Critical point predication device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsumura, Kazuhiko; Kariyama, Koji.
1996-01-01
An operation for predicting a critical point by using a existent reverse multiplication method has been complicated, and an effective multiplication factor could not be plotted directly to degrade the accuracy for the prediction. The present invention comprises a detector counting memory section for memorizing the counting sent from a power detector which monitors the reactor power, a reverse multiplication factor calculation section for calculating the reverse multiplication factor based on initial countings and current countings of the power detector, and a critical point prediction section for predicting the criticality by the reverse multiplication method relative to effective multiplication factors corresponding to the state of the reactor core previously determined depending on the cases. In addition, a reactor core characteristic calculation section is added for analyzing an effective multiplication factor depending on the state of the reactor core. Then, if the margin up to the criticality is reduced to lower than a predetermined value during critical operation, an alarm is generated to stop the critical operation when generation of a period of more than a predetermined value predicted by succeeding critical operation. With such procedures, forecasting for the critical point can be easily predicted upon critical operation to greatly mitigate an operator's burden and improve handling for the operation. (N.H.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clark, R.M.
2004-01-01
It has been suggested that a change of nuclear shape may be described in terms of a phase transition and that specific nuclei may lie close to the critical point of the transition. Analytical descriptions of such critical-point nuclei have been introduced recently and they are described briefly. The results of extensive searches for possible examples of critical-point behavior are presented. Alternative pictures, such as describing bands in the candidate nuclei using simple ΔK = 0 and ΔK = 2 rotational-coupling models, are discussed, and the limitations of the different approaches highlighted. A possible critical-point description of the transition from a vibrational to rotational pairing phase is suggested
Unconventional Quantum Critical Points
Xu, Cenke
2012-01-01
In this paper we review the theory of unconventional quantum critical points that are beyond the Landau's paradigm. Three types of unconventional quantum critical points will be discussed: (1). The transition between topological order and semiclassical spin ordered phase; (2). The transition between topological order and valence bond solid phase; (3). The direct second order transition between different competing orders. We focus on the field theory and universality class of these unconventio...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Debra Lewis
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Relative equilibria of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian systems with symmetry are critical points of appropriate scalar functions parametrized by the Lie algebra (or its dual of the symmetry group. Setting aside the structures – symplectic, Poisson, or variational – generating dynamical systems from such functions highlights the common features of their construction and analysis, and supports the construction of analogous functions in non-Hamiltonian settings. If the symmetry group is nonabelian, the functions are invariant only with respect to the isotropy subgroup of the given parameter value. Replacing the parametrized family of functions with a single function on the product manifold and extending the action using the (coadjoint action on the algebra or its dual yields a fully invariant function. An invariant map can be used to reverse the usual perspective: rather than selecting a parametrized family of functions and finding their critical points, conditions under which functions will be critical on specific orbits, typically distinguished by isotropy class, can be derived. This strategy is illustrated using several well-known mechanical systems – the Lagrange top, the double spherical pendulum, the free rigid body, and the Riemann ellipsoids – and generalizations of these systems.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Ole B.; Wind, Simon; Lanng, Ditte Bendix
2012-01-01
In this brief article, we shall illustrate the application of the analytical and interventionist concept of ‘Critical Points of Contact’ (CPC) through a number of urban design studios. The notion of CPC has been developed over a span of the last three to four years and is reported in more detail...... elsewhere (Jensen & Morelli 2011). In this article, we will only discuss the conceptual and theoretical framing superficially, since our real interest is to show and discuss the concept's application value to spatial design in a number of urban design studios. The 'data' or the projects presented are seven...... in urban design at Aalborg University, where urban design consists of both an analytical and an interventionist field of operation. Furthermore, the content of the CPC concept links to research in mobilities, the network city, and urban design. These are among the core pillars of both the masters programme...
2010-02-24
... (HACCP); Approval of Information Collection Request AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION... Safety Program Based on Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point Principles (HACCP) was published on... must be based on the (HACCP) system established by the Secretary of Agriculture. The food safety...
Critical points in magnetic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bongaarts, A.L.M.
1975-01-01
The magnetical phase transitions of CsCoCl 3 .2H 2 O and CsCoCl 3 .2D 2 O are investigated by neutron diffraction techniques with special attention to the critical points in the phase diagrams. CsCoCl 3 .2H 2 O turned out to be a one-dimentional magnetic antiferromagnet with ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic interactions. In the vicinity of the Neel point, the critical behavior in zero magnetic field could be described as a three-dimentional long range ordering, while the fluctuations in the system are one-dimensional. In the presence of a magnetic field, the behavior of the system in the critical region of the magnetic phase diagram between the Neel temperature at zero field (3.3degK) and 1.85degK, was in good agreement with the theory. Below 1.85degK, the phase transition in a magnetic field changes into a line of triple points whose end point could be identified as a tricritical point, i.e., an intersection of three critical lines. The parameters derived from observations in the neighborhood of this tricritical point obey the scaling laws but are not in numerical agreement with theoretical predictions
Vargas-Leguás, H; Rodríguez Garrido, V; Lorite Cuenca, R; Pérez-Portabella, C; Redecillas Ferreiro, S; Campins Martí, M
2009-06-01
This guide for the preparation of powdered infant formulae in hospital environments is a collaborative work between several hospital services and is based on national and European regulations, international experts meetings and the recommendations of scientific societies. This guide also uses the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point principles proposed by Codex Alimentarius and emphasises effective verifying measures, microbiological controls of the process and the corrective actions when monitoring indicates that a critical control point is not under control. It is a dynamic guide and specifies the evaluation procedures that allow it to be constantly adapted.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jeong, Woo Seok; Jeong, Yong Hoon
2013-01-01
Highlights: • Supercritical CO 2 -based gas mixture Brayton cycles were investigated for a SFR. • The critical point of CO 2 is the lowest cycle operating limit of the S-CO 2 cycles. • Mixing additives with CO 2 changes the CO 2 critical point. • CO 2 –Xe and CO 2 –Kr cycles achieve higher cycle efficiencies than the S-CO 2 cycles. • CO 2 –H 2 S and CO 2 –cyclohexane cycles perform better at higher heat sink temperatures. -- Abstract: The supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle (S-CO 2 cycle) has attracted much attention as an alternative to the Rankine cycle for sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs). The higher cycle efficiency of the S-CO 2 cycle results from the considerably decreased compressor work because the compressor behaves as a pump in the proximity of the CO 2 vapor–liquid critical point. In order to fully utilize this feature, the main compressor inlet condition should be controlled to be close to the critical point of CO 2 . This indicates that the critical point of CO 2 is a constraint on the minimum cycle condition for S-CO 2 cycles. Modifying the CO 2 critical point by mixing additive gases could be considered as a method of enhancing the performance and broadening the applicability of the S-CO 2 cycle. Due to the drastic fluctuations of the thermo-physical properties of fluids near the critical point, an in-house cycle analysis code using the NIST REFPROP database was implemented. Several gases were selected as potential additives considering their thermal stability and chemical interaction with sodium in the temperature range of interest and the availability of the mixture property database: xenon, krypton, hydrogen sulfide, and cyclohexane. The performances of the optimized CO 2 -containing binary mixture cycles with simple recuperated and recompression layouts were compared with the reference S-CO 2 , CO 2 –Ar, CO 2 –N 2 , and CO 2 –O 2 cycles. For the decreased critical temperatures, the CO 2 –Xe and CO 2
Socrates, problem-based learning and critical thinking --- a philosophic point of view.
Wang, Shin-Yun; Tsai, Jer-Chia; Chiang, Horn-Che; Lai, Chung-Sheng; Lin, Hui-Ju
2008-03-01
Problem-based learning (PBL) is a learner-centered educational method based on the principles of heuristics and collaboration. It has been considered an effective learning method in general and in professional education, especially in medical education. This article analyzes the thinking structure and philosophical background of PBL through the educational ideas of Socrates and the truth conception of Karl Popper. In the different phases of the PBL process, various truth conceptions will help to formulate the thinking framework of PBL --- from Socrates' truth of openness toward the truth of scientific accuracy of our modern age. Meanwhile, Popper's scientific theory of falsifiability further leads us to discuss the relationship between PBL and critical thinking.
Socrates, Problem-based Learning and Critical Thinking—A Philosophic Point of View
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shin-Yun Wang
2008-03-01
Full Text Available Problem-based learning (PBL is a learner-centered educational method based on the principles of heuristics and collaboration. It has been considered an effective learning method in general and in professional education, especially in medical education. This article analyzes the thinking structure and philosophical background of PBL through the educational ideas of Socrates and the truth conception of Karl Popper. In the different phases of the PBL process, various truth conceptions will help to formulate the thinking framework of PBL—from Socrates' truth of openness toward the truth of scientific accuracy of our modern age. Meanwhile, Popper's scientific theory of falsifiability further leads us to discuss the relationship between PBL and critical thinking.
Hübner, N-O; Fleßa, S; Haak, J; Wilke, F; Hübner, C; Dahms, C; Hoffmann, W; Kramer, A
2011-01-01
Recently, the HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) concept was proposed as possible way to implement process-based hygiene concepts in clinical practice, but the extent to which this food safety concept can be transferred into the health care setting is unclear. We therefore discuss possible ways for a translation of the principles of the HACCP for health care settings. While a direct implementation of food processing concepts into health care is not very likely to be feasible and will probably not readily yield the intended results, the underlying principles of process-orientation, in-process safety control and hazard analysis based counter measures are transferable to clinical settings. In model projects the proposed concepts should be implemented, monitored, and evaluated under real world conditions.
Interval Mathematics Applied to Critical Point Transitions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Benito A. Stradi
2012-03-01
Full Text Available The determination of critical points of mixtures is important for both practical and theoretical reasons in the modeling of phase behavior, especially at high pressure. The equations that describe the behavior of complex mixtures near critical points are highly nonlinear and with multiplicity of solutions to the critical point equations. Interval arithmetic can be used to reliably locate all the critical points of a given mixture. The method also verifies the nonexistence of a critical point if a mixture of a given composition does not have one. This study uses an interval Newton/Generalized Bisection algorithm that provides a mathematical and computational guarantee that all mixture critical points are located. The technique is illustrated using several example problems. These problems involve cubic equation of state models; however, the technique is general purpose and can be applied in connection with other nonlinear problems.
Critical point analysis of phase envelope diagram
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Soetikno, Darmadi; Siagian, Ucok W. R. [Department of Petroleum Engineering, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Kusdiantara, Rudy, E-mail: rkusdiantara@s.itb.ac.id; Puspita, Dila, E-mail: rkusdiantara@s.itb.ac.id; Sidarto, Kuntjoro A., E-mail: rkusdiantara@s.itb.ac.id; Soewono, Edy; Gunawan, Agus Y. [Department of Mathematics, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)
2014-03-24
Phase diagram or phase envelope is a relation between temperature and pressure that shows the condition of equilibria between the different phases of chemical compounds, mixture of compounds, and solutions. Phase diagram is an important issue in chemical thermodynamics and hydrocarbon reservoir. It is very useful for process simulation, hydrocarbon reactor design, and petroleum engineering studies. It is constructed from the bubble line, dew line, and critical point. Bubble line and dew line are composed of bubble points and dew points, respectively. Bubble point is the first point at which the gas is formed when a liquid is heated. Meanwhile, dew point is the first point where the liquid is formed when the gas is cooled. Critical point is the point where all of the properties of gases and liquids are equal, such as temperature, pressure, amount of substance, and others. Critical point is very useful in fuel processing and dissolution of certain chemicals. Here in this paper, we will show the critical point analytically. Then, it will be compared with numerical calculations of Peng-Robinson equation by using Newton-Raphson method. As case studies, several hydrocarbon mixtures are simulated using by Matlab.
Critical point analysis of phase envelope diagram
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Soetikno, Darmadi; Siagian, Ucok W. R.; Kusdiantara, Rudy; Puspita, Dila; Sidarto, Kuntjoro A.; Soewono, Edy; Gunawan, Agus Y.
2014-01-01
Phase diagram or phase envelope is a relation between temperature and pressure that shows the condition of equilibria between the different phases of chemical compounds, mixture of compounds, and solutions. Phase diagram is an important issue in chemical thermodynamics and hydrocarbon reservoir. It is very useful for process simulation, hydrocarbon reactor design, and petroleum engineering studies. It is constructed from the bubble line, dew line, and critical point. Bubble line and dew line are composed of bubble points and dew points, respectively. Bubble point is the first point at which the gas is formed when a liquid is heated. Meanwhile, dew point is the first point where the liquid is formed when the gas is cooled. Critical point is the point where all of the properties of gases and liquids are equal, such as temperature, pressure, amount of substance, and others. Critical point is very useful in fuel processing and dissolution of certain chemicals. Here in this paper, we will show the critical point analytically. Then, it will be compared with numerical calculations of Peng-Robinson equation by using Newton-Raphson method. As case studies, several hydrocarbon mixtures are simulated using by Matlab
The QCD Critical Point and Related Observables
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nahrgang, Marlene
2016-12-15
The search for the critical point of QCD in heavy-ion collision experiments has sparked enormous interest with the completion of phase I of the RHIC beam energy scan. Here, I review the basics of the thermodynamics of the QCD phase transition and its implications for experimental multiplicity fluctuations in heavy-ion collisions. Several sources of noncritical fluctuations impact the observables and need to be understood in addition to the critical phenomena. Recent progress has been made in dynamical modeling of critical fluctuations, which ultimately is indispensable to understand potential signals of the QCD critical point in heavy-ion collision.
Critical point inequalities and scaling limits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Newman, C.M.
1979-01-01
A refined and extended version of the Buckingham-Gunton inequality relating various pairs of critical exponents is shown to be valid for a large class of statistical mechanical models. If this inequality is an equality (in the refined sense) and one of the critical exponents has a non-Gaussian value, then any scaling limit must be non-Gaussian. This result clarifies the relationships between the nontriviality of triviality of the scaling limit for ordinary critical points in four dimensions (or tricritical points in three dimensions) and the existence of logarithmic factors in the asymptotics which define the two critical exponents. (orig.) [de
The existence of trajectories joining critical points
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu Shuxiang.
1985-01-01
In this paper, using the notion of an isolating block and the concept of canonical regions, three existence criteria of trajectories connecting a pair of critical points of planar differential equations are given. (author)
Fermion-induced quantum critical points.
Li, Zi-Xiang; Jiang, Yi-Fan; Jian, Shao-Kai; Yao, Hong
2017-08-22
A unified theory of quantum critical points beyond the conventional Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson paradigm remains unknown. According to Landau cubic criterion, phase transitions should be first-order when cubic terms of order parameters are allowed by symmetry in the Landau-Ginzburg free energy. Here, from renormalization group analysis, we show that second-order quantum phase transitions can occur at such putatively first-order transitions in interacting two-dimensional Dirac semimetals. As such type of Landau-forbidden quantum critical points are induced by gapless fermions, we call them fermion-induced quantum critical points. We further introduce a microscopic model of SU(N) fermions on the honeycomb lattice featuring a transition between Dirac semimetals and Kekule valence bond solids. Remarkably, our large-scale sign-problem-free Majorana quantum Monte Carlo simulations show convincing evidences of a fermion-induced quantum critical points for N = 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, consistent with the renormalization group analysis. We finally discuss possible experimental realizations of the fermion-induced quantum critical points in graphene and graphene-like materials.Quantum phase transitions are governed by Landau-Ginzburg theory and the exceptions are rare. Here, Li et al. propose a type of Landau-forbidden quantum critical points induced by gapless fermions in two-dimensional Dirac semimetals.
Critical Points in Distance Learning System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Airina Savickaitė
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Purpose – This article presents the results of distance learning system analysis, i.e. the critical elements of the distance learning system. The critical points of distance learning are a part of distance education online environment interactivity/community process model. The most important is the fact that the critical point is associated with distance learning participants. Design/methodology/approach – Comparative review of articles and analysis of distance learning module. Findings – A modern man is a lifelong learner and distance learning is a way to be a modern person. The focus on a learner and feedback is the most important thing of learning distance system. Also, attention should be paid to the lecture-appropriate knowledge and ability to convey information. Distance system adaptation is the way to improve the learner’s learning outcomes. Research limitations/implications – Different learning disciplines and learning methods may have different critical points. Practical implications – The information of analysis could be important for both lecturers and students, who studies distance education systems. There are familiar critical points which may deteriorate the quality of learning. Originality/value – The study sought to develop remote systems for applications in order to improve the quality of knowledge. Keywords: distance learning, process model, critical points. Research type: review of literature and general overview.
Controlling superconductivity by tunable quantum critical points.
Seo, S; Park, E; Bauer, E D; Ronning, F; Kim, J N; Shim, J-H; Thompson, J D; Park, Tuson
2015-03-04
The heavy fermion compound CeRhIn5 is a rare example where a quantum critical point, hidden by a dome of superconductivity, has been explicitly revealed and found to have a local nature. The lack of additional examples of local types of quantum critical points associated with superconductivity, however, has made it difficult to unravel the role of quantum fluctuations in forming Cooper pairs. Here, we show the precise control of superconductivity by tunable quantum critical points in CeRhIn5. Slight tin-substitution for indium in CeRhIn5 shifts its antiferromagnetic quantum critical point from 2.3 GPa to 1.3 GPa and induces a residual impurity scattering 300 times larger than that of pure CeRhIn5, which should be sufficient to preclude superconductivity. Nevertheless, superconductivity occurs at the quantum critical point of the tin-doped metal. These results underline that fluctuations from the antiferromagnetic quantum criticality promote unconventional superconductivity in CeRhIn5.
Kussaga, J.B.; Luning, P.A.; Tiisekwa, B.P.M.; Jacxsens, L.
2017-01-01
This study aimed at giving insight into microbiological safety output of a Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)-based Food Safety Management System (FSMS) of a Nile perch exporting company by using a combined assessment, This study aimed at giving insight into microbiological safety output
QCD and the chiral critical point
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gavin, S.; Gocksch, A.; Pisarski, R.D.
1994-01-01
As an extension of QCD, consider a theory with ''2+1'' flavors, where the current quark masses are held in a fixed ratio as the overall scale of the quark masses is varied. At nonzero temperature and baryon density it is expected that in the chiral limit the chiral phase transition is of first order. Increasing the quark mass from zero, the chiral transition becomes more weakly first order, and can end in a chiral critical point. We show that the only massless field at the chiral critical point is a σ meson, with the universality class that of the Ising model. Present day lattice simulations indicate that QCD is (relatively) near to the chiral critical point
Quench dynamics across quantum critical points
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sengupta, K.; Powell, Stephen; Sachdev, Subir
2004-01-01
We study the quantum dynamics of a number of model systems as their coupling constants are changed rapidly across a quantum critical point. The primary motivation is provided by the recent experiments of Greiner et al. [Nature (London) 415, 39 (2002)] who studied the response of a Mott insulator of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice to a strong potential gradient. In a previous work, it had been argued that the resonant response observed at a critical potential gradient could be understood by proximity to an Ising quantum critical point describing the onset of density wave order. Here we obtain numerical results on the evolution of the density wave order as the potential gradient is scanned across the quantum critical point. This is supplemented by studies of the integrable quantum Ising spin chain in a transverse field, where we obtain exact results for the evolution of the Ising order correlations under a time-dependent transverse field. We also study the evolution of transverse superfluid order in the three-dimensional case. In all cases, the order parameter is best enhanced in the vicinity of the quantum critical point
Critical point of view: a Wikipedia reader
Lovink, G.; Tkacz, N.
2011-01-01
For millions of internet users around the globe, the search for new knowledge begins with Wikipedia. The encyclopedia’s rapid rise, novel organization, and freely offered content have been marveled at and denounced by a host of commentators. Critical Point of View moves beyond unflagging praise,
Universal signatures of fractionalized quantum critical points.
Isakov, Sergei V; Melko, Roger G; Hastings, Matthew B
2012-01-13
Ground states of certain materials can support exotic excitations with a charge equal to a fraction of the fundamental electron charge. The condensation of these fractionalized particles has been predicted to drive unusual quantum phase transitions. Through numerical and theoretical analysis of a physical model of interacting lattice bosons, we establish the existence of such an exotic critical point, called XY*. We measure a highly nonclassical critical exponent η = 1.493 and construct a universal scaling function of winding number distributions that directly demonstrates the distinct topological sectors of an emergent Z(2) gauge field. The universal quantities used to establish this exotic transition can be used to detect other fractionalized quantum critical points in future model and material systems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Xingyi
2016-06-01
Full Text Available This study aims to design metal food packaging with hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP. First, theory of HACCP was introduced in detail. Taking empty cans provided by Wuxi Huapeng Food Packaging Company as an example, we studied migration of bisphenol compounds in coating of food can to food stimulant. Moreover, packaging design of luncheon meat can was taken as an example to confirm whether HACCP system could effectively control migration of phenolic substance. Results demonstrated that, coating of such empty were more likely to contain multiple bisphenol compounds such as bisphenol A (BPA, and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE was considered as the leading bisphenol pollutant; food stimulant of different types, storage temperature and time could all impact migration of bisphenol compounds. HACCP system was proved to be effective in controlling hazards of phenolic substance in luncheon meat can and could reduce various phenolic substance indexes to an acceptable range. Therefore, HACCP can control migration of phenolic substance and recontamination of food and thus ensure food safety.
Fermion-induced quantum critical points
Li, Zi-Xiang; Jiang, Yi-Fan; Jian, Shao-Kai; Yao, Hong
2017-01-01
A unified theory of quantum critical points beyond the conventional Landau?Ginzburg?Wilson paradigm remains unknown. According to Landau cubic criterion, phase transitions should be first-order when cubic terms of order parameters are allowed by symmetry in the Landau?Ginzburg free energy. Here, from renormalization group analysis, we show that second-order quantum phase transitions can occur at such putatively first-order transitions in interacting two-dimensional Dirac semimetals. As such t...
Critical point anomalies include expansion shock waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nannan, N. R., E-mail: ryan.nannan@uvs.edu [Mechanical Engineering Discipline, Anton de Kom University of Suriname, Leysweg 86, PO Box 9212, Paramaribo, Suriname and Process and Energy Department, Delft University of Technology, Leeghwaterstraat 44, 2628 CA Delft (Netherlands); Guardone, A., E-mail: alberto.guardone@polimi.it [Department of Aerospace Science and Technology, Politecnico di Milano, Via La Masa 34, 20156 Milano (Italy); Colonna, P., E-mail: p.colonna@tudelft.nl [Propulsion and Power, Delft University of Technology, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS Delft (Netherlands)
2014-02-15
From first-principle fluid dynamics, complemented by a rigorous state equation accounting for critical anomalies, we discovered that expansion shock waves may occur in the vicinity of the liquid-vapor critical point in the two-phase region. Due to universality of near-critical thermodynamics, the result is valid for any common pure fluid in which molecular interactions are only short-range, namely, for so-called 3-dimensional Ising-like systems, and under the assumption of thermodynamic equilibrium. In addition to rarefaction shock waves, diverse non-classical effects are admissible, including composite compressive shock-fan-shock waves, due to the change of sign of the fundamental derivative of gasdynamics.
Deconfined Quantum Critical Points: Symmetries and Dualities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chong Wang
2017-09-01
Full Text Available The deconfined quantum critical point (QCP, separating the Néel and valence bond solid phases in a 2D antiferromagnet, was proposed as an example of (2+1D criticality fundamentally different from standard Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson-Fisher criticality. In this work, we present multiple equivalent descriptions of deconfined QCPs, and use these to address the possibility of enlarged emergent symmetries in the low-energy limit. The easy-plane deconfined QCP, besides its previously discussed self-duality, is dual to N_{f}=2 fermionic quantum electrodynamics, which has its own self-duality and hence may have an O(4×Z_{2}^{T} symmetry. We propose several dualities for the deconfined QCP with SU(2 spin symmetry which together make natural the emergence of a previously suggested SO(5 symmetry rotating the Néel and valence bond solid orders. These emergent symmetries are implemented anomalously. The associated infrared theories can also be viewed as surface descriptions of (3+1D topological paramagnets, giving further insight into the dualities. We describe a number of numerical tests of these dualities. We also discuss the possibility of “pseudocritical” behavior for deconfined critical points, and the meaning of the dualities and emergent symmetries in such a scenario.
Dynamic trapping near a quantum critical point
Kolodrubetz, Michael; Katz, Emanuel; Polkovnikov, Anatoli
2015-02-01
The study of dynamics in closed quantum systems has been revitalized by the emergence of experimental systems that are well-isolated from their environment. In this paper, we consider the closed-system dynamics of an archetypal model: spins driven across a second-order quantum critical point, which are traditionally described by the Kibble-Zurek mechanism. Imbuing the driving field with Newtonian dynamics, we find that the full closed system exhibits a robust new phenomenon—dynamic critical trapping—in which the system is self-trapped near the critical point due to efficient absorption of field kinetic energy by heating the quantum spins. We quantify limits in which this phenomenon can be observed and generalize these results by developing a Kibble-Zurek scaling theory that incorporates the dynamic field. Our findings can potentially be interesting in the context of early universe physics, where the role of the driving field is played by the inflaton or a modulus field.
Higgs inflation at the critical point
Bezrukov, Fedor
2014-01-01
Higgs inflation can occur if the Standard Model (SM) is a self-consistent effective field theory up to inflationary scale. This leads to a lower bound on the Higgs boson mass, $M_h \\geq M_{\\text{crit}}$. If $M_h$ is more than a few hundreds of MeV above the critical value, the Higgs inflation predicts the universal values of inflationary indexes, $r\\simeq 0.003$ and $n_s\\simeq 0.97$, independently on the Standard Model parameters. We show that in the vicinity of the critical point $M_{\\text{crit}}$ the inflationary indexes acquire an essential dependence on the mass of the top quark $m_t$ and $M_h$. In particular, the amplitude of the gravitational waves can exceed considerably the universal value.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jakub Mielczarek
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This article addresses the issue of possible gravitational phase transitions in the early universe. We suggest that a second-order phase transition observed in the Causal Dynamical Triangulations approach to quantum gravity may have a cosmological relevance. The phase transition interpolates between a nongeometric crumpled phase of gravity and an extended phase with classical properties. Transition of this kind has been postulated earlier in the context of geometrogenesis in the Quantum Graphity approach to quantum gravity. We show that critical behavior may also be associated with a signature change in Loop Quantum Cosmology, which occurs as a result of quantum deformation of the hypersurface deformation algebra. In the considered cases, classical space-time originates at the critical point associated with a second-order phase transition. Relation between the gravitational phase transitions and the corresponding change of symmetry is underlined.
Dynamical Response near Quantum Critical Points.
Lucas, Andrew; Gazit, Snir; Podolsky, Daniel; Witczak-Krempa, William
2017-02-03
We study high-frequency response functions, notably the optical conductivity, in the vicinity of quantum critical points (QCPs) by allowing for both detuning from the critical coupling and finite temperature. We consider general dimensions and dynamical exponents. This leads to a unified understanding of sum rules. In systems with emergent Lorentz invariance, powerful methods from quantum field theory allow us to fix the high-frequency response in terms of universal coefficients. We test our predictions analytically in the large-N O(N) model and using the gauge-gravity duality and numerically via quantum Monte Carlo simulations on a lattice model hosting the interacting superfluid-insulator QCP. In superfluid phases, interacting Goldstone bosons qualitatively change the high-frequency optical conductivity and the corresponding sum rule.
Detecting quantum critical points using bipartite fluctuations.
Rachel, Stephan; Laflorencie, Nicolas; Song, H Francis; Le Hur, Karyn
2012-03-16
We show that the concept of bipartite fluctuations F provides a very efficient tool to detect quantum phase transitions in strongly correlated systems. Using state-of-the-art numerical techniques complemented with analytical arguments, we investigate paradigmatic examples for both quantum spins and bosons. As compared to the von Neumann entanglement entropy, we observe that F allows us to find quantum critical points with much better accuracy in one dimension. We further demonstrate that F can be successfully applied to the detection of quantum criticality in higher dimensions with no prior knowledge of the universality class of the transition. Promising approaches to experimentally access fluctuations are discussed for quantum antiferromagnets and cold gases.
The location of the second critical point of water
Kanno, Hitoshi; Miyata, Kuniharu
2006-05-01
Based on the DTA data for homogeneous ice nucleation of emulsified liquid water at low temperatures and high pressures, the location of the second critical point (SCP) of water, which is expected to exist in addition to the normal liquid-vapor critical point, is estimated to be at 145 K pressure). It is shown that SCP is closely associated with the break point of the curve for the homogeneous ice nucleation temperature ( TH) of liquid water and with the transition between low density and high density amorphous solid water (LDA and HDA). Although the existence of SCP has become more realistic, the location seems to be less favorable to the water model of the second-critical-point interpretation.
Identification of critical points of thermal environment in broiler production
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
AG Menezes
2010-03-01
Full Text Available This paper describes an exploratory study carried out to determine critical control points and possible risks in hatcheries and broiler farms. The study was based in the identification of the potential hazards existing in broiler production, from the hatchery to the broiler farm, identifying critical control points and defining critical limits. The following rooms were analyzed in the hatchery: egg cold storage, pre-heating, incubator, and hatcher rooms. Two broiler houses were studied in two different farms. The following data were collected in the hatchery and broiler houses: temperature (ºC and relative humidity (%, air velocity (m s-1, ammonia levels, and light intensity (lx. In the broiler house study, a questionnaire using information of the Broiler Production Good Practices (BPGP manual was applied, and workers were interviewed. Risk analysis matrices were build to determine Critical Control Points (CCP. After data collection, Statistical Process Control (SPC was applied through the analysis of the Process Capacity Index, using the software program Minitab15®. Environmental temperature and relative humidity were the critical points identified in the hatchery and in both farms. The classes determined as critical control points in the broiler houses were poultry litter, feeding, drinking water, workers' hygiene and health, management and biosecurity, norms and legislation, facilities, and activity planning. It was concluded that CCP analysis, associated with SPC control tools and guidelines of good production practices, may contribute to improve quality control in poultry production.
Two critical tests for the Critical Point earthquake
Tzanis, A.; Vallianatos, F.
2003-04-01
It has been credibly argued that the earthquake generation process is a critical phenomenon culminating with a large event that corresponds to some critical point. In this view, a great earthquake represents the end of a cycle on its associated fault network and the beginning of a new one. The dynamic organization of the fault network evolves as the cycle progresses and a great earthquake becomes more probable, thereby rendering possible the prediction of the cycle’s end by monitoring the approach of the fault network toward a critical state. This process may be described by a power-law time-to-failure scaling of the cumulative seismic release rate. Observational evidence has confirmed the power-law scaling in many cases and has empirically determined that the critical exponent in the power law is typically of the order n=0.3. There are also two theoretical predictions for the value of the critical exponent. Ben-Zion and Lyakhovsky (Pure appl. geophys., 159, 2385-2412, 2002) give n=1/3. Rundle et al. (Pure appl. geophys., 157, 2165-2182, 2000) show that the power-law activation associated with a spinodal instability is essentially identical to the power-law acceleration of Benioff strain observed prior to earthquakes; in this case n=0.25. More recently, the CP model has gained support from the development of more dependable models of regional seismicity with realistic fault geometry that show accelerating seismicity before large events. Essentially, these models involve stress transfer to the fault network during the cycle such, that the region of accelerating seismicity will scale with the size of the culminating event, as for instance in Bowman and King (Geophys. Res. Let., 38, 4039-4042, 2001). It is thus possible to understand the observed characteristics of distributed accelerating seismicity in terms of a simple process of increasing tectonic stress in a region already subjected to stress inhomogeneities at all scale lengths. Then, the region of
Identification of Critical Design Points for the EAP of a Space-based Doppler Lidar Wind Sounder
Emmitt, G. D.; Wood, S. A.
1992-01-01
The feasibility of making tropospheric wind measurements with a space-based Doppler lidar was studied by a number of agencies over the past 10-15 years. Currently NASA has a plan to launch such an instrument, the Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS), within the next decade. The design of the LAWS continues to undergo a series of iterations common to most instruments targeted for a space platform. In general, the constraints of available platform power, weight allowance, and project funds continue to change. With these changes the performance and design specifications also must change.
A magnetically induced quantum critical point in holography
Gursoy, U.; Gnecchi, A.; Toldo, C.; Papadoulaki, O.
We investigate quantum critical points in a 2+1 dimensional gauge theory at finite chemical potential χ and magnetic field B. The gravity dual is based on 4D NN = 2 Fayet-Iliopoulos gauged supergravity and the solutions we consider — that are constructed analytically — are extremal, dyonic,
Unbounded critical points for a class of lower semicontinuous functionals
Pellacci, Benedetta; Squassina, Marco
2003-01-01
In this paper we prove existence and multiplicity results of unbounded critical points for a general class of weakly lower semicontinuous functionals. We will apply a suitable nonsmooth critical point theory.
Microbial profile and critical control points during processing of 'robo ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Microbial profile and critical control points during processing of 'robo' snack from ... the relevant critical control points especially in relation to raw materials and ... to the quality of the various raw ingredients used were the roasting using earthen
Ecosystem thresholds, tipping points, and critical transitions
Munson, Seth M.; Reed, Sasha C.; Peñuelas, Josep; McDowell, Nathan G.; Sala, Osvaldo E.
2018-01-01
Abrupt shifts in ecosystems are cause for concern and will likelyintensify under global change (Scheffer et al., 2001). The terms‘thresho lds’, ‘tipping points’, and ‘critical transitions’ have beenused interchangeably to refer to sudden changes in the integrityor state of an ecosystem caused by environmental drivers(Holling, 1973; May, 1977). Threshold-based concepts havesigniﬁc antly aided our capacity to predict the controls overecosystem structure and functioning (Schwinning et al., 2004;Peters et al., 2007) and have become a framework to guide themanagement of natural resources (Glick et al., 2010; Allen et al.,2011). However, our unders tanding of how biotic and abioticdrivers interact to regulate ecosystem responses and of ways toforecast th e impending responses remain limited. Terrestrialecosystems, in particular, are already responding to globalchange in ways that are both transformati onal and difﬁcult topredict due to strong heterogeneity across temporal and spatialscales (Pe~nuelas & Filella, 2001; McDowell et al., 2011;Munson, 2013; Reed et al., 2016). Comparing approaches formeasuring ecosystem performance in response to changingenvironme ntal conditions and for detecting stress and thresholdresponses can improve tradition al tests of resilience and provideearly warning signs of ecosystem transitions. Similarly, com-paring responses across ecosystems can offer insight into themechanisms that underlie variation in threshold responses.
Spotlighting quantum critical points via quantum correlations at finite temperatures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Werlang, T.; Ribeiro, G. A. P.; Rigolin, Gustavo
2011-01-01
We extend the program initiated by T. Werlang et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 095702 (2010)] in several directions. Firstly, we investigate how useful quantum correlations, such as entanglement and quantum discord, are in the detection of critical points of quantum phase transitions when the system is at finite temperatures. For that purpose we study several thermalized spin models in the thermodynamic limit, namely, the XXZ model, the XY model, and the Ising model, all of which with an external magnetic field. We compare the ability of quantum discord, entanglement, and some thermodynamic quantities to spotlight the quantum critical points for several different temperatures. Secondly, for some models we go beyond nearest neighbors and also study the behavior of entanglement and quantum discord for second nearest neighbors around the critical point at finite temperature. Finally, we furnish a more quantitative description of how good all these quantities are in spotlighting critical points of quantum phase transitions at finite T, bridging the gap between experimental data and those theoretical descriptions solely based on the unattainable absolute zero assumption.
Percolation systems away from the critical point
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
DEEPAK DHAR. Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005, India ... There is more to percolation theory than the critical exponents. Of course, an experi- .... simple qualitative arguments. In the summation ...
Quantum Critical Point revisited by the Dynamical Mean Field Theory
Xu, Wenhu; Kotliar, Gabriel; Tsvelik, Alexei
Dynamical mean field theory is used to study the quantum critical point (QCP) in the doped Hubbard model on a square lattice. The QCP is characterized by a universal scaling form of the self energy and a spin density wave instability at an incommensurate wave vector. The scaling form unifies the low energy kink and the high energy waterfall feature in the spectral function, while the spin dynamics includes both the critical incommensurate and high energy antiferromagnetic paramagnons. We use the frequency dependent four-point correlation function of spin operators to calculate the momentum dependent correction to the electron self energy. Our results reveal a substantial difference with the calculations based on the Spin-Fermion model which indicates that the frequency dependence of the the quasiparitcle-paramagnon vertices is an important factor. The authors are supported by Center for Computational Design of Functional Strongly Correlated Materials and Theoretical Spectroscopy under DOE Grant DE-FOA-0001276.
Quantum critical point revisited by dynamical mean-field theory
Xu, Wenhu; Kotliar, Gabriel; Tsvelik, Alexei M.
2017-03-01
Dynamical mean-field theory is used to study the quantum critical point (QCP) in the doped Hubbard model on a square lattice. The QCP is characterized by a universal scaling form of the self-energy and a spin density wave instability at an incommensurate wave vector. The scaling form unifies the low-energy kink and the high-energy waterfall feature in the spectral function, while the spin dynamics includes both the critical incommensurate and high-energy antiferromagnetic paramagnons. We use the frequency-dependent four-point correlation function of spin operators to calculate the momentum-dependent correction to the electron self-energy. By comparing with the calculations based on the spin-fermion model, our results indicate the frequency dependence of the quasiparticle-paramagnon vertices is an important factor to capture the momentum dependence in quasiparticle scattering.
Quantum critical point revisited by dynamical mean-field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, Wenhu; Kotliar, Gabriel; Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ; Tsvelik, Alexei M.
2017-01-01
Dynamical mean-field theory is used to study the quantum critical point (QCP) in the doped Hubbard model on a square lattice. We characterize the QCP by a universal scaling form of the self-energy and a spin density wave instability at an incommensurate wave vector. The scaling form unifies the low-energy kink and the high-energy waterfall feature in the spectral function, while the spin dynamics includes both the critical incommensurate and high-energy antiferromagnetic paramagnons. Here, we use the frequency-dependent four-point correlation function of spin operators to calculate the momentum-dependent correction to the electron self-energy. Furthermore, by comparing with the calculations based on the spin-fermion model, our results indicate the frequency dependence of the quasiparticle-paramagnon vertices is an important factor to capture the momentum dependence in quasiparticle scattering.
Percolation Systems away from the Critical Point
Dhar, Deepak
2001-01-01
This article reviews some effects of disorder in percolation systems even away from the critical density p_c. For densities below p_c, the statistics of large clusters defines the animals problem. Its relation to the directed animals problem and the Lee-Yang edge singularity problem is described. Rare compact clusters give rise to Griffiths singuraties in the free energy of diluted ferromagnets, and lead to a very slow relaxation of magnetization. In biassed diffusion on percolation clusters,...
Universal Postquench Prethermalization at a Quantum Critical Point
Gagel, Pia; Orth, Peter P.; Schmalian, Jörg
2014-11-01
We consider an open system near a quantum critical point that is suddenly moved towards the critical point. The bath-dominated diffusive nonequilibrium dynamics after the quench is shown to follow scaling behavior, governed by a critical exponent that emerges in addition to the known equilibrium critical exponents. We determine this exponent and show that it describes universal prethermalized coarsening dynamics of the order parameter in an intermediate time regime. Implications of this quantum critical prethermalization are: (i) a power law rise of order and correlations after an initial collapse of the equilibrium state and (ii) a crossover to thermalization that occurs arbitrarily late for sufficiently shallow quenches.
Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis S; Traikou, Athina
2005-01-01
The production of flour and semolina and their ensuing products, such as bread, cake, spaghetti, noodles, and corn flakes, is of major importance, because these products constitute some of the main ingredients of the human diet. The Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) system aims at ensuring the safety of these products. HACCP has been implemented within the frame of this study on various products of both Asian and European origin; the hazards, critical control limits (CCLs), observation practices, and corrective actions have been summarized in comprehensive tables. Furthermore, the various production steps, packaging included, were thoroughly analyzed, and reference was made to both the traditional and new methodologies in an attempt to pinpoint the occurring differences (advantages and disadvantages) per process.
The Critical Point Entanglement and Chaos in the Dicke Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lina Bao
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Ground state properties and level statistics of the Dicke model for a finite number of atoms are investigated based on a progressive diagonalization scheme (PDS. Particle number statistics, the entanglement measure and the Shannon information entropy at the resonance point in cases with a finite number of atoms as functions of the coupling parameter are calculated. It is shown that the entanglement measure defined in terms of the normalized von Neumann entropy of the reduced density matrix of the atoms reaches its maximum value at the critical point of the quantum phase transition where the system is most chaotic. Noticeable change in the Shannon information entropy near or at the critical point of the quantum phase transition is also observed. In addition, the quantum phase transition may be observed not only in the ground state mean photon number and the ground state atomic inversion as shown previously, but also in fluctuations of these two quantities in the ground state, especially in the atomic inversion fluctuation.
Multi-critical points in weakly anisotropic magnetic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Basten, J.A.J.
1979-02-01
This report starts with a rather extensive presentation of the concepts and ideas which constitute the basis of the modern theory of static critical phenomena. It is shown how at a critical point the semi-phenomenological concepts of universality and scaling are directly related to the divergence of the correlation length and how they are extended to a calculational method for critical behaviour in Wilson's Renormalization-Group (RG) approach. Subsequently the predictions of the molecular-field and RG-theories on the phase transitions and critical behaviour in weakly anisotropic antiferromagnets are treated. In a magnetic field applied along the easy axis, these materials can display an (H,T) phase diagram which contains either a bicritical point or a tetracritical point. Especially the behaviour close to these multi-critical points, as predicted by the extended-scaling theory, is discussed. (Auth.)
Critical point phenomena: universal physics at large length scales
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bruce, A.; Wallace, D.
1993-01-01
This article is concerned with the behaviour of a physical system at, or close to, a critical point (ebullition, ferromagnetism..): study of the phenomena displayed in the critical region (Ising model, order parameter, correlation length); description of the configurations (patterns) formed by the microscopic degrees of freedom near a critical point, essential concepts of the renormalization group (coarse-graining, system flow, fixed-point and scale-invariance); how these concepts knit together to form the renormalization group method; and what kind of problems may be resolved by the renormalization group method. 12 figs., 1 ref
Interplay of quantum and classical fluctuations near quantum critical points
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Continentino, Mucio Amado
2011-01-01
For a system near a quantum critical point (QCP), above its lower critical dimension d L , there is in general a critical line of second-order phase transitions that separates the broken symmetry phase at finite temperatures from the disordered phase. The phase transitions along this line are governed by thermal critical exponents that are different from those associated with the quantum critical point. We point out that, if the effective dimension of the QCP, d eff = d + z (d is the Euclidean dimension of the system and z the dynamic quantum critical exponent) is above its upper critical dimension d c there is an intermingle of classical (thermal) and quantum critical fluctuations near the QCP. This is due to the breakdown of the generalized scaling relation ψ = νz between the shift exponent ψ of the critical line and the crossover exponent νz, for d + z > d c by a dangerous irrelevant interaction. This phenomenon has clear experimental consequences, like the suppression of the amplitude of classical critical fluctuations near the line of finite temperature phase transitions as the critical temperature is reduced approaching the QCP. (author)
Critical Point Dryer: Tousimis 916B Series C
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:CORAL Name: Critical Point DryerThis system utilizes CO 2to dry fragile suspended and floating structures Specifications / Capabilities:Wafer size up to...
The critical point of quantum chromodynamics through lattice and ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The Padé approximants are the rational functions. PL. M (z) = .... Deviations from a smooth behaviour near the critical point are visible in these extrap- ... see that there is evidence, albeit statistically not very significant, that the kurtosis changes.
Search for the QCD critical point at SPS energies
Anticic, T.; Barna, D.; Bartke, J.; Betev, L.; Bialkowska, H.; Blume, C.; Boimska, B.; Botje, M.; Bracinik, J.; Buncic, P.; Cerny, V.; Christakoglou, P.; Chung, P.; Chvala, O.; Cramer, J.G.; Csato, P.; Dinkelaker, P.; Eckardt, V.; Fodor, Z.; Foka, P.; Friese, V.; Gal, J.; Gazdzicki, M.; Genchev, V.; Gladysz, E.; Grebieszkow, K.; Hegyi, S.; Hohne, C.; Kadija, K.; Karev, A.; Kikola, D.; Kolesnikov, V.I.; Kornas, E.; Korus, R.; Kowalski, M.; Kreps, M.; Laszlo, A.; Lacey, R.; van Leeuwen, M.; Levai, P.; Litov, L.; Lungwitz, B.; Makariev, M.; Malakhov, A.I.; Mateev, M.; Melkumov, G.L.; Mischke, A.; Mitrovski, M.; Mrowczynski, St.; Palla, G.; Panagiotou, A.D.; Petridis, A.; Peryt, W.; Pikna, M.; Pluta, J.; Prindle, D.; Puhlhofer, F.; Renfordt, R.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rybczynski, M.; Rybicki, A.; Sandoval, A.; Schmitz, N.; Schuster, T.; Seyboth, P.; Sikler, F.; Sitar, B.; Skrzypczak, E.; Slodkowski, M.; Stefanek, G.; Stock, R.; Strabel, C.; Strobele, H.; Susa, T.; Szentpetery, I.; Sziklai, J.; Szuba, M.; Szymanski, P.; Trubnikov, V.; Utvic, M.; Varga, D.; Vassiliou, M.; Veres, G.I.; Vesztergombi, G.; Vranic, D.; Wlodarczyk, Z.; Wojtaszek-Szwarc, A.; Yoo, I.K.; Abgrall, N.; Aduszkiewicz, A.; Andrieu, B.; Anticic, T.; Antoniou, N.; Argyriades, J.; Asryan, A.G.; Blondel, A.; Blumer, J.; Boldizsar, L.; Bravar, A.; Brzychczyk, J.; Bubak, A.; Bunyatov, S.A.; Choi, K.-U.; Chung, P.; Cleymans, J.; Derkach, D.A.; Diakonos, F.; Dominik, W.; Dumarchez, J.; Engel, R.; Ereditato, A.; Feofilov, G.A.; Ferrero, A.; Gazdzicki, M.; Golubeva, M.; Grzeszczuk, A.; Guber, F.; Hasegawa, T.; Haungs, A.; Igolkin, S.; Ivanov, A.S.; Ivashkin, A.; Katrynska, N.; Kielczewska, D.; Kisiel, J.; Kobayashi, T.; Kolev, D.; Kolevatov, R.S.; Kondratiev, V.P.; Kowalski, S.; Kurepin, A.; Lacey, R.; Lyubushkin, V.V.; Majka, Z.; Marchionni, A.; Marcinek, A.; Maris, I.; Matveev, V.; Meregaglia, A.; Messina, M.; Mijakowski, P.; Montaruli, T.; Murphy, S.; Nakadaira, T.; Naumenko, P.A.; Nikolic, V.; Nishikawa, K.; Palczewski, T.; Planeta, R.; Popov, B.A.; Posiadala, M.; Przewlocki, P.; Rauch, W.; Ravonel, M.; Rohrich, D.; Rondio, E.; Rossi, B.; Roth, M.; Rubbia, A.; Sadovsky, A.; Sakashita, K.; Sekiguchi, T.; Seyboth, P.; Shibata, M.; Sissakian, A.N.; Sorin, A.S.; Staszel, P.; Stepaniak, J.; Strabel, C.; Stroebele, H.; Tada, M.; Taranenko, A.; Tsenov, R.; Ulrich, R.; Unger, M.; Vechernin, V.V.; Zipper, W.
2009-01-01
Lattice QCD calculations locate the QCD critical point at energies accessible at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS). We present average transverse momentum and multiplicity fluctuations, as well as baryon and anti-baryon transverse mass spectra which are expected to be sensitive to effects of the critical point. The future CP search strategy of the NA61/SHINE experiment at the SPS is also discussed.
Solving the Richardson equations close to the critical points
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
DomInguez, F [Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad de Alcala, 28871 Alcala de Henares (Spain); Esebbag, C [Departamento de Matematicas, Universidad de Alcala, 28871 Alcala de Henares (Spain); Dukelsky, J [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain)
2006-09-15
We study the Richardson equations close to the critical values of the pairing strength g{sub c}, where the occurrence of divergences precludes numerical solutions. We derive a set of equations for determining the critical g values and the non-collapsing pair energies. Studying the behaviour of the solutions close to the critical points, we develop a procedure to solve numerically the Richardson equations for arbitrary coupling strength.
Program computes single-point failures in critical system designs
Brown, W. R.
1967-01-01
Computer program analyzes the designs of critical systems that will either prove the design is free of single-point failures or detect each member of the population of single-point failures inherent in a system design. This program should find application in the checkout of redundant circuits and digital systems.
Exact renormalization group equation for the Lifshitz critical point
Bervillier, C.
2004-10-01
An exact renormalization equation (ERGE) accounting for an anisotropic scaling is derived. The critical and tricritical Lifshitz points are then studied at leading order of the derivative expansion which is shown to involve two differential equations. The resulting estimates of the Lifshitz critical exponents compare well with the O(ε) calculations. In the case of the Lifshitz tricritical point, it is shown that a marginally relevant coupling defies the perturbative approach since it actually makes the fixed point referred to in the previous perturbative calculations O(ε) finally unstable.
Defect production in nonlinear quench across a quantum critical point.
Sen, Diptiman; Sengupta, K; Mondal, Shreyoshi
2008-07-04
We show that the defect density n, for a slow nonlinear power-law quench with a rate tau(-1) and an exponent alpha>0, which takes the system through a critical point characterized by correlation length and dynamical critical exponents nu and z, scales as n approximately tau(-alphanud/(alphaznu+1)) [n approximately (alphag((alpha-1)/alpha)/tau)(nud/(znu+1))] if the quench takes the system across the critical point at time t=0 [t=t(0) not = 0], where g is a nonuniversal constant and d is the system dimension. These scaling laws constitute the first theoretical results for defect production in nonlinear quenches across quantum critical points and reproduce their well-known counterpart for a linear quench (alpha=1) as a special case. We supplement our results with numerical studies of well-known models and suggest experiments to test our theory.
Gianassi, S; Bisin, S; Bindi, B; Spitaleri, I; Bambi, F
2010-01-01
The collection and handling of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) must meet high quality requirements. An integrated Quality Risk Management can help to identify and contain potential risks related to HSC production. Risk analysis techniques allow one to "weigh" identified hazards, considering the seriousness of their effects, frequency, and detectability, seeking to prevent the most harmful hazards. The Hazard Analysis Critical Point, recognized as the most appropriate technique to identify risks associated with physical, chemical, and biological hazards for cellular products, consists of classifying finished product specifications and limits of acceptability, identifying all off-specifications, defining activities that can cause them, and finally establishing both a monitoring system for each Critical Control Point and corrective actions for deviations. The severity of possible effects on patients, as well as the occurrence and detectability of critical parameters, are measured on quantitative scales (Risk Priority Number [RPN]). Risk analysis was performed with this technique on manipulation process of HPC performed at our blood center. The data analysis showed that hazards with higher values of RPN with greater impact on the process are loss of dose and tracking; technical skills of operators and manual transcription of data were the most critical parameters. Problems related to operator skills are handled by defining targeted training programs, while other critical parameters can be mitigated with the use of continuous control systems. The blood center management software was completed by a labeling system with forms designed to be in compliance with standards in force and by starting implementation of a cryopreservation management module. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Universal post-quench prethermalization at a quantum critical point
Orth, Peter P.; Gagel, Pia; Schmalian, Joerg
2015-03-01
We consider an open system near a quantum critical point that is suddenly moved towards the critical point. The bath-dominated diffusive non-equilibrium dynamics after the quench is shown to follow scaling behavior, governed by a critical exponent that emerges in addition to the known equilibrium critical exponents. We determine this exponent and show that it describes universal prethermalized coarsening dynamics of the order parameter in an intermediate time regime. Implications of this quantum critical prethermalization are a powerlaw rise of order and correlations after an initial collapse of the equilibrium state and a crossover to thermalization that occurs arbitrarily late for sufficiently shallow quenches. [1] P. Gagel, P. P. Orth, J. Schmalian, Phys.Rev. Lett. (in press) arXiv:1406.6387
Critical Dynamics : The Expansion of the Master Equation Including a Critical Point
Dekker, H.
1980-01-01
In this thesis it is shown how to solve the master equation for a Markov process including a critical point by means of successive approximations in terms of a small parameter. A critical point occurs if, by adjusting an externally controlled quantity, the system shows a transition from normal
A critical analysis of the tender points in fibromyalgia.
