. However, meta-ethnography reporting is often poor quality, which discourages trust in, and use of, meta-ethnography findings. Users of evidence syntheses require reports that clearly articulate analytical processes and findings. Tailored research reporting guidelines can raise reporting standards but none exists for meta-ethnography. This study aims to create an evidence-based meta-ethnography reporting guideline articulating the methodological standards and depth of reporting required to improve reporting quality. The mixed-methods design of this National Institute of Health Research-funded study ( follows good practice in research reporting guideline development comprising: (1) a methodological systematic review (PROSPERO registration: CRD42015024709) to identify recommendations and guidance in conducting/reporting meta-ethnography; (2) a review and audit of published meta-ethnographies to identify good practice principles and develop standards in conduct/reporting; (3) an online workshop and Delphi studies to agree guideline content with 45 international qualitative synthesis experts and 45 other stakeholders including patients; (4) development and wide dissemination of the guideline and its accompanying detailed explanatory document, a report template for National Institute of Health Research commissioned meta-ethnographies, and training materials on guideline use. Meta-ethnography, devised in the field of education

  2. The Second Space Race (United States)

    Fawkes, S.

    This paper compares and contrasts the characteristics of the first space race, which ran from the late 1950s to the late 1990s, and the second space race that began with the successful space flight of SpaceShipOne in 2004. The first space race was between superpowers seeking to establish geo-political dominance in the Cold War. The second space race will be between competing companies seeking to establish low cost access to space for ordinary people. The first space race achieved its geo- political objectives but did not open up low cost access to space but rather restricted access to a select few, highly trained astronauts and cosmonauts. The second space race, driven by the size and growth of the travel and tourism industry, promises to open up access to space to millions of space tourists.

  3. Affectivity and race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitus, Kathrine; Andreassen, Rikke

    into the experience of racial difference and the unfolding of political discourses on race in various social spheres. Organised around the themes of the politicisation of race through affect, the way that race produces affect and the affective experience of race, this interdisciplinary collection sheds light...... on the role of feelings in the formation of subjectivities, how race and whiteness are affectively circulated in public life and the ways in which emotions contribute to regimes of inclusion and exclusion. As such it will appeal to scholars across the social sciences, with interests in sociology, anthropology......This book presents new empirical studies of social difference in the Nordic welfare states, in order to advance novel theoretical perspectives on the everyday practices and macro-politics of race and gender in multi-ethnic societies. With attention to the specific political and cultural landscapes...

  4. Evaluating meta-ethnography: systematic analysis and synthesis of qualitative research. (United States)

    Campbell, R; Pound, P; Morgan, M; Daker-White, G; Britten, N; Pill, R; Yardley, L; Pope, C; Donovan, J


    Methods for reviewing and synthesising findings from quantitative research studies in health care are well established. Although there is recognition of the need for qualitative research to be brought into the evidence base, there is no consensus about how this should be done and the methods for synthesising qualitative research are at a relatively early stage of development. To evaluate meta-ethnography as a method for synthesising qualitative research studies in health and health care. Two full syntheses of qualitative research studies were conducted between April 2002 and September 2004 using meta-ethnography: (1) studies of medicine-taking and (2) studies exploring patients' experiences of living with rheumatoid arthritis. Potentially relevant studies identified in multiple literature searches conducted in July and August 2002 (electronically and by hand) were appraised using a modified version of the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme questions for understanding qualitative research. Candidate papers were excluded on grounds of lack of relevance to the aims of the synthesis or because the work failed to employ qualitative methods of data collection and analysis. Thirty-eight studies were entered into the medicine-taking synthesis, one of which did not contribute to the final synthesis. The synthesis revealed a general caution about taking medicine, and that the practice of lay testing of medicines was widespread. People were found to take their medicine passively or actively or to reject it outright. Some, in particular clinical areas, were coerced into taking it. Those who actively accepted their medicine often modified the regimen prescribed by a doctor, without the doctor's knowledge. The synthesis concluded that people often do not take their medicines as prescribed because of concern about the medicines themselves. 'Resistance' emerged from the synthesis as a concept that best encapsulated the lay response to prescribed medicines. It was suggested that a

  5. Very Special Natives: The Evolving Role of Teachers as Informants in Educational Ethnography. (United States)

    Florio, Susan

    Underlying the current use of ethnography in the study of teaching and learning is the assumption of an analogy between the school or classroom and culture. The claim of educational ethnography is that it discovers and describes the ways that members of the school community create and share meaning. Ethnographers aim to discover the operating…

  6. Children Writing Ethnography: Children's Perspectives and Nomadic Thinking in Researching School Classrooms (United States)

    Hohti, Riikka


    This article makes a connection between narrative ethnography, childhood studies and new materialist theories in studying children's perspective on school. It presents "children writing ethnography" as an approach based on complexity and involving participatory research. The question of "what is happening in the classroom" is…

  7. Ethnographies "de Lucha" (of Struggle) in Latino Education: Toward Social Movement (United States)

    Villenas, Sofia A.


    In this article, I describe the fight back imperatives of Latino educational ethnography at a time when Latino children's education continues to be the battleground for nation and culture wars. I briefly trace the expansion of the field of Latino educational ethnography during the last two decades, and point to the possibilities for the future of…

  8. Problematising Ethnography and Case Study: Reflections on Using Ethnographic Techniques and Researcher Positioning (United States)

    Parker-Jenkins, Marie


    This paper was prompted by the question, what do we mean by conducting "ethnography"? Is it in fact "case study" drawing on ethnographic techniques? My contention is that in many cases, researchers are not actually conducting ethnography as understood within a traditional sense but rather are engaging in case study, drawing on…

  9. Ethnography in Charting Paths toward Personal and Social Liberation: Using My Latina Cultural Intuition (United States)

    Monzó, Lilia D.


    Drawing on a Chicana feminist epistemology, the author, a Latina immigrant, presents how she used her cultural intuition to engage in a two-year ethnography with Latino immigrant families. She argues that for her engaging in ethnography with her "own community" is an endeavor that calls to the fore her homegrown epistemologies and her…

  10. Dialogues with ethnography : Notes on classics, and how I read them

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blommaert, Jan


    This book persuasively argues the case that ethnography must be viewed as a full theoretical system, rather than just as a research method. Blommaert traces the influence of his reading of classic works about ethnography on his thinking, and discusses a range of authors who have influenced the

  11. Multi-Sited Global Ethnography and Travel: Gendered Journeys in Three Registers (United States)

    Epstein, Debbie; Fahey, Johannah; Kenway, Jane


    This paper joins a barely begun conversation about multi-sited and global ethnography in educational research; a conversation that is likely to intensify along with growing interest in the links between education, globalisation, internationalisation and transnationalism. Drawing on an ongoing multi-sited global ethnography of elite schools and…

  12. On Structure and Agency in Ethnographies of Education: Examples from This Special Issue and More Generally (United States)

    Beach, Dennis


    The articles in this collection are about the development, possibility, exercise and possible frustration of human agency within educational exchanges. They are also all based on ethnography, which is now a common approach to educational research. Ethnography is not a seamless, neutral observational practice but is instead variable in relation to…

  13. Anansi's Still at School: John Furlong's Contribution to School and Classroom Ethnography (United States)

    Delamont, Sara


    The work of John Furlong on school and classroom ethnography is located in its context and its achievements celebrated. The paper focuses on class, ethnicity and gender issues as it explores the changes and continuities in the ethnography of education over the 66-year period covered. The qualities of a good ethnographer are playfully compared to…

  14. Evaluation, Ethnography, and Auditing in Educational Research: Methodological and Conceptual Comparisons. (United States)

    Fetterman, David M.

    The most important distinction between evaluation (in the psychometric tradition), ethnography, and auditing is that they are guided by three distinctively separate principles. The underlying principle guiding evaluation is assessment. Ethnography is guided by description. Auditing uses description and assessment to establish an opinion on…

  15. Population health and social governance: analyzing the mainstream incorporation of ethnography. (United States)

    O'Byrne, Patrick


    Recently, health care workers (researchers, academics, policy writers, clinicians) have begun to view ethnography as an acceptable research methodology for informing public health work. This corresponds with a change in public health practice toward population health, wherein identifiable groups are examined to identify the group-level and contextual factors that affect their health statuses. Although population health-based methodological and outcomes-focused examinations have already occurred regarding ethnography, no extant literature scrutinizes the incorporation of ethnography into mainstream public and population health work from a sociopolitical viewpoint. Consequently, such an investigation occurs here using Foucault's concepts of discipline and Lupton's advancement of Foucault's ideas about the imperative of health. The outcome of this investigation is the assertion that ethnography is a strategic method for disciplining populations that do not respect the imperative of health. In other words, ethnography helps generate the data that can be used to normalize large groups of people.

  16. Critical Race Quantitative Intersections: A "testimonio" Analysis (United States)

    Covarrubias, Alejandro; Nava, Pedro E.; Lara, Argelia; Burciaga, Rebeca; Vélez, Verónica N.; Solorzano, Daniel G.


    The educational pipeline has become a commonly referenced depiction of educational outcomes for racialized groups across the country. While visually impactful, an overreliance on decontextualized quantitative data often leads to majoritarian interpretations. Without sociohistorical contexts, these interpretations run the risk of perpetuating…

  17. QCD critical point: The race is on

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    May 6, 2015 ... The aim of this article is to describe how things are different for strongly ... flavours) and one moderately heavier (strange) quark. ... an order parameter on a lattice, the chiral symmetry must be respected even on the lattice.

  18. Race encounters in ITE : tutors' narratives on race equality and initial teacher education (ITE)


    Lander, Arvinder Kaur


    This study examines the racialised narratives of White tutors in initial teacher education (ITE) with specific reference to how well initial teacher education (ITE) prepares student teachers to teach in an ethnically diverse society. It draws on critical race theory as a framework to identify how the discourse of whiteness is embedded in the experience, knowledge and hegemonic understandings of these tutors and how it affects their approach to the topic of race equality and teaching in a mult...

  19. Patients' experience with cancer recurrence: a meta-ethnography. (United States)

    Wanat, Marta; Boulton, Mary; Watson, Eila


    Recurrence is a difficult stage in the cancer journey as it brings to the fore the life-threatening nature of the illness. This meta-ethnography examines and synthesises the findings of qualitative research regarding patients' experience of cancer recurrence. A systematic search of the qualitative studies published between January 1994 to April 2014 was undertaken. Seventeen relevant papers were identified, and a meta-ethnography was conducted. Six third-order concepts were developed to capture patients' experiences: experiencing emotional turmoil following diagnosis, which described the emotional impact of diagnosis and the influence of previous experiences on how the news were received; experiencing otherness, encompassing changed relationships; seeking support in the health care system, describing the extent of information needs and the importance of the relationship with health care professionals; adjusting to a new prognosis and uncertain future, highlighting the changes associated with uncertainty; finding strategies to deal with recurrence, describing ways of maintaining emotional well-being and regaining a sense of control over cancer; and facing mortality, describing the difficulties in facing death-related concerns and associated consequences. This meta-ethnography clarifies the fundamental aspects of patients' experience of recurrence. It suggests that health care professionals can promote a positive experience of care and help lessen the psychosocial impact of recurrence by providing information in an approachable way and being sensitive to their changing needs. It also points to the importance of supporting patients in adopting strategies to regain a sense of control and to address their potential mortality and its impact on loved ones. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Testing the race inequality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gondan, Matthias; Heckel, A.


    In speeded response tasks with redundant signals, parallel processing of the redundant signals is generally tested using the so-called race inequality. The race inequality states that the distribution of fast responses for a redundant stimulus never exceeds the summed distributions of fast...

  1. Sows' Ears and Silver Linings. A Backward Look at Ethnography. (United States)



    Globalization, changing views of science, and alterations in the culture concept have gradually modified the way fieldwork is perceived within anthropology. This paper briefly examines the contributions of four ethnographers in order to argue that ethnography based on fieldwork remains essential to our definition as a profession. The claim is made here that unless anthropologists continue to make fieldwork central, anthropological theory will be cut off from its grounding in data. Other observers, less skilled than anthropologists but more daring, will increasingly supplant ethnographers in gathering new information that they then interpret and in claiming the public readership that anthropologists were once able successfully to address.

  2. Institutional ethnography for people in a vulnerable and oppressed situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgsbro, Kjeld


    and communicative skills are highly valued and sometimes requisite for achieving a position at the labour market as well as getting into social networks of modern urban subcultures. This chapter will summarize the methodological challenges when entering the life-world and institutional structures for people...... in especially vulnerable and oppressed situations and present some of its results. To deal with the situation of these people is a challenge to institutional ethnography and changes slightly the elements in the research designs. Among the regulatory principles that gain importance and weight in this field...... are discourses referring to pedagogical theories, diagnostic systems and the concept of evidence....

  3. Learning Race from Face: A Survey. (United States)

    Fu, Siyao; He, Haibo; Hou, Zeng-Guang


    Faces convey a wealth of social signals, including race, expression, identity, age and gender, all of which have attracted increasing attention from multi-disciplinary research, such as psychology, neuroscience, computer science, to name a few. Gleaned from recent advances in computer vision, computer graphics, and machine learning, computational intelligence based racial face analysis has been particularly popular due to its significant potential and broader impacts in extensive real-world applications, such as security and defense, surveillance, human computer interface (HCI), biometric-based identification, among others. These studies raise an important question: How implicit, non-declarative racial category can be conceptually modeled and quantitatively inferred from the face? Nevertheless, race classification is challenging due to its ambiguity and complexity depending on context and criteria. To address this challenge, recently, significant efforts have been reported toward race detection and categorization in the community. This survey provides a comprehensive and critical review of the state-of-the-art advances in face-race perception, principles, algorithms, and applications. We first discuss race perception problem formulation and motivation, while highlighting the conceptual potentials of racial face processing. Next, taxonomy of feature representational models, algorithms, performance and racial databases are presented with systematic discussions within the unified learning scenario. Finally, in order to stimulate future research in this field, we also highlight the major opportunities and challenges, as well as potentially important cross-cutting themes and research directions for the issue of learning race from face.

  4. Extending the Mind: A Review of Ethnographies of Neuroscience Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara eMahfoud


    Full Text Available This paper reviews ethnographies of neuroscience laboratories in the United States and Europe, organizing them into three main sections: 1 descriptions of the capabilities and limitations of technologies used in neuroimaging laboratories to map ‘activity’ or ‘function’ onto structural models of the brain, 2 discussions of the ‘distributed’ or ‘extended’ mind in neuroscience practice, and 3 the implications of neuroscience research and the power of brain images outside the laboratory. I will try to show the importance of ethnographic work in such settings, and place this body of ethnographic work within its historical framework - such ethnographies largely emerged within the Decade of the Brain, as announced by former President of the United States George H. W. Bush in 1990. The main argument is that neuroscience research and the context within which it is taking place has changed since the 1990’s - specifically with the launch of ‘big science’ projects such as the Human Brain Project in the European Union and the BRAIN initiative in the United States. There is an opportunity for more research into the institutional and politico-economic context within which neuroscience research is taking place, and for continued engagement between the social and biological sciences.

  5. A Return to "The Clinic" for Community Psychology: Lessons from a Clinical Ethnography in Urban American Indian Behavioral Health. (United States)

    Hartmann, William E; St Arnault, Denise M; Gone, Joseph P


    Community psychology (CP) abandoned the clinic and disengaged from movements for community mental health (CMH) to escape clinical convention and pursue growing aspirations as an independent field of context-oriented, community-engaged, and values-driven research and action. In doing so, however, CP positioned itself on the sidelines of influential contemporary movements that promote potentially harmful, reductionist biomedical narratives in mental health. We advocate for a return to the clinic-the seat of institutional power in mental health-using critical clinic-based inquiry to open sites for clinical-community dialogue that can instigate transformative change locally and nationally. To inform such works within the collaborative and emancipatory traditions of CP, we detail a recently completed clinical ethnography and offer "lessons learned" regarding challenges likely to re-emerge in similar efforts. Conducted with an urban American Indian community behavioral health clinic, this ethnography examined how culture and culture concepts (e.g., cultural competence) shaped clinical practice with socio-political implications for American Indian peoples and the pursuit of transformative change in CMH. Lessons learned identify exceptional clinicians versed in ecological thinking and contextualist discourses of human suffering as ideal partners for this work; encourage intense contextualization and constraining critique to areas of mutual interest; and support relational approaches to clinic collaborations. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  6. Why, when and how to update a meta-ethnography qualitative synthesis. (United States)

    France, Emma F; Wells, Mary; Lang, Heidi; Williams, Brian


    Meta-ethnography is a unique, systematic, qualitative synthesis approach widely used to provide robust evidence on patient and clinician beliefs and experiences and understandings of complex social phenomena. It can make important theoretical and conceptual contributions to health care policy and practice. Since beliefs, experiences, health care contexts and social phenomena change over time, the continued relevance of the findings from meta-ethnographies cannot be assumed. However, there is little guidance on whether, when and how meta-ethnographies should be updated; Cochrane guidance on updating reviews of intervention effectiveness is unlikely to be fully appropriate. This is the first in-depth discussion on updating a meta-ethnography; it explores why, when and how to update a meta-ethnography. Three main methods of updating the analysis and synthesis are examined. Advantages and disadvantages of each method are outlined, relating to the context, purpose, process and output of the update and the nature of the new data available. Recommendations are made for the appropriate use of each method, and a worked example of updating a meta-ethnography is provided. This article makes a unique contribution to this evolving area of meta-ethnography methodology.

  7. Using Rapid Ethnography to Support the Design and Implementation of Health Information Technologies. (United States)

    Ackerman, Sara; Gleason, Nathaniel; Gonzales, Ralph


    Ethnography is the defining practice - and art - of anthropology. Among health information technology (IT) developers, however, ethnography remains a little used and undervalued mode of inquiry and representation. In this chapter we demonstrate that ethnography can make important contributions to the design and implementation of more user-oriented health IT devices and systems. In particular, we propose 'rapid ethnography' as a pragmatic strategy that draws on classic ethnographic methods, but emphasizes shorter periods of fieldwork and quick turnaround of findings to inform (re)design, programming and implementation efforts. Rapid ethnography is theoretically and empirically situated in science and technology studies' explorations of a) the entanglement of social and technical dimensions of technology use; b) how getting tools to 'work' requires aligning interests across a wide range of human and non-human actors; and c) the ways in which humans and technology transform each other as they interact. We provide two detailed case studies to illustrate the evolution and uses of rapid ethnography at a U.S. academic medical center. By providing deeper insights into the experiences of users, and the contexts and communities in which new tools are introduced, rapid ethnography can serve as a valuable component of Techno-Anthropology and health IT innovation.

  8. Neoliberalism, Pro-ana/mia Websites, and Pathologizing Women: Using Performance Ethnography to Challenge Psychocentrism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole D Schott


    Full Text Available Key terms such as “pro-ana,” “pro-anorexia,” and “pro-ED” are searched for on the Internet over 13 million times annually. These searches lead to web pages and social media sites where pro-anorexia and “pro-bulimia” (pro-ana/mia contributors share weight-loss and exercise tips, “thinspiration” slogans, images and videos, and speak openly about their problems with eating and body image. In this article, we outline our initial research on online responses to pro-ana/mia, and describe how we used the data and analyses from this research to create a piece of research-informed theatre, or performance ethnography. The initial research identified a range of responses to pro-ana/mia that were aligned with either dominant or critical discourses on the causes of, and solutions for, pro-ana/mia. Our findings and analyses challenge media portrayals and medical approaches to pro-ana/mia phenomena, and support an alternative, critical analysis of how psychocentrism and neoliberalism foster social injustices for women and girls. Our work nurtures collective efforts to displace dominant ideologies and practices that have serious implications for the socio-cultural, economic, physical and mental health of women and their communities.

  9. A methodological systematic review of what's wrong with meta-ethnography reporting. (United States)

    France, Emma F; Ring, Nicola; Thomas, Rebecca; Noyes, Jane; Maxwell, Margaret; Jepson, Ruth


    Syntheses of qualitative studies can inform health policy, services and our understanding of patient experience. Meta-ethnography is a systematic seven-phase interpretive qualitative synthesis approach well-suited to producing new theories and conceptual models. However, there are concerns about the quality of meta-ethnography reporting, particularly the analysis and synthesis processes. Our aim was to investigate the application and reporting of methods in recent meta-ethnography journal papers, focusing on the analysis and synthesis process and output. Methodological systematic review of health-related meta-ethnography journal papers published from 2012-2013. We searched six electronic databases, Google Scholar and Zetoc for papers using key terms including 'meta-ethnography.' Two authors independently screened papers by title and abstract with 100% agreement. We identified 32 relevant papers. Three authors independently extracted data and all authors analysed the application and reporting of methods using content analysis. Meta-ethnography was applied in diverse ways, sometimes inappropriately. In 13% of papers the approach did not suit the research aim. In 66% of papers reviewers did not follow the principles of meta-ethnography. The analytical and synthesis processes were poorly reported overall. In only 31% of papers reviewers clearly described how they analysed conceptual data from primary studies (phase 5, 'translation' of studies) and in only one paper (3%) reviewers explicitly described how they conducted the analytic synthesis process (phase 6). In 38% of papers we could not ascertain if reviewers had achieved any new interpretation of primary studies. In over 30% of papers seminal methodological texts which could have informed methods were not cited. We believe this is the first in-depth methodological systematic review of meta-ethnography conduct and reporting. Meta-ethnography is an evolving approach. Current reporting of methods, analysis and

  10. CERN Relay Race 2009

    CERN Document Server


    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 14th May starting at 12:15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. More details on how to register your team for the relay race

  11. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Running Club


    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 20 May, starting at 12.15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details on the route, and how to register your team for the relay race, can be found at:

  12. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Document Server


    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Wednesday 17 May starting at 12:15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Details on how to register your team for the relay race are given on the Staff Association Bulletin web site.

  13. Race, money and medicines. (United States)

    Bloche, M Gregg


    Taking notice of race is both risky and inevitable, in medicine no less than in other endeavors. On the one hand, race can be a useful stand-in for unstudied genetic and environmental factors that yield differences in disease expression and therapeutic response. Attention to race can make a therapeutic difference, to the point of saving lives. On the other hand, racial distinctions have social meanings that are often pejorative or worse, especially when these distinctions are cast as culturally or biologically fixed. I argue in this essay that we should start with a presumption against racial categories in medicine, but permit their use when it might prolong lives or meaningfully improve health. Use of racial categories should be understood as an interim step; follow-up inquiry into the factors that underlie race-correlated clinical differences is important both to improve the efficacy of clinical care and to prevent race in itself from being misunderstood as a biological determinant. If we pursue such inquiry with vigor, the pernicious effects of racial categories on public understanding can be managed. But perverse market and regulatory incentives create the danger that use of race will be "locked-in," once drugs or other therapies are approved. These incentives should be revisited.

  14. FCJ-194 From #RaceFail to #Ferguson: The Digital Intimacies of Race-Activist Hashtag Publics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Rambukanna


    Full Text Available This paper explores the rough, emergent and partial public culture of race-activist hashtags through the discourses of #RaceFail, a critical race quarrel that started in the sci-fi and fantasy blogosphere, and expanded from there into a broader, sustained discussion over social media; and #Ferguson, a recent race-activist hashtag raising issues around censorship, filtering and ‘gated discourse’. It ends with a discussion of how the frictions between the neoliberal desire to reduce hashtag publics to product publicity, and the activist desire to use hashtags to further public sphere awareness of political issues, is exemplified in the controversy over Facebook’s ‘algorithmic filtering’ of #Ferguson, and how, nevertheless, critical race hashtags are tapping into a developing tradition of vocal social media–supported dissent.

  15. Cultural specificity in food choice - The case of ethnography in Japan. (United States)

    Freedman, Irith


    Previous studies examining food choice from a cross-cultural perspective were based primarily on quantitative research using the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ). This study suggests ethnography as a complementary research method in cross-cultural food choice studies. While use of the FCQ resulted in findings of cultural differences in food choice processes, within a preliminary motive list, ethnography allows the exploration of new, possibly culture-specific motives for food choice. Moreover, ethnography allows a deeper understanding of the cultural background of food choice processes in a studied culture. Using Japan as a case study, this research demonstrates the use of ethnography to argue that variety is a primary motive for food choice in contemporary Japanese culture. Variety is hence regarded here as a part of a larger food culture attribute, an "adventurous palate," which can also provide a background for previous FCQ findings (Prescott, Young, O'neill, Yau, & Stevens, 2002). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. An Analytic Glossary to Social Inquiry Using Institutional and Political Activist Ethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bisaillon PhD


    Full Text Available This analytic glossary, composed of 52 terms, is a practical reference and working tool for persons preparing to conduct theoretically informed qualitative social science research drawing from institutional and political activist ethnography. Researchers using these approaches examine social problems and move beyond interpretation by explicating how these problems are organized and what social and ruling relations coordinate them. Political activist ethnography emerges from, and extends, institutional ethnography by producing knowledge explicitly for activism and social movement organizing ends. The assemblage of vocabulary and ideas in this word list are new, and build on existing methodological resources. This glossary offers an extensive, analytic, and challenging inventory of language that brings together terms from these ethnographic approaches with shared ancestry. This compilation is designed to serve as an accessible “one-stop-shop” resource for persons using or contemplating using institutional and political activist ethnography in their research and/or activist projects.

  17. Romanian Roma: An Institutional Ethnography of Labour Market Exclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne Paulsen Breimo


    Full Text Available Roma individuals are struggling to access the formal labour market in Romania. Previous research occupied with this issue has traditionally been dominated by quantitative studies of socio-economic indicators that cling to the characteristics of the ethnic group. The study presented here, however, uses institutional ethnography as a method of social inquiry to demonstrate that this issue needs to be studied from a bottom-up perspective. The article illustrates that there are factors connected to how the system of occupational integration operates that must be taken into consideration in order to explain the difficulties Roma individuals face when trying to enter the labour market in Romania. We argue that these structural barriers create and reinforce processes of minoritising that increase marginalization and discrimination and thereby hinder work inclusion for Roma individuals.

  18. Exploring Socio-material Orderings in Ethnography of Architectural Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lotz, Katrine; Stang Våland, Marianne

    How can the socio-material assemblages involved in contemporary ‘doings of architecture’ be identified and studied? The paper discusses recent transformations within architectural design practice and the extended network of local actors and technologies mobilized in contemporary building...... construction. Interested in examining how the current requirements in the field are – and can be - handled in architectural production, we aim to contribute to the ongoing development of ethnography of Architectural Design (Yaneva 2008, 2009, 2012). In our research, we focus on recent requirements...... in contemporary architectural design. We attempt to follow the actors in detail through their socio-material involvements and ‘architectural inventions’ such as visualized motives of space, materials, atmospheres, buildingparts and -components, and to explore how relations continuously tie and untie as a means...