Harden, R Norman; Revivo, Gadi; Song, Sharon; Nampiaparampil, Devi; Golden, Gary; Kirincic, Marie; Houle, Timothy T
2007-03-01
To pilot methodologies designed to critically assess the American College of Rheumatology's (ACR) diagnostic criteria for fibromyalgia. Prospective, psychophysical testing. An urban teaching hospital. Twenty-five patients with fibromyalgia and 31 healthy controls (convenience sample). Pressure pain threshold was determined at the 18 ACR tender points and five sham points using an algometer (dolorimeter). The patients "algometric total scores" (sums of the patients' average pain thresholds at the 18 tender points) were derived, as well as pain thresholds across sham points. The "algometric total score" could differentiate patients with fibromyalgia from normals with an accuracy of 85.7% (P pain across sham points than across ACR tender points, sham points also could be used for diagnosis (85.7%; Ps tested vs other painful conditions. The points specified by the ACR were only modestly superior to sham points in making the diagnosis. Most importantly, this pilot suggests single points, smaller groups of points, or sham points may be as effective in diagnosing fibromyalgia as the use of all 18 points, and suggests methodologies to definitively test that hypothesis.
Pang, Jinbo; Deng, Lingfei; Wang, Gangyi
2017-01-01
Although frequent fluctuations in domestic hog prices seriously affect the stability and robustness of the hog supply chain, hog futures (an effective hedging instrument) have not been listed in China. To better understand hog futures market hedging, it is important to study the steady state of intersubjective bidding. This paper uses evolutionary game theory to construct a game model between hedgers and speculators in the hog futures market, and replicator dynamic equations are then used to obtain the steady state between the two trading entities. The results show that the steady state is one in which hedgers adopt a "buy" strategy and speculators adopt a "do not speculate" strategy, but this type of extreme steady state is not easily realized. Thus, to explore the rational proportion of hedgers and speculators in the evolutionary stabilization strategy, bidding processes were simulated using weekly average hog prices from 2006 to 2015, such that the conditions under which hedgers and speculators achieve a steady state could be analyzed. This task was performed to achieve the stability critical point, and we show that only when the value of λ is satisfied and the conditions of hog futures price changes and futures price are satisfied can hedgers and speculators achieve a rational proportion and a stable hog futures market. This market can thus provide a valuable reference for the development of the Chinese hog futures market and the formulation and guidance of relevant departmental policies.
Critical points for finite Fibonacci chains of point delta-interactions and orthogonal polynomials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Prunele, E
2011-01-01
For a one-dimensional Schroedinger operator with a finite number n of point delta-interactions with a common intensity, the parameters are the intensity, the n - 1 intercenter distances and the mass. Critical points are points in the parameters space of the Hamiltonian where one bound state appears or disappears. The study of critical points for Hamiltonians with point delta-interactions arranged along a Fibonacci chain is shown to be closely related to the study of the so-called Fibonacci operator, a discrete one-dimensional Schroedinger-type operator, which occurs in the context of tight binding Hamiltonians. These critical points are the zeros of orthogonal polynomials previously studied in the context of special diatomic linear chains with elastic nearest-neighbor interaction. Properties of the zeros (location, asymptotic behavior, gaps, ...) are investigated. The perturbation series from the solvable periodic case is determined. The measure which yields orthogonality is investigated numerically from the zeros. It is shown that the transmission coefficient at zero energy can be expressed in terms of the orthogonal polynomials and their associated polynomials. In particular, it is shown that when the number of point delta-interactions is equal to a Fibonacci number minus 1, i.e. when the intervals between point delta-interactions form a palindrome, all the Fibonacci chains at critical points are completely transparent at zero energy. (paper)
Critical Point in Self-Organized Tissue Growth
Aguilar-Hidalgo, Daniel; Werner, Steffen; Wartlick, Ortrud; González-Gaitán, Marcos; Friedrich, Benjamin M.; Jülicher, Frank
2018-05-01
We present a theory of pattern formation in growing domains inspired by biological examples of tissue development. Gradients of signaling molecules regulate growth, while growth changes these graded chemical patterns by dilution and advection. We identify a critical point of this feedback dynamics, which is characterized by spatially homogeneous growth and proportional scaling of patterns with tissue length. We apply this theory to the biological model system of the developing wing of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and quantitatively identify signatures of the critical point.
Thermal conductivity at a disordered quantum critical point
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hartnoll, Sean A.; Ramirez, David M.; Santos, Jorge E.
2016-01-01
Strongly disordered and strongly interacting quantum critical points are difficult to access with conventional field theoretic methods. They are, however, both experimentally important and theoretically interesting. In particular, they are expected to realize universal incoherent transport. Such disordered quantum critical theories have recently been constructed holographically by deforming a CFT by marginally relevant disorder. In this paper we find additional disordered fixed points via relevant disordered deformations of a holographic CFT. Using recently developed methods in holographic transport, we characterize the thermal conductivity in both sets of theories in 1+1 dimensions. The thermal conductivity is found to tend to a constant at low temperatures in one class of fixed points, and to scale as T"0"."3 in the other. Furthermore, in all cases the thermal conductivity exhibits discrete scale invariance, with logarithmic in temperature oscillations superimposed on the low temperature scaling behavior. At no point do we use the replica trick.
Slow dynamics at critical points: the field-theoretical perspective
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gambassi, Andrea
2006-01-01
The dynamics at a critical point provides a simple instance of slow collective evolution, characterised by aging phenomena and by a violation of the fluctuation-dissipation relation even for long times. By virtue of the universality in critical phenomena it is possible to provide quantitative predictions for some aspects of these behaviours by field-theoretical methods. We review some of the theoretical results that have been obtained in recent years for the relevant (universal) quantities, such as the fluctuation-dissipation ratio, associated with the non-equilibrium critical dynamics
Microbial profile and critical control points during processing of 'robo ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
STORAGESEVER
2009-05-18
May 18, 2009 ... frying, surface fat draining, open-air cooling, and holding/packaging in polyethylene films during sales and distribution. The product was, however, classified under category III with respect to risk and the significance of monitoring and evaluation of quality using the hazard analysis critical control point.
Root and critical point behaviors of certain sums of polynomials
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Seon-Hong Kim
2018-04-24
Apr 24, 2018 ... Root and critical point behaviors of certain sums of polynomials. SEON-HONG KIM1,∗. , SUNG YOON KIM2, TAE HYUNG KIM2 and SANGHEON LEE2. 1Department of Mathematics, Sookmyung Women's University, Seoul 140-742, Korea. 2Gyeonggi Science High School, Suwon 440-800, Korea.
Electron self-trapping at quantum and classical critical points
Auslender, M.I.; Katsnelson, M.I.
2006-01-01
Using Feynman path integral technique estimations of the ground state energy have been found for a conduction electron interacting with order parameter fluctuations near quantum critical points. In some cases only singular perturbation theory in the coupling constant emerges for the electron ground
Vector boson excitations near deconfined quantum critical points.
Huh, Yejin; Strack, Philipp; Sachdev, Subir
2013-10-18
We show that the Néel states of two-dimensional antiferromagnets have low energy vector boson excitations in the vicinity of deconfined quantum critical points. We compute the universal damping of these excitations arising from spin-wave emission. Detection of such a vector boson will demonstrate the existence of emergent topological gauge excitations in a quantum spin system.
Bolton, D J; Pearce, R A; Sheridan, J J; Blair, I S; McDowell, D A; Harrington, D
2002-01-01
The aim of this research was to examine the effects of preslaughter washing, pre-evisceration washing, final carcass washing and chilling on final carcass quality and to evaluate these operations as possible critical control points (CCPs) within a pork slaughter hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) system. This study estimated bacterial numbers (total viable counts) and the incidence of Salmonella at three surface locations (ham, belly and neck) on 60 animals/carcasses processed through a small commercial pork abattoir (80 pigs d(-1)). Significant reductions (P HACCP in pork slaughter plants. This research will provide a sound scientific basis on which to develop and implement effective HACCP in pork abattoirs.
Detection of quantum critical points by a probe qubit.
Zhang, Jingfu; Peng, Xinhua; Rajendran, Nageswaran; Suter, Dieter
2008-03-14
Quantum phase transitions occur when the ground state of a quantum system undergoes a qualitative change when an external control parameter reaches a critical value. Here, we demonstrate a technique for studying quantum systems undergoing a phase transition by coupling the system to a probe qubit. It uses directly the increased sensibility of the quantum system to perturbations when it is close to a critical point. Using an NMR quantum simulator, we demonstrate this measurement technique for two different types of quantum phase transitions in an Ising spin chain.
Optical Studies of Pure Fluids about Their Critical Points
Pang, Kian Tiong
Three optical experiments were performed on pure fluids near their critical points. In the first two setups, CH_3F and H_2C:CF _2 were each tested in a temperature -controlled, prism-shaped cell and a thin parallel-windows cell. In the prism cell, a laser beam was additionally deflected by the fluid present. From the deflection data, the refractive index was related to the density to find the Lorentz-Lorenz function. Critical temperature (T _{c}), density, refractive index and electronic polarizability were found. In the second experiment, a critically-filled, thin parallel-windows cell was placed in one arm of a Mach-Zehnder interoferometer. Fluid density was monitored by changes in the fringe pattern with changing cell temperature. The aim was to improve on the precision of T_{c}: T_{c}{rm (CH}_3 F) = (44cdot9087 +/- 0cdot0002)C; T _{c}{rm(H}_2C:CF _2) = (29cdot7419 +/- 0cdot0001)C; and, to study the coexistence curve and diameter as close to T_{c} as possible. The critical behaviour was compared to the theoretical renormalization group calculations. The derived coefficients were tested against a proposed three-body interaction to explain the field-mixing term in the diameter near the critical point. It was found that H_2C:CF_2 behaved as predicted by such an interaction; CH _3F (and CHF_3) did not. The third experiment was a feasibility study to find out if (critical) isotherms could be measured optically in a setup which combined the prism and parallel-windows cells. The aim was to map isotherms in as wide a range of pressure and density as possible and to probe the critical region directly. Pressure was monitored by a precise digital pressure gauge. CH_3F and CHF _3 were tested in this system. It was found that at low densities, the calculated second and third virial coefficients agreed with reference values. However, the data around the critical point were not accurate enough for use to calculate the critical exponent, delta . The calculated value was
Metallic magnets without inversion symmetry and antiferromagnetic quantum critical points
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fischer, I.A.
2006-07-01
This thesis focusses on two classes of systems that exhibit non-Fermi liquid behaviour in experiments: we investigated aspects of chiral ferromagnets and of antiferromagnetic metals close to a quantum critical point. In chiral ferromagnets, the absence of inversion symmetry makes spin-orbit coupling possible, which leads to a helical modulation of the ferromagnetically ordered state. We studied the motion of electrons in the magnetically ordered state of a metal without inversion symmetry by calculating their generic band-structure. We found that spin-orbit coupling, although weak, has a profound effect on the shape of the Fermi surface: On a large portion of the Fermi surface the electron motion parallel to the helix practically stops. Signatures of this effect can be expected to show up in measurements of the anomalous Hall effect. Recent neutron scattering experiments uncovered the existence of a peculiar kind of partial order in a region of the phase diagram adjacent to the ordered state of the chiral ferromagnet MnSi. Starting from the premise that this partially ordered state is a thermodynamically distinct phase, we investigated an extended Ginzburg-Landau theory for chiral ferromagnets. In a certain parameter regime of the Ginzburg-Landau theory we identified crystalline phases that are reminiscent of the so-called blue phases in liquid crystals. Many antiferromagnetic heavy-fermion systems can be tuned into a regime where they exhibit non-Fermi liquid exponents in the temperature dependence of thermodynamic quantities such as the specific heat capacity; this behaviour could be due to a quantum critical point. If the quantum critical behaviour is field-induced, the external field does not only suppress antiferromagnetism but also induces spin precession and thereby influences the dynamics of the order parameter. We investigated the quantum critical behavior of clean antiferromagnetic metals subject to a static, spatially uniform external magnetic field. We
Universal postquench coarsening and aging at a quantum critical point
Gagel, Pia; Orth, Peter P.; Schmalian, Jörg
2015-09-01
The nonequilibrium dynamics of a system that is located in the vicinity of a quantum critical point is affected by the critical slowing down of order-parameter correlations with the potential for novel out-of-equilibrium universality. After a quantum quench, i.e., a sudden change of a parameter in the Hamiltonian, such a system is expected to almost instantly fall out of equilibrium and undergo aging dynamics, i.e., dynamics that depends on the time passed since the quench. Investigating the quantum dynamics of an N -component φ4 model coupled to an external bath, we determine this universal aging and demonstrate that the system undergoes a coarsening, governed by a critical exponent that is unrelated to the equilibrium exponents of the system. We analyze this behavior in the large-N limit, which is complementary to our earlier renormalization-group analysis, allowing in particular the direct investigation of the order-parameter dynamics in the symmetry-broken phase and at the upper critical dimension. By connecting the long-time limit of fluctuations and response, we introduce a distribution function that shows that the system remains nonthermal and exhibits quantum coherence even on long time scales.
Black holes as critical point of quantum phase transition.
Dvali, Gia; Gomez, Cesar
We reformulate the quantum black hole portrait in the language of modern condensed matter physics. We show that black holes can be understood as a graviton Bose-Einstein condensate at the critical point of a quantum phase transition, identical to what has been observed in systems of cold atoms. The Bogoliubov modes that become degenerate and nearly gapless at this point are the holographic quantum degrees of freedom responsible for the black hole entropy and the information storage. They have no (semi)classical counterparts and become inaccessible in this limit. These findings indicate a deep connection between the seemingly remote systems and suggest a new quantum foundation of holography. They also open an intriguing possibility of simulating black hole information processing in table-top labs.
Diagnosis as the First Critical Point in the Treatment Trajectory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Missel, Malene; Pedersen, Jesper H; Hendriksen, Carsten
2015-01-01
sociology. RESULTS: The findings are presented as themes that summarize and express the ways in which a diagnosis affects patients' daily lives: the cancer diagnosis comes as a shock, it changes everyday awareness; it presents the patient with an unfamiliar body, disturbs social relationships, forces......BACKGROUND: Significant advances have been made in the surgical treatment of lung cancer while patient experiences with diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation remain only sparsely researched. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate how the diagnosis affects the daily lives...... of patients with operable lung cancer in order to identify their needs for care interventions from the point of diagnosis to hospitalization. METHODS: We investigated patients' lived experiences from a longitudinal perspective at 4 critical time points during the treatment trajectory; we present here...
Engineering Surface Critical Behavior of (2 +1 )-Dimensional O(3) Quantum Critical Points
Ding, Chengxiang; Zhang, Long; Guo, Wenan
2018-06-01
Surface critical behavior (SCB) refers to the singularities of physical quantities on the surface at the bulk phase transition. It is closely related to and even richer than the bulk critical behavior. In this work, we show that three types of SCB universality are realized in the dimerized Heisenberg models at the (2 +1 )-dimensional O(3) quantum critical points by engineering the surface configurations. The ordinary transition happens if the surface is gapped in the bulk disordered phase, while the gapless surface state generally leads to the multicritical special transition, even though the latter is precluded in classical phase transitions because the surface is in the lower critical dimension. An extraordinary transition is induced by the ferrimagnetic order on the surface of the staggered Heisenberg model, in which the surface critical exponents violate the results of the scaling theory and thus seriously challenge our current understanding of extraordinary transitions.
Quantum Triple Point and Quantum Critical End Points in Metallic Magnets.
Belitz, D; Kirkpatrick, T R
2017-12-29
In low-temperature metallic magnets, ferromagnetic (FM) and antiferromagnetic (AFM) orders can exist, adjacent to one another or concurrently, in the phase diagram of a single system. We show that universal quantum effects qualitatively alter the known phase diagrams for classical magnets. They shrink the region of concurrent FM and AFM order, change various transitions from second to first order, and, in the presence of a magnetic field, lead to either a quantum triple point where the FM, AFM, and paramagnetic phases all coexist or a quantum critical end point.
The critical current of point symmetric Josephson tunnel junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monaco, Roberto
2016-01-01
Highlights: • We disclose some geometrical properties of the critical current field dependence that apply to a large class of Josephson junctions characterized by a point symmetric shape. • The developed theory is valid for any orientation of the applied magnetic field, therefore it allows the determine the consequences of field misalignment in the experimental setups. • We also address that the threshold curves of Josephson tunnel junctions with complex shapes can be expressed as a linear combination of the threshold curves of junctions with simpler point symmetric shapes. - Abstract: The physics of Josephson tunnel junctions drastically depends on their geometrical configurations. The shape of the junction determines the specific form of the magnetic-field dependence of its Josephson current. Here we address the magnetic diffraction patterns of specially shaped planar Josephson tunnel junctions in the presence of an in-plane magnetic field of arbitrary orientations. We focus on a wide ensemble of junctions whose shape is invariant under point reflection. We analyze the implications of this type of isometry and derive the threshold curves of junctions whose shape is the union or the relative complement of two point symmetric plane figures.
Ali, M.
2012-01-01
This thesis investigated how to develop an approach for the systematic and science based assessment of those points in food production systems that have a critical effect on quality; such points could be designated as critical quality points (CQPs). One of the fundamental objectives of quality
Liquid-Vapor Argon Isotope Fractionation from the Triple Point to the Critical Point
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Phillips, J. T.; Linderstrøm-Lang, C. U.; Bigeleisen, J.
1972-01-01
are compared at the same molar volume. The isotope fractionation factor α for 36Ar∕40Ar between liquid and vapor has been measured from the triple point to the critical temperature. The results are compared with previous vapor pressure data, which cover the range 84–102°K. Although the agreement is within....... The fractionation factor approaches zero at the critical temperature with a nonclassical critical index equal to 0.42±0.02.〈∇2Uc〉/ρc in liquid argon is derived from the experimental fractionation data and calculations of 〈∇2Ug〉/ρg for a number of potential functions for gaseous argon....
CRITICAL CONTROL POINTS ON THE TECHNOLOGICAL FLOW OF PANIFICATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gigel PARASCHIV
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Bread and panification products are intended for direct human consumption and underlying nutritional pyramid, it can affect the consumers health in case of biological, chemical or physical contamination, immediate or delayed, by noxious accumulation in the human organism. Only by rigorous compliance of the production rules throughout the technological process can ensure the quality and food safety of these products. If the risk can be prevented, eliminated or reduce to an acceptable level, as a result of a control actions made at that stage, it is considered a Critical Control Point (CCP. There can be checkpoints where it can exert a control action. Thus, the checkpoint is represented by any stage in which the risk factors, biological, chemical or physical, can be controlled in order to prevent, disrupt or reduce them to an acceptable level. This paper is referring to the control points on the technological flow of the bread fabrication, in all phases of this technological flow, laying stress on that points (or phases which can affect security and food safety, through the influence of parameters of any kind on the quality of finished products.
Biogeochemical control points in a water-limited critical zone
Chorover, J.; Brooks, P. D.; Gallery, R. E.; McIntosh, J. C.; Olshansky, Y.; Rasmussen, C.
2017-12-01
The routing of water and carbon through complex terrain is postulated to control structure evolution in the sub-humid critical zone of the southwestern US. By combining measurements of land-atmosphere exchange, ecohydrologic partitioning, and subsurface biogeochemistry, we seek to quantify how a heterogeneous (in time and space) distribution of "reactants" impacts both short-term (sub-)catchment response (e.g., pore and surface water chemical dynamics) and long-term landscape evolution (e.g., soil geochemistry/morphology and regolith weathering depth) in watersheds underlain by rhyolite and schist. Instrumented pedons in convergent, planar, and divergent landscape positions show distinct depth-dependent responses to precipitation events. Wetting front propagation, dissolved carbon flux and associated biogeochemical responses (e.g., pulses of CO2 production, O2 depletion, solute release) vary with topography, revealing the influence of lateral subsidies of water and carbon. The impacts of these episodes on the evolution of porous media heterogeneity is being investigated by statistical analysis of pore water chemistry, chemical/spectroscopic studies of solid phase organo-mineral products, sensor-derived water characteristic curves, and quantification of co-located microbial community activity/composition. Our results highlight the interacting effects of critical zone structure and convergent hydrologic flows in the evolution of biogeochemical control points.
Effective intermolecular potential and critical point for C60 molecule
Ramos, J. Eloy
2017-07-01
The approximate nonconformal (ANC) theory is applied to the C60 molecule. A new binary potential function is developed for C60, which has three parameters only and is obtained by averaging the site-site carbon interactions on the surface of two C60 molecules. It is shown that the C60 molecule follows, to a good approximation, the corresponding states principle with n-C8H18, n-C4F10 and n-C5F12. The critical point of C60 is estimated in two ways: first by applying the corresponding states principle under the framework of the ANC theory, and then by using previous computer simulations. The critical parameters obtained by applying the corresponding states principle, although very different from those reported in the literature, are consistent with the previous results of the ANC theory. It is shown that the Girifalco potential does not correspond to an average of the site-site carbon-carbon interaction.
Energy scales and magnetoresistance at a quantum critical point
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shaginyan, V.R. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, RAS, Gatchina, 188300 (Russian Federation); Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); CTSPS, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314 (United States)], E-mail: vrshag@thd.pnpi.spb.ru; Amusia, M.Ya. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Msezane, A.Z. [CTSPS, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, GA 30314 (United States); Popov, K.G. [Komi Science Center, Ural Division, RAS, 3a Chernova street, Syktyvkar, 167982 (Russian Federation); Stephanovich, V.A. [Opole University, Institute of Mathematics and Informatics, Opole, 45-052 (Poland)
2009-03-02
The magnetoresistance (MR) of CeCoIn{sub 5} is notably different from that in many conventional metals. We show that a pronounced crossover from negative to positive MR at elevated temperatures and fixed magnetic fields is determined by the scaling behavior of quasiparticle effective mass. At a quantum critical point (QCP) this dependence generates kinks (crossover points from fast to slow growth) in thermodynamic characteristics (like specific heat, magnetization, etc.) at some temperatures when a strongly correlated electron system transits from the magnetic field induced Landau-Fermi liquid (LFL) regime to the non-Fermi liquid (NFL) one taking place at rising temperatures. We show that the above kink-like peculiarity separates two distinct energy scales in QCP vicinity - low temperature LFL scale and high temperature one related to NFL regime. Our comprehensive theoretical analysis of experimental data permits to reveal for the first time new MR and kinks scaling behavior as well as to identify the physical reasons for above energy scales.
An Improved Computational Method for the Calculation of Mixture Liquid-Vapor Critical Points
Dimitrakopoulos, Panagiotis; Jia, Wenlong; Li, Changjun
2014-05-01
Knowledge of critical points is important to determine the phase behavior of a mixture. This work proposes a reliable and accurate method in order to locate the liquid-vapor critical point of a given mixture. The theoretical model is developed from the rigorous definition of critical points, based on the SRK equation of state (SRK EoS) or alternatively, on the PR EoS. In order to solve the resulting system of nonlinear equations, an improved method is introduced into an existing Newton-Raphson algorithm, which can calculate all the variables simultaneously in each iteration step. The improvements mainly focus on the derivatives of the Jacobian matrix, on the convergence criteria, and on the damping coefficient. As a result, all equations and related conditions required for the computation of the scheme are illustrated in this paper. Finally, experimental data for the critical points of 44 mixtures are adopted in order to validate the method. For the SRK EoS, average absolute errors of the predicted critical-pressure and critical-temperature values are 123.82 kPa and 3.11 K, respectively, whereas the commercial software package Calsep PVTSIM's prediction errors are 131.02 kPa and 3.24 K. For the PR EoS, the two above mentioned average absolute errors are 129.32 kPa and 2.45 K, while the PVTSIM's errors are 137.24 kPa and 2.55 K, respectively.
Critical Point Cancellation in 3D Vector Fields: Robustness and Discussion.
Skraba, Primoz; Rosen, Paul; Wang, Bei; Chen, Guoning; Bhatia, Harsh; Pascucci, Valerio
2016-02-29
Vector field topology has been successfully applied to represent the structure of steady vector fields. Critical points, one of the essential components of vector field topology, play an important role in describing the complexity of the extracted structure. Simplifying vector fields via critical point cancellation has practical merit for interpreting the behaviors of complex vector fields such as turbulence. However, there is no effective technique that allows direct cancellation of critical points in 3D. This work fills this gap and introduces the first framework to directly cancel pairs or groups of 3D critical points in a hierarchical manner with a guaranteed minimum amount of perturbation based on their robustness, a quantitative measure of their stability. In addition, our framework does not require the extraction of the entire 3D topology, which contains non-trivial separation structures, and thus is computationally effective. Furthermore, our algorithm can remove critical points in any subregion of the domain whose degree is zero and handle complex boundary configurations, making it capable of addressing challenging scenarios that may not be resolved otherwise. We apply our method to synthetic and simulation datasets to demonstrate its effectiveness.
Hierarchy of exactly solvable spin-1/2 chains with so (N)_I critical points
Lahtinen, V.; Mansson, T.; Ardonne, E.
2014-01-01
We construct a hierarchy of exactly solvable spin-1/2 chains with so(N)1 critical points. Our construction is based on the framework of condensate-induced transitions between topological phases. We employ this framework to construct a Hamiltonian term that couples N transverse field Ising chains
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, Min; Gao, Xin
2014-01-01
of the critical power point in the series and parallel TEM arrays. Secondly, experiments of a series-parallel hybrid interconnected TEG are presented to clearly quantify the theoretical analyses. Finally, the hierarchical simulation, based on the SPICE (simulation program with integrated circuit emphasis...
Electric conductivity of alkali metal vapors in the region of critical point
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Likal'ter, A.A.
1982-01-01
A behaviour of alkali metal conductivity in the vicinity of a critical point has been analyzed on the base of deVeloped representations on a vapor state. A phenomenological conductivity theory has been developed, which is in a good agreement with experimental data obtained
Equilibration of matter near the QCD critical point
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bravina, L V; Arsene, I; Nilsson, M S; Tywoniuk, K; Zabrodin, E E
2006-01-01
The relaxation of hot and dense nuclear matter to local equilibrium in the central zone of heavy-ion collisions at energies around 40 A GeV is studied within the microscopic transport model. Dynamical calculations performed for the central cell in the reaction are compared to the predictions of the thermal statistical model. It is found that kinetic, thermal and chemical equilibrations of the expanding hadronic matter are nearly approached for the period of 10-18 fm/c. Within this time, the matter in the cell expands almost isentropically. It is quite interesting that in the T-μ B plane the system crosses the critical point predicted by lattice QCD calculations. Similar to the cells studied at lower (AGS) and higher (SPS, RHIC) energies, the central cell at 40 A GeV possesses negative (though small) net strangeness. Several peculiarities are observed as well. These features can be attributed to the transition from baryon-dominated to meson-dominated matter, discussed recently
The effective QCD phase diagram and the critical end point
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alejandro Ayala
2015-08-01
Full Text Available We study the QCD phase diagram on the temperature T and quark chemical potential μ plane, modeling the strong interactions with the linear sigma model coupled to quarks. The phase transition line is found from the effective potential at finite T and μ taking into account the plasma screening effects. We find the location of the critical end point (CEP to be (μCEP/Tc,TCEP/Tc∼(1.2,0.8, where Tc is the (pseudocritical temperature for the crossover phase transition at vanishing μ. This location lies within the region found by lattice inspired calculations. The results show that in the linear sigma model, the CEP's location in the phase diagram is expectedly determined solely through chiral symmetry breaking. The same is likely to be true for all other models which do not exhibit confinement, provided the proper treatment of the plasma infrared properties for the description of chiral symmetry restoration is implemented. Similarly, we also expect these corrections to be substantially relevant in the QCD phase diagram.
Scanning electron microscope autoradiography of critical point dried biological samples
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weiss, R.L.
1980-01-01
A technique has been developed for the localization of isotopes in the scanning electron microscope. Autoradiographic studies have been performed using a model system and a unicellular biflagellate alga. One requirement of this technique is that all manipulations be carried out on samples that are maintained in a liquid state. Observations of a source of radiation ( 125 I-ferritin) show that the nuclear emulsion used to detect radiation is active under these conditions. Efficiency measurement performed using 125 I-ferritin indicate that 125 I-SEM autoradiography is an efficient process that exhibits a 'dose dependent' response. Two types of labeling methods were used with cells, surface labeling with 125 I and internal labeling with 3 H. Silver grains appeared on labeled cells after autoradiography, removal of residual gelatin and critical point drying. The location of grains was examined on a flagellated green alga (Chlamydomonas reinhardi) capable of undergoing cell fusion. Fusion experiments using labeled and unlabeled cells indicate that 1. Labeling is specific for incorporated radioactivity; 2. Cell surface structure is preserved in SEM autoradiographs and 3. The technique appears to produce reliable autoradiographs. Thus scanning electron microscope autoradiography should provide a new and useful experimental approach
Amor, Antonio J; Ríos, Paola A; Graupera, Iolanda; Conget, Ignacio; Esmatjes, Enric; Comallonga, Teresa; Vidal, Josep
2014-05-06
The management of hyperglycemia in conventional wards is suboptimal. The objective of our study was to evaluate the efficacy of a proactive intervention supported by point-of-care system with remote viewing of capillary blood glucose (CBG) on glycemic control as compared to usual care in non-critical surgical patients. Two sequential periods of 2 months were defined. In the first phase (control, CPh), in which the surgical team was in charge of glycemic control, capillary glucose levels were recorded by StatStrip(®) system, and endocrinological support was provided upon surgeons request. In a second phase (intervention, IPh), the endocrinologist proceeded based on remotely-viewed CBG values. We compared the use of basal-bolus therapy and the degree of glycemic control between the 2 study periods. The IPh was associated with greater use of basal-bolus regimens (21.4 vs. 58.3%; P=.003). The average CBG during the CPh was 161 ± 64 vs. 142 ± 48 mg/dL during the IPh (Premote viewing of CBG is associated with improved glycemic control in non-critical patients, without any further increase in the number of hypoglycaemic recordings. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sivaraman, A.; Kobuyashi, R.; Mayee, J.W.
1984-02-01
Based on Pitzer's three-parameter corresponding states principle, the authors have developed a correlation of the latent heat of vaporization of aromatic coal liquid model compounds for a temperature range from the freezing point to the critical point. An expansion of the form L = L/sub 0/ + ..omega..L /sub 1/ is used for the dimensionless latent heat of vaporization. This model utilizes a nonanalytic functional form based on results derived from renormalization group theory of fluids in the vicinity of the critical point. A simple expression for the latent heat of vaporization L = D/sub 1/epsilon /SUP 0.3333/ + D/sub 2/epsilon /SUP 0.8333/ + D/sub 4/epsilon /SUP 1.2083/ + E/sub 1/epsilon + E/sub 2/epsilon/sup 2/ + E/sub 3/epsilon/sup 3/ is cast in a corresponding states principle correlation for coal liquid compounds. Benzene, the basic constituent of the functional groups of the multi-ring coal liquid compounds, is used as the reference compound in the present correlation. This model works very well at both low and high reduced temperatures approaching the critical point (0.02 < epsilon = (T /SUB c/ - T)/(T /SUB c/- 0.69)). About 16 compounds, including single, two, and three-ring compounds, have been tested and the percent root-mean-square deviations in latent heat of vaporization reported and estimated through the model are 0.42 to 5.27%. Tables of the coefficients of L/sub 0/ and L/sub 1/ are presented. The contributing terms of the latent heat of vaporization function are also presented in a table for small increments of epsilon.
Critical point measurement of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nikitin, Eugene D.; Popov, Alexander P.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Critical properties of five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were measured. • These hydrocarbons decompose at near-critical temperatures. • Pulse-heating method with short residence times was used. - Abstract: The critical temperatures and the critical pressures of five polycyclic aromatic compounds, namely, acenaphthene, fluorene, anthracene, phenanthrene, and pyrene have been measured. All the compounds studied decompose at near-critical temperatures. A pulse-heating technique applicable to measuring the critical properties of thermally unstable compounds has been used. The times from the beginning of a heating pulse to the moment of reaching the critical temperature were from (0.06 to 0.85) ms. The short residence times provide little degradation of the substances in the course of the experiments. The experimental critical parameters of the polycyclic aromatic compounds have been compared with those estimated by five predictive methods. The acentric factors of polycyclic aromatic compounds studied have been calculated
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mechitoua, Boukhmes
2001-01-01
step is based on the knowledge of the reactivity insertion. 2. Initiation probability for one neutron P(t). 3. Initiation probability with the neutron source P S (t). Japanese specialists told us that the accident happened during the seventh batch pouring. They estimated the k eff before and at the end of this operation: After the sixth batch, K=0.981, and at the end of the seventh batch, K=1.030. When the accident happened (neutron burst), 3 $ was inserted in 15 s, so if we suppose a linear insertion, we have a slope equal to 20 c/s. We may write K(t) = 1 + wt with w = 0.2 β = 0.00160/s. During the accident, there was between 14 and 16 kg of uranium with an enrichment of 18.8%. We have calculated P S (t) and we have taken into account six internal source levels: 1. spontaneous fission: 150 to 170 to 200 n/s; 2. (α, n) reactions and others of this type, and amplification of the internal source during the delayed critical phase: 500 to 1000 to 2000 n/s. In Fig. 2, we can see that the initiation occurred almost surely before 7 s and with a probability close to 0.46 before 2 s with a source of 200 n/s. With a source of 2000 n/s, we have higher initiation probabilities; for example, the initiation occurred almost surely before 2 s and with a probability close to 0.77 before 1 s after the critical time. These results are interesting because they show that a supercritical system does not lead immediately to initiation. One may have short supercritical excursion with no neutron production. The point model approach is useful for gaining a good understanding of what can be the stochastic neutronic contribution for the interpretation of criticality accidents. The results described in this paper may be useful for the interpretation of the time delay between the critical state time and the neutron burst. The thought process we have described may be used in the 'real world', that is, with multigroup or continuous-energy simulations
21 CFR 120.8 - Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan.
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS General Provisions § 120.8 Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan. (a) HACCP plan. Each...
An assessment of the melting, boiling, and critical point data of the alkali metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohse, R.W.; Babelot, J.F.; Magill, J.
1985-01-01
The measured melting, boiling and critical point data of the alkali metals are reviewed. Emphasis has been given to the assessment of the critical point data. The main experimental techniques for measurements in the critical region are described. The selected data are given. Best estimates of the critical constants of lithium are given. (author)
Origin of chaos near critical points of quantum flow.
Efthymiopoulos, C; Kalapotharakos, C; Contopoulos, G
2009-03-01
The general theory of motion in the vicinity of a moving quantum nodal point (vortex) is studied in the framework of the de Broglie-Bohm trajectory method of quantum mechanics. Using an adiabatic approximation, we find that near any nodal point of an arbitrary wave function psi there is an unstable point (called the X point) in a frame of reference moving with the nodal point. The local phase portrait forms always a characteristic pattern called the "nodal-point- X -point complex." We find general formulas for this complex as well as necessary and sufficient conditions of validity of the adiabatic approximation. We demonstrate that chaos emerges from the consecutive scattering events of the orbits with nodal-point- X -point complexes. The scattering events are of two types (called type I and type II). A theoretical model is constructed yielding the local value of the Lyapunov characteristic numbers in scattering events of both types. The local Lyapunov characteristic number scales as an inverse power of the speed of the nodal point in the rest frame, implying that it scales proportionally to the size of the nodal-point- X -point complex. It is also an inverse power of the distance of a trajectory from the X point's stable manifold far from the complex. This distance plays the role of an effective "impact parameter." The results of detailed numerical experiments with different wave functions, possessing one, two, or three moving nodal points, are reported. Examples are given of regular and chaotic trajectories, and the statistics of the Lyapunov characteristic numbers of the orbits are found and compared to the number of encounter events of each orbit with the nodal-point- X -point complexes. The numerical results are in agreement with the theory, and various phenomena appearing at first as counterintuitive find a straightforward explanation.
Finite Elements on Point Based Surfaces
Clarenz, U.; Rumpf, M.; Telea, A.
2004-01-01
We present a framework for processing point-based surfaces via partial differential equations (PDEs). Our framework efficiently and effectively brings well-known PDE-based processing techniques to the field of point-based surfaces. Our method is based on the construction of local tangent planes and
Analysis of hygienic critical control points in boar semen production.
Schulze, M; Ammon, C; Rüdiger, K; Jung, M; Grobbel, M
2015-02-01
The present study addresses the microbiological results of a quality control audit in artificial insemination (AI) boar studs in Germany and Austria. The raw and processed semen of 344 boars in 24 AI boar studs were analyzed. Bacteria were found in 26% (88 of 344) of the extended ejaculates and 66.7% (18 of 24) of the boar studs. The bacterial species found in the AI dose were not cultured from the respective raw semen in 95.5% (84 of 88) of the positive samples. These data, together with the fact that in most cases all the samples from one stud were contaminated with identical bacteria (species and resistance profile), indicate contamination during processing. Microbiological investigations of the equipment and the laboratory environment during semen processing in 21 AI boar studs revealed nine hygienic critical control points (HCCP), which were addressed after the first audit. On the basis of the analysis of the contamination rates of the ejaculate samples, improvements in the hygiene status were already present in the second audit (P = 0.0343, F-test). Significant differences were observed for heating cabinets (improvement, P = 0.0388) and manual operating elements (improvement, P = 0.0002). The odds ratio of finding contaminated ejaculates in the first and second audit was 1.68 (with the 95% confidence interval ranging from 1.04 to 2.69). Furthermore, an overall good hygienic status was shown for extenders, the inner face of dilution tank lids, dyes, and ultrapure water treatment plants. Among the nine HCCP considered, the most heavily contaminated samples, as assessed by the median scores throughout all the studs, were found in the sinks and/or drains. High numbers (>10(3) colony-forming units/cm(2)) of bacteria were found in the heating cabinets, ejaculate transfer, manual operating elements, and laboratory surfaces. In conclusion, the present study emphasizes the need for both training of the laboratory staff in monitoring HCCP in routine semen
Temperature dependence of the interband critical points of bulk Ge and strained Ge on Si
Fernando, Nalin S.; Nunley, T. Nathan; Ghosh, Ayana; Nelson, Cayla M.; Cooke, Jacqueline A.; Medina, Amber A.; Zollner, Stefan; Xu, Chi; Menendez, Jose; Kouvetakis, John
2017-11-01
Epitaxial Ge layers on a Si substrate experience a tensile biaxial stress due to the difference between the thermal expansion coefficients of the Ge epilayer and the Si substrate, which can be measured using asymmetric X-ray diffraction reciprocal space maps. This stress depends on temperature and affects the band structure, interband critical points, and optical spectra. This manuscripts reports careful measurements of the temperature dependence of the dielectric function and the interband critical point parameters of bulk Ge and Ge epilayers on Si using spectroscopic ellipsometry from 80 to 780 K and from 0.8 to 6.5 eV. The authors find a temperature-dependent redshift of the E1 and E1 + Δ1 critical points in Ge on Si (relative to bulk Ge). This redshift can be described well with a model based on thermal expansion coefficients, continuum elasticity theory, and the deformation potential theory for interband transitions. The interband transitions leading to E0‧ and E2 critical points have lower symmetry and therefore are not affected by the stress.
Third-order gas-liquid phase transition and the nature of Andrews critical point
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tian Ma
2011-12-01
Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to study the nature of the Andrews critical point in the gas-liquid transition in a physical-vapor transport (PVT system. A dynamical model, consistent with the van der Waals equation near the Andrews critical point, is derived. With this model, we deduce two physical parameters, which interact exactly at the Andrews critical point, and which dictate the dynamic transition behavior near the Andrews critical point. In particular, it is shown that 1 the gas-liquid co-existence curve can be extended beyond the Andrews critical point, and 2 the transition is first order before the critical point, second-order at the critical point, and third order beyond the Andrews critical point. This clearly explains why it is hard to observe the gas-liquid phase transition beyond the Andrews critical point. Furthermore, the analysis leads naturally the introduction of a general asymmetry principle of fluctuations and the preferred transition mechanism for a thermodynamic system. The theoretical results derived in this article are in agreement with the experimental results obtained in (K. Nishikawa and T. Morita, Fluid behavior at supercritical states studied by small-angle X-ray scattering, Journal of Supercritical Fluid, 13 (1998, pp. 143-148. Also, the derived second-order transition at the critical point is consistent with the result obtained in (M. Fisher, Specific heat of a gas near the critical point, Physical Review, 136:6A (1964, pp. A1599-A1604.
Comparison study of hybrid VS critical systems in point kinetics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ritter, G.; Tommasi, J.; Slessarev, L.; Salvatores, M.; Mouney, H.; Vergnes, J.
1999-01-01
An essential motivation for hybrid systems is a potentially high level of intrinsic safety against reactivity accidents. In this respect, it is necessary to assess the behaviour of an Accelerator Driven System during a TOP, LOF or TOC accident. A comparison between a critical and sub-critical reactor shows a larger sensitivity for the critical system. The ADS has an unquestionable advantage in case of TOP but a less favourable behaviour as for LOFWS type of accidents. However in the ADS cases, the beam could be easily shut off during the transient. Therefore, a part of the R and D effort should be focused on the monitoring and control of power. (author)
Bulk and boundary critical behavior at Lifshitz points
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Lifshitz points are multicritical points at which a disordered phase, a homogeneous ordered phase, and a modulated ordered phase meet. Their bulk universality classes are described by natural generalizations of the standard 4 model. Analyzing these models systematically via modern field-theoretic renormalization ...
IMAGE-PLANE ANALYSIS OF n-POINT-MASS LENS CRITICAL CURVES AND CAUSTICS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Danek, Kamil; Heyrovský, David, E-mail: kamil.danek@utf.mff.cuni.cz, E-mail: heyrovsky@utf.mff.cuni.cz [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University in Prague (Czech Republic)
2015-06-10
The interpretation of gravitational microlensing events caused by planetary systems or multiple stars is based on the n-point-mass lens model. The first planets detected by microlensing were well described by the two-point-mass model of a star with one planet. By the end of 2014, four events involving three-point-mass lenses had been announced. Two of the lenses were stars with two planetary companions each; two were binary stars with a planet orbiting one component. While the two-point-mass model is well understood, the same cannot be said for lenses with three or more components. Even the range of possible critical-curve topologies and caustic geometries of the three-point-mass lens remains unknown. In this paper we provide new tools for mapping the critical-curve topology and caustic cusp number in the parameter space of n-point-mass lenses. We perform our analysis in the image plane of the lens. We show that all contours of the Jacobian are critical curves of re-scaled versions of the lens configuration. Utilizing this property further, we introduce the cusp curve to identify cusp-image positions on all contours simultaneously. In order to track cusp-number changes in caustic metamorphoses, we define the morph curve, which pinpoints the positions of metamorphosis-point images along the cusp curve. We demonstrate the usage of both curves on simple two- and three-point-mass lens examples. For the three simplest caustic metamorphoses we illustrate the local structure of the image and source planes.
Critical point dewetting: competition between the gravity and the dispersion force
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohmasa, Y; Takahashi, S; Fujii, K; Yao, M
2008-01-01
Near the critical temperature of an immiscible binary liquid system, a solid substrate is usually covered completely by one of the liquid phases. This phenomenon is called the 'critical point wetting , which is predicted by Cahn in 1977, and have been confirmed for many fluid systems experimentally. However, we found that liquid Se-Tl system on a quartz substrate does not show the critical point wetting near the liquid-liquid critical point. On a contrary, when the temperature goes down from the critical point, a Se-rich wetting film intrudes between the Tl-rich bulk liquid and the quartz wall. This result is a clear evidence of the 'critical point dewetting' phenomenon. It is suggested from a theoretical consideration that the critical point dewetting takes place as a result of the competition between the long-range dispersion force and the gravity
Theory of First Order Chemical Kinetics at the Critical Point of Solution.
Baird, James K; Lang, Joshua R
2017-10-26
Liquid mixtures, which have a phase diagram exhibiting a miscibility gap ending in a critical point of solution, have been used as solvents for chemical reactions. The reaction rate in the forward direction has often been observed to slow down as a function of temperature in the critical region. Theories based upon the Gibbs free energy of reaction as the driving force for chemical change have been invoked to explain this behavior. With the assumption that the reaction is proceeding under relaxation conditions, these theories expand the free energy in a Taylor series about the position of equilibrium. Since the free energy is zero at equilibrium, the leading term in the Taylor series is proportional to the first derivative of the free energy with respect to the extent of reaction. To analyze the critical behavior of this derivative, the theories exploit the principle of critical point isomorphism, which is thought to govern all critical phenomena. They find that the derivative goes to zero in the critical region, which accounts for the slowing down observed in the reaction rate. As has been pointed out, however, most experimental rate investigations have been carried out under irreversible conditions as opposed to relaxation conditions [Shen et al. J. Phys. Chem. A 2015, 119, 8784-8791]. Below, we consider a reaction governed by first order kinetics and invoke transition state theory to take into account the irreversible conditions. We express the apparent activation energy in terms of thermodynamic derivatives evaluated under standard conditions as well as the pseudoequilibrium conditions associated with the reactant and the activated complex. We show that these derivatives approach infinity in the critical region. The apparent activation energy follows this behavior, and its divergence accounts for the slowing down of the reaction rate.
Wang, Qian; Qin, Pinquan; Wang, Wen-ge
2015-10-01
Based on an analysis of Feynman's path integral formulation of the propagator, a relative criterion is proposed for validity of a semiclassical approach to the dynamics near critical points in a class of systems undergoing quantum phase transitions. It is given by an effective Planck constant, in the relative sense that a smaller effective Planck constant implies better performance of the semiclassical approach. Numerical tests of this relative criterion are given in the XY model and in the Dicke model.
Critical point relascope sampling for unbiased volume estimation of downed coarse woody debris
Jeffrey H. Gove; Michael S. Williams; Mark J. Ducey; Mark J. Ducey
2005-01-01
Critical point relascope sampling is developed and shown to be design-unbiased for the estimation of log volume when used with point relascope sampling for downed coarse woody debris. The method is closely related to critical height sampling for standing trees when trees are first sampled with a wedge prism. Three alternative protocols for determining the critical...
Itinerant density instability at classical and quantum critical points
Feng, Yejun; van Wezel, Jasper; Flicker, Felix; Wang, Jiyang; Silevitch, D. M.; Littlewood, P. B.; Rosenbaum, T. F.
2015-03-01
Itinerant density waves are model systems for studying quantum critical behavior. In both the model spin- and charge-density-wave systems Cr and NbSe2, it is possible to drive a continuous quantum phase transition with critical pressures below 10 GPa. Using x-ray diffraction techniques, we are able to directly track the evolution of the ordering wave vector Q across the pressure-temperature phase diagram. We find a non-monotonic dependence of Q on pressure. Using a Landau-Ginsburg theoretical framework developed by McMillan for CDWs, we evaluate the importance of the physical terms in driving the formation of ordered states at both the thermal and quantum phase transitions. We find that the itinerant instability is the deciding factor for the emergent order, which is further influenced by the critical fluctuations in both the thermal and quantum limits.
Improved experimental determination of critical-point data for tungsten
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fucke, W.; Seydel, U.
1980-01-01
It is shown that under certain conditions in resistive pulse-heating experiments, refractory liquid metals can be heated up to the limit of thermodynamic stability (spinodal) of the superheated liquid. Here, an explosion-like decomposition takes place which is directly monitored by measurements of expansion, surface radiation, and electric resistivity, thus allowing the determination of the temperature-pressure dependence of the spinodal transition. A comparison of the spinodal equation obtained this way with theoretical models yields the critical temperature Tsub(c), pressure psub(c), and volume vsub(c). A completely experimentally-determined set of the critical parameters for tungsten is presented: Tsub(c) = (13400 +- 1400) K, psub(c) = (3370 +- 850) bar, vsub(c) = (43 +- 4) cm 3 mol -1 . (author)
Inventory classification based on decoupling points
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joakim Wikner
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The ideal state of continuous one-piece flow may never be achieved. Still the logistics manager can improve the flow by carefully positioning inventory to buffer against variations. Strategies such as lean, postponement, mass customization, and outsourcing all rely on strategic positioning of decoupling points to separate forecast-driven from customer-order-driven flows. Planning and scheduling of the flow are also based on classification of decoupling points as master scheduled or not. A comprehensive classification scheme for these types of decoupling points is introduced. The approach rests on identification of flows as being either demand based or supply based. The demand or supply is then combined with exogenous factors, classified as independent, or endogenous factors, classified as dependent. As a result, eight types of strategic as well as tactical decoupling points are identified resulting in a process-based framework for inventory classification that can be used for flow design.
Susceptibilities from a black hole engineered EoS with a critical point
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Portillo, Israel
2017-01-01
Currently at the Beam Energy Scan at RHIC experimental efforts are being made to find the QCD critical point. On the theoretical side, the behavior of higher-order susceptibilities of the net-baryon charge from Lattice QCD at µ B = 0 may allow us to estimate the position of the critical point in the QCD phase diagram. However, even if the series expansion continues to higher-orders, there is always the possibility to miss the critical point behavior due to truncation errors. An alternative approach is to use a black hole engineered holographic model, which displays a critical point at large densities and matches lattice susceptibilities at µB = 0. Using the thermodynamic data from this black hole model, we obtain the freeze-out points extracted from the net-protons distribution measured at STAR and explore higher order fluctuations at the lowest energies at the beam energy scan to investigate signatures of the critical point. (paper)
Critical Control Points in the Processing of Cassava Tuber for Ighu ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Determination of the critical control points in the processing of cassava tuber into Ighu was carried out. The critical control points were determined according to the Codex guidelines for the application of the HACCP system by conducting hazard analysis. Hazard analysis involved proper examination of each processing step ...
Thermal properties of ionic systems near the liquid-liquid critical point.
Méndez-Castro, Pablo; Troncoso, Jacobo; Pérez-Sánchez, Germán; Peleteiro, José; Romaní, Luis
2011-12-07
Isobaric heat capacity per unit volume, C(p), and excess molar enthalpy, h(E), were determined in the vicinity of the critical point for a set of binary systems formed by an ionic liquid and a molecular solvent. Moreover, and, since critical composition had to be accurately determined, liquid-liquid equilibrium curves were also obtained using a calorimetric method. The systems were selected with a view on representing, near room temperature, examples from clearly solvophobic to clearly coulombic behavior, which traditionally was related with the electric permittivity of the solvent. The chosen molecular compounds are: ethanol, 1-butanol, 1-hexanol, 1,3-dichloropropane, and diethylcarbonate, whereas ionic liquids are formed by imidazolium-based cations and tetrafluoroborate or bis-(trifluromethylsulfonyl)amide anions. The results reveal that solvophobic critical behavior-systems with molecular solvents of high dielectric permittivity-is very similar to that found for molecular binary systems. However, coulombic systems-those with low permittivity molecular solvents-show strong deviations from the results usually found for these magnitudes near the liquid-liquid phase transition. They present an extremely small critical anomaly in C(p)-several orders of magnitude lower than those typically obtained for binary mixtures-and extremely low h(E)-for one system even negative, fact not observed, up to date, for any liquid-liquid transition in the nearness of an upper critical solution temperature. © 2011 American Institute of Physics
On the critical temperature, normal boiling point, and vapor pressure of ionic liquids.
Rebelo, Luis P N; Canongia Lopes, José N; Esperança, José M S S; Filipe, Eduardo
2005-04-07
One-stage, reduced-pressure distillations at moderate temperature of 1-decyl- and 1-dodecyl-3-methylimidazolium bistriflilamide ([Ntf(2)](-)) ionic liquids (ILs) have been performed. These liquid-vapor equilibria can be understood in light of predictions for normal boiling points of ILs. The predictions are based on experimental surface tension and density data, which are used to estimate the critical points of several ILs and their corresponding normal boiling temperatures. In contrast to the situation found for relatively unstable ILs at high-temperature such as those containing [BF(4)](-) or [PF(6)](-) anions, [Ntf(2)](-)-based ILs constitute a promising class in which reliable, accurate vapor pressure measurements can in principle be performed. This property is paramount for assisting in the development and testing of accurate molecular models.
Robustness of critical points in a complex adaptive system: Effects of hedge behavior
Liang, Yuan; Huang, Ji-Ping
2013-08-01
In our recent papers, we have identified a class of phase transitions in the market-directed resource-allocation game, and found that there exists a critical point at which the phase transitions occur. The critical point is given by a certain resource ratio. Here, by performing computer simulations and theoretical analysis, we report that the critical point is robust against various kinds of human hedge behavior where the numbers of herds and contrarians can be varied widely. This means that the critical point can be independent of the total number of participants composed of normal agents, herds and contrarians, under some conditions. This finding means that the critical points we identified in this complex adaptive system (with adaptive agents) may also be an intensive quantity, similar to those revealed in traditional physical systems (with non-adaptive units).
Lévy based Cox point processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hellmund, Gunnar; Prokesová, Michaela; Jensen, Eva Bjørn Vedel
2008-01-01
In this paper we introduce Lévy-driven Cox point processes (LCPs) as Cox point processes with driving intensity function Λ defined by a kernel smoothing of a Lévy basis (an independently scattered, infinitely divisible random measure). We also consider log Lévy-driven Cox point processes (LLCPs......) with Λ equal to the exponential of such a kernel smoothing. Special cases are shot noise Cox processes, log Gaussian Cox processes, and log shot noise Cox processes. We study the theoretical properties of Lévy-based Cox processes, including moment properties described by nth-order product densities...
SIFT based algorithm for point feature tracking
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adrian BURLACU
2007-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper a tracking algorithm for SIFT features in image sequences is developed. For each point feature extracted using SIFT algorithm a descriptor is computed using information from its neighborhood. Using an algorithm based on minimizing the distance between two descriptors tracking point features throughout image sequences is engaged. Experimental results, obtained from image sequences that capture scaling of different geometrical type object, reveal the performances of the tracking algorithm.
Quantum critical point in high-temperature superconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shaginyan, V.R. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, RAS, Gatchina 188300 (Russian Federation); Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel)], E-mail: vrshag@thd.pnpi.spb.ru; Amusia, M.Ya. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Popov, K.G. [Komi Science Center, Ural Division, RAS, Syktyvkar 167982 (Russian Federation); Stephanovich, V.A. [Opole University, Institute of Mathematics and Informatics, Opole 45-052 (Poland)], E-mail: stef@math.uni.opole.pl
2009-02-02
Recently, in high-T{sub c} superconductors (HTSC), exciting measurements have been performed revealing their physics in superconducting and pseudogap states and in normal one induced by the application of magnetic field, when the transition from non-Fermi liquid to Landau-Fermi liquid behavior occurs. We employ a theory, based on fermion condensation quantum phase transition which is able to explain facts obtained in the measurements. We also show, that in spite of very different microscopic nature of HTSC, heavy-fermion metals and 2D {sup 3}He, the physical properties of these three classes of substances are similar to each other.
Standard hazard analysis, critical control point and hotel management
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vujačić Vesna
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Tourism is a dynamic category which is continuously evolving in the world. Specificities that have to be respected in the execution in relation to the food industry are connected with the fact that the main differences which exist regarding the food serving procedure in catering, numerous complex recipes and production technologies, staff fluctuation, old equipment. For an effective and permanent implementation, the HACCP concept is very important for building a serious base. In this case, the base is represented by the people handling the food. This paper presents international ISO standards, the concept of HACCP and the importance of its application in the tourism and hospitality industry. The concept of HACCP is a food safety management system through the analysis and control of biological, chemical and physical hazards in the entire process, from raw material production, procurement, handling, to manufacturing, distribution and consumption of the finished product. The aim of this paper is to present the importance of the application of HACCP concept in tourism and hotel management as a recognizable international standard.
CRITICAL CONTROL POINT IDENTIFICATION THROUGH TROPHOLOGICAL MEAT PRODUCTION CHAINFROM FIELD TO FORK
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. V. Borodin
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Competitive production management is impossible without comprehensive hazard monitoring and critical parameters control at every stage of food production from raw material and auxiliary materials delivery to ready product realization, which is difficult without modern IT-support. The HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points approach to product safety diﬀers from ready product testing for compliance with NaTD requirements (Normative and Technical Documentation and emphasizes the importance of the process approach to monitoring at every stage of food production. Critical control points (CCP identiﬁcation is a stage, where the presence of a risk of manufacturing products that are unsafe for human health is recognized and it is possible to take action to its elimination, prevention or reduction to an acceptable level. The use of soﬅware package signiﬁcantly increases the enterprise HACCP system efficiency. The article describes methodological bases for IT-approach to the CCP identiﬁcation in the trophological meat production chain from ﬁeld to fork. The algorithmic support and soﬅware for the «Decision tree», which allows detecting existing hazards, identifying risks, determining CCPs and describing them, has been developed.
Theory of finite-entanglement scaling at one-dimensional quantum critical points.
Pollmann, Frank; Mukerjee, Subroto; Turner, Ari M; Moore, Joel E
2009-06-26
Studies of entanglement in many-particle systems suggest that most quantum critical ground states have infinitely more entanglement than noncritical states. Standard algorithms for one-dimensional systems construct model states with limited entanglement, which are a worse approximation to quantum critical states than to others. We give a quantitative theory of previously observed scaling behavior resulting from finite entanglement at quantum criticality. Finite-entanglement scaling in one-dimensional systems is governed not by the scaling dimension of an operator but by the "central charge" of the critical point. An important ingredient is the universal distribution of density-matrix eigenvalues at a critical point [P. Calabrese and A. Lefevre, Phys. Rev. A 78, 032329 (2008)10.1103/PhysRevA.78.032329]. The parameter-free theory is checked against numerical scaling at several quantum critical points.
Existence of a critical point in the phase diagram of the ideal relativistic neutral Bose gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Jeong-Hyuck; Kim, Sang-Woo
2011-01-01
We explore the phase transitions of the ideal relativistic neutral Bose gas confined in a cubic box, without assuming the thermodynamic limit nor continuous approximation. While the corresponding non-relativistic canonical partition function is essentially a one-variable function depending on a particular combination of temperature and volume, the relativistic canonical partition function is genuinely a two-variable function of them. Based on an exact expression for the canonical partition function, we performed numerical computations for up to 10 5 particles. We report that if the number of particles is equal to or greater than a critical value, which amounts to 7616, the ideal relativistic neutral Bose gas features a spinodal curve with a critical point. This enables us to depict the phase diagram of the ideal Bose gas. The consequent phase transition is first order below the critical pressure or second order at the critical pressure. The exponents corresponding to the singularities are 1/2 and 2/3, respectively. We also verify the recently observed 'Widom line' in the supercritical region.
Universal conductance and conductivity at critical points in integer quantum Hall systems.
Schweitzer, L; Markos, P
2005-12-16
The sample averaged longitudinal two-terminal conductance and the respective Kubo conductivity are calculated at quantum critical points in the integer quantum Hall regime. In the limit of large system size, both transport quantities are found to be the same within numerical uncertainty in the lowest Landau band, and , respectively. In the second-lowest Landau band, a critical conductance is obtained which indeed supports the notion of universality. However, these numbers are significantly at variance with the hitherto commonly believed value . We argue that this difference is due to the multifractal structure of critical wave functions, a property that should generically show up in the conductance at quantum critical points.
Critical point in the QCD phase diagram for extremely strong background magnetic fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Endrödi, Gergely
2015-01-01
Lattice simulations have demonstrated that a background (electro)magnetic field reduces the chiral/deconfinement transition temperature of quantum chromodynamics for eB<1 GeV 2 . On the level of observables, this reduction manifests itself in an enhancement of the Polyakov loop and in a suppression of the light quark condensates (inverse magnetic catalysis) in the transition region. In this paper, we report on lattice simulations of 1+1+1-flavor QCD at an unprecedentedly high value of the magnetic field eB=3.25 GeV 2 . Based on the behavior of various observables, it is shown that even at this extremely strong field, inverse magnetic catalysis prevails and the transition, albeit becoming sharper, remains an analytic crossover. In addition, we develop an algorithm to directly simulate the asymptotically strong magnetic field limit of QCD. We find strong evidence for a first-order deconfinement phase transition in this limiting theory, implying the presence of a critical point in the QCD phase diagram. Based on the available lattice data, we estimate the location of the critical point.
Visualizing Robustness of Critical Points for 2D Time-Varying Vector Fields
Wang, B.
2013-06-01
Analyzing critical points and their temporal evolutions plays a crucial role in understanding the behavior of vector fields. A key challenge is to quantify the stability of critical points: more stable points may represent more important phenomena or vice versa. The topological notion of robustness is a tool which allows us to quantify rigorously the stability of each critical point. Intuitively, the robustness of a critical point is the minimum amount of perturbation necessary to cancel it within a local neighborhood, measured under an appropriate metric. In this paper, we introduce a new analysis and visualization framework which enables interactive exploration of robustness of critical points for both stationary and time-varying 2D vector fields. This framework allows the end-users, for the first time, to investigate how the stability of a critical point evolves over time. We show that this depends heavily on the global properties of the vector field and that structural changes can correspond to interesting behavior. We demonstrate the practicality of our theories and techniques on several datasets involving combustion and oceanic eddy simulations and obtain some key insights regarding their stable and unstable features. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Visualizing Robustness of Critical Points for 2D Time-Varying Vector Fields
Wang, B.; Rosen, P.; Skraba, P.; Bhatia, H.; Pascucci, V.
2013-01-01
Analyzing critical points and their temporal evolutions plays a crucial role in understanding the behavior of vector fields. A key challenge is to quantify the stability of critical points: more stable points may represent more important phenomena or vice versa. The topological notion of robustness is a tool which allows us to quantify rigorously the stability of each critical point. Intuitively, the robustness of a critical point is the minimum amount of perturbation necessary to cancel it within a local neighborhood, measured under an appropriate metric. In this paper, we introduce a new analysis and visualization framework which enables interactive exploration of robustness of critical points for both stationary and time-varying 2D vector fields. This framework allows the end-users, for the first time, to investigate how the stability of a critical point evolves over time. We show that this depends heavily on the global properties of the vector field and that structural changes can correspond to interesting behavior. We demonstrate the practicality of our theories and techniques on several datasets involving combustion and oceanic eddy simulations and obtain some key insights regarding their stable and unstable features. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Seafood safety: economics of hazard analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) programmes
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Cato, James C
1998-01-01
.... This document on economic issues associated with seafood safety was prepared to complement the work of the Service in seafood technology, plant sanitation and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) implementation...
Fermionic quantum critical point of spinless fermions on a honeycomb lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Lei; Corboz, Philippe; Troyer, Matthias
2014-01-01
Spinless fermions on a honeycomb lattice provide a minimal realization of lattice Dirac fermions. Repulsive interactions between nearest neighbors drive a quantum phase transition from a Dirac semimetal to a charge-density-wave state through a fermionic quantum critical point, where the coupling of the Ising order parameter to the Dirac fermions at low energy drastically affects the quantum critical behavior. Encouraged by a recent discovery (Huffman and Chandrasekharan 2014 Phys. Rev. B 89 111101) of the absence of the fermion sign problem in this model, we study the fermionic quantum critical point using the continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo method with a worm-sampling technique. We estimate the transition point V/t=1.356(1) with the critical exponents ν=0.80(3) and η=0.302(7). Compatible results for the transition point are also obtained with infinite projected entangled-pair states. (paper)
Impact of resonance decays on critical point signals in net-proton fluctuations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bluhm, Marcus; Schaefer, Thomas [North Carolina State University, Department of Physics, Raleigh, NC (United States); Nahrgang, Marlene [SUBATECH, UMR 6457, Universite de Nantes, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, IN2P3/CNRS, Nantes (France); Duke University, Department of Physics, Durham, NC (United States); Bass, Steffen A. [Duke University, Department of Physics, Durham, NC (United States)
2017-04-15
The non-monotonic beam energy dependence of the higher cumulants of net-proton fluctuations is a widely studied signature of the conjectured presence of a critical point in the QCD phase diagram. In this work we study the effect of resonance decays on critical fluctuations. We show that resonance effects reduce the signatures of critical fluctuations, but that for reasonable parameter choices critical effects in the net-proton cumulants survive. The relative role of resonance decays has a weak dependence on the order of the cumulants studied with a slightly stronger suppression of critical effects for higher-order cumulants. (orig.)
Point Based Emotion Classification Using SVM
Swinkels, Wout
2016-01-01
The detection of emotions is a hot topic in the area of computer vision. Emotions are based on subtle changes in the face that are intuitively detected and interpreted by humans. Detecting these subtle changes, based on mathematical models, is a great challenge in the area of computer vision. In this thesis a new method is proposed to achieve state-of-the-art emotion detection performance. This method is based on facial feature points to monitor subtle changes in the face. Therefore the c...
An assessment of the melting, boiling, and critical point data of the alkali metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohse, R.W.; Babelot, J.-F.; Magill, J.
1985-01-01
The paper reviews the measured melting, boiling and critical point data of alkali metals. A survey of the static heat generation methods for density and pressure-volume-temperature measurements is given. Measured data on the melting and boiling temperatures of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium are summarised. Also measured critical point data for the same five alkali metals are presented, and discussed. (U.K.)
Model for a Ferromagnetic Quantum Critical Point in a 1D Kondo Lattice
Komijani, Yashar; Coleman, Piers
2018-04-01
Motivated by recent experiments, we study a quasi-one-dimensional model of a Kondo lattice with ferromagnetic coupling between the spins. Using bosonization and dynamical large-N techniques, we establish the presence of a Fermi liquid and a magnetic phase separated by a local quantum critical point, governed by the Kondo breakdown picture. Thermodynamic properties are studied and a gapless charged mode at the quantum critical point is highlighted.
Interactions and ``puff clustering'' close to the critical point in pipe flow
Vasudevan, Mukund; Hof, Björn
2017-11-01
The first turbulent structures to arise in pipe flow are puffs. Albeit transient in nature, their spreading determines if eventually turbulence becomes sustained. Due to the extremely long time scales involved in these processes it is virtually impossible to directly observe the transition and the flow patterns that are eventually assumed in the long time limit. We present a new experimental approach where, based on the memoryless nature of turbulent puffs, we continuously recreate the flow pattern exiting the pipe. These periodic boundary conditions enable us to show that the flow pattern eventually settles to a statistically steady state. While our study confirms the value of the critical point of Rec 2040 , the flow fields show that puffs interact over longer ranges than previously suspected. As a consequence puffs tend to cluster and these regions of large puff densities travel across the puff pattern in a wave like fashion. While transition in Couette flow has been shown to fall into the ``directed percolation'', pipe flow may be more complicated since long range interactions are prohibited for the percolation transition type. Extensive measurements at the critical point will be presented to clarify the nature of the transition.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sašo Slaček Brlek
2017-03-01
Full Text Available The intention of this paper is to provide a historical overview and an introduction to the interviews with Bodgan Osolnik, Breda Pavlič, Cees Hamelink, Daya K. Thussu, Peter Golding and Dan Hind presented in this special section. Following Marx, we entitled the section The Point Is to Change It! Critical Political Interventions in Media and Communication Studies. We discuss the need for critical theory to bridge the divide between theory and practice because this notion is central to all of the interviews in one way or another. We also provide a historical contextualization of important theoretical as well as political developments in the 1970s and 1980s. This period may be seen as a watershed era for the critical political economy of communication and for the political articulation of demands for a widespread transformation and democratization in the form of the New World Information and Communication Order initiative. We believe that many contemporary issues have a long history, with their roots firmly based in this era. The historical perspective therefore cannot be seen as nostalgia, but as an attempt to understand the historical relations of power and how they have changed and shifted. In our view, the historical perspective is crucial not only for understanding long-lasting historical trends, but also to remind ourselves that the world is malleable, and to keep alive the promises of the progressive struggles of the past.
21 CFR 123.6 - Hazard analysis and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan.
2010-04-01
... Control Point (HACCP) plan. 123.6 Section 123.6 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Provisions § 123.6 Hazard analysis and Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan. (a) Hazard... fish or fishery product being processed in the absence of those controls. (b) The HACCP plan. Every...
Understanding and Modeling the Evolution of Critical Points under Gaussian Blurring
Kuijper, A.; Florack, L.M.J.; Heyden, A.; Sparr, G.; Nielsen, M.; Johansen, P.
2002-01-01
In order to investigate the deep structure of Gaussian scale space images, one needs to understand the behaviour of critical points under the influence of parameter-driven blurring. During this evolution two different types of special points are encountered, the so-called scale space saddles and the
Molecular dynamics simulation of a binary mixture near the lower critical point
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pousaneh, Faezeh; Edholm, Olle, E-mail: oed@kth.se [Theoretical Biological Physics, Department of Theoretical Physics, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), AlbaNova University Center, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Maciołek, Anna [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kasprzaka 44/52, 01-224 Warsaw (Poland); Max-Planck-Institut für Intelligente Systeme, Heisenbergstrasse 3, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)
2016-07-07
2,6-lutidine molecules mix with water at high and low temperatures but in a wide intermediate temperature range a 2,6-lutidine/water mixture exhibits a miscibility gap. We constructed and validated an atomistic model for 2,6-lutidine and performed molecular dynamics simulations of 2,6-lutidine/water mixture at different temperatures. We determined the part of demixing curve with the lower critical point. The lower critical point extracted from our data is located close to the experimental one. The estimates for critical exponents obtained from our simulations are in a good agreement with the values corresponding to the 3D Ising universality class.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Yu; Pan Feng; Liu Yuxin; Luo Yanan; Draayer, J. P.
2011-01-01
An analytically solvable model, X(3/2j+1), is proposed to describe odd-A nuclei near the X(3) critical point. The model is constructed based on a collective core described by the X(3) critical point symmetry coupled to a spin-j particle. A detailed analysis of the spectral patterns for cases j=1/2 and j=3/2 is provided to illustrate dynamical features of the model. By comparing theory with experimental data and results of other models, it is found that the X(3/2j+1) model can be taken as a simple yet very effective scheme to describe those odd-A nuclei with an even-even core at the critical point of the spherical to axially deformed shape phase transition.
Matter fields near quantum critical point in (2+1)-dimensional U(1) gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Guozhu; Li Wei; Cheng Geng
2010-01-01
We study chiral phase transition and confinement of matter fields in (2+1)-dimensional U(1) gauge theory of massless Dirac fermions and scalar bosons. The vanishing scalar boson mass, r=0, defines a quantum critical point between the Higgs phase and the Coulomb phase. We consider only the critical point r=0 and the Coulomb phase with r>0. The Dirac fermion acquires a dynamical mass when its flavor is less than certain critical value N f c , which depends quantitatively on the flavor N b and the scalar boson mass r. When N f f c , the matter fields carrying internal gauge charge are all confined if r≠0 but are deconfined at the quantum critical point r=0. The system has distinct low-energy elementary excitations at the critical point r=0 and in the Coulomb phase with r≠0. We calculate the specific heat and susceptibility of the system at r=0 and r≠0, which can help to detect the quantum critical point and to judge whether dynamical fermion mass generation takes place.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Endo, T. (Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)); Arai, D.; Uematsu, M. (Keio University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology)
1993-02-25
Related to the natural gas transport by pipeline, etc., the critical point, dew point and bubble point of natural gas were presumed by calculation through equation of state for determining the exact thermophysical values. The natural gas is multi-component mixed fluid which is represented by methane as a representative component. It considerably differs in composition by its place of origin. Because the conventional method was complicated in process for thermodynamically determining the most stable composition of phases, algorithm of phasic equilibrium was applied by the equation of state which used the discrimination method by Nitta, et al. for the therodynamic stability of phases. The method by Michelsen was applied to the flash calculation, and figuration of both dew point and bubble point curves, while that by Heidemann, et al. was done to the critical point calculation. Peng-Robinson's was applied to an equation of state. To start the calculation, the constant of seven two-component systems the main component of which was methane was determined as a function of temperature based on the actually measured gas/liquid equilibrium value. Then, possibility of calculatively presuming the thermophysical values was shown through comparison of the actually measured values with those obtained by applying the present method to the above systems. Finally, the presumption was made for the natural gas which differed in place of origin. 17 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.
HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points): is it coming to the dairy?
Cullor, J S
1997-12-01
The risks and consequences of foodborne and waterborne pathogens are coming to the forefront of public health concerns, and strong pressure is being applied on agriculture for immediate implementation of on-farm controls. The FDA is considering HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points) as the new foundation for revision of the US Food Safety Assurance Program because HACCP is considered to be a science-based, systematic approach to the prevention of food safety problems. In addition, the implementation of HACCP principles permits more government oversight through requirements for standard operating procedures and additional systems for keeping records, places primary responsibility for ensuring food safety on the food manufacturer or distributor, and may assist US food companies in competing more effectively in the world market. With the HACCP-based program in place, a government investigator should be able to determine and evaluate both current and past conditions that are critical to ensuring the safety of the food produced by the facility. When this policy is brought to the production unit, the impact for producers and veterinarians will be substantial.
Pseudo-critical point in anomalous phase diagrams of simple plasma models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chigvintsev, A Yu; Iosilevskiy, I L; Noginova, L Yu
2016-01-01
Anomalous phase diagrams in subclass of simplified (“non-associative”) Coulomb models is under discussion. The common feature of this subclass is absence on definition of individual correlations for charges of opposite sign. It is e.g. modified OCP of ions on uniformly compressible background of ideal Fermi-gas of electrons OCP(∼), or a superposition of two non-ideal OCP(∼) models of ions and electrons etc. In contrast to the ordinary OCP model on non-compressible (“rigid”) background OCP(#) two new phase transitions with upper critical point, boiling and sublimation, appear in OCP(∼) phase diagram in addition to the well-known Wigner crystallization. The point is that the topology of phase diagram in OCP(∼) becomes anomalous at high enough value of ionic charge number Z . Namely, the only one unified crystal- fluid phase transition without critical point exists as continuous superposition of melting and sublimation in OCP(∼) at the interval ( Z 1 < Z < Z 2 ). The most remarkable is appearance of pseudo-critical points at both boundary values Z = Z 1 ≈ 35.5 and Z = Z 2 ≈ 40.0. It should be stressed that critical isotherm is exactly cubic in both these pseudo-critical points. In this study we have improved our previous calculations and utilized more complicated model components equation of state provided by Chabrier and Potekhin (1998 Phys. Rev. E 58 4941). (paper)
Graphene-based superconducting quantum point contacts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moghaddam, A.G.; Zareyan, M.
2007-01-01
We investigate the Josephson effect in the graphene nanoribbons of length L smaller than the superconducting coherence length and an arbitrary width W. We find that in contrast to an ordinary superconducting quantum point contact (SQPC), the critical supercurrent I c is not quantized for the nanoribbons with smooth and armchair edges. For a low concentration of the carriers, I c decreases monotonically with lowering W/L and tends to a constant minimum for a narrow nanoribbon with W c is zero for the smooth edges but eΔ 0 /ℎ for the armchair edges. At higher concentrations of the carriers this monotonic variation acquires a series of peaks. Further analysis of the current-phase relation and the Josephson coupling strength I c R N in terms of W/L and the concentration of carriers revels significant differences with those of an ordinary SQPC. On the other hand for a zigzag nanoribbon, we find that, similar to an ordinary SQPC, I c is quantized but to the half-integer values (n+1/2)4eΔ 0 /ℎ. (orig.)
Smagala, Tom; Mcglew, Dave
1988-01-01
The expected pointing performance of an attached payload coupled to the Critical Evaluation Task Force Space Station via a payload pointing system (PPS) is determined. The PPS is a 3-axis gimbal which provides the capability for maintaining inertial pointing of a payload in the presence of disturbances associated with the Space Station environment. A system where the axes of rotation were offset from the payload center of mass (CM) by 10 in. in the Z axis was studied as well as a system having the payload CM offset by only 1 inch. There is a significant improvement in pointing performance when going from the 10 in. to the 1 in. gimbal offset.
Dewettinck, T; Van Houtte, E; Geenens, D; Van Hege, K; Verstraete, W
2001-01-01
To obtain a sustainable water catchment in the dune area of the Flemish west coast, the integration of treated domestic wastewater in the existing potable water production process is planned. The hygienic hazards associated with the introduction of treated domestic wastewater into the water cycle are well recognised. Therefore, the concept of HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) was used to guarantee hygienically safe drinking water production. Taking into account the literature data on the removal efficiencies of the proposed advanced treatment steps with regard to enteric viruses and protozoa and after setting high quality limits based on the recent progress in quantitative risk assessment, the critical control points (CCPs) and points of attention (POAs) were identified. Based on the HACCP analysis a specific monitoring strategy was developed which focused on the control of these CCPs and POAs.
Completely mixed state is a critical point for three-qubit entanglement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tamaryan, Sayatnova, E-mail: sayat@mail.yerphi.am [Department of Theoretical Physics, A. Alikhanyan National Laboratory, Yerevan (Armenia)
2011-06-06
Pure three-qubit states have five algebraically independent and one algebraically dependent polynomial invariants under local unitary transformations and an arbitrary entanglement measure is a function of these six invariants. It is shown that if the reduced density operator of a some qubit is a multiple of the unit operator, than the geometric entanglement measure of the pure three-qubit state is absolutely independent of the polynomial invariants and is a constant for such tripartite states. Hence a one-particle completely mixed state is a critical point for the geometric measure of entanglement. -- Highlights: → Geometric measure of pure three-qubits is expressed in terms of polynomial invariants. → When one Bloch vector is zero the measure is independent of the remaining invariants. → Hence a one-particle completely mixed state is a critical point for the geometric measure. → The existence of the critical points is an inherent feature of the entanglement.
Hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) history and conceptual overview.
Hulebak, Karen L; Schlosser, Wayne
2002-06-01
The concept of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) is a system that enables the production of safe meat and poultry products through the thorough analysis of production processes, identification of all hazards that are likely to occur in the production establishment, the identification of critical points in the process at which these hazards may be introduced into product and therefore should be controlled, the establishment of critical limits for control at those points, the verification of these prescribed steps, and the methods by which the processing establishment and the regulatory authority can monitor how well process control through the HACCP plan is working. The history of the development of HACCP is reviewed, and examples of practical applications of HACCP are described.
Completely mixed state is a critical point for three-qubit entanglement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tamaryan, Sayatnova
2011-01-01
Pure three-qubit states have five algebraically independent and one algebraically dependent polynomial invariants under local unitary transformations and an arbitrary entanglement measure is a function of these six invariants. It is shown that if the reduced density operator of a some qubit is a multiple of the unit operator, than the geometric entanglement measure of the pure three-qubit state is absolutely independent of the polynomial invariants and is a constant for such tripartite states. Hence a one-particle completely mixed state is a critical point for the geometric measure of entanglement. -- Highlights: → Geometric measure of pure three-qubits is expressed in terms of polynomial invariants. → When one Bloch vector is zero the measure is independent of the remaining invariants. → Hence a one-particle completely mixed state is a critical point for the geometric measure. → The existence of the critical points is an inherent feature of the entanglement.
Golkhou, Vahid; Parnianpour, Mohamad; Lucas, Caro
2005-04-01
In this study, we have used a single link system with a pair of muscles that are excited with alpha and gamma signals to achieve both point to point and oscillatory movements with variable amplitude and frequency.The system is highly nonlinear in all its physical and physiological attributes. The major physiological characteristics of this system are simultaneous activation of a pair of nonlinear muscle-like-actuators for control purposes, existence of nonlinear spindle-like sensors and Golgi tendon organ-like sensor, actions of gravity and external loading. Transmission delays are included in the afferent and efferent neural paths to account for a more accurate representation of the reflex loops.A reinforcement learning method with an actor-critic (AC) architecture instead of middle and low level of central nervous system (CNS), is used to track a desired trajectory. The actor in this structure is a two layer feedforward neural network and the critic is a model of the cerebellum. The critic is trained by state-action-reward-state-action (SARSA) method. The critic will train the actor by supervisory learning based on the prior experiences. Simulation studies of oscillatory movements based on the proposed algorithm demonstrate excellent tracking capability and after 280 epochs the RMS error for position and velocity profiles were 0.02, 0.04 rad and rad/s, respectively.
Entanglement entropy of 2D conformal quantum critical points: hearing the shape of a quantum drum.
Fradkin, Eduardo; Moore, Joel E
2006-08-04
The entanglement entropy of a pure quantum state of a bipartite system A union or logical sumB is defined as the von Neumann entropy of the reduced density matrix obtained by tracing over one of the two parts. In one dimension, the entanglement of critical ground states diverges logarithmically in the subsystem size, with a universal coefficient that for conformally invariant critical points is related to the central charge of the conformal field theory. We find that the entanglement entropy of a standard class of z=2 conformal quantum critical points in two spatial dimensions, in addition to a nonuniversal "area law" contribution linear in the size of the AB boundary, generically has a universal logarithmically divergent correction, which is completely determined by the geometry of the partition and by the central charge of the field theory that describes the critical wave function.
Singularity of the London penetration depth at quantum critical points in superconductors.
Chowdhury, Debanjan; Swingle, Brian; Berg, Erez; Sachdev, Subir
2013-10-11
We present a general theory of the singularity in the London penetration depth at symmetry-breaking and topological quantum critical points within a superconducting phase. While the critical exponents and ratios of amplitudes on the two sides of the transition are universal, an overall sign depends upon the interplay between the critical theory and the underlying Fermi surface. We determine these features for critical points to spin density wave and nematic ordering, and for a topological transition between a superconductor with Z2 fractionalization and a conventional superconductor. We note implications for recent measurements of the London penetration depth in BaFe2(As(1-x)P(x))2 [K. Hashimoto et al., Science 336, 1554 (2012)].
Conductivity of Weakly Disordered Metals Close to a "Ferromagnetic" Quantum Critical Point
Kastrinakis, George
2018-05-01
We calculate analytically the conductivity of weakly disordered metals close to a "ferromagnetic" quantum critical point in the low-temperature regime. Ferromagnetic in the sense that the effective carrier potential V(q,ω ), due to critical fluctuations, is peaked at zero momentum q=0. Vertex corrections, due to both critical fluctuations and impurity scattering, are explicitly considered. We find that only the vertex corrections due to impurity scattering, combined with the self-energy, generate appreciable effects as a function of the temperature T and the control parameter a, which measures the proximity to the critical point. Our results are consistent with resistivity experiments in several materials displaying typical Fermi liquid behaviour, but with a diverging prefactor of the T^2 term for small a.
Lenton, T. M.; Livina, V. N.; Dakos, V.; Van Nes, E. H.; Scheffer, M.
2012-01-01
We address whether robust early warning signals can, in principle, be provided before a climate tipping point is reached, focusing on methods that seek to detect critical slowing down as a precursor of bifurcation. As a test bed, six previously analysed datasets are reconsidered, three palaeoclimate records approaching abrupt transitions at the end of the last ice age and three models of varying complexity forced through a collapse of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation. Approaches based on examining the lag-1 autocorrelation function or on detrended fluctuation analysis are applied together and compared. The effects of aggregating the data, detrending method, sliding window length and filtering bandwidth are examined. Robust indicators of critical slowing down are found prior to the abrupt warming event at the end of the Younger Dryas, but the indicators are less clear prior to the Bølling-Allerød warming, or glacial termination in Antarctica. Early warnings of thermohaline circulation collapse can be masked by inter-annual variability driven by atmospheric dynamics. However, rapidly decaying modes can be successfully filtered out by using a long bandwidth or by aggregating data. The two methods have complementary strengths and weaknesses and we recommend applying them together to improve the robustness of early warnings. PMID:22291229
Precise Determination of Quantum Critical Points by the Violation of the Entropic Area Law
Xavier, J. C.; Alcaraz, F. C.
2011-01-01
Finite-size scaling analysis turns out to be a powerful tool to calculate the phase diagram as well as the critical properties of two dimensional classical statistical mechanics models and quantum Hamiltonians in one dimension. The most used method to locate quantum critical points is the so called crossing method, where the estimates are obtained by comparing the mass gaps of two distinct lattice sizes. The success of this method is due to its simplicity and the ability to provide accurate r...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barlow, Nathaniel S., E-mail: nsbsma@rit.edu [School of Mathematical Sciences, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Schultz, Andrew J., E-mail: ajs42@buffalo.edu; Kofke, David A., E-mail: kofke@buffalo.edu [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University at Buffalo, State University of New York, Buffalo, New York 14260 (United States); Weinstein, Steven J., E-mail: sjweme@rit.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)
2015-08-21
The mathematical structure imposed by the thermodynamic critical point motivates an approximant that synthesizes two theoretically sound equations of state: the parametric and the virial. The former is constructed to describe the critical region, incorporating all scaling laws; the latter is an expansion about zero density, developed from molecular considerations. The approximant is shown to yield an equation of state capable of accurately describing properties over a large portion of the thermodynamic parameter space, far greater than that covered by each treatment alone.
Barlow, Nathaniel S; Schultz, Andrew J; Weinstein, Steven J; Kofke, David A
2015-08-21
The mathematical structure imposed by the thermodynamic critical point motivates an approximant that synthesizes two theoretically sound equations of state: the parametric and the virial. The former is constructed to describe the critical region, incorporating all scaling laws; the latter is an expansion about zero density, developed from molecular considerations. The approximant is shown to yield an equation of state capable of accurately describing properties over a large portion of the thermodynamic parameter space, far greater than that covered by each treatment alone.
Hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) for an ultrasound food processing operation.
Chemat, Farid; Hoarau, Nicolas
2004-05-01
Emerging technologies, such as ultrasound (US), used for food and drink production often cause hazards for product safety. Classical quality control methods are inadequate to control these hazards. Hazard analysis of critical control points (HACCP) is the most secure and cost-effective method for controlling possible product contamination or cross-contamination, due to physical or chemical hazard during production. The following case study on the application of HACCP to an US food-processing operation demonstrates how the hazards at the critical control points of the process are effectively controlled through the implementation of HACCP.
Pasteurised milk and implementation of HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T.B Murdiati
2004-10-01
Full Text Available The purpose of pasteurisation is to destroy pathogen bacteria without affecting the taste, flavor, and nutritional value. A study on the implementation of HACCP (Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point in producing pasteurized milk was carried out in four processing unit of pasteurised milk, one in Jakarta, two in Bandung and one in Bogor. The critical control points in the production line were identified. Milk samples were collected from the critical points and were analysed for the total number of microbes. Antibiotic residues were detected on raw milks. The study indicated that one unit in Bandung dan one unit in Jakarta produced pasteurized milk with lower number of microbes than the other units, due to better management and control applied along the chain of production. Penisilin residues was detected in raw milk used by unit in Bogor. Six critical points and the hazard might arise in those points were identified, as well as how to prevent the hazards. Quality assurance system such as HACCP would be able to produce high quality and safety of pasteurised milk, and should be implemented gradually.
Pseudo-critical point in anomalous phase diagrams of simple plasma models
Chigvintsev, A. Yu; Iosilevskiy, I. L.; Noginova, L. Yu
2016-11-01
Anomalous phase diagrams in subclass of simplified (“non-associative”) Coulomb models is under discussion. The common feature of this subclass is absence on definition of individual correlations for charges of opposite sign. It is e.g. modified OCP of ions on uniformly compressible background of ideal Fermi-gas of electrons OCP(∼), or a superposition of two non-ideal OCP(∼) models of ions and electrons etc. In contrast to the ordinary OCP model on non-compressible (“rigid”) background OCP(#) two new phase transitions with upper critical point, boiling and sublimation, appear in OCP(∼) phase diagram in addition to the well-known Wigner crystallization. The point is that the topology of phase diagram in OCP(∼) becomes anomalous at high enough value of ionic charge number Z. Namely, the only one unified crystal- fluid phase transition without critical point exists as continuous superposition of melting and sublimation in OCP(∼) at the interval (Z 1 points at both boundary values Z = Z 1 ≈ 35.5 and Z = Z 2 ≈ 40.0. It should be stressed that critical isotherm is exactly cubic in both these pseudo-critical points. In this study we have improved our previous calculations and utilized more complicated model components equation of state provided by Chabrier and Potekhin (1998 Phys. Rev. E 58 4941).
Determining the Critical Point of a Sigmoidal Curve via its Fourier Transform
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bilge, Ayse Humeyra; Ozdemir, Yunus
2016-01-01
A sigmoidal curve y(t) is a monotone increasing curve such that all derivatives vanish at infinity. Let t_n be the point where the nth derivative of y(t) reaches its global extremum. In the previous work on sol-gel transition modelled by the Susceptible-Infected- Recovered (SIR) system, we observed that the sequence { t_n } seemed to converge to a point that agrees qualitatively with the location of the gel point [2]. In the present work we outline a proof that for sigmoidal curves satisfying fairly general assumptions on their Fourier transform, the sequence { t_n } is convergent and we call it “the critical point of the sigmoidal curve”. In the context of phase transitions, the limit point is interpreted as a junction point of two different regimes where all derivatives undergo their highest rate of change. (paper)
Zero-field quantum critical point in CeCoIn5.
Tokiwa, Y; Bauer, E D; Gegenwart, P
2013-09-06
Quantum criticality in the normal and superconducting states of the heavy-fermion metal CeCoIn5 is studied by measurements of the magnetic Grüneisen ratio ΓH and specific heat in different field orientations and temperatures down to 50 mK. A universal temperature over magnetic field scaling of ΓH in the normal state indicates a hidden quantum critical point at zero field. Within the superconducting state, the quasiparticle entropy at constant temperature increases upon reducing the field towards zero, providing additional evidence for zero-field quantum criticality.
Soft modes at the critical end point in the chiral effective models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujii, Hirotsugu; Ohtani, Munehisa
2004-01-01
At the critical end point in QCD phase diagram, the scalar, vector and entropy susceptibilities are known to diverge. The dynamic origin of this divergence is identified within the chiral effective models as softening of a hydrodynamic mode of the particle-hole-type motion, which is a consequence of the conservation law of the baryon number and the energy. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
March, N.H.
2003-08-01
Sarkisov (J. Chem. Phys. 119, 373, 2003) has recently discussed the structural behaviour of a simple fluid near the liquid-vapour critical point. His work, already compared with computer simulation studies, is here brought into direct contact for the heavier condensed rare gases Ar, Kr and Xe with (a) experiment and (b) earlier theoretical investigations. Directions for future studies then emerge. (author)
Tool for identifying critical control points in embedded purchasing activities in SMEs
Hagelaar, Geoffrey; Staal, Anne; Holman, Richard; Walhof, Gert
2015-01-01
This paper discusses risk and uncertainty aspects and proposes an assessment tool leading to identification of critical control points (CCPs) within purchasing-oriented activities of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Identifying such CCPs is the basis for developing SME purchasing instruments to
One-norm geometric quantum discord and critical point estimation in the XY spin chain
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cheng, Chang-Cheng; Wang, Yao; Guo, Jin-Liang, E-mail: guojinliang80@163.com
2016-11-15
In contrast with entanglement and quantum discord (QD), we investigate the thermal quantum correlation in terms of Schatten one-norm geometric quantum discord (GQD) in the XY spin chain, and analyze their capabilities in detecting the critical point of quantum phase transition. We show that the one-norm GQD can reveal more properties about quantum correlation between two spins, especially for the long-range quantum correlation at finite temperature. Under the influences of site distance, anisotropy and temperature, one-norm GQD and its first derivative make it possible to detect the critical point efficiently for a general XY spin chain. - Highlights: • Comparing with entanglement and QD, one-norm GQD is more robust versus the temperature. • One-norm GQD is more efficient in characterization of long-range quantum correlation between two distant qubits. • One-norm GQD performs well in highlighting the critical point of QPT at zero or low finite temperature. • One-norm GQD has a number of advantages over QD in detecting the critical point of the spin chain.
Implementation of the critical points model in a SFM-FDTD code working in oblique incidence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hamidi, M; Belkhir, A; Lamrous, O [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Universite Mouloud Mammeri, Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria); Baida, F I, E-mail: omarlamrous@mail.ummto.dz [Departement d' Optique P.M. Duffieux, Institut FEMTO-ST UMR 6174 CNRS Universite de Franche-Comte, 25030 Besancon Cedex (France)
2011-06-22
We describe the implementation of the critical points model in a finite-difference-time-domain code working in oblique incidence and dealing with dispersive media through the split field method. Some tests are presented to validate our code in addition to an application devoted to plasmon resonance of a gold nanoparticles grating.
Shift of critical points in the parametrically modulated Henon map with coexisting attractors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saucedo-Solorio, J.M.; Pisarchik, A.N.; Aboites, V.
2002-01-01
We study how the critical point positions change in the parametrically modulated Henon map with coexisting period-1 and period-3 attractors. In particular, a new type of scaling law is found coinciding with that evidenced by laser experiments. We show that resonance phenomena play a crucial role in deformation of attractors and their basins of attraction
Critical control points for the management of microbial growth in HVAC systems
Gommers, S; Franchimon, F.; Bronswijk, van J.E.M.H.; Strøm-Tejsen, P; Olesen, BW; Wargocki, P; Zukowska, D; Toftum, J
2008-01-01
Office buildings with HVAC systems consistently report Sick Building Symptoms that are derived from microbial growth. We used the HACCP methodology to find the main critical control points (CCPs) for microbial management of HVAC systems in temperate climates. Desk research revealed relative humidity
Euler Strut: A Mechanical Analogy for Dynamics in the Vicinity of a Critical Point
Bobnar, Jaka; Susman, Katarina; Parsegian, V. Adrian; Rand, Peter R.; Cepic, Mojca; Podgornik, Rudolf
2011-01-01
An anchored elastic filament (Euler strut) under an external point load applied to its free end is a simple model for a second-order phase transition. In the static case, a load greater than the critical load causes a Euler buckling instability, leading to a change in the filament's shape. The analysis of filament dynamics with an external point…
Flow topology of rare back flow events and critical points in turbulent channels and toroidal pipes
Chin, C.; Vinuesa, R.; Örlü, R.; Cardesa, J. I.; Noorani, A.; Schlatter, P.; Chong, M. S.
2018-04-01
A study of the back flow events and critical points in the flow through a toroidal pipe at friction Reynolds number Re τ ≈ 650 is performed and compared with the results in a turbulent channel flow at Re τ ≈ 934. The statistics and topological properties of the back flow events are analysed and discussed. Conditionally-averaged flow fields in the vicinity of the back flow event are obtained, and the results for the torus show a similar streamwise wall-shear stress topology which varies considerably for the spanwise wall-shear stress when compared to the channel flow. The comparison between the toroidal pipe and channel flows also shows fewer back flow events and critical points in the torus. This cannot be solely attributed to differences in Reynolds number, but is a clear effect of the secondary flow present in the toroidal pipe. A possible mechanism is the effect of the secondary flow present in the torus, which convects momentum from the inner to the outer bend through the core of the pipe, and back from the outer to the inner bend through the pipe walls. In the region around the critical points, the skin-friction streamlines and vorticity lines exhibit similar flow characteristics with a node and saddle pair for both flows. These results indicate that back flow events and critical points are genuine features of wall-bounded turbulence, and are not artifacts of specific boundary or inflow conditions in simulations and/or measurement uncertainties in experiments.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kouhia, R.; Tůma, Miroslav; Mäkinen, J.; Fedoroff, A.; Marjamäki, H.
108-109, October (2012), s. 110-117 ISSN 0045-7949 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/0853 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : non-linear eigenvalue problem * equilibrium equations * critical points * preconditioned iterations Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.509, year: 2012
Pc-Based Floating Point Imaging Workstation
Guzak, Chris J.; Pier, Richard M.; Chinn, Patty; Kim, Yongmin
1989-07-01
The medical, military, scientific and industrial communities have come to rely on imaging and computer graphics for solutions to many types of problems. Systems based on imaging technology are used to acquire and process images, and analyze and extract data from images that would otherwise be of little use. Images can be transformed and enhanced to reveal detail and meaning that would go undetected without imaging techniques. The success of imaging has increased the demand for faster and less expensive imaging systems and as these systems become available, more and more applications are discovered and more demands are made. From the designer's perspective the challenge to meet these demands forces him to attack the problem of imaging from a different perspective. The computing demands of imaging algorithms must be balanced against the desire for affordability and flexibility. Systems must be flexible and easy to use, ready for current applications but at the same time anticipating new, unthought of uses. Here at the University of Washington Image Processing Systems Lab (IPSL) we are focusing our attention on imaging and graphics systems that implement imaging algorithms for use in an interactive environment. We have developed a PC-based imaging workstation with the goal to provide powerful and flexible, floating point processing capabilities, along with graphics functions in an affordable package suitable for diverse environments and many applications.
Magnetic-field control of quantum critical points of valence transition.
Watanabe, Shinji; Tsuruta, Atsushi; Miyake, Kazumasa; Flouquet, Jacques
2008-06-13
We study the mechanism of how critical end points of first-order valence transitions are controlled by a magnetic field. We show that the critical temperature is suppressed to be a quantum critical point (QCP) by a magnetic field, and unexpectedly, the QCP exhibits nonmonotonic field dependence in the ground-state phase diagram, giving rise to the emergence of metamagnetism even in the intermediate valence-crossover regime. The driving force of the field-induced QCP is clarified to be cooperative phenomena of the Zeeman and Kondo effects, which create a distinct energy scale from the Kondo temperature. This mechanism explains the peculiar magnetic response in CeIrIn(5) and the metamagnetic transition in YbXCu(4) for X=In as well as the sharp contrast between X=Ag and Cd.
Searching for the QCD Critical Point with the Energy Dependence of pt Fluctuations
Novak, John; STAR Collaboration
2013-10-01
If systems produced in relativistic heavy-ion collisions pass near the QCD critical point while cooling, the correlation length of the system may diverge due to the phenomena of critical opalescence. The transverse momentum distribution, being related to the state variable temperature, might be sensitive to this change in correlation length. Non-monotonic behavior with changing incident energy or centrality of any transverse momentum observable that is sensitive to the correlation length could thus be indicative of the QCD critical point. Accordingly, we report measurements related to transverse momentum fluctuations such as as a function of event centrality and incident energy for Au+Au collisions at √{sNN} = 7.7, 11.5, 19.6, 27, 39, 62.4, and 200 GeV using the STAR detector at RHIC. The results are compared to UrQMD model predictions and previous experimental measurements.
A simple method for determining the critical point of the soil water retention curve
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, Chong; Hu, Kelin; Ren, Tusheng
2017-01-01
he transition point between capillary water and adsorbed water, which is the critical point Pc [defined by the critical matric potential (ψc) and the critical water content (θc)] of the soil water retention curve (SWRC), demarcates the energy and water content region where flow is dominated......, a fixed tangent line method was developed to estimate Pc as an alternative to the commonly used flexible tangent line method. The relationships between Pc, and particle-size distribution and specific surface area (SSA) were analyzed. For 27 soils with various textures, the mean RMSE of water content from...... the fixed tangent line method was 0.007 g g–1, which was slightly better than that of the flexible tangent line method. With increasing clay content or SSA, ψc was more negative initially but became less negative at clay contents above ∼30%. Increasing the silt contents resulted in more negative ψc values...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barrantes Salazar, Alexandra
2014-01-01
System of hazard analysis and critical control points are deployed in a production plant of liquid nitrogen. The fact that the nitrogen has become a complement to food packaging to increase shelf life, or provide a surface that protect it from manipulation, has been the main objective. Analysis of critical control points for the nitrogen production plant has been the adapted methodology. The knowledge of both the standard and the production process, as well as the on site verification process, have been necessary. In addition, all materials and/or processing units that are found in contact with the raw material or the product under study were evaluated. Such a way that the intrinsic risks of each were detected, from the physical, chemical and biological points of view according to the origin or pollution source. For each found risk was evaluated the probability of occurrence according to the frequency and gravity of it, with these variables determined was achieved the definition of the type of risk detected. In the cases that was presented a greater risk or critical, these were subjected decision tree; with which is concluded the non determination of critical control points. However, for each one of them were established the maximum permitted limits. To generate each of the results it has literature or scientific reference of reliable provenance, where is indicated properly the support of the evaluated matter. In a general way, the material matrix and the process matrix are found without critical control points; so that the project is concluded in the analysis, and it has to generate without the monitoring system and verification. To increase this project is suggested in order to cover the packaging system of gaseous nitrogen, due to it was delimited to liquid nitrogen. Furthermore, the liquid nitrogen is a 100% automated and closed process so the introduction of contaminants is very reduced, unlike the gaseous nitrogen process. (author) [es
Finite Blaschke products with prescribed critical points, Stieltjes polynomials, and moment problems
Semmler, Gunter; Wegert, Elias
2017-09-01
The determination of a finite Blaschke product from its critical points is a well-known problem with interrelations to several other topics. Though existence and uniqueness of solutions are established for long, we present new aspects which have not yet been explored to their full extent. In particular, we show that the following three problems are equivalent: (i) determining a finite Blaschke product from its critical points, (ii) finding the equilibrium position of moveable point charges interacting with a special configuration of fixed charges, and (iii) solving a moment problem for the canonical representation of power moments on the real axis. These equivalences are not only of theoretical interest, but also open up new perspectives for the design of algorithms. For instance, the second problem is closely linked to the determination of certain Stieltjes and Van Vleck polynomials for a second order ODE and characterizes solutions as global minimizers of an energy functional.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Levy, F; Huxley, A [CEA, SPSMS, DRFMC, F-38054 Grenoble, (France); Levy, F; Sheikin, I [CNRS, GHMFL, F-38042 Grenoble, (France); Huxley, A [Univ Edinburgh, Scottish Univ Phys Alliance, Sch Phys, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ, Midlothian, (United Kingdom)
2007-07-01
When a pure material is tuned to the point where a continuous phase-transition line is crossed at zero temperature, known as a quantum critical point (QCP), completely new correlated quantum ordered states can form. These phases include exotic forms of superconductivity. However, as superconductivity is generally suppressed by a magnetic field, the formation of superconductivity ought not to be possible at extremely high field. Here, we report that as we tune the ferromagnet, URhGe, towards a QCP by applying a component of magnetic field in the material's easy magnetic plane, superconductivity survives in progressively higher fields applied simultaneously along the material's magnetic hard axis. Thus, although superconductivity never occurs above a temperature of 0.5 K, we find that it can survive in extremely high magnetic fields, exceeding 28 T. (authors)
Improving Agent Based Modeling of Critical Incidents
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Robert Till
2010-04-01
Full Text Available Agent Based Modeling (ABM is a powerful method that has been used to simulate potential critical incidents in the infrastructure and built environments. This paper will discuss the modeling of some critical incidents currently simulated using ABM and how they may be expanded and improved by using better physiological modeling, psychological modeling, modeling the actions of interveners, introducing Geographic Information Systems (GIS and open source models.
Order parameter fluctuations at a critical point - an exact result about percolation -
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Botet, Robert
2011-01-01
The order parameter of the system in the critical state, is expected to undergo large non-Gaussian fluctuations. However, almost nothing is known about the mathematical forms of the possible probability distributions of the order parameter. A remarkable exception is the site-percolation on the Bethe lattice, for which the complete order-parameter distribution has been recently derived at the critical point. Surprisingly, it appears to be the Kolmogorov-Smirnov distribution, well known in very different areas of mathematical statistics. In the present paper, we explain first how this special distribution could appear naturally in the context of the critical systems, under the assumption (still virtually unstudied) of the exponential distribution of the number of domains of a given size. In a second part, we present for the first time the complete derivation of the order-parameter distribution for the critical percolation model on the Bethe lattice, thus completing a recent publication announcing this result.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. G. Kapiris
2003-01-01
Full Text Available In analogy to the study of critical phase transitions in statistical physics, it has been argued recently that the fracture of heterogeneous materials could be viewed as a critical phenomenon, either at laboratory or at geophysical scales. If the picture of the development of the fracture is correct one may guess that the precursors may reveal the critical approach of the main-shock. When a heterogeneous material is stretched, its evolution towards breaking is characterized by the appearance of microcracks before the final break-up. Microcracks produce both acoustic and electromagnetic(EM emission in the frequency range from VLF to VHF. The microcracks and the associated acoustic and EM activities constitute the so-called precursors of general fracture. These precursors are detectable not only at laboratory but also at geophysical scales. VLF and VHF acoustic and EM emissions have been reported resulting from volcanic and seismic activities in various geologically distinct regions of the world. In the present work we attempt to establish the hypothesis that the evolution of the Earth's crust towards the critical point takes place not only in a mechanical but also in an electromagnetic sense. In other words, we focus on the possible electromagnetic criticality, which is reached while the catastrophic rupture in the Earth's crust approaches. Our main tool is the monitoring of micro-fractures that occur before the final breakup, by recording their radio-electromagnetic emissions. We show that the spectral power law analysis of the electromagnetic precursors reveals distinguishing signatures of underlying critical dynamics, such as: (i the emergence of memory effects; (ii the decrease with time of the anti-persistence behaviour; (iii the presence of persistence properties in the tail of the sequence of the precursors; and (iv the acceleration of the precursory electro-magnetic energy release. Moreover, the statistical analysis of the amplitudes of
Morishige, Kunimitsu
2009-06-02
To examine the mechanisms for capillary condensation and for capillary evaporation in porous glass, we measured the hysteresis critical points and desorption scanning curves of nitrogen in four kinds of porous glasses with different pore sizes (Vycor, CPG75A, CPG120A, and CPG170A). The shapes of the hysteresis loop in the adsorption isotherm of nitrogen for the Vycor and the CPG75A changed with temperature, whereas those for the CPG120A and the CPG170A remained almost unchanged with temperature. The hysteresis critical points for the Vycor and the CPG75A fell on the common line observed previously for ordered mesoporous silicas. On the other hand, the hysteresis critical points for the CPG120A and the CPG170A deviated appreciably from the common line. This strongly suggests that capillary evaporation of nitrogen in the interconnected and disordered pores of both the Vycor and the CPG75A follows a cavitation process at least in the vicinity of their hysteresis critical temperatures in the same way as that in the cagelike pores of the ordered silicas, whereas the hysteresis critical points in the CPG120A and the CPG170A have origin different from that in the cagelike pores. The desorption scanning curves for the CPG75A indicated the nonindependence of the porous domains. On the other hand, for both the CPG120A and the CPG170A, we obtained the scanning curves that are expected from the independent domain theory. All these results suggest that sample spanning transitions in capillary condensation and evaporation take place inside the interconnected pores of both the CPG120A and the CPG170A.