  19. Message Received: Virtual Ethnography in Online Message Boards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin F. Steinmetz


    Full Text Available As the Internet begins to encapsulate more people within online communities, it is important that the social researcher have well-rounded ethnographic methodologies for observing these phenomena. This article seeks to contribute to methodology by detailing and providing insights into three specific facets of virtual ethnography that need attention: space and time, identity and authenticity, and ethics. Because the Internet is a globalized and instantaneous medium where space and time collapse, identity becomes more playful, and ethics become more tenuous; understanding these aspects is crucial to the study of online social groups. A second focus of this article is to apply these notions to the study of online message boards—a frequently used medium for online communication that is frequently overlooked by methodologists.

  20. The Making of Sami Ethnography: Contested Authorities and Negotiated Representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin Kuutma


    Full Text Available This contribution analyzes the interplay of ethnographic and poetic agendas, the negotiation of synergetic or conflicting objectives in the production and editing of a seminal representation of the Sámi, Muitalus sámiid birra. My main focus is on the collaborative effort of the publication process, to investigate the emergence and negotiation of representational authority, of cultural poetics, of social and cultural critique, in order to defy the preconception of a passive informant of a cultural experience. The Sámi narrator Johan Turi is discussed, instead, as an active agent in providing a voice to the Sámi people in the collaborative process of ethnography writing. My approach is interdisciplinary, being inspired by different inquiries in anthropology and cultural history, while adding a subjective interpretation in discerning the production of a multifaceted ethnographic representation, both by the cultural insider and the inquisitive outsider.

  1. Moving ethnography to explore children and youngsters trajectories in Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Arias


    Full Text Available This article presents the application of a mobile methodology to a research focused on adoption. Accompanying the participants in their routines we shared public spaces where, due to social constructions, they are taken by “immigrants” because of their physical features. Walking with them also allowed me to gain access to their perception of the city and the way they live in. This methodology is based on other ‘mobile methodologies’, which are briefly described in this article with an especial emphasis on French literature. As a result, we obtain a mobile ethnography that introduces Information and Communication Technologies [ICTs]; works from the horizontality; values the silence; collects urban emergencies and fate in order to have access to the information that is banned to direct and even indirect questions.

  2. Feminist Ethnography on International Migration: From Acculturation Studies to Gender Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethel V. Kosminsky


    Full Text Available This article intends to analyze the book Italianos no mundo rural paulista, by João Baptista Borges Pereira (1974, one of the earliest Brazilian ethnographic international migration researches, based on the acculturation theory, in order to corroborate its contribution to the feminist ethnography. We focus on the use of gender as a central category on the international migration studies, thus empowering the Feminist Ethnography.

  3. The uncanny return of the race concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eHeinz


    Full Text Available The aim of this Hypothesis & Theory is to question the recently increasing use of the race concept in contemporary genetic as well as social studies. We discuss race and related terms used to assign individuals to distinct groups and caution that also concepts such as ethnicity or culture unduly neglect diversity. We suggest that one factor contributing to the dangerous nature of the race concept is that it is based on a mixture of traditional stereotypes about physiognomy and unduly imbued by colonial traditions. Furthermore, the social impact on race classifications will be critically reflected. We then examine current ways to apply the term culture and caution that while originally derived from a fundamentally different background, culture is all too often used as a proxy for race, particularly when referring to the population of a certain national state or wider region. When used in such contexts, suggesting that all inhabitants of a geographical or political unit belong to a certain culture tends to ignore diversity and to suggest a homogeneity, which consciously or unconsciously appears to extend into the realm of biological similarities and differences. Finally, we discuss alternative approaches and their respective relevance to biological and cultural studies.

  4. Muslim Youth Experiences in Quebec Secondary Schools: Race, Racialization, and the 'Dangerous Muslim Man'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naved Bakali


    Full Text Available This article examines the experiences of Muslim men who had attended the secondary schools in Quebec in the post-9/11 context. Employing a critical ethnographic approach stemming from institutional ethnography, this study presents biases/racism these men had experienced in their secondary schools in the aftermath of the 9/11 terror attacks and throughout the period of the War on Terror, and the possible causes for this treatment.

  5. Images of flight nursing in Australia: A study using institutional ethnography. (United States)

    Brideson, Genevieve; Willis, Eileen; Mayner, Lidia; Chamberlain, Diane J


    Pictures speak a thousand words. The traditional romantic image of an Australian aeromedical service is a male doctor and male pilot, out to rescue the male stockman from the red dust of the Australian outback. However, the reality is considerably different, particularly in the current context of the Australian healthcare system. This paper examines the images of flight nursing using a critical lens. The images are derived from popular literature sources from the early 1940s through to the present. A textual analysis of the images of flight nursing using the methodology of institutional ethnography reveals a number of themes including the glamorous, the romantic, and the heroic nurse. This study illustrates that the way these nurses are portrayed within popular literature mirrors the Australian cultural ethic of heroic bush pioneer, yet at the same time the work these nurses do is undervalued by various omissions and misrepresentations. The results from this study have the potential to significantly improve recognition of the work performed by flight nurses and to challenge incorrect cultural myths. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. The arms race control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemo, J.


    Written in 1961, this paper presents the content of a book entitled 'The arms race control' where the author outlined the difference between disarmament and arms control, described the economic and moral role of arms race, the importance of force balance for international security. He wandered whether arms control could ensure this balance and whether nuclear balance meant force balance. Force balance then appears to be a precarious and unsteady component of international security. He commented the challenges of disarmament, recalled some arguments for a nuclear disarmament. Then he discussed what would be an arms control with or without disarmament (either nuclear or conventional)

  7. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Document Server


    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 5 June starting at 12:15 p.m. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details on how to register your team for the relay race are given on the Staff Association Bulletin web site. You can access the online registration form at:

  8. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Document Server


    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Wednesday 23 May starting at 12:15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details on how to register your team for the relay race are given on the Staff Association Bulletin web site. You can access the online registration form at:

  9. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia


    The CERN relay race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 19 May starting at 12-15. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20-minute period. If you do meet runners while driving your car, please STOP until they have all passed. Thank you for your cooperation. Details of the course and of how to register your team for the relay race can be found here. Some advice for all runners from the Medical Service can also be found here.   

  10. Teamwork in adventure racing


    Šavrňák, Ondřej


    Title: Teamwork in Adventure racing Goals: The main goal is to make up the chapter about an ideal teamwork in Adventure racing. And so, to help starting teams but also help experienced teams to learn about their lacks in cooperation and to shift teamwork level above. Method: We used the method of literature retrieval from books, articles and researches. Results: It is very hard task to define ideal teamwork, we would not find same two teams in the world and therefore each team suits something...

  11. Affectivity and race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    on the role of feelings in the formation of subjectivities, how race and whiteness are affectively circulated in public life and the ways in which emotions contribute to regimes of inclusion and exclusion. As such it will appeal to scholars across the social sciences, with interests in sociology, anthropology...... of the Nordic countries, Affectivity and Race draws on a variety of sources, including television programmes, news media, fictional literature, interviews, ethnographic observations, teaching curricula and policy documents, to explore the ways in which ideas about affectivity and emotion afford new insights...

  12. Racial identification, knowledge, and the politics of everyday life in an Arizona science classroom: A linguistic ethnography (United States)

    O'Connor, Brendan Harold

    This dissertation is a linguistic ethnography of a high school Astronomy/Oceanography classroom in southern Arizona, where an exceptionally promising, novice, white science teacher and mostly Mexican-American students confronted issues of identity and difference through interactions both related and unrelated to science learning. Through close analysis of video-recorded, naturally-occurring interaction and rich ethnographic description, the study documents how a teacher and students accomplished everyday classroom life, built caring relationships, and pursued scientific inquiry at a time and in a place where nationally- and locally-circulating discourses about immigration and race infused even routine interactions with tension and uncertainty. In their talk, students appropriated elements of racializing discourses, but also used language creatively to "speak back" to commonsense notions about Mexicanness. Careful examination of science-related interactions reveals the participants' negotiation of multiple, intersecting forms of citizenship (i.e., cultural and scientific citizenship) in the classroom, through multidirectional processes of language socialization in which students and the teacher regularly exchanged expert and novice roles. This study offers insight into the continuing relevance of racial, cultural, and linguistic identity to students' experiences of schooling, and sheds new light on classroom discourse, teacher-student relationships, and dimensions of citizenship in science learning, with important implications for teacher preparation and practice.

  13. A meta-ethnography and theory of parental ethical decision making in the neonatal intensive care unit. (United States)

    Rosenthal, Sara A; Nolan, Marie T


    To synthesize the existing qualitative literature about parent ethical decision making in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and to investigate the potential impact of culture on parents' decision making experiences. PubMed, CINAHL plus, and PsychInfo using the search terms parental decision making, culture, race, decision making, and parental decisions. Qualitative research studies investigating decision making for infants in the NICU from the parents' perspective were included. Studies involving older pediatric populations were excluded. Ten primary qualitative research articles were included. The primary author read all manuscripts and tabulated themes related to parents' ethical decision making. Study findings were synthesized using meta-ethnography involving translating concepts of separate studies into one another, exploring contradictions, and organizing these concepts into new theories. Key themes included parent involvement in decision making, parental role, necessity of good information, need for communication, desire for hope and compassion conveyed by providers, decision making satisfaction, and trust in caregiving team. A preliminary theoretical framework of ethical parent decision making was modeled based on the proposed relationships between the themes. Parent preferences for their involvement in decision making, their perceptions of communication with providers, and their relationships with providers are all important factors in the experience of making decisions for their infants. Needs of parents were the same regardless the ethnic or racial diversity of study participants. © 2013 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  14. 47th Relay Race!

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association


    On Thursday June 1st at 12.15, Fabiola Gianotti, our Director-General, will fire the starting shot for the 47th Relay Race. This Race is above all a festive CERN event, open for runners and walkers, as well as the people cheering them on throughout the race, and those who wish to participate in the various activities organised between 11.30 and 14.30 out on the lawn in front of Restaurant 1. In order to make this sports event accessible for everyone, our Director-General will allow for flexible lunch hours on the day, applicable for all the members of personnel. An alert for the closure of roads will be send out on the day of the event. The Staff Association and the CERN Running Club thank you in advance for your participation and your continued support throughout the years. This year the CERN Running Club has announced the participation of locally and internationally renowned runners, no less! A bit over a week from the Relay Race of 1st June, the number of teams is going up nicely (already almost 40). Am...

  15. 2013 CERN Road Race

    CERN Document Server

    Klaus Hanke


    The 2013 annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 18 September at 6.15 p.m.   The 5.5 km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent and best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and the online entry form, can be found here.

  16. 2013 CERN Road Race

    CERN Document Server

    Klaus Hanke


    The 2013 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 18 September at 18.15.   The 5.5 km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and the online entry form, can be found at: htt...

  17. Race Car Rally. (United States)

    Anthony, Joan L.


    Describes an activity where teams of parents and children work together to solve problems involving matchbox-sized race cars. The teams collect, record, and analyze data; measure distances in metric; and explore concepts related to mass, friction, and force. (PR)

  18. Aerodynamics of Race Cars (United States)

    Katz, Joseph


    Race car performance depends on elements such as the engine, tires, suspension, road, aerodynamics, and of course the driver. In recent years, however, vehicle aerodynamics gained increased attention, mainly due to the utilization of the negative lift (downforce) principle, yielding several important performance improvements. This review briefly explains the significance of the aerodynamic downforce and how it improves race car performance. After this short introduction various methods to generate downforce such as inverted wings, diffusers, and vortex generators are discussed. Due to the complex geometry of these vehicles, the aerodynamic interaction between the various body components is significant, resulting in vortex flows and lifting surface shapes unlike traditional airplane wings. Typical design tools such as wind tunnel testing, computational fluid dynamics, and track testing, and their relevance to race car development, are discussed as well. In spite of the tremendous progress of these design tools (due to better instrumentation, communication, and computational power), the fluid dynamic phenomenon is still highly nonlinear, and predicting the effect of a particular modification is not always trouble free. Several examples covering a wide range of vehicle shapes (e.g., from stock cars to open-wheel race cars) are presented to demonstrate this nonlinear nature of the flow field.

  19. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia


    The CERN Relay Race will take place around the Meyrin site on Wednesday 19 May between 12.15 and 12.35. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20 minute period. If you do meet runners in your car, please STOP until they all have passed. Thank you for your understanding

  20. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia


    The CERN Relay Race will take place around the Meyrin site on Wednesday May 21st between 12h15 and 12h35. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20 minute period. If you do meet runners in your car, please STOP until they all have passed. Thank you for your understanding

  1. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia


    The CERN Relay Race will take place around the Meyrin site on Wednesday 23 May between 12:20 and 12:35. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 15 minute period. If you do meet runners in your car, please stop until they all have passed. Thank you for your understanding.

  2. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Document Server


    The CERN Relay Race will take place around the Meyrin site on Wednesday 22 May between 12h20 and 12h35. If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 15 minute period. If you do meet runners in your car, please STOP until they all have passed. Thank you for your understanding.

  3. Race, Ethnicity and Culture


    Ballard, Roger


    Prepared for a textbook in sociology, this paper offers a clear set of definitions for the three crucial but much contended concepts of race, ethnicity and culture, and having done so explores how they can be used to make sense of the dynamics of pluralism in contemporary Britain.

  4. Intelligence, Race, and Genetics (United States)

    Sternberg, Robert J.; Grigorenko, Elena L.; Kidd, Kenneth K.


    In this article, the authors argue that the overwhelming portion of the literature on intelligence, race, and genetics is based on folk taxonomies rather than scientific analysis. They suggest that because theorists of intelligence disagree as to what it is, any consideration of its relationships to other constructs must be tentative at best. They…

  5. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia


    The CERN relay race, now in its 39th year, is already a well-known tradition, but this year the organizers say the event will have even more of a festival feeling. Just off the starting line of the CERN relay race.For the past few years, spectators and runners at the CERN relay race have been able to enjoy a beer while listening to music from the CERN music and jazz clubs. But this year the organizers are aiming for "even more of a festival atmosphere". As David Nisbet, President of the CERN running club and organizer of the relay race, says: "Work is not just about getting your head down and doing the theory, it’s also about enjoying the company of your colleagues." This year, on top of music from the Santa Luis Band and the Canettes Blues Band, there will be demonstrations from the Aikido and softball clubs, a stretching session by the Fitness club, as well as various stalls and of course, the well-earned beer from AGLUP, the B...

  6. Managing new arms races

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, G.


    The management of new arms races in the region of Asia-Pacific includes considerations of weapons trade and transfer in the region, with an emphasis on nuclear weapons proliferation. It deals with the problem of controlling the arms trade and the efforts to control conventional weapons and underlines the possible role and influence of Conference on Cooperation and Security in Europe (CSCE)

  7. 2005 CERN Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez


    The CERN Relay Race takes place each year in May and sees participants from all areas of the CERN staff. The winners in 2005 were The Shabbys with Los Latinos Volantes in second and Charmilles Technologies a close third. To add a touch of colour and levity, the CERN Jazz Club provided music at the finishing line.

  8. Race, Racism, and Darwinism (United States)

    Jeynes, William H.


    This article examines the views of Darwinist evolution on issues regarding race and how this contributed to the spread of racism in the United States. The writings of Charles Darwin and a myriad of his followers are examined, including Herbert Spencer, Francis Galton, and others. The influence of Darwinism in contributing to the growth of…

  9. Race, Emotions, and Socialization. (United States)

    Smith, James E.


    Investigated the connection between emotion and behavior, examining the connection between the construct of emotional intelligence and criminal behavior. Data collected from a group of men and women on probation from prison indicated that people received different socialization with regard to emotions based on gender and race. Results suggest that…

  10. Applying ethnography to the study of context in healthcare quality and safety. (United States)

    Leslie, Myles; Paradis, Elise; Gropper, Michael A; Reeves, Scott; Kitto, Simon


    Translating and scaling healthcare quality improvement (QI) and patient safety interventions remains a significant challenge. Context has been identified as a major factor in this. QI and patient safety research have begun to focus on context, with ethnography seen as a promising methodology for understanding the professional, organisational and cultural aspects of context. While ethnography is used to investigate the context of a variety of QI and safety interventions, the challenges inherent in effectively importing a qualitative methodology and its social science practitioners into this work have been largely unexamined. We explain ethnography as a research practice grounded in theory and dependent on observations gathered and interpreted in particular ways. We then review the approach of health services literature to evaluating this sort of qualitative research. Although the study of context is an interest shared by both social scientists and healthcare QI and safety researchers, we identify three key points at which those 'exporting' ethnography as a methodology and those 'importing' it to deal with QI and safety challenges may diverge. We describe perspectival divergences on the methodology's mission, form and scale. At the level of mission we demonstrate how ethnography has been adapted to a 'describe and feed back' role in the service of QI. At the level of form, we show how the long-term embedded observation at the heart of ethnography can be adapted only so far to accommodate QI interests if both data quality and ethical standards are to be upheld. Finally, at the level of scale, we demonstrate one ethnographic study design that balances breadth of exposure with depth of experience in its observations and so generates a particular type of scalable findings. The effective export of ethnography into QI and safety research requires discussion and negotiation between social scientific and health services research perspectives, as well as creative approaches

  11. Race walking gait and its influence on race walking economy in world-class race walkers. (United States)

    Gomez-Ezeiza, Josu; Torres-Unda, Jon; Tam, Nicholas; Irazusta, Jon; Granados, Cristina; Santos-Concejero, Jordan


    The aim of this study was to determine the relationships between biomechanical parameters of the gait cycle and race walking economy in world-class Olympic race walkers. Twenty-One world-class race walkers possessing the Olympic qualifying standard participated in this study. Participants completed an incremental race walking test starting at 10 km·h -1 , where race walking economy (ml·kg -1 ·km -1 ) and spatiotemporal gait variables were analysed at different speeds. 20-km race walking performance was related to race walking economy, being the fastest race walkers those displaying reduced oxygen cost at a given speed (R = 0.760, p < 0.001). Longer ground contact times, shorter flight times, longer midstance sub-phase and shorter propulsive sub-phase during stance were related to a better race walking economy (moderate effect, p < 0.05). According to the results of this study, the fastest race walkers were more economi cal than the lesser performers. Similarly, shorter flight times are associated with a more efficient race walking economy. Coaches and race walkers should avoid modifying their race walking style by increasing flight times, as it may not only impair economy, but also lead to disqualification.

  12. Addressing the Puzzle of Race (United States)

    Coleman, Samuel


    Although racial discrimination poses a devastating instrument of oppression, social work texts lack a clear and consistent definition of "race". The solution lies in according race the status of an "actor version" concept, while exploring the origins and variations of race ideas using "scientific observer version" explanations. This distinction…

  13. Editorial: Race/matter - materialism and the politics of racialization


    Papadopoulos, D; Sharma, S


    A materialist turn in the humanities and social sciences has revitalized work in feminism, science and technology studies, critical social theory and phenomenology. Nonetheless, we want to ask what’s at stake when ‘race’ is grasped from a materialist standpoint? Is the focus on materiality able to track and unravel the manifold neo-racisms of contemporary globalization? Does it supersede the limitations of social constructionist accounts of race? And could a materialist ontology of race trans...

  14. Capacity for care: meta-ethnography of acute care nurses' experiences of the nurse-patient relationship (United States)

    Bridges, Jackie; Nicholson, Caroline; Maben, Jill; Pope, Catherine; Flatley, Mary; Wilkinson, Charlotte; Meyer, Julienne; Tziggili, Maria


    Aims To synthesize evidence and knowledge from published research about nurses' experiences of nurse-patient relationships with adult patients in general, acute inpatient hospital settings. Background While primary research on nurses' experiences has been reported, it has not been previously synthesized. Design Meta-ethnography. Data sources Published literature from Australia, Europe, and North America, written in English between January 1999–October 2009 was identified from databases: CINAHL, Medline, British Nursing Index and PsycINFO. Review methods Qualitative studies describing nurses' experiences of the nurse-patient relationship in acute hospital settings were reviewed and synthesized using the meta-ethnographic method. Results Sixteen primary studies (18 papers) were appraised as high quality and met the inclusion criteria. The findings show that while nurses aspire to develop therapeutic relationships with patients, the organizational setting at a unit level is strongly associated with nurses' capacity to build and sustain these relationships. The organizational conditions of critical care settings appear best suited to forming therapeutic relationships, while nurses working on general wards are more likely to report moral distress resulting from delivering unsatisfactory care. General ward nurses can then withdraw from attempting to emotionally engage with patients. Conclusion The findings of this meta-ethnography draw together the evidence from several qualitative studies and articulate how the organizational setting at a unit level can strongly influence nurses' capacity to build and sustain therapeutic relationships with patients. Service improvements need to focus on how to optimize the organizational conditions that support nurses in their relational work with patients. PMID:23163719

  15. Talking Spaces, Locating Discourses? Thoughts about a Transdisciplinary Ethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Huffschmid


    Full Text Available In this article the possibilities for and attainment of knowledge in a transdisciplinary combination of the analytical categories "space" and "discourse" are explored, focusing on research of the urban and the public in the area of cultural science. The background of this article is a shared research experience in an interdisciplinary ethnography project investigating political appropriation of urban space in Mexico City. In this project ethnographic research on urban space by WILDNER and the semiotic analysis of discourse by HUFFSCHMID were combined. In the first part of the article the conceptual assumptions of this intersection are discussed, followed by questions about what was learned from the respective analytical practices. Our assumption is the interpenetration of space and discourse: no space (as discussed by LEFEBVRE can be acknowledged without its discursive configurations; meanwhile discourse (as discussed by FOUCAULT does not take place in a void, but rather in a material as well as socially constructed space. The authors discuss different levels of methodological approaches as observation, reading, description, and analysis of spatial and discursive practices and materiality. On the basis of the case study (three closing events of the election campaign in Mexico City 2006 possible interfaces and intersections between research on spaces and on discourses are delineated in connection to the concepts of setting/stage/dramatization, control/power, and inscription. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0903253

  16. Moving from ethnography to epidemiology: lessons learned in Appalachia (United States)

    Kuzara, Jennifer; Copeland, William E.; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian; Worthman, Carol M.


    Background Anthropologists are beginning to translate insights from ethnography into tools for population studies that assess the role of culture in human behavior, biology, and health. Aim We describe several lessons learned in the creation and administration of an ethnographically-based instrument to assess the life course perspectives of Appalachian youth, the Life Trajectory Interview for Youth (LTI-Y). Then, we explore the utility of the LTI-Y in predicting depressive affect, controlling for prior depressed mood and severe negative life events throughout the life course. Subjects and methods In a sample of 319 youth (190 White, 129 Cherokee), we tested the association between depressive affect and two domains of the LTI-Y - life course barriers and milestones. Longitudinal data on previous depressed mood and negative life events were included in the model. Results The ethnographically-based scales of life course barriers and milestones were associated with unique variance in depressed mood, together accounting for 11% of the variance in this outcome. Conclusion When creating ethnographically-based instruments, it is important to strike a balance between detailed, participant-driven procedures and the analytic needs of hypothesis testing. Ethnographically-based instruments have utility for predicting health outcomes in longitudinal studies. PMID:19353406

  17. Diagnosing dementia: Ethnography, interactional ethics and everyday moral reasoning. (United States)

    Hillman, Alexandra


    This article highlights the contribution of ethnography and qualitative sociology to the ethical challenges that frame the diagnosis of dementia. To illustrate this contribution, the paper draws on an ethnographic study of UK memory clinics carried out between 2012 and 2014. The ethnographic data, set alongside other studies and sociological theory, contest the promotion of a traditional view of autonomy; the limiting of the point of ethical interest to a distinct moment of diagnosis disclosure; and the failure to recognise risk and uncertainty in the building of clinical 'facts' and their communication. In addressing these specific concerns, this article contributes to the wider debate over the relationship between sociology and bioethics (medical ethics). At the heart of these debates lies more fundamental questions: how can we best understand and shape moral decision-making and ethics that guide behaviour in medical practice, and what should be the guiding ideas, concepts and methods to inform ethics in the clinic? Using the case of dementia diagnosis, this article illustrates the benefits of an ethnographic approach, not just for understanding this ethical problem but also for exploring if and how a more empirically informed ethics can help shape healthcare practices for the better.

  18. Stability of Shifting Ground. Feminist Ethnography and Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Blizzard


    Full Text Available In this article the two authors problematize the moment of stabilization in doing fieldwork and writing ethnography from a feminist perspective. The paper begins with an introduction to the question: How do feminist science studies scholars reconcile a normative need to stabilize our research site to create knowledge within the shifting ground of “truth claims” that feminist practices acknowledge and document? The heart of the paper reflects on our experiences as feminist theorists, teachers, and ethnographers with vignettes from studies of high-risk pregnancies in the industrialized world, specifically the United States, and gender and everyday technologies in West Africa. Our goal is to theorize this instability in order to highlight the limits and benefits of working with consciousness and reflectivity in social contexts while challenging and enriching the vibrancy of our feminist theory and practice.

  19. Arms Races and Negotiations


    Sandeep Baliga; Tomas Sjostrom


    Two players simultaneously decide whether or not to acquire new weapons in an arms race game. Each player's type determines his propensity to arm. Types are private information, and are independently drawn from a continuous distribution. With probability close to one, the best outcome for each player is for neither to acquire new weapons (although each prefers to acquire new weapons if he thinks the opponent will). There is a small probability that a player is a dominant strategy type who alw...

  20. Meta-Ethnography and Systematic Reviews--Linked to the Evidence Movement and Caught in a Dilemma (United States)

    Borgnakke, Karen


    Meta-ethnography and systematic review of qualitative research are needed but also challenged by the link to the evidence movement's models and PISA-traditions for measuring learning effects. For reflections on the perspective for meta-ethnography it means to reconstruct the methodological argument almost divided in a "Before and After…

  1. Ethnography of a Sustainable Agriculture Program: A Case Study of a Social Movement's Inception and Growth on a University Campus (United States)

    Triana, Benjamin


    This ethnography documents how the message of sustainability was interpreted and communicated through a sustainable agricultural (SAG) program at an American higher education institution. The ethnography documents the evolution of the program as the program tackled obstacles and accomplished its goals during the initial phases of the program's…

  2. A Meta-Ethnography of Two Studies on Interactions in Schools: Reflections on the Process of Translation (United States)

    Kakos, Michalis; Fritzsche, Bettina


    This paper reflects upon our experience gained from engagement in a meta-ethnography of two studies on interactions between teachers and students in schools situated in England and Germany. Starting with a short overview of Noblit and Hare's (1988) conceptualisation of the method, the paper outlines the meta-ethnography we undertook especially…

  3. CERN Relay Race 2018

    CERN Document Server

    CERN Running club


    The CERN running club, in collaboration with the Staff Association, is happy to announce the 2018 relay race edition. It will take place on Thursday, May 24th and will consist as every year in a round trip of the CERN Meyrin site in teams of 6 members. It is a fun event, and you do not have to run fast to enjoy it. Registrations will be open from May 1st to May 22nd on the running club web site. All information concerning the race and the registration are available there too: A video of the previous edition is also available here : As every year, there will be animations starting at noon on the lawn in front of restaurant 1, and information stands for many CERN associations and clubs will be available. The running club partners will also be participate in the event, namely Berthie Sport, Interfon and Uniqa.