Criticality benchmarks for COG: A new point-wise Monte Carlo code
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alesso, H.P.; Pearson, J.; Choi, J.S.
1989-01-01
COG is a new point-wise Monte Carlo code being developed and tested at LLNL for the Cray computer. It solves the Boltzmann equation for the transport of neutrons, photons, and (in future versions) charged particles. Techniques included in the code for modifying the random walk of particles make COG most suitable for solving deep-penetration (shielding) problems. However, its point-wise cross-sections also make it effective for a wide variety of criticality problems. COG has some similarities to a number of other computer codes used in the shielding and criticality community. These include the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) codes TART and ALICE, the Los Alamos National Laboratory code MCNP, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory codes 05R, 06R, KENO, and MORSE, the SACLAY code TRIPOLI, and the MAGI code SAM. Each code is a little different in its geometry input and its random-walk modification options. Validating COG consists in part of running benchmark calculations against critical experiments as well as other codes. The objective of this paper is to present calculational results of a variety of critical benchmark experiments using COG, and to present the resulting code bias. Numerous benchmark calculations have been completed for a wide variety of critical experiments which generally involve both simple and complex physical problems. The COG results, which they report in this paper, have been excellent
Hazard analysis and critical control point to irradiated food in Brazil
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boaratti, Maria de Fatima Guerra
2004-01-01
, i.e.. as a substitute for good manufacturing practices. By adopting an HACCP based approach to food safety management, it can be clearly demonstrated that the application of a technology like food irradiation is essential for ensuring the safety of raw food stuffs. Such an intervention should be considered as a CCP (Critical Control Point) in the food chain. Therefore, the potential benefit of irradiation, which is endorsed by national and international bodies surely merits serious consideration by public health authorities, industry and consumer groups worldwide. For such, a system of HACCP and the irradiation is primordial so that the alimentary .safety is maintained processes if they are applied correctly. (author)
Nematic quantum critical point without magnetism in FeSe1-xSx superconductors.
Hosoi, Suguru; Matsuura, Kohei; Ishida, Kousuke; Wang, Hao; Mizukami, Yuta; Watashige, Tatsuya; Kasahara, Shigeru; Matsuda, Yuji; Shibauchi, Takasada
2016-07-19
In most unconventional superconductors, the importance of antiferromagnetic fluctuations is widely acknowledged. In addition, cuprate and iron-pnictide high-temperature superconductors often exhibit unidirectional (nematic) electronic correlations, including stripe and orbital orders, whose fluctuations may also play a key role for electron pairing. In these materials, however, such nematic correlations are intertwined with antiferromagnetic or charge orders, preventing the identification of the essential role of nematic fluctuations. This calls for new materials having only nematicity without competing or coexisting orders. Here we report systematic elastoresistance measurements in FeSe1-xSx superconductors, which, unlike other iron-based families, exhibit an electronic nematic order without accompanying antiferromagnetic order. We find that the nematic transition temperature decreases with sulfur content x; whereas, the nematic fluctuations are strongly enhanced. Near [Formula: see text], the nematic susceptibility diverges toward absolute zero, revealing a nematic quantum critical point. The obtained phase diagram for the nematic and superconducting states highlights FeSe1-xSx as a unique nonmagnetic system suitable for studying the impact of nematicity on superconductivity.
Quench dynamics near a quantum critical point: Application to the sine-Gordon model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Grandi, C.; Polkovnikov, A.; Gritsev, V.
2010-01-01
We discuss the quench dynamics near a quantum critical point focusing on the sine-Gordon model as a primary example. We suggest a unified approach to sudden and slow quenches, where the tuning parameter λ(t) changes in time as λ(t)∼υt r , based on the adiabatic expansion of the excitation probability in powers of υ. We show that the universal scaling of the excitation probability can be understood through the singularity of the generalized adiabatic susceptibility χ 2r+2 (λ), which for sudden quenches (r=0) reduces to the fidelity susceptibility. In turn this class of susceptibilities is expressed through the moments of the connected correlation function of the quench operator. We analyze the excitations created after a sudden quench of the cosine potential using a combined approach of form-factors expansion and conformal perturbation theory for the low-energy and high-energy sector, respectively. We find the general scaling laws for the probability of exciting the system, the density of excited quasiparticles, the entropy and the heat generated after the quench. In the two limits where the sine-Gordon model maps to hard-core bosons and free massive fermions we provide the exact solutions for the quench dynamics and discuss the finite temperature generalizations.
Systems near a critical point under multiplicative noise and the concept of effective potential
Shapiro, V. E.
1993-07-01
This paper presents a general approach to and elucidates the main features of the effective potential, friction, and diffusion exerted by systems near a critical point due to nonlinear influence of noise. The model is that of a general many-dimensional system of coupled nonlinear oscillators of finite damping under frequently alternating influences, multiplicative or additive, and arbitrary form of the power spectrum, provided the time scales of the system's drift due to noise are large compared to the scales of unperturbed relaxation behavior. The conventional statistical approach and the widespread deterministic effective potential concept use the assumptions about a small parameter which are particular cases of the considered. We show close correspondence between the asymptotic methods of these approaches and base the analysis on this. The results include an analytical treatment of the system's long-time behavior as a function of the noise covering all the range of its table- and bell-shaped spectra, from the monochromatic limit to white noise. The trend is considered both in the coordinate momentum and in the coordinate system's space. Particular attention is paid to the stabilization behavior forced by multiplicative noise. An intermittency, in a broad area of the control parameter space, is shown to be an intrinsic feature of these phenomena.
Validation Of Critical Knowledge-Based Systems
Duke, Eugene L.
1992-01-01
Report discusses approach to verification and validation of knowledge-based systems. Also known as "expert systems". Concerned mainly with development of methodologies for verification of knowledge-based systems critical to flight-research systems; e.g., fault-tolerant control systems for advanced aircraft. Subject matter also has relevance to knowledge-based systems controlling medical life-support equipment or commuter railroad systems.
Intrinsic low pass filtering improves signal-to-noise ratio in critical-point flexure biosensors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jain, Ankit; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful
2014-01-01
A flexure biosensor consists of a suspended beam and a fixed bottom electrode. The adsorption of the target biomolecules on the beam changes its stiffness and results in change of beam's deflection. It is now well established that the sensitivity of sensor is maximized close to the pull-in instability point, where effective stiffness of the beam vanishes. The question: “Do the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the limit-of-detection (LOD) also improve close to the instability point?”, however remains unanswered. In this article, we systematically analyze the noise response to evaluate SNR and establish LOD of critical-point flexure sensors. We find that a flexure sensor acts like an effective low pass filter close to the instability point due to its relatively small resonance frequency, and rejects high frequency noise, leading to improved SNR and LOD. We believe that our conclusions should establish the uniqueness and the technological relevance of critical-point biosensors.
Elliptic Euler–Poisson–Darboux equation, critical points and integrable systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konopelchenko, B G; Ortenzi, G
2013-01-01
The structure and properties of families of critical points for classes of functions W(z, z-bar ) obeying the elliptic Euler–Poisson–Darboux equation E(1/2, 1/2) are studied. General variational and differential equations governing the dependence of critical points in variational (deformation) parameters are found. Explicit examples of the corresponding integrable quasi-linear differential systems and hierarchies are presented. There are the extended dispersionless Toda/nonlinear Schrödinger hierarchies, the ‘inverse’ hierarchy and equations associated with the real-analytic Eisenstein series E(β, β-bar ;1/2) among them. The specific bi-Hamiltonian structure of these equations is also discussed. (paper)
LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT AND HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINTS TO THE PASTA PRODUCT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yulexis Meneses Linares
2016-10-01
Full Text Available The objective of this work is to combine the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA and Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP methodologies for the determination of risks that the food production represents to the human health and the ecosystem. The environmental performance of the production of pastas in the “Marta Abreu” Pasta Factory of Cienfuegos is assessed, where the critical control points determined by the biological dangers (mushrooms and plagues and the physical dangers (wood, paper, thread and ferromagnetic particles were the raw materials: flour, semolina and its mixtures, and the disposition and extraction of them. Resources are the most affected damage category due to the consumption of fossil fuels.
Classical dynamics of the Abelian Higgs model from the critical point and beyond
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G.C. Katsimiga
2015-09-01
Full Text Available We present two different families of solutions of the U(1-Higgs model in a (1+1 dimensional setting leading to a localization of the gauge field. First we consider a uniform background (the usual vacuum, which corresponds to the fully higgsed-superconducting phase. Then we study the case of a non-uniform background in the form of a domain wall which could be relevantly close to the critical point of the associated spontaneous symmetry breaking. For both cases we obtain approximate analytical nodeless and nodal solutions for the gauge field resulting as bound states of an effective Pöschl–Teller potential created by the scalar field. The two scenaria differ only in the scale of the characteristic localization length. Numerical simulations confirm the validity of the obtained analytical solutions. Additionally we demonstrate how a kink may be used as a mediator driving the dynamics from the critical point and beyond.
Critical point of Nf=3 QCD from lattice simulations in the canonical ensemble
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Anyi; Alexandru, Andrei; Liu, Keh-Fei
2011-01-01
A canonical ensemble algorithm is employed to study the phase diagram of N f =3 QCD using lattice simulations. We lock in the desired quark number sector using an exact Fourier transform of the fermion determinant. We scan the phase space below T c and look for an S-shape structure in the chemical potential, which signals the coexistence phase of a first order phase transition in finite volume. Applying Maxwell construction, we determine the boundaries of the coexistence phase at three temperatures and extrapolate them to locate the critical point. Using an improved gauge action and improved Wilson fermions on lattices with a spatial extent of 1.8 fm and quark masses close to that of the strange, we find the critical point at T E =0.925(5)T c and baryon chemical potential μ B E =2.60(8)T c .
Duality between the Deconfined Quantum-Critical Point and the Bosonic Topological Transition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yan Qi Qin
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Recently, significant progress has been made in (2+1-dimensional conformal field theories without supersymmetry. In particular, it was realized that different Lagrangians may be related by hidden dualities; i.e., seemingly different field theories may actually be identical in the infrared limit. Among all the proposed dualities, one has attracted particular interest in the field of strongly correlated quantum-matter systems: the one relating the easy-plane noncompact CP^{1} model (NCCP^{1} and noncompact quantum electrodynamics (QED with two flavors (N=2 of massless two-component Dirac fermions. The easy-plane NCCP^{1} model is the field theory of the putative deconfined quantum-critical point separating a planar (XY antiferromagnet and a dimerized (valence-bond solid ground state, while N=2 noncompact QED is the theory for the transition between a bosonic symmetry-protected topological phase and a trivial Mott insulator. In this work, we present strong numerical support for the proposed duality. We realize the N=2 noncompact QED at a critical point of an interacting fermion model on the bilayer honeycomb lattice and study it using determinant quantum Monte Carlo (QMC simulations. Using stochastic series expansion QMC simulations, we study a planar version of the S=1/2 J-Q spin Hamiltonian (a quantum XY model with additional multispin couplings and show that it hosts a continuous transition between the XY magnet and the valence-bond solid. The duality between the two systems, following from a mapping of their phase diagrams extending from their respective critical points, is supported by the good agreement between the critical exponents according to the proposed duality relationships. In the J-Q model, we find both continuous and first-order transitions, depending on the degree of planar anisotropy, with deconfined quantum criticality surviving only up to moderate strengths of the anisotropy. This explains previous claims of no deconfined
Popova, A Yu; Trukhina, G M; Mikailova, O M
In the article there is considered the quality control and safety system implemented in the one of the largest flight catering food production plant for airline passengers and flying squad. The system for the control was based on the Hazard Analysis And Critical Control Points (HACCP) principles and developed hygienic and antiepidemic measures. There is considered the identification of hazard factors at stages of the technical process. There are presented results of the analysis data of monitoring for 6 critical control points over the five-year period. The quality control and safety system permit to decline food contamination risk during acceptance, preparation and supplying of in-flight meal. There was proved the efficiency of the implemented system. There are determined further ways of harmonization and implementation for HACCP principles in the plant.
Analytical solution of point kinetic equations for sub-critical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Henrice Junior, Edson; Goncalves, Alessandro C.
2013-01-01
This article presents an analytical solution for the set of point kinetic equations for sub-critical reactors. This solution stems from the ordinary, non-homogeneous differential equation that rules the neutron density and that presents the incomplete Gamma function in its functional form. The method used proved advantageous and allowed practical applications such as the linear insertion of reactivity, considering an external constant source or with both varying linearly. (author)
Merli, Marcello; Pavese, Alessandro
2018-03-01
The critical points analysis of electron density, i.e. ρ(x), from ab initio calculations is used in combination with the catastrophe theory to show a correlation between ρ(x) topology and the appearance of instability that may lead to transformations of crystal structures, as a function of pressure/temperature. In particular, this study focuses on the evolution of coalescing non-degenerate critical points, i.e. such that ∇ρ(x c ) = 0 and λ 1 , λ 2 , λ 3 ≠ 0 [λ being the eigenvalues of the Hessian of ρ(x) at x c ], towards degenerate critical points, i.e. ∇ρ(x c ) = 0 and at least one λ equal to zero. The catastrophe theory formalism provides a mathematical tool to model ρ(x) in the neighbourhood of x c and allows one to rationalize the occurrence of instability in terms of electron-density topology and Gibbs energy. The phase/state transitions that TiO 2 (rutile structure), MgO (periclase structure) and Al 2 O 3 (corundum structure) undergo because of pressure and/or temperature are here discussed. An agreement of 3-5% is observed between the theoretical model and experimental pressure/temperature of transformation.
Noise and time delay induce critical point in a bistable system
Zhang, Jianqiang; Nie, Linru; Yu, Lilong; Zhang, Xinyu
2014-07-01
We study relaxation time Tc of time-delayed bistable system driven by two cross-correlated Gaussian white noises that one is multiplicative and the other is additive. By means of numerical calculations, the results indicate that: (i) Combination of noise and time delay can induce two critical points about the relaxation time at some certain noise cross-correlation strength λ under the condition that the multiplicative intensity D equals to the additive noise intensity α. (ii) For each fixed D or α, there are two symmetrical critical points which locates in the regions of positive and negative correlations, respectively. Namely, as λ equals to the critical value λc, Tc is independent of the delay time and the result of Tc versus τ is a horizontal line, but as |λ|>|λc| (or |λ|decreases) with the delay time increasing. (iii) In the presence of D = α, the change of λc with D is two symmetrical curves about the axis of λc = 0, and the critical value λc is close to zero for a smaller D, which approaches to +1 or -1 for a greater D.
Scaling functions for the Inverse Compressibility near the QCD critical point
Lacey, Roy
2017-09-01
The QCD phase diagram can be mapped out by studying fluctuations and their response to changes in the temperature and baryon chemical potential. Theoretical studies indicate that the cumulant ratios Cn /Cm used to characterize the fluctuation of conserved charges, provide a valuable probe of deconfinement and chiral dynamics, as well as for identifying the position of the critical endpoint (CEP) in the QCD phase diagram. The ratio C1 /C2 , which is linked to the inverse compressibility, vanishes at the CEP due to the divergence of the net quark number fluctuations at the critical point belonging to the Z(2) universality class. Therefore, it's associated scaling function can give insight on the location of the critical end point, as well as the critical exponents required to assign its static universality class. Scaling functions for the ratio C1 /C2 , obtained from net-proton multiplicity distributions for a broad range of collision centralities in Au+Au (√{sNN} = 7.7 - 200 GeV) collisions will be presented and discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kunihiro, Teiji; Minami, Yuki; Tsumura, Kyosuke
2009-01-01
The dynamical density fluctuations around the QCD critical point (CP) are analyzed using relativistic dissipative fluid dynamics, and we show that the sound mode around the QCD CP is strongly attenuated whereas the thermal fluctuation stands out there. We speculate that if possible suppression or disappearance of a Mach cone, which seems to be created by the partonic jets at RHIC, is observed as the incident energy of the heavy-ion collisions is decreased, it can be a signal of the existence of the QCD CP. We have presented the Israel-Stewart type fluid dynamic equations that are derived rigorously on the basis of the (dynamical) renormalization group method in the second part of the talk, which we omit here because of a lack of space.
Kunihiro, Teiji; Minami, Yuki; Tsumura, Kyosuke
2009-11-01
The dynamical density fluctuations around the QCD critical point (CP) are analyzed using relativistic dissipative fluid dynamics, and we show that the sound mode around the QCD CP is strongly attenuated whereas the thermal fluctuation stands out there. We speculate that if possible suppression or disappearance of a Mach cone, which seems to be created by the partonic jets at RHIC, is observed as the incident energy of the heavy-ion collisions is decreased, it can be a signal of the existence of the QCD CP. We have presented the Israel-Stewart type fluid dynamic equations that are derived rigorously on the basis of the (dynamical) renormalization group method in the second part of the talk, which we omit here because of a lack of space.
Mouchtouri, Varavara; Malissiova, Eleni; Zisis, Panagiotis; Paparizou, Evina; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos
2013-01-01
The level of hygiene on ferries can have impact on travellers' health. The aim of this study was to assess the hygiene standards of ferries in Greece and to investigate whether Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) implementation contributes to the hygiene status and particularly food safety aboard passenger ships. Hygiene inspections on 17 ferries in Greece were performed using a standardized inspection form, with a 135-point scale. Thirty-four water and 17 food samples were collected and analysed. About 65% (11/17) of ferries were scored with >100 points. Ferries with HACCP received higher scores during inspection compared to those without HACCP (p value food samples, only one was found positive for Salmonella spp. Implementation of management systems including HACCP principles can help to raise the level of hygiene aboard passenger ships.
Neural avalanches at the critical point between replay and non-replay of spatiotemporal patterns.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Silvia Scarpetta
Full Text Available We model spontaneous cortical activity with a network of coupled spiking units, in which multiple spatio-temporal patterns are stored as dynamical attractors. We introduce an order parameter, which measures the overlap (similarity between the activity of the network and the stored patterns. We find that, depending on the excitability of the network, different working regimes are possible. For high excitability, the dynamical attractors are stable, and a collective activity that replays one of the stored patterns emerges spontaneously, while for low excitability, no replay is induced. Between these two regimes, there is a critical region in which the dynamical attractors are unstable, and intermittent short replays are induced by noise. At the critical spiking threshold, the order parameter goes from zero to one, and its fluctuations are maximized, as expected for a phase transition (and as observed in recent experimental results in the brain. Notably, in this critical region, the avalanche size and duration distributions follow power laws. Critical exponents are consistent with a scaling relationship observed recently in neural avalanches measurements. In conclusion, our simple model suggests that avalanche power laws in cortical spontaneous activity may be the effect of a network at the critical point between the replay and non-replay of spatio-temporal patterns.
Mahalanobis Distance Based Iterative Closest Point
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Mads Fogtmann; Blas, Morten Rufus; Larsen, Rasmus
2007-01-01
the notion of a mahalanobis distance map upon a point set with associated covariance matrices which in addition to providing correlation weighted distance implicitly provides a method for assigning correspondence during alignment. This distance map provides an easy formulation of the ICP problem that permits...... a fast optimization. Initially, the covariance matrices are set to the identity matrix, and all shapes are aligned to a randomly selected shape (equivalent to standard ICP). From this point the algorithm iterates between the steps: (a) obtain mean shape and new estimates of the covariance matrices from...... the aligned shapes, (b) align shapes to the mean shape. Three different methods for estimating the mean shape with associated covariance matrices are explored in the paper. The proposed methods are validated experimentally on two separate datasets (IMM face dataset and femur-bones). The superiority of ICP...
Entropy excess in strongly correlated Fermi systems near a quantum critical point
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Clark, J.W., E-mail: jwc@wuphys.wustl.edu [McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences and Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States); Zverev, M.V. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, 123182 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Moscow, 123098 (Russian Federation); Khodel, V.A. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute, Moscow, 123182 (Russian Federation); McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences and Department of Physics, Washington University, St. Louis, MO 63130 (United States)
2012-12-15
A system of interacting, identical fermions described by standard Landau Fermi-liquid (FL) theory can experience a rearrangement of its Fermi surface if the correlations grow sufficiently strong, as occurs at a quantum critical point where the effective mass diverges. As yet, this phenomenon defies full understanding, but salient aspects of the non-Fermi-liquid (NFL) behavior observed beyond the quantum critical point are still accessible within the general framework of the Landau quasiparticle picture. Self-consistent solutions of the coupled Landau equations for the quasiparticle momentum distribution n(p) and quasiparticle energy spectrum {epsilon}(p) are shown to exist in two distinct classes, depending on coupling strength and on whether the quasiparticle interaction is regular or singular at zero momentum transfer. One class of solutions maintains the idempotency condition n{sup 2}(p)=n(p) of standard FL theory at zero temperature T while adding pockets to the Fermi surface. The other solutions are characterized by a swelling of the Fermi surface and a flattening of the spectrum {epsilon}(p) over a range of momenta in which the quasiparticle occupancies lie between 0 and 1 even at T=0. The latter, non-idempotent solution is revealed by analysis of a Poincare mapping associated with the fundamental Landau equation connecting n(p) and {epsilon}(p) and validated by solution of a variational condition that yields the symmetry-preserving ground state. Significantly, this extraordinary solution carries the burden of a large temperature-dependent excess entropy down to very low temperatures, threatening violation of the Nernst Theorem. It is argued that certain low-temperature phase transitions, notably those involving Cooper-pair formation, offer effective mechanisms for shedding the entropy excess. Available measurements in heavy-fermion compounds provide concrete support for such a scenario. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extension of Landau
Infrared conformality and bulk critical points: SU(2) with heavy adjoint quarks
Lucini, Biagio; Rago, Antonio; Rinaldi, Enrico
2013-01-01
The lattice phase structure of a gauge theory can be a serious obstruction to Monte Carlo studies of its continuum behaviour. This issue is particularly delicate when numerical studies are performed to determine whether a theory is in a (near-)conformal phase. In this work we investigate the heavy mass limit of the SU(2) gauge theory with Nf=2 adjoint fermions and its lattice phase diagram, showing the presence of a critical point ending a line of first order bulk phase transition. The relevant gauge observables and the low-lying spectrum are monitored in the vicinity of the critical point with very good control over different systematic effects. The scaling properties of masses and susceptibilities open the possibility that the effective theory at criticality is a scalar theory in the universality class of the four-dimensional Gaussian model. This behaviour is clearly different from what is observed for SU(2) gauge theory with two dynamical adjoint fermions, whose (near-)conformal numerical signature is henc...
Critical point in the phase diagram of primordial quark-gluon matter from black hole physics
Critelli, Renato; Noronha, Jorge; Noronha-Hostler, Jacquelyn; Portillo, Israel; Ratti, Claudia; Rougemont, Romulo
2017-11-01
Strongly interacting matter undergoes a crossover phase transition at high temperatures T ˜1012 K and zero net-baryon density. A fundamental question in the theory of strong interactions, QCD, is whether a hot and dense system of quarks and gluons displays critical phenomena when doped with more quarks than antiquarks, where net-baryon number fluctuations diverge. Recent lattice QCD work indicates that such a critical point can only occur in the baryon dense regime of the theory, which defies a description from first principles calculations. Here we use the holographic gauge/gravity correspondence to map the fluctuations of baryon charge in the dense quark-gluon liquid onto a numerically tractable gravitational problem involving the charge fluctuations of holographic black holes. This approach quantitatively reproduces ab initio results for the lowest order moments of the baryon fluctuations and makes predictions for the higher-order baryon susceptibilities and also for the location of the critical point, which is found to be within the reach of heavy-ion collision experiments.
Vegetation community change points suggest that critical loads of nutrient nitrogen may be too high
Wilkins, Kayla; Aherne, Julian; Bleasdale, Andy
2016-12-01
It is widely accepted that elevated nitrogen deposition can have detrimental effects on semi-natural ecosystems, including changes to plant diversity. Empirical critical loads of nutrient nitrogen have been recommended to protect many sensitive European habitats from significant harmful effects. In this study, we used Threshold Indicator Taxa Analysis (TITAN) to investigate shifts in vegetation communities along an atmospheric nitrogen deposition gradient for twenty-two semi-natural habitat types (as described under Annex I of the European Union Habitats Directive) in Ireland. Significant changes in vegetation community, i.e., change points, were determined for twelve habitats, with seven habitats showing a decrease in the number of positive indicator species. Community-level change points indicated a decrease in species abundance along a nitrogen deposition gradient ranging from 3.9 to 15.3 kg N ha-1 yr-1, which were significantly lower than recommended critical loads (Wilcoxon signed-rank test; V = 6, p < 0.05). These results suggest that lower critical loads of empirical nutrient nitrogen deposition may be required to protect many European habitats. Changes to vegetation communities may mean a loss of sensitive indicator species and potentially rare species in these habitats, highlighting how emission reductions policies set under the National Emissions Ceilings Directive may be directly linked to meeting the goal set out under the European Union's Biodiversity Strategy of "halting the loss of biodiversity" across Europe by 2020.
Search for signatures of phase transition and critical point in heavy ion collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tokarev, M.V.; Kechechyan, A.; Alakhverdyants, A.; Zborovsky, I.
2011-01-01
The general concepts in the critical phenomena related with the notions of 'scaling' and 'universality' are considered. Behavior of various systems near a phase transition is displayed. Search for clear signatures of the phase transition of the nuclear matter and location of the critical point in heavy ion collisions (HIC) is discussed. The experimental data on inclusive spectra measured in HIC at RHIC and SPS over a wide range of energies s NN 1/2 = 9-200 GeV are analyzed in the framework of z-scaling. A microscopic scenario of the constituent interactions is presented. Dependence of the energy loss on the momentum of the produced hadron, energy and centrality of the collision is studied. Self-similarity of the constituent interactions described in terms of momentum fractions is used to characterize the nuclear medium by 'specific heat' and colliding nuclei by fractal dimensions. Preferable kinematical regions to search for signatures of the phase transition of the nuclear matter produced in HIC are discussed. Discontinuity of the 'specific heat' is assumed to be a signature of the phase transition and the critical point
Turbidity very near the critical point of methanol-cyclohexane mixtures
Kopelman, R. B.; Gammon, R. W.; Moldover, M. R.
1984-04-01
The turbidity of a critical mixture of methanol and cyclohexane has been measured extremely close to the consolute point. The data span the reduced-temperature range between 10 to the -7th and 10 to the -3d, which is two decades closer to Tc than previous measurements. In this temperature range, the turbidity varies approximately as 1nt, as expected from the integrated form for Ornstein-Zernike scattering. A thin cell (200-micron optical path) with a very small volume (0.08 ml) was used to avoid multiple scattering. A carefully controlled temperature history was used to mix the sample and to minimize the effects of critical wetting layers. The data are consistent with a correlation-length amplitude of 3.9 plus or minus 1.0 A, in agreement with the value 3.5 A calculated from two-scale-factor universality and heat-capacity data from the literature.
Turbidity very near the critical point of methanol-cyclohexane mixtures
Kopelman, R. B.; Gammon, R. W.; Moldover, M. R.
1984-01-01
The turbidity of a critical mixture of methanol and cyclohexane has been measured extremely close to the consolute point. The data span the reduced-temperature range between 10 to the -7th and 10 to the -3d, which is two decades closer to Tc than previous measurements. In this temperature range, the turbidity varies approximately as 1nt, as expected from the integrated form for Ornstein-Zernike scattering. A thin cell (200-micron optical path) with a very small volume (0.08 ml) was used to avoid multiple scattering. A carefully controlled temperature history was used to mix the sample and to minimize the effects of critical wetting layers. The data are consistent with a correlation-length amplitude of 3.9 plus or minus 1.0 A, in agreement with the value 3.5 A calculated from two-scale-factor universality and heat-capacity data from the literature.
Point- and curve-based geometric conflation
Ló pez-Vá zquez, C.; Manso Callejo, M.A.
2013-01-01
Geometric conflation is the process undertaken to modify the coordinates of features in dataset A in order to match corresponding ones in dataset B. The overwhelming majority of the literature considers the use of points as features to define the transformation. In this article we present a procedure to consider one-dimensional curves also, which are commonly available as Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) tracks, routes, coastlines, and so on, in order to define the estimate of the displacements to be applied to each object in A. The procedure involves three steps, including the partial matching of corresponding curves, the computation of some analytical expression, and the addition of a correction term in order to satisfy basic cartographic rules. A numerical example is presented. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Thermodynamic and real-space structural evidence of a 2D critical point in phospholipid monolayers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Lars K.; Bjørnholm, Thomas; Mouritsen, Ole G.
2007-01-01
The two-dimensional phase diagram of phospholipid monolayers at air-water interfaces has been constructed from Langmuir compression isotherms. The coexistence region between the solid and fluid phases of the monolayer ends at the critical temperature of the transition. The small-scale lateral...... structure of the monolayers has been imaged by atomic force microscopy in the nm to mu m range at distinct points in the phase diagram. The lateral structure is immobilized by transferring the monolayer from an air-water interface to a solid mica support using Langmuir-Blodgett techniques. A transfer...
Dynamical simulation of a linear sigma model near the critical point
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wesp, Christian; Meistrenko, Alex; Greiner, Carsten [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Goethe-Universitaet Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 1, D-60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Hees, Hendrik van [Frankfurt Institute for Advanced Studies, Ruth-Moufang-Strasse 1, D-60438 Frankfurt (Germany)
2014-07-01
The intention of this study is the search for signatures of the chiral phase transition. To investigate the impact of fluctuations, e.g. of the baryon number, on the transition or a critical point, the linear sigma model is treated in a dynamical 3+1D numerical simulation. Chiral fields are approximated as classical fields, quarks are described by quasi particles in a Vlasov equation. Additional dynamic is implemented by quark-quark and quark-sigma-field interaction. For a consistent description of field-particle interactions, a new Monte-Carlo-Langevin-like formalism has been developed and is discussed.
Castellanos Rey, Liliana C; Villamil Jiménez, Luis C; Romero Prada, Jaime R
2004-01-01
The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point system (HACCP), recommended by different international organizations as the Codex Alimentarius Commission, the World Trade Organization (WTO), the International Office of Epizootics (OIE) and the International Convention for Vegetables Protection (ICPV) amongst others, contributes to ensuring the innocuity of food along the agro-alimentary chain and requires of Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) for its implementation, GMP's which are legislated in most countries. Since 1997, Colombia has set rules and legislation for application of HACCP system in agreement with international standards. This paper discusses the potential and difficulties of the legislation enforcement and suggests some policy implications towards food safety.
Zhang, Chendong
2015-09-21
By using a comprehensive form of scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we have revealed detailed quasi-particle electronic structures in transition metal dichalcogenides, including the quasi-particle gaps, critical point energy locations, and their origins in the Brillouin zones. We show that single layer WSe surprisingly has an indirect quasi-particle gap with the conduction band minimum located at the Q-point (instead of K), albeit the two states are nearly degenerate. We have further observed rich quasi-particle electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides as a function of atomic structures and spin-orbit couplings. Such a local probe for detailed electronic structures in conduction and valence bands will be ideal to investigate how electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides are influenced by variations of local environment.
Zhang, Chendong; Chen, Yuxuan; Johnson, Amber; Li, Ming-yang; Li, Lain-Jong; Mende, Patrick C.; Feenstra, Randall M.; Shih, Chih Kang
2015-01-01
By using a comprehensive form of scanning tunneling spectroscopy, we have revealed detailed quasi-particle electronic structures in transition metal dichalcogenides, including the quasi-particle gaps, critical point energy locations, and their origins in the Brillouin zones. We show that single layer WSe surprisingly has an indirect quasi-particle gap with the conduction band minimum located at the Q-point (instead of K), albeit the two states are nearly degenerate. We have further observed rich quasi-particle electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides as a function of atomic structures and spin-orbit couplings. Such a local probe for detailed electronic structures in conduction and valence bands will be ideal to investigate how electronic structures of transition metal dichalcogenides are influenced by variations of local environment.
St. Croix: Shore-based Fishing Access Points (2014)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Two local experts delineated access points for shore-based fishing along the shoreline of St. Croix, USVI. The points were documented at different times, and then...
Evaluation of the i-STAT point-of-care analyzer in critically ill adult patients.
Steinfelder-Visscher, Jacoline; Teerenstra, Steven; Gunnewiek, Jacqueline M T Klein; Weerwind, Patrick W
2008-03-01
Point-of-care analyzers may benefit therapeutic decision making by reducing turn-around-time for samples. This is especially true when biochemical parameters exceed the clinical reference range, in which acute and effective treatment is essential. We therefore evaluated the analytical performance of the i-STAT point-of-care analyzer in two critically ill adult patient populations. During a 3-month period, 48 blood samples from patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and 42 blood samples from non-cardiac patients who needed intensive care treatment were analyzed on both the i-STAT analyzer (CPB and non-CPB mode, respectively) and our laboratory analyzers (RapidLab 865/Sysmex XE-2100 instrument). The agreement analysis for quantitative data was used to compare i-STAT to RapidLab for blood gas/electrolytes and for hematocrit with the Sysmex instrument. Point-of-care electrolytes and blood gases had constant deviation, except for pH, pO2, and hematocrit. A clear linear trend in deviation of i-STAT from RapidLab was noticed for pH during CPB (r = 0.32, p = .03) and for pO2 > 10 kPa during CPB (r = -0.59, p pO2 pO2 pO2 range (10.6 pO2 range below 25% (n = 11) using the i-STAT. The i-STAT analyzer is suitable for point-of-care testing of electrolytes and blood gases in critically ill patients, except for high pO2. However, the discrepancy in hematocrit bias shows that accuracy established in one patient population cannot be automatically extrapolated to other patient populations, thus stressing the need for separate evaluation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shimansky, Yu.I.; Shimanskaya, E.T.
1996-01-01
The temperature dependence of the density along the coexistence curve of benzene in the vicinity of the critical point and in a wide temperature range down to the triple point was investigated. The original results as well as literature data were statistically treated. A regression analysis of data on the critical exponents and critical amplitudes used as fitting parameters in a model equations was carried out. An adequate description of the order parameter by the three-term scaling equation in the entire two-phase (liquid-gas) region of benzene was obtained with experimental values of Β O -0.352 ±0.003 and δ = 1.3 ± 0.2, which are inconsistent with the Ising model (Β O = 0.325) and the Wegner exponent (δ = 0.5), respectively. It is shown that the equation with fixed classical exponents does not adequately describe the experimental data even far from the critical point
Bonan, Brigitte; Martelli, Nicolas; Berhoune, Malik; Maestroni, Marie-Laure; Havard, Laurent; Prognon, Patrice
2009-02-01
To apply the Hazard analysis and Critical Control Points method to the preparation of anti-cancer drugs. To identify critical control points in our cancer chemotherapy process and to propose control measures and corrective actions to manage these processes. The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points application began in January 2004 in our centralized chemotherapy compounding unit. From October 2004 to August 2005, monitoring of the process nonconformities was performed to assess the method. According to the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points method, a multidisciplinary team was formed to describe and assess the cancer chemotherapy process. This team listed all of the critical points and calculated their risk indexes according to their frequency of occurrence, their severity and their detectability. The team defined monitoring, control measures and corrective actions for each identified risk. Finally, over a 10-month period, pharmacists reported each non-conformity of the process in a follow-up document. Our team described 11 steps in the cancer chemotherapy process. The team identified 39 critical control points, including 11 of higher importance with a high-risk index. Over 10 months, 16,647 preparations were performed; 1225 nonconformities were reported during this same period. The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points method is relevant when it is used to target a specific process such as the preparation of anti-cancer drugs. This method helped us to focus on the production steps, which can have a critical influence on product quality, and led us to improve our process.
Points-Based Safe Path Planning of Continuum Robots
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Khuram Shahzad
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Continuum robots exhibit great potential in a number of challenging applications where traditional rigid link robots pose certain limitations, e.g., working in unstructured environments. In order to enable the usage of continuum robots in safety-critical applications, such as surgery and nuclear decontamination, it is extremely important to ensure a safe path for the robot's movement. Existing algorithms for continuum robot path planning have certain limitations that need to be addressed. These include the fact that none of the algorithms provide safety assurance parameters and control for path planning. They are computationally expensive, applicable to a specific type of continuum robots, and mostly they do not incorporate design and kinematics constraints. In this paper, we propose a points-based path planning (PoPP algorithm for continuum robots that computes the path by imposing safety constraints and improves upon the limitations of existing approaches. In the algorithm, we exploit the constant curvature-bending property of continuum robots in their path planning process. The algorithm is computationally efficient and provides a good tradeoff between accuracy and efficiency that can be implemented to enable the safety-critical application of continuum robots. This algorithm also provides information regarding path volume and flexibility in movement. Simulation results confirm that the algorithm possesses promising potential for all types of continuum robots (following the constant curvature-bending property. We believe that this effectively balances the desired safety and efficiency requirements.
Critical points based register-concurrency autotuning for GPUs
Li, A.; Song, S.L.; Kumar, A.; Zhang, E.Z.; Chavarría-Miranda, D.; Corporaal, H.
2016-01-01
The unprecedented prevalence of GPGPU is largely attributed to its abundant on-chip register resources, which allow massively concurrent threads and extremely fast context switch. However, due to internal memory size constraints, there is a tradeoff between the per-thread register usage and the
Gardner, I A
1997-12-01
On-farm HACCP (hazard analysis critical control points) monitoring requires cost-effective, yet accurate and reproducible tests that can determine the status of cows, milk, and the dairy environment. Tests need to be field-validated, and their limitations need to be established so that appropriate screening strategies can be initiated and test results can be rationally interpreted. For infections and residues of low prevalence, tests or testing strategies that are highly specific help to minimize false-positive results and excessive costs to the dairy industry. The determination of the numbers of samples to be tested in HACCP monitoring programs depends on the specific purpose of the test and the likely prevalence of the agent or residue at the critical control point. The absence of positive samples from a herd test should not be interpreted as freedom from a particular agent or residue unless the entire herd has been tested with a test that is 100% sensitive. The current lack of field-validated tests for most of the chemical and infectious agents of concern makes it difficult to ensure that the stated goals of HACCP programs are consistently achieved.
Coherent inflationary dynamics for Bose-Einstein condensates crossing a quantum critical point
Feng, Lei; Clark, Logan W.; Gaj, Anita; Chin, Cheng
2018-03-01
Quantum phase transitions, transitions between many-body ground states, are of extensive interest in research ranging from condensed-matter physics to cosmology1-4. Key features of the phase transitions include a stage with rapidly growing new order, called inflation in cosmology5, followed by the formation of topological defects6-8. How inflation is initiated and evolves into topological defects remains a hot topic of debate. Ultracold atomic gas offers a pristine and tunable platform to investigate quantum critical dynamics9-21. We report the observation of coherent inflationary dynamics across a quantum critical point in driven Bose-Einstein condensates. The inflation manifests in the exponential growth of density waves and populations in well-resolved momentum states. After the inflation stage, extended coherent dynamics is evident in both real and momentum space. We present an intuitive description of the quantum critical dynamics in our system and demonstrate the essential role of phase fluctuations in the formation of topological defects.
Core-softened fluids, water-like anomalies, and the liquid-liquid critical points.
Salcedo, Evy; de Oliveira, Alan Barros; Barraz, Ney M; Chakravarty, Charusita; Barbosa, Marcia C
2011-07-28
Molecular dynamics simulations are used to examine the relationship between water-like anomalies and the liquid-liquid critical point in a family of model fluids with multi-Gaussian, core-softened pair interactions. The core-softened pair interactions have two length scales, such that the longer length scale associated with a shallow, attractive well is kept constant while the shorter length scale associated with the repulsive shoulder is varied from an inflection point to a minimum of progressively increasing depth. The maximum depth of the shoulder well is chosen so that the resulting potential reproduces the oxygen-oxygen radial distribution function of the ST4 model of water. As the shoulder well depth increases, the pressure required to form the high density liquid decreases and the temperature up to which the high-density liquid is stable increases, resulting in the shift of the liquid-liquid critical point to much lower pressures and higher temperatures. To understand the entropic effects associated with the changes in the interaction potential, the pair correlation entropy is computed to show that the excess entropy anomaly diminishes when the shoulder well depth increases. Excess entropy scaling of diffusivity in this class of fluids is demonstrated, showing that decreasing strength of the excess entropy anomaly with increasing shoulder depth results in the progressive loss of water-like thermodynamic, structural and transport anomalies. Instantaneous normal mode analysis was used to index the overall curvature distribution of the fluid and the fraction of imaginary frequency modes was shown to correlate well with the anomalous behavior of the diffusivity and the pair correlation entropy. The results suggest in the case of core-softened potentials, in addition to the presence of two length scales, energetic, and entropic effects associated with local minima and curvatures of the pair interaction play an important role in determining the presence of water
Technical bases for criticality safety standards
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clayton, E.D.
1980-01-01
An American National Standard implies a consensus of those substantially concerned with its scope and provisions. The technical basis, or foundation, on which the consensus rests, must in turn, be firmly established and documented for public review. The technical bases are discussed and reviewed of several standards in different stages of completion and acceptance: ANSI/ANS-8.12, 1978, Nuclear Criticality Control and Safety of Homogeneous Plutonium - Uranium Mixtures Outside Reactors (Approved July 17, 1978); ANS-815, Nuclear Criticality Control of Special Actinide Elements (Draft No. 5 of newly proposed standard); ANS-8.14, Use of Solutions of Neutron Absorbers for Criticality Control (Draft No. 4 of newly proposed standard); ANS-8.5 (Revision of N16.4, 1971), Use of Borosilicate-Glass Raschig Rings as a Neutron Absorber in Solutions of Fissile Material (Draft No. 5 as a result of prescribed five-year review and update of old standard). In each of the preceding, the newly proposed (or revised) limits are based on the extension of experimental data via well established calculations, or by means of independent calculations with adequate margins for uncertainties. The four cases serve to illustrate the insight of the work group members in the establishment of the technical bases for the limits and the level of activity required on their part in the preparation of ANSI Standards. A time span of from four up to seven years has not been uncommon for the preparation, review, and acceptance of an ANSI Standard. 8 figures. 7 tables
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sajet, A.S.
2014-01-01
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) is a preventive system for food safety. It identifies safety risks faced by food. Identified points are controlled ensuring product safety. Because of presence of many of the pathogenic microorganisms and parasites in food which caused cases of food poisoning and many diseases transmitted through food, the current methods of food production could not prevent food contamination or prevent the growth of these pathogens completely because of being a part of the normal flora in the environment. Irradiation technology helped to control diseases transmitted through food, caused by pathological microorganisms and parasites present in food. The application of a system based on risk analysis as a means of risk management in food chain, demonstrated the importance of food irradiation. (author)
Critical phenomena of liquid 4He in the vicinity of the upper lambda point
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takada, T.; Watanabe, T.
1982-01-01
We determined C/sub p/ along six isobars near T/sub lambda/ in the vicinity of the upper superfluid transition point (upper lambda point) from measurements of C/sub v/ and (partialP/partialT)/sub v/ along six isochores. C/sub p/ was analyzed with the function C/sub p/ = (A/α)epsilon/sup -alpha/(1+Depsilon/sup -Delta/)+B for T>T/sub lambda/, and the same function with primed coefficients for T 4 He near T/sub lambda/, that is, the correction term due to the irrelevant variable increases with pressure even in the small range epsilon - 3 . This indicates that the pressure depresses the true critical region. The universality of the amplitude ratio A/A' was confirmed even in the vicinity of the upper lambda point by specific heat measurements. With constraints α = α' = -0.02, δ = δ' = -0.5, and B = B' the pressure-independent amplitude ratios A/A' = 1.088 +- 0.007 and D/D' = 0.85 +- 0.2 were obtained. AD/A'D' = 0.93 +- 0.2 implies that the pressure has a similar effect on C/sub p/ in the normal fluid and superfluid regions, within experimental errors
Critical current scaling and the pivot-point in Nb3Sn strands
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsui, Y; Hampshire, D P
2012-01-01
Detailed measurements are provided of the engineering critical current density (J c ) and the index of transition (n-value) of two different types of advanced ITER Nb 3 Sn superconducting strand for fusion applications. The samples consist of one internal-tin strand (OST) and two bronze-route strands (BEAS I and BEAS II—reacted using different heat treatments). Tests on different sections of these wires show that prior to applying strain, J c is homogeneous to better than 2% along the length of each strand. J c data have been characterized as a function of magnetic field (B ≤ 14.5 T), temperature (4.2 K ≤ T ≤ 12 K) and applied axial strain ( − 1% ≤ ε A ≤ 0.8%). Strain-cycling tests demonstrate that the variable strain J c data are reversible to better than 2% when the applied axial strain is in the range of − 1% ≤ ε A ≤ 0.5%. The wires are damaged when the intrinsic strain (ε I ) is ε I ≥ 0.55% and ε I ≥ 0.23% for the OST and BEAS strands, respectively. The strain dependences of the normalized J c for each type of strand are similar to those of prototype strands of similar design measured in 2005 and 2008 to about 2% which makes them candidate strands for a round-robin interlaboratory comparison. The J c data are described by Durham, ITER and Josephson-junction parameterizations to an accuracy of about 4%. For all of these scaling laws, the percentage difference between the data and the parameterization is larger when J c is small, caused by high B, T or |ε I |. The n-values can be described by a modified power law of the form n=1+rI c s , where r and s are approximately constant and I c is the critical current. It has long been known that pivot-points (or cross-overs) in J c occur at high magnetic field and temperature. Changing the magnetic field or temperature from one side of the pivot-point to the other changes the highest J c sample to the lowest J c sample and vice versa. The pivot-point follows the B–T phase boundary
Supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle compression and control near the critical point
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wright, S. A.; Fuller, R.; Noall, J.; Radel, R.; Vernon, M. E.; Pickard, P. S.
2008-01-01
This report describes the supercritical compression and control issues, the analysis, and the measured test results of a small-scale supercritical CO 2 (S-CO 2 ) compression test-loop. The test loop was developed by Sandia and is described in a companion paper in this conference. The results of these experiments will for the first time evaluate and experimentally demonstrate supercritical compression and the required compressor inlet control approaches on an appropriate scale in a series of test loops at Sandia National Laboratories. The Sandia effort is focused on the main compressor of a supercritical Brayton loop while a separate DOE Gen lV program focus is on studying similar behavior in re-compression Brayton cycles that have dual compressors. One of the main goals of this program is to develop and demonstrate the ability to design, operate, and control the supercritical compression process near the critical point due to highly non-linear behavior near this point. This Sandia supercritical test-loop uses a 50 kW radial compressor to pump supercritical CO 2 (S-CO 2 ) through an orifice and through a water-cooled gas-chiller. At the design point the compressor flow rate is 3.5 kg/s, the inlet pressure is 7, 690 kPa, the pressure ratio is 1.8, the inlet temperature is 305 K, and the shaft speed is 75, 000 rpm. The purpose of the loop is to study the compression and control issues near the critical point. To study compression we intend to compare the design code predictions for efficiency and change in enthalpy (or pressure ratio / head) of the radial compressor with the measured results from actual tests. In the tests the inlet flow, temperature, and pressure, will be varied around the critical point of CO 2 (Tc=304.2 K, and Pc=7.377 MPa). To study control, the test loop will use a variety of methods including inventory control, shaft speed control, and cooling water flow rate, and cooling water temperature control methods to set the compressor inlet temperature
CANDU pressure tube leak detection by annulus gas dew point measurement. A critical review
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Greening, F.R. [CTS-NA, Tiverton, ON (Canada)
2017-03-15
In the event of a pressure tube leak from a small through-wall crack during CANDU reactor operations, there is a regulatory requirement - referred to as Leak Before Break (LBB) - for the licensee to demonstrate that there will be sufficient time for the leak to be detected and the reactor shut down before the crack grows to the critical size for fast-uncontrolled rupture. In all currently operating CANDU reactors, worldwide, this LBB requirement is met via continuous dew point measurements of the CO{sub 2} gas circulating in the reactor's Annulus Gas System (AGS). In this paper the historical development and current status of this leak detection capability is reviewed and the use of moisture injection tests as a verification procedure is critiqued. It is concluded that these tests do not represent AGS conditions that are to be expected in the event of a real pressure tube leak.
The Subtle Balance between Lipolysis and Lipogenesis: A Critical Point in Metabolic Homeostasis.
Saponaro, Chiara; Gaggini, Melania; Carli, Fabrizia; Gastaldelli, Amalia
2015-11-13
Excessive accumulation of lipids can lead to lipotoxicity, cell dysfunction and alteration in metabolic pathways, both in adipose tissue and peripheral organs, like liver, heart, pancreas and muscle. This is now a recognized risk factor for the development of metabolic disorders, such as obesity, diabetes, fatty liver disease (NAFLD), cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The causes for lipotoxicity are not only a high fat diet but also excessive lipolysis, adipogenesis and adipose tissue insulin resistance. The aims of this review are to investigate the subtle balances that underlie lipolytic, lipogenic and oxidative pathways, to evaluate critical points and the complexities of these processes and to better understand which are the metabolic derangements resulting from their imbalance, such as type 2 diabetes and non alcoholic fatty liver disease.
The asymptotic behaviour of a critical point reactor in the absence of a controller
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bansal, N.K.; Borgwaldt, H.
1976-11-01
A method is presented to calculate the first and second moments of neutron and precursor populations for a critical reactor system described by point kinetic equations and possessing inherent reactivity fluctuations. The equations have been linearised on the assumption that the system has a large average neutron population and that the amplitude of reactivity fluctuations is sufficiently small. The reactivity noise is assumed to be band limited white with a corner frequency higher than all the time constants of the system. Explicit expressions for the exact time development of the moments have been obtained for the case of a reactor without reactivity feedback and with one group of delayed neutrons. It is found that the expected values of the neutron and delayed neutron precursor numbers tend asymptotically to stationary values, whereas the mean square deviations increase linearly with time at an extremely low rate. (orig.) [de
Photoinduced second harmonic generation of LaFe4Sb12near spin fluctuated critical points
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nouneh, K.; Viennois, R.; Kityk, I.V.; Terki, F.; Charar, S.; Benet, S.; Paschen, S.
2004-01-01
The temperature dependence of the resistivity, the Seebeck coefficient and photoinduced second harmonic generation (PISHG) are studied near the quantum critical point in the skutterudite compound LaFe 4 Sb 12 , possessing increased spin fluctuations. We observed a large maximum of the PISHG at a temperature of about 15 K. The PISHG signal increases substantially below 35 K. We found a correlation between the temperature dependences of PISHG, resistivity and Seebeck coefficient. We proposed a phenomenological explanation for the occurrence of the PISHG signal in LaFe 4 Sb 12 implying strong spin fluctuations exist in this system, which may present some interest for the study of other spin fluctuation systems. Physical insight into the phenomenon observed is grounded in the participation of anharmonic electron-phonon and electron-paramagnon interactions stimulated by inducing light in the interactions with the photoexcited dipole moments. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Bohr model description of the critical point for the first order shape phase transition
Budaca, R.; Buganu, P.; Budaca, A. I.
2018-01-01
The critical point of the shape phase transition between spherical and axially deformed nuclei is described by a collective Bohr Hamiltonian with a sextic potential having simultaneous spherical and deformed minima of the same depth. The particular choice of the potential as well as the scaled and decoupled nature of the total Hamiltonian leads to a model with a single free parameter connected to the height of the barrier which separates the two minima. The solutions are found through the diagonalization in a basis of Bessel functions. The basis is optimized for each value of the free parameter by means of a boundary deformation which assures the convergence of the solutions for a fixed basis dimension. Analyzing the spectral properties of the model, as a function of the barrier height, revealed instances with shape coexisting features which are considered for detailed numerical applications.
Bohr model description of the critical point for the first order shape phase transition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Budaca
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The critical point of the shape phase transition between spherical and axially deformed nuclei is described by a collective Bohr Hamiltonian with a sextic potential having simultaneous spherical and deformed minima of the same depth. The particular choice of the potential as well as the scaled and decoupled nature of the total Hamiltonian leads to a model with a single free parameter connected to the height of the barrier which separates the two minima. The solutions are found through the diagonalization in a basis of Bessel functions. The basis is optimized for each value of the free parameter by means of a boundary deformation which assures the convergence of the solutions for a fixed basis dimension. Analyzing the spectral properties of the model, as a function of the barrier height, revealed instances with shape coexisting features which are considered for detailed numerical applications.
CANDU pressure tube leak detection by annulus gas dew point measurement. A critical review
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greening, F.R.
2017-01-01
In the event of a pressure tube leak from a small through-wall crack during CANDU reactor operations, there is a regulatory requirement - referred to as Leak Before Break (LBB) - for the licensee to demonstrate that there will be sufficient time for the leak to be detected and the reactor shut down before the crack grows to the critical size for fast-uncontrolled rupture. In all currently operating CANDU reactors, worldwide, this LBB requirement is met via continuous dew point measurements of the CO_2 gas circulating in the reactor's Annulus Gas System (AGS). In this paper the historical development and current status of this leak detection capability is reviewed and the use of moisture injection tests as a verification procedure is critiqued. It is concluded that these tests do not represent AGS conditions that are to be expected in the event of a real pressure tube leak.
Picture change error in quasirelativistic electron/spin density, Laplacian and bond critical points
Bučinský , Luká š; Kucková , Lenka; Malček, Michal; Koží šek, Jozef; Biskupič, Stanislav; Jayatilaka, Dylan; Bü chel, Gabriel E.; Arion, Vladimir B.
2014-01-01
The change of picture of the quasirelativistic Hartree-Fock wave functions is considered for electron/spin densities, the negative Laplacian of electron density and the appropriate bond critical point characteristics from the Quantum Theory of Atoms In Molecules (QTAIM). [OsCl5(Hpz)]- and [RuCl5(NO)]2- transition metal complexes are considered. Both, scalar relativistic and spin-orbit effects have been accounted for using the Infinite Order Two Component (IOTC) Hamiltonian. Picture change error (PCE) correction in the electron and spin densities and the Laplacian of electron density are treated analytically. Generally, PCE is found significant only in the core region of the atoms for the electron/spin density as well as Laplacian.©2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
LaCu6-xAgx : A promising host of an elastic quantum critical point
Poudel, L.; Cruz, C. de la; Koehler, M. R.; McGuire, M. A.; Keppens, V.; Mandrus, D.; Christianson, A. D.
2018-05-01
Structural properties of LaCu6-xAgx have been investigated using neutron and x-ray diffraction, and resonant ultrasound spectroscopy (RUS) measurements. Diffraction measurements indicate a continuous structural transition from orthorhombic (Pnma) to monoclinic (P21 / c) structure. RUS measurements show softening of natural frequencies at the structural transition, consistent with the elastic nature of the structural ground state. The structural transition temperatures in LaCu6-xAgx decrease with Ag composition until the monoclinic phase is completely suppressed at xc = 0.225 . All of the evidence is consistent with the presence of an elastic quantum critical point in LaCu6-xAgx .
Picture change error in quasirelativistic electron/spin density, Laplacian and bond critical points
Bučinský, Lukáš
2014-06-01
The change of picture of the quasirelativistic Hartree-Fock wave functions is considered for electron/spin densities, the negative Laplacian of electron density and the appropriate bond critical point characteristics from the Quantum Theory of Atoms In Molecules (QTAIM). [OsCl5(Hpz)]- and [RuCl5(NO)]2- transition metal complexes are considered. Both, scalar relativistic and spin-orbit effects have been accounted for using the Infinite Order Two Component (IOTC) Hamiltonian. Picture change error (PCE) correction in the electron and spin densities and the Laplacian of electron density are treated analytically. Generally, PCE is found significant only in the core region of the atoms for the electron/spin density as well as Laplacian.©2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Signals for the QCD phase transition and critical point in a Langevin dynamical model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herold, Christoph; Bleicher, Marcus; Yan, Yu-Peng
2013-01-01
The search for the critical point is one of the central issues that will be investigated in the upcoming FAIR project. For a profound theoretical understanding of the expected signals we go beyond thermodynamic studies and present a fully dynamical model for the chiral and deconfinement phase transition in heavy ion collisions. The corresponding order parameters are propagated by Langevin equations of motions on a thermal background provided by a fluid dynamically expanding plasma of quarks. By that we are able to describe nonequilibrium effects occurring during the rapid expansion of a hot fireball. For an evolution through the phase transition the formation of a supercooled phase and its subsequent decay crucially influence the trajectories in the phase diagram and lead to a significant reheating of the quark medium at highest baryon densities. Furthermore, we find inhomogeneous structures with high density domains along the first order transition line within single events.
Condensation of Methane in the Metal-Organic Framework IRMOF-1: Evidence for Two Critical Points.
Höft, Nicolas; Horbach, Jürgen
2015-08-19
Extensive grand canonical Monte Carlo simulations in combination with successive umbrella sampling are used to investigate the condensation of methane in the nanoporous crystalline material IRMOF-1. Two different types of novel condensation transitions are found, each of them ending in a critical point: (i) a fluid-fluid transition at higher densities (the analog of the liquid-gas transition in the bulk) and (ii) a phase transition at low densities on the surface of the IRMOF-1 structure. The nature of these transitions is different from the usual capillary condensation in thin films and cylindrical pores where the coexisting phases are confined in one or two of the three spatial dimensions. In contrast to that, in IRMOF-1 the different phases can be described as bulk phases that are inhomogeneous due to the presence of the metal-organic framework. As a consequence, the condensation transitions in IRMOF-1 belong to the three-dimensional (3D) Ising universality class.
PENERAPAN SISTEM HAZARD ANALYSIS CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP PADA PROSES PEMBUATAN KERIPIK TEMPE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rahmi Yuniarti
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Malang is one of the industrial centers of tempe chips. To maintain the quality and food safety, analysis is required to identify the hazards during the production process. This study was conducted to identify the hazards during the production process of tempe chips and provide recommendations for developing a HACCP system. The phases of production process of tempe chips are started from slice the tempe, move it to the kitchen, coat it with flour dough, fry it in the pan, drain it, package it, and then storage it. There are 3 types of potential hazards in terms of biological, physical, and chemical during the production process. With the CCP identification, there are three processes that have Critical Control Point. There are the process of slicing tempe, immersion of tempe into the flour mixture and draining. Recommendations for the development of HACCP systems include recommendations related to employee hygiene, supporting equipment, 5-S analysis, and the production layout.
Critical Point Facility (CPE) Group in the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC)
1992-01-01
The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide, and a virus. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Featured is the Critical Point Facility (CPE) group in the SL POCC during STS-42, IML-1 mission.
[Preliminary studies on critical control point of traceability system in wolfberry].
Liu, Sai; Xu, Chang-Qing; Li, Jian-Ling; Lin, Chen; Xu, Rong; Qiao, Hai-Li; Guo, Kun; Chen, Jun
2016-07-01
As a traditional Chinese medicine, wolfberry (Lycium barbarum) has a long cultivation history and a good industrial development foundation. With the development of wolfberry production, the expansion of cultivation area and the increased attention of governments and consumers on food safety, the quality and safety requirement of wolfberry is higher demanded. The quality tracing and traceability system of production entire processes is the important technology tools to protect the wolfberry safety, and to maintain sustained and healthy development of the wolfberry industry. Thus, this article analyzed the wolfberry quality management from the actual situation, the safety hazard sources were discussed according to the HACCP (hazard analysis and critical control point) and GAP (good agricultural practice for Chinese crude drugs), and to provide a reference for the traceability system of wolfberry. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Critical and post-critical behaviour of two-degree-of-freedom flutter-based generators
Pigolotti, Luca; Mannini, Claudio; Bartoli, Gianni; Thiele, Klaus
2017-09-01
Energy harvesting from flow-induced vibrations is a recent research field, which considers a diverse range of systems, among which two-degree-of-freedom flutter-based solutions were individuated as good candidates to obtain high energy performance. In the present work, numerical linear analyses and wind-tunnel tests were conducted on a flat-plate sectional model. The aim is to identify some design guidelines for generators exploiting the classical-flutter instability, through the investigation of the critical condition and the response during the post-critical regime. Many sets of governing parameters of interest from the energy-harvesting point of view were considered, including high levels of heaving damping to simulate the operation of a conversion apparatus. In particular, eccentricity of the elastic centre and small downstream mass unbalance can be introduced as solutions aiming at optimal operative ranges. The collected results suggest the high potentiality of flutter-based generators, and a significant enhancement of performance can be envisaged. Moreover, they contribute to improve the knowledge of the flutter excitation mechanism and to widen the dataset of measurements in the post-critical regime.
CePdAl. A frustrated Kondo lattice at a quantum critical point
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fritsch, Veronika [EP 6, Electronic Correlations and Magnetism, University of Augsburg (Germany); Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Sakai, Akito; Gegenwart, Philipp [EP 6, Electronic Correlations and Magnetism, University of Augsburg (Germany); Huesges, Zita; Lucas, Stefan; Stockert, Oliver [Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Dresden (Germany); Kittler, Wolfram; Taubenheim, Christian; Grube, Kai; Loehneysen, Hilbert von [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Huang, Chien-Lung [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids, Dresden (Germany)
2016-07-01
CePdAl is one of the rare frustrated Kondo lattice systems that can be tuned across a quantum critical point (QCP) by means of chemical pressure, i. e., the substitution of Pd by Ni. Magnetic frustration and Kondo effect are antithetic phenomena: The Kondo effect with the incipient delocalization of the magnetic moments, is not beneficial for the formation of a frustrated state. On the other hand, magnetic frustrated exchange interactions between the local moments can result in a breakdown of Kondo screening. Furthermore, the fate of frustration is unclear when approaching the QCP, since there is no simple observable to quantify the degree of frustration. We present thermodynamic and neutron scattering experiments on CePd{sub 1-x}Ni{sub x}Al close to the critical concentration x ∼0.14. Our experiments indicate that even at the QCP magnetic frustration is still present, opening the perspective to find new universality classes at such a quantum phase transition.
A QCD chiral critical point at small chemical potential: is it there or not?
de Forcrand, Philippe; Philipsen, Owe
2007-01-01
For a QCD chiral critical point to exist, the parameter region of small quark masses for which the finite temperature transition is first-order must expand when the chemical potential is turned on. This can be tested by a Taylor expansion of the critical surface (m_{u,d},m_s)_c(mu). We present a new method to perform this Taylor expansion numerically, which we first test on an effective model of QCD with static, dense quarks. We then present the results for QCD with 3 degenerate flavors. For a lattice with N_t=4 time-slices, the first-order region shrinks as the chemical potential is turned on. This implies that, for physical quark masses, the analytic crossover which occurs at mu=0 between the hadronic and the plasma regimes remains crossover in the mu-region where a Taylor expansion is reliable, i.e. mu less than or similar to T. We present preliminary results from finer lattices indicating that this situation persists, as does the discrepancy between the curvature of T_c(mu) and the experimentally observed...
Ropkins, K; Beck, A J
2002-03-01
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) is a systematic approach to the identification, assessment, and control of hazards that was developed as an effective alternative to conventional end-point analysis to control food safety. It has been described as the most effective means of controlling foodborne diseases, and its application to the control of microbiological hazards has been accepted internationally. By contrast, relatively little has been reported relating to the potential use of HACCP, or HACCP-like procedures, to control chemical contaminants of food. This article presents an overview of the implementation of HACCP and discusses its application to the control of organic chemical contaminants in the food chain. Although this is likely to result in many of the advantages previously identified for microbiological HACCP, that is, more effective, efficient, and economical hazard management, a number of areas are identified that require further research and development. These include: (1) a need to refine the methods of chemical contaminant identification and risk assessment employed, (2) develop more cost-effective monitoring and control methods for routine chemical contaminant surveillance of food, and (3) improve the effectiveness of process optimization for the control of chemical contaminants in food.
Ropkins, K; Beck, A J
2002-08-01
Hazard analysis by critical control points (HACCP) is a systematic approach to the identification, assessment and control of hazards. Effective HACCP requires the consideration of all hazards, i.e., chemical, microbiological and physical. However, to-date most 'in-place' HACCP procedures have tended to focus on the control of microbiological and physical food hazards. In general, the chemical component of HACCP procedures is either ignored or limited to applied chemicals, e.g., food additives and pesticides. In this paper we discuss the application of HACCP to a broader range of chemical hazards, using organic chemical contaminants as examples, and the problems that are likely to arise in the food manufacturing sector. Chemical HACCP procedures are likely to result in many of the advantages previously identified for microbiological HACCP procedures: more effective, efficient and economical than conventional end-point-testing methods. However, the high costs of analytical monitoring of chemical contaminants and a limited understanding of formulation and process optimisation as means of controlling chemical contamination of foods are likely to prevent chemical HACCP becoming as effective as microbiological HACCP.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monthus, Cecile; Garel, Thomas
2009-01-01
For Anderson localization on the Cayley tree, we study the statistics of various observables as a function of the disorder strength W and the number N of generations. We first consider the Landauer transmission T N . In the localized phase, its logarithm follows the traveling wave form T N ≅(ln T N )-bar + ln t* where (i) the disorder-averaged value moves linearly (ln(T N ))-bar≅-N/ξ loc and the localization length diverges as ξ loc ∼(W-W c ) -ν loc with ν loc = 1 and (ii) the variable t* is a fixed random variable with a power-law tail P*(t*) ∼ 1/(t*) 1+β(W) for large t* with 0 N are governed by rare events. In the delocalized phase, the transmission T N remains a finite random variable as N → ∞, and we measure near criticality the essential singularity (ln(T ∞ ))-bar∼-|W c -W| -κ T with κ T ∼ 0.25. We then consider the statistical properties of normalized eigenstates Σ x |ψ(x)| 2 = 1, in particular the entropy S = -Σ x |ψ(x)| 2 ln |ψ(x)| 2 and the inverse participation ratios (IPR) I q = Σ x |ψ(x)| 2q . In the localized phase, the typical entropy diverges as S typ ∼( W-W c ) -ν S with ν S ∼ 1.5, whereas it grows linearly as S typ (N) ∼ N in the delocalized phase. Finally for the IPR, we explain how closely related variables propagate as traveling waves in the delocalized phase. In conclusion, both the localized phase and the delocalized phase are characterized by the traveling wave propagation of some probability distributions, and the Anderson localization/delocalization transition then corresponds to a traveling/non-traveling critical point. Moreover, our results point toward the existence of several length scales that diverge with different exponents ν at criticality
Finger image quality based on singular point localization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Jinghua; Olsen, Martin A.; Busch, Christoph
2014-01-01
Singular points are important global features of fingerprints and singular point localization is a crucial step in biometric recognition. Moreover the presence and position of the core point in a captured fingerprint sample can reflect whether the finger is placed properly on the sensor. Therefore...... and analyze the importance of singular points on biometric accuracy. The experiment is based on large scale databases and conducted by relating the measured quality of a fingerprint sample, given by the positions of core points, to the biometric performance. The experimental results show the positions of core...
Weiss, Volker C.
2015-10-01
In the correlation and prediction of thermophysical data of fluids based on a corresponding-states approach, the critical temperature Tc plays a central role. For some fluids, in particular ionic ones, however, the critical region is difficult or even impossible to access experimentally. For molten salts, Tc is on the order of 3000 K, which makes accurate measurements a challenging task. Room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) decompose thermally between 400 K and 600 K due to their organic constituents; this range of temperatures is hundreds of degrees below recent estimates of their Tc. In both cases, reliable methods to deduce Tc based on extrapolations of experimental data recorded at much lower temperatures near the triple or melting points are needed and useful because the critical point influences the fluid's behavior in the entire liquid region. Here, we propose to employ the scaling approach leading to universal fluid behavior [Román et al., J. Chem. Phys. 123, 124512 (2005)] to derive a very simple expression that allows one to estimate Tc from the density of the liquid, the surface tension, or the enthalpy of vaporization measured in a very narrow range of low temperatures. We demonstrate the validity of the approach for simple and polar neutral fluids, for which Tc is known, and then use the methodology to obtain estimates of Tc for ionic fluids. When comparing these estimates to those reported in the literature, good agreement is found for RTILs, whereas the ones for the molten salts NaCl and KCl are lower than previous estimates by 10%. The coexistence curve for ionic fluids is found to be more adequately described by an effective exponent of βeff = 0.5 than by βeff = 0.33.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jeong, Woo Seok; Lee, Jeong Ik; Jeong, Yong Hoon; No, Hee Cheon
2010-01-01
Most of the existing designs of a Sodium cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) have a Rankine cycle as an electric power generation cycle. This has the risk of a sodium water reaction. To prevent any hazards from a sodium water reaction, an indirect Brayton cycle using Supercritical Carbon dioxide (S-CO 2 ) as the working fluids for a SFR is an alternative approach to improve the current SFR design. The supercritical Brayton cycle is defined as a cycle with operating conditions above the critical point and the main compressor inlet condition located slightly above the critical point of working fluid. This is because the main advantage of the cycle comes from significantly decreased compressor work just above the critical point due to high density near boundary between supercritical state and subcritical state. For this reason, the minimum temperature and pressure of cycle are just above the CO 2 critical point. In other words, the critical point acts as a limitation of the lowest operating condition of the cycle. In general, lowering the minimum temperature of a thermodynamic cycle can increase the efficiency and the minimum temperature can be decreased by shifting the critical point of CO 2 as mixed with other gases. In this paper, potential enhancement of S-CO 2 cycle coupled with KALIMER-600, which has been developed at KAERI, was investigated using a developed cycle code with a gas mixture property program
Pardo, José E; de Figueirêdo, Vinícius Reis; Alvarez-Ortí, Manuel; Zied, Diego C; Peñaranda, Jesús A; Dias, Eustáquio Souza; Pardo-Giménez, Arturo
2013-09-01
The Hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) is a preventive system which seeks to ensure food safety and security. It allows product protection and correction of errors, improves the costs derived from quality defects and reduces the final overcontrol. In this paper, the system is applied to the line of cultivation of mushrooms and other edible cultivated fungi. From all stages of the process, only the reception of covering materials (stage 1) and compost (stage 3), the pre-fruiting and induction (step 6) and the harvest (stage 7) have been considered as critical control point (CCP). The main hazards found were the presence of unauthorized phytosanitary products or above the permitted dose (stages 6 and 7), and the presence of pathogenic bacteria (stages 1 and 3) and/or heavy metals (stage 3). The implementation of this knowledge will allow the self-control of their productions based on the system HACCP to any plant dedicated to mushroom or other edible fungi cultivation.
A coexistence curve equation for refrigerant-F-113 within the vicinity of the critical point
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Al'okhyin, O.D.; Bezruchko, Yi.V.; Bulavyin, L.A.
2003-01-01
The experimental data on the dependence of the density on temperature have been presented for refrigerant F-113 along the coexistence curve within the wide temperature range including the close vicinity of the critical temperature. The extended equation of state for freon-113 along this direction has been proposed on the base of the van der Waals model of a fluctuation gas. Parameters of the equation is determined by the interaction of molecules inside density fluctuations at the distances r>R c and by the interaction between fluctuations at the distances r>R c (R c is the correlation radius of the system)
Finite temperature and chemical potential in lattice QCD and its critical point
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fodor, Z.
2002-01-01
We propose a method to study lattice QCD at finite temperature (T) and chemical potential (μ). We compare the method with direct results and with the Glasgow method by using n f =4 QCD at Im(μ)≠0. We locate the critical endpoint (E) of QCD on the Re(μ)-T plane. We use n f =2+1 dynamical staggered quarks with semi-realistic masses on L t =4 lattices. Our results are based on O(10 3 - 10 4 ) configurations. (orig.)
Ge, Xuming
2017-08-01
The coarse registration of point clouds from urban building scenes has become a key topic in applications of terrestrial laser scanning technology. Sampling-based algorithms in the random sample consensus (RANSAC) model have emerged as mainstream solutions to address coarse registration problems. In this paper, we propose a novel combined solution to automatically align two markerless point clouds from building scenes. Firstly, the method segments non-ground points from ground points. Secondly, the proposed method detects feature points from each cross section and then obtains semantic keypoints by connecting feature points with specific rules. Finally, the detected semantic keypoints from two point clouds act as inputs to a modified 4PCS algorithm. Examples are presented and the results compared with those of K-4PCS to demonstrate the main contributions of the proposed method, which are the extension of the original 4PCS to handle heavy datasets and the use of semantic keypoints to improve K-4PCS in relation to registration accuracy and computational efficiency.
We did well but we definitely have to do better: four critical points about fluxnet
Kutsch, W. L.
2014-12-01
Fluxnet is a real success story of data integration. The scientific outcome is overwhelming. Nevertheless: in a time of methodological consolidation and transfer of the networks to technically more integrated infrastructures, a critical view on its weak points may strengthen the future success and our position within biogeochemical science. Four points should be discussed: We have to select our sites more thoroughly. We need better data curation. We should think about 'forgetting' some of the older datasets. We have responsibility for the results of integration studies. ad 1: We had to learn during the past years that the EC is not applicable in all terrains. Slope and footprint problems are widespread and sites have to be critically scrutinized before being sure that we submit valuable ecological information. This is time consuming and may be frustrating since we have to accept that we had sometimes invested lots of work and money for building a flux tower at a site that is not suitable for the method. Nevertheless, a clear site quality policy should be developed among infrastructures and integrating activities. ad 2: In some cases it has turned out that the information about different steps leading from the raw data to a number in integrated scientific papers has been lost. This is a big challenge to research infrastructures that should develop common rules for data curation to increase trust in integration activities. ad 3: In the first approach Fluxnet left the responsibility for site and data quality to the site PI and accepted more or less all data submitted. Further approaches and in particular long-term infrastructures have to develop strategies to reject (or at least flag) data from sites that are prone by terrain problems. This includes that in future integration studies we should stop using some of the datasets from the 'wild old times' when we did not know better. ad4: We need a strategy to communicate with data users that are far away from practical
Readiness to implement Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) systems in Iowa schools.
Henroid, Daniel; Sneed, Jeannie
2004-02-01
To evaluate current food-handling practices, food safety prerequisite programs, and employee knowledge and food safety attitudes and provide baseline data for implementing Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) systems in school foodservice. One member of the research team visited each school to observe food-handling practices and assess prerequisite programs using a structured observation form. A questionnaire was used to determine employees' attitudes, knowledge, and demographic information. A convenience sample of 40 Iowa schools was recruited with input from the Iowa Department of Education. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize data. One-way analysis of variance was used to assess differences in attitudes and food safety knowledge among managers, cooks, and other foodservice employees. Multiple linear regression assessed the relationship between manager and school district demographics and the food safety practice score. Proper food-handling practices were not being followed in many schools and prerequisite food safety programs for HACCP were found to be inadequate for many school foodservice operations. School foodservice employees were found to have a significant amount of food safety knowledge (15.9+/-2.4 out of 20 possible points). School districts with managers (P=.019) and employees (P=.030) who had a food handler certificate were found to have higher food safety practice scores. Emphasis on implementing prerequisite programs in preparation for HACCP is needed in school foodservice. Training programs, both basic food safety such as ServSafe and HACCP, will support improvement of food-handling practices and implementation of prerequisite programs and HACCP.
Star point centroid algorithm based on background forecast
Wang, Jin; Zhao, Rujin; Zhu, Nan
2014-09-01
The calculation of star point centroid is a key step of improving star tracker measuring error. A star map photoed by APS detector includes several noises which have a great impact on veracity of calculation of star point centroid. Through analysis of characteristic of star map noise, an algorithm of calculation of star point centroid based on background forecast is presented in this paper. The experiment proves the validity of the algorithm. Comparing with classic algorithm, this algorithm not only improves veracity of calculation of star point centroid, but also does not need calibration data memory. This algorithm is applied successfully in a certain star tracker.
[Meeting point Stewart. Buffer bases, base excess and strong ions].
Lang, W
2007-04-01
Development of a two-buffer model which simulates the acid-base properties of blood and allows comparison of the different acidbase concepts according to Stewart and to Siggaard-Andersen. The two-buffer model consisted of different aqueous solutions of bicarbonate/CO(2) (pCO(2), sCO(2), pK(1)), HEPES buffer (A(tot), pK(a)) and electrolytes. These were used to calculate the pH from the independent variables according to Stewart - strong ion difference (SID), pCO(2) and total concentration of the weak acids (A(tot)) - from which all other dependent variables (cHCO(3)(-), cA(-), BB, BE) were obtained and compared with the measured values. The normal pH (7.408) was calculated from the normal values for SID (48 mmol/l), pCO(2) (40 mmHg) and A(tot) (45.2 mmol/l) and agreed perfectly with the measured value (7.409+/-0.001). This was also valid for all calculated and measured pH values when the SID was varied: non-respiratory alkalosis ( upward arrow) or acidosis ( downward arrow), pCO(2):respiratory acidosis ( upward arrow) or alkalosis ( downward arrow) and A(tot):hyperproteinemic acidosis ( upward arrow) or hypoproteinemic alkalosis ( downward arrow) were varied and the sum of the buffer bases (BB) was always equal to the SID. All changes and hence BE were also equal, providing that A(tot) was normal. This was not the case, however, if A(tot) was outside the normal range, when BE was then the difference from the normal BB at the respective reference point. Whereas the deviation of the measured pCO(2) was acceptable (1.74+/-0.86 mmHg), this was not the case for the SID (-6.18+/-3.58 mmol/l) calculated from the measured ion concentrations (Na, K, Ca, Cl). Despite controversial discussions, both concepts are much closer than might be expected. Whereas in the Stewart approach the focus of analysis is on plasma, with the Siggaard-Andersen approach it is on blood. Hence, a combined analysis of the blood gases (pH, pCO(2), pO(2), sO(2), cHb, BE) and of the strong ion gap (SIG
TUNNEL POINT CLOUD FILTERING METHOD BASED ON ELLIPTIC CYLINDRICAL MODEL
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Zhu
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The large number of bolts and screws that attached to the subway shield ring plates, along with the great amount of accessories of metal stents and electrical equipments mounted on the tunnel walls, make the laser point cloud data include lots of non-tunnel section points (hereinafter referred to as non-points, therefore affecting the accuracy for modeling and deformation monitoring. This paper proposed a filtering method for the point cloud based on the elliptic cylindrical model. The original laser point cloud data was firstly projected onto a horizontal plane, and a searching algorithm was given to extract the edging points of both sides, which were used further to fit the tunnel central axis. Along the axis the point cloud was segmented regionally, and then fitted as smooth elliptic cylindrical surface by means of iteration. This processing enabled the automatic filtering of those inner wall non-points. Experiments of two groups showed coincident results, that the elliptic cylindrical model based method could effectively filter out the non-points, and meet the accuracy requirements for subway deformation monitoring. The method provides a new mode for the periodic monitoring of tunnel sections all-around deformation in subways routine operation and maintenance.
Lima, Andriele M; Gonçalves, Evonnildo C; Andrade, Soraya S; Barbosa, Maria S R; Barroso, Karla F P; de Sousa, Mayara B; Borges, Larissa; Vieira, Jozé L F; Teixeira, Francisco M
2013-03-15
One difficulty of self-sustainability is the quality assurance of native products. This research was designed to study the risks and critical control points in the collection, handling and marketing of Brazil nuts from native forests and urban fairs in the Brazilian Amazon by characterisation of morphological aspects of fungi and posterior identification by molecular biology and determination of aflatoxins by high-performance liquid chromatography. Several corrective actions to improve product quality were found to be necessary in both sites. Growth of fungi was observed in 95% of fragments of Brazil nuts from both sites during the between-harvest period. Aflatoxin levels indicated that, although fungal growth was observed in both sites, only Brazil nuts from the native forest showed a high risk to human health (total aflatoxin level of 471.69 µg kg(-1)). This study has shown the main issues related to the process design of Brazil nuts, supporting the necessity for research on new strategies to improve the quality of nuts. Also, the habit of eating Brazil nuts stored throughout the year may represent a risk to farmers. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.
Liquid-liquid critical point in a simple analytical model of water
Urbic, Tomaz
2016-10-01
A statistical model for a simple three-dimensional Mercedes-Benz model of water was used to study phase diagrams. This model on a simple level describes the thermal and volumetric properties of waterlike molecules. A molecule is presented as a soft sphere with four directions in which hydrogen bonds can be formed. Two neighboring waters can interact through a van der Waals interaction or an orientation-dependent hydrogen-bonding interaction. For pure water, we explored properties such as molar volume, density, heat capacity, thermal expansion coefficient, and isothermal compressibility and found that the volumetric and thermal properties follow the same trends with temperature as in real water and are in good general agreement with Monte Carlo simulations. The model exhibits also two critical points for liquid-gas transition and transition between low-density and high-density fluid. Coexistence curves and a Widom line for the maximum and minimum in thermal expansion coefficient divides the phase space of the model into three parts: in one part we have gas region, in the second a high-density liquid, and the third region contains low-density liquid.
Dynamical susceptibility near a long-wavelength critical point with a nonconserved order parameter
Klein, Avraham; Lederer, Samuel; Chowdhury, Debanjan; Berg, Erez; Chubukov, Andrey
2018-04-01
We study the dynamic response of a two-dimensional system of itinerant fermions in the vicinity of a uniform (Q =0 ) Ising nematic quantum critical point of d - wave symmetry. The nematic order parameter is not a conserved quantity, and this permits a nonzero value of the fermionic polarization in the d - wave channel even for vanishing momentum and finite frequency: Π (q =0 ,Ωm)≠0 . For weak coupling between the fermions and the nematic order parameter (i.e., the coupling is small compared to the Fermi energy), we perturbatively compute Π (q =0 ,Ωm)≠0 over a parametrically broad range of frequencies where the fermionic self-energy Σ (ω ) is irrelevant, and use Eliashberg theory to compute Π (q =0 ,Ωm) in the non-Fermi-liquid regime at smaller frequencies, where Σ (ω )>ω . We find that Π (q =0 ,Ω ) is a constant, plus a frequency-dependent correction that goes as |Ω | at high frequencies, crossing over to |Ω| 1 /3 at lower frequencies. The |Ω| 1 /3 scaling holds also in a non-Fermi-liquid regime. The nonvanishing of Π (q =0 ,Ω ) gives rise to additional structure in the imaginary part of the nematic susceptibility χ″(q ,Ω ) at Ω >vFq , in marked contrast to the behavior of the susceptibility for a conserved order parameter. This additional structure may be detected in Raman scattering experiments in the d - wave geometry.
Citraresmi, A. D. P.; Wahyuni, E. E.
2018-03-01
The aim of this study was to inspect the implementation of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) for identification and prevention of potential hazards in the production process of dried anchovy at PT. Kelola Mina Laut (KML), Lobuk unit, Sumenep. Cold storage process is needed in each anchovy processing step in order to maintain its physical and chemical condition. In addition, the implementation of quality assurance system should be undertaken to maintain product quality. The research was conducted using a survey method, by following the whole process of making anchovy from the receiving raw materials to the packaging of final product. The method of data analysis used was descriptive analysis method. Implementation of HACCP at PT. KML, Lobuk unit, Sumenep was conducted by applying Pre Requisite Programs (PRP) and preparation stage consisting of 5 initial stages and 7 principles of HACCP. The results showed that CCP was found in boiling process flow with significant hazard of Listeria monocytogenesis bacteria and final sorting process with significant hazard of foreign material contamination in the product. Actions taken were controlling boiling temperature of 100 – 105°C for 3 - 5 minutes and training for sorting process employees.
Mazi, K.; Koussis, A. D.; Destouni, G.
2013-11-01
We investigate here seawater intrusion in three prominent Mediterranean aquifers that are subject to intensive exploitation and modified hydrologic regimes by human activities: the Nile Delta Aquifer, the Israel Coastal Aquifer and the Cyprus Akrotiri Aquifer. Using a generalized analytical sharp-interface model, we review the salinization history and current status of these aquifers, and quantify their resilience/vulnerability to current and future sea intrusion forcings. We identify two different critical limits of sea intrusion under groundwater exploitation and/or climatic stress: a limit of well intrusion, at which intruded seawater reaches key locations of groundwater pumping, and a tipping point of complete sea intrusion upto the prevailing groundwater divide of a coastal aquifer. Either limit can be reached, and ultimately crossed, under intensive aquifer exploitation and/or climate-driven change. We show that sea intrusion vulnerability for different aquifer cases can be directly compared in terms of normalized intrusion performance curves. The site-specific assessments show that the advance of seawater currently seriously threatens the Nile Delta Aquifer and the Israel Coastal Aquifer. The Cyprus Akrotiri Aquifer is currently somewhat less threatened by increased seawater intrusion.
Fluctuations and correlations of conserved charges near the QCD critical point
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fu Weijie; Wu Yueliang
2010-01-01
We study the fluctuations and correlations of conserved charges, such as the baryon number, the electric charge and the strangeness, at the finite temperature and the nonzero baryon chemical potential in an effective model. The fluctuations are calculated up to the fourth-order and the correlations to the third-order. We find that the second-order fluctuations and correlations have a peak or valley structure when the chiral phase transition takes place with the increase of the baryon chemical potential; the third-order fluctuations and correlations change their signs during the chiral phase transition; and the fourth-order fluctuations have two maxima and one minimum. We also depict contour plots of various fluctuations and correlations of conserved charges in the plane of temperature and the baryon chemical potential. It is found that higher-order fluctuations and correlations of conserved charges are superior to the second-order ones to be used to search for the critical point in heavy ion collision experiments.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Centner, Terence J.
2016-01-01
While the public and governments debate the advisability of engaging in shale gas production, the United States has proceeded to develop its resources with an accompanying remarkable increase in natural gas production. The development of shale gas has not been without problems, and some countries have decided that shale gas production should not proceed until more is known about the accompanying health issues and environmental damages. From experiences in the United States, careful consideration of five critical points relating to shale gas production can form the basis for developing strategies for reducing discharges of pollutants: (1) casing and cementing, (2) handling wastewater, (3) venting and flaring, (4) equipment with air emissions, and (5) seismic events. For each strategy, institutional responses to markedly reduce the risks of harm to people and the environment are identified. These responses offer state and local governments ideas for enabling shale gas resources to be developed without sacrificing public health and environmental quality. - Highlights: •Shale gas development involves releases of unnecessary pollutants. •Major sources of unnecessary pollutants can be identified. •For major pollutant sources, strategies can be developed to reduce releases of contaminants. •Alternative strategies can offer firms and governments ways to reduce pollutant releases.
Tognetti, Vincent; Joubert, Laurent; Raucoules, Roman; De Bruin, Theodorus; Adamo, Carlo
2012-06-07
In this paper, we extend the work of Popelier and Logothetis [J. Organomet. Chem. 1998, 555, 101] on the characterization of agosticity by considerably enlarging the set of the studied organometallic molecules. To this aim, 23 representative complexes have been considered, including all first line transition metals at various oxidation states and exhibiting four types of agosticity (α, β, γ, and δ). From these examples, the concepts of agostic atom, agostic bond, and agostic interaction are defined and discussed, notably by advocating Bader's analysis of the electron density. The nature and the local properties of the bond critical points are then investigated, and the relationships with the main geometric parameters of the complexes are particularly examined. Moreover, new local descriptors based on kinetic energy densities are developed in order to provide new tools for bond characterization.
Arakcheev, V. G.; Bagratashvili, Viktor N.; Valeev, A. A.; Gordienko, Vyacheslav M.; Kireev, Vyacheslav V.; Morozov, V. B.; Olenin, A. N.; Popov, Vladimir K.; Tunkin, V. G.; Yakovlev, D. V.
2004-01-01
The transformation of the Q-band of the low-frequency 1285-cm-1 component of the 2v2/v1 Fermi doublet of a CO2 molecule is studied in the critical point vicinity (Tc=31.03 °C, Pc=72.8 atm) by the CARS method. CARS spectra were recorded by changing pressure isothermically from 48 to 120 atm at several temperatures in the range between 25 and 36°C. At the temperature above 29°C, the pressure dependences of the Q-band width pass through the maximum, which exceeds by 40% —50% the typical Q-band width in the liquid phase. The position of the maximum shifts to higher pressures with increasing temperature. The inhomogeneous broadening of the Q-band is interpreted based on the cluster microstructure of a supercritical fluid.
Csf Based Non-Ground Points Extraction from LIDAR Data
Shen, A.; Zhang, W.; Shi, H.
2017-09-01
Region growing is a classical method of point cloud segmentation. Based on the idea of collecting the pixels with similar properties to form regions, region growing is widely used in many fields such as medicine, forestry and remote sensing. In this algorithm, there are two core problems. One is the selection of seed points, the other is the setting of the growth constraints, in which the selection of the seed points is the foundation. In this paper, we propose a CSF (Cloth Simulation Filtering) based method to extract the non-ground seed points effectively. The experiments have shown that this method can obtain a group of seed spots compared with the traditional methods. It is a new attempt to extract seed points
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Virden, Roy
2003-01-01
.... The military's use of computer networked information systems is thus a critical strength. These systems are then critical vulnerabilities because they may lack adequate protection and are open to enemy attack...
Image Relaxation Matching Based on Feature Points for DSM Generation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHENG Shunyi; ZHANG Zuxun; ZHANG Jianqing
2004-01-01
In photogrammetry and remote sensing, image matching is a basic and crucial process for automatic DEM generation. In this paper we presented a image relaxation matching method based on feature points. This method can be considered as an extention of regular grid point based matching. It avoids the shortcome of grid point based matching. For example, with this method, we can avoid low or even no texture area where errors frequently appear in cross correlaton matching. In the mean while, it makes full use of some mature techniques such as probability relaxation, image pyramid and the like which have already been successfully used in grid point matching process. Application of the technique to DEM generaton in different regions proved that it is more reasonable and reliable.
FINDING CUBOID-BASED BUILDING MODELS IN POINT CLOUDS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W. Nguatem
2012-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we present an automatic approach for the derivation of 3D building models of level-of-detail 1 (LOD 1 from point clouds obtained from (dense image matching or, for comparison only, from LIDAR. Our approach makes use of the predominance of vertical structures and orthogonal intersections in architectural scenes. After robustly determining the scene's vertical direction based on the 3D points we use it as constraint for a RANSAC-based search for vertical planes in the point cloud. The planes are further analyzed to segment reliable outlines for rectangular surface within these planes, which are connected to construct cuboid-based building models. We demonstrate that our approach is robust and effective over a range of real-world input data sets with varying point density, amount of noise, and outliers.
Brit Crit: Turning Points in British Rock Criticism 1960-1990
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gudmundsson, Gestur; Lindberg, U.; Michelsen, M.
2002-01-01
had national specific traits and there have been more profound paradigm shifts than in American rock criticism. This is primarily explained by the fact that American rock criticism is more strongly connected to general cultural history, while the UK rock criticism has been more alienated from dominant......The article examines the development of rock criticism in the United Kingdom from the perspective of a Bourdieuan field-analysis. Early British rock critics, like Nik Cohn, were international pioneers, a few years later there was a strong American influence, but British rock criticism has always...... culture and more linked to youth culture. However, also in the UK rock criticism has been part and parcel of the legitimation of rock culture and has moved closer to dominant fields and positions in the cultural hierarchy....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Val’kov, V. V.; Zlotnikov, A. O.
2013-01-01
Mechanisms of the appearance of anomalous properties experimentally observed at the transition through the quantum critical point in rare-earth intermetallides have been studied. Quantum phase transitions are induced by the external pressure and are manifested as the destruction of the long-range antiferromagnetic order at zero temperature. The suppression of the long-range order is accompanied by an increase in the area of the Fermi surface, and the effective electron mass is strongly renormalized near the quantum critical point. It has been shown that such a renormalization is due to the reconstruction of the quasiparticle band, which is responsible for the formation of heavy fermions. It has been established that these features hold when the coexistence phase of antiferromagnetism and superconductivity is implemented near the quantum critical point.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bakasov, A.A.; Govorkov, B.B. Jr.
1990-08-01
The critical case in stability theory is the case when it is impossible to study the stability of solutions over the linear part of ordinary differential equations. This situation is usual at the bifurcation points. There exists a powerful and constructive approach to investigate the stability - the theory of critical cases created by Lyapunov. The famous Lorenz model is used in this article as an illustration of the power of the method (new results). (author). 27 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konopelchenko, B; Alonso, L MartInez; Medina, E
2010-01-01
It is shown that the hodograph solutions of the dispersionless coupled KdV (dcKdV) hierarchies describe critical and degenerate critical points of a scalar function which obeys the Euler-Poisson-Darboux equation. Singular sectors of each dcKdV hierarchy are found to be described by solutions of higher genus dcKdV hierarchies. Concrete solutions exhibiting shock-type singularities are presented.
Professional SharePoint 2010 Cloud-Based Solutions
Fox, Steve; Stubbs, Paul; Follette, Donovan
2011-01-01
An authoritative guide to extending SharePoint's power with cloud-based services If you want to be part of the next major shift in the IT industry, you'll want this book. Melding two of the hottest trends in the industry—the widespread popularity of the SharePoint collaboration platform and the rapid rise of cloud computing—this practical guide shows developers how to extend their SharePoint solutions with the cloud's almost limitless capabilities. See how to get started, discover smart ways to leverage cloud data and services through Azure, start incorporating Twitter or LinkedIn
Multi-lane detection based on multiple vanishing points detection
Li, Chuanxiang; Nie, Yiming; Dai, Bin; Wu, Tao
2015-03-01
Lane detection plays a significant role in Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) for intelligent vehicles. In this paper we present a multi-lane detection method based on multiple vanishing points detection. A new multi-lane model assumes that a single lane, which has two approximately parallel boundaries, may not parallel to others on road plane. Non-parallel lanes associate with different vanishing points. A biological plausibility model is used to detect multiple vanishing points and fit lane model. Experimental results show that the proposed method can detect both parallel lanes and non-parallel lanes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu-Ting Hung
2015-09-01
Full Text Available To ensure the safety of the peanut butter ice cream manufacture, a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP plan has been designed and applied to the production process. Potential biological, chemical, and physical hazards in each manufacturing procedure were identified. Critical control points for the peanut butter ice cream were then determined as the pasteurization and freezing process. The establishment of a monitoring system, corrective actions, verification procedures, and documentation and record keeping were followed to complete the HACCP program. The results of this study indicate that implementing the HACCP system in food industries can effectively enhance food safety and quality while improving the production management.
Limits in point to point resolution of MOS based pixels detector arrays
Fourches, N.; Desforge, D.; Kebbiri, M.; Kumar, V.; Serruys, Y.; Gutierrez, G.; Leprêtre, F.; Jomard, F.
2018-01-01
In high energy physics point-to-point resolution is a key prerequisite for particle detector pixel arrays. Current and future experiments require the development of inner-detectors able to resolve the tracks of particles down to the micron range. Present-day technologies, although not fully implemented in actual detectors, can reach a 5-μm limit, this limit being based on statistical measurements, with a pixel-pitch in the 10 μm range. This paper is devoted to the evaluation of the building blocks for use in pixel arrays enabling accurate tracking of charged particles. Basing us on simulations we will make here a quantitative evaluation of the physical and technological limits in pixel size. Attempts to design small pixels based on SOI technology will be briefly recalled here. A design based on CMOS compatible technologies that allow a reduction of the pixel size below the micrometer is introduced here. Its physical principle relies on a buried carrier-localizing collecting gate. The fabrication process needed by this pixel design can be based on existing process steps used in silicon microelectronics. The pixel characteristics will be discussed as well as the design of pixel arrays. The existing bottlenecks and how to overcome them will be discussed in the light of recent ion implantation and material characterization experiments.
Criticality criteria for submissions based on calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burgess, M.H.
1975-06-01
Calculations used in criticality clearances are subject to errors from various sources, and allowance must be made for these errors is assessing the safety of a system. A simple set of guidelines is defined, drawing attention to each source of error, and recommendations as to its application are made. (author)
Numerical estimation of wall friction ratio near the pseudo-critical point with CFD-models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Angelucci, M.; Ambrosini, W.; Forgione, N.
2013-01-01
In this paper, the STAR-CCM+ CFD code is used in the attempt to reproduce the values of friction factor observed in experimental data at supercritical pressures at various operating conditions. A short survey of available data and correlations for smooth pipe friction in circular pipes puts the basis for the discussion, reporting observed trends of friction factor in the liquid-like and the gas-like regions and within the transitional region across the pseudo-critical temperature. For smooth pipes, a general decrease of the friction factor in the transitional region is reported, constituting one of the relevant effects to be predicted by the computational fluid-dynamic models. A limited number of low-Reynolds number models are adopted, making use of refined near-wall discretisation as required by the constraint y + < 1 at the wall. In particular, the Lien k–ε and the SST k–ω models are considered. The values of the wall shear stress calculated by the code are then post-processed on the basis of bulk fluid properties to obtain the Fanning and then the Darcy–Weisbach friction factors, based on their classical definitions. The obtained values are compared with those provided by experimental tests and correlations, finding a reasonable qualitative agreement. Expectedly, the agreement is better in the gas-like and liquid-like regions, where fluid property changes are moderate, than in the transitional region, where the trends provided by available correlations are reproduced only in a qualitative way
Estimating monthly temperature using point based interpolation techniques
Saaban, Azizan; Mah Hashim, Noridayu; Murat, Rusdi Indra Zuhdi
2013-04-01
This paper discusses the use of point based interpolation to estimate the value of temperature at an unallocated meteorology stations in Peninsular Malaysia using data of year 2010 collected from the Malaysian Meteorology Department. Two point based interpolation methods which are Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) and Radial Basis Function (RBF) are considered. The accuracy of the methods is evaluated using Root Mean Square Error (RMSE). The results show that RBF with thin plate spline model is suitable to be used as temperature estimator for the months of January and December, while RBF with multiquadric model is suitable to estimate the temperature for the rest of the months.
Point Set Denoising Using Bootstrap-Based Radial Basis Function.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Khang Jie Liew
Full Text Available This paper examines the application of a bootstrap test error estimation of radial basis functions, specifically thin-plate spline fitting, in surface smoothing. The presence of noisy data is a common issue of the point set model that is generated from 3D scanning devices, and hence, point set denoising is one of the main concerns in point set modelling. Bootstrap test error estimation, which is applied when searching for the smoothing parameters of radial basis functions, is revisited. The main contribution of this paper is a smoothing algorithm that relies on a bootstrap-based radial basis function. The proposed method incorporates a k-nearest neighbour search and then projects the point set to the approximated thin-plate spline surface. Therefore, the denoising process is achieved, and the features are well preserved. A comparison of the proposed method with other smoothing methods is also carried out in this study.
Point Set Denoising Using Bootstrap-Based Radial Basis Function.
Liew, Khang Jie; Ramli, Ahmad; Abd Majid, Ahmad
2016-01-01
This paper examines the application of a bootstrap test error estimation of radial basis functions, specifically thin-plate spline fitting, in surface smoothing. The presence of noisy data is a common issue of the point set model that is generated from 3D scanning devices, and hence, point set denoising is one of the main concerns in point set modelling. Bootstrap test error estimation, which is applied when searching for the smoothing parameters of radial basis functions, is revisited. The main contribution of this paper is a smoothing algorithm that relies on a bootstrap-based radial basis function. The proposed method incorporates a k-nearest neighbour search and then projects the point set to the approximated thin-plate spline surface. Therefore, the denoising process is achieved, and the features are well preserved. A comparison of the proposed method with other smoothing methods is also carried out in this study.
Research on perturbation based Monte Carlo reactor criticality search
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Zeguang; Wang Kan; Li Yangliu; Deng Jingkang
2013-01-01
Criticality search is a very important aspect in reactor physics analysis. Due to the advantages of Monte Carlo method and the development of computer technologies, Monte Carlo criticality search is becoming more and more necessary and feasible. Traditional Monte Carlo criticality search method is suffered from large amount of individual criticality runs and uncertainty and fluctuation of Monte Carlo results. A new Monte Carlo criticality search method based on perturbation calculation is put forward in this paper to overcome the disadvantages of traditional method. By using only one criticality run to get initial k_e_f_f and differential coefficients of concerned parameter, the polynomial estimator of k_e_f_f changing function is solved to get the critical value of concerned parameter. The feasibility of this method was tested. The results show that the accuracy and efficiency of perturbation based criticality search method are quite inspiring and the method overcomes the disadvantages of traditional one. (authors)
Knowledge-Based Object Detection in Laser Scanning Point Clouds
Boochs, F.; Karmacharya, A.; Marbs, A.
2012-07-01
Object identification and object processing in 3D point clouds have always posed challenges in terms of effectiveness and efficiency. In practice, this process is highly dependent on human interpretation of the scene represented by the point cloud data, as well as the set of modeling tools available for use. Such modeling algorithms are data-driven and concentrate on specific features of the objects, being accessible to numerical models. We present an approach that brings the human expert knowledge about the scene, the objects inside, and their representation by the data and the behavior of algorithms to the machine. This "understanding" enables the machine to assist human interpretation of the scene inside the point cloud. Furthermore, it allows the machine to understand possibilities and limitations of algorithms and to take this into account within the processing chain. This not only assists the researchers in defining optimal processing steps, but also provides suggestions when certain changes or new details emerge from the point cloud. Our approach benefits from the advancement in knowledge technologies within the Semantic Web framework. This advancement has provided a strong base for applications based on knowledge management. In the article we will present and describe the knowledge technologies used for our approach such as Web Ontology Language (OWL), used for formulating the knowledge base and the Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL) with 3D processing and topologic built-ins, aiming to combine geometrical analysis of 3D point clouds, and specialists' knowledge of the scene and algorithmic processing.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sarkar Amal
2013-11-01
Full Text Available In this paper we report the measurements of the various moments mean (M, standard deviation (σ skewness (S and kurtosis (κ of the net-Kaon multiplicity distribution at midrapidity from Au+Au collisions at √sNN = 7.7 to 200 GeV in the STAR experiment at RHIC in an effort to locate the critical point in the QCD phase diagram. These moments and their products are related to the thermodynamic susceptibilities of conserved quantities such as net baryon number, net charge, and net strangeness as also to the correlation length of the system. A non-monotonic behavior of these variable indicate the presence of the critical point. In this work we also present the moments products Sσ, κσ2 of net-Kaon multiplicity distribution as a function of collision centrality and energies. The energy and the centrality dependence of higher moments of net-Kaons and their products have been compared with it0s Poisson expectation and with simulations from AMPT which does not include the critical point. From the measurement at all seven available beam energies, we find no evidence for a critical point in the QCD phase diagram for √sNN below 200 GeV.
Search for the critical point of strongly interacting matter at the CERN SPS NA61/SHINE experiment
Turko, L
2015-01-01
The NA61/SHINE experiment performs a detailed study of the onset of deconfinement and search for critical point of hadronic matter by colliding nuclei of different sizes at various beam momenta from 13A to 158A GeV/c. Experimental setup and results on the theoretically expected signatures are discussed.
Test of phi(sup 2) model predictions near the (sup 3)He liquid-gas critical point
Barmatz, M.; Zhong, F.; Hahn, I.
2000-01-01
NASA is supporting the development of an experiment called MISTE (Microgravity Scaling Theory Experiment) for future International Space Station mission. The main objective of this flight experiment is to perform in-situ PVT, heat capacity at constant volume, C(sub v) and chi(sub tau), measurements in the asymptotic region near the (sup 3)He liquid-gas critical point.
Hara, T.; Hofstad, van der R.W.; Slade, G.