  4. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Running Club


    This year’s CERN Relay Race will take place around the Meyrin site on Thursday 20th May at 12h00. This annual event is for teams of 6 runners covering distances of 1000m, 800m, 800m, 500m, 500m and 300m respectively. Teams may be entered in the Seniors, Veterans, Ladies, Mixed or Open categories. The registration fee is 10 CHF per runner, and each runner receives a souvenir prize. As usual, there will be a programme of entertainments from 12h in the arrival area, in front of the Restaurant no. 1. Drinks, food, CERN club information and music will be available for the pleasure of both runners and spectators. The race starts at 12h15, with results and prize giving at 13:15.   For details of the race, and of how to sign up a team, please visit: The event is organised by the CERN Running Club with the support of the CERN Staff Association.  

  5. The racing dragon

    CERN Multimedia


    Dating back nearly 2000 years, the ancient Chinese tradition of Dragon Boat Racing was originally a celebration that fell on the 5th day of the 5th lunar month as a gesture to please the Gods and bring forth necessary rains to cultivate the lands. Now the CERN Canoe and Kayak Club, too, participates in this tradition, though not so much to please the Gods on the ritualistic date, but to bring forth giant smiles on the faces of members. Dragon Boat Racing has been rising steadily in popularity in Europe since the mid nineties and with the great potential to host and promote Dragon Boat Racing in the Geneva area, the CERN Canoe and Kayak Club, has taken the initiative to bring the sport to the region. Some members of the Club traveled to Dole in June to participate in the Festival Dragon Boat 2009. Under perfect sunny conditions, the team triumphed in their first ever tournament, cruising to a convincing first place overall finish. T...

  6. A Critical Examination of Communication Textbooks (United States)

    Hanasono, Lisa K.


    Courses: This single-class teaching activity was designed for courses on critical communication pedagogy (CCP), gender and race, communication education, research methods, and visual communication. Objectives: By completing this activity, students should be able to (1) describe the principles of CCP, (2) examine critically how race and gender are…

  7. Ethnography of epidemiologic transition: Avian flu, global health politics and agro-industrial capitalism in Thailand. (United States)

    Chuengsatiansup, Komatra


    This paper situates the ethnography of avian flu within the geo-political context of a new epidemiologic transition. Drawing on anthropological experience and insight, this paper examines areas of enquiry in which an ethnographic approach could contribute to a better implementation of prevention and control measures. Within the context of newly emerging diseases and accelerated globalization, the task of ethnography needs to extend far beyond the local. This paper reveals two major global issues that the ethnography of epidemiologic transition must take into consideration: (1) Global agro-industrial capitalism, and (2) global politics in the context of international health organizations and multi-national drug companies. The case of Thailand poses a question of how the strength of ethnographic practice could be deployed to account for the reality of the global-local interface of the new epidemiologic transition.

  8. Linguistic ethnography as a resource in literacy teaching and teacher training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Grete


    between teacher and pupils and 2) the literacy teacher’s assessment of and feedback on pupils’ written and oral texts. Based on the analyses, we will discuss how linguistic ethnography can contribute to the development of literacy teaching at intermediate level in primary and lower secondary school......Linguistic ethnography as a resource in literacy teaching and teacher training This poster presents work-in-progress from an ongoing case study of literacy teaching in a multilingual and socially complex Year 4 class in Aarhus, Denmark. The underlying assumption is that pupils’ understandings...... and highlight the potentials and benefits of linguistic ethnography as a resource in current attempts to research-base teacher education.Lefstein, A. & J. Snell. 2014. Better than best practice. Developing teaching and learning through dialogue. London: Routledge.Keywords: literacy teaching classroom dialogue...

  9. Using ethnography in implementation research to improve nutrition interventions in populations. (United States)

    Tumilowicz, Alison; Neufeld, Lynnette M; Pelto, Gretel H


    'Implementation research in nutrition' is an emerging area of study aimed at building evidence-based knowledge and sound theory to design and implement programs that will effectively deliver nutrition interventions. This paper describes some of the basic features of ethnography and illustrates its applications in components of the implementation process. We review the central purpose of ethnography, which is to obtain the emic view--the insider's perspective--and how ethnography has historically interfaced with nutrition. We present examples of ethnographic studies in relation to an analytic framework of the implementation process, situating them with respect to landscape analysis, formative research, process evaluation and impact evaluation. These examples, conducted in various parts of the world by different investigators, demonstrate how ethnography provided important, often essential, insights that influenced programming decisions or explained programme outcomes. Key messages Designing, implementing and evaluating interventions requires knowledge about the populations and communities in which interventions are situated, including knowledge from the 'emic' (insider's) perspective. Obtaining emic perspectives and analysing them in relation to cultural, economic and structural features of social organisation in societies is a central purpose of ethnography. Ethnography is an essential aspect of implementation research in nutrition, as it provides important insights for making decisions about appropriate interventions and delivery platforms; determining how best to fit aspects of programme design and implementation into different environmental and cultural contexts; opening the 'black box' in interventions to understand how delivery and utilisation processes affect programme outcomes or impacts; and understanding how programme impacts were achieved, or not. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Using ethnography in implementation research to improve nutrition interventions in populations (United States)

    Neufeld, Lynnette M.; Pelto, Gretel H.


    Abstract ‘Implementation research in nutrition’ is an emerging area of study aimed at building evidence‐based knowledge and sound theory to design and implement programs that will effectively deliver nutrition interventions. This paper describes some of the basic features of ethnography and illustrates its applications in components of the implementation process. We review the central purpose of ethnography, which is to obtain the emic view – the insider's perspective – and how ethnography has historically interfaced with nutrition. We present examples of ethnographic studies in relation to an analytic framework of the implementation process, situating them with respect to landscape analysis, formative research, process evaluation and impact evaluation. These examples, conducted in various parts of the world by different investigators, demonstrate how ethnography provided important, often essential, insights that influenced programming decisions or explained programme outcomes. Key messages Designing, implementing and evaluating interventions requires knowledge about the populations and communities in which interventions are situated, including knowledge from the ‘emic’ (insider's) perspective.Obtaining emic perspectives and analysing them in relation to cultural, economic and structural features of social organisation in societies is a central purpose of ethnography.Ethnography is an essential aspect of implementation research in nutrition, as it provides important insights for making decisions about appropriate interventions and delivery platforms; determining how best to fit aspects of programme design and implementation into different environmental and cultural contexts; opening the ‘black box’ in interventions to understand how delivery and utilisation processes affect programme outcomes or impacts; and understanding how programme impacts were achieved, or not. PMID:26778802

  11. Racing performance in Standardbred trotting horses with proximal palmar/plantar first phalangeal fragments relative to the timing of surgery. (United States)

    Carmalt, J L; Borg, H; Näslund, H; Waldner, C


    Proximal palmar/plantar osteochondral fragmentation of the first phalanx is a frequent radiographic finding in Standardbred horses. These lesions are routinely removed prior to the onset of a racing career with no evidence to support the timing of this surgical intervention. To determine whether horses racing before surgery slowed as they approached surgery date and whether they speeded up after surgery. To investigate the factors affecting whether a horse raced after surgery and compare the performance of horses that did and did not race before surgery. A retrospective study using 193 Swedish Standardbred trotters. Medical records and radiographs of each horse were examined. Racing data were retrieved from official online records. Generalising estimating equations were used to examine presurgery racing performance and determine whether this differed between horses that raced before surgery and those that had not. Multivariable regression was used to examine career earnings and number of career races. Horses racing before surgery neither slowed as they approached surgery, nor speeded up after surgery. Race speed of horses raced before surgery was not different from those that only raced after surgery. Racing before surgery was not associated with whether horses raced following surgery. Only horses with 3 affected legs had slower race speeds than other horses. No other horse level variables affected race speed, number of career races, career earnings or top speed. There was no significant difference in race speed between horses that raced before surgery and those that did not. Horses did not slow down prior to surgery. Horses with 3 affected legs ran slower than those with only a single or 2 affected limbs. There was no association between timing of surgery and race speed or career longevity. The potential benefits of surgical intervention should be critically examined. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  12. Attitudes of people with osteoarthritis towards their conservative management: a systematic review and meta-ethnography. (United States)

    Smith, Toby O; Purdy, Rachel; Lister, Sarah; Salter, Charlotte; Fleetcroft, Robert; Conaghan, Philip G


    This paper determines the perceptions of people diagnosed with osteoarthritis towards their conservative management strategies. A systematic review of the published (AMED, CINAHL, EMBASE, PsychINFO, SportsDisc, MEDLINE, Cochrane Clinical Trials Registry, PubMed) and unpublished/trial registry databases (WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, Current Controlled Trials, the United States National Institute of Health Trials Registry, NIHR Clinical Research Portfolio Database) searched from their inception to July 2013. Eligible studies included those which presented the attitudes or perceptions of people with osteoarthritis towards non-operative management strategies. Study quality was appraised using the CASP and the Gough's weight of evidence appraisal tools. Data were analysed through a meta-ethnography approach. Thirty-three studies including 1,314 people with osteoarthritis were sampled; the majority diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis. The overarching themes indicated people with osteoarthritis delay their diagnosis, opting for self-management and informal information gathering. This informal rather than health professional-led guidance is sought and maintained as an important resource throughout the care of this population and is valued. Diagnosis is sought at a 'critical point'. Healthcare interventions largely provided are poorly perceived. The period of subsequent self-management is an expectation before the inevitable requirement for joint replacement. There remains uncertainty regarding when this is required, but the expected failure of conservative treatment to manage pain and symptoms is common. In conclusion, patients should be enthused towards the principles of self-management and clinicians should not trivialise osteoarthritis. This may provide a more valuable perception of non-operative management to promote its adoption and adherence in managing osteoarthritis.

  13. The Role of Ethnography in the Design and Implementation of IT Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Jesper


    an example from a case where a fully functional prototype of a large Electronic Patient Record (EPR) system was designed, implemented, used as a pilot study, and subjected to evaluations based on ethno- graphic observations. The case demonstrates how a new and important role for ethnography can...... be established as an integral part of iterative approaches to design and organizational implementation of large IT systems. The role of ethnography can be expanded from a descriptive role (describing ex- isting work practices or the situation after a complete implementation) to a constructive role focusing...

  14. Cycles of Beauty Culture: Ethnography of Beauty Clinics Commodification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Murlianti


    Full Text Available Skin care is not a completely new in beauty treatments. Previously there have been other types of cultural industry which also adopted the medical science, such as cosmetic and beauty salon industries. But, skin care beauty clinic successfully introduces the services of beauty treatments which are considered the healthiest. This paper is a summary of the research on how beauty clinic quickly became a part of everyday life of its consumers. The research focused on Natasha Skin Care, a most popular beauty clinic in Indonesia at the moment. According to Richard Johnson, the process of a culture industry reaches the society through a communication that in form a pattern cyclic communications. The stages in the pattern are interconnected but slipped, each stage is affecting others but are not specified in an uncertain manner; between the producer of culture industry with its consumers. This study is a multidiscipline research using three methods of interpretation namely ethnography, discourses analysis, and social hermeneutic study.Klinik kecantikan bukanlah budaya yang benar-benar baru dalam perawatan kecantikan. Sebelumnya telah ada jenis industri budaya lain yang juga mengadopsi ilmu kedokteran, seperti industri kosmetik dan salon kecantikan. Namun klinik kecantikan sukses menyandang predikat sebagai jasa perawatan kecantikan yang dianggap paling sehat. Tulisan ini merupakan rigkasan penelitian tentang bagaimana klinik kecantikan begitu cepat menjadi bagian hidup sehari–hari masyarakat konsumennya. Fokus penelitian ini adalah Natasha Skin Care, sebuah klinik kecantikan paling popular di Indonesia saat ini. Menurut Richard Johson proses sebuah industri budaya sampai pada masyarakat konsumennya melalui komunikasi yang timpang, membentuk pola komunikasi siklik, saling terhubung namun penuh dengan keterpelesetan, saling mewarnai namun tidak menentukan secara pasti antara produsen industri budaya dengan masyarakat konsumennya. Penelitian ini ditempuh

  15. The Blindside Flick: Race and Rugby League

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew Cottle


    Full Text Available The issue of race was virtually beyond the touchline in Australian rugby league before the 1960s. It was a white man’s game. Institutionalised racism meant that few Aboriginal men played rugby league at the highest professional level. It is now presumed that race and racism has no place in a game where these questions have been historically ‘out of bounds’. The dearth of critical writing in rugby league history indicates that racism in the sport has been subject to a form of social blindness and deemed unworthy of study. Rugby league’s white exclusionist past and the denial of racism in the present era indicate habits of mind which may be described in league argot as the ‘blindside flick’.

  16. The academic rat race

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landes, Xavier; Andersen, Martin Marchman; Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul


    : an increased pressure to produce articles (in peer-reviewed journals) has created an unbalanced emphasis on the research criterion at the expense of the latter two. More fatally, this pressure has turned academia into a rat race, leading to a deep change in the fundamental structure of academic behaviour......, and entailing a self-defeating and hence counter-productive pattern, where more publications is always better and where it becomes increasingly difficult for researchers to keep up with the new research in their field. The article identifies the pressure to publish as a problem of collective action. It ends up...

  17. Logical empiricists on race. (United States)

    Bright, Liam Kofi


    The logical empiricists expressed a consistent attitude to racial categorisation in both the ethical and scientific spheres. Their attitude may be captured in the following slogan: human racial taxonomy is an empirically meaningful mode of classifying persons that we should refrain from deploying. I offer an interpretation of their position that would render coherent their remarks on race with positions they adopted on the scientific status of taxonomy in general, together with their potential moral or political motivations for adopting that position. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Race By Hearts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias; Jensen, Mads Møller


    In this paper, we explore the qualities of sharing biometric data in re- al-time between athletes, in order to increase two motivational factors for gym- goers: Enjoyment and social interaction. We present a novel smartphone appli- cation, called Race By Hearts, which enables competition based...... on heart rate data sharing between users in real-time. Through an empirical study conducted in the gym, we show that sharing biometric data in real-time can strengthen so- cial relations between participants, increase motivation, and improve the en- joyment of the fitness activity. Nevertheless, we found...

  19. Race, gender, and marginalization in the context of the natural sciences (United States)

    Jones, Leslie Sandra


    While natural science is no longer an exclusively white/masculine domain, and there have been some increases in both gender and racial/ethnic diversity, portions of our population remain seriously underserved in science classrooms and underrepresented in scientific career fields. This study sought explanations for the persistence of disproportional representation in the professional scientific community with an interest in how it might impact postsecondary and precollegiate science education. The descriptive and explanatory power of naturalistic inquiry was employed to explore the views and experiences of natural scientists with respect to equity issues. This qualitative research adhered most closely to the methodological traditions of critical ethnography, employing the assumption that, although a great deal of difference exists among disciplines and individual scientists, there is a set of common values and behaviors that can be defined as the "culture" of science. Open-ended interviews were conducted with participants who were both traditional (Caucasian males) and nontraditional (all women and men of color) researchers in both the basic and applied fields of the life and physical sciences. Systematic analysis of decontextualilzed, coded comments led to emergent thematic categories that included: Delusions of Equity, Myth of Meritocracy, Power of the Pedigree, Traditions of Gender, and Typing by Race. Parallel case studies indicated a high level of intersubjective agreement within demographic groups with respect to their perceptions of marginalization. Regardless of racial/ethnic identity, gender issues provide constant obstacles for women in the sciences. Certain racial ethnic groups are better tolerated and more easily assimilated, giving the impression that some people are "more different" than others. Women of color live at the intersection of racism and sexism, never sure which form of oppression is behind the treatment they receive. There was evidence that

  20. Critical Ethnography: A Useful Methodology in Conducting Health Research in Different Resource Settings (United States)

    Oladele, Dunsi; Richter, Solina; Clark, Alexander; Laing, Lory


    Over the years, many policies have been implemented across nations to prevent, reduce and tighten enforcement on smoking and tobacco use. However, despite all of the major initiatives, smoking related deaths and diseases still remain high and present a major challenge for many nations of the world. In this paper we argue that conducting a critical…

  1. Toward a Methodology of Death: Deleuze's "Event" as Method for Critical Ethnography (United States)

    Rodriguez, Sophia


    This article examines how qualitative researchers, specifically ethnographers, might utilize complex philosophical concepts in order to disrupt the normative truth-telling practices embedded in social science research. Drawing on my own research experiences, I move toward a methodology of death (for researcher/researched alike) grounded in…

  2. Positioning Sex Educators: A Critical Ethnography of a Professional Development Workshop (United States)

    Scott, Brigitte C.


    In this ethnographic research, I offer an analysis of a state-sponsored professional development workshop for sex educators. Positioning theory is used to understand how the lived space of the workshop -- including texts, talk and silence -- positions sex education teachers as professionals and practitioners with certain (limited) speaking rights…

  3. The unintended consequences of sex education: an ethnography of a development intervention in Latin America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelson, E.; Edmonds, A.; Ballesteros, M.; Encalada Soto, D.; Rodriguez, O.


    This paper is an ethnography of a four-year, multi-disciplinary adolescent sexual and reproductive health intervention in Bolivia, Nicaragua and Ecuador. An important goal of the intervention--and of the larger global field of adolescent sexual and reproductive health--is to create more open

  4. Discursive Shadowing in Linguistic Ethnography. Situated Practices and Circulating Discourses in Multilingual Schools (United States)

    Dewilde, Joke; Creese, Angela


    We consider discursive shadowing as methodology in linguistic ethnography and how it refines our analyses of participants' situated practices. In addition to the constant and extended company the researcher and key participant keep with one another in the field, shadowing in a linguistic ethnographic approach includes the ubiquitous…

  5. The Experience of Evidence-Based Practice in an Australian Public Library: An Ethnography (United States)

    Gillespie, Ann; Partridge, Helen; Bruce, Christine; Howlett, Alisa


    Introduction: This paper presents the findings from a project that investigated the lived experiences of library and information professionals in relation to evidence-based practice within an Australian public library. Method: The project employed ethnography, which allows holistic description of people's experiences within a particular community…

  6. Guidance on Performing Focused Ethnographies with an Emphasis on Healthcare Research (United States)

    Higginbottom, Gina M. A.; Pillay, Jennifer J.; Boadu, Nana Y.


    Focused ethnographies can have meaningful and useful application in primary care, community, or hospital healthcare practice, and are often used to determine ways to improve care and care processes. They can be pragmatic and efficient ways to capture data on a specific topic of importance to individual clinicians or clinical specialties. While…

  7. Comparative and International Learning from Vanuatu Research Moratoria: A Plurilevel, Plurilocal Researcher's Auto-Ethnography (United States)

    McCormick, Alexandra


    In this article, I offer a reflexive auto-ethnography to revisit questions about knowledge and research practices in international contexts, influenced differently by aspects of globalization. Specifically, I position my experience of the Vanuatu research moratorium on "foreign" researchers of 2013/2014 as a lynchpin to analyse and…

  8. Internet ethnography: a review of methodological considerations for studying online illness blogs. (United States)

    Keim-Malpass, Jessica; Steeves, Richard H; Kennedy, Christine


    In recent history, the Internet has emerged as a wealth of archived, ongoing, interactive, and socially mediated data. Conducting Internet ethnography is a fairly new methodological approach, however, it has been previously described as a valid form of inquiry. Illness blogs, in particular, have great implications for nurse researchers, as they are able to study the experience of illness in a naturalistic and longitudinal manner, often with greater detail than data relying solely on participant recall. Participants are able to produce online illness blogs as a way to share their own illness narratives and connect with others going through similar processes. The purpose of this paper is to discuss methodological considerations in studying online illness blogs through Internet ethnography. This article provides an overview of Internet ethnography as an emerging qualitative method and an introduction to research using illness blogs. Through use of this method in an exemplar study of young women with cancer, key decision points are highlighted along with the study team's field experiences. Issues pertaining to method applicability, active vs. passive involvement as a researcher, ethical considerations, what constitutes data, sampling approach, procedural and analytic decisions, and thoughts regarding reflexivity and voice of the research participants' are addressed. Strengths and limitations of the study of online illness blogs through Internet ethnography in nursing science are also discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Steady and Delayed: Explaining the Different Development of Meta-Ethnography in Health Care and Education (United States)

    Uny, I.; France, E. F.; Noblit, G. W.


    Since its inception in the 1980s, the meta-ethnography approach for synthesising qualitative study accounts has been used extensively in health and social care research and to a lesser extent in educational research. The aim of this article is to reflect on the evolution of the method in both fields. It starts by describing the meta-ethnography…

  10. Footy, Gangs and Love: Using Auto-Ethnography to Problematise Practice on a Practicum (United States)

    Bellamy, Roz


    This article was written as an auto ethnography, which allowed for a complex and personal exploration of professional standards, teachers' professional identities, neoliberal reforms, and approaches to literacy and creativity. This article reflects on a practicum which involved teaching Romeo and Juliet to two year nine classes at an all boys'…

  11. Ethnographies of "A Lesson in Racism": Class, Ethnicity, and the Supremacy of the Psychological Discourse (United States)

    Shoshana, Avihu


    Through the ethnographies of two schools serving different socioeconomic communities, this article offers an examination of students' and teachers' interpretations of the anti-racism text "Brown Morning" taught in civics classes. Findings present the dramatic differences between the interpretations of students from dissimilar…

  12. Practicing the Four Seasons of Ethnography Methodology while Searching for Identity in Mexico (United States)

    Pitts, Margaret Jane


    This narrative is an account of my field experiences and challenges practicing Gonzalez's (2000) Four Seasons of Ethnography methodology in Mexico City. I describe the complexities and tensions inherent in managing two scientific paradigms: Western scientific logic vs. a more organic ontology. The experiential knowledge produced in this text is…

  13. How an Exchange of Perspectives Led to Tentative Ethical Guidelines for Visual Ethnography (United States)

    Pope, Clive C.; De Luca, Rosemary; Tolich, Martin


    Qualitative research, especially visual ethnography, is an iterative not a linear process, replete with good intentions, false starts, mistaken assumptions, miscommunication and a continually revised statement of the problem. That the camera freezes everything and everyone in the frame only complicates ethical considerations. This work, jointly…

  14. Ethnographic Research and Globalization: A Discussion of Joseph Tobin's Model of Video-Cued Multivocal Ethnography (United States)

    Watras, Joseph


    Joseph Tobin made an impact on the field of comparative education in 2009 when he used a unique form of ethnography to illuminate the effects of world-wide forces, such as modernization, on schools in specific countries. Earlier, in 1989, he published "Preschool in Three Cultures" with co-authors David Wu and Dana Davidson. The…

  15. Organizational ethnography and methodological angst: Myths and challenges in the field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yanow, D.


    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to assess the myths and challenges in the field of organizational ethnography and methodological angst. Design/methodology/approach – This paper is initially written as an invited keynote address for the 3rd Annual Joint Symposium on “Current Developments in

  16. Post-Qualitative Line of Flight and the Confabulative Conversation: A Methodological Ethnography (United States)

    Johansson, Lotta


    This paper is a methodological ethnography aiming to highlight the difficulties in using conventional methods in connection with an explorative philosophy: Deleuze and Guattari's. Taking an empirical point of departure in conversations about the future with students in upper secondary school, the struggle to find a scientifically valid label…

  17. In the Picture or off the Wall? Ethical Regulation, Research Habitus, and Unpeopled Ethnography (United States)

    Hurdley, Rachel


    This article focuses on two unintended consequences of ethical regulation of social enquiry: the exclusion of participants and, subsequently, a transformation of research practice. An ethnography of corridor life in a large university building forms the basis of the discussion. Originally intended as a pilot for a broader study of informal…

  18. Between power and powerlessness : a meta-ethnography of sources of resilience in young refugees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleijpen, Marieke; Boeije, Hennie R; Kleber, Rolf J; Mooren, Trudy

    OBJECTIVE: This article reviews available qualitative studies that report young refugees' ways of dealing with adversity to address their sources of resilience. DESIGN: We searched five electronic databases. Twenty-six empirical studies were included in the review. A meta-ethnography approach was

  19. To Perceive and to Be Perceived: Challenges of Ethnography in Elite Schools (United States)

    Mercader, Patricia; Weber, Rebecca; Durif-Varembont, Jean-Pierre


    Drawing on a larger study on "Gender practices and violence between peers: the stakes of mixed-sex education", this paper examines the methodological challenges specific to carrying out ethnography in an elite high school. The researcher's subjective experience in the field reveals the power dynamics at play in the elite setting. We also…

  20. Between power and powerlessness: a meta-ethnography of sources of resilience in young refugees.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleijpen, M.; Boeije, H.R.; Kleber, R.J.; Mooren, T.


    Objective. This article reviews available qualitative studies that report young refugees’ ways of dealing with adversity to address their sources of resilience. Design.We searched five electronic databases. Twenty-six empirical studies were included in the review.Ameta-ethnography approach was used

  1. Transforming Data: An Ethnography of Scientific Data from the Brazilian Amazon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walford, Antonia Caitlin

    This thesis is an ethnography of scientific data produced by a Brazil-led scientific project in the Brazilian Amazon. It describes how the researchers and technicians make data about the Amazon forest, and how this data in turn generates different scientific communities, scientific subjectivities...

  2. New Love, Long Love: Keeping Social Justice and Ethnography of Education in Mind (United States)

    Heath, Shirley Brice


    Heath takes readers back to Hymes's years as Dean of the University of Pennsylvania Graduate School of Education. She recalls, in particular, his relentless passion for introducing public school administrators to ethnography's potential for seeing what could be done to increase equity and social justice within public education. She contrasts this…

  3. The Magic of the Populace: An Ethnography of Illegibility in the South African Immigration Bureaucracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoag, Colin Brewster


    their interactions with the public. This perspectival bias needs to be overcome through ethnographies of the state and of state bureaucracies in everyday practice. This article examines the Immigration Services Branch of the South African Department of Home Affairs, a state bureaucracy widely deemed “illegible...

  4. Romanian Diaspora in the Making? An Online Ethnography of (United States)

    Macri, Gloria


    This chapter presents a case study of an online ethnography which examines the Romanian Community of Ireland forum. Apart from highlighting the main challenges and advantages of engaging with an ethnographic methodology online, this chapter also showcases the key findings emerging in relation to the meanings which members of this community…

  5. Anti-Racist Teaching, Student Ethnography and the Multiracial Model of Islam (United States)

    Rana, Junaid


    My Ethnography of the University (EUI) course "Muslims in America" introduces undergraduate students to the racialisation of Islam and Muslims in the U.S. at large, and in the University in particular. In this article, I describe how an anti-racist pedagogy coupled with student ethnographic research can yield a rich learning process.…

  6. On Virtual Face-Work: An Ethnography of Communication Approach to a Live Chat Reference Interaction (United States)

    Radford, Marie L.; Radford, Gary P.; Connaway, Lynn Silipigni; DeAngelis, Jocelyn A.