2003-01-01
We consider spread-out models of self-avoiding walk, bond percolation, lattice trees and bond lattice animals on ${\\mathbb{Z}^d}$, having long finite-range connections, above their upper critical dimensions $d=4$ (self-avoiding walk), $d=6$ (percolation) and $d=8$ (trees and animals). The two-point
Fixed Point Learning Based Intelligent Traffic Control System
Zongyao, Wang; Cong, Sui; Cheng, Shao
2017-10-01
Fixed point learning has become an important tool to analyse large scale distributed system such as urban traffic network. This paper presents a fixed point learning based intelligence traffic network control system. The system applies convergence property of fixed point theorem to optimize the traffic flow density. The intelligence traffic control system achieves maximum road resources usage by averaging traffic flow density among the traffic network. The intelligence traffic network control system is built based on decentralized structure and intelligence cooperation. No central control is needed to manage the system. The proposed system is simple, effective and feasible for practical use. The performance of the system is tested via theoretical proof and simulations. The results demonstrate that the system can effectively solve the traffic congestion problem and increase the vehicles average speed. It also proves that the system is flexible, reliable and feasible for practical use.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dey, Pinkee; Suslov, Sergey A, E-mail: ssuslov@swin.edu.au [Department of Mathematics H38, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia)
2016-12-15
A finite amplitude instability has been analysed to discover the exact mechanism leading to the appearance of stationary magnetoconvection patterns in a vertical layer of a non-conducting ferrofluid heated from the side and placed in an external magnetic field perpendicular to the walls. The physical results have been obtained using a version of a weakly nonlinear analysis that is based on the disturbance amplitude expansion. It enables a low-dimensional reduction of a full nonlinear problem in supercritical regimes away from a bifurcation point. The details of the reduction are given in comparison with traditional small-parameter expansions. It is also demonstrated that Squire’s transformation can be introduced for higher-order nonlinear terms thus reducing the full three-dimensional problem to its equivalent two-dimensional counterpart and enabling significant computational savings. The full three-dimensional instability patterns are subsequently recovered using the inverse transforms The analysed stationary thermomagnetic instability is shown to occur as a result of a supercritical pitchfork bifurcation. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dey, Pinkee; Suslov, Sergey A
2016-01-01
A finite amplitude instability has been analysed to discover the exact mechanism leading to the appearance of stationary magnetoconvection patterns in a vertical layer of a non-conducting ferrofluid heated from the side and placed in an external magnetic field perpendicular to the walls. The physical results have been obtained using a version of a weakly nonlinear analysis that is based on the disturbance amplitude expansion. It enables a low-dimensional reduction of a full nonlinear problem in supercritical regimes away from a bifurcation point. The details of the reduction are given in comparison with traditional small-parameter expansions. It is also demonstrated that Squire’s transformation can be introduced for higher-order nonlinear terms thus reducing the full three-dimensional problem to its equivalent two-dimensional counterpart and enabling significant computational savings. The full three-dimensional instability patterns are subsequently recovered using the inverse transforms The analysed stationary thermomagnetic instability is shown to occur as a result of a supercritical pitchfork bifurcation. (paper)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brøns, Morten; Hartnack, Johan Nicolai
1998-01-01
Streamline patterns and their bifurcations in two-dimensional incompressible flow are investigated from a topological point of view. The velocity field is expanded at a point in the fluid, and the expansion coefficients are considered as bifurcation parameters. A series of non-linear coordinate c...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brøns, Morten; Hartnack, Johan Nicolai
1999-01-01
Streamline patterns and their bifurcations in two-dimensional incompressible flow are investigated from a topological point of view. The velocity field is expanded at a point in the fluid, and the expansion coefficients are considered as bifurcation parameters. A series of nonlinear coordinate ch...
Some remarks concerning the equation of state near a critical point
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lebrun, J.P.
1977-01-01
The thermodynamical scaling hypothesis is referred to in terms of SLsub(2,R) representations. The Josephson-Schofield proposal to avoid non-analyticity on the critical isotherm is shown to conflict with the Lebowitz-Penrose theorem in the one-phase region. One proposes to uniformize the critical region using e.g. Beltrami's equations and derives from the implicit function theorem a simple relation between the exponents (β, delta)
Hazard analysis and critical control points among Chinese food business operators
Stefano Saccares; Paolo Amadei; Gianfranco Masotti; Roberto Condoleo; Alessandra Guidi
2014-01-01
The purpose of the present paper is to highlight some critical situations emerged during the implementation of long-term projects locally managed by Prevention Services, to control some manufacturing companies in Rome and Prato, Central Italy. In particular, some critical issues on the application of self-control in marketing and catering held by Chinese operators are underlined. The study showed serious flaws in preparing and controlling of manuals for good hygiene practice, participating of...
MIN-CUT BASED SEGMENTATION OF AIRBORNE LIDAR POINT CLOUDS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Ural
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Introducing an organization to the unstructured point cloud before extracting information from airborne lidar data is common in many applications. Aggregating the points with similar features into segments in 3-D which comply with the nature of actual objects is affected by the neighborhood, scale, features and noise among other aspects. In this study, we present a min-cut based method for segmenting the point cloud. We first assess the neighborhood of each point in 3-D by investigating the local geometric and statistical properties of the candidates. Neighborhood selection is essential since point features are calculated within their local neighborhood. Following neighborhood determination, we calculate point features and determine the clusters in the feature space. We adapt a graph representation from image processing which is especially used in pixel labeling problems and establish it for the unstructured 3-D point clouds. The edges of the graph that are connecting the points with each other and nodes representing feature clusters hold the smoothness costs in the spatial domain and data costs in the feature domain. Smoothness costs ensure spatial coherence, while data costs control the consistency with the representative feature clusters. This graph representation formalizes the segmentation task as an energy minimization problem. It allows the implementation of an approximate solution by min-cuts for a global minimum of this NP hard minimization problem in low order polynomial time. We test our method with airborne lidar point cloud acquired with maximum planned post spacing of 1.4 m and a vertical accuracy 10.5 cm as RMSE. We present the effects of neighborhood and feature determination in the segmentation results and assess the accuracy and efficiency of the implemented min-cut algorithm as well as its sensitivity to the parameters of the smoothness and data cost functions. We find that smoothness cost that only considers simple distance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rina Agustina
2013-05-01
Full Text Available E-learning was easily found through browsing internet, which was mostly free of charge and provided various learning materials. Spellingcity.com was one of e-learning websites for teaching and learning English to learn spelling, vocabulary and writing, which offered various games and activities for young learners, 6 until 8 year old learners in particular. Having considered those constraints, this paper aimed to analyse the website from two different views: (1 critical applied linguistics (CAL aspects and (2 critical discourse analysis (CDA. After analysing the website using CAL and CDA, it was found that the website was adequate for beginner, in which it provided fun learning through games as well as challenged learners’ to test their vocabulary. Despite of these strengths, there were several issues required further thinking in terms of learners’ broad knowledge, such as, some of learning materials focused on states in America. It was quite difficult for EFL learners if they did not have adequate general knowledge. Thus, the findings implied that the website could be used as a supporting learning material, which accompanied textbooks and vocabulary exercise books.
Update on CERN Search based on SharePoint 2013
Alvarez, E.; Fernandez, S.; Lossent, A.; Posada, I.; Silva, B.; Wagner, A.
2017-10-01
CERN’s enterprise Search solution “CERN Search” provides a central search solution for users and CERN service providers. A total of about 20 million public and protected documents from a wide range of document collections is indexed, including Indico, TWiki, Drupal, SharePoint, JACOW, E-group archives, EDMS, and CERN Web pages. In spring 2015, CERN Search was migrated to a new infrastructure based on SharePoint 2013. In the context of this upgrade, the document pre-processing and indexing process was redesigned and generalised. The new data feeding framework allows to profit from new functionality and it facilitates the long term maintenance of the system.
Pattern of acid base abnormalities in critically ill patinets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmad, T.M.; Mehmood, A.; Malik, T.M.
2015-01-01
To find out the pattern of acid base abnormalities in critically ill patients in a tertiary care health facility. Study Design: A descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the department of pathology, Combined Military Hospital Kharian from January 2013 to June 2013. Patients and Methods: Two hundred and fifty patients suffering from various diseases and presenting with exacerbation of their clinical conditions were studied. These patients were hospitalized and managed in acute care units of the hospital. Arterial blood gases were analysed to detect acid base status and their correlation with their clinical condition. Concomitant analysis of electrolytes was carried out. Tests related to concurrent illnesses e.g. renal and liver function tests, cardiac enzymes and plasma glucose were assayed by routine end point and kinetic methods. Standard reference materials were used to ensure internal quantify control of analyses. Results: Two hundred and fifteen patients out of 250 studied suffered from acid base disorders. Gender distribution showed a higher percentage of male patients and the mean age was 70.5 ± 17.4 years. Double acid base disorders were the commonest disorders (34%) followed by metabolic acidosis (30%). Anion gap was calculated to further stratify metabolic acidosis and cases of diabetic ketoacidosis were the commonest in this category (47%). Other simple acid base disorders were relatively less frequent. Delta bicarbonate was calculated to unmask the superimposition of respiratory alkalosis or acidosis with metabolic acidosis and metabolic alkalosis. Though triple acid base disorders were noted in a small percentage of cases (05%), but were found to be the most complicated and challenging. Mixed acid base disorders were associated with high mortality. Conclusion: A large number of critically ill patients manifested acid base abnormalities over the full spectrum of these disorders. Mixed acid base disorders were
Allen, D D; Bond, C A
2001-07-01
Good admissions decisions are essential for identifying successful students and good practitioners. Various parameters have been shown to have predictive power for academic success. Previous academic performance, the Pharmacy College Admissions Test (PCAT), and specific prepharmacy courses have been suggested as academic performance indicators. However, critical thinking abilities have not been evaluated. We evaluated the connection between academic success and each of the following predictive parameters: the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) score, PCAT score, interview score, overall academic performance prior to admission at a pharmacy school, and performance in specific prepharmacy courses. We confirmed previous reports but demonstrated intriguing results in predicting practice-based skills. Critical thinking skills predict practice-based course success. Also, the CCTST and PCAT scores (Pearson correlation [pc] = 0.448, p critical thinking skills in pharmacy practice courses and clerkships. Further study is needed to confirm this finding and determine which PCAT components predict critical thinking abilities.
Edmunds, Kelly L; Elrahman, Samira Abd; Bell, Diana J; Brainard, Julii; Dervisevic, Samir; Fedha, Tsimbiri P; Few, Roger; Howard, Guy; Lake, Iain; Maes, Peter; Matofari, Joseph; Minnigh, Harvey; Mohamedani, Ahmed A; Montgomery, Maggie; Morter, Sarah; Muchiri, Edward; Mudau, Lutendo S; Mutua, Benedict M; Ndambuki, Julius M; Pond, Katherine; Sobsey, Mark D; van der Es, Mike; Zeitoun, Mark; Hunter, Paul R
2016-06-01
To assess, within communities experiencing Ebola virus outbreaks, the risks associated with the disposal of human waste and to generate recommendations for mitigating such risks. A team with expertise in the Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points framework identified waste products from the care of individuals with Ebola virus disease and constructed, tested and confirmed flow diagrams showing the creation of such products. After listing potential hazards associated with each step in each flow diagram, the team conducted a hazard analysis, determined critical control points and made recommendations to mitigate the transmission risks at each control point. The collection, transportation, cleaning and shared use of blood-soiled fomites and the shared use of latrines contaminated with blood or bloodied faeces appeared to be associated with particularly high levels of risk of Ebola virus transmission. More moderate levels of risk were associated with the collection and transportation of material contaminated with bodily fluids other than blood, shared use of latrines soiled with such fluids, the cleaning and shared use of fomites soiled with such fluids, and the contamination of the environment during the collection and transportation of blood-contaminated waste. The risk of the waste-related transmission of Ebola virus could be reduced by the use of full personal protective equipment, appropriate hand hygiene and an appropriate disinfectant after careful cleaning. Use of the Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points framework could facilitate rapid responses to outbreaks of emerging infectious disease.
Comparison of the transient behavior of lead-based advanced critical and sub-critical reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Gang; Gu Zhixing; Wang Zhen; Jin Ming; Bai Yunqing
2014-01-01
A lead-based reactor developed by FDS Team is proposed in 2011 and designed to be 10 MW. It is a pool type reactor and the primary coolant is driven by natural circulation. The reactor has two operation modes, which are a lead-based critical fast reactor mode and a lead-based sub-critical reactor mode. The conceptual designs of the two modes are both completed by 2013. In this paper, four transient accidents were simulated for both the critical and sub-critical reactors above by NTC-2D code, which is developed by FDS Team for advanced reactor safety analysis. The four accidents were protected and unprotected loss of heat sink accidents (PLOHS and ULOHS), protected and unprotected transient overpower accidents (PTOP and UTOP). The simulation results of the two reactors were compared and analyzed. The results showed that during PLOHS and PTOP accidents for both the two modes, all the key parameters (core power, fuel, cladding and coolant temperatures in the hottest channel) decreased to very small values after the reactor scrammed, which meant the reactors under the two modes were both safe. For ULOHS, the fuel, cladding and coolant temperatures of the sub-critical reactor increased bigger than those of the critical one. For UTOP, the parameters above of the critical fast reactor were much bigger than those of the sub-critical one. The analysis results showed different safety advantages of the lead-based critical fast and sub-critical reactors during different transient accidents. (author)
Multiview point clouds denoising based on interference elimination
Hu, Yang; Wu, Qian; Wang, Le; Jiang, Huanyu
2018-03-01
Newly emerging low-cost depth sensors offer huge potentials for three-dimensional (3-D) modeling, but existing high noise restricts these sensors from obtaining accurate results. Thus, we proposed a method for denoising registered multiview point clouds with high noise to solve that problem. The proposed method is aimed at fully using redundant information to eliminate the interferences among point clouds of different views based on an iterative procedure. In each iteration, noisy points are either deleted or moved to their weighted average targets in accordance with two cases. Simulated data and practical data captured by a Kinect v2 sensor were tested in experiments qualitatively and quantitatively. Results showed that the proposed method can effectively reduce noise and recover local features from highly noisy multiview point clouds with good robustness, compared to truncated signed distance function and moving least squares (MLS). Moreover, the resulting low-noise point clouds can be further smoothed by the MLS to achieve improved results. This study provides the feasibility of obtaining fine 3-D models with high-noise devices, especially for depth sensors, such as Kinect.
KNOWLEDGE-BASED OBJECT DETECTION IN LASER SCANNING POINT CLOUDS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Boochs
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Object identification and object processing in 3D point clouds have always posed challenges in terms of effectiveness and efficiency. In practice, this process is highly dependent on human interpretation of the scene represented by the point cloud data, as well as the set of modeling tools available for use. Such modeling algorithms are data-driven and concentrate on specific features of the objects, being accessible to numerical models. We present an approach that brings the human expert knowledge about the scene, the objects inside, and their representation by the data and the behavior of algorithms to the machine. This “understanding” enables the machine to assist human interpretation of the scene inside the point cloud. Furthermore, it allows the machine to understand possibilities and limitations of algorithms and to take this into account within the processing chain. This not only assists the researchers in defining optimal processing steps, but also provides suggestions when certain changes or new details emerge from the point cloud. Our approach benefits from the advancement in knowledge technologies within the Semantic Web framework. This advancement has provided a strong base for applications based on knowledge management. In the article we will present and describe the knowledge technologies used for our approach such as Web Ontology Language (OWL, used for formulating the knowledge base and the Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL with 3D processing and topologic built-ins, aiming to combine geometrical analysis of 3D point clouds, and specialists’ knowledge of the scene and algorithmic processing.
Oyarzabal, Omar A; Rowe, Ellen
2017-04-01
The terms hazard and risk are significant building blocks for the organization of risk-based food safety plans. Unfortunately, these terms are not clear for some personnel working in food manufacturing facilities. In addition, there are few examples of active learning modules for teaching adult participants the principles of hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP). In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of an active learning module to teach hazard and risk to participants of HACCP classes provided by the University of Vermont Extension in 2015 and 2016. This interactive module is comprised of a questionnaire; group playing of a dice game that we have previously introduced in the teaching of HACCP; the discussion of the terms hazard and risk; and a self-assessment questionnaire to evaluate the teaching of hazard and risk. From 71 adult participants that completed this module, 40 participants (56%) provided the most appropriate definition of hazard, 19 participants (27%) provided the most appropriate definition of risk, 14 participants (20%) provided the most appropriate definitions of both hazard and risk, and 23 participants (32%) did not provide an appropriate definition for hazard or risk. Self-assessment data showed an improvement in the understanding of these terms (P active learning modules to teach food safety classes. This study suggests that active learning helps food personnel better understand important food safety terms that serve as building blocks for the understanding of more complex food safety topics.
Maximum Power Point Tracking Based on Sliding Mode Control
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nimrod Vázquez
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Solar panels, which have become a good choice, are used to generate and supply electricity in commercial and residential applications. This generated power starts with the solar cells, which have a complex relationship between solar irradiation, temperature, and output power. For this reason a tracking of the maximum power point is required. Traditionally, this has been made by considering just current and voltage conditions at the photovoltaic panel; however, temperature also influences the process. In this paper the voltage, current, and temperature in the PV system are considered to be a part of a sliding surface for the proposed maximum power point tracking; this means a sliding mode controller is applied. Obtained results gave a good dynamic response, as a difference from traditional schemes, which are only based on computational algorithms. A traditional algorithm based on MPPT was added in order to assure a low steady state error.
A MODELING METHOD OF FLUTTERING LEAVES BASED ON POINT CLOUD
J. Tang; Y. Wang; Y. Zhao; Y. Zhao; W. Hao; X. Ning; K. Lv; Z. Shi; M. Zhao
2017-01-01
Leaves falling gently or fluttering are common phenomenon in nature scenes. The authenticity of leaves falling plays an important part in the dynamic modeling of natural scenes. The leaves falling model has a widely applications in the field of animation and virtual reality. We propose a novel modeling method of fluttering leaves based on point cloud in this paper. According to the shape, the weight of leaves and the wind speed, three basic trajectories of leaves falling are defined, which ar...
Towards Automatic Testing of Reference Point Based Interactive Methods
Ojalehto, Vesa; Podkopaev, Dmitry; Miettinen, Kaisa
2016-01-01
In order to understand strengths and weaknesses of optimization algorithms, it is important to have access to different types of test problems, well defined performance indicators and analysis tools. Such tools are widely available for testing evolutionary multiobjective optimization algorithms. To our knowledge, there do not exist tools for analyzing the performance of interactive multiobjective optimization methods based on the reference point approach to communicating ...
Maximum power point tracker based on fuzzy logic
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Daoud, A.; Midoun, A.
2006-01-01
The solar energy is used as power source in photovoltaic power systems and the need for an intelligent power management system is important to obtain the maximum power from the limited solar panels. With the changing of the sun illumination due to variation of angle of incidence of sun radiation and of the temperature of the panels, Maximum Power Point Tracker (MPPT) enables optimization of solar power generation. The MPPT is a sub-system designed to extract the maximum power from a power source. In the case of solar panels power source. the maximum power point varies as a result of changes in its electrical characteristics which in turn are functions of radiation dose, temperature, ageing and other effects. The MPPT maximum the power output from panels for a given set of conditions by detecting the best working point of the power characteristic and then controls the current through the panels or the voltage across them. Many MPPT methods have been reported in literature. These techniques of MPPT can be classified into three main categories that include: lookup table methods, hill climbing methods and computational methods. The techniques vary according to the degree of sophistication, processing time and memory requirements. The perturbation and observation algorithm (hill climbing technique) is commonly used due to its ease of implementation, and relative tracking efficiency. However, it has been shown that when the insolation changes rapidly, the perturbation and observation method is slow to track the maximum power point. In recent years, the fuzzy controllers are used for maximum power point tracking. This method only requires the linguistic control rules for maximum power point, the mathematical model is not required and therefore the implementation of this control method is easy to real control system. In this paper, we we present a simple robust MPPT using fuzzy set theory where the hardware consists of the microchip's microcontroller unit control card and
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Velhner Maja
2005-01-01
Full Text Available This paper encompasses problems related to infection caused by Salmonella spp in poultry. The need to carry out adequate control measures and to provide safe food is emphasized. Using experiences from other countries, critical control points are presented in flocks during rearing and in hatcheries. In attempt to diagnose disease as early as possible and to advise proper therapy, the significance of serology monitoring is underlined. In order to produce safe food there is a need to control disease applying our Regulations concerning eradication of Salmonella spp in poultry flocks that is given in Official paper of Republic of Serbia No 6&88 and also to include serology monitoring in poultry flocks. Veterinary practitioners are expected to perform analysis of critical control points in poultry industry as well as to determine specificity and differences in production for single farms, which would enable more effective struggle with diseases in general.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharma, S.C.; Kafle, S.R.S.
1983-01-01
The effect of gravity on density distributions has been studied in ethane and methane near their critical points using the linear-model parametric equation of state. The results obtained from this study are used to further understand the sensitivity of orthopositronium annihilation rates to density fluctuations in molecular gases. It is shown that the influence of gravity is too small to account for the recently observed dependence of orthopositronium annihilation rates on the density of ethane gas at 306.4 K. However, a significant variation in local density vs height is calculated at temperatures closer to the gas--liquid critical point. The density and temperature dependencies of the annihilation rates of orthopositronium atoms, recently observed in ethane and methane gases, are discussed in terms of the findings of this study
Hung, Yu-Ting; Liu, Chi-Te; Peng, I-Chen; Hsu, Chin; Yu, Roch-Chui; Cheng, Kuan-Chen
2015-09-01
To ensure the safety of the peanut butter ice cream manufacture, a Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) plan has been designed and applied to the production process. Potential biological, chemical, and physical hazards in each manufacturing procedure were identified. Critical control points for the peanut butter ice cream were then determined as the pasteurization and freezing process. The establishment of a monitoring system, corrective actions, verification procedures, and documentation and record keeping were followed to complete the HACCP program. The results of this study indicate that implementing the HACCP system in food industries can effectively enhance food safety and quality while improving the production management. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Managing distance and covariate information with point-based clustering
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter A. Whigham
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Geographic perspectives of disease and the human condition often involve point-based observations and questions of clustering or dispersion within a spatial context. These problems involve a finite set of point observations and are constrained by a larger, but finite, set of locations where the observations could occur. Developing a rigorous method for pattern analysis in this context requires handling spatial covariates, a method for constrained finite spatial clustering, and addressing bias in geographic distance measures. An approach, based on Ripley’s K and applied to the problem of clustering with deliberate self-harm (DSH, is presented. Methods Point-based Monte-Carlo simulation of Ripley’s K, accounting for socio-economic deprivation and sources of distance measurement bias, was developed to estimate clustering of DSH at a range of spatial scales. A rotated Minkowski L1 distance metric allowed variation in physical distance and clustering to be assessed. Self-harm data was derived from an audit of 2 years’ emergency hospital presentations (n = 136 in a New Zealand town (population ~50,000. Study area was defined by residential (housing land parcels representing a finite set of possible point addresses. Results Area-based deprivation was spatially correlated. Accounting for deprivation and distance bias showed evidence for clustering of DSH for spatial scales up to 500 m with a one-sided 95 % CI, suggesting that social contagion may be present for this urban cohort. Conclusions Many problems involve finite locations in geographic space that require estimates of distance-based clustering at many scales. A Monte-Carlo approach to Ripley’s K, incorporating covariates and models for distance bias, are crucial when assessing health-related clustering. The case study showed that social network structure defined at the neighbourhood level may account for aspects of neighbourhood clustering of DSH. Accounting for
Hazard analysis and critical control points among Chinese food business operators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stefano Saccares
2014-09-01
Full Text Available The purpose of the present paper is to highlight some critical situations emerged during the implementation of long-term projects locally managed by Prevention Services, to control some manufacturing companies in Rome and Prato, Central Italy. In particular, some critical issues on the application of selfcontrol in marketing and catering held by Chinese operators are underlined. The study showed serious flaws in preparing and controlling of manuals for good hygiene practice, participating of the consultants among food business operators (FBOs to the control of the procedures. Only after regular actions by the Prevention Services, there have been satisfying results. This confirms the need to have qualified and expert partners able to promptly act among FBOs and to give adequate support to authorities in charge in order to guarantee food safety.
Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points among Chinese Food Business Operators.
Saccares, Stefano; Amadei, Paolo; Masotti, Gianfranco; Condoleo, Roberto; Guidi, Alessandra
2014-08-28
The purpose of the present paper is to highlight some critical situations emerged during the implementation of long-term projects locally managed by Prevention Services, to control some manufacturing companies in Rome and Prato, Central Italy. In particular, some critical issues on the application of self-control in marketing and catering held by Chinese operators are underlined. The study showed serious flaws in preparing and controlling of manuals for good hygiene practice, participating of the consultants among food business operators (FBOs) to the control of the procedures. Only after regular actions by the Prevention Services, there have been satisfying results. This confirms the need to have qualified and expert partners able to promptly act among FBOs and to give adequate support to authorities in charge in order to guarantee food safety.
Evaluation of the i-STAT point-of-care analyzer in critically ill adult patients.
Steinfelder-Visscher, J.; Teerenstra, S.; Klein Gunnewiek, J.M.T.; Weerwind, P.W.
2008-01-01
Point-of-care analyzers may benefit therapeutic decision making by reducing turn-around-time for samples. This is especially true when biochemical parameters exceed the clinical reference range, in which acute and effective treatment is essential. We therefore evaluated the analytical performance of
Yang, Shengfeng; Zhou, Naixie; Zheng, Hui; Ong, Shyue Ping; Luo, Jian
2018-02-01
First-order interfacial phaselike transformations that break the mirror symmetry of the symmetric ∑5 (210 ) tilt grain boundary (GB) are discovered by combining a modified genetic algorithm with hybrid Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations. Density functional theory calculations confirm this prediction. This first-order coupled structural and adsorption transformation, which produces two variants of asymmetric bilayers, vanishes at an interfacial critical point. A GB complexion (phase) diagram is constructed via semigrand canonical ensemble atomistic simulations for the first time.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Williams, M.M.R.
2003-01-01
A two group integral equation derived using transport theory, which describes the fuel distribution necessary for a flat thermal flux and minimum critical mass, is solved by the classical end-point method. This method has a number of advantages and in particular highlights the changing behaviour of the fissile mass distribution function in the neighbourhood of the core-reflector interface. We also show how the reflector thermal flux behaves and explain the origin of the maximum which arises when the critical size is less than that corresponding to minimum critical mass. A comparison is made with diffusion theory and the necessary and somewhat artificial presence of surface delta functions in the fuel distribution is shown to be analogous to the edge transients that arise naturally in transport theory
Fu, Bo; Zhu, Wei; Shi, Qinwei; Li, Qunxiang; Yang, Jinlong; Zhang, Zhenyu
2017-04-07
Exploiting the enabling power of the Lanczos method in momentum space, we determine accurately the quasiparticle and scaling properties of disordered three-dimensional Dirac semimetals surrounding the quantum critical point separating the semimetal and diffusive metal regimes. We unveil that the imaginary part of the quasiparticle self-energy obeys a common power law before, at, and after the quantum phase transition, but the power law is nonuniversal, whose exponent is dependent on the disorder strength. More intriguingly, whereas a common power law is also found for the real part of the self-energy before and after the phase transition, a distinctly different behavior is identified at the critical point, characterized by the existence of a nonanalytic logarithmic singularity. This nonanalytical correction serves as the very basis for the unusual power-law behaviors of the quasiparticles and many other physical properties surrounding the quantum critical point. Our approach also allows the ready and reliable determination of the scaling properties of the correlation length and dynamical exponents. We further show that the central findings are valid for both uncorrelated and correlated disorder distributions and should be directly comparable with future experimental observations.
The chiral critical point of $N_f$=3 QCD at finite density to the order $(\\mu/T)^4$
De Forcrand, Philippe
2008-01-01
QCD with three degenerate quark flavours at zero baryon density exhibits a first order thermal phase transition for small quark masses, which changes to a smooth crossover for some critical quark mass m^c_0, i.e. the chiral critical point. It is generally believed that as an (even) function of quark chemical potential, m_c(mu), the critical point moves to larger quark masses, constituting the critical endpoint of a first order phase transition in theories with m\\geq m^c_0. To test this, we consider a Taylor expansion of m_c(mu) around mu=0 and determine the first two coefficients from lattice simulations with staggered fermions on N_t=4 lattices. We employ two different techniques: a) calculating the coefficients directly from a mu=0 ensemble using a novel finite difference method, and b) fitting them to simulation data obtained for imaginary chemical potentials. The mu^2 and mu^4 coefficients are found to be negative by both methods, with consistent absolute values. Combining both methods gives evidence that...
Hardware-accelerated Point Generation and Rendering of Point-based Impostors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas
2005-01-01
This paper presents a novel scheme for generating points from triangle models. The method is fast and lends itself well to implementation using graphics hardware. The triangle to point conversion is done by rendering the models, and the rendering may be performed procedurally or by a black box API....... I describe the technique in detail and discuss how the generated point sets can easily be used as impostors for the original triangle models used to create the points. Since the points reside solely in GPU memory, these impostors are fairly efficient. Source code is available online....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barboza, Luciano Vitoria [Sul-riograndense Federal Institute for Education, Science and Technology (IFSul), Pelotas, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: luciano@pelotas.ifsul.edu.br
2009-07-01
This paper presents an overview about the maximum load ability problem and aims to study the main factors that limit this load ability. Specifically this study focuses its attention on determining which electric system buses influence directly on the power demand supply. The proposed approach uses the conventional maximum load ability method modelled by an optimization problem. The solution of this model is performed using the Interior Point methodology. As consequence of this solution method, the Lagrange multipliers are used as parameters that identify the probable 'bottlenecks' in the electric power system. The study also shows the relationship between the Lagrange multipliers and the cost function in the Interior Point optimization interpreted like sensitivity parameters. In order to illustrate the proposed methodology, the approach was applied to an IEEE test system and to assess its performance, a real equivalent electric system from the South- Southeast region of Brazil was simulated. (author)
Critical Points of Prefabricated Reinforced Concrete Wall Systems of Multi-storey Buildings
J. Witzany; T. Čejka; R. Zigler
2011-01-01
With respect to the dissipation of energy through plastic deformation of joints of prefabricated wall units, the paper points out the principal importance of efficient reinforcement of the prefabricated system at its joints. The method, quality and amount of reinforcement are essential for reaching the necessary degree of joint ductility. The paper presents partial results of experimental research of vertical joints of prefabricated units exposed to monotonously rising lo...
Medication overuse headache: a critical review of end points in recent follow-up studies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hagen, Knut; Jensen, Rigmor; Bøe, Magne Geir
2010-01-01
in headache index at the end of follow-up were reported in only one and two of nine studies, respectively. The present review demonstrated a lack of uniform end points used in recently published follow-up studies. Guidelines for presenting follow-up data on MOH are needed and we propose end points......No guidelines for performing and presenting the results of studies on patients with medication overuse headache (MOH) exist. The aim of this study was to review long-term outcome measures in follow-up studies published in 2006 or later. We included MOH studies with >6 months duration presenting...... a minimum of one predefined end point. In total, nine studies were identified. The 1,589 MOH patients (22% men) had an overall mean frequency of 25.3 headache days/month at baseline. Headache days/month at the end of follow-up was reported in six studies (mean 13.8 days/month). The decrease was more...
Critical Arts-Based Research in Education: Performing Undocumented Historias
Bagley, Carl; Castro-Salazar, Ricardo
2012-01-01
The article seeks to elucidate and academically position the genre of critical arts-based research in education. The article fuses Critical Race Theory (CRT), life history and performance, alongside work with undocumented American students of Mexican origin, to show how a politicised qualitative paradigmatic re envisioning can occur in which…
On the possibility of complete revivals after quantum quenches to a critical point
Najafi, K.; Rajabpour, M. A.
2017-07-01
In a recent letter [J. Cardy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 220401 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.220401], the author made a very interesting observation that complete revivals of quantum states after quantum quench can happen in a period that is a fraction of the system size. This is possible for critical systems that can be described by minimal conformal field theories with central charge c detect a regime in the phase diagram of the XY chain in which one can not determine the period of the partial revivals using the quasiparticle picture.
Bulk and interfacial molecular structure near liquid-liquid critical points
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Manzanares-Papayanopoulos, Emilio
2000-09-01
Critical behaviour occurs when two coexisting phases merge identity without abrupt change in physical properties. The detail of this behaviour is nowadays considered universal, being dominated by the divergence of the correlation length {xi}. Following this universality, the detailed behaviour can be studied experimentally using any convenient system. For that reason, the study of fluids, and in particular fluid mixtures, offers a useful platform since critical behaviour in such systems can often be studied at convenient temperatures and pressures. Although criticality is a consequence of the divergence of {xi}, and so in a sense is a large-scale phenomenon, nevertheless it has an influence on events at molecular level. This aspect of criticality has received relatively little study compared to the enormous effort expended over the past thirty years in elucidating the macroscopic or phenomenological aspects of criticality. The signature of criticality at molecular level is the central theme running through this research.The aim of the work described in this thesis was to investigate the surface and transport properties of near-critical binary liquid mixtures. The surface properties mainly concerned the adsorption and wetting behaviour at the vapour-liquid and liquid-solid interfaces. The transport property studied was the shear viscosity at bulk or macroscopic level and the corresponding property at molecular or microscopic level, the micro viscosity. The work presented in this thesis comprises the experimental measurements and the theoretical interpretations drawn from the results. The experimental work was varied, using both classical and modern techniques. The theoretical interpretation was used as directed towards validating and comparing the results of the experimental programme with the predictions of the current classical critical-state theories. The systems investigated have been mostly alkane + perfluoroalkane mixtures or mixtures with very similar
Building Contour Extraction Based on LiDAR Point Cloud
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhang Xu-Qing
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a new method for solving the problem of utilizing the LiDAR data to extract the building contour line. For detection of the edge points between the building test points by using the least squares fitting to get the edge line of buildings and give the weight determining of the building of edge line slope depend on the length of the edge line. And then get the weighted mean of the positive and negative slope of the building edge line. Based on the structure of the adjacent edge perpendicular hypothesis, regularization processing to extract the edge of the skeleton line perpendicular. The experiments show that the extracted building edges have the good accuracy and have the good applicability in complex urban areas.
Point based interactive image segmentation using multiquadrics splines
Meena, Sachin; Duraisamy, Prakash; Palniappan, Kannappan; Seetharaman, Guna
2017-05-01
Multiquadrics (MQ) are radial basis spline function that can provide an efficient interpolation of data points located in a high dimensional space. MQ were developed by Hardy to approximate geographical surfaces and terrain modelling. In this paper we frame the task of interactive image segmentation as a semi-supervised interpolation where an interpolating function learned from the user provided seed points is used to predict the labels of unlabeled pixel and the spline function used in the semi-supervised interpolation is MQ. This semi-supervised interpolation framework has a nice closed form solution which along with the fact that MQ is a radial basis spline function lead to a very fast interactive image segmentation process. Quantitative and qualitative results on the standard datasets show that MQ outperforms other regression based methods, GEBS, Ridge Regression and Logistic Regression, and popular methods like Graph Cut,4 Random Walk and Random Forest.6
Critical thinking: knowledge and skills for evidence-based practice.
Finn, Patrick
2011-01-01
I respond to Kamhi's (2011) conclusion in his article "Balancing Certainty and Uncertainty in Clinical Practice" that rational or critical thinking is an essential complement to evidence-based practice (EBP). I expand on Kamhi's conclusion and briefly describe what clinicians might need to know to think critically within an EBP profession. Specifically, I suggest how critical thinking is relevant to EBP, broadly summarize the relevant skills, indicate the importance of thinking dispositions, and outline the various ways our thinking can go wrong. I finish the commentary by suggesting that critical thinking skills should be considered a required outcome of our professional training programs.
Rounding by disorder of first-order quantum phase transitions: emergence of quantum critical points.
Goswami, Pallab; Schwab, David; Chakravarty, Sudip
2008-01-11
We give a heuristic argument for disorder rounding of a first-order quantum phase transition into a continuous phase transition. From both weak and strong disorder analysis of the N-color quantum Ashkin-Teller model in one spatial dimension, we find that, for N > or =3, the first-order transition is rounded to a continuous transition and the physical picture is the same as the random transverse field Ising model for a limited parameter regime. The results are strikingly different from the corresponding classical problem in two dimensions where the fate of the renormalization group flows is a fixed point corresponding to N-decoupled pure Ising models.
Experience with performance based training of nuclear criticality safety engineers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taylor, R.G.
1993-01-01
For non-reactor nuclear facilities, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) does not require that nuclear criticality safety engineers demonstrate qualification for their job. It is likely, however, that more formalism will be required in the future. Current DOE requirements for those positions which do have to demonstrate qualification indicate that qualification should be achieved by using a systematic approach such as performance based training (PBT). Assuming that PBT would be an acceptable mechanism for nuclear criticality safety engineer training in a more formal environment, a site-specific analysis of the nuclear criticality safety engineer job was performed. Based on this analysis, classes are being developed and delivered to a target audience of newer nuclear criticality safety engineers. Because current interest is in developing training for selected aspects of the nuclear criticality safety engineer job, the analysis is incompletely developed in some areas
DTM GENERATION WITH UAV BASED PHOTOGRAMMETRIC POINT CLOUD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Polat
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Nowadays Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs are widely used in many applications for different purposes. Their benefits however are not entirely detected due to the integration capabilities of other equipment such as; digital camera, GPS, or laser scanner. The main scope of this paper is evaluating performance of cameras integrated UAV for geomatic applications by the way of Digital Terrain Model (DTM generation in a small area. In this purpose, 7 ground control points are surveyed with RTK and 420 photographs are captured. Over 30 million georeferenced points were used in DTM generation process. Accuracy of the DTM was evaluated with 5 check points. The root mean square error is calculated as 17.1 cm for an altitude of 100 m. Besides, a LiDAR derived DTM is used as reference in order to calculate correlation. The UAV based DTM has o 94.5 % correlation with reference DTM. Outcomes of the study show that it is possible to use the UAV Photogrammetry data as map producing, surveying, and some other engineering applications with the advantages of low-cost, time conservation, and minimum field work.
DTM Generation with Uav Based Photogrammetric Point Cloud
Polat, N.; Uysal, M.
2017-11-01
Nowadays Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are widely used in many applications for different purposes. Their benefits however are not entirely detected due to the integration capabilities of other equipment such as; digital camera, GPS, or laser scanner. The main scope of this paper is evaluating performance of cameras integrated UAV for geomatic applications by the way of Digital Terrain Model (DTM) generation in a small area. In this purpose, 7 ground control points are surveyed with RTK and 420 photographs are captured. Over 30 million georeferenced points were used in DTM generation process. Accuracy of the DTM was evaluated with 5 check points. The root mean square error is calculated as 17.1 cm for an altitude of 100 m. Besides, a LiDAR derived DTM is used as reference in order to calculate correlation. The UAV based DTM has o 94.5 % correlation with reference DTM. Outcomes of the study show that it is possible to use the UAV Photogrammetry data as map producing, surveying, and some other engineering applications with the advantages of low-cost, time conservation, and minimum field work.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Omar A. Oyarzabal
2017-04-01
Full Text Available The terms hazard and risk are significant building blocks for the organization of risk-based food safety plans. Unfortunately, these terms are not clear for some personnel working in food manufacturing facilities. In addition, there are few examples of active learning modules for teaching adult participants the principles of hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of an active learning module to teach hazard and risk to participants of HACCP classes provided by the University of Vermont Extension in 2015 and 2016. This interactive module is comprised of a questionnaire; group playing of a dice game that we have previously introduced in the teaching of HACCP; the discussion of the terms hazard and risk; and a self-assessment questionnaire to evaluate the teaching of hazard and risk. From 71 adult participants that completed this module, 40 participants (56% provided the most appropriate definition of hazard, 19 participants (27% provided the most appropriate definition of risk, 14 participants (20% provided the most appropriate definitions of both hazard and risk, and 23 participants (32% did not provide an appropriate definition for hazard or risk. Self-assessment data showed an improvement in the understanding of these terms (P < 0.05. Thirty participants (42% stated that the most valuable thing they learned with this interactive module was the difference between hazard and risk, and 40 participants (65% responded that they did not attend similar presentations in the past. The fact that less than one third of the participants answered properly to the definitions of hazard and risk at baseline is not surprising. However, these results highlight the need for the incorporation of modules to discuss these important food safety terms and include more active learning modules to teach food safety classes. This study suggests that active learning helps food personnel better understand important
Web-based resources for critical care education.
Kleinpell, Ruth; Ely, E Wesley; Williams, Ged; Liolios, Antonios; Ward, Nicholas; Tisherman, Samuel A
2011-03-01
To identify, catalog, and critically evaluate Web-based resources for critical care education. A multilevel search strategy was utilized. Literature searches were conducted (from 1996 to September 30, 2010) using OVID-MEDLINE, PubMed, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature with the terms "Web-based learning," "computer-assisted instruction," "e-learning," "critical care," "tutorials," "continuing education," "virtual learning," and "Web-based education." The Web sites of relevant critical care organizations (American College of Chest Physicians, American Society of Anesthesiologists, American Thoracic Society, European Society of Intensive Care Medicine, Society of Critical Care Medicine, World Federation of Societies of Intensive and Critical Care Medicine, American Association of Critical Care Nurses, and World Federation of Critical Care Nurses) were reviewed for the availability of e-learning resources. Finally, Internet searches and e-mail queries to critical care medicine fellowship program directors and members of national and international acute/critical care listserves were conducted to 1) identify the use of and 2) review and critique Web-based resources for critical care education. To ensure credibility of Web site information, Web sites were reviewed by three independent reviewers on the basis of the criteria of authority, objectivity, authenticity, accuracy, timeliness, relevance, and efficiency in conjunction with suggested formats for evaluating Web sites in the medical literature. Literature searches using OVID-MEDLINE, PubMed, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature resulted in >250 citations. Those pertinent to critical care provide examples of the integration of e-learning techniques, the development of specific resources, reports of the use of types of e-learning, including interactive tutorials, case studies, and simulation, and reports of student or learner satisfaction, among other general
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pérez-Sánchez, G.; Troncoso, J.; Losada-Pérez, P.; Méndez-Castro, P.; Romaní, L.
2013-01-01
Highlights: • Highly precise liquid–liquid curves for [Bmim][BF 4 ] + perfluoroctanol are reported. • Critical behavior of heat capacity for the same system was also characterized. • In contrast to previous results, no coulombic/solvophobic crossover for coexistence curve diameter was found. • The system criticality shows characteristics both solvophobic and coulombic. -- Abstract: Liquid + liquid equilibrium of the system [Bmim][BF 4 ] + 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H perfluoroctanol using a highly precise methodology based on refractive index measurements was experimentally determined. In addition, isobaric heat capacity near the critical point was obtained. The performance of the new refractive index set-up was successfully checked against the coexistence curve of the system dimethyl carbonate + decane, since highly accurate data are available in the literature. The choice of [Bmim][BF 4 ] + 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H perfluoroctanol was motivated by a previous experimental work, whose results suggest that this system could present characteristics of both solvophobic and coulombic behavior, which are the two categories to which an ionic system can belong. Although this was previously observed for other ionic systems, this mixture presented a very striking feature: the diameter of the coexistence curve seemed to change its criticality in the studied temperature range, from solvophobic far away to coulombic close to the critical point. The results of this work reveal that, in fact, [Bmim][BF 4 ] + 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H perfluoroctanol presents characteristics of both solvophobic and coulombic criticality, but no evidence of the observed crossover over the experimental temperature range has been found
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Josiane Pasini
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Pears have a very sensitive epidermis and are prone to signal mechanical blemishes, which result in reduced visual quality and low consumer acceptance. The objective of this work was to identify critical points and the magnitude of impact forces on a packing line at a commercial packinghouse. The effect of injuries on ripening and quality of ´Packham´s Triumph´ pears was also evaluated after cold storage. The packing line was scrutinized on its transfer points, fruit drop heights and cushioning overlays, which allowed to acquire the maximum accelerations on each spot. The maximum acceleration forces were reproduced in the lab with ‘Packham’s Triumph’ pears to evaluate the effects on fruit quality after cold storage. Four critical points were noticed on the packing line: at the transfer from the conveyor belt to the lifting rollers, at the transfer from the lifting rollers to the washing ramp with rotatory brushes, at the entrance to the singulator at the end of the conveyor belt and at the drop from the sizer to the packing stalls. Ripening of ‘Packham’s Triumph’ pears invariably came about during cold storage, and independently of the imposed impacts. The impacts under the circumstances of the test did not affect the quality of ´Packham´s Triumph´ pears kept for up to 120 days at cold storage followed by five days at room temperature.
Simulating the phosphorus fluid-liquid phase transition up to the critical point
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghiringhelli, Luca M; Meijer, Evert Jan
2007-01-01
We report a Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics study of the temperature dependence of the fluid-liquid phase transition in phosphorous, involving the transformation of a molecular fluid phase into a network-like phase. We employed density-functional theory (DFT) with a gradient-corrected functional (B-LYP) to describe the electronic structure and interatomic interactions and performed simulations in a constant pressure ensemble. We spanned a temperature interval ranging from 2500 to 3500 K. With increasing temperature, we found that the structural conversion from the molecular P 4 fluid into the network liquid occurs at decreasing pressures, consistent with experimental observations. At lower temperatures the transition is characterized by a sudden increase of density in the sample. The magnitude of the density change decreases with increasing temperature and vanishes at 3500 K. In the temperature range 3100-3500 K we found signals of near- and super-criticality. We identified local structural changes that serve as seeds triggering the overall structural transition
Electricity transmission pricing: Tracing based point-of-connection tariff
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abhyankar, A.R.; Khaparde, S.A.
2009-01-01
Point-of-connection (POC) scheme of transmission pricing in decentralized markets charges the participants a single rate per MW depending on their point-of-connection. Use of grossly aggregated postage stamp rates as POC charges fails to provide appropriate price signals. The POC tariff based on distribution of network sunk costs by employing conventional tracing assures recovery of sunk costs based on extent of use of network by participants. However, the POC tariff by this method does not accommodate economically efficient price signals which correspond to marginal costs. On the other hand, the POC tariff, if made proportional to marginal costs alone, fails to account for sunk costs and extent of use of network. This paper overcomes these lacunae by combining the above stated desired objectives under the recently proposed optimal tracing framework. Since real power tracing problem is amenable to multiple solutions, it is formulated as linearly constrained optimization problem. By employing this methodology, consideration of extent of network use and sunk cost recovery are guaranteed, while objective function is designed such that the spatial pattern of price signals closely follows the pattern of scaled locational marginal prices. The methodology is tested on IEEE 30 bus system, wherein average power flow pattern is established by running various simulation states on congested and un-congested network conditions. (author)
a Modeling Method of Fluttering Leaves Based on Point Cloud
Tang, J.; Wang, Y.; Zhao, Y.; Hao, W.; Ning, X.; Lv, K.; Shi, Z.; Zhao, M.
2017-09-01
Leaves falling gently or fluttering are common phenomenon in nature scenes. The authenticity of leaves falling plays an important part in the dynamic modeling of natural scenes. The leaves falling model has a widely applications in the field of animation and virtual reality. We propose a novel modeling method of fluttering leaves based on point cloud in this paper. According to the shape, the weight of leaves and the wind speed, three basic trajectories of leaves falling are defined, which are the rotation falling, the roll falling and the screw roll falling. At the same time, a parallel algorithm based on OpenMP is implemented to satisfy the needs of real-time in practical applications. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is amenable to the incorporation of a variety of desirable effects.
A MODELING METHOD OF FLUTTERING LEAVES BASED ON POINT CLOUD
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Tang
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Leaves falling gently or fluttering are common phenomenon in nature scenes. The authenticity of leaves falling plays an important part in the dynamic modeling of natural scenes. The leaves falling model has a widely applications in the field of animation and virtual reality. We propose a novel modeling method of fluttering leaves based on point cloud in this paper. According to the shape, the weight of leaves and the wind speed, three basic trajectories of leaves falling are defined, which are the rotation falling, the roll falling and the screw roll falling. At the same time, a parallel algorithm based on OpenMP is implemented to satisfy the needs of real-time in practical applications. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is amenable to the incorporation of a variety of desirable effects.
Retinal biometrics based on Iterative Closest Point algorithm.
Hatanaka, Yuji; Tajima, Mikiya; Kawasaki, Ryo; Saito, Koko; Ogohara, Kazunori; Muramatsu, Chisako; Sunayama, Wataru; Fujita, Hiroshi
2017-07-01
The pattern of blood vessels in the eye is unique to each person because it rarely changes over time. Therefore, it is well known that retinal blood vessels are useful for biometrics. This paper describes a biometrics method using the Jaccard similarity coefficient (JSC) based on blood vessel regions in retinal image pairs. The retinal image pairs were rough matched by the center of their optic discs. Moreover, the image pairs were aligned using the Iterative Closest Point algorithm based on detailed blood vessel skeletons. For registration, perspective transform was applied to the retinal images. Finally, the pairs were classified as either correct or incorrect using the JSC of the blood vessel region in the image pairs. The proposed method was applied to temporal retinal images, which were obtained in 2009 (695 images) and 2013 (87 images). The 87 images acquired in 2013 were all from persons already examined in 2009. The accuracy of the proposed method reached 100%.
Bou Rached, Lizet; Ascanio, Norelis; Hernández, Pilar
2004-03-01
The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) is a systematic integral program used to identify and estimate the hazards (microbiological, chemical and physical) and the risks generated during the primary production, processing, storage, distribution, expense and consumption of foods. To establish a program of HACCP has advantages, being some of them: to emphasize more in the prevention than in the detection, to diminish the costs, to minimize the risk of manufacturing faulty products, to allow bigger trust to the management, to strengthen the national and international competitiveness, among others. The present work is a proposal based on the design of an HACCP program to guarantee the safety of the Bologna Special Type elaborated by a meat products industry, through the determination of hazards (microbiological, chemical or physical), the identification of critical control points (CCP), the establishment of critical limits, plan corrective actions and the establishment of documentation and verification procedures. The used methodology was based in the application of the seven basic principles settled down by the Codex Alimentarius, obtaining the design of this program. In view of the fact that recently the meat products are linked with pathogens like E. coli O157:H7 and Listeria monocytogenes, these were contemplated as microbiological hazard for the establishment of the HACCP plan whose application will guarantee the obtaining of a safe product.
Hamano, Katsumi; Hirotsu, Shunsuke
1980-01-01
Phenomenological equations are derived which interrelate the anomalies in various thermodynamic quantities above the transition point of a cubic-to-tetragonal phase transition caused by an instability of a triply degenerate soft mode. The anomalous part of the Gibbs free energy is assumed to be a simple sum of the three parts which represent the contributions from the three fluctuation components. A cylindrical approximation is adopted to each of the three contributions by taking into account the symmetry of the fluctuations. The theory predicts that the adiabatic elastic compliances, s11s, s12s, and also s11s-s12s should exhibit anomalies proportional to the anomaly in the specific heat at constant pressure. This is in marked contrast with the result of the generalized Pippard equations derived by Garland, and by Janovec. The new equations are successfully tested for KMnF3, CsPbCl3, and CsPbBr3. The β-γ transition of NH4Br is also discussed.
Paukatong, K V; Kunawasen, S
2001-01-01
Nham is a traditional Thai fermented pork sausage. The major ingredients of Nham are ground pork meat and shredded pork rind. Nham has been reported to be contaminated with Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. Therefore, it is a potential cause of foodborne diseases for consumers. A Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) generic model has been developed for the Nham process. Nham processing plants were observed and a generic flow diagram of Nham processes was constructed. Hazard analysis was then conducted. Other than microbial hazards, the pathogens previously found in Nham, sodium nitrite and metal were identified as chemical and physical hazards in this product, respectively. Four steps in the Nham process have been identified as critical control points. These steps are the weighing of the nitrite compound, stuffing, fermentation, and labeling. The chemical hazard of nitrite must be controlled during the weighing step. The critical limit of nitrite levels in the Nham mixture has been set at 100-200 ppm. This level is high enough to control Clostridium botulinum but does not cause chemical hazards to the consumer. The physical hazard from metal clips could be prevented by visual inspection of every Nham product during stuffing. The microbiological hazard in Nham could be reduced in the fermentation process. The critical limit of the pH of Nham was set at lower than 4.6. Since this product is not cooked during processing, finally, educating the consumer, by providing information on the label such as "safe if cooked before consumption", could be an alternative way to prevent the microbiological hazards of this product.
Tracing the Base: A Topographic Test for Collusive Basing-Point Pricing
Bos, Iwan; Schinkel, Maarten Pieter
2009-01-01
Basing-point pricing is known to have been abused by geographically dispersed firms in order to eliminate competition on transportation costs. This paper develops a topographic test for collusive basing-point pricing. The method uses transaction data (prices, quantities) and customer project site
Tracing the base: A topographic test for collusive basing-point pricing
Bos, I.; Schinkel, M.P.