    Erving Goffman's theoretical framework and concept of face-work has the potential to greatly increase the understanding of interpersonal dynamics in computer-mediated communication realms. This research used an ethnography of communication approach and the concept of face-work to analyze the transcript of an interaction between a librarian and a…

  7. Kam zmizela etnografie dělnictva/Wohin verschwand die Ethnographie der Arbeiterschaft?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Woitsch, Jiří


    Roč. 110, 3/4 (2012), s. 692-727 ISSN 0862-6111 Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : ethnography of the working class * theory and methodology * history of ethnology * Czechoslovakia * Czech Republic Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  8. With the Eyes of Others: An Ethnography of an Academic Office (United States)

    Ruth, Damian


    The author raises questions about ethnographic methodology through exploring the implications of using observations produced by his colleagues about his office as data for his research. This process blurred the boundaries between researcher, method and the object and subject of research. It meets some criteria for ethnography and not others, and…

  9. The purification of aid : an ethnography of Dutch partnership policy and (broken) dreams of development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gastel, van J.N.


    This thesis explores the shift from ownership to partnership policy in Dutch development aid. It is an ethnography based on participant observation during several periods between 2001 and 2006 in the Ministry’s headquarters in The Hague and the Dutch embassy in developing country Z. The aim of this

  10. Ethical Issues of Ethnography Method: A Comparative Approach to Subaltern, Self, and the Others (United States)

    Odeyemi, Christo


    Using urban and rural community settings, this review article focuses on ethical issues associated with ethnographer-participant interaction and draws from the ethnographic accounts of Bronislaw Malinowski and Susan Krieger. As such, the following sections intend to illuminate the issue of ethics in ethnography research. As case studies, the…

  11. Reframing the discourse: Ethnography, Bernstein and the distribution of reading attainment by gender


    Moss, P. J. G.


    This paper has two aims: to introduce readers to Bernstein’s concept of languages of description, interpreted through the lens of ethnography; and to demonstrate the value of this approach to theory-making by showing how a qualitative study conducted on these principles led to new explanations for gender differences in literacy attainment that can be tested using PISA data.

  12. Ethics and the ethnography of medical research in Africa (United States)

    Molyneux, Sassy; Geissler, P. Wenzel


    The ethics of medical research have grown as an area of expertise and debate in recent years, with two broad approaches emerging in relation to transnational research: (1) the refinement of guidelines and strengthening of review, processes primarily to protect the right of individual research participants and strengthen interpersonal relations at the micro-level; and (2) considering more centrally, as crucial ethical concerns, the wider interests of whole populations, the functioning of research institutions, the processes of collaboration, and the ethics of inequitable international relations. We see the two areas of debate and action as complementary, and believe that social science conducted in and around transnational medical research environments can bring these two perspectives together in a more ‘situated ethics’ of research. To explore this idea for medical research in Africa, we organized a conference in December 2005 in Kilifi, Kenya. In this introduction we outline the two emerging approaches to medical ethics, summarise each of seven papers selected from the conference for inclusion in this special issue on ethics and ethnography, and finally highlight two areas of lively debate at the conference itself: the appropriateness and value of ethics guidelines and review boards for medical research; and the ethical review of social science research. Together, the papers and debates point to the importance of focusing on the ethics of relationships and on justice in both biomedicine and social science research, and on giving greater voice and visibility to the field staff who often play a crucial and under-supported role in ‘doing ethics’ in the field. They also point to the potential value of social science research on the range of relationships operating at different levels and time scales in medical research, including those surrounding community engagement activities, and the role and functioning of ethics review boards. We conclude by highlighting

  13. The eddy performance: Contemporary ethnography of Mount Tlaloc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorente Fernández, David


    Full Text Available Mount Tlaloc was a very important religious place in the prehispanic age: it was the place where request ceremonies for rain took place on the Mexica Empire. This is the reason for the increasing interest in this place among archaeologists and ethnohistorians. However, systematic ethnography in the region is almost inexistent and the accurate meaning of the offerings and rituals which are still being carried out nowadays is unknown. The article shows the conclusions of a long fieldwork on the region which describes a therapeutic ceremony where the offering consists in the performing of an eddy —an identification with the water spirits to copy their behavior. Such eddy is related to another array of offerings which includes the donation of seeds or their smell as food. With the analysis of the ritual, the complex contemporary cosmology is explored showing a link between Mount Tlaloc and the local irrigation system: their irrigation channels and the springs are a whole from a conceptual and geographic point of view.

    El Monte Tláloc constituyó un importante sitio ceremonial regional en la época prehispánica: era el lugar en el que se realizaban los ritos petitorios de lluvia del Imperio mexica. Por ello ha despertado el interés creciente de arqueólogos y etnohistoriadores. Sin embargo, la etnografía sistemática de la zona es prácticamente inexistente, al grado de que desconocemos exactamente el sentido de las ofrendas y los rituales que continúan realizándose allí. En este sentido, el artículo presenta las conclusiones de un prolongado trabajo de campo en el área y describe un rito terapéutico en el que la ofrenda es la teatralización de un «remolino actuado», es decir, una identificación con los espíritus del agua por el recurso de imitar sus acciones. Dicho remolino se asocia también con otra variedad de ofrendas que incluyen la donación de semillas o sus aromas como alimento. A partir de un análisis del rito se

  14. Race and Class on Campus (United States)

    Perez, Angel B.


    Colleges and universities have a significant role to play in shaping the future of race and class relations in America. As exhibited in this year's presidential election, race and class continue to divide. Black Lives Matter movements, campus protests, and police shootings are just a few examples of the proliferation of intolerance, and higher…

  15. Helping Students Discuss Race Openly (United States)

    Landsman, Julie


    One way teachers can disrupt inequities is by doing the work to foster discussions in which students talk about race--and racism--honestly together. Teachers also need to be ready to talk with students sensitively when the subject of race comes up spontaneously--in a student's work, connected to events outside school, or in response to a…

  16. Conducting a team-based multi-sited focused ethnography in primary care. (United States)

    Bikker, A P; Atherton, H; Brant, H; Porqueddu, T; Campbell, J L; Gibson, A; McKinstry, B; Salisbury, C; Ziebland, S


    Focused ethnography is an applied and pragmatic form of ethnography that explores a specific social phenomenon as it occurs in everyday life. Based on the literature a problem-focused research question is formulated before the data collection. The data generation process targets key informants and situations so that relevant results on the pre-defined topic can be obtained within a relatively short time-span. As part of a theory based evaluation of alternative forms of consultation (such as video, phone and email) in primary care we used the focused ethnographic method in a multisite study in general practice across the UK. To date there is a gap in the literature on using focused ethnography in healthcare research.The aim of the paper is to build on the various methodological approaches in health services research by presenting the challenges and benefits we encountered whilst conducing a focused ethnography in British primary care. Our considerations are clustered under three headings: constructing a shared understanding, dividing the tasks within the team, and the functioning of the focused ethnographers within the broader multi-disciplinary team.As a result of using this approach we experienced several advantages, like the ability to collect focused data in several settings simultaneously within in a short time-span. Also, the sharing of experiences and interpretations between the researchers contributed to a more holistic understanding of the research topic. However, mechanisms need to be in place to facilitate and synthesise the observations, guide the analysis, and to ensure that all researchers feel engaged. Reflection, trust and flexibility among the team members were crucial to successfully adopt a team focused ethnographic approach. When used for policy focussed applied healthcare research a team-based multi-sited focused ethnography can uncover practices and understandings that would not be apparent through surveys or interviews alone. If conducted with

  17. 'Trying to pin down jelly' - exploring intuitive processes in quality assessment for meta-ethnography. (United States)

    Toye, Francine; Seers, Kate; Allcock, Nick; Briggs, Michelle; Carr, Eloise; Andrews, JoyAnn; Barker, Karen


    Studies that systematically search for and synthesise qualitative research are becoming more evident in health care, and they can make an important contribution to patient care. However, there is still no agreement as to whether, or how we should appraise studies for inclusion. We aimed to explore the intuitive processes that determined the 'quality' of qualitative research for inclusion in qualitative research syntheses. We were particularly interested to explore the way that knowledge was constructed. We used qualitative methods to explore the process of quality appraisal within a team of seven qualitative researchers funded to undertake a meta-ethnography of chronic non-malignant musculoskeletal pain. Team discussions took place monthly between October 2010 and June 2012 and were recorded and transcribed. Data was coded and organised using constant comparative method. The development of our conceptual analysis was both iterative and collaborative. The strength of this team approach to quality came from open and honest discussion, where team members felt free to agree, disagree, or change their position within the safety of the group. We suggest two core facets of quality for inclusion in meta-ethnography - (1) Conceptual clarity; how clearly has the author articulated a concept that facilitates theoretical insight. (2) Interpretive rigour; fundamentally, can the interpretation 'be trusted?' Our findings showed that three important categories help the reader to judge interpretive rigour: (ii) What is the context of the interpretation? (ii) How inductive is the interpretation? (iii) Has the researcher challenged their interpretation? We highlight that methods alone do not determine the quality of research for inclusion into a meta-ethnography. The strength of a concept and its capacity to facilitate theoretical insight is integral to meta-ethnography, and arguably to the quality of research. However, we suggest that to be judged 'good enough' there also needs to

  18. Conducting a team-based multi-sited focused ethnography in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P. Bikker


    Full Text Available Abstract Focused ethnography is an applied and pragmatic form of ethnography that explores a specific social phenomenon as it occurs in everyday life. Based on the literature a problem-focused research question is formulated before the data collection. The data generation process targets key informants and situations so that relevant results on the pre-defined topic can be obtained within a relatively short time-span. As part of a theory based evaluation of alternative forms of consultation (such as video, phone and email in primary care we used the focused ethnographic method in a multisite study in general practice across the UK. To date there is a gap in the literature on using focused ethnography in healthcare research. The aim of the paper is to build on the various methodological approaches in health services research by presenting the challenges and benefits we encountered whilst conducing a focused ethnography in British primary care. Our considerations are clustered under three headings: constructing a shared understanding, dividing the tasks within the team, and the functioning of the focused ethnographers within the broader multi-disciplinary team. As a result of using this approach we experienced several advantages, like the ability to collect focused data in several settings simultaneously within in a short time-span. Also, the sharing of experiences and interpretations between the researchers contributed to a more holistic understanding of the research topic. However, mechanisms need to be in place to facilitate and synthesise the observations, guide the analysis, and to ensure that all researchers feel engaged. Reflection, trust and flexibility among the team members were crucial to successfully adopt a team focused ethnographic approach. When used for policy focussed applied healthcare research a team-based multi-sited focused ethnography can uncover practices and understandings that would not be apparent through surveys or

  19. CERN Relay Race

    CERN Document Server


    The CERN Relay Race will take place around the Meyrin site on Wednesday 18 May between 12.15 and 12.35. This year, weather permitting, there will be some new attractions in the start/finish area on the field behind the Main Building. You will be able to: listen to music played by the CERN Jazz Club; buy drinks at the bar organised by the CERN Running Club; buy lunch served directly on the terrace by the restaurant Novae. ATTENTION: concerning traffic, the recommendations are the same as always: If possible, please avoid driving on the site during this 20 minute period. If you do meet runners in your car, please STOP until they all have passed. Thank you for your understanding.

  20. Patent Races and Market Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Leten, Bart

    Patent races are models of strategic interactions between firms competing to develop an invention. The winning firm secures a patent, protecting the invention from imitation. This paper tests the assumption made about the reward structure in patent races, both in discrete and complex industries. We...... identify patent race winners using detailed information from the patent examination reports at the European Patent Office (EPO). Estimates of a market value equation featuring large, R&D-intensive U.S., European and Japanese firms, show that if firms win patent races, their market value increases...... significantly. We further show that the gain in market value is significantly larger for patent race winners in discrete industries than for firms in complex industries....

  1. Discourse Itineraries in an EAP Classroom: A Collaborative Critical Literacy Praxis (United States)

    Chun, Christian Wai


    This classroom ethnography documents the developing critical literacy pedagogy of an English for Academic Purposes (EAP) instructor over the course of several terms. My research, which involved extensive collaboration with the EAP instructor, explores how specific classroom practices and discourses are enacted and mediated through dialogic…

  2. Means of Transportation to Work by Race (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — Except where noted, 'race' refers to people reporting only one race. 'Hispanic' refers to an ethnic category; Hispanics may be of any race. An entry of '+/-0' in...

  3. Learning to See: The Development of Race and Class Consciousness in White Teachers (United States)

    Ullucci, Kerri


    This is a study of White teachers and their identity development. Using a qualitative approach steeped in the tenants of critical race theory and storytelling, this study investigated how White teachers learn about race, class and diversity in meaningful ways, with a close eye on the role their own personal histories played in their development.…

  4. When Culture Implies Deficit: Placing Race at the Center of Hmong American Education (United States)

    DePouw, Christin


    There is a need for a critical race analysis of Hmong American education that places race and racism at the center of analysis, highlights Whiteness as property and recognizes the fluid and situated racialization of Hmong American students. Majoritarian explanations of inequities in Hmong American education often describe Hmong American student…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Pottosin


    Full Text Available The problem of a race free state assignment of an asynchronous automaton is considered. A method for the state assignment is suggested that provides the minimization of the number and theswitching activity of the memory elements along with the elimination of the critical races betweenthem.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Pottosin


    Full Text Available The problem of race free state-assignment of an asynchronous automaton minimizing the switching activity of memory elements in an implementing circuit is considered. A heuristic method to solve this problem for an asynchronous automaton is suggested where the critical races between memory elements of the implementing circuit are eliminated.

  7. But Good Intentions Are Not Enough: Preparing Teachers to Center Race and Poverty (United States)

    Milner, H. Richard; Laughter, Judson C.


    Drawing from principles of critical race theory, the authors consider the curriculum of teacher education as a potential policy and practice site for centering the interconnections of race and poverty in the preparation of teachers. Several macro-level recommendations are advanced that might influence practices in teacher education and ultimately…

  8. What's in a Name … Or a Face? Student Perceptions of Faculty Race (United States)

    Mendez, Jeanette Morehouse; Mendez, Jesse Perez


    Utilizing Critical Race Theory (CRT) as a conceptual framework, this study examines student perception of faculty of color in academia from student professor preference. Using an experimental design to test the effect of race on selection of faculty with whom to take a course, we showed student participants two types of pairings of faculty: first,…

  9. Economies of Racism: Grounding Education Policy Research in the Complex Dialectic of Race, Class, and Capital (United States)

    Brown, Anthony L.; De Lissovoy, Noah


    The intent of this paper is to interrogate the current theoretical discourse in education concerning issues of race and class. The authors maintain that in recent years educational theory and critical policy discourse have unintentionally become splintered in such a way that race and class theories are employed separately, without much analysis of…

  10. Beyond the Face of Race: Emo-Cognitive Explorations of White Neurosis and Racial Cray-Cray (United States)

    Matias, Cheryl E.; DiAngelo, Robin


    In this article, the authors focus on the emotional and cognitive context that underlies whiteness. They employ interdisciplinary approaches of critical Whiteness studies and critical race theory to entertain how common White responses to racial material stem from the need for Whites to deny race, a traumatizing process that begins in childhood.…

  11. On the Elephant in the Room: Toward a Generative Politics of Place on Race in Academic Discourse (United States)

    Ulysse, Baudelaire; Berry, Theodorea Regina; Jupp, James C.


    In our conceptual essay, we draw on an exchange between a White scholar and a group of panelists on Critical Race Theory at an international conference. Taking up this exchange as our point of departure, we work in dialectical and multidimensional ways between the essentialized politics of place on race and critical anti-essentializing foundations…

  12. Rethinking Race and Racism as "Technologies of Affect": Theorizing the Implications for Anti-Racist Politics and Practice in Education (United States)

    Zembylas, Michalinos


    This article draws on the concept of race and racism as "technologies of affect" to think with some of the interventions and arguments of critical affect studies. The author suggests that critical affect theories enable the theorization of race and racism as affective modes of being that recognize the historically specific assemblages…

  13. Puncturing Notions of Precarity through Critical Educational Research on Young Lives in Australia: Towards a Critical Ethnography of Youth (United States)

    Smyth, John


    This papers deals in a polemical fashion with what is arguably one of the most contentious issues in education--the disengagement of increasing numbers of young people from schooling. It makes the argument that what is occurring is that global forces are conspiring to position young people as a form of "social waste" and that allowing…

  14. Race, Reason and Reasonableness: Toward an "Unreasonable" Pedagogy (United States)

    De Lissovoy, Noah


    Starting from the contemporary critical-theoretical notion of an "objective violence" that organizes social reality in capitalism, including processes of systemic racism, as well as from phenomenological inquiries into processes of race and identity, this article explores the relationship between racism and reasonableness in education…

  15. Are Black Girls Not Gifted? Race, Gender, and Resilience (United States)

    Evans-Winters, Venus E.


    Current research and theoretical models that address racial inequity or gender disparities in gifted education often overlook the underrepresentation of Black girls in gifted programs. Race-based conceptual frameworks and methodologies that focus on gifted education often fail to critically examine and interpret the multiple identities of Black…

  16. African American Women and Obesity through the Prism of Race (United States)

    Knox-Kazimierczuk, Francoise; Geller, Karly; Sellers, Sherrill; Taliaferro Baszile, Denise; Smith-Shockley, Meredith


    Background: There are minimal studies focusing on African American women and obesity, and there are even fewer studies examining obesity through a critical race theoretical framework. African American obesity research has largely focused on individual and community interventions, which have not been sufficient to reverse the obesity epidemic.…

  17. Moving Mountains:The Race to Treat Global AIDS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Moving Mountains, the Race to Treat Global AIDS provides a lucid account of global efforts to scale up treatment for HIV/AIDS.As shown in the book, these efforts confront a number of critical challenges at a political, social, cultural and economic level.The book attempts to provide accounts of these challenges by looking at ...

  18. Geographic Constructions of Race: The Midwest Asian American Students Union (United States)

    Kodama, Corinne M.; Poon, OiYan A.; Manzano, Lester J.; Sihite, Ester U.


    This case study was focused on the establishment of the Midwest Asian American Students Union (MAASU) as a racial project reflecting students' articulations of a regional, panethnic identity in response to racism. A critical race theory lens was used to analyze interviews with 13 MAASU founders. Findings highlight the role of social context (in…

  19. Courageous Learning about Race, Self, Community, and Social Action (United States)

    Cain, Ruby


    Three of the most emotionally charged terms in this era are "race," "racism," and "White privilege." Definitions for these terms vary by individual experiences, beliefs, opinions, and perceptions. K-20 students are rarely exposed to a detailed coverage and critical analysis of the part of U.S. history that includes genocide, territorial…

  20. AFSC/RACE/GAP: RACE Groundfish Survey Photo Database (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The core function of the Resource Assessment and Conservation Engineering (RACE) Groundfish Assessment Program (GAP) is to conduct quantitative fishery surveys and...

  1. Race as a Durable "and" Shifting Idea: How Black Millennial Preservice Teachers Understand Race, Racism, and Teaching (United States)

    Brown, Keffrelyn D.


    The rapidly changing landscape of 21st-century education has sparked intense conversations around the need for a more racially and ethnically diverse PK-12 teacher population. Drawing from critical race theory and racial formation, I describe findings from a qualitative case study that examined how a group of black millennial preservice teachers…

  2. The relevance of clinical ethnography: reflections on 10 years of a cultural consultation service. (United States)

    Dominicé Dao, Melissa; Inglin, Sophie; Vilpert, Sarah; Hudelson, Patricia


    Training health professionals in culturally sensitive medical interviewing has been widely promoted as a strategy for improving intercultural communication and for helping clinicians to consider patients' social and cultural contexts and improve patient outcomes. Clinical ethnography encourages clinicians to explore the patient's explanatory model of illness, recourse to traditional and alternative healing practices, healthcare expectations and social context, and to use this information to negotiate a mutually acceptable treatment plan. However, while clinical ethnographic interviewing skills can be successfully taught and learned, the "real-world" context of medical practice may impose barriers to such patient-centered interviewing. Creating opportunities for role modeling and critical reflection may help overcome some of these barriers, and contribute to improved intercultural communication in healthcare. We report and reflect on a retrospective analysis of 10 years experience with a "cultural consultation service" (CCS) whose aim is to provide direct support to clinicians who encounter intercultural difficulties and to model the usefulness of clinical ethnographic interviewing for patient care. We analyzed 236 cultural consultation requests in order to identify key patient, provider and consultation characteristics, as well as the cross cultural communication challenges that motivate health care professionals to request a cultural consultation. In addition, we interviewed 51 clinicians about their experience and satisfaction with the CCS. Requests for cultural consultations tended to involve patient care situations with complex social, cultural and medical issues. All patients had a migration background, two-thirds spoke French less than fluently. In over half the cases, patients had a high degree of social vulnerability, compromising illness management. Effective communication was hindered by language barriers and undetected or underestimated patient

  3. The school environment and student health: a systematic review and meta-ethnography of qualitative research. (United States)

    Jamal, Farah; Fletcher, Adam; Harden, Angela; Wells, Helene; Thomas, James; Bonell, Chris


    There is increasing interest in promoting young people's health by modifying the school environment. However, existing research offers little guidance on how the school context enables or constrains students' health behaviours, or how students' backgrounds relate to these processes. For these reasons, this paper reports on a meta-ethnography of qualitative studies examining: through what processes does the school environment (social and physical) influence young people's health? Systematic review of qualitative studies. Sixteen databases were searched, eliciting 62,329 references which were screened, with included studies quality assessed, data extracted and synthesized using an adaptation of Noblit and Hare's meta-ethnographic approach. Nineteen qualitative studies were synthesised to explore processes through which school-level influences on young people's health might occur. Four over-arching meta-themes emerged across studies focused on a range of different health issues. First, aggressive behaviour and substance use are often a strong source of status and bonding at schools where students feel educationally marginalised or unsafe. Second, health-risk behaviours are concentrated in unsupervised 'hotspots' at the school. Third, positive relationships with teachers appear to be critical in promoting student wellbeing and limiting risk behaviour; however, certain aspects of schools' organisation and education policies constrain this, increasing the likelihood that students look for a sense of identity and social support via health-risk behaviours. Fourth, unhappiness at school can cause students to seek sources of 'escape', either by leaving school at lunchtime or for longer unauthorized spells or through substance use. These meta-themes resonate with Markham and Aveyard's theory of human functioning and school organisation, and we draw on these qualitative data to refine and extend this theory, in particular conceptualising more fully the role of young people

  4. Race trouble: attending to race and racism in online interaction. (United States)

    Durrheim, Kevin; Greener, Ross; Whitehead, Kevin A


    This article advocates the concept of race trouble as a way of synthesizing variation in racial discourse, and as a way of studying how social interaction and institutional life continue to be organized by conceptions of 'race' and 'racism'. Our analysis of an online discussion at a South African University about the defensibility of a characterization of (black) student protesters as 'savages' revealed a number of familiar strategies: participants avoided explicit racism, denied racism, and denied racism on behalf of others. However, the aim of this analysis was not to identify the 'real' racism, but to show how race and racism were used in the interaction to develop perspectives on transformation in the institution, to produce social division in the University, and to create ambivalently racialized and racializing subject positions. We demonstrate how, especially through uses of deracialized discourse, participants' actions were observably shaped by the potential ways in which others could hear 'race' and 'racism'. Race trouble thus became manifest through racial suggestion, allusion, innuendo, and implication. We conclude with a call to social psychologists to study the ways in which meanings of 'race' and 'racism' are forged and contested in relation to each other. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  5. The 2009 Relay Race

    CERN Multimedia


    The 2009 CERN Relay Race was as popular as ever, with a record number of 88 teams competing. var flash_video_player=get_video_player_path(); insert_player_for_external('Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048-0753-kbps-480x360-25-fps-audio-64-kbps-44-kHz-stereo', 'mms://', 'false', 288, 216, '', '1178303', true, 'Video/Public/Movies/2009/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048/CERN-MOVIE-2009-048-0600-kbps-maxH-360-25-fps-audio-128-kbps-48-kHz-stereo.mp4'); Even the rain didn’t dampen the spirits, and it still managed to capture the ‘festival feeling’ with live music, beer and stalls from various CERN clubs set up outside Restaurant 1. The Powercuts on the podium after win...

  6. The Rat Race

    CERN Multimedia

    Stephen Haywood

    Dear Muriel, Being an animal, you are probably more familiar with rats than most of us. Yet it seems to me that our Community (not just ATLAS) is stuck in a huge "rat race". I am somewhat mystified as to how we have got ourselves into this and I wonder whether you or your readers could explain this - I give my own observations below. In HEP and ATLAS specifically, we are all working long hours and we are all becoming exhausted. There are people at Point 1 who are working day and night, every day of the week; there are people writing software who send emails round the clock, including weekends. It is one thing to have bursts of activity which require us to put in some longer hours, but in ATLAS, the bursts last months or years. I have been on ATLAS 14 years and it has felt like one endless rush. Why do we do this? We are all highly motivated, we love our work and want to succeed individually and collectively. We are parts of various teams, and we do not want to let the side down. We worked hard at school an...

  7. Researching Reflexively With Patients and Families: Two Studies Using Video-Reflexive Ethnography to Collaborate With Patients and Families in Patient Safety Research. (United States)

    Collier, Aileen; Wyer, Mary


    Patient safety research has to date offered few opportunities for patients and families to be actively involved in the research process. This article describes our collaboration with patients and families in two separate studies, involving end-of-life care and infection control in acute care. We used the collaborative methodology of video-reflexive ethnography, which has been primarily used with clinicians, to involve patients and families as active participants and collaborators in our research. The purpose of this article is to share our experiences and findings that iterative researcher reflexivity in the field was critical to the progress and success of each study. We present and analyze the complexities of reflexivity-in-the-field through a framework of multilayered reflexivity. We share our lessons here for other researchers seeking to actively involve patients and families in patient safety research using collaborative visual methods. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. The "Human Colour" Crayon: Investigating the Attitudes and Perceptions of Learners regarding Race and Skin Colour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeske Alexander


    Full Text Available Some coloured and black learners in South Africa use a light orange or pink crayon to represent themselves in art. Many learners name this colour “human colour” or “skin colour”. This is troublesome, because it could reflect exclusionary ways of representing race in images and language. This case study, conducted with two schools in the Western Cape, investigated Grade 3 learners’ attitudes and perceptions regarding race and skin colour through art processes and discussion. The aim was to promote critical engagement with race in Foundation Phase educational contexts. Suggestions include changing the language used to describe skin colour, just recognition and representation of races in educational resources and the promotion of critical citizenship education. This research indicates the need to create practical curriculum guidelines to discuss race issues in the South African classroom.

  9. Technology and the arms race

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, D.


    This article makes a review of the book Innovation and the Arms Race: How the United States and the Soviet Union Develop New Military Technologies written by Matthew Evangelista. For at least the last two decades, scholars have struggled to come to grips with the role of technological change in the arms race. Possible relationships between theories on technology and politics are examined. The contrasts between U.S. and Soviet approaches are highlighted

  10. [Ethnography for nursing research, a sensible way to understand human behaviors in their context]. (United States)

    Bourbonnais, Anne


    Understanding human behaviours is at the heart of the nursing discipline. Knowledge development about behaviours is essential to guide nursing practice in the clinical field, for nursing education or in nursing management. In this context, ethnography is often overlooked as a research method to understand better behaviours in their sociocultural environment This article aims to present the principles guiding this qualitative method and its application to nursing research. First, the ethnographic method and some of its variants will be described. The conduct of an ethnographic study will then be exposed. Finally, examples of ethnographic studies in nursing will be presented. This article provides a foundation for the development of research protocols using ethnography for the advancement of nursing knowledge, as well as better use of ethnographic findings to improve care practices.

  11. Proxy-produced ethnographic work: what are the problems, issues, and dilemmas arising from proxy ethnography?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinussen, Marie Louise; Højbjerg, Karin; Tamborg, Andreas Lindenskov


    This article addresses the implications of research-student cooperation in the production of empirical material. For the student to replace the experienced researcher and work under the researcher’s supervision, we call such work proxy-produced ethnographic work. The specific relations...... and positions arising from such a setup between the teacher/researcher and the proxy ethnographer/student are found to have implications for the ethnographies produced. This article’s main focus is to show how these relations and positions have not distorted the ethnographic work and the ethnographies but......, rather, have oriented it in certain ways. It is shown how the participating researchers – both senior and junior - have distinctive, incorporated dispositions with which they pre-consciously participate in an implicit and subtle relation that can make it very easy to overlook distortions during...

  12. Theorizing Race and Racism: Preliminary Reflections on the Medical Curriculum. (United States)

    Braun, Lundy


    The current political economic crisis in the United States places in sharp relief the tensions and contradictions of racial capitalism as it manifests materially in health care and in knowledge-producing practices. Despite nearly two decades of investment in research on racial inequality in disease, inequality persists. While the reasons for persistence of inequality are manifold, little attention has been directed to the role of medical education. Importantly, medical education has failed to foster critical theorizing on race and racism to illuminate the often-invisible ways in which race and racism shape biomedical knowledge and clinical practice. Medical students across the nation are advocating for more critical anti-racist education that centers the perspectives and knowledge of marginalized communities. This Article examines the contemporary resurgence in explicit forms of white supremacy in light of growing student activism and research that privileges notions of innate differences between races. It calls for a theoretical framework that draws on Critical Race Theory and the Black Radical Tradition to interrogate epistemological practices and advocacy initiatives in medical education.

  13. The ethnography of help - Supporting families with children with intellectual disabilities


    Summers, N.


    This thesis explored parents’ of children with learning disabilities perceptions of family support workers’ helping strategies. A qualitative approach drawing on the principles of ethnography was used to explore the experiences of six families of the helping strategies adopted by family workers and posed three research questions:\\ud (1) What are the perceptions of parents, of children with learning disabilities, of the helping strategies of family support workers?\\ud (2) How do parents unders...

  14. The spiralling swallow : a sociological auto-ethnography of "eating disorders(s)" and "recovery"


    O'Farrell, Bríd


    This thesis is a sociological auto-ethnography of "eating disorder(s)" and "recovery".Using creative methodologies, I have created an intersubjective, poly-vocal account of bodies in encounter with medicine. I position this thesis as a counter-narrative and narrative of resistance to the hegemonic narratives circulated in contemporary Western cultures about health, healing and dys-order. Exploring the impact of dualistic medicalised cultures upon the lived experience of the body, I have posed...

  15. Police as Life World. An Ethnography of Police-Officers' Identity


    Rafael Behr


    The purpose of this paper is to present some findings and problems which I encountered during my ethnography work on several German police units conducted in 1995. Participant observation is not original, but nevertheless unusual for a study of police work. To understand the behavior and the thinking of police officers, one must regard their exclusive possession of power and their discretion for using it. The power of the police is different to the power of suspects or other individuals: Poli...

  16. Perceptions of Breast Cancer Screening in Older Chinese Women: A Meta-Ethnography


    Banning, M; Shia, N


    In Eastern Asia, as the incidence of breast cancer continues to increase yet compliance with breast cancer screening in older Chinese women who are at risk of early stage breast cancer is poor. This meta-ethnography explored breast cancer awareness, attitudes and breast screening behaviour in older Chinese women. Nine qualitative studies were appraised using CASP tools. Many Chinese women believed that illness is preordained, therefore mammography was a futile exercise. Older Chinese women he...

  17. Representation of Power in Class Discourse: A Study of Communication Ethnography


    Jumadi Jumadi


    This study is aimed at describing the use of power in class discourse covering representation of power in speech act, representation of power in communication patterns and function of power in class discourse. Communication ethnography and pragmatic methods were used. The research results show that the use of directive, assertive, and expressive acts in class discourse represent the power with certain domination; that the control of speech topics, interruptions, and overlapping tend to repres...

  18. Race and Raceness: A Theoretical Perspective of the Black American Experience. (United States)

    Wade, Jacqueline E.


    Gives a theoretical perspective of the multidimensional nature of Black-race/White-race consciousness. American perceptions of race are expressed in White race centeredness. Blacks face the dilemma of adhering to two sets of values: a positive valuation of their race and a necessity of passing in White society. (PS)

  19. Recognition of Own-Race and Other-Race Faces by Three-Month-Old Infants (United States)

    Sangrigoli, Sandy; De Schonen, Scania


    Background: People are better at recognizing faces of their own race than faces of another race. Such race specificity may be due to differential expertise in the two races. Method: In order to find out whether this other-race effect develops as early as face-recognition skills or whether it is a long-term effect of acquired expertise, we tested…

  20. A meta-ethnography of the acculturation and socialization experiences of migrant care workers. (United States)

    Ho, Ken H M; Chiang, Vico C L


    To report a meta-ethnography of qualitative research studies exploring the acculturation and socialization experiences of migrant care workers. Migrant care workers are increasingly participating in health and social care in developed countries. There is a need to understand this increasingly socioculturally diversified workforce. A comprehensive search through 12 databases and a manual search of journals related to transculture for studies on socialization and acculturation experiences (published 1993-2013) was completed. The inclusion criteria were peer-reviewed studies on the acculturation or socialization experiences of migrant care workers published in English in any country, using a qualitative or mixed-methods approach. This meta-ethnography employed the seven-phase Noblit and Hare method with reciprocal translation, refutational synthesis and lines-of-argument to synthesize qualitative studies. Three main themes were identified: (a) schema for the migration dream: optimism; (b) the reality of the migration dream: so close, yet so far; and (c) resilience: from chaos to order. A general framework of motivated psychosocial and behavioural adaptation was proposed. This meta-ethnography also revealed the vulnerabilities of migrant nurses in the process of acculturation and socialization. The general framework of behavioural and psychosocial adaptation revealed factors that impede and facilitate behavioural and psychosocial changes. Strategies to enrich external and internal resources should be targeted at encouraging multiculturalism and at improving the psychosocial resources of migrant care workers. It is suggested that research investigating the prominence of nursing vulnerabilities be conducted. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Digital ethnography and the social dimension of introspection: an empirical study in two Colombian schools. (United States)

    Rieken, Johannes; Garcia-Sanchez, Efraín; Trujillo, Mónica Pérez; Bear, Daniel


    We developed a teaching-led research project to empirically ground methodological reflection about digital ethnography. Drawing on Cordelois' collective ethnographic observation approach, fifteen emerging professionals (from a private general education university and a Police Academy in Bogota) collaborated in a method seminar on digital ethnography. They worked in cross-institutional research teams, each carrying SenseCams for 3 days. Students had a dual role as both participants and observers during self-confrontation interviews. The research design enabled emerging professionals to introspect about what it is to be a member of their institution. The SenseCam provided an additional opportunity for observation as it elicited different reactions in the two institutions. The fact that SenseCams produce sequential accounts of activity as well as its situated nature made apparent the autonomy to study and solve daily issues (e.g. transport, security, commitments) by students from the university, while students in the police academy are more focused on responding to unforeseen activities (e.g. police services, unexpected requests). Finally, our research highlights the relevance of the social dimension of introspection for digital ethnography. How digital data that captures an individual perspective is negotiated in a group becomes a key methodological question.

  2. Why I Write So Many Books About Race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naomi Zack


    Full Text Available I relate how my life has intersected with my work in philosophy, both before and after a twenty-year absence from academia. Motivations for engaging in Philosophy of Race may be different from other projects because the subject itself is urgent and the philosopher may be a person of color. I describe the development of my own writing in this subfield, from ontological issues in the philosophy of science to moral issues in political philosophy and cultural criticism. The first addressed the biological reality of human racial taxonomy and the second has been about the inadequacy of treatments of race in the history of philosophy and injustice in contemporary social constructions of race.

  3. A Critical Policy Analysis of 'Teach for Bangladesh': A Travelling Policy Touches Down (United States)

    Adhikary, Rino Wiseman; Lingard, Bob


    This paper provides a critical policy analysis and network ethnography of "Teach for Bangladesh" ("TfB"). We demonstrate that TfB is a localised version of a global teacher education policy--"Teach for All/America" ("TfAll/A"). Santos, Boaventura De Sousa [2002. "The Processes of Globalisation."…

  4. Predictive Modeling in Race Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Wiktorowicz


    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of linear and nonlinear multivariable models as tools to support training process of race walkers. These models are calculated using data collected from race walkers’ training events and they are used to predict the result over a 3 km race based on training loads. The material consists of 122 training plans for 21 athletes. In order to choose the best model leave-one-out cross-validation method is used. The main contribution of the paper is to propose the nonlinear modifications for linear models in order to achieve smaller prediction error. It is shown that the best model is a modified LASSO regression with quadratic terms in the nonlinear part. This model has the smallest prediction error and simplified structure by eliminating some of the predictors.

  5. Social Influence on Observed Race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsófia Boda


    Full Text Available This article introduces a novel theoretical approach for understanding racial fluidity, emphasizing the social embeddedness of racial classifications. We propose that social ties affect racial perceptions through within-group micromechanisms, resulting in discrepancies between racial self-identifications and race as classified by others. We demonstrate this empirically on data from 12 Hungarian high school classes with one minority group (the Roma using stochastic actor-oriented models for the analysis of social network panel data. We find strong evidence for social influence: individuals tend to accept their peers' judgement about another student’s racial category; opinions of friends have a larger effect than those of nonfriends. Perceived social position also matters: those well-accepted among majority-race peers are likely to be classified as majority students themselves. We argue that similar analyses in other social contexts shall lead to a better understanding of race and interracial processes.

  6. Review: Michael Dellwing & Robert Prus (2012. Einführung in die interaktionistische Ethnografie [Introduction to Interactionist Ethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk vom Lehn


    Full Text Available DELLWING and PRUS's "Introduction to Interactionist Ethnography" is a textbook that offers (university students and teachers an introduction to and instruction on how to conduct ethnographic studies using interactionist concepts and techniques. With their focus on the interactionist approach to ethnography, DELLWING and PRUS differ from the phenomenological approaches that pervade German ethnography. The book begins with a competent and very readable explanation of the analytic basis of interactionist ethnography that is characterized by a plurality of perspectives and the need for negotiations about the "definition of the situation." It then turns to practical aspects of conducting interactionist ethnographies and addresses all parts of the research process, including access to the field, field observation, and field notes, as well as the writing-up of an ethnographic study for a book, journal article, dissertation, or coursework. DELLWING and PRUS's book should be read by established ethnographers as well as by students looking for a competent and thorough introduction to the praxis of conducting ethnographic studies using an interactionist approach. URN:

  7. Implementation in the midst of complexity: Using ethnography to study health care-associated infection prevention and control. (United States)

    Knobloch, Mary Jo; Thomas, Kevin V; Patterson, Erin; Zimbric, Michele L; Musuuza, Jackson; Safdar, Nasia


    Contextual factors associated with health care settings make reducing health care-associated infections (HAIs) a complex task. The aim of this article is to highlight how ethnography can assist in understanding contextual factors that support or hinder the implementation of evidence-based practices for reducing HAIs. We conducted a review of ethnographic studies specifically related to HAI prevention and control in the last 5 years (2012-2017). Twelve studies specific to HAIs and ethnographic methods were found. Researchers used various methods with video-reflexive sessions used in 6 of the 12 studies. Ethnography was used to understand variation in data reporting, identify barriers to adherence, explore patient perceptions of isolation practices and highlight the influence of physical design on infection prevention practices. The term ethnography was used to describe varied research methods. Most studies were conducted outside the United States, and authors indicate insights gained using ethnographic methods (whether observations, interviews, or reflexive video recording) as beneficial to unraveling the complexities of HAI prevention. Ethnography is well-suited for HAI prevention, especially video-reflexive ethnography, for activating patients and clinicians in infection control work. In this era of increasing pressure to reduce HAIs within complex work systems, ethnographic methods can promote understanding of contextual factors and may expedite translation evidence to practice. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Critical Review Of Ethnographic Approach


    Nurani, Lusia Marliana


    There are two basic characteristics of ethnography: (1) the observation takes place in natural setting, (2) researchers must understand how an event is perceived and interpreted by the people in a speech community. In other words, the researchers try to interpret the situation being observed from the perspective of the participants. Ethnography also relies on observations of interactions and interviews with participants in naturally occurring situation. The next characteristic of ethnography ...

  9. Gender, race, and meritocracy in organizational careers. (United States)

    Castilla, Emilio J


    This study helps to fill a significant gap in the literature on organizations and inequality by investigating the central role of merit-based reward systems in shaping gender and racial disparities in wages and promotions. The author develops and tests a set of propositions isolating processes of performance-reward bias, whereby women and minorities receive less compensation than white men with equal scores on performance evaluations. Using personnel data from a large service organization, the author empirically establishes the existence of this bias and shows that gender, race, and nationality differences continue to affect salary growth after performance ratings are taken into account, ceteris paribus. This finding demonstrates a critical challenge faced by the many contemporary employers who adopt merit-based practices and policies. Although these policies are often adopted in the hope of motivating employees and ensuring meritocracy, policies with limited transparency and accountability can actually increase ascriptive bias and reduce equity in the workplace.

  10. What does it feel like to live here? Exploring sensory ethnography as a collaborative methodology for investigating social determinants of health in place. (United States)

    Sunderland, N; Bristed, H; Gudes, O; Boddy, J; Da Silva, M


    This paper introduces sensory ethnography as a methodology for studying residents' daily lived experience of social determinants of health (SDOH) in place. Sensory ethnography is an expansive option for SDOH research because it encourages participating researchers and residents to "turn up" their senses to identify how previously ignored or "invisible" sensory experiences shape local health and wellbeing. Sensory ethnography creates a richer and deeper understanding of the relationships between place and health than existing research methods that focus on things that are more readily observable or quantifiable. To highlight the methodology in use we outline our research activities and learnings from the Sensory Ethnography of Logan-Beaudesert (SELB) pilot study. We discuss theory, data collection methods, preliminary outcomes, and methodological learnings that will be relevant to researchers who wish to use sensory ethnography or develop deeper understandings of place and health generally. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. CERN Road Race | 1 October

    CERN Multimedia

    Klaus Hanke


    The 2014 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday 1 October at 18:15.   The 5.5 km race takes place over 3 laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 to over 34 minutes, and the race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over 1 lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judged on best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by a registration fee of 10 CHF. Children enter for free and each child will receive a medal. More information, and the online entry form, can be fo...

  12. Nuclear Arms Race and Environment


    Li, Anpeng


    This paper introduces a new factor, environment, into nuclear arms race model. In this model, nuclear weapons produce larger defense power compared with conventional arms, but hurt the environment meanwhile. In the global welfare maximum level, both conventional and nuclear weapons budget are zero. However, the competitive equilibrium may not achieve the optimum. I give the condition to jump out of the prisoner's dilemma.

  13. CERN Road Race | 7 October

    CERN Multimedia

    Klaus Hanke, CERN Running Club


    The 2015 edition of the annual CERN Road Race will be held on Wednesday, 7 October at 6.15 p.m.   The 5.5 km race takes place over three laps of a 1.8 km circuit in the West Area of the Meyrin site, and is open to everyone working at CERN and their families. There are runners of all speeds, with times ranging from under 17 minutes to over 34 minutes. The race is run on a handicap basis, by staggering the starting times so that (in theory) all the runners finish together. Children (< 15 years) have their own race over one lap of 1.8 km. As usual, there will be a “best family” challenge (judging best parent + best child). Trophies are awarded in the usual men’s, women’s and veterans’ categories, and there is a challenge for the best age/performance. Every adult will receive a souvenir prize, financed by the registration fee of 10 CHF. Children are free (each child will receive a medal). More information, and t...

  14. When Claiming to Teach for Social Justice Is Not Enough: Majoritarian Stories of Race, Difference, and Meritocracy (United States)

    Viesca, Kara Mitchell; Torres, Aubrey Scheopner; Barnatt, Joan; Piazza, Peter


    To understand how dominant messages about race and effective pedagogy impact teacher beliefs and practice, this study employs critical race theory (CRT) in a case study analysis of Rebecca Rosenberg, a mid-career entrant into the teaching profession who was terminated from her first job before the end of her district's probationary period. Despite…

  15. Prostate Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity (United States)

    ... HPV-Associated Lung Ovarian Skin Uterine Cancer Home Prostate Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English (US) ... Tweet Share Compartir The rate of men getting prostate cancer or dying from prostate cancer varies by race ...

  16. Colorectal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity (United States)

    ... Associated Lung Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Colorectal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: English (US) ... Tweet Share Compartir The rate of people getting colorectal cancer or dying from colorectal cancer varies by race ...

  17. The Spectre of Race in American Medicine


    Fofana, Mariam O.


    Controversies and debates surrounding race have long been a fixture in American medicine. In the past, the biological concept of race—the idea that race is biologically determined and meaningful—has served to justify the institution of slavery and the conduct of unethical research trials. Although these days may seem far behind, contemporary debates over the race-specific approval of drugs and the significance of genetic differences are evidence that race still yields tremendous influence on ...

  18. Stroke survivors' and informal caregivers' experiences of primary care and community healthcare services - A systematic review and meta-ethnography. (United States)

    Pindus, Dominika M; Mullis, Ricky; Lim, Lisa; Wellwood, Ian; Rundell, A Viona; Abd Aziz, Noor Azah; Mant, Jonathan


    To describe and explain stroke survivors and informal caregivers' experiences of primary care and community healthcare services. To offer potential solutions for how negative experiences could be addressed by healthcare services. Systematic review and meta-ethnography. Medline, CINAHL, Embase and PsycINFO databases (literature searched until May 2015, published studies ranged from 1996 to 2015). Primary qualitative studies focused on adult community-dwelling stroke survivors' and/or informal caregivers' experiences of primary care and/or community healthcare services. A set of common second order constructs (original authors' interpretations of participants' experiences) were identified across the studies and used to develop a novel integrative account of the data (third order constructs). Study quality was assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme checklist. Relevance was assessed using Dixon-Woods' criteria. 51 studies (including 168 stroke survivors and 328 caregivers) were synthesised. We developed three inter-dependent third order constructs: (1) marginalisation of stroke survivors and caregivers by healthcare services, (2) passivity versus proactivity in the relationship between health services and the patient/caregiver dyad, and (3) fluidity of stroke related needs for both patient and caregiver. Issues of continuity of care, limitations in access to services and inadequate information provision drove perceptions of marginalisation and passivity of services for both patients and caregivers. Fluidity was apparent through changing information needs and psychological adaptation to living with long-term consequences of stroke. Potential limitations of qualitative research such as limited generalisability and inability to provide firm answers are offset by the consistency of the findings across a range of countries and healthcare systems. Stroke survivors and caregivers feel abandoned because they have become marginalised by services and they do not

  19. Essential elements of the relationship between the nurse and the person with advanced and terminal cancer: A meta-ethnography. (United States)

    Errasti-Ibarrondo, Begoña; Pérez, Mercedes; Carrasco, José Miguel; Lama, Marcos; Zaragoza, Amparo; Arantzamendi, María


    The purpose of this study was to understand how the nurse-patient relationship is interpreted by nurses and patients with advanced and terminal cancer (ATC) and which aspects of this relationship are perceived to be the most valuable for patients. A literature search was conducted using the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL), PubMed, and PsycINFO databases and was supported by reviewing reference lists. Nine articles were selected, and the quality of them was assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program. A synthesis was performed following the seven-stage meta-ethnography described by Noblit and Hare. Four primary themes were derived from the synthesis: (a) being with and being for the person with ATC, (b) time is required for establishing the relationship, (c) the influence of the primary actors in the relationship: the nurse and the person with ATC, and (d) the effects of the relationship on both the nurse and the person with ATC. Finally, an explanatory model of the relationship between the nurse and the patient with ATC was developed, which shows that the relationship is an interpersonal process with several key elements including familiarity with one another, reciprocity, respect, and confidence. The nurses and patients with ATC perceive that their relationship is important and beneficial. The patients demand a helping and caring relationship focused on them as persons, not only as patients. Patients with ATC and nurses consider their relationship to be important and beneficial. An approach to caring focused on patients as persons should be fostered among health care professionals and students. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. W.E.B. Du Bois and Filipino/a American Exposure Programs to the Philippines: Race Class Analysis in an Epoch of "Global Apartheid" (United States)

    Viola, Michael Joseph


    The article highlights the ongoing relevance of W.E.B. Du Bois for the global analysis of race and class. Engaging scholarly debates that have ensued within the educational subfields of critical race theory (CRT) and (revolutionary) critical pedagogy, the article explores how a deeper engagement with Du Bois's ideas contributes theoretically and…

  1. The impact of peer support in the context of perinatal mental illness: a meta-ethnography. (United States)

    Jones, Catriona C G; Jomeen, Julie; Hayter, Mark


    this paper is a report of a systematic review and meta-ethnography to explore the impact of peer support in the context of perinatal mental illness (PMI). systematic review methods identified five qualitative studies about women's experiences of PMI, and the impact peer support has on their journey towards emotional well-being. Findings from the identified studies were synthesised into themes, using meta-ethnography. the meta-ethnography produced four themes; 'Isolation: the role of peer support', 'Seeking validation through peer support', 'The importance of social norms of motherhood', and 'Finding affirmation/a way forward; the impact of peer support'. These themes represent women's experiences of PMI, their encounters with peer support groups within that context, and the impact of such encounters on their mental health status. recognising the risk of isolation and having pathways of referral to peer support networks is important, as are practitioners roles in nurturing peer support networks in perinatal care. More research is required to establish the most successful formats/structures of peer support. Practitioners should also recognise their individual and collective professional duty to challenge stereotypical depictions of motherhood wherever they arise, as this 'gold standard' benchmark of good mothering engenders guilt about not being good enough, often leaving women feeling inadequate. isolation is a key factor in PMI. Practitioners should be instrumental in their acceptance and development of peer support for PMI, ensuring these networks are valued, nurtured and encouraged. This study illustrates the powerful effect of professional and social forces on how new mothers feel about themselves. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Continuing professional development (CPD) in radiography: A collaborative European meta-ethnography literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wareing, A.; Buissink, C.; Harper, D.; Gellert Olesen, M.; Soto, M.; Braico, S.; Van Laer, P.; Gremion, I.; Rainford, L.


    Objectives: The aim of the study was to complete a collaborative review of Radiography continuing professional development (CPD) research material to support the production of European Federation of Radiographer Societies (EFRS) CPD recommendations. A meta-ethnography approach to literature review was applied focussing upon commonalities rather than discrepancies between research outcomes. This facilitated exploration of context across the geographical region of Europe with national variations in CPD governance. The seven phases of the meta-ethnographic approach were followed by two independent experienced researchers. A third researcher mediated the findings which were then explored collaboratively with the EFRS CPD working group for concordance. Key Findings: Phase seven of the meta-ethnography involved interpreting an expression of the synthesis from the previous stages. Six main corroborating themes emerged in this process and following mediation were expressed as themes; knowledge, skills & competency, needs/gap analysis, multi-layered/multi-modal, barriers and drivers; regulation vs autonomy; fostering collaboration – harnessing technology. Conclusion: The primary feature of CPD activity should be the resulting impact – to patients, the service, the profession and the individual; with all stakeholders working in partnership. CPD activity must be flexible/multi-modal to support the changing growth/dynamic workforce. All stakeholders should utilise communication and technology resources and make efforts to improve collaboration between the management, regulators and educators to support Radiographers to develop meaningful CPD. Health services across Europe are under increasing stress and a principal factor going forwards will be managing increasing demands on healthcare staff whilst supporting enhancement of the knowledge, skills and competency base. - Highlights: • CPD should have impact to patients, the service, the profession and the individual.

  3. A Call for Critical Perspectives in Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Winter


    Full Text Available The formation of critical poststructuralism in the United States has fundamentally transformed qualitative research. The crisis of representation first discussed in anthropology has had the effect of rethinking the foundations of qualitative research by putting ethical questions on the agenda and stimulating a search for new forms of validity. Against this backdrop, this study will analyze different methods and research strategies in critical qualitative inquiry, such as interpretive interactionism, autoethnography, and performance ethnography. The call to action inherent in these strategies and further contributions to cultural and social change will be discussed. URN:

  4. Children's Attitudes toward Race and Gender. (United States)

    Warner, Juliet L.

    An implicit assumption in the majority of literature looking at development of prejudice in children is that race prejudice and sex prejudice are equivalent across groups; that is, sex bias is not conditional on race, and likewise race bias is not conditional on sex bias of the child. However, Warner, Fishbein, Ritchey and Case (2001) found strong…

  5. Researching Race within Educational Psychology Contexts (United States)

    DeCuir-Gunby, Jessica T.; Schutz, Paul A.


    In this article, we question why race as a sociohistorical construct has not traditionally been investigated in educational psychology research. To do so, we provide a historical discussion of the significance of race as well as present current dilemmas in the exploration of race, including an examination of the incidence and prevalence of…

  6. Students To Race Solar-Powered Vehicles (United States)

    4 1999 — Middle school students from across the state next week will race model solar cars designed Race Solar-Powered Vehicles For more information contact: e:mail: Public Affairs Golden, Colo., May 12 inches high. The 20-meter race is a double elimination competition with awards going to the five

  7. Simple model of the arms race

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zane, L.I.


    A simple model of a two-party arms race is developed based on the principle that the race will continue so long as either side can unleash an effective first strike against the other side. The model is used to examine how secrecy, the ABM, MIRV-ing, and an MX system affect the arms race

  8. An analysis of the benefits of ethnography design methods for product modelling (United States)

    Butlewski, M.; Misztal, A.; Belu, N.