2008-01-01
Basing-point pricing is known to have been abused by geographically dispersed firms in order to eliminate competition on transportation costs. This paper develops a topographic test for collusive basing-point pricing. The method uses transaction data (prices, quantities) and customer project site
Di Renzo, Laura; Colica, Carmen; Carraro, Alberto; Cenci Goga, Beniamino; Marsella, Luigi Tonino; Botta, Roberto; Colombo, Maria Laura; Gratteri, Santo; Chang, Ting Fa Margherita; Droli, Maurizio; Sarlo, Francesca; De Lorenzo, Antonino
2015-04-23
The important role of food and nutrition in public health is being increasingly recognized as crucial for its potential impact on health-related quality of life and the economy, both at the societal and individual levels. The prevalence of non-communicable diseases calls for a reformulation of our view of food. The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system, first implemented in the EU with the Directive 43/93/CEE, later replaced by Regulation CE 178/2002 and Regulation CE 852/2004, is the internationally agreed approach for food safety control. Our aim is to develop a new procedure for the assessment of the Nutrient, hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (NACCP) process, for total quality management (TMQ), and optimize nutritional levels. NACCP was based on four general principles: i) guarantee of health maintenance; ii) evaluate and assure the nutritional quality of food and TMQ; iii) give correct information to the consumers; iv) ensure an ethical profit. There are three stages for the application of the NACCP process: 1) application of NACCP for quality principles; 2) application of NACCP for health principals; 3) implementation of the NACCP process. The actions are: 1) identification of nutritional markers, which must remain intact throughout the food supply chain; 2) identification of critical control points which must monitored in order to minimize the likelihood of a reduction in quality; 3) establishment of critical limits to maintain adequate levels of nutrient; 4) establishment, and implementation of effective monitoring procedures of critical control points; 5) establishment of corrective actions; 6) identification of metabolic biomarkers; 7) evaluation of the effects of food intake, through the application of specific clinical trials; 8) establishment of procedures for consumer information; 9) implementation of the Health claim Regulation EU 1924/2006; 10) starting a training program. We calculate the risk assessment as follows
Ratio-based estimators for a change point in persistence.
Halunga, Andreea G; Osborn, Denise R
2012-11-01
We study estimation of the date of change in persistence, from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text] or vice versa. Contrary to statements in the original papers, our analytical results establish that the ratio-based break point estimators of Kim [Kim, J.Y., 2000. Detection of change in persistence of a linear time series. Journal of Econometrics 95, 97-116], Kim et al. [Kim, J.Y., Belaire-Franch, J., Badillo Amador, R., 2002. Corringendum to "Detection of change in persistence of a linear time series". Journal of Econometrics 109, 389-392] and Busetti and Taylor [Busetti, F., Taylor, A.M.R., 2004. Tests of stationarity against a change in persistence. Journal of Econometrics 123, 33-66] are inconsistent when a mean (or other deterministic component) is estimated for the process. In such cases, the estimators converge to random variables with upper bound given by the true break date when persistence changes from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text]. A Monte Carlo study confirms the large sample downward bias and also finds substantial biases in moderate sized samples, partly due to properties at the end points of the search interval.
Tie Points Extraction for SAR Images Based on Differential Constraints
Xiong, X.; Jin, G.; Xu, Q.; Zhang, H.
2018-04-01
Automatically extracting tie points (TPs) on large-size synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images is still challenging because the efficiency and correct ratio of the image matching need to be improved. This paper proposes an automatic TPs extraction method based on differential constraints for large-size SAR images obtained from approximately parallel tracks, between which the relative geometric distortions are small in azimuth direction and large in range direction. Image pyramids are built firstly, and then corresponding layers of pyramids are matched from the top to the bottom. In the process, the similarity is measured by the normalized cross correlation (NCC) algorithm, which is calculated from a rectangular window with the long side parallel to the azimuth direction. False matches are removed by the differential constrained random sample consensus (DC-RANSAC) algorithm, which appends strong constraints in azimuth direction and weak constraints in range direction. Matching points in the lower pyramid images are predicted with the local bilinear transformation model in range direction. Experiments performed on ENVISAT ASAR and Chinese airborne SAR images validated the efficiency, correct ratio and accuracy of the proposed method.
TIE POINTS EXTRACTION FOR SAR IMAGES BASED ON DIFFERENTIAL CONSTRAINTS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
X. Xiong
2018-04-01
Full Text Available Automatically extracting tie points (TPs on large-size synthetic aperture radar (SAR images is still challenging because the efficiency and correct ratio of the image matching need to be improved. This paper proposes an automatic TPs extraction method based on differential constraints for large-size SAR images obtained from approximately parallel tracks, between which the relative geometric distortions are small in azimuth direction and large in range direction. Image pyramids are built firstly, and then corresponding layers of pyramids are matched from the top to the bottom. In the process, the similarity is measured by the normalized cross correlation (NCC algorithm, which is calculated from a rectangular window with the long side parallel to the azimuth direction. False matches are removed by the differential constrained random sample consensus (DC-RANSAC algorithm, which appends strong constraints in azimuth direction and weak constraints in range direction. Matching points in the lower pyramid images are predicted with the local bilinear transformation model in range direction. Experiments performed on ENVISAT ASAR and Chinese airborne SAR images validated the efficiency, correct ratio and accuracy of the proposed method.
Chen, Yu-Jen; Lin, Yu-Sung; Jiang, I-Min; Tsai, Ming-Shan
2008-03-17
This study investigates the optical nonlinearity of beam propagation in homogeneously aligned nematic liquid crystal (NLC) cells at a temperature close to the nematic-isotropic temperature (TNI). The undulate propagation mode with convergent and divergent loops appearing alternately is reported and the thermally enhanced optical reorientation nonlinearity at the focus is described. The optically induced phase transition exists along the pump beam direction. With the application of the conscopic technique, the arrangements of LC at the focus are proposed in this study. Results of this study demonstrate that the evolution of the LC configuration was affected by the pump beam based on the analysis of conoscopic patterns.
Specker, Christopher D.; Ellis, Joel M.; Baird, James K.
2007-06-01
The binary liquid mixture of triethylamine+water has a lower consolute point at a critical composition of 32.27mass% triethylamine. Starting at a temperature within the one-phase region, the electrical conductivity of a sample of this mixture was measured and found to increase smoothly with increasing temperature before falling sharply at 291.24K (18.09°C). Since opalescence was visible at this temperature, it was identified with the critical solution temperature of the binary mixture. A solution of 90 μL of benzyl bromide dissolved in 90mL of 32.27mass% triethylamine+water was prepared, and the resulting Menschutkin reaction between benzyl bromide and triethylamine was allowed to come to equilibrium. The electrical conductivity of this equilibrium mixture was measured in the one-phase region and was found to increase smoothly with increasing temperature before rising sharply at 291.55K (18.40°C). This temperature was identified as the critical temperature of the ternary. The rate of approach of the ternary mixture to chemical equilibrium was also measured and shown to be governed by a first-order rate law. The temperature dependence of the rate coefficient followed the Arrhenius equation up to a temperature of about 290.74K (17.59°C). Above this temperature, the rate coefficient fell by as much as 22% below the value predicted by extrapolation of the Arrhenius equation. This suppression in the rate reaction in the vicinity of the critical temperature can be interpreted as evidence for the existence of critical slowing down.
Respiratory Acid-Base Disorders in the Critical Care Unit.
Hopper, Kate
2017-03-01
The incidence of respiratory acid-base abnormalities in the critical care unit (CCU) is unknown, although respiratory alkalosis is suspected to be common in this population. Abnormal carbon dioxide tension can have many physiologic effects, and changes in Pco 2 may have a significant impact on outcome. Monitoring Pco 2 in CCU patients is an important aspect of critical patient assessment, and identification of respiratory acid-base abnormalities can be valuable as a diagnostic tool. Treatment of respiratory acid-base disorders is largely focused on resolution of the primary disease, although mechanical ventilation may be indicated in cases with severe respiratory acidosis. Published by Elsevier Inc.
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Böyükata M.
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Quantum phase transitions in odd-nuclei are investigated within the framework of the interacting boson-fermion model with a description based on the concept of intrinsic states. We consider the case of a single j=9/2 odd-particle coupled to an even-even boson core that performs a transition from spherical to deformed prolate and to deformed gamma-unstable shapes varying a control parameter in the boson Hamiltonian. The effect of the coupling of the odd particle to this core is discussed along the shape transition and, in particular, at the critical point.
An improved approach for flow-based cloud point extraction.
Frizzarin, Rejane M; Rocha, Fábio R P
2014-04-11
Novel strategies are proposed to circumvent the main drawbacks of flow-based cloud point extraction (CPE). The surfactant-rich phase (SRP) was directly retained into the optical path of the spectrophotometric cell, thus avoiding its dilution previously to the measurement and yielding higher sensitivity. Solenoid micro-pumps were exploited to improve mixing by the pulsed flow and also to modulate the flow-rate for retention and removal of the SRP, thus avoiding the elution step, often carried out with organic solvents. The heat released and the increase of the salt concentration provided by an on-line neutralization reaction were exploited to induce the cloud point without an external heating device. These innovations were demonstrated by the spectrophotometric determination of iron, yielding a linear response from 10 to 200 μg L(-1) with a coefficient of variation of 2.3% (n=7). Detection limit and sampling rate were estimated at 5 μg L(-1) (95% confidence level) and 26 samples per hour, respectively. The enrichment factor was 8.9 and the procedure consumed only 6 μg of TAN and 390 μg of Triton X-114 per determination. At the 95% confidence level, the results obtained for freshwater samples agreed with the reference procedure and those obtained for digests of bovine muscle, rice flour, brown bread and tort lobster agreed with the certified reference values. The proposed procedure thus shows advantages in relation to previously proposed approaches for flow-based CPE, being a fast and environmental friendly alternative for on-line separation and pre-concentration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Annalaura, Carducci; Giulia, Davini; Stefano, Ceccanti
2013-01-01
Risk analysis is widely used in the pharmaceutical industry to manage production processes, validation activities, training, and other activities. Several methods of risk analysis are available (for example, failure mode and effects analysis, fault tree analysis), and one or more should be chosen and adapted to the specific field where they will be applied. Among the methods available, hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) is a methodology that has been applied since the 1960s, and whose areas of application have expanded over time from food to the pharmaceutical industry. It can be easily and successfully applied to several processes because its main feature is the identification, assessment, and control of hazards. It can be also integrated with other tools, such as fishbone diagram and flowcharting. The aim of this article is to show how HACCP can be used to manage an analytical process, propose how to conduct the necessary steps, and provide data templates necessary to document and useful to follow current good manufacturing practices. In the quality control process, risk analysis is a useful tool for enhancing the uniformity of technical choices and their documented rationale. Accordingly, it allows for more effective and economical laboratory management, is capable of increasing the reliability of analytical results, and enables auditors and authorities to better understand choices that have been made. The aim of this article is to show how hazard analysis and critical control points can be used to manage bacterial endotoxins testing and other analytical processes in a formal, clear, and detailed manner.
Multiple critical points and liquid-liquid equilibria from the van der Waals like equations of state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Artemenko, Sergey; Lozovsky, Taras; Mazur, Victor
2008-01-01
The principal aim of this work is a comprehensive analysis of the phase diagram of water via the van der Waals like equations of state (EoSs) which are considered as superpositions of repulsive and attractive forces. We test more extensively the modified van der Waals EoS (MVDW) proposed by Skibinski et al (2004 Phys. Rev. E 69 061206) and refine this model by introducing instead of the classical van der Waals repulsive term a very accurate hard sphere EoS over the entire stable and metastable regions (Liu 2006 Preprint cond-mat/0605392). It was detected that the simplest form of MVDW EoS displays a complex phase behavior, including three critical points, and identifies four fluid phases (gas, low density liquid (LDL), high density liquid (HDL), and very high density liquid (VHDL)). Moreover the experimentally observed (Mallamace et al 2007 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 104 18387) anomalous behavior of the density of water in the deeply supercooled region (a density minimum) is reproduced by the MWDW EoS. An improvement of the repulsive part does not change the topological picture of the phase behavior of water in the wide range of thermodynamic variables. The new parameters set for second and third critical points are recognized by thorough analysis of experimental data for the loci of thermodynamic response function extrema
Ortmann, Frank; Roche, Stephan
2013-02-22
We report on robust features of the longitudinal conductivity (σ(xx)) of the graphene zero-energy Landau level in the presence of disorder and varying magnetic fields. By mixing an Anderson disorder potential with a low density of sublattice impurities, the transition from metallic to insulating states is theoretically explored as a function of Landau-level splitting, using highly efficient real-space methods to compute the Kubo conductivities (both σ(xx) and Hall σ(xy)). As long as valley degeneracy is maintained, the obtained critical conductivity σ(xx) =/~ 1.4e(2)/h is robust upon an increase in disorder (by almost 1 order of magnitude) and magnetic fields ranging from about 2 to 200 T. When the sublattice symmetry is broken, σ(xx) eventually vanishes at the Dirac point owing to localization effects, whereas the critical conductivities of pseudospin-split states (dictating the width of a σ(xy) = 0 plateau) change to σ(xx) =/~ e(2)/h, regardless of the splitting strength, superimposed disorder, or magnetic strength. These findings point towards the nondissipative nature of the quantum Hall effect in disordered graphene in the presence of Landau level splitting.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kelly L Edmunds
Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAI strain H5N1 has had direct and indirect economic impacts arising from direct mortality and control programmes in over 50 countries reporting poultry outbreaks. HPAI H5N1 is now reported as the most widespread and expensive zoonotic disease recorded and continues to pose a global health threat. The aim of this research was to assess the potential of utilising Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points (HACCP assessments in providing a framework for a rapid response to emerging infectious disease outbreaks. This novel approach applies a scientific process, widely used in food production systems, to assess risks related to a specific emerging health threat within a known zoonotic disease hotspot. We conducted a HACCP assessment for HPAI viruses within Vietnam's domestic poultry trade and relate our findings to the existing literature. Our HACCP assessment identified poultry flock isolation, transportation, slaughter, preparation and consumption as critical control points for Vietnam's domestic poultry trade. Introduction of the preventative measures highlighted through this HACCP evaluation would reduce the risks posed by HPAI viruses and pressure on the national economy. We conclude that this HACCP assessment provides compelling evidence for the future potential that HACCP analyses could play in initiating a rapid response to emerging infectious diseases.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. Svanidze
2015-03-01
Full Text Available A quantum critical point (QCP occurs upon chemical doping of the weak itinerant ferromagnet Sc_{3.1}In. Remarkable for a system with no local moments, the QCP is accompanied by non-Fermi liquid behavior, manifested in the logarithmic divergence of the specific heat both in the ferro-and the paramagnetic states, as well as linear temperature dependence of the low-temperature resistivity. With doping, critical scaling is observed close to the QCP, as the critical exponents δ, γ, and β have weak composition dependence, with δ nearly twice and β almost half of their respective mean-field values. The unusually large paramagnetic moment μ_{PM}∼1.3μ_{B}/F.U. is nearly composition independent. Evidence for strong spin fluctuations, accompanying the QCP at x_{c}=0.035±0.005, may be ascribed to the reduced dimensionality of Sc_{3.1}In, associated with the nearly one-dimensional Sc-In chains.
Jahnke, Michael; Kühn, Klaus-Dieter
2003-01-01
In order to guarantee the consistently high quality of medical products for human use, it is absolutely necessary that flawless hygiene conditions are maintained by the strict observance of hygiene rules. With the growing understanding of the impact of process conditions on the quality of the resulting product, process controls (surveillance) have gained increasing importance to complete the quality profile traditionally defined by post-process product testing. Today, process controls have become an important GMP requirement for the pharmaceutical industry. However, before quality process controls can be introduced, the manufacturing process has to be analyzed, with the focus on its critical quality-influencing steps. The HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) method is well recognized as a useful tool in the pharmaceutical industry. This risk analysis, following the guidelines of the HACCP method and the monitoring of critical steps during the manufacturing process was applied to the manufacture of methyl methacrylate solution used for bone cement and led to the establishment of a preventative monitoring system and constitutes an effective concept for quality assurance of hygiene and all other parameters influencing the quality of the product.
Nakayama, Masaki; Katano, Hiroaki; Sato, Haruki
2014-05-01
A precise determination of the critical temperature and density for technically important fluids would be possible on the basis of the digital image for the visual observation of the phase boundary in the vicinity of the critical point since the sensitivity and resolution are higher than those of naked eyes. In addition, the digital image can avoid the personal uncertainty of an observer. A strong density gradient occurs in a sample cell at the critical point due to gravity. It was carefully assessed to determine the critical density, where the density profile in the sample cell can be observed from the luminance profile of a digital image. The density-gradient profile becomes symmetric at the critical point. One of the best fluids, whose thermodynamic properties have been measured with the highest reliability among technically important fluids, would be carbon dioxide. In order to confirm the reliability of the proposed method, the critical temperature and density of carbon dioxide were determined using the digital image. The critical temperature and density values of carbon dioxide are ( and ( kg m, respectively. The critical temperature and density values agree with the existing best values within estimated uncertainties. The reliability of the method was confirmed. The critical pressure, 7.3795 MPa, corresponding to the determined critical temperature of 304.143 K is also proposed. A new set of parameters for the vapor-pressure equation is also provided.
Experience with performance based training of nuclear criticality safety engineers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taylor, R.G.
1993-01-01
Historically, new entrants to the practice of nuclear criticality safety have learned their job primarily by on-the-job training (OJT) often by association with an experienced nuclear criticality safety engineer who probably also learned their job by OJT. Typically, the new entrant learned what he/she needed to know to solve a particular problem and accumulated experience as more problems were solved. It is likely that more formalism will be required in the future. Current US Department of Energy requirements for those positions which have to demonstrate qualification indicate that it should be achieved by using a systematic approach such as performance based training (PBT). Assuming that PBT would be an acceptable mechanism for nuclear criticality safety engineer training in a more formal environment, a site-specific analysis of the nuclear criticality safety engineer job was performed. Based on this analysis, classes are being developed and delivered to a target audience of newer nuclear criticality safety engineers. Because current interest is in developing training for selected aspects of the nuclear criticality safety engineer job, the analysis i's incompletely developed in some areas. Details of this analysis are provided in this report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jessup, Barbara S.; Jesse Hahm, W.; Miller, Scott N.; Kirchner, James W.; Riebe, Clifford S.
2011-01-01
; Wahrhaftig's hypothesis dictates that step tops should act as slowly eroding base levels for the treads above them. The data indicate that, within each landscape class (i.e., the steps and treads), bare rock erodes more slowly than surrounding soil. This suggests that the coupling between soil production and denudation in granitic landscapes harbors a tipping point wherein erosion rates decrease when soils are stripped to bedrock. Although broadly consistent with the differential weathering invoked by Wahrhaftig, the data also show that steps are eroding faster than treads, undermining Wahrhaftig's explanation for the origins of the steps. The revised interpretation proposed here is that the landscape evolves by back-wearing of steps in addition to differential erosion due to differences in weathering of bare and soil-mantled granite.
Flat Knitting Loop Deformation Simulation Based on Interlacing Point Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiang Gaoming
2017-12-01
Full Text Available In order to create realistic loop primitives suitable for the faster CAD of the flat-knitted fabric, we have performed research on the model of the loop as well as the variation of the loop surface. This paper proposes an interlacing point-based model for the loop center curve, and uses the cubic Bezier curve to fit the central curve of the regular loop, elongated loop, transfer loop, and irregular deformed loop. In this way, a general model for the central curve of the deformed loop is obtained. The obtained model is then utilized to perform texture mapping, texture interpolation, and brightness processing, simulating a clearly structured and lifelike deformed loop. The computer program LOOP is developed by using the algorithm. The deformed loop is simulated with different yarns, and the deformed loop is applied to design of a cable stitch, demonstrating feasibility of the proposed algorithm. This paper provides a loop primitive simulation method characterized by lifelikeness, yarn material variability, and deformation flexibility, and facilitates the loop-based fast computer-aided design (CAD of the knitted fabric.
The chaotic points and XRD analysis of Hg-based superconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aslan, Oe [Anatuerkler Educational Consultancy and Trading Company, Orhan Veli Kanik Cad., 6/1, Kavacik 34810 Beykoz, Istanbul (Turkey); Oezdemir, Z Gueven [Physics Department, Yildiz Technical University, Davutpasa Campus, Esenler 34210, Istanbul (Turkey); Keskin, S S [Department of Environmental Eng., University of Marmara, Ziverbey, 34722, Istanbul (Turkey); Onbasli, Ue, E-mail: ozdenaslan@yahoo.co [Physics Department, University of Marmara, Ridvan Pasa Cad. 3. Sok. 85/12 Goztepe, Istanbul (Turkey)
2009-03-01
In this article, high T{sub c} mercury based cuprate superconductors with different oxygen doping rates have been examined by means of magnetic susceptibility (magnetization) versus temperature data and X-ray diffraction pattern analysis. The under, optimally and over oxygen doping procedures have been defined from the magnetic susceptibility versus temperature data of the superconducting sample by extracting the Meissner critical transition temperature, T{sub c} and the paramagnetic Meissner temperature, T{sub PME}, so called as the critical quantum chaos points. Moreover, the optimally oxygen doped samples have been investigated under both a.c. and d.c. magnetic fields. The related a.c. data for virgin(uncut) and cut samples with optimal doping have been obtained under a.c. magnetic field of 1 Gauss. For the cut sample with the rectangular shape, the chaotic points have been found to occur at 122 and 140 K, respectively. The Meissner critical temperature of 140 K is the new world record for the high temperature oxide superconductors under normal atmospheric pressure. Moreover, the crystallographic lattice parameters of superconducting samples have a crucial importance in calculating Josephson penetration depth determined by the XRD patterns. From the XRD data obtained for under and optimally doped samples, the crystal symmetries have been found in tetragonal structure.
CD-Based Microfluidics for Primary Care in Extreme Point-of-Care Settings
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Suzanne Smith
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We review the utility of centrifugal microfluidic technologies applied to point-of-care diagnosis in extremely under-resourced environments. The various challenges faced in these settings are showcased, using areas in India and Africa as examples. Measures for the ability of integrated devices to effectively address point-of-care challenges are highlighted, and centrifugal, often termed CD-based microfluidic technologies, technologies are presented as a promising platform to address these challenges. We describe the advantages of centrifugal liquid handling, as well as the ability of a standard CD player to perform a number of common laboratory tests, fulfilling the role of an integrated lab-on-a-CD. Innovative centrifugal approaches for point-of-care in extremely resource-poor settings are highlighted, including sensing and detection strategies, smart power sources and biomimetic inspiration for environmental control. The evolution of centrifugal microfluidics, along with examples of commercial and advanced prototype centrifugal microfluidic systems, is presented, illustrating the success of deployment at the point-of-care. A close fit of emerging centrifugal systems to address a critical panel of tests for under-resourced clinic settings, formulated by medical experts, is demonstrated. This emphasizes the potential of centrifugal microfluidic technologies to be applied effectively to extremely challenging point-of-care scenarios and in playing a role in improving primary care in resource-limited settings across the developing world.
Full On-Device Stay Points Detection in Smartphones for Location-Based Mobile Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rafael Pérez-Torres
2016-10-01
Full Text Available The tracking of frequently visited places, also known as stay points, is a critical feature in location-aware mobile applications as a way to adapt the information and services provided to smartphones users according to their moving patterns. Location based applications usually employ the GPS receiver along with Wi-Fi hot-spots and cellular cell tower mechanisms for estimating user location. Typically, fine-grained GPS location data are collected by the smartphone and transferred to dedicated servers for trajectory analysis and stay points detection. Such Mobile Cloud Computing approach has been successfully employed for extending smartphone’s battery lifetime by exchanging computation costs, assuming that on-device stay points detection is prohibitive. In this article, we propose and validate the feasibility of having an alternative event-driven mechanism for stay points detection that is executed fully on-device, and that provides higher energy savings by avoiding communication costs. Our solution is encapsulated in a sensing middleware for Android smartphones, where a stream of GPS location updates is collected in the background, supporting duty cycling schemes, and incrementally analyzed following an event-driven paradigm for stay points detection. To evaluate the performance of the proposed middleware, real world experiments were conducted under different stress levels, validating its power efficiency when compared against a Mobile Cloud Computing oriented solution.
Full On-Device Stay Points Detection in Smartphones for Location-Based Mobile Applications.
Pérez-Torres, Rafael; Torres-Huitzil, César; Galeana-Zapién, Hiram
2016-10-13
The tracking of frequently visited places, also known as stay points, is a critical feature in location-aware mobile applications as a way to adapt the information and services provided to smartphones users according to their moving patterns. Location based applications usually employ the GPS receiver along with Wi-Fi hot-spots and cellular cell tower mechanisms for estimating user location. Typically, fine-grained GPS location data are collected by the smartphone and transferred to dedicated servers for trajectory analysis and stay points detection. Such Mobile Cloud Computing approach has been successfully employed for extending smartphone's battery lifetime by exchanging computation costs, assuming that on-device stay points detection is prohibitive. In this article, we propose and validate the feasibility of having an alternative event-driven mechanism for stay points detection that is executed fully on-device, and that provides higher energy savings by avoiding communication costs. Our solution is encapsulated in a sensing middleware for Android smartphones, where a stream of GPS location updates is collected in the background, supporting duty cycling schemes, and incrementally analyzed following an event-driven paradigm for stay points detection. To evaluate the performance of the proposed middleware, real world experiments were conducted under different stress levels, validating its power efficiency when compared against a Mobile Cloud Computing oriented solution.
Potential impacts of ENDF/B-V on critical experiment analysis based on ZEBRA-8 criticals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choong, T S
1982-06-01
The ZEBRA-8 series of null-zone measurements featured a different neutron spectrum for each assembly. The experiments were designed for the purpose of basic data testing. The series cover a range of spectra both harder and softer than that for the LMFBR. The potential impacts of the newly released ENDF/BV cross section library on LMFBR critical exeriment analysis are discussed based on analysis of ZEBRA-8 series.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Ole B.; Morelli, Nicola
2011-01-01
. are connected (and disconnected) we get a much better understanding of how to design and intervene regardless if we are thinking about public spaces in the city or new systems of service design. The many networks orchestrating and facilitating contemporary everyday life are dependent on the strategic sites...
Hiding Techniques for Dynamic Encryption Text based on Corner Point
Abdullatif, Firas A.; Abdullatif, Alaa A.; al-Saffar, Amna
2018-05-01
Hiding technique for dynamic encryption text using encoding table and symmetric encryption method (AES algorithm) is presented in this paper. The encoding table is generated dynamically from MSB of the cover image points that used as the first phase of encryption. The Harris corner point algorithm is applied on cover image to generate the corner points which are used to generate dynamic AES key to second phase of text encryption. The embedded process in the LSB for the image pixels except the Harris corner points for more robust. Experimental results have demonstrated that the proposed scheme have embedding quality, error-free text recovery, and high value in PSNR.
Castagnetti, C.; Dubbini, M.; Ricci, P. C.; Rivola, R.; Giannini, M.; Capra, A.
2017-05-01
The new era of designing in architecture and civil engineering applications lies in the Building Information Modeling (BIM) approach, based on a 3D geometric model including a 3D database. This is easier for new constructions whereas, when dealing with existing buildings, the creation of the BIM is based on the accurate knowledge of the as-built construction. Such a condition is allowed by a 3D survey, often carried out with laser scanning technology or modern photogrammetry, which are able to guarantee an adequate points cloud in terms of resolution and completeness by balancing both time consuming and costs with respect to the request of final accuracy. The BIM approach for existing buildings and even more for historical buildings is not yet a well known and deeply discussed process. There are still several choices to be addressed in the process from the survey to the model and critical issues to be discussed in the modeling step, particularly when dealing with unconventional elements such as deformed geometries or historical elements. The paper describes a comprehensive workflow that goes through the survey and the modeling, allowing to focus on critical issues and key points to obtain a reliable BIM of an existing monument. The case study employed to illustrate the workflow is the Basilica of St. Stefano in Bologna (Italy), a large monumental complex with great religious, historical and architectural assets.
Hüttl, Reinhard F.; Gerwin, Werner
2010-05-01
Recently, earth surface structures reaching from vegetation to the groundwater in the near underground have been termed "critical zone". This zone is "critical" to supporting life on Earth and, thus, the understanding of processes within this zone is of great importance in environmental sciences. Investigating the critical zone requires interdisciplinary and integrative research approaches across the fields of geomorphology, ecology, biology, soil science, hydrology and environmental modeling. A central motivation of the critical zone concept is the need for moving beyond traditional disciplinary boundaries to a more holistic and integrated study of the Earth surface system. However, the critical zone is characterized by complex interactions between abiotic and biotic structures and processes which need to be analyzed for improving our understanding of ecosystem functioning as well as of ecosystem development. To gain a better understanding of these fundamental questions it might be helpful to look at initial ecosystems, i.e. at ecosystems in the initial phase of development. It can be hypothesized that the complexity of a very young ecosystem is lower compared to mature systems and, therefore, structure-process interactions might become more obvious at early than at later stages of development. In this context, an artificial watershed was constructed with well known boundary conditions to investigate the initial ecosystem phase. The catchment ‘Chicken Creek' in Lusatia (Germany; 150 km SE from Berlin) has an area of 6 ha. It was set up with a layer of post-glacial sandy sediments overlying an aquiclude made of clay at the base. These hydrological starting conditions allowed for the formation of a groundwater body within the sandy layer of the experimental catchment. Further, after completion of the construction works in September 2005 the site was left to natural succession and no measures like planting or fertilization were carried out. As the initial phase of
Baird, D R; Henry, M; Liddell, K G; Mitchell, C M; Sneddon, J G
2001-09-01
Hazard analysis critical control points (HACCP) is a quality assurance system widely used in the food industry to ensure safety. We adopted the HACCP approach when conventional infection control measures had failed to solve an ongoing problem with an increased incidence of postoperative endophthalmitis, and our ophthalmology unit was threatened with permanent cessation of intraocular surgery. Although time-consuming, the result was an entirely new set of protocols for the care of patients undergoing intraocular surgery, the development of an integrated care pathway, and a comprehensive and robust audit programme, which enabled intraocular surgery to continue in a new spirit of confidence. HACCP methodology has so far been little used in healthcare, but it might be usefully applied to a variety of apparently intractable infection control problems. Copyright 2001 The Hospital Infection Society.
Zaletel, Michael P; Bardarson, Jens H; Moore, Joel E
2011-07-08
Universal logarithmic terms in the entanglement entropy appear at quantum critical points (QCPs) in one dimension (1D) and have been predicted in 2D at QCPs described by 2D conformal field theories. The entanglement entropy in a strip geometry at such QCPs can be obtained via the "Shannon entropy" of a 1D spin chain with open boundary conditions. The Shannon entropy of the XXZ chain is found to have a logarithmic term that implies, for the QCP of the square-lattice quantum dimer model, a logarithm with universal coefficient ±0.25. However, the logarithm in the Shannon entropy of the transverse-field Ising model, which corresponds to entanglement in the 2D Ising conformal QCP, is found to have a singular dependence on the replica or Rényi index resulting from flows to different boundary conditions at the entanglement cut.
Comparison of IBM-2 calculations with X(5) critical point symmetry for low lying states in 128-140Nd
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uluer, I.; Olgun, D.; Inan, S.; Tuerkan, N.
2006-01-01
The X(5) would take place when moving continuously from the pure U(5) symmetry to the SU(3) symmetry and it implies a definite relations among the level energies and among the E2 transition strengths. It was recently shown that a signature of phase transition is observed in the chain of Sm, Mo and Nd isotopes, where 1 52Sm, 1 04Mo and 1 50Nd display the predicted features of the X(5) symmetry and mark therefore the critical point. However, more detailed studies and experiments are needed to get ideas about this signature. Without entering into detail we have firstly compared the results obtained in our previous study of 1 28- 1 40Nd with that of the limits in X(5) symmetry and then given a clear description about the validity of the Hamiltonian parameters used in the study. At the end, we have concluded that some of Nd isotopes display X(5) symmetry features
Pérez-Díez, Cristina; Real-Campaña, José Manuel; Noya-Castro, María Carmen; Andrés-Paricio, Felicidad; Reyes Abad-Sazatornil, María; Bienvenido Povar-Marco, Javier
2017-01-01
To determine the frequency of medication errors and incident types in a tertiary-care hospital emergency department. To quantify and classify medication errors and identify critical points where measures should be implemented to improve patient safety. Prospective direct-observation study to detect errors made in June and July 2016. The overall error rate was 23.7%. The most common errors were made while medications were administered (10.9%). We detected 1532 incidents: 53.6% on workdays (P=.001), 43.1% during the afternoon/evening shift (P=.004), and 43.1% in observation areas (P=.004). The medication error rate was significant. Most errors and incidents occurred during the afternoon/evening shift and in the observation area. Most errors were related to administration of medications.
Pressure-induced unconventional superconductivity near a quantum critical point in CaFe2As2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawasaki, S; Tabuchi, T; Zheng Guoqing; Wang, X F; Chen, X H
2010-01-01
75 As-zero-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) measurements are performed on CaFe 2 As 2 under pressure. At P = 4.7 and 10.8 kbar, the temperature dependencies of nuclear-spin-lattice relaxation rate (1/T 1 ) measured in the tetragonal phase show no coherence peak just below T c (P) and decrease with decreasing temperature. The superconductivity is gapless at P = 4.7 kbar but evolves to that with multiple gaps at P = 10.8 kbar. We find that the superconductivity appears near a quantum critical point under pressures in the range 4.7 kbar ≤ P ≤ 10.8 kbar. Both electron correlation and superconductivity disappear in the collapsed tetragonal phase. A systematic study under pressure indicates that electron correlations play a vital role in forming Cooper pairs in this compound.
Pointing control using a moving base of support.
Hondzinski, Jan M; Kwon, Taegyong
2009-07-01
The purposes of this study were to determine whether gaze direction provides a control signal for movement direction for a pointing task requiring a step and to gain insight into why discrepancies previously identified in the literature for endpoint accuracy with gaze directed eccentrically exist. Straight arm pointing movements were performed to real and remembered target locations, either toward or 30 degrees eccentric to gaze direction. Pointing occurred in normal room lighting or darkness while subjects sat, stood still or side-stepped left or right. Trunk rotation contributed 22-65% to gaze orientations when it was not constrained. Error differences for different target locations explained discrepancies among previous experiments. Variable pointing errors were influenced by gaze direction, while mean systematic pointing errors and trunk orientations were influenced by step direction. These data support the use of a control strategy that relies on gaze direction and equilibrium inputs for whole-body goal-directed movements.
BPP: a sequence-based algorithm for branch point prediction.
Zhang, Qing; Fan, Xiaodan; Wang, Yejun; Sun, Ming-An; Shao, Jianlin; Guo, Dianjing
2017-10-15
Although high-throughput sequencing methods have been proposed to identify splicing branch points in the human genome, these methods can only detect a small fraction of the branch points subject to the sequencing depth, experimental cost and the expression level of the mRNA. An accurate computational model for branch point prediction is therefore an ongoing objective in human genome research. We here propose a novel branch point prediction algorithm that utilizes information on the branch point sequence and the polypyrimidine tract. Using experimentally validated data, we demonstrate that our proposed method outperforms existing methods. Availability and implementation: https://github.com/zhqingit/BPP. djguo@cuhk.edu.hk. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com
Butlitsky, M A; Zelener, B B; Zelener, B V
2014-07-14
A two-component plasma model, which we called a "shelf Coulomb" model has been developed in this work. A Monte Carlo study has been undertaken to calculate equations of state, pair distribution functions, internal energies, and other thermodynamics properties. A canonical NVT ensemble with periodic boundary conditions was used. The motivation behind the model is also discussed in this work. The "shelf Coulomb" model can be compared to classical two-component (electron-proton) model where charges with zero size interact via a classical Coulomb law. With important difference for interaction of opposite charges: electrons and protons interact via the Coulomb law for large distances between particles, while interaction potential is cut off on small distances. The cut off distance is defined by an arbitrary ɛ parameter, which depends on system temperature. All the thermodynamics properties of the model depend on dimensionless parameters ɛ and γ = βe(2)n(1/3) (where β = 1/kBT, n is the particle's density, kB is the Boltzmann constant, and T is the temperature) only. In addition, it has been shown that the virial theorem works in this model. All the calculations were carried over a wide range of dimensionless ɛ and γ parameters in order to find the phase transition region, critical point, spinodal, and binodal lines of a model system. The system is observed to undergo a first order gas-liquid type phase transition with the critical point being in the vicinity of ɛ(crit) ≈ 13(T(*)(crit) ≈ 0.076), γ(crit) ≈ 1.8(v(*)(crit) ≈ 0.17), P(*)(crit) ≈ 0.39, where specific volume v* = 1/γ(3) and reduced temperature T(*) = ɛ(-1).
Rybczyński, Maciej
2014-01-01
The exploration of the QCD phase diagram particularly the search for a phase transition from hadronic to partonic degrees of freedom and possibly a critical endpoint, is one of the most challenging tasks in present heavy-ion physics. As observed by the NA49 experiment, several hadronic observables in central Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN SPS show qualitative changes in their energy dependence. These features are not observed in elementary interactions and indi- cate the onset of a phase transition in the SPS energy range. The existence of a critical point is expected to result in the increase of event-by-event fluctuations of various hadronic observables provided that the freeze-out of the measured hadrons occurs close to its location in the phase di- agram and the evolution of the final hadron phase does not erase the fluctuations signals. Further information about the existence and nature of a phase transition in the SPS energy range can be gained from the studies of event-by-event fluctuations of final stat...
Development of training simulator based on critical assemblies test bench
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Narozhnyi, A.T.; Vorontsov, S.V.; Golubeva, O.A.; Dyudyaev, A.M.; Il'in, V.I.; Kuvshinov, M.I.; Panin, A.V.; Peshekhonov, D.P.
2007-01-01
When preparing critical mass experiment, multiplying system (MS) parts are assembled manually. This work is connected with maximum professional risk to personnel. Personnel training and keeping the skill of working experts is the important factor of nuclear safety maintenance. For this purpose authors develop a training simulator based on functioning critical assemblies test bench (CATB), allowing simulation of the MS assemblage using training mockups made of inert materials. The control program traces the current status of MS under simulation. A change in the assembly neutron physical parameters is mapped in readings of the regular devices. The simulator information support is provided by the computer database on physical characteristics of typical MS components The work in the training mode ensures complete simulation of real MS assemblage on the critical test bench. It makes it possible to elaborate the procedures related to CATB operation in a standard mode safely and effectively and simulate possible abnormal situations. (author)
Dew Point modelling using GEP based multi objective optimization
Shroff, Siddharth; Dabhi, Vipul
2013-01-01
Different techniques are used to model the relationship between temperatures, dew point and relative humidity. Gene expression programming is capable of modelling complex realities with great accuracy, allowing at the same time, the extraction of knowledge from the evolved models compared to other learning algorithms. We aim to use Gene Expression Programming for modelling of dew point. Generally, accuracy of the model is the only objective used by selection mechanism of GEP. This will evolve...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cristina Farias da Fonseca
2013-03-01
Full Text Available This study aimed to verify the hygienic-sanitary working practices and to create and implement a Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP in two lobster processing industries in Pernambuco State, Brazil. The industries studied process frozen whole lobsters, frozen whole cooked lobsters, and frozen lobster tails for exportation. The application of the hygienic-sanitary checklist in the industries analyzed achieved conformity rates over 96% to the aspects evaluated. The use of the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP plan resulted in the detection of two critical control points (CCPs including the receiving and classification steps in the processing of frozen lobster and frozen lobster tails, and an additional critical control point (CCP was detected during the cooking step of processing of the whole frozen cooked lobster. The proper implementation of the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP plan in the lobster processing industries studied proved to be the safest and most cost-effective method to monitor each critical control point (CCP hazards.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jessup, Barbara S.; Jesse Hahm, W. [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Miller, Scott N. [Department of Renewable Resources, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States); Kirchner, James W. [Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, Zuercherstrasse 111, CH-8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland)] [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Riebe, Clifford S., E-mail: criebe@uwyo.edu [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Wyoming, Laramie, WY 82071 (United States)
2011-06-15
as common as expected at step tops; Wahrhaftig's hypothesis dictates that step tops should act as slowly eroding base levels for the treads above them. The data indicate that, within each landscape class (i.e., the steps and treads), bare rock erodes more slowly than surrounding soil. This suggests that the coupling between soil production and denudation in granitic landscapes harbors a tipping point wherein erosion rates decrease when soils are stripped to bedrock. Although broadly consistent with the differential weathering invoked by Wahrhaftig, the data also show that steps are eroding faster than treads, undermining Wahrhaftig's explanation for the origins of the steps. The revised interpretation proposed here is that the landscape evolves by back-wearing of steps in addition to differential erosion due to differences in weathering of bare and soil-mantled granite.
Effectiveness of Point-Based Physical Activity Intervention
Largo-Wight, Erin; Todorovich, John R.; O'Hara, Brian K.
2008-01-01
Understanding and promoting physical activity is critical to combat the growing obesity epidemic in the U.S. This study was designed to compare two 10-week physical activity programs among college students. One hundred and thirty-six undergraduate college students participated in this randomized posttest only control group study. Seventy-seven…
Implementing Evidenced Based Oral Care for Critically Ill Patients
2016-02-28
practice . In G. LoBiondo-Wood & J Haber (Eds.), Nursing Research (5th ed.). St. Louis: Mosby-Year Book , Inc. 5. Titler, M., & Everett, L. (2001...determined if an evidence-based oral care program resulted in increased nurses’ knowledge and improved oral care practices compliance. Design: The project...process, and project specific oral care evidence-based practice instruction. Knowledge evaluations were conducted at three time points: before, immediately
Novel TPPO Based Maximum Power Point Method for Photovoltaic System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
ABBASI, M. A.
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Photovoltaic (PV system has a great potential and it is installed more when compared with other renewable energy sources nowadays. However, the PV system cannot perform optimally due to its solid reliance on climate conditions. Due to this dependency, PV system does not operate at its maximum power point (MPP. Many MPP tracking methods have been proposed for this purpose. One of these is the Perturb and Observe Method (P&O which is the most famous due to its simplicity, less cost and fast track. But it deviates from MPP in continuously changing weather conditions, especially in rapidly changing irradiance conditions. A new Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT method, Tetra Point Perturb and Observe (TPPO, has been proposed to improve PV system performance in changing irradiance conditions and the effects on characteristic curves of PV array module due to varying irradiance are delineated. The Proposed MPPT method has shown better results in increasing the efficiency of a PV system.
Genetic Algorithm Based Economic Dispatch with Valve Point Effect
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Park, Jong Nam; Park, Kyung Won; Kim, Ji Hong; Kim, Jin O [Hanyang University (Korea, Republic of)
1999-03-01
This paper presents a new approach on genetic algorithm to economic dispatch problem for valve point discontinuities. Proposed approach in this paper on genetic algorithms improves the performance to solve economic dispatch problem for valve point discontinuities through improved death penalty method, generation-apart elitism, atavism and sexual selection with sexual distinction. Numerical results on a test system consisting of 13 thermal units show that the proposed approach is faster, more robust and powerful than conventional genetic algorithms. (author). 8 refs., 10 figs.
Concept for Risk-based Prioritisation of Point Sources
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Overheu, N.D.; Troldborg, Mads; Tuxen, N.
2010-01-01
estimates on a local scale from all the sources, and 3D catchment-scale fate and transport modelling. It handles point sources at various knowledge levels and accounts for uncertainties. The tool estimates the impacts on the water supply in the catchment and provides an overall prioritisation of the sites...
ESTIMATING AIRCRAFT HEADING BASED ON LASERSCANNER DERIVED POINT CLOUDS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z. Koppanyi
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Using LiDAR sensors for tracking and monitoring an operating aircraft is a new application. In this paper, we present data processing methods to estimate the heading of a taxiing aircraft using laser point clouds. During the data acquisition, a Velodyne HDL-32E laser scanner tracked a moving Cessna 172 airplane. The point clouds captured at different times were used for heading estimation. After addressing the problem and specifying the equation of motion to reconstruct the aircraft point cloud from the consecutive scans, three methods are investigated here. The first requires a reference model to estimate the relative angle from the captured data by fitting different cross-sections (horizontal profiles. In the second approach, iterative closest point (ICP method is used between the consecutive point clouds to determine the horizontal translation of the captured aircraft body. Regarding the ICP, three different versions were compared, namely, the ordinary 3D, 3-DoF 3D and 2-DoF 3D ICP. It was found that 2-DoF 3D ICP provides the best performance. Finally, the last algorithm searches for the unknown heading and velocity parameters by minimizing the volume of the reconstructed plane. The three methods were compared using three test datatypes which are distinguished by object-sensor distance, heading and velocity. We found that the ICP algorithm fails at long distances and when the aircraft motion direction perpendicular to the scan plane, but the first and the third methods give robust and accurate results at 40m object distance and at ~12 knots for a small Cessna airplane.
Estimating Aircraft Heading Based on Laserscanner Derived Point Clouds
Koppanyi, Z.; Toth, C., K.
2015-03-01
Using LiDAR sensors for tracking and monitoring an operating aircraft is a new application. In this paper, we present data processing methods to estimate the heading of a taxiing aircraft using laser point clouds. During the data acquisition, a Velodyne HDL-32E laser scanner tracked a moving Cessna 172 airplane. The point clouds captured at different times were used for heading estimation. After addressing the problem and specifying the equation of motion to reconstruct the aircraft point cloud from the consecutive scans, three methods are investigated here. The first requires a reference model to estimate the relative angle from the captured data by fitting different cross-sections (horizontal profiles). In the second approach, iterative closest point (ICP) method is used between the consecutive point clouds to determine the horizontal translation of the captured aircraft body. Regarding the ICP, three different versions were compared, namely, the ordinary 3D, 3-DoF 3D and 2-DoF 3D ICP. It was found that 2-DoF 3D ICP provides the best performance. Finally, the last algorithm searches for the unknown heading and velocity parameters by minimizing the volume of the reconstructed plane. The three methods were compared using three test datatypes which are distinguished by object-sensor distance, heading and velocity. We found that the ICP algorithm fails at long distances and when the aircraft motion direction perpendicular to the scan plane, but the first and the third methods give robust and accurate results at 40m object distance and at ~12 knots for a small Cessna airplane.
Investors’ Risk Preference Characteristics Based on Different Reference Point
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fenghua Wen
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Taking the stock market as a whole object, we assume that prior losses and gains are two different factors that can influence risk preference separately. The two factors are introduced as separate explanatory variables into the time-varying GARCH-M (TVRA-GARCH-M model. Then, we redefine prior losses and gains by selecting different reference point to study investors’ time-varying risk preference. The empirical evidence shows that investors’ risk preference is time varying and is influenced by previous outcomes; the stock market as a whole exhibits house money effect; that is, prior gains can decrease investors’ risk aversion while prior losses increase their risk aversion. Besides, different reference points selected by investors will cause different valuation of prior losses and gains, thus affecting investors’ risk preference.
Parametric Human Body Reconstruction Based on Sparse Key Points.
Cheng, Ke-Li; Tong, Ruo-Feng; Tang, Min; Qian, Jing-Ye; Sarkis, Michel
2016-11-01
We propose an automatic parametric human body reconstruction algorithm which can efficiently construct a model using a single Kinect sensor. A user needs to stand still in front of the sensor for a couple of seconds to measure the range data. The user's body shape and pose will then be automatically constructed in several seconds. Traditional methods optimize dense correspondences between range data and meshes. In contrast, our proposed scheme relies on sparse key points for the reconstruction. It employs regression to find the corresponding key points between the scanned range data and some annotated training data. We design two kinds of feature descriptors as well as corresponding regression stages to make the regression robust and accurate. Our scheme follows with dense refinement where a pre-factorization method is applied to improve the computational efficiency. Compared with other methods, our scheme achieves similar reconstruction accuracy but significantly reduces runtime.
Photon emissivity in the vicinity of a critical point – A case study within the quark meson model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wunderlich, F., E-mail: f.wunderlich@hzdr.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiation Physics, Bautzner Landstr. 400, D-01328 Dresden (Germany); Institut für Theoretische Physik, Technische Universität Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany); Kämpfer, B., E-mail: kaempfer@hzdr.de [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, Institute of Radiation Physics, Bautzner Landstr. 400, D-01328 Dresden (Germany); Institut für Theoretische Physik, Technische Universität Dresden, D-01062 Dresden (Germany)
2017-03-15
The quark meson (linear sigma) model with linearized fluctuations displays at a critical end point the onset of a curve of first-order phase transitions (FOPTs) located at non-zero chemical potentials and temperatures below a certain cross-over temperature. The model qualifies well for an illustrative example to study the impact of the emerging FOPT, e.g. on photon emissivities. Such a case study unravels the tight interlocking of the phase structure with the emission rates, here calculated according to lowest-order tree level processes by kinetic theory expressions. It is the strong dependence of the rates on the effective masses of the involved degrees of freedom which distinctively vary over the phase diagram thus shaping the emissivity accordingly. At the same time, thermodynamic properties of the medium are linked decisively to these effective masses, i.e. a consistent evaluation of thermodynamics, governing for instance adiabatic expansion paths, and emission rates is maintained within such an approach.
Ferrari, P
1992-01-01
During 1990 and 1991 the Veterinary and Public Health Services of USL 35 of Ravenna carried out a research programme aimed at the control of food-borne diseases in the sector of public catering services, in collaboration with the Public Health Laboratory (Presidio Multizonale di Prevenzione). The objectives were: obtaining sure information about health hazards in public catering services; checking structural characteristics and equipment of workrooms in restaurants, hotels and refectories; verifying food preparation and preservation methods; promoting health education to increase employees' awareness of hygiene-related problems. The first objective, evaluation of the level of the control of the workrooms exerted on the food contamination hazard by pathogenic or potentially pathogenic organisms, was carried out by allotting specific scores to several characteristics of laboratories or workers' habits, as suggested by the "Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point" (HACCP) method for butcher's shops and fish markets. Five hundred ninety-eight public catering service units have been inspected in restaurants, hotels, school-refectories, factories, hospitals and social houses; 2,097 bacteriological examinations by agar-contact plates and swabs were carried out; 118 preserved-food temperatures were measured, especially in deep-frozen and cooked food; 70 food specimens were tested to search for Salmonella spp. and Staphylococcus aureus and measure Total Aerobic Mesophilic Weight. The presence of Enterobacteriaceae and Escherichia coli was also tested.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anisimov, M.A.; Agayan, V.A.; Collings, P.J.
1998-01-01
The analogy with the liquid-gas critical point is analyzed to clarify the nature of the pretransitional behavior of physical properties in the vicinity of the Blue-Phase-III endash isotropic transition in chiral liquid crystalline systems. The analogy is unusual: temperature serves as the ordering field and entropy plays the role of the order parameter. Both mean field and parametric equations of state are formulated in terms of scaling fields. The scaling fields are linear combinations of the physical fields, which are temperature and chirality. It is shown that mixing of the physical field variables naturally leads to a strong asymmetry with respect to the transition temperature in the behavior of the physical properties that cannot be described by simple power laws. While the mean field theory gives a good description of the experimental data, the scaling theory, if one incorporates mixing of the field variables, gives even better agreement with the experimental data, placing this transition in the same universality class as the three-dimensional Ising model. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zuev, Yuri L; Hun Wee, Sung; Christen, David K
2012-01-01
We identify a sharp crossover in the vortex pinning of a high-temperature superconductor with nanocolumnar stacks of precipitates as strong vortex pinning centers. Above a particular, temperature-dependent field B X (T) the vortex response is no longer determined by the nanocolumns, and is instead determined by point-like pinning. This crossover is evident as a change in the dependence of the critical current density on the angle between the applied magnetic field and the nanocolumns. It also leads to the field-orientation-independent power law index n of the E–J curves. Below the transition, there is a strong maximum in J C when the field is aligned parallel to the columns and n depends on field direction. Above the transition, n is independent of the field direction and there is a J C minimum for H parallel to the columns. We discuss a possible mechanism for such behavior change, as well as testing and confirming a prediction that the crossover must become very broad at high temperatures and low fields. (paper)
Disposal criticality analysis for aluminum-based DOE fuels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davis, J.W.; Gottlieb, P.