    The essence of modelling is to reflect the studied piece of reality in such a way that best describes the selected elements of the designed system. A model is used in design to optimize the structure and parameters of the constructed object and is a tool for assessing the quality of construction, eliminating weak links and ensuring adequate safety components. In view of the aim of modelling, it can be divided into functional modelling, showing the complexity of the object, and reliability modelling, specifying its states at variable threshold values. In design, modelling allows for significant savings in resources that would otherwise be spent because of problems appearing at the prototype stage, but also during production or in the course of using the product. In the practice of ergonomic design many problems could be avoided if early enough in the design process the values of parameters and their relations would be taken into account through modelling. On the other hand, the modelling process can be costly and time-consuming to carry out, and against the currently pervasive lean production it is a highly undesirable factor. Therefore, the modelling process should be supported with the use of appropriate cognitive techniques namely ethnography design, which would determine inadequacies of existing models as well as indicate the equivalent conditions for modelling. The justification of the use of this technique results both from the possibility of providing additional information, as well as the opportunity to “test” the phenomena affecting the design process. Ergonomic modelling tests developed solutions towards their adaptation to users’ anthropometric, biomechanical and psychomotor characteristics, as well as behaviour patterns. However, knowledge of the latter and achieving a sufficient ergonomic and functional quality of proposed solutions often requires the use of the ethnography design approach. The aim of this article is to test the practical

  9. The Acoustic Dimension of Social Protest: Notes from an Ethnography of Sound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Martin


    Full Text Available In this article we analyse the role of sound in protest marches from an interactional communication perspective. We present an inter-disciplinary proposal for the development of a methodology suited for the ethnography of sound in the contemporary context. We also present the results of the application of this methodology in the context of the protests against the forced disappearance of the 43 students from Ayotzinapa, Guerrero in Mexico. The study questions the social modes of sound as the acoustic materialization of the communication processes within specific sound contexts.

  10. Deconstructing Disney: Chicano/a Children and Critical Race Theory. (United States)

    Gutierrez, Gabriel


    The Walt Disney Company's shift in ideology from conservatism to liberal multiculturalism is examined, focusing on corporate history, Disney's hegemonic dealings with Latin American and U.S. Hispanic communities, and Disney's role as cultural producer and facilitator of multiculturalism. Analysis of The Lion King points out its contributions to…

  11. Cultural Identity and Education: A Critical Race Perspective (United States)

    Berry, Theodorea Regina; Candis, Matthew Reese


    The authors begin this article looking at the start of the journey through this new 21st century and how educators at every level are endeavoring to meet the challenge to be responsive to the educational needs of their students, current and future. This is especially true in relationship to the education of students of diverse backgrounds…

  12. How Student Teachers (Don't) Talk about Race: An Intersectional Analysis (United States)

    Young, Kathryn S.


    This study explores how student teacher talk about their students illuminates the identities ascribed to these same students. It uses a hybrid intersectional framework based on Disability Studies, Critical Race Theory, and Latino Critical Theory and methodologies (like examining majoritarian stories, counter-storytelling, coded talk, and…

  13. "Please Stop Whipping Me": Writing about Race and Racism in an Early Childhood Social Studies Classroom (United States)

    Husband, Terry


    The purpose of this critical action research study is to examine how critical literacy, when used in the social studies classroom, can open up spaces where children construct, deconstruct, and reconstruct superficial notions of race and racism in an early childhood classroom. A nine lesson unit on African American history was developed and…

  14. Race, pharmacogenomics, and marketing: putting BiDil in context. (United States)

    Kahn, Jonathan


    This article endeavors to place into context recent developments surrounding the United States Food and Drug Administration recent approval of BiDil (isosorbide dinitrate/hydralazine hydrochloride) (NitroMed, Inc., Lexington, MA) as the first ever race-specific drug--in this case to treat heart failure in African Americans. It focuses in particular on both commercial incentives and statistical manipulation of medical data as framing the drive to bring BiDil to market as a race-specific drug. In current discourse about pharmacogenomics, targeting a racial audience is perceived as necessary because at this point the technology and resources do not exist to scan efficiently every individual's genetic profile. The article argues that medical researchers may say they are using race as a surrogate to target biology in drug development, but corporations are using biology as a surrogate to target race in drug marketing. Pharmacogenomics may hold great promise, but on our way to that Promised Land, it is imperative to review such short cuts with a critical eye.

  15. Chaotic evolution of arms races (United States)

    Tomochi, Masaki; Kono, Mitsuo


    A new set of model equations is proposed to describe the evolution of the arms race, by extending Richardson's model with special emphases that (1) power dependent defensive reaction or historical enmity could be a motive force to promote armaments, (2) a deterrent would suppress the growth of armaments, and (3) the defense reaction of one nation against the other nation depends nonlinearly on the difference in armaments between two. The set of equations is numerically solved to exhibit stationary, periodic, and chaotic behavior depending on the combinations of parameters involved. The chaotic evolution is realized when the economic situation of each country involved in the arms race is quite different, which is often observed in the real world.

  16. The spectre of race in American medicine. (United States)

    Fofana, Mariam O


    Controversies and debates surrounding race have long been a fixture in American medicine. In the past, the biological concept of race-the idea that race is biologically determined and meaningful-has served to justify the institution of slavery and the conduct of unethical research trials. Although these days may seem far behind, contemporary debates over the race-specific approval of drugs and the significance of genetic differences are evidence that race still yields tremendous influence on medical research and clinical practice. In many ways, the use of race in medicine today reflects the internalisation of racial hierarchies borne out of the history of slavery and state-mandated segregation, and there is still much uncertainty over its benefits and harms. Although using race in research can help elucidate disparities, the reflexive use of race as a variable runs the risk of reifying the biological concept of race and blinding researchers to important underlying factors such as socioeconomic status. Similarly, in clinical practice, the use of race in assessing a patient's risk of certain conditions (eg, sickle cell) turns harmful when the heuristic becomes a rule. Through selected historical and contemporary examples, I aim to show how the biological concept of race that gave rise to past abuses remains alive and harmful, and propose changes in medical education as a potential solution. By learning from the past, today's physicians will be better armed to discern-and correct-the ways in which contemporary medicine perpetuates historical injustices.

  17. Race and Subprime Loan Pricing


    Hernandez, Ruben; Owyang, Michael; Ghent, Andra


    In this paper we investigate whether race and ethnicity influenced subprime loan pricing during 2005, the peak of the subprime mortgage expansion. We combine loan-level data on the performance of non-prime securitized mortgages with individual- and neighborhood-level data on racial and ethnic characteristics for metropolitan areas in California and Florida. Using a model of rate determination that accounts for predicted loan performance, we evaluate the presence of disparate impact and dispar...

  18. Interfering With Others - Re-configuring Ethnography as a Diffractive Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Mellander


    Full Text Available This essay will concern itself with what we – ethnologists or ethnographers by any other name – do. Not primarily “do” in terms of activities we undertake; we interview, we observe, we write, we send emails, we have coffee, we print stacks of paper, we structure administrative chores, we go to meetings, we apply for grants, etc. Rather, we want to address the “do” in terms of what we make, or bring into the world through ethnography. What is it that we through the combination of all of our practices bring into being? What is that bringing into being dependent on? And, how does it influence the world? The first step to addressing these questions is outlining ethnography itself and how we – the authors – choose to articulate it. Articulation, as articulated by Donna Haraway is a process of signifying and of putting things together, letting them be diverse and maybe even in friction with one another and themselves. The concept connotes an on-going indeterminacy. The articulations made in research, we argue, should be allowed to be of a searching quality, as well as being relational and expressive. They should not excuse themselves, neither make greater claims than they can fulfill. They should never be conclusive.

  19. Experiences of chronic low back pain: a meta-ethnography of qualitative research. (United States)

    MacNeela, Padraig; Doyle, Catherine; O'Gorman, David; Ruane, Nancy; McGuire, Brian E


    Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is associated with a number of costly disability-related outcomes. It has received increasing attention from qualitative researchers studying its consequences for personal, social, and health care experiences. As research questions and methods diversify, there is a growing need to integrate findings emerging from these studies. A meta-ethnography was carried out to synthesise the findings of 38 separate qualitative articles published on the subjective experience of CLBP between 1994 and 2011. Studies were identified following a literature search and quality appraisal. Four themes were proposed after a process of translating the meaning of text extracts from the findings sections across all the articles. The themes referred to the undermining influence of pain, its disempowering impact on all levels, unsatisfying relationships with health care professionals, and learning to live with the pain. The findings are dominated by wide-ranging distress and loss but also acknowledge self-determination and resilience. Implications of the meta-ethnography for clinicians and future qualitative research are outlined, including the need to study relatively unexamined facets of subjective experience such as illness trajectory and social identity.

  20. Police as Life World. An Ethnography of Police-Officers' Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Behr


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present some findings and problems which I encountered during my ethnography work on several German police units conducted in 1995. Participant observation is not original, but nevertheless unusual for a study of police work. To understand the behavior and the thinking of police officers, one must regard their exclusive possession of power and their discretion for using it. The power of the police is different to the power of suspects or other individuals: Police-power is part of the monopolized state-force, the action of suspects against the police is seen as violence or obstruction. The tensions following this difference are both subject and background of stories and actions of police officers, especially for those "on the beat" (also called "street cops". The ethnography of police-work refers to the narrations of street cops and the observation of their attitudes for "managing the job". I argue, that in contrast to the official "police culture", it can also be referred to it as "cop culture". Cop culture is significantly connected with "doing masculinity". URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0201134

  1. e-Government Maturity Model Based on Systematic Review and Meta-Ethnography Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmawan Napitupulu


    Full Text Available Maturity model based on e-Government portal has been developed by a number of researchers both individually and institutionally, but still scattered in various journals and conference articles and can be said to have a different focus with each other, both in terms of stages and features. The aim of this research is conducting a study to integrate a number of maturity models existing today in order to build generic maturity model based on e-Government portal. The method used in this study is Systematic Review with meta-ethnography qualitative approach. Meta-ethnography, which is part of Systematic Review method, is a technique to perform data integration to obtain theories and concepts with a new level of understanding that is deeper and thorough. The result obtained is a maturity model based on e-Government portal that consists of 7 (seven stages, namely web presence, interaction, transaction, vertical integration, horizontal integration, full integration, and open participation. These seven stages are synthesized from the 111 key concepts related to 25 studies of maturity model based e-Government portal. The maturity model resulted is more comprehensive and generic because it is an integration of models (best practices that exists today.

  2. Using peer ethnography to address health disparities among young urban Black and Latino men who have sex with men. (United States)

    Mutchler, Matt G; McKay, Tara; McDavitt, Bryce; Gordon, Kristie K


    We examined the effectiveness of peer ethnography to gain insider views on substance use and sex among a diverse range of high-risk substance-using Black and Latino young men who have sex with men. We recruited 9 peer ethnographers aged 21 to 24 years from youth programs for the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender community in Los Angeles, California, and trained them in ethnography, study protocol, and human participant protection. Peer ethnographers collected 137 single-spaced pages of field notes in 2009 and 2010 derived from observation of 150 members of the target population. Peer ethnography revealed local language and phrasing and provided a window into new and different social contexts. Peers provided valuable information on current trends in substance use, revealing themes that needed to be addressed in further research, such as the use of substances during sex to "clock coin" (exchange sex for money and substances). These data enabled us to refine our recruitment strategies and ask more culturally relevant questions in a later phase of the study. The peer ethnography method can provide a sound basis for further research phases in multistage studies on numerous other social issues and with other hard-to-reach populations.

  3. An e-Learning Team's Life on and Offline: A Collaborative Self-Ethnography in Postgraduate Education Development (United States)

    Clapp, Alison


    This paper primarily discusses the methodology of a case study into interactions and working practices of an elearning team, on and offline. Although several ethnographies have been published on online learning, there are apparently none involving communities developing courses. This is a unique insight, bringing a new view of course and staff…

  4. Institutional Ethnography as Materialist Framework for Writing Program Research and the Faculty-Staff Work Standpoints Project (United States)

    LaFrance, Michelle; Nicolas, Melissa


    Institutional ethnography seeks to uncover how things happen--how institutional discourse compels and shapes practice(s) and how norms of practice speak to, for, and over individuals. The Faculty and Staff Standpoints project is shaped by this methodology, as it explores writing center staff and faculty relationships to their work. (Contains 10…

  5. The Quest for Really Useful Knowledge: An Institutional Ethnography of Community Adult Education in the Digital Age (United States)

    Selvaraj, Shivaani Aruna


    The purpose of this institutional ethnography was to explicate the social relations of broadband adoption through the public programs implemented by the Media Mobilizing Project (MMP) between 2009 and 2013, when they operated for the first time in alignment with federal regulations that orchestrated the practice of the Broadband Technology…

  6. Focused Ethnography as Research Method: A Case Study of Techno Music Producers in Home-Recording Studios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Michael Kühn


    Full Text Available Translator's Introduction: Jan-Michael Kühn's essay introduces the reader to Hubert Knoblauch's focused ethnography [fokussierte Ethnographie] as an ethnographic fieldwork method. More than a decade after Knoblauch's first publications on this method, there are precious few guides to focused ethnography in the English language, save one (Knoblauch 2005. At any rate, there are certainly no introductions to this methodology that also use EDM scenes as a case study. Kühn's article was originally published in German in Soziologie Magazin, a student-run journal published from Martin Luther University in Halle (Saale but operated by an editorial network that spans Germany. As a result, Kühn orients his writing towards an audience of junior researchers, post-docs and graduate students, highlighting the ways in which focused ethnography suits the circumstances of early research careers, where one may have difficulty securing long-term research stays for fieldwork of broader scope. In particular, he notes that Knoblauch's methods require a very narrow scope for the project (i.e., a "field sector" rather than the whole field, a reliance on the researcher's previous knowledge of the field, and short bursts of intense ethnographic activity in order to create work that is tightly focused but still rigorous and generative of fresh knowledge and new concepts.KEYWORDS: qualitative methods; cultural production; music production; home-recording; technoculture

  7. Those Who Know and Are Known: Students Using Ethnography to Interrogate Language and Literacy Ideologies (United States)

    LeBlanc, Robert Jean


    Framing ethnography as a form of democratic inquiry, this study examines how the author worked with a group of Mexican and Vietnamese American adolescents to learn and apply ethnographic tools to interrogate language and literacy ideologies in their school and community. Examination of the students' findings reveals circulating ideologies and…

  8. Effects of racing games on risky driving behaviour, and the significance of personality and physiological data. (United States)

    Deng, Mingming; Chan, Alan H S; Wu, Feng; Wang, Jun


    Racing games have emerged as top-selling products in the video and computer game industry. The effect of playing racing games on the inclination of gamers to take risks has been investigated. Two experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, the impact of personality traits on the effects of playing racing games on risk-taking inclination was examined. The Vienna Test System, which includes the Eysenck Personality Profile Test and the Vienna Risk-Taking Test, was used to measure risk-taking inclination and risk-taking while driving. Experiment 2 was designed and conducted to analyse the effects of different intensity levels of car racing games on risk-taking inclination, and to study the relationship between physiological data and risk-taking inclination. Physiological data on skin conductance, heart rate and blood pressure were measured with the NeuroDyne System. Participants playing a racing game were more inclined to take risks in critical road traffic situations than those playing a neutral game. The adventurousness dimension of the Eysenck Personality Profile Test correlated significantly positively with risk-taking inclination. More importantly, the effect of the intensity level of a racing game on risk-taking inclination was significant. The higher the intensity level of the racing game, the higher the risk-taking inclination while driving. The effect of intensity level of the racing game on skin conductance was significantly positive. Skin conductance correlated significantly positively with risk-taking inclination. The effect of playing racing games on risk-taking inclination is linked to personality and physiological data. Some recommendations are proposed as a result of this study for racing game management. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  9. CriticalEd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellberg, Caspar Mølholt; Meredith, David


    . Since the comments are not input sequentially, with regard to position, but in arbitrary order, this list must be sorted by copy/pasting the rows into place—an error-prone and time-consuming process. Scholars who produce critical editions typically use off-the-shelf music notation software......The best text method is commonly applied among music scholars engaged in producing critical editions. In this method, a comment list is compiled, consisting of variant readings and editorial emendations. This list is maintained by inserting the comments into a document as the changes are made......, consisting of a Sibelius plug-in, a cross-platform application, called CriticalEd, and a REST-based solution, which handles data storage/retrieval. A prototype has been tested at the Danish Centre for Music Publication, and the results suggest that the system could greatly improve the efficiency...

  10. Review Essay: Working With and Against the Concepts of "Race" and "Ethnicity": Research Dilemmas and Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hella von Unger


    Full Text Available With her book "Researching 'Race' and Ethnicity: Methods Knowledge and Power," Yasmin GUNARATNAM makes a thoughtful contribution to the ongoing methodological debate on the concepts of "race" and ethnicity in qualitative research. She addresses some of the central concerns of the debate, including current conceptual approaches and practical research dilemmas involved in working with the concepts of "race" and "ethnicity." Following the tradition of critical "race" studies, she notes the inherent tendency of these concepts to essentialize and naturalize socially constructed differences and suggests analytic approaches that work both with and against these categories. She also comments on the procedure of "racial matching" (of interviewer and participant and the related North-American debate on "'race'-of-interviewer-effects." Using her own empirical data from an ethnographic study on the construction of "race" and ethnicity in a hospice setting in the UK, she illustrates the complexities of the subject matter and the indispensable value of self-reflexivity in the research process. Shortcomings of the book relate to its occasional conceptual vagueness and proliferation of different theoretical approaches and the resulting lack of a central methodological theme that links the different chapters. However, the book provides a stimulating introduction to the field and constitutes a useful resource for teaching qualitative research methods in the context of "race" and ethnicity. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0602210

  11. Arms races between and within species. (United States)

    Dawkins, R; Krebs, J R


    An adaptation in one lineage (e.g. predators) may change the selection pressure on another lineage (e.g. prey), giving rise to a counter-adaptation. If this occurs reciprocally, an unstable runaway escalation or 'arms race' may result. We discuss various factors which might give one side an advantage in an arms race. For example, a lineage under strong selection may out-evolve a weakly selected one (' the life-dinner principle'). We then classify arms races in two independent ways. They may be symmetric or asymmetric, and they may be interspecific or intraspecific. Our example of an asymmetric interspecific arms race is that between brood parasites and their hosts. The arms race concept may help to reduce the mystery of why cuckoo hosts are so good at detecting cuckoo eggs, but so bad at detecting cuckoo nestlings. The evolutionary contest between queen and worker ants over relative parental investment is a good example of an intraspecific asymmetric arms race. Such cases raise special problems because the participants share the same gene pool. Interspecific symmetric arms races are unlikely to be important, because competitors tend to diverge rather than escalate competitive adaptations. Intraspecific symmetric arms races, exemplified by adaptations for male-male competition, may underlie Cope's Rule and even the extinction of lineages. Finally we consider ways in which arms races can end. One lineage may drive the other to extinction; one may reach an optimum, thereby preventing the other from doing so; a particularly interesting possibility, exemplified by flower-bee coevolution, is that both sides may reach a mutual local optimum; lastly, arms races may have no stable and but may cycle continuously. We do not wish necessarily to suggest that all, or even most, evolutionary change results from arms races, but we do suggest that the arms race concept may help to resolve three long-standing questions in evolutionary theory.

  12. Ground effect aerodynamics of racing cars


    Zhang, Xin; Toet, Willem; Zerihan, Jonathan


    We review the progress made during the last thirty years on ground effect aerodynamics associated with race cars, in particular open wheel race cars. Ground effect aerodynamics of race cars is concerned with generating downforce, principally via low pressure on the surfaces nearest to the ground. The “ground effected” parts of an open wheeled car's aerodynamics are the most aerodynamically efficient and contribute less drag than that associated with, for example, an upper rear wing. Whilst dr...

  13. Bridgework: STS, Sociology, and the “Dark Matters” of Race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Rodríguez-Muñiz


    Full Text Available This short essay reflects on intellectual bridges that scholars have built, are building, and could build to connect critical sociologies of race and STS. Whereas much work in these respective fields have rarely intersected, greater exchange could help scholars better account for ways in which race shapes and stratifies contemporary societies. To this end, the essay begins with a recent example of bridgework—research on race and genetics. Next, I use my own research on ethnoracial statistics to describe how bridgework happening elsewhere can indirectly create openings for connections across the divide. Finally, I propose that research on the broader sociotechnical materiality of race and racial domination represents an important site for further bridgework.

  14. Ultracold fermion race is on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulet, R.


    At the quantum level, particles behave very differently depending on whether their spin angular momentum is an integer or a half-integer. Half-integer spin particles are known as fermions, and include all the constituents of atoms: electrons, protons and neutrons. Bosons, on the other hand, are particles with integer spin, such as photons. Atoms are fermions if they are composed of an odd number of particles, like helium-3 or lithium-6. If they have an even number of constituents, like hydrogen, helium-4 or lithium-7, they are known as bosons. Fermions and bosons behave in profoundly different ways under certain conditions, especially at low temperatures. Four years ago, physicists created a Bose condensate, a quantum degenerate gas of bosons. Now the race is on to do the same with fermions. Deborah Jin's group at the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Colorado has cooled a fermion gas to the lowest temperature yet (B DeMarco 1999 Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 4208). And John Thomas and co-workers at Duke University have set a new record for the length of time that fermions can be trapped using lasers (K O'Hara 1999 Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 4204). In this article the author describes the latest advances in the race to create a quantum degenerate gas of fermions. (UK)

  15. The unintended consequences of sex education: an ethnography of a development intervention in Latin America. (United States)

    Nelson, Erica; Edmonds, Alexander; Ballesteros, Marco; Encalada Soto, Diana; Rodriguez, Octavio


    This paper is an ethnography of a four-year, multi-disciplinary adolescent sexual and reproductive health intervention in Bolivia, Nicaragua and Ecuador. An important goal of the intervention--and of the larger global field of adolescent sexual and reproductive health--is to create more open parent-to-teen communication. This paper analyzes the project's efforts to foster such communication and how social actors variously interpreted, responded to, and repurposed the intervention's language and practices. While the intervention emphasized the goal of 'open communication,' its participants more often used the term 'confianza' (trust). This norm was defined in ways that might--or might not--include revealing information about sexual activity. Questioning public health assumptions about parent-teen communication on sex, in and of itself, is key to healthy sexual behavior, the paper explores a pragmatics of communication on sex that includes silence, implied expectations, gendered conflicts, and temporally delayed knowledge.

  16. Anthropology in a postcolonial colony: Helen I. Safa's contribution to Puerto Rican ethnography. (United States)

    Duany, Jorge


    This article assesses Helen I. Safa's legacy to anthropological thought in Puerto Rico. The first part of the article locates Safa's research on the Island within a long tradition of fieldwork by U.S. scholars since the early twentieth century. More recent research, conducted mostly by Puerto Rican women anthropologists and other social scientists, has expanded upon Safa's insights on gender and work. The second part of the essay analyzes Safa's major empirical work, The Urban Poor of Puerto Rico: A Study in Development and Inequality. Above all, this book helped overcome the theoretical impasse over the culture of poverty that characterized much of urban anthropology during the 1960s and 1970s. The article concludes with an appraisal of the relevance of Safa's work for the ethnography of contemporary Puerto Rico.

  17. Researching Primary Teachers' Professional Agency: Employing Interactive Ethnography to Overcome Reluctance to Teach Science (United States)

    Martin, Jenny


    This paper provides a report of a case study on the professional agency of an experienced early years teacher, Sarah, who successfully embedded a chemical science program of teaching-learning for her students aged between 6 and 8. Interactive ethnography informs the research design, and discursive psychology provides the tools for the analysis of Sarah's speech acts for her positioning as a responsible agent. Reframing the problem of primary teacher reluctance to teach science in terms of primary teachers' professional agency using discursive psychology, this ontological study provides new insight into issues related to the provision of science education in primary schools and asks: How do primary teachers position themselves and others in relation to science curriculum and education? The research calls for research methodologies and reform efforts in primary science that are better grounded in the local moral orders of primary schools.

  18. Experiences of Family Relationships Among Donor-Conceived Families: A Meta-Ethnography. (United States)

    Wyverkens, Elia; Van Parys, Hanna; Buysse, Ann


    In this qualitative evidence synthesis, we explore how family relationships are experienced by parents who used gamete donation to conceive. We systematically searched four databases (PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, and ProQuest) for literature related to this topic and retrieved 25 studies. Through the analysis of the qualitative studies, a comprehensive synthesis and framework was constructed. Following the meta-ethnography approach of Noblit and Hare, four main themes were identified: (a) balancing the importance of genetic and social ties, (b) normalizing and legitimizing the family, (c) building strong family ties, and (d) minimizing the role of the donor. Underlying these four main themes, a sense of being "different" and "similar" at the same time was apparent. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for studying and counseling donor-conceived families. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Beyond multispecies ethnography: Engaging with violence and animal rights in anthropology (United States)


    Anthropologists have mediated between discriminated communities and outsiders, helping to influence public opinion through advocacy work. But can anthropological advocacy be applied to the case of violence against nonhumans? Ethical inquiries in anthropology also engage with the manifold ways through which human and nonhuman lives are entangled and emplaced within wider ecological relationships, converging in the so-called multispecies ethnography, but failing to account for exploitation. Reflecting on this omission, this article discusses the applicability of engaged anthropology to the range of issues from the use of nonhumans in medical experimentation and food production industry, to habitat destruction, and in broader contexts involving violence against nonhumans. Concluding that the existing forms of anthropological engagement are inadequate in dealing with the massive scale of nonhuman abuse, this article will suggest directions for a radical anthropology that engages with deep ecology, animal rights, animal welfare, and ecological justice. PMID:29081571

  20. Between power and powerlessness: a meta-ethnography of sources of resilience in young refugees. (United States)

    Sleijpen, Marieke; Boeije, Hennie R; Kleber, Rolf J; Mooren, Trudy


    This article reviews available qualitative studies that report young refugees' ways of dealing with adversity to address their sources of resilience. We searched five electronic databases. Twenty-six empirical studies were included in the review. A meta-ethnography approach was used to synthesize these qualitative studies. Six sources of resilience emerged: (1) social support, (2) acculturation strategies, (3) education, (4) religion, (5) avoidance, and (6) hope. These sources indicated social as well as personal factors that confer resilience in young refugees, but most of them also had counterproductive aspects. The results, from an ecological developmental perspective, stressed the interplay between protective and risk processes in the mental health of young refugees who had resettled in Western countries, and they emphasized the variability as well as the universality of resilience-promoting processes. Further research is needed to explore the cultural shape of resilience and the long-term consequences of war and migration on young refugees.

  1. How Do People With COPD Value Different Activities? An Adapted Meta-Ethnography of Qualitative Research. (United States)

    Lindenmeyer, Antje; Greenfield, Sheila M; Greenfield, Charlotte; Jolly, Kate


    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a long-term condition where activities of daily living (ADLs) may be very restricted; people with COPD need to prioritize what is important to them. We conducted a meta-ethnography to understand which ADLs are valued and why, systematically searching for articles including experiences of ADLs and organizing themes from the articles into five linked concepts: (a) caring for the body, (b) caring for the personal environment, (c) moving between spaces, (d) interacting with others, and (e) selfhood across time. In addition, we identified three key aspects of personal integrity: effectiveness, connectedness, and control. We found that ADLs were valued if they increased integrity; however, this process was also informed by gendered roles and social values. People whose sense of control depended on effectiveness often found accepting help very difficult to bear; therefore, redefining control as situational and relational may help enjoyment of activities that are possible. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Catalyzing Transdisciplinarity: A Systems Ethnography of Cancer-Obesity Comorbidity and Risk Coincidence. (United States)

    Graham, S Scott; Harley, Amy; Kessler, Molly M; Roberts, Laura; DeVasto, Dannielle; Card, Daniel J; Neuner, Joan M; Kim, Sang-Yeon


    Effectively addressing wicked health problems, that is, those arising from complex multifactorial biological and socio-economic causes, requires transdisciplinary action. However, a significant body of research points toward substantial difficulties in cultivating transdisciplinary collaboration. Accordingly, this article presents the results of a study that adapts Systems Ethnography and Qualitative Modeling (SEQM) in response to wicked health problems. SEQM protocols were designed to catalyze transdisciplinary responses to national defense concerns. We adapted these protocols to address cancer-obesity comorbidity and risk coincidence. In so doing, we conducted participant-observations and interviews with a diverse range of health care providers, community health educators, and health advocacy professionals who target either cancer or obesity. We then convened a transdisciplinary conference designed to catalyze a coordinated response. The findings offer productive insights into effective ways of catalyzing transdisciplinarity in addressing wicked health problems action and demonstrate the promise of SEQM for continued use in health care contexts.

  3. Practicing ethnography in migration-related detention centers: A reflexive account. (United States)

    Esposito, Francesca


    Feminist scholars, as well as community psychologists, have advocated the role of reflexive engagement in the research process in order to challenge power relations. Moreover, the liberating potential of storytelling, especially when working with issues of diversity and marginalization, has been stressed. The purpose of this article is to reflect on an ethnographic work underway in the Identification and Expulsion Center-CIE of Ponte Galeria, Rome. How the researcher's identities, values, and experiences, alongside power and privilege, have influenced her positioning in the research setting and the relationships formed with the different setting members is the subject of discussion. In sharing the story of this work, the final intent is to contribute to the joint effort to foster a reflexive community psychology practice incorporating feminist goals and a dialogue about ethnography in community psychology.

  4. How Institutions Deprive: Ethnography, Social Work, and Interventionist Ethics Among the Hypermarginalized

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    Megan Comfort


    Full Text Available Hypermarginalized populations, such as homeless drug users with acute health problems, are subject to multiple intersecting adversities that result in social exclusion and chronic suffering. Despite this population's high need for health and social services, institutions provide services that are fragmented and often punitive, contributing to further marginality. In this article, we present a hybrid methodological approach that combines clinical social work and ethnography in a study of intensive case management for HIV-positive indigent adults in Oakland, California. We investigate two primary research questions. First, we consider the challenges this population faces in navigating institutions to meet their basic needs, and we demonstrate how organizational irrationality has severe consequences for this population. Second, we grapple with the question of how to ethically engage hypermarginalized participants in research by presenting a clinically informed intervention that is responsive to individual vulnerabilities and also enhances our understanding of institutional failure.

  5. India's "tryst" with universal health coverage: reflections on ethnography in Indian health policymaking. (United States)

    Nambiar, Devaki


    In 2011, India stood at the crossroads of potentially major health reform. A High Level Expert Group (HLEG) on universal health coverage (UHC), convened by the Indian Planning Commission, proposed major changes in the structure and functioning of the country's health system. This paper presents reflections on the role of ethnography in policy-based social change for health in India, drawing from year-long participation in the aforementioned policy development process. It theorizes that international discourses have been (re)appropriated in the Indian case by recourse to both experience and evidence, resulting in a plurality of concepts that could be prioritized for Indian health reform. This articulation involved HLEG members exerting para-ethnographic labour and paying close attention to context, suggesting that ethnographic sensibilities can reside within the interactive and knowledge production practices among experts oriented toward policy change. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Beyond multispecies ethnography: Engaging with violence and animal rights in anthropology. (United States)

    Kopnina, Helen


    Anthropologists have mediated between discriminated communities and outsiders, helping to influence public opinion through advocacy work. But can anthropological advocacy be applied to the case of violence against nonhumans? Ethical inquiries in anthropology also engage with the manifold ways through which human and nonhuman lives are entangled and emplaced within wider ecological relationships, converging in the so-called multispecies ethnography, but failing to account for exploitation. Reflecting on this omission, this article discusses the applicability of engaged anthropology to the range of issues from the use of nonhumans in medical experimentation and food production industry, to habitat destruction, and in broader contexts involving violence against nonhumans. Concluding that the existing forms of anthropological engagement are inadequate in dealing with the massive scale of nonhuman abuse, this article will suggest directions for a radical anthropology that engages with deep ecology, animal rights, animal welfare, and ecological justice.

  7. Researchers’ communication on Twitter. A virtual ethnography in the area of information science

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    Belén Álvarez-Bornstein


    Full Text Available The present article analyzes the scientific communication that takes place on Twitter. Its aim is to understand and describe the types of scientific activities that occur on this platform, by identifying the type of information exchanged and the activities that researchers perform. Thus we attempt to better understand the number of times that research work is mentioned within a specific context. We followed a group of researchers and professionals with Twitter profiles who had published at least 3 articles in the journal EPI between 2009 and 2013. The research methodology was qualitative using virtual ethnography based on non-participant observation. Among the main conclusions, we found that researchers use Twitter mostly as a way to make their professional activity public and to disseminate their own research works or those of close collaborators, in order to give them more visibility and impact.

  8. Organizational ethnography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Ann


    organizational knowledge and ways of organizing, which have consequences for how subject positions are (re)configured in everyday corporate lives. Such identity work is rarely studied in local discursive practices of today’s modern and emergent corporations. The aspiration in the present article is to scrutinize...... local practices in a dialogue based leadership development forum in university settings. This provides insights into the lived lives and identity work in Aalborg University representing a temporary, polyphonic and cross-disciplinary research project in a modern corporation. The project was an example...... of a loose-coupled and temporary arrangement/organization that invited a diverse group of participants to engage in the co-production of knowledge in/on leadership communicative practices. The participants were professional leaders from diverse organizations in the North of Jutland together with researchers...

  9. Materializing Ethnography


    Geismar, H.; Horst, H. A.


    The articles in this volume were originally presented in a panel entitled ‘Material Methodologies’ at the American Anthropological Association meeting in New Orleans (November 2002). The panel was devised to tie together theoretical advances in the study of the material with the creative possibilities of fieldwork practices. Through detailed ethnographic discussion, we highlighted the ways in which a focus on a specifically material world enabled us to discover new perspecti...

  10. Nursing practice in stroke rehabilitation: systematic review and meta-ethnography. (United States)

    Clarke, David J


    To identify and synthesise the available research evidence in order to generate an explanatory framework for nursing practice in stroke rehabilitation. Although nurses are the largest professional group working with stroke survivors, there is limited understanding of nursing practice in stroke units. In particular, there is currently very little evidence in respect of nurses' involvement in poststroke rehabilitation. Meta-ethnography. A systematic review was undertaken. The review question was: 'What is the nature of nursing practice in the care and rehabilitation of inpatient stroke survivors?' Searches of 12 electronic databases identified 14,655 publications, and after screening, 778 remained; 137 papers were obtained and 54 retained for mapping. Sixteen qualitative studies were included in the meta-ethnography. Nurses' involvement in poststroke rehabilitation was limited. Contextual factors impacted on nurses' perceptions and practice. Nurses' integration of rehabilitation skills was perceived to be contingent on adequate nurse staffing levels and management of demands on nurses' time. Team working practices and use of the built environment indicated separation of nursing and therapy work. Physical care and monitoring were prioritised. Stroke-specific education and training was evident, but not consistent in content or approach. Stroke survivors and families needed help to understand nurses' role in rehabilitation. The review provides compelling evidence that there is an need to re-examine the role of nurses in contributing to poststroke rehabilitation, including clarifying when this process can safely begin and specifying the techniques that can be integrated in nurses' practice. Integrating stroke-specific rehabilitation skills in nurses' practice could contribute substantially to improving outcomes for stroke survivors. The explanatory framework developed from the review findings identifies issues which will need to be addressed in order to maximise nurses

  11. Women's experiences during myocardial infarction: systematic review and meta-ethnography. (United States)

    Madsen, Rikke; Birkelund, Regner


    The aim of this review is to identify, analyse and synthesise existing knowledge concerning female experiences during myocardial infarction. There is a lack of knowledge about women's experiences during myocardial infarction, and a meta-synthesis is needed to synthesise existing evidence. A systematic review and meta-ethnography. A systematic review was undertaken in September 2013. Four databases were searched. Grey literature and reference lists were screened for relevant studies. Four hundred and eighty-one papers were identified and 14 were included. The method of Noblit and Hare was used in the process of conducting this review and meta-ethnography. Three themes were identified. 1. 'Feeling the changes in my body', 2. 'Understanding the changes in my body' and 3. 'Acting on the changes in my body'. The majority of women did not experience their body changes as being severe and threatening. Therefore, the women chose to wait or self-medicate before consulting others. The women who initially experienced the symptoms related to myocardial infarction as being severe and threatening, chose to consult others earlier than the majority of women. Women's experiences and interpretation of body symptoms during myocardial infarction vary. Most commonly women do not initially recognise their body symptoms as being severe and life threatening. The theory of Merleau-Ponty's 'current and habituated body' is relevant for explaining women's ways of understanding and acting on their body changes during myocardial infarction. This review is relevant in a preventive and rehabilitating perspective for professionals working in health care. It helps professionals to understand women's experiences during myocardial infarction, optimises their ability to suspect myocardial infarction and teach women to react on these body changes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Music's Relevance for People Affected by Cancer: A Meta-Ethnography and Implications for Music Therapists. (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Clare C; McDermott, Fiona; Reid, Philippa; Michael, Natasha; Hudson, Peter; Zalcberg, John R; Edwards, Jane


    Evidence supports music-based oncologic support interventions including music therapy. By comparison, little is understood about music-based self-care. This meta-ethnography examined five published qualitative studies to extend understanding of music's relevance, including helpfulness, for people affected by cancer; including children, adolescents, and adults with cancer, carers, and the bereaved. To improve understanding of music's broad relevance for those affected by cancer. Meta-ethnography strategies informed the analysis. Five studies were synthesized that included 138 participants: 26 children and 28 parents of children with cancer; 12 adolescents and young adults with cancer; 52 adults with cancer; 12 carers; and 8 bereaved. Studies' category and thematic findings were compared and integrated into third-order interpretations, and a line of argument. Perspectives from the five studies that illuminated the line of argument were developed. Music usage can remain incidental, continue normally, and/or change because of cancer's harsh effects. Music can be a lifeline, support biopsychosocial and spiritual well-being, or become elusive, that is, difficult to experience. Music helps or intrudes because it extends self-awareness and social connections, and prompts play, memories, imageries, and legacies. Music therapists may help patients and carers to recover or extend music's helpful effects. Cancer care can be improved through offering music-based resources/services, which give cancer patients and carers opportunities to extend music usage for personal support and, for carers, to support patients. Music therapists can advocate for such resources and educate health professionals about assessing/recognizing when patients' and carers' changed music behaviors signify additional support needs. © the American Music Therapy Association 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  13. A Bible translation inspired look at the history and ethnography of the Batswana

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    Sidney K. Berman


    Full Text Available This article’s point of departure is that, apart from his or her own understanding of the text, the Bible translator is likely to face difficulties that pertain to the audience’s history and ethnography: Some biblical concepts will be difficult or impossible to communicate in the language of the target audience because of mismatches in cultural concepts, limitations of vocabulary in the target language, or the translator’s limited understanding of some elements of the target language and culture. Thus, the article examines some aspects of the history and ethnography of the Batswana from the perspective of Bible translation. For illustration purposes, it raises certain issues from the book of Ruth, in particular looking at how the three existing Setswana Bibles rendered or could have better rendered them. The Setswana Bibles in question are those of Moffat, published in 1857, Wookey, published in 1908 and Bible Society of South Africa (BSSA – once called the Central Tswana Bible, published in 1970. The article proposes explanations that the translator could have given in order to eliminate or reduce the problems. For that reason, the ultimate argument is that the translators could not have translated the three Bibles satisfactorily without the use of explanatory footnotes akin to those of study Bibles. This proposal arose more frequently for Moffat, who appears to have struggled more, not because of his exegetical understanding of the text, but because his audience’s familiarity with JudeoChristian concepts was nil. The article is made up of the following topics: the three Setswana Bibles, the Batswana, on the use of Ruth, the Setswana language, means of economic production, the Supreme Being and ancestral spirits, and divination and sorcery.

  14. Continuing professional development (CPD) in radiography: A collaborative European meta-ethnography literature review. (United States)

    Wareing, A; Buissink, C; Harper, D; Gellert Olesen, M; Soto, M; Braico, S; Van Laer, P; Gremion, I; Rainford, L


    The aim of the study was to complete a collaborative review of Radiography continuing professional development (CPD) research material to support the production of European Federation of Radiographer Societies (EFRS) CPD recommendations. A meta-ethnography approach to literature review was applied focussing upon commonalities rather than discrepancies between research outcomes. This facilitated exploration of context across the geographical region of Europe with national variations in CPD governance. The seven phases of the meta-ethnographic approach were followed by two independent experienced researchers. A third researcher mediated the findings which were then explored collaboratively with the EFRS CPD working group for concordance. Phase seven of the meta-ethnography involved interpreting an expression of the synthesis from the previous stages. Six main corroborating themes emerged in this process and following mediation were expressed as themes; knowledge, skills & competency, needs/gap analysis, multi-layered/multi-modal, barriers and drivers; regulation vs autonomy; fostering collaboration - harnessing technology. The primary feature of CPD activity should be the resulting impact - to patients, the service, the profession and the individual; with all stakeholders working in partnership. CPD activity must be flexible/multi-modal to support the changing growth/dynamic workforce. All stakeholders should utilise communication and technology resources and make efforts to improve collaboration between the management, regulators and educators to support Radiographers to develop meaningful CPD. Health services across Europe are under increasing stress and a principal factor going forwards will be managing increasing demands on healthcare staff whilst supporting enhancement of the knowledge, skills and competency base. Copyright © 2017 The College of Radiographers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A meta-ethnography of organisational culture in primary care medical practice. (United States)

    Grant, Suzanne; Guthrie, Bruce; Entwistle, Vikki; Williams, Brian


    Over the past decade, there has been growing international interest in shaping local organisational cultures in primary healthcare. However, the contextual relevance of extant culture assessment instruments to the primary care context has been questioned. The aim of this paper is to derive a new contextually appropriate understanding of the key dimensions of primary care medical practice organisational culture and their inter-relationship through a synthesis of published qualitative research. A systematic search of six electronic databases followed by a synthesis using techniques of meta-ethnography involving translation and re-interpretation. A total of 16 papers were included in the meta-ethnography from the UK, the USA, Canada, Australia and New Zealand that fell into two related groups: those focused on practice organisational characteristics and narratives of practice individuality; and those focused on sub-practice variation across professional, managerial and administrative lines. It was found that primary care organisational culture was characterised by four key dimensions, i.e. responsiveness, team hierarchy, care philosophy and communication. These dimensions are multi-level and inter-professional in nature, spanning both practice and sub-practice levels. The research contributes to organisational culture theory development. The four new cultural dimensions provide a synthesized conceptual framework for researchers to evaluate and understand primary care cultural and sub-cultural levels. The synthesised cultural dimensions present a framework for practitioners to understand and change organisational culture in primary care teams. The research uses an innovative research methodology to synthesise the existing qualitative research and is one of the first to develop systematically a qualitative conceptual framing of primary care organisational culture.

  16. Disease burden and patient reported outcomes among patients with moderate to severe psoriasis: an ethnography study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayanan S


    Full Text Available Siva Narayanan,1 Victoria Guyatt,2 Alessandra Franceschetti,3 Emily L Hautamaki1 1Ipsos Healthcare, Columbia, MD, USA; 2Ipsos Ethnography Centre of Excellence (ECE, London, UK; 3Ipsos Healthcare, London, UK Objectives: To assess the impact of psoriasis on health-related quality of life (HRQoL.Methods: An ethnographic study of patients with moderate to severe psoriasis was conducted in the US, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, UK, Brazil, and Canada to explore patients' views on treatment and the impact of psoriasis on HRQoL. Anthropologists and ethnographers spent a minimum of 5.5 hours with each consented patient and filmed their behaviors in everyday situations. Visual data and notes were analyzed to identify HRQoL-related themes.Results: The study included 50 adult patients. Patients described their appearance with disgust and self-loathing. Frustration was expressed due to a perceived lack of control of their lives. Prior to initiation of biologic treatment, daily rituals absorbed a good part of their day, including applying creams, checking one's appearance, and covering the body. Due to a lack of cultural discourse and patient's difficulty in articulating the impact of psoriasis, partners and family did not know how to react nor did they realize the full extent of the problem, and many patients experienced perceived social discrimination due to psoriasis, leaving them with feelings of isolation. Patients established on biologic treatment noticed a significant physical improvement and regained confidence, but psychosocial impacts, including social isolation, remained.Conclusion: This ethnographic study vividly depicted the unarticulated and emotional impact of psoriasis on the everyday lives of patients and presents an effective method of assessing HRQoL in chronic diseases.Keywords: psoriasis, health-related quality of life, ethnography, patient reported outcomes, conceptual model

  17. Elevating the Role of Race in Ethnographic Research: Navigating Race Relations in the Field (United States)

    Brown, Keffrelyn D.


    Little work in the social sciences or in the field of education has fully explored the methodological issues related to the study of race and racism, yet qualitative researchers acknowledge that race plays (and should play) a role in the research process. Indeed, race frames and informs the context, practices and perspectives of everyday lived…

  18. Thermographic Imaging of the Superficial Temperature in Racing Greyhounds before and after the Race

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    Mari Vainionpää


    Full Text Available A total of 47 racing greyhounds were enrolled in this study on two race days (in July and September, resp. at a racetrack. Twelve of the dogs participated in the study on both days. Thermographic images were taken before and after each race. From the images, superficial temperature points of selected sites (tendo calcaneus, musculus gastrocnemius, musculus gracilis, and musculus biceps femoris portio caudalis were taken and used to investigate the differences in superficial temperatures before and after the race. The thermographic images were compared between the right and left legs of a dog, between the raced distances, and between the two race days. The theoretical heat capacity of a racing greyhound was calculated. With regard to all distances raced, the superficial temperatures measured from the musculus gastrocnemius were significantly higher after the race than at baseline. No significant differences were found between the left and right legs of a dog after completing any of the distances. Significant difference was found between the two race days. The heat loss mechanisms of racing greyhounds during the race through forced conduction, radiation, evaporation, and panting can be considered adequate when observing the calculated heat capacity of the dogs.

  19. Thermographic imaging of the superficial temperature in racing greyhounds before and after the race. (United States)

    Vainionpää, Mari; Tienhaara, Esa-Pekka; Raekallio, Marja; Junnila, Jouni; Snellman, Marjatta; Vainio, Outi


    A total of 47 racing greyhounds were enrolled in this study on two race days (in July and September, resp.) at a racetrack. Twelve of the dogs participated in the study on both days. Thermographic images were taken before and after each race. From the images, superficial temperature points of selected sites (tendo calcaneus, musculus gastrocnemius, musculus gracilis, and musculus biceps femoris portio caudalis) were taken and used to investigate the differences in superficial temperatures before and after the race. The thermographic images were compared between the right and left legs of a dog, between the raced distances, and between the two race days. The theoretical heat capacity of a racing greyhound was calculated. With regard to all distances raced, the superficial temperatures measured from the musculus gastrocnemius were significantly higher after the race than at baseline. No significant differences were found between the left and right legs of a dog after completing any of the distances. Significant difference was found between the two race days. The heat loss mechanisms of racing greyhounds during the race through forced conduction, radiation, evaporation, and panting can be considered adequate when observing the calculated heat capacity of the dogs.

  20. Debate: Race, Labour and the Archbishop, or the Currency of Race. (United States)

    Stanford, Jacqui


    Explores how race is exploited to serve political agendas in Britain, examining the Labour Government's orientation to race. Argues that the Labour Government manipulates issues to suggest concern while actually removing race from the policy agenda in education. Reflects on the Archbishop of Canterbury's "Jesus 2000" to support the…

  1. A mega-ethnography of eleven qualitative evidence syntheses exploring the experience of living with chronic non-malignant pain. (United States)

    Toye, Fran; Seers, Kate; Hannink, Erin; Barker, Karen


    Each year over five million people develop chronic non-malignant pain and can experience healthcare as an adversarial struggle. The aims of this study were: (1) to bring together qualitative evidence syntheses that explore patients' experience of living with chronic non-malignant pain and develop conceptual understanding of what it is like to live with chronic non-malignant pain for improved healthcare; (2) to undertake the first mega-ethnography of qualitative evidence syntheses using the methods of meta-ethnography. We used the seven stages of meta-ethnography refined for large studies. The innovation of mega-ethnography is to use conceptual findings from qualitative evidence syntheses as primary data. We searched 7 bibliographic databases from inception until February 2016 to identify qualitative evidence syntheses that explored patients' experience of living with chronic non-malignant pain. We identified 82 potential studies from 556 titles, screened 34 full text articles and included 11 qualitative evidence syntheses synthesising a total of 187 qualitative studies reporting more than 5000 international participants living with chronic pain. We abstracted concepts into 7 conceptual categories: (1) my life is impoverished and confined; (2) struggling against my body to be me; (3) the quest for the diagnostic 'holy grail'; (4) lost personal credibility; (5) trying to keep up appearances; (6) need to be treated with dignity; and (7) deciding to end the quest for the grail is not easy. Each conceptual category was supported by at least 7 of the 11 qualitative evidence syntheses. This is the first mega-ethnography, or synthesis of qualitative evidence syntheses using the methods of meta-ethnography. Findings help us to understand that the decision to end the quest for a diagnosis can leave patients feeling vulnerable and this may contribute to the adversarial nature of the clinical encounter. This knowledge demonstrates that treating a patient with a sense that they

  2. Children's experiences of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME): a systematic review and meta-ethnography of qualitative studies. (United States)

    Parslow, Roxanne M; Harris, Sarah; Broughton, Jessica; Alattas, Adla; Crawley, Esther; Haywood, Kirstie; Shaw, Alison


    To synthesis the qualitative studies of children's experiences of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME). Systematic review and meta-ethnography. CFS/ME is an important disabling illness, with uncertain cause and prognosis. As a result, children with CFS/ME can find themselves living with greater uncertainty and stigma, exacerbating the impact of the condition. There is a growing body of qualitative research in CFS/ME, yet there has been no attempt to systematically synthesis the studies involving children. Studies exploring the experiences of children diagnosed with CFS/ME, published or unpublished, using qualitative methods were eligible. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CINAHL databases were searched as well as grey literature, reference lists and contacting authors. Quality assessment was done independently using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) checklist. Studies were synthesised using techniques of meta-ethnography. Ten studies involving 82 children with CFS/ME aged 8-18 were included. Our synthesis describes four third-order constructs within children's experiences: (1) disruption and loss: physical, social and the self; (2) barriers to coping: suspension in uncertainty, problems with diagnosis and disbelief; (3) facilitators to coping: reducing uncertainty, credible illness narratives, diagnosis and supportive relationships and (4) hope, personal growth and recovery. CFS/ME introduces profound biographical disruption through its effects on children's ability to socialise, perform school and therefore how they see their future. Unfamiliarity of the condition, problems with diagnosis and felt stigma prevent children from forming a new illness identity. Children adopt coping strategies such as building credible explanations for their illness. Physical, social, emotional and self-dimensions of life should be included when treating and measuring outcomes from healthcare in paediatric CFS/ME. There is a need for greater recognition

  3. Next Space Race is in IT (United States)

    Alger, George; Santiago, S. Scott (Technical Monitor)


    The next Space Race will be in the economic applications from space and science technology. As NASA science and technology has global application; IT is global, economics is global; surely there are great untapped potentials in finding the IT links of commonality among these three. The Economics of IT will continue to depend upon solution providers creating new methods that capitalize on linking information and information centers with the applications community for business and economic functions.. New and innovative IT vendors whose increased efforts to apply evolving technologies and principles that power the e-business revolution are now seeing the business of government being transformed in a similar fashion. NASA will be a prime example of IT transformation. Potential benefits of e-government are identical to the benefits of e-commerce, which start from value derived from capabilities and assets. The capability and asset wealth of NASA technology and data mass scattered through hundreds of archives will one day provide incredible economic benefit across international and corporate boundaries. Yet the ability to economically benefit from bridging the gap between capability to billable service has yet to find it's first major market. Ultimately the role of government, science, and technology linking to the business world will find greater dependence from this increasingly common ground of IT solutions and technologies. Therefore the future role of the IT industry may be as much administrative as technical, ultimately of critical importance furthering the role of science into application.

  4. An anthropological approach to teach and evaluate cultural competence in medical students - the application of mini-ethnography in medical history taking. (United States)

    Hsieh, Jyh-Gang; Hsu, Mutsu; Wang, Ying-Wei


    Purpose To use mini-ethnographies narrating patient illness to improve the cultural competence of the medical students. Methods Between September 2013 and June 2015, all sixth-year medical students doing their internship at a medical center in eastern Taiwan were trained to write mini-ethnographies for one of the patients in their care. The mini-ethnographies were analyzed by authors with focus on the various aspects of cultural sensitivity and a holistic care approach. Results Ninety-one students handed in mini-ethnographies, of whom 56 were male (61.5%) and 35 were female (38.5%). From the mini-ethnographies, three core aspects were derived: 1) the explanatory models and perceptions of illness, 2) culture and health care, and 3) society, resources, and health care. Based on the qualities of each aspect, nine secondary nodes were classified: expectations and attitude about illness/treatment, perceptions about their own prognosis in particular, knowledge and feelings regarding illness, cause of illness, choice of treatment method (including traditional medical treatments), prejudice and discrimination, influences of traditional culture and language, social support and resources, and inequality in health care. Conclusions Mini-ethnography is an effective teaching method that can help students to develop cultural competence. It also serves as an effective instrument to assess the cultural competence of medical students.