1997-11-01
This paper describes the disposal criticality analysis for canisters containing aluminum-based Department of Energy fuels from research reactors. Different canisters were designed for disposal of highly enriched uranium (HEU) and medium enriched uranium (MEU) fuel. In addition to the standard criticality concerns in storage and transportation, such as flooding, the disposal criticality analysis must consider the degradation of the fuel and components within the waste package. Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) U-Al fuel with 93.5% enriched uranium and Oak Ridge Research Reactor (ORR) U-Si-Al fuel with 21% enriched uranium are representative of the HEU and MEU fuel inventories, respectively. Conceptual canister designs with 64 MIT assemblies (16/layer, 4 layers) or 40 ORR assemblies (10/layer, 4 layers) were developed for these fuel types. Borated stainless steel plates were incorporated into a stainless steel internal basket structure within a 439 mm OD, 15 mm thick XM-19 canister shell. The Codisposal waste package contains 5 HLW canisters (represented by 5 Defense Waste Processing Facility canisters from the Savannah River Site) with the fuel canister placed in the center. It is concluded that without the presence of a fairly insoluble neutron absorber, the long-term action of infiltrating water can lead to a small, but significant, probability of criticality for both the HEU and MEU fuels. The use of 1.5kg of Gd distributed throughout the MIT fuel and the use of carbon steels for the structural basket or 1.1 kg of Gd distributed in the ORR fuel will reduce the probability of criticality to virtually zero for both fuels
Neural Network Based Intrusion Detection System for Critical Infrastructures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Todd Vollmer; Ondrej Linda; Milos Manic
2009-07-01
Resiliency and security in control systems such as SCADA and Nuclear plant’s in today’s world of hackers and malware are a relevant concern. Computer systems used within critical infrastructures to control physical functions are not immune to the threat of cyber attacks and may be potentially vulnerable. Tailoring an intrusion detection system to the specifics of critical infrastructures can significantly improve the security of such systems. The IDS-NNM – Intrusion Detection System using Neural Network based Modeling, is presented in this paper. The main contributions of this work are: 1) the use and analyses of real network data (data recorded from an existing critical infrastructure); 2) the development of a specific window based feature extraction technique; 3) the construction of training dataset using randomly generated intrusion vectors; 4) the use of a combination of two neural network learning algorithms – the Error-Back Propagation and Levenberg-Marquardt, for normal behavior modeling. The presented algorithm was evaluated on previously unseen network data. The IDS-NNM algorithm proved to be capable of capturing all intrusion attempts presented in the network communication while not generating any false alerts.
Smartphone based point-of-care detector of urine albumin
Cmiel, Vratislav; Svoboda, Ondrej; Koscova, Pavlina; Provaznik, Ivo
2016-03-01
Albumin plays an important role in human body. Its changed level in urine may indicate serious kidney disorders. We present a new point-of-care solution for sensitive detection of urine albumin - the miniature optical adapter for iPhone with in-built optical filters and a sample slot. The adapter exploits smart-phone flash to generate excitation light and camera to measure the level of emitted light. Albumin Blue 580 is used as albumin reagent. The proposed light-weight adapter can be produced at low cost using a 3D printer. Thus, the miniaturized detector is easy to use out of lab.
Document localization algorithms based on feature points and straight lines
Skoryukina, Natalya; Shemiakina, Julia; Arlazarov, Vladimir L.; Faradjev, Igor
2018-04-01
The important part of the system of a planar rectangular object analysis is the localization: the estimation of projective transform from template image of an object to its photograph. The system also includes such subsystems as the selection and recognition of text fields, the usage of contexts etc. In this paper three localization algorithms are described. All algorithms use feature points and two of them also analyze near-horizontal and near- vertical lines on the photograph. The algorithms and their combinations are tested on a dataset of real document photographs. Also the method of localization quality estimation is proposed that allows configuring the localization subsystem independently of the other subsystems quality.
Guo, Hongyu; Stan, Gheorghe; Liu, Yun
2018-02-21
Nanoparticles typically have an inherent wide size distribution that may affect the performance and reliability of many nanomaterials. Because the synthesis and purification of nanoparticles with desirable sizes are crucial to the applications of nanoparticles in various fields including medicine, biology, health care, and energy, there is a great need to search for more efficient and generic methods for size-selective nanoparticle purification/separation. Here we propose and conclusively demonstrate the effectiveness of a size-selective particle purification/separation method based on the critical Casimir force. The critical Casimir force is a generic interaction between colloidal particles near the solvent critical point and has been extensively studied in the past several decades due to its importance in reversibly controlling the aggregation and stability of colloidal particles. Combining multiple experimental techniques, we found that the critical Casimir force-induced aggregation depends on relative particle sizes in a system with larger ones aggregating first and the smaller ones remaining in solution. Based on this observation, a new size-dependent nanoparticle purification/separation method is proposed and demonstrated to be very efficient in purifying commercial silica nanoparticles in the lutidine/water binary solvent. Due to the ubiquity of the critical Casimir force for many colloidal particles in binary solvents, this method might be applicable to many types of colloidal particles.
Science Based Policies: How Can Scientist Communicate their Points Across?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elnakat, A. C.
2002-01-01
With the complexity of environmental problems faced today, both scientists and policymakers are striving to combine policy and administration with the physical and natural sciences in order to mitigate and prevent environmental degradation. Nevertheless, communicating science to policymakers has been difficult due to many barriers. Even though scientists and policymakers share the blame in the miscommunication. This paper will provide recommendations targeted to the scientific arena. Establishing guidelines for the cooperation of scientists and policymakers can be an unattainable goal due to the complexity and diversity of political policymaking and environmental issues. However, the recommendations provided in this paper are simple enough to be followed by a wide variety of audiences and institutions in the scientific fields. This will aid when trying to fill the gap that has prevented the enhancement of scientific policymaking strategies, which decide on the critical issue s such as the disposal, transportation and production of hazardous waste
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mehboob, M.; Qureshi, A.S.
2001-01-01
This paper presents systematic approach to regarding the piece wise vibration isolation generally termed as point-to-point vibration isolation system, and its broad spectrum-utilities to an economic seismic base isolation. Transfer of curves for coulomb damped i.e. softening damper flexible mountings are presented and the utility has been proved equally good for both rigidly and elastically coupled damping. It is clearly shown that the very closest solutions are easily obtainable for both slipping and sticking nature of phases of the motion. This eliminates the conventional and conceptual approximations based on the linearization of the damping. This new concept will not endanger-super-structure if mounted on such isolation systems. (author)
College-Based Case Studies in Using PowerPoint Effectively
Inoue-Smith, Yukiko
2016-01-01
This study reexamined PowerPoint's potential to enhance traditional pedagogical practices in higher education. The study addressed (1) the conditions under which PowerPoint meets students' needs in typical lecture-based classrooms, (2) whether professors consider PowerPoint-based lectures more effective than lectures supported by material on…
Network based approaches reveal clustering in protein point patterns
Parker, Joshua; Barr, Valarie; Aldridge, Joshua; Samelson, Lawrence E.; Losert, Wolfgang
2014-03-01
Recent advances in super-resolution imaging have allowed for the sub-diffraction measurement of the spatial location of proteins on the surfaces of T-cells. The challenge is to connect these complex point patterns to the internal processes and interactions, both protein-protein and protein-membrane. We begin analyzing these patterns by forming a geometric network amongst the proteins and looking at network measures, such the degree distribution. This allows us to compare experimentally observed patterns to models. Specifically, we find that the experimental patterns differ from heterogeneous Poisson processes, highlighting an internal clustering structure. Further work will be to compare our results to simulated protein-protein interactions to determine clustering mechanisms.
Model-based automated testing of critical PLC programs.
Fernández Adiego, B; Tournier, J-C; González Suárez, V M; Bliudze, S
2014-01-01
Testing of critical PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) programs remains a challenging task for control system engineers as it can rarely be automated. This paper proposes a model based approach which uses the BIP (Behavior, Interactions and Priorities) framework to perform automated testing of PLC programs developed with the UNICOS (UNified Industrial COntrol System) framework. This paper defines the translation procedure and rules from UNICOS to BIP which can be fully automated in order to hide the complexity of the underlying model from the control engineers. The approach is illustrated and validated through the study of a water treatment process.
Vision-Based Interest Point Extraction Evaluation in Multiple Environments
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
McKeehan, Zachary D
2008-01-01
Computer-based vision is becoming a primary sensor mechanism in many facets of real world 2-D and 3-D applications, including autonomous robotics, augmented reality, object recognition, motion tracking, and biometrics...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wanderaas, Anne D.; Langdal, Ingrid; Danielsen, Signe; Frykholm, Gunilla; Marthinsen, Anne B. L; Sundset, Marit
2012-01-01
Background. Locally advanced cervical cancer is commonly treated with external radiation therapy combined with local brachytherapy. The brachytherapy is traditionally given based on standard dose planning with prescription of dose to point A. Dosimetric aspects when changing from former standard treatment to individualized treatment plans based on computed tomography (CT) images are here investigated. Material and methods. Brachytherapy data from 19 patients with a total of 72 individual treatment fractions were retrospectively reviewed. Standard library plans were analyzed with respect to doses to organs at risk (OARs), and the result was compared to corresponding delivered individualized plans. The theoretical potential of further optimization based on prescription to target volumes was investigated. The treatments were performed with a Fletcher applicator. Results. For standard treatment planning, the tolerance dose limits were exceeded in the bladder, rectum and sigmoid in 26%, 4% and 15% of the plans, respectively. This was observed most often for the smallest target volumes. The individualized planning of the delivered treatment gave the possibility of controlling the dose to critical organs to below certain limits. The dose was still prescribed to point A. An increase in target dose coverage was achieved when additional individual optimization was performed, while still keeping the dose to the OARs below predefined limits. Relatively low average target coverage, especially for the largest volumes was however seen. Conclusion. The individualized delivered treatment plans ensured that doses to OARs were within acceptable limits. This was not the case in 42% of the corresponding standard plans. Further optimized treatment plans were found to give an overall better dose coverage. In lack of MR capacity, it may be favorable to use CT for planning due to possible protection of OARs. The CT based target volumes were, however, not equivalent to the volumes described
Robust Point Matching for Non-Rigid Shapes: A Relaxation Labeling Based Approach
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Zheng, Yefeng; Doermann, David S
2004-01-01
.... Based on this observation, we formulate point matching as a graph matching problem. Each point is a node in the graph, and two nodes are connected by an edge if their Euclidean distance is less...
Critical Thinking Skills of Nursing Students in Lecture-Based Teaching and Case-Based Learning
Kaddoura, Mahmoud A.
2011-01-01
In today's technologically advanced healthcare world, nursing students should be active learners and think critically to provide safe patient care. A strategy that promotes students' active learning is case-based learning (CBL). The purpose of this study was to examine critical thinking (CT) abilities of nursing students from two different…
Point Cloud Based Change Detection - an Automated Approach for Cloud-based Services
Collins, Patrick; Bahr, Thomas
2016-04-01
The fusion of stereo photogrammetric point clouds with LiDAR data or terrain information derived from SAR interferometry has a significant potential for 3D topographic change detection. In the present case study latest point cloud generation and analysis capabilities are used to examine a landslide that occurred in the village of Malin in Maharashtra, India, on 30 July 2014, and affected an area of ca. 44.000 m2. It focuses on Pléiades high resolution satellite imagery and the Airbus DS WorldDEMTM as a product of the TanDEM-X mission. This case study was performed using the COTS software package ENVI 5.3. Integration of custom processes and automation is supported by IDL (Interactive Data Language). Thus, ENVI analytics is running via the object-oriented and IDL-based ENVITask API. The pre-event topography is represented by the WorldDEMTM product, delivered with a raster of 12 m x 12 m and based on the EGM2008 geoid (called pre-DEM). For the post-event situation a Pléiades 1B stereo image pair of the AOI affected was obtained. The ENVITask "GeneratePointCloudsByDenseImageMatching" was implemented to extract passive point clouds in LAS format from the panchromatic stereo datasets: • A dense image-matching algorithm is used to identify corresponding points in the two images. • A block adjustment is applied to refine the 3D coordinates that describe the scene geometry. • Additionally, the WorldDEMTM was input to constrain the range of heights in the matching area, and subsequently the length of the epipolar line. The "PointCloudFeatureExtraction" task was executed to generate the post-event digital surface model from the photogrammetric point clouds (called post-DEM). Post-processing consisted of the following steps: • Adding the geoid component (EGM 2008) to the post-DEM. • Pre-DEM reprojection to the UTM Zone 43N (WGS-84) coordinate system and resizing. • Subtraction of the pre-DEM from the post-DEM. • Filtering and threshold based classification of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Xiu-xing; Li, Fu-li
2013-01-01
By using the lowest order expansion in the number of spins, we study the classical correlation (CC) and quantum correlations (QCs) between two spin subgroups of the Lipkin–Meshkov–Glick (LMG) model in both binary and trinary decompositions of spins. In the case of bipartitions, we find that the CC and all the QCs are divergent in the same singular behavior at the critical point of the LMG model. In the case of tripartitions, however, the CC is still divergent but the QCs remain finite at the critical point. The present result shows that the CC is very robust but the QCs are much frangible to the environment disturbance.
Quasiparticle mass enhancement close to the quantum critical point in BaFe2(As(1-x)P(x))2.
Walmsley, P; Putzke, C; Malone, L; Guillamón, I; Vignolles, D; Proust, C; Badoux, S; Coldea, A I; Watson, M D; Kasahara, S; Mizukami, Y; Shibauchi, T; Matsuda, Y; Carrington, A
2013-06-21
We report a combined study of the specific heat and de Haas-van Alphen effect in the iron-pnictide superconductor BaFe2(As(1-x)P(x))2. Our data when combined with results for the magnetic penetration depth give compelling evidence for the existence of a quantum critical point close to x=0.30 which affects the majority of the Fermi surface by enhancing the quasiparticle mass. The results show that the sharp peak in the inverse superfluid density seen in this system results from a strong increase in the quasiparticle mass at the quantum critical point.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nakamura Yoshifumi
2018-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate the critical end line of the finite temperature phase transition of QCD away from the SU(3-flavor symmetric point at zero chemical potential. We employ the renormalization-group improved Iwasaki gauge action and non-perturbatively O(a- improved Wilson-clover fermion action. The critical end line is determined by using the intersection point of kurtosis, employing the multi-parameter, multi-ensemble reweighting method at the temporal size NT = 6 and lattice spacing as low as a ≈0.19 fm.
Ganji, Hamed Faghanpour; Ganji, Davood Domiri
2017-04-01
In the present paper, brake squeal phenomenon as a noise resource in automobiles was studied. In most cases, the modeling work is carried out assuming that deformations were small; thus, equilibrium point is set zero and linearization is performed at this point. However, the equilibrium point under certain circumstances is not zero; therefore, huge errors in prediction of brake squeal may occur. In this work, large motion domains with respect to linearization importance were subjected to investigation. Nonlinear equations of motion were considered and behavior of system for COF's model was analyzed by studying amplitude and frequency of limited cycle oscillation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anne Kirkegaard Bejder
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This is a discussion paper that is based on the didactics reflections of three junior academics at the Architecture and Urban Design (A&UD programme at Aalborg University. The discussion is moored in two narratives representing two typical student tuition situations. Unfolding two touch points where PBL and architectural and engineering teaching converge, this paper discusses how ‘the problem’ and ‘supervision’ at the A&UD programme are hybrid tuition focus points, where principles of PBL and more traditional tuition styles within architecture and engineering come into contact and cause didactic friction. This friction necessitates teachers and supervisors to critically reflect upon their teaching and supervision styles, and upon how ‘the problem’ is put into play in their tuition of students. The paper argues that teachers and supervisors have a heightened obligation and responsibility to monitor, assess, reflect and adjust the integration of the different teaching approaches in their hybrid tuition practices at A&UD.
Designing Lesson Plan Based on Critical Thinking for Language Classes
Norwanto, Norwanto
2011-01-01
Critical thinking includes a process of reasoning in thinking as stated by some scholars. In the process, there is universal standard to follow: clarity, accuracy, precision, relevance, depth, breadth, logic, and fairness. In language classes, critical thinking creates active classes. To bring critical thinking to classes, Bloom’s Taxonomy and critical thinking strategies can be working definition in order critical thinking to be applied to pedagogical materials in a practical way. Steps for ...
Diversity requirements for safety critical software-based automation systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Korhonen, J.; Pulkkinen, U.; Haapanen, P.
1998-03-01
System vendors nowadays propose software-based systems even for the most critical safety functions in nuclear power plants. Due to the nature and mechanisms of influence of software faults new methods are needed for the safety and reliability evaluation of these systems. In the research project 'Programmable automation systems in nuclear power plants (OHA)' various safety assessment methods and tools for software based systems are developed and evaluated. This report first discusses the (common cause) failure mechanisms in software-based systems, then defines fault-tolerant system architectures to avoid common cause failures, then studies the various alternatives to apply diversity and their influence on system reliability. Finally, a method for the assessment of diversity is described. Other recently published reports in OHA-report series handles the statistical reliability assessment of software based (STUK-YTO-TR 119), usage models in reliability assessment of software-based systems (STUK-YTO-TR 128) and handling of programmable automation in plant PSA-studies (STUK-YTO-TR 129)
[Nitrogen non-point source pollution identification based on ArcSWAT in Changle River].
Deng, Ou-Ping; Sun, Si-Yang; Lü, Jun
2013-04-01
The ArcSWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model was adopted for Non-point source (NPS) nitrogen pollution modeling and nitrogen source apportionment for the Changle River watershed, a typical agricultural watershed in Southeast China. Water quality and hydrological parameters were monitored, and the watershed natural conditions (including soil, climate, land use, etc) and pollution sources information were also investigated and collected for SWAT database. The ArcSWAT model was established in the Changle River after the calibrating and validating procedures of the model parameters. Based on the validated SWAT model, the contributions of different nitrogen sources to river TN loading were quantified, and spatial-temporal distributions of NPS nitrogen export to rivers were addressed. The results showed that in the Changle River watershed, Nitrogen fertilizer, nitrogen air deposition and nitrogen soil pool were the prominent pollution sources, which contributed 35%, 32% and 25% to the river TN loading, respectively. There were spatial-temporal variations in the critical sources for NPS TN export to the river. Natural sources, such as soil nitrogen pool and atmospheric nitrogen deposition, should be targeted as the critical sources for river TN pollution during the rainy seasons. Chemical nitrogen fertilizer application should be targeted as the critical sources for river TN pollution during the crop growing season. Chemical nitrogen fertilizer application, soil nitrogen pool and atmospheric nitrogen deposition were the main sources for TN exported from the garden plot, forest and residential land, respectively. However, they were the main sources for TN exported both from the upland and paddy field. These results revealed that NPS pollution controlling rules should focus on the spatio-temporal distribution of NPS pollution sources.
Annabi, Mohamed; Bahri, Haithem; Cheick M'Hamed, Hatem; Hermessi, Taoufik
2016-04-01
Intensive cultivation of soils, using multiple soil tillage, led to the decrease of their organic matter content and structural stability in several cultivated area of the Mediterranean countries. In these degraded soils, the addition of organic products, traditionally the animal manure, should improve soil health among them the resistance of soil to water erosion. The aim of this study was to evaluate after 1 year of the addition to a cambisoil different doses of farmyard manure on soil organic matter content, on microbial activity and on aggregate stability (proxy to soil resistance to water erosion). The statistical process (bilinear model) was used to found a point at which the addition of the organic product no longer influences the soil resistance to erosion. The farmyard manure issued from a cow breeding was composted passively during 4 months and used to amend a small plots of a cultivated cambisol (silty-clay texture, 0.9% TOC) located in the northeast of Tunisia (Morneg region). The manure was intimately incorporate to the soil. The manure organic matter content was 31%, and its isohumic coefficient was 49%. Twelve dose of manure were tested: from 0 to 220 t C.ha-1. The experiment was started on September 2011. In November 2012, soil sampling was done and soil organic carbon content (Walkley-Black method) and soil aggregate stability (wet method of Le Bissonnais) were assessed. A laboratory incubations of soil+manure mixtures, with the same proportions as tested in the field conditions, was carried at 28°C and at 75% of the mixture field capacity water retention. Carbon mineralization was monitored during three months incubation. Results show that the addition of farmyard manure stimulated the microbial activity proportionally to the added dose. This activation is due to the presence of easily biodegradable carbon in the manure, which increases with increasing manure dose. On the other hand, the addition of manure increased the aggregate stability with
Critical Theory-Based Approaches in Geography Teaching Departments in Turkey
Bilgili, Münür
2018-01-01
The aim of this study is to understand the relationships between critical theory-based approaches and its implementations in geography teaching departments in Turkey. Critical theory dates back to 1930s and has developed over time aiming to deal with institutions, culture and society through critical lens. Currently, critical theory-based research…
Lin, Chen; Ma, Ronghua; Xiong, Junfeng
2018-07-01
The physicochemical properties of surface soil play a key role in the fate of watershed non-point source pollution. Special emphasis is needed to identify soil properties that are sensitive to both particulate P (PP) pollution and dissolved P (DP) pollution, which is essential for watershed environmental management. The Chaohu Lake basin, a typical eutrophic lake in China, was selected as the study site. The spatial features of the Non-point Source (NPS) PP loads and DP loads were calculated simultaneously based on the integration of sediment delivery distributed model (SEDD) and pollution loads (PLOAD) model. Then several critical physicochemical soil properties, especially various soil P compositions, were innovatively introduced to determine the response of the critical soil properties to NPS P pollution. The findings can be summarized: i) the mean PP load value of the different sub-basins was 5.87 kg, and PP pollution is regarded to be the primary NPS P pollution state, while the DP loads increased rapidly under the rapid urbanization process. ii) iron-bound phosphorus (Fe-P) and aluminum-bound phosphorus (Al-P) are the main components of available P and showed the most sensitive responses to NPS PP pollution, and the correlation coefficients were approximately 0.9. Otherwise, the residual phosphorus (Res-P) was selected as a sensitive soil P state that was significantly negatively correlated with the DP loads. iii) The DP and PP concentrations were represented differently when they were correlated with various soil properties, and the clay proportion was strongly negatively related to the PP loads. Meanwhile, there is a non-linear relationship between the DP loads and the critical soil properties, such as Fe and Total Nitrogen (TN) concentrations. Specifically, a strong inhibitory effect of TN concentration on the DP load was apparent in the Nanfei river (NF) and Paihe (PH) river basins where the R 2 reached 0.67, which contrasts with the relatively poor
Validation of KENO-based criticality calculations at Rocky Flats
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Felsher, P.D.; McKamy, J.N.; Monahan, S.P.
1992-01-01
In the absence of experimental data, it is necessary to rely on computer-based computational methods in evaluating the criticality condition of a nuclear system. The validity of the computer codes is established in a two-part procedure as outlined in ANSI/ANS 8.1. The first step, usually the responsibility of the code developer, involves verification that the algorithmic structure of the code is performing the intended mathematical operations correctly. The second step involves an assessment of the code's ability to realistically portray the governing physical processes in question. This is accomplished by determining the code's bias, or systematic error, through a comparison of computational results to accepted values obtained experimentally. In this paper, the authors discuss the validation process for KENO and the Hansen-Roach cross sections in use at EG and G Rocky Flats. The validation process at Rocky Flats consists of both global and local techniques. The global validation resulted in a maximum k eff limit of 0.95 for the limiting-accident scanarios of a criticality evaluation
Probabilistic dual heuristic programming-based adaptive critic
Herzallah, Randa
2010-02-01
Adaptive critic (AC) methods have common roots as generalisations of dynamic programming for neural reinforcement learning approaches. Since they approximate the dynamic programming solutions, they are potentially suitable for learning in noisy, non-linear and non-stationary environments. In this study, a novel probabilistic dual heuristic programming (DHP)-based AC controller is proposed. Distinct to current approaches, the proposed probabilistic (DHP) AC method takes uncertainties of forward model and inverse controller into consideration. Therefore, it is suitable for deterministic and stochastic control problems characterised by functional uncertainty. Theoretical development of the proposed method is validated by analytically evaluating the correct value of the cost function which satisfies the Bellman equation in a linear quadratic control problem. The target value of the probabilistic critic network is then calculated and shown to be equal to the analytically derived correct value. Full derivation of the Riccati solution for this non-standard stochastic linear quadratic control problem is also provided. Moreover, the performance of the proposed probabilistic controller is demonstrated on linear and non-linear control examples.
Schuler, Michael; Whitsitt, Seth; Henry, Louis-Paul; Sachdev, Subir; Läuchli, Andreas M
2016-11-18
The low-energy spectra of many body systems on a torus, of finite size L, are well understood in magnetically ordered and gapped topological phases. However, the spectra at quantum critical points separating such phases are largely unexplored for (2+1)D systems. Using a combination of analytical and numerical techniques, we accurately calculate and analyze the low-energy torus spectrum at an Ising critical point which provides a universal fingerprint of the underlying quantum field theory, with the energy levels given by universal numbers times 1/L. We highlight the implications of a neighboring topological phase on the spectrum by studying the Ising* transition (i.e. the transition between a Z_{2} topological phase and a trivial paramagnet), in the example of the toric code in a longitudinal field, and advocate a phenomenological picture that provides qualitative insight into the operator content of the critical field theory.
Towards a Risk Based Assessment of Critical Information ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
For this reason the South African measures are likely to lead to the adoption of a paradigm that considers every infrastructure, data or database, regardless of its significance or importance, to be key or critical. KEYWORDS: Critical databases; critical information infrastructures; national security; social and economic well- ...
Mao, Xuefeng; Zhou, Xinlei; Yu, Qingxu
2016-02-01
We describe a stabilizing operation point technique based on the tunable Distributed Feedback (DFB) laser for quadrature demodulation of interferometric sensors. By introducing automatic lock quadrature point and wavelength periodically tuning compensation into an interferometric system, the operation point of interferometric system is stabilized when the system suffers various environmental perturbations. To demonstrate the feasibility of this stabilizing operation point technique, experiments have been performed using a tunable-DFB-laser as light source to interrogate an extrinsic Fabry-Perot interferometric vibration sensor and a diaphragm-based acoustic sensor. Experimental results show that good tracing of Q-point was effectively realized.
Bourouaine, Sofiane; Perez, Jean C.
2018-05-01
In this Letter, we present an analysis of two-point, two-time correlation functions from high-resolution numerical simulations of Reflection-driven Alfvén Turbulence near the Alfvén critical point r c. The simulations model the turbulence in a prescribed background solar wind model chosen to match observational constraints. This analysis allows us to investigate the temporal decorrelation of solar wind turbulence and the validity of Taylor’s approximation near the heliocentric distance r c, which Parker Solar Probe (PSP) is expected to explore in the coming years. The simulations show that the temporal decay of the Fourier-transformed turbulence decorrelation function is better described by a Gaussian model rather than a pure exponential time decay, and that the decorrelation frequency is almost linear with perpendicular wave number k ⊥ (perpendicular with respect to the background magnetic field {{\\boldsymbol{B}}}0). Based on the simulations, we conclude that Taylor’s approximation cannot be used in this instance to provide a connection between the frequency ω of the time signal (measured in the probe frame) and the wavevector k ⊥ of the fluctuations because the frequency k ⊥ V sc (V sc is the spacecraft speed) near r c is comparable to the estimated decorrelation frequency. However, the use of Taylor’s approximation still leads to the correct spectral indices of the power spectra measured at the spacecraft frame. In this Letter, based on a Gaussian model, we suggest a modified relationship between ω and k ⊥, which might be useful in the interpretation of future PSP measurements.
Wang, Ning; Zhou, Jin; Pan, Yu; Wang, Hui
2014-01-01
The critical pressure and temperature of an endothermic hydrocarbon fuel RP-3 were determined by flow visualization. The flow pattern images of RP-3 at different pressures and temperatures were obtained. The critical pressure is identified by disappearance of the phase change while the critical temperature is determined by appearance of the opalescence phenomenon under the critical pressure. The opalescence phenomenon is unique to the critical point. The critical pressure and temperature of RP-3 are determined to be 2.3 MPa and 646 K, respectively.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Widyana Lakshmi Puspita
2010-07-01
Full Text Available Background: One way to improve the quality of food provision in hospitals is by implementing hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP in food processing. Objective: The study aimed to identify the effect of HACCP implementation to the decrease of microbiological hazards of foods for children in particular at Nutrition Installation of Dr. Soedarso Hospital of Pontianak. Methods: The study was a quasi experiment that use multiple time series design with intervention and cassation of intervention (ABA time series chain. Samples of the study were animal based food for children, cooking utensils used preparation, processing, and distribution of the food, the food providers and food processing containers. Samples were taken 3 times before and after the implementation of HACCP, each within a week duration. Result: Average germ rate in foods and cooking utensils before implementation of HACCP was relatively high. After the implementation of HACCP there was a decrease. The result of statistical analysis showed that there were effects of HACCP implementation to the reduction of microbiological hazards in foods and cooking utensils (p<0.05. Average score of knowledge on sanitation hygiene of food and practice of sanitation hygiene of foods after HACCP implementation increased. There was an increase of average score of knowledge on food sanitation hygiene and practice of food sanitation hygiene of HACCP implementation (p<0.05. Average score of sanitation hygiene of food processing container after HACCP implementation increased. Conclusion: The implementation of HACCP could reduce microbiological hazards (germ rate of animal based special foods for children.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Qixin; Xia, Qing; Kang, Chongqing
2010-01-01
Transmission pricing scheme is a key component in the infrastructure of power market, and pool is an indispensable pattern of market organization; meanwhile, pay-as-bid (PAB) serves as a main option to determine market prices in pool. In this paper, a novel transmission pricing scheme is proposed for pool power market based on PAB. The new scheme is developed by utilizing point-to-point (PTP) tariff and introducing an approach of transaction pair matching (TPM). The model and procedure of the new scheme are presented in detail. Apart from the advantages of existing transmission pricing schemes, such as ensuing open, fair and non-discriminatory access, proper recovery for investment as well as transparency, the new scheme provides economic signals to promote the maximum use of the existing transmission network, encourages appropriate bidding behaviors in pool, and helps to reduce the possibility of the enforcement of market power and the appearing of price spikes; thus improves market operation efficiency and trading effects. In order to testify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, a case based on IEEE 30-bus system is studied. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Qixin; Xia, Qing; Kang, Chongqing [State Key Lab. of Power System, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)
2010-04-15
Transmission pricing scheme is a key component in the infrastructure of power market, and pool is an indispensable pattern of market organization; meanwhile, pay-as-bid (PAB) serves as a main option to determine market prices in pool. In this paper, a novel transmission pricing scheme is proposed for pool power market based on PAB. The new scheme is developed by utilizing point-to-point (PTP) tariff and introducing an approach of transaction pair matching (TPM). The model and procedure of the new scheme are presented in detail. Apart from the advantages of existing transmission pricing schemes, such as ensuing open, fair and non-discriminatory access, proper recovery for investment as well as transparency, the new scheme provides economic signals to promote the maximum use of the existing transmission network, encourages appropriate bidding behaviors in pool, and helps to reduce the possibility of the enforcement of market power and the appearing of price spikes; thus improves market operation efficiency and trading effects. In order to testify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, a case based on IEEE 30-bus system is studied. (author)
Criticality in Location-Based Management of Construction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Büchmann-Slorup, Rolf
, the current literature does not include a collected description of what constitute critical activities in LBM. Nor have the implications for scheduling and control efforts of these changes in criticality been described. Accordingly, the present thesis establishes a collected criticality principle of LBM......; highlights the implications of this alternative criticality principle to the schedule and control effort on construction projects; and suggests how time buffers should be applied on LBM projects to protect critical activities, compress project’s lead times, optimize flow, and minimize resource consumption....... The thesis offers three main results that contribute to the current LBM literature and close some of the gaps therein. The thesis conceptualizes the criticality principle of LBM by analyzing the relationship between inherent constraints in LBM and the lead times of projects. The collected criticality...
Garedew, Legesse; Berhanu, Ayalew; Mengesha, Desalegne; Tsegay, Getachew
2012-11-06
Milk is highly prone to contamination and can serve as an efficient vehicle for human transmission of foodborne pathogens, especially gram-negative bacteria, as these are widely distributed in the environment. This cross-sectional study of gram-negative staining bacterial contamination of milk meant for human consumption was carried out from October 2010 to May 2011 in Gondar town, Ethiopia. Milk samples were collected from critical control points, from production to consumption, that were hypothesized to be a source of potential contamination. Milk sampling points included smallholder's milk producers, dairy co-operatives, a milk processing plant, and supermarkets. The hygienic procedures applied during milking, milk collection, transportation, pasteurization, and postpasteurization storage conditions at these specified critical control points were evaluated. Standard bacteriological cultivation and biochemical assays were used to isolate and identify bacterial pathogens in the milk samples. The results of the current study showed that conditions for contamination of raw milk at different critical points were due to less hygienic practices in pre-milking udder preparation, sub-optimal hygiene of milk handlers, and poor sanitation practices associated with milking and storage equipments. Among all critical control points considered, transportation containers at milk collection centers and at processing plants were found to be the most heavily contaminated with gram-negative staining bacterial species. Overall, 54 different bacterial species were indentified, and Escherichia coli (29.6%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18.5%), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (16.7%), were the most commonly identified gram-negative staining bacterial pathogens. Of particular interest was that no gram-negative staining bacteria were isolated from pasteurized milk samples with varying shelf life. This study showed the presence of diverse pathogenic gram-negative staining bacterial species in raw
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Garedew Legesse
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Milk is highly prone to contamination and can serve as an efficient vehicle for human transmission of foodborne pathogens, especially gram-negative bacteria, as these are widely distributed in the environment. Methods This cross-sectional study of gram-negative staining bacterial contamination of milk meant for human consumption was carried out from October 2010 to May 2011 in Gondar town, Ethiopia. Milk samples were collected from critical control points, from production to consumption, that were hypothesized to be a source of potential contamination. Milk sampling points included smallholder’s milk producers, dairy co-operatives, a milk processing plant, and supermarkets. The hygienic procedures applied during milking, milk collection, transportation, pasteurization, and postpasteurization storage conditions at these specified critical control points were evaluated. Standard bacteriological cultivation and biochemical assays were used to isolate and identify bacterial pathogens in the milk samples. Results The results of the current study showed that conditions for contamination of raw milk at different critical points were due to less hygienic practices in pre-milking udder preparation, sub-optimal hygiene of milk handlers, and poor sanitation practices associated with milking and storage equipments. Among all critical control points considered, transportation containers at milk collection centers and at processing plants were found to be the most heavily contaminated with gram-negative staining bacterial species. Overall, 54 different bacterial species were indentified, and Escherichia coli (29.6%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (18.5%, and Klebsiella pneumoniae (16.7%, were the most commonly identified gram-negative staining bacterial pathogens. Of particular interest was that no gram-negative staining bacteria were isolated from pasteurized milk samples with varying shelf life. Conclusion This study showed the presence of
Sustainable development based energy policy making frameworks, a critical review
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meyar-Naimi, H.; Vaez-Zadeh, S.
2012-01-01
This paper, in the first step, presents an overview of the origination and formulation of sustainable development (SD) concept and the related policy making frameworks. The frameworks include Pressure–State–Response (PSR), Driving Force–State–Response (DSR), Driving Force–Pressure–State–Impact–Response (DPSIR), Driving Force–Pressure–State–Effect–Action (DPSEA) and Driving Force-Pressure-State-Exposure-Effect-Action (DPSEEA). In this regard, 40 case studies using the reviewed frameworks reported during 1994–2011 are surveyed. Then, their application area and application intensity are investigated. It is concluded that PSR, and DPSEA and DPSEEA have the higher and lower application intensities, respectively. Moreover, using Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) with a set of criteria, it is shown that PSR and DPSIR have the highest and lowest priorities. Finally, the shortcomings of frameworks applications are discussed. The paper is helpful in selecting appropriate policy making frameworks and presents some hints for future research in the area for developing more comprehensive models especially for sustainable electric energy policy making. - Highlights: ► The origination and formulation of sustainable development (SD) concept is reviewed. ► SD based frameworks (PSR, DSR, DPSIR, DPSEA and DPSEEA) are also reviewed. ► Then, the frameworks application area and intensity in recent years are investigated. ► Finally, the SD concept and the SD based frameworks are criticized. ► It will be helpful for developing more comprehensive energy policy making models.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Fang; Wu Yu; Long Feng
2010-01-01
Based on Pacman device which is widely used to investigate the axial strain dependence of the critical current in superconductors, the finite element analysis method is employed to carry out the force analysis of the spring and the superconducting strand, thereby the axial and lateral strain distributions of the superconducting strand are obtained. According to the two extreme assumptions(low inter-filament resistance and high inter-filament resistance), the effects of the strain homogeneity at the cross section of the superconductor on the critical current is analyzed combined with the Nb 3 Sn deviatoric strain-critical current scaling law. (authors)
Liu, Wanli
2017-03-08
The time delay calibration between Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) and Inertial Measurement Units (IMUs) is an essential prerequisite for its applications. However, the correspondences between LiDAR and IMU measurements are usually unknown, and thus cannot be computed directly for the time delay calibration. In order to solve the problem of LiDAR-IMU time delay calibration, this paper presents a fusion method based on iterative closest point (ICP) and iterated sigma point Kalman filter (ISPKF), which combines the advantages of ICP and ISPKF. The ICP algorithm can precisely determine the unknown transformation between LiDAR-IMU; and the ISPKF algorithm can optimally estimate the time delay calibration parameters. First of all, the coordinate transformation from the LiDAR frame to the IMU frame is realized. Second, the measurement model and time delay error model of LiDAR and IMU are established. Third, the methodology of the ICP and ISPKF procedure is presented for LiDAR-IMU time delay calibration. Experimental results are presented that validate the proposed method and demonstrate the time delay error can be accurately calibrated.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Delneuville P.
2006-11-01
Full Text Available Cet article est essentiellement consacré à l'étude du fonctionnement limite des paliers lisses lubrifiés à la graisse ; son but est de permettre la détermination des conditions nécessaires à l'obtention d'un film lubrifiant d'épaisseur suffisante. L'auteur cherche à cette occasion une loi théorique qui permet de départager les régimes de lubrification, non plus empiriquement, mais sur la base de lois statistiques. La formulation finale doit permettre aux utilisateurs de situer correctement les conditions de fonctionnement d'un palier lisse et d'en estimer la sécurité du régime. This article deals essentially with the boundary behaviour of plain bearings lubricated by grease. Its aim is to determine the conditions required to obtain a sufficiently thick lubricating film. The author proposes a theoretical law for separating lubrication types. This law is not empirical but is based on statistical laws. The final formulation should enable users to correctly situate the operating conditions of a plain bearing and to evaluate the safety factor during running.
A Web-Based Nuclear Criticality Safety Bibliographic Database
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koponen, B L; Huang, S
2007-01-01
A bibliographic criticality safety database of over 13,000 records is available on the Internet as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP) website. This database is easy to access via the Internet and gets substantial daily usage. This database and other criticality safety resources are available at ncsp.llnl.gov. The web database has evolved from more than thirty years of effort at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), beginning with compilations of critical experiment reports and American Nuclear Society Transactions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boaratti, Maria de Fatima Guerra
2004-07-01
, i.e.. as a substitute for good manufacturing practices. By adopting an HACCP based approach to food safety management, it can be clearly demonstrated that the application of a technology like food irradiation is essential for ensuring the safety of raw food stuffs. Such an intervention should be considered as a CCP (Critical Control Point) in the food chain. Therefore, the potential benefit of irradiation, which is endorsed by national and international bodies surely merits serious consideration by public health authorities, industry and consumer groups worldwide. For such, a system of HACCP and the irradiation is primordial so that the alimentary .safety is maintained processes if they are applied correctly. (author)
Nano-enabled paper humidity sensor for mobile based point-of-care lung function monitoring.
Bhattacharjee, Mitradip; Nemade, Harshal B; Bandyopadhyay, Dipankar
2017-08-15
The frequency of breathing and peak flow rate of exhaled air are necessary parameters to detect chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPDs) such as asthma, bronchitis, or pneumonia. We developed a lung function monitoring point-of-care-testing device (LFM-POCT) consisting of mouthpiece, paper-based humidity sensor, micro-heater, and real-time monitoring unit. Fabrication of a mouthpiece of optimal length ensured that the exhaled air was focused on the humidity-sensor. The resistive relative humidity sensor was developed using a filter paper coated with nanoparticles, which could easily follow the frequency and peak flow rate of the human breathing. Adsorption followed by condensation of the water molecules of the humid air on the paper-sensor during the forced exhalation reduced the electrical resistance of the sensor, which was converted to an electrical signal for sensing. A micro-heater composed of a copper-coil embedded in a polymer matrix helped in maintaining an optimal temperature on the sensor surface. Thus, water condensed on the sensor surface only during forcible breathing and the sensor recovered rapidly after the exhalation was complete by rapid desorption of water molecules from the sensor surface. Two types of real-time monitoring units were integrated into the device based on light emitting diodes (LEDs) and smart phones. The LED based unit displayed the diseased, critical, and fit conditions of the lungs by flashing LEDs of different colors. In comparison, for the mobile based monitoring unit, an application was developed employing an open source software, which established a wireless connectivity with the LFM-POCT device to perform the tests. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hechster, Elad; Sarusi, Gabby
2017-07-01
The complex dielectric function ɛ(E )=ɛR(E )+i ɛI(E ) of a semiconductor is a key parameter that dictates the material's optical and electrical properties. Surprisingly, the ɛ(E ) of Lead Sulfide (PbS) quantum dots (QDs) has not been widely studied. In the present work, we develop a new model that aims to simulate the ɛ(E ) of QDs. Our model is based on the fact that the quantum confinement in the nano regime affects all the electronic transitions throughout the entire Brillouin zone. Hence, as a first approximation, we attribute an equal contribution of energy, equivalent to the bandgap broadening, to each critical point (CP) in the E-k diagram. This is mathematically realized by adding these energy contributions to the central energy parameters of the Lorentz oscillator model. In order to validate our model, we used the CP parameters of bulk PbS to simulate the ɛ(E ) of PbS QDs. Next, we use Maxwell Relations to calculate the refractive index and the extinction coefficient of PbS QDs from ɛ(" separators="|E ). Our results were compared with those published in the previous literature and showed good agreement. Our findings open a new avenue that may enable the calculation of the ɛ(" separators="|E ) for nanoparticle systems.
Prediction of critical thinking disposition based on mentoring among ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The results of study showed that there was a significantly positive correlation between Mentoring and Critical thinking disposition among faculty members. The findings showed that 67% of variance of critical thinking disposition was defined by predictive variables. The faculty members evaluated themselves in all mentoring ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pennline, H.W.; Luebke, D.R.; Jones, K.L.; Morsi, B.I. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA); Heintz, Y.J. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA); Ilconich, J.B. (Parsons)
2007-06-01
The capture/separation step for carbon dioxide (CO2) from large-point sources is a critical one with respect to the technical feasibility and cost of the overall carbon sequestration scenario. For large-point sources, such as those found in power generation, the carbon dioxide capture techniques being investigated by the in-house research area of the National Energy Technology Laboratory possess the potential for improved efficiency and reduced costs as compared to more conventional technologies. The investigated techniques can have wide applications, but the research has focused on capture/separation of carbon dioxide from flue gas (post-combustion from fossil fuel-fired combustors) and from fuel gas (precombustion, such as integrated gasification combined cycle or IGCC). With respect to fuel gas applications, novel concepts are being developed in wet scrubbing with physical absorption; chemical absorption with solid sorbents; and separation by membranes. In one concept, a wet scrubbing technique is being investigated that uses a physical solvent process to remove CO2 from fuel gas of an IGCC system at elevated temperature and pressure. The need to define an ideal solvent has led to the study of the solubility and mass transfer properties of various solvents. Pertaining to another separation technology, fabrication techniques and mechanistic studies for membranes separating CO2 from the fuel gas produced by coal gasification are also being performed. Membranes that consist of CO2-philic ionic liquids encapsulated into a polymeric substrate have been investigated for permeability and selectivity. Finally, dry, regenerable processes based on sorbents are additional techniques for CO2 capture from fuel gas. An overview of these novel techniques is presented along with a research progress status of technologies related to membranes and physical solvents.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tarasov, S V; Kocharovsky, Vl V; Kocharovsky, V V
2014-01-01
We analytically find the universal fine structure of the noted discontinuity in the value and/or derivative of the specific heat of an ideal Bose gas in an arbitrary trap in the whole critical region around the λ-point of the Bose–Einstein condensation. The result reveals a remarkable dependence of the λ-point structure on the trap's form and boundary conditions, even for a macroscopically large system. We suggest measuring this strong effect in the experiments with a controllable trap potential. (paper)
V and V based Fault Estimation Method for Safety-Critical Software using BNs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eom, Heung Seop; Park, Gee Yong; Jang, Seung Cheol; Kang, Hyun Gook
2011-01-01
Quantitative software reliability measurement approaches have severe limitations in demonstrating the proper level of reliability for safety-critical software. These limitations can be overcome by using some other means of assessment. One of the promising candidates is based on the quality of the software development. Particularly in the nuclear industry, regulatory bodies in most countries do not accept the concept of quantitative goals as a sole means of meeting their regulations for the reliability of digital computers in NPPs, and use deterministic criteria for both hardware and software. The point of deterministic criteria is to assess the whole development process and its related activities during the software development life cycle for the acceptance of safety-critical software, and software V and V plays an important role in this process. In this light, we studied a V and V based fault estimation method using Bayesian Nets (BNs) to assess the reliability of safety-critical software, especially reactor protection system software in a NPP. The BNs in the study were made for an estimation of software faults and were based on the V and V frame, which governs the development of safety-critical software in the nuclear field. A case study was carried out for a reactor protection system that was developed as a part of the Korea Nuclear Instrumentation and Control System. The insight from the case study is that some important factors affecting the fault number of the target software include the residual faults in the system specification, maximum number of faults introduced in the development phase, ratio between process/function characteristic, uncertainty sizing, and fault elimination rate by inspection activities
Sub-Critical Nuclear Reactor Based on FFAG-Accelerator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Hee Seok; Kang, Hung Sik; Lee, Tae Yeon [Pohang Accelerator Laboratory, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)
2011-10-15
After the East-Japan earthquake and the subsequent nuclear disaster, the anti-nuclear mood has been wide spread. It is very unfortunate both for nuclear science community and for the future of mankind, which is threatened by two serious challenges, the global warming caused by the greenhouse effect and the shortage of energy cause by the petroleum exhaustion. While the nuclear energy seemed to be the only solution to these problems, it is clear that it has its own problems, one of which broke out so strikingly in Japan. There are also other problems such as the radiotoxic nuclear wastes that survive up to even tens of thousands years and the limited reserves of Uranium. To solve these problems of nuclear fission energy, accelerator-based sub-critical nuclear reactor was once proposed. (Its details will be explained below.) First of all, it is safe in a disaster such as an earthquake, because the deriving accelerator stops immediately by the earthquake. It also minimizes the nuclear waste problem by reducing the amount of the toxic waste and shortening their half lifetime to only a few hundred years. Finally, it solves the Uranium reserve problem because it can use Thorium as its fuel. The Thorium reserve is much larger than that of Uranium. Although the idea of the accelerator-driven nuclear reactor was proposed long time ago, it has not been utilized yet first by technical difficulty and economical reasons. The accelerator-based system needs 1 GeV, 10 MW power proton accelerator. A conventional linear accelerator would need several hundred m length, which is highly costly particularly in Korea because of the high land cost. However, recent technologies make it possible to realize that scale accelerator by a reasonable size. That is the fixed-field alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerator that is described in this article
Sub-Critical Nuclear Reactor Based on FFAG-Accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Hee Seok; Kang, Hung Sik; Lee, Tae Yeon
2011-01-01
After the East-Japan earthquake and the subsequent nuclear disaster, the anti-nuclear mood has been wide spread. It is very unfortunate both for nuclear science community and for the future of mankind, which is threatened by two serious challenges, the global warming caused by the greenhouse effect and the shortage of energy cause by the petroleum exhaustion. While the nuclear energy seemed to be the only solution to these problems, it is clear that it has its own problems, one of which broke out so strikingly in Japan. There are also other problems such as the radiotoxic nuclear wastes that survive up to even tens of thousands years and the limited reserves of Uranium. To solve these problems of nuclear fission energy, accelerator-based sub-critical nuclear reactor was once proposed. (Its details will be explained below.) First of all, it is safe in a disaster such as an earthquake, because the deriving accelerator stops immediately by the earthquake. It also minimizes the nuclear waste problem by reducing the amount of the toxic waste and shortening their half lifetime to only a few hundred years. Finally, it solves the Uranium reserve problem because it can use Thorium as its fuel. The Thorium reserve is much larger than that of Uranium. Although the idea of the accelerator-driven nuclear reactor was proposed long time ago, it has not been utilized yet first by technical difficulty and economical reasons. The accelerator-based system needs 1 GeV, 10 MW power proton accelerator. A conventional linear accelerator would need several hundred m length, which is highly costly particularly in Korea because of the high land cost. However, recent technologies make it possible to realize that scale accelerator by a reasonable size. That is the fixed-field alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerator that is described in this article
Licensing process for safety-critical software-based systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haapanen, P. [VTT Automation, Espoo (Finland); Korhonen, J. [VTT Electronics, Espoo (Finland); Pulkkinen, U. [VTT Automation, Espoo (Finland)
2000-12-01
System vendors nowadays propose software-based technology even for the most critical safety functions in nuclear power plants. Due to the nature of software faults and the way they cause system failures new methods are needed for the safety and reliability evaluation of these systems. In the research project 'Programmable automation systems in nuclear power plants (OHA)', financed together by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM) and the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT), various safety assessment methods and tools for software based systems are developed and evaluated. As a part of the OHA-work a reference model for the licensing process for software-based safety automation systems is defined. The licensing process is defined as the set of interrelated activities whose purpose is to produce and assess evidence concerning the safety and reliability of the system/application to be licensed and to make the decision about the granting the construction and operation permissions based on this evidence. The parties of the licensing process are the authority, the licensee (the utility company), system vendors and their subcontractors and possible external independent assessors. The responsibility about the production of the evidence in first place lies at the licensee who in most cases rests heavily on the vendor expertise. The evaluation and gauging of the evidence is carried out by the authority (possibly using external experts), who also can acquire additional evidence by using their own (independent) methods and tools. Central issue in the licensing process is to combine the quality evidence about the system development process with the information acquired through tests, analyses and operational experience. The purpose of the licensing process described in this report is to act as a reference model both for the authority and the licensee when planning the licensing of individual applications
Licensing process for safety-critical software-based systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haapanen, P.; Korhonen, J.; Pulkkinen, U.
2000-12-01
System vendors nowadays propose software-based technology even for the most critical safety functions in nuclear power plants. Due to the nature of software faults and the way they cause system failures new methods are needed for the safety and reliability evaluation of these systems. In the research project 'Programmable automation systems in nuclear power plants (OHA)', financed together by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM) and the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT), various safety assessment methods and tools for software based systems are developed and evaluated. As a part of the OHA-work a reference model for the licensing process for software-based safety automation systems is defined. The licensing process is defined as the set of interrelated activities whose purpose is to produce and assess evidence concerning the safety and reliability of the system/application to be licensed and to make the decision about the granting the construction and operation permissions based on this evidence. The parties of the licensing process are the authority, the licensee (the utility company), system vendors and their subcontractors and possible external independent assessors. The responsibility about the production of the evidence in first place lies at the licensee who in most cases rests heavily on the vendor expertise. The evaluation and gauging of the evidence is carried out by the authority (possibly using external experts), who also can acquire additional evidence by using their own (independent) methods and tools. Central issue in the licensing process is to combine the quality evidence about the system development process with the information acquired through tests, analyses and operational experience. The purpose of the licensing process described in this report is to act as a reference model both for the authority and the licensee when planning the licensing of individual applications. Many of the
de Sousa, A A; de Salles, R K; Felipe, M R; Tosin, I
1999-03-01
The present article has as objective to describe the methodology of an experience of implantation of Hazard Analyses Critical Control Points (HACCP) with food handlers in a hospital food service establishment, inside of a conception of relationship and construction of knowledge. Meetings with the food handlers and nutritionists, with the objective of raising the difficulties poined for the sector and the work to be developed. The HACCP consisted of the evaluation of the operations, following the sequential steps recommended, looking itself to instruct the food handlers on the methods of the operations and its interpretations. The detected critical points, the measures of control, the criteria of correction and the monitoring have widely been argued, serving as didactic elements for the reconstruction of quality of the preparations. The discussions generated actions that were developed in short term, revealing the need of a more effective and continuous partnership for the new proposals.
Study on Huizhou architecture of point cloud registration based on optimized ICP algorithm
Zhang, Runmei; Wu, Yulu; Zhang, Guangbin; Zhou, Wei; Tao, Yuqian
2018-03-01
In view of the current point cloud registration software has high hardware requirements, heavy workload and moltiple interactive