  5. Power is only skin deep: an institutional ethnography of nurse-driven outpatient psoriasis treatment in the era of clinic web sites. (United States)

    Winkelman, Warren J; Halifax, Nancy V Davis


    We present an institutional ethnography of hospital-based psoriasis day treatment in the context of evaluating readiness to supplement services and support with a new web site. Through observation, interviews and a critical consideration of documents, forms and other textually-mediated discourses in the day-to-day work of nurses and physicians, we come to understand how the historical gender-determined power structure of nurses and physicians impacts nurses' work. On the one hand, nurses' work can have certain social benefits that would usually be considered untenable in traditional healthcare: nurses as primary decision-makers, nurses as experts in the treatment of disease, physicians as secondary consultants, and patients as co-facilitators in care delivery processes. However, benefits seem to have come at the nurses' expense, as they are required to maintain a cloak of invisibility for themselves and for their workplace, so that the Centre appears like all other outpatient clinics, and the nurses do not enjoy appropriate economic recognition. Implications for this negotiated invisibility on the implementation of new information systems in healthcare are discussed.

  6. Darwin on Race, Gender, and Culture (United States)

    Shields, Stephanie A.; Bhatia, Sunil


    Darwin's theories of natural selection and sexual selection are significant scientific achievements, although his understanding of race and gender was defined and limited by his own life circumstances and the sociohistorical context within which he worked. This article considers the ways in which race, gender, and culture were represented and…

  7. The ploidy races of Atriplex confertifolia (chenopodiaceae) (United States)

    Stewart C. Sanderson


    Previous accounts of polyploidy in the North American salt desert shrub Atriplex confertifolia (shadscale) have dealt with the distribution of polyploidy and the morphological and secondary chemical differences between races. The present study amplifies these studies and reveals additional ploidy-flavonoid races, with ploidy levels known to extend from 2x to 12x, and...

  8. "Egg Races" and Other Practical Challenges (United States)

    Auty, Geoff


    This article presents ideas behind science and technology challenges and shares experiences of "egg races." Different challenges were set, but there was always the need to transport an egg across some obstacle course without breaking it. It was so popular in the 1980s that the term "egg race" came to mean any kind of simple…

  9. Lung Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity (United States)

    ... the Biggest Cancer Killer in Both Men and Women” Stay Informed Rates by Race and Ethnicity for Other Kinds of Cancer All Cancers Combined Breast Cervical Colorectal (Colon) HPV-Associated Ovarian Prostate Skin Uterine Cancer Home Lung Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity Language: ...

  10. Another Inconvenient Truth: Race and Ethnicity Matter (United States)

    Hawley, Willis D.; Nieto, Sonia


    When it comes to maximizing learning opportunities and outcomes for students from racially and ethnically diverse backgrounds, race and ethnicity matter: They affect how students respond to instruction and curriculum, and they influence teachers' assumptions about how students learn. Effective implementation of race- and ethnicity-responsive…

  11. Race, science and a novel: an interdisciplinary dialogue. (United States)

    Burns, Lawrence; Lanoix, Monique; Melnychuk, Ryan M; Pauly, Bernie


    In the novel Racists by Kunal Basu (2006), two competing scientists initiate an experiment that they believe will prove which race is superior. The research subjects, one white and one black infant, are sequestered on an isolated island in the care of a mute nurse. The contest must be waged in a 'natural laboratory' with no artificial interventions and with the prospect that one will die at the hands of the other. The politics of empire, the slave trade and the advent of a new scientific way of viewing life, Darwinism, set the stage for the fictional experiment, but the ramifications of such thinking extend into the present. Coming from the disciplines of nursing, philosophy and science, we discuss how a novel can illuminate the moral dimensions of science and healthcare. The critical distance afforded by the novel provides a rich terrain for the examination of issues such as race, care and the purity of science. Despite the recent dominance of social explanations of race, science requires the examination of the differences between human beings at the biological level. The view that biology is destiny is a powerful one with dangerous consequences, especially since the belief that certain human beings' destinies are far worthier than others is a corollary of such a view. In this paper, we present the cross-disciplinary conversation, which has been facilitated by this novel. We hope this will inform ethics educators of the rich potential of using fiction as a pedagogical tool.

  12. Cardiac Biomarkers and Cycling Race

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Le Goff, Jean-François Kaux, Sébastien Goffaux, Etienne Cavalier


    Full Text Available In cycling as in other types of strenuous exercise, there exists a risk of sudden death. It is important both to understand its causes and to see if the behavior of certain biomarkers might highlight athletes at risk. Many reports describe changes in biomarkers after strenuous exercise (Nie et al., 2011, but interpreting these changes, and notably distinguishing normal physiological responses from pathological changes, is not easy. Here we have focused on the kinetics of different cardiac biomarkers: creatin kinase (CK, creating kinase midbrain (CK-MB, myoglobin (MYO, highly sensitive troponin T (hs-TnT and N-terminal brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP. The population studied was a group of young trained cyclists participating in a 177-km cycling race. The group of individuals was selected for maximal homogeneity. Their annual training volume was between 10,000 and 16,000 kilometers. The rhythm of races is comparable and averages 35 km/h, depending on the race’s difficulty. The cardiac frequency was recorded via a heart rate monitor. Three blood tests were taken. The first blood test, T0, was taken approximately 2 hours before the start of the race and was intended to gather values which would act as references for the following tests. The second blood test, T1, was realized within 5 minutes of their arrival. The third and final blood test, T3, was taken 3 hours following their arrival. The CK, CK-MB, MYO, hs-TnT and NT-proBNP were measured on the Roche Diagnostic modular E (Manhein, Germany. For the statistical analysis, an ANOVA and post hoc test of Scheffé were calculated with the Statistica Software version 9.1. We noticed an important significant variation in the cardiac frequency between T0 and T1 (p < 0.0001, T0 and T3 (p < 0.0001, and T1 and T3 (p < 0.01. Table 1 shows the results obtained for the different biomarkers. CK and CK-MB showed significant variation between T0-T1 and T0-T3 (p < 0.0001. Myoglobin increased significantly

  13. The Spectre of Race in American Medicine (United States)

    Fofana, Mariam O.


    Controversies and debates surrounding race have long been a fixture in American medicine. In the past, the biological concept of race—the idea that race is biologically determined and meaningful—has served to justify the institution of slavery and the conduct of unethical research trials. Although these days may seem far behind, contemporary debates over the race-specific approval of drugs and the significance of genetic differences are evidence that race still yields tremendous influence on medical research and clinical practice. In many ways, the use of race in medicine today reflects the internalization of racial hierarchies borne out of the history of slavery and state-mandated segregation, and there is still much uncertainty over its benefits and harms. Although using race in research can help elucidate disparities, the reflexive use of race as a variable runs the risk of reifying the biological concept of race and blinding researchers to important underlying factors such as socioeconomic status. Similarly, in clinical practice, the use of race in assessing a patient’s risk of certain conditions (e.g., sickle cell) turns harmful when the heuristic becomes a rule. Through selected historical and contemporary examples, I aim to show how the biological concept of race that gave rise to past abuses remains alive and harmful and propose changes in medical education as a potential solution. By learning from the past, today’s physicians will be better armed to discern—and correct—the ways in which contemporary medicine perpetuates historical injustices. PMID:23988563

  14. The tension between person centred and task focused care in an acute surgical setting: A critical ethnography


    Sharp, Sandra.; Mcallister, Margaret.; Broadbent, Mark.


    Problem: Person centred care is a key indicator of quality care and a policy direction in many hospitals yet some patients experience care that falls short of this standard.Background: Health services worldwide are prioritising the delivery of person centred in order to address historical concerns over patient safety and quality care and to improve workplace morale. Workplaceculture is known to affect nurses’ care giving.Question: This research aimed to uncover the cultural factors that hinde...

  15. Mapping the Ethnographic Journey: A "Road Map" for Novice Researchers Wanting to Engage in Ethnography, Critical Theory and Policy Analysis (United States)

    Naidu, Sham


    In this article, the "researcher" narrates the issues faced by novice researchers in choosing the correct lenses to conduct research when searching for the truth via the use of qualitative methodology. It is argued that choosing an appropriate research approach and methodology can be described as an "arduous" journey. For the…

  16. Surviving life as a woman: a critical ethnography of violence in the lives of female domestic workers in Malawi. (United States)

    Mkandawire-Valhmu, Lucy; Rodriguez, Rachel; Ammar, Nawal; Nemoto, Keiko


    A common form of employment for low-income third world women is domestic work. The power dynamics in this type of employer-employee relationship may place women at risk for abuse. Our aim in conducting this qualitative inquiry was to describe the experiences of violence in the lives of young female domestic workers in Malawi, a small country in South East Africa. Forty-eight women participated in focus group and individual interviews. "Surviving" was the main theme identified, with women employing creative ways of surviving the challenges they met at various points in their lives. This study provides information that health care professionals could use in assisting women through the process of surviving.

  17. Stepping up for Childhood: A Contextual Critical Methodology (United States)

    Kyriacopoulos, Konstantine; Sánchez, Marta


    In this paper, we theorize a critical methodology for education centering community experiences of systemic injustice, drawing upon Critical Race Theory, critical educational leadership studies, Chicana feminism, participant action research and political theory, to refocus our work on the human relationships at the center of the learning and…

  18. Unattainable goals, middle class fantasies: an ethnography of women's work in feminized retail banking in Istanbul, Turkey


    Topçu, Berra; Topcu, Berra


    Drawing from a workplace ethnography among women professionals in the increasingly feminized lower echelons of commercial bank branches (so-called retail banking) in Istanbul, Turkey, this thesis is an examination of women’s affective labor and the construction of white-collar subjectivities. Given the performance criteria of professionalism, productivity, efficiency, and individualism as part of neoliberal discourses for attaining the ideal of the white-collar woman in the retail bank, how a...

  19. A critique of race-based and genomic medicine. (United States)

    Meier, Robert J


    Now that a composite human genome has been sequenced (HGP), research has accelerated to discover precise genetic bases of several chronic health issues, particularly in the realms of cancer and cardiovascular disease. It is anticipated that in the future it will be possible and cost effective to regularly sequence individual genomes, and thereby produce a DNA profile that potentially can be used to assess the health risks for each person with respect to certain genetically predisposed conditions. Coupled with that enormous diagnostic power, it will then depend upon equally rapid research efforts to develop personalized courses of treatment, including that of pharmaceutical therapy. Initial treatment attempts have been made to match drug efficacy and safety to individuals of assigned or self-identified groups according to their genetic ancestry or presumed race. A prime example is that of BiDil, which was the first drug approved by the US FDA for the explicit treatment of heart patients of African American ancestry. This race-based approach to medicine has been met with justifiable criticism, notably on ethical grounds that have long plagued historical applications and misuses of human race classification, and also on questionable science. This paper will assess race-based medical research and practice in light of a more thorough understanding of human genetic variability. Additional concerns will be expressed with regard to the rapidly developing area of pharmacogenomics, promoted to be the future of personalized medicine. Genomic epidemiology will be discussed with several examples of on-going research that hopefully will provide a solid scientific grounding for personalized medicine to build upon.

  20. "Y Nosotros, Que?": Moving beyond the Margins in a Community Change Initiative (United States)

    Quinones, Sandra; Ares, Nancy; Padela, Maryam Razvi; Hopper, Mindy; Webster, Stephanie


    Our ethnography focuses on an urban community change organization within a predominantly African American and Latino population. Latino Critical Race Theory and Critical Race Theory help us understand the Spanish speakers' positioning and how particularities of Latinas/os' experience challenged power relations and group cohesion. Our findings…

  1. Meta-ethnography 25 years on: challenges and insights for synthesising a large number of qualitative studies (United States)


    Studies that systematically search for and synthesise qualitative research are becoming more evident in health care, and they can make an important contribution to patient care. Our team was funded to complete a meta-ethnography of patients’ experience of chronic musculoskeletal pain. It has been 25 years since Noblit and Hare published their core text on meta-ethnography, and the current health research environment brings additional challenges to researchers aiming to synthesise qualitative research. Noblit and Hare propose seven stages of meta-ethnography which take the researcher from formulating a research idea to expressing the findings. These stages are not discrete but form part of an iterative research process. We aimed to build on the methods of Noblit and Hare and explore the challenges of including a large number of qualitative studies into a qualitative systematic review. These challenges hinge upon epistemological and practical issues to be considered alongside expectations about what determines high quality research. This paper describes our method and explores these challenges. Central to our method was the process of collaborative interpretation of concepts and the decision to exclude original material where we could not decipher a concept. We use excerpts from our research team’s reflexive statements to illustrate the development of our methods. PMID:24951054

  2. A meta-ethnography of patients' experiences of chronic pelvic pain: struggling to construct chronic pelvic pain as 'real'. (United States)

    Toye, Francine; Seers, Kate; Barker, Karen


    To review systematically and integrate the findings of qualitative research to increase our understanding of patients' experiences of chronic pelvic pain. Chronic pelvic pain is a prevalent pain condition with a high disease burden for men and women. Its multifactorial nature makes it challenging for clinicians and patients. Synthesis of qualitative research using meta-ethnography. Five electronic bibliographic databases from inception until March 2014 supplemented by citation tracking. Of 488 papers retrieved, 32 met the review aim. Central to meta-ethnography is identifying 'concepts' and developing a conceptual model through constant comparison. Concepts are the primary data of meta-ethnography. Two team members read each paper to identify and collaboratively describe the concepts. We next compared concepts across studies and organized them into categories with shared meaning. Finally, we developed a conceptual model, or line of argument, to explain the conceptual categories. Our findings incorporate the following categories into a conceptual model: relentless and overwhelming pain; threat to self; unpredictability, struggle to construct pain as normal or pathological; a culture of secrecy; validation by diagnosis; ambiguous experience of health care; elevation of experiential knowledge and embodiment of knowledge through a community. The innovation of our model is to demonstrate, for the first time, the central struggle to construct 'pathological' vs. 'normal' chronic pelvic pain, a struggle that is exacerbated by a culture of secrecy. More research is needed to explore men's experience and to compare this with women's experience. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Meta-ethnography 25 years on: challenges and insights for synthesising a large number of qualitative studies. (United States)

    Toye, Francine; Seers, Kate; Allcock, Nick; Briggs, Michelle; Carr, Eloise; Barker, Karen


    Studies that systematically search for and synthesise qualitative research are becoming more evident in health care, and they can make an important contribution to patient care. Our team was funded to complete a meta-ethnography of patients' experience of chronic musculoskeletal pain. It has been 25 years since Noblit and Hare published their core text on meta-ethnography, and the current health research environment brings additional challenges to researchers aiming to synthesise qualitative research. Noblit and Hare propose seven stages of meta-ethnography which take the researcher from formulating a research idea to expressing the findings. These stages are not discrete but form part of an iterative research process. We aimed to build on the methods of Noblit and Hare and explore the challenges of including a large number of qualitative studies into a qualitative systematic review. These challenges hinge upon epistemological and practical issues to be considered alongside expectations about what determines high quality research. This paper describes our method and explores these challenges. Central to our method was the process of collaborative interpretation of concepts and the decision to exclude original material where we could not decipher a concept. We use excerpts from our research team's reflexive statements to illustrate the development of our methods.

  4. A meta-ethnography of interview-based qualitative research studies on medical students' views and experiences of empathy. (United States)

    Jeffrey, David


    Quantitative research suggests that medical students' empathy declines during their training. This meta-ethnography asks: What new understanding may be gained by a synthesis of interview-based qualitative research on medical students' views and experiences of empathy? How can such a synthesis be undertaken? A meta-ethnography synthesizes individual qualitative studies to generate knowledge increasing understanding and informing debate. A literature search yielded eight qualitative studies which met the inclusion criteria. These were analyzed from a phenomenological and interpretative perspective. The meta-ethnography revealed a conceptual confusion around empathy and a tension in medical education between distancing and connecting with patients. Barriers to empathy included a lack of patient contact and a strong emphasis on the biomedical over the psycho-social aspects of the curriculum. A number of influences discussed in the paper lead students to adopt less overt ways of showing their empathy. These insights deepen our understanding of the apparent decline in empathy in medical students. The lessons from these studies suggest that future curriculum development should include earlier patient contact, more emphasis on psycho-social aspects of care and address the barriers to empathy to ensure that tomorrow's doctors are empathetic as well as competent.

  5. Virtual driving and risk taking: do racing games increase risk-taking cognitions, affect, and behaviors? (United States)

    Fischer, Peter; Kubitzki, Jörg; Guter, Stephanie; Frey, Dieter


    Research has consistently shown that aggressive video console and PC games elicit aggressive cognitions, affect, and behaviors. Despite the increasing popularity of racing (driving) games, nothing is known about the psychological impact of this genre. This study investigated whether playing racing games affects cognitions, affect, and behaviors that can promote risk taking in actual road traffic situations. In Study 1, the authors found that the frequency of playing racing games was positively associated with competitive driving, obtrusive driving, and car accidents; a negative association with cautious driving was observed. To determine cause and effect, in Study 2, the authors manipulated whether participants played 1 of 3 racing games or 1 of 3 neutral games. Participants who played a racing game subsequently reported a higher accessibility of cognitions and affect positively associated with risk taking than did participants who played a neutral game. Finally, on a more behavioral level, in Study 3, the authors found that men who played a racing game subsequently took higher risks in computer-simulated critical road traffic situations than did men who played a neutral game. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. ((c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. The Effects of Race on Patient Preferences and Spouse Substituted Judgments (United States)

    Pruchno, Rachel; Cartwright, Francine P.; Wilson-Genderson, Maureen


    Knowledge about the ways in which race affects decision-making at the end of life is minimal, yet this information is critical for providing culturally sensitive care at the end of life. Data matching socio-demographic characteristics of 34 black and 34 white patients with end-stage renal disease and their spouses reveal that there are no…

  7. Race, Difference, Meritocracy, and English: Majoritarian Stories in the Education of Secondary Multilingual Learners (United States)

    Mitchell, Kara


    In this study, empirical and conceptual scholarship (approximately 100 studies) regarding the education of secondary multilingual learners and their teachers are analyzed through the lens of critical race theory (CRT). Specifically, four common majoritarian stories are identified that are both challenged and endorsed in the research literature:…

  8. The Use of Psychodrama Action Techniques in a Race Relations Class (United States)

    Kranz, Peter L.; Ramirez, Sylvia Z.; Lund, Nick L.


    This article describes psychodrama action techniques that were effectively implemented in a university-level race relations course. Essential elements of these techniques included acting out and critical self-examination of the individual's personal beliefs. In a semi-structured class format in which uncensored spontaneity was stressed, students…

  9. Race and Assessment Practice in South Africa: Understanding Black Academic Experience (United States)

    Jawitz, Jeff


    Despite efforts to transform the racialised system of higher education in South Africa inherited from apartheid, there has been little research published that interrogates the relationship between race and the experience of academic staff within the South African higher education environment. Drawing on critical discourse analysis and critical…

  10. Sounds of Silence: Race and Emergent Counter-Narratives of Art Teacher Identity (United States)

    Kraehe, Amelia M.


    This article presents case studies of two Black preservice art teachers and their racialized experiences in art teacher education. Drawing from a critical race theory perspective, their stories are conceptualized as emergent counternarratives of becoming an art teacher. The case studies are based on interviews from an ethnographic investigation of…

  11. Shifting Identities: Negotiating Intersections of Race and Gender in Canadian Administrative Contexts (United States)

    Armstrong, Denise; Mitchell, Coral


    This qualitative study used a critical intersectional lens to examine how two black female Canadian principals negotiated their professional identities in administrative contexts. Both principals encountered gender and race-related pressures to fit normative expectations of administrators as white males. Navigating their intersecting identities…

  12. Mediated football: representations and audience receptions of race/ethnicity, gender and nation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Sterkenburg, J.; Spaaij, R.


    Mediated football is one of the most popular global cultural practices. Within this cultural practice, meanings given to race/ethnicity, gender and nation are naturalized often in an implicit and unacknowledged manner. In this article, we build on existing literature to critically examine the often

  13. Battling Inertia in Educational Leadership: CRT Praxis for Race Conscious Dialogue (United States)

    Agosto, Vonzell; Karanxha, Zorka; Bellara, Aarti


    The purpose of this article is to illustrate how institutional racism is mediated by faculty negotiating power and privilege in the selection of Black (African American) women into an educational leadership preparation program. Critical race theory (CRT) praxis is used to analyze the faculty dynamics in the candidate selection process situated in…

  14. Media Misrepresentations of a Mascot Controversy: Contested Constructions of Race and Gender (United States)

    Gerstl-Pepin, Cynthia; Liang, Guodong


    This article examines media coverage of a high school Native American mascot controversy. Discourse analysis of media documents and artifacts was utilized to explore how the issue was socially constructed for public consumption. Critical race feminism was used as a framework to examine how media discourses can oversimplify the complex interaction…

  15. Race modulates neural activity during imitation (United States)

    Losin, Elizabeth A. Reynolds; Iacoboni, Marco; Martin, Alia; Cross, Katy A.; Dapretto, Mirella


    Imitation plays a central role in the acquisition of culture. People preferentially imitate others who are self-similar, prestigious or successful. Because race can indicate a person's self-similarity or status, race influences whom people imitate. Prior studies of the neural underpinnings of imitation have not considered the effects of race. Here we measured neural activity with fMRI while European American participants imitated meaningless gestures performed by actors of their own race, and two racial outgroups, African American, and Chinese American. Participants also passively observed the actions of these actors and their portraits. Frontal, parietal and occipital areas were differentially activated while participants imitated actors of different races. More activity was present when imitating African Americans than the other racial groups, perhaps reflecting participants' reported lack of experience with and negative attitudes towards this group, or the group's lower perceived social status. This pattern of neural activity was not found when participants passively observed the gestures of the actors or simply looked at their faces. Instead, during face-viewing neural responses were overall greater for own-race individuals, consistent with prior race perception studies not involving imitation. Our findings represent a first step in elucidating neural mechanisms involved in cultural learning, a process that influences almost every aspect of our lives but has thus far received little neuroscientific study. PMID:22062193

  16. Race in Supervision: Let's Talk About It. (United States)

    Schen, Cathy R; Greenlee, Alecia


    Addressing race and racial trauma within psychotherapy supervision is increasingly important in psychiatry training. A therapist's ability to discuss race and racial trauma in psychotherapy supervision increases the likelihood that these topics will be explored as they arise in the therapeutic setting. The authors discuss the contextual and sociocultural dynamics that contributed to their own avoidance of race and racial trauma within the supervisory relationship. The authors examine the features that eventually led to a robust discussion of race and culture within the supervisory setting and identify salient themes that occurred during three phases of the conversation about race: pre-dialogue, the conversation, and after the conversation. These themes include building an alliance, supercompetence, avoidance, shared vulnerability, "if I speak on this, I own it," closeness versus distance, and speaking up. This article reviews the key literature in the field of psychiatry and psychology that has shaped how we understand race and racial trauma and concludes with guidelines for supervisors on how to facilitate talking about race in supervision.

  17. An investigation of racing performance and whip use by jockeys in thoroughbred races.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Evans

    Full Text Available Concerns have been expressed concerning animal-welfare issues associated with whip use during Thoroughbred races. However, there have been no studies of relationships between performance and use of whips in Thoroughbred racing. Our aim was to describe whip use and the horses' performance during races, and to investigate associations between whip use and racing performance. Under the Australian Racing Board (ARB rules, only horses that are in contention can be whipped, so we expected that whippings would be associated with superior performance, and those superior performances would be explained by an effect of whipping on horse velocities in the final 400 m of the race. We were also interested to determine whether performance in the latter sections of a race was associated with performance in the earlier sections of a race. Measurements of whip strikes and sectional times during each of the final three 200 metre (m sections of five races were analysed. Jockeys in more advanced placings at the final 400 and 200 m positions in the races whipped their horses more frequently. Horses, on average, achieved highest speeds in the 600 to 400 m section when there was no whip use, and the increased whip use was most frequent in the final two 200 m sections when horses were fatigued. This increased whip use was not associated with significant variation in velocity as a predictor of superior placing at the finish.

  18. Face-blind for other-race faces: Individual differences in other-race recognition impairments. (United States)

    Wan, Lulu; Crookes, Kate; Dawel, Amy; Pidcock, Madeleine; Hall, Ashleigh; McKone, Elinor


    We report the existence of a previously undescribed group of people, namely individuals who are so poor at recognition of other-race faces that they meet criteria for clinical-level impairment (i.e., they are "face-blind" for other-race faces). Testing 550 participants, and using the well-validated Cambridge Face Memory Test for diagnosing face blindness, results show the rate of other-race face blindness to be nontrivial, specifically 8.1% of Caucasians and Asians raised in majority own-race countries. Results also show risk factors for other-race face blindness to include: a lack of interracial contact; and being at the lower end of the normal range of general face recognition ability (i.e., even for own-race faces); but not applying less individuating effort to other-race than own-race faces. Findings provide a potential resolution of contradictory evidence concerning the importance of the other-race effect (ORE), by explaining how it is possible for the mean ORE to be modest in size (suggesting a genuine but minor problem), and simultaneously for individuals to suffer major functional consequences in the real world (e.g., eyewitness misidentification of other-race offenders leading to wrongful imprisonment). Findings imply that, in legal settings, evaluating an eyewitness's chance of having made an other-race misidentification requires information about the underlying face recognition abilities of the individual witness. Additionally, analogy with prosopagnosia (inability to recognize even own-race faces) suggests everyday social interactions with other-race people, such as those between colleagues in the workplace, will be seriously impacted by the ORE in some people. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Race, history, and black British jazz


    Toynbee, Jason


    This article traces the history of black British jazz across five moments from 1920 to the present. It also makes a theoretical argument about the nature of race and its connection both with music and belonging to the nation. Race is indeed a musical-discursive construction, as has been argued in the literature about culture and ethnicity over the last thirty years or so. But it is a social structure too, and the contradictions that result are key to understanding the race-music relationship.

  20. Co-constructing Appreciative Inquiry across disciplines: A duo-ethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne Meier


    Research purpose: The aim of this study was for two AI practitioners, one in the field of Industrial and Organisational Psychology and one in Education, to partake in a collaborative study proceeding from reflection on the said researchers’ experiences with facilitating AI in different contexts. Motivation for the study: With social constructionism as a core principle underlying AI, it is argued that sharing experiences across disciplines could enrich the literature and the application of AI in different contexts. Research design, approach and method: The research is based on a qualitative, empirical, duo-ethnography using self-reflective narratives of the experiences of facilitating AI in cross-disciplinary contexts. Main findings: Reflecting on experiences in various disciplines lead to the co-construction of new knowledge. Not only were similar experiences supported, validated and extended, thus affirming the strength-based principle of AI, but it also provided the opportunity for disciplinary cross-fertilisation by combining different perspectives regarding the formality of the AI process and the extent of the facilitator’s and participants readiness to work with AI methodology. Practical/managerial implications: The formality of the AI process and hence the extent of the facilitator’s involvement (signalling his or her readiness to participate actively and take the lead in co-creating a new reality must be tempered by due allowance for the participant’s readiness to work with AI methodology. Furthermore, participants should be accommodated within the psychological space where they find themselves at the moment when the intended intervention is initiated. Contribution/value-add: Duo-ethnography provided the researchers with the opportunity to challenge the ‘other’ to reflect on their own discipline-related AI experiences, in a deeper, more relational and authentic way. The voices and ideas identified and presented counter narratives, also blended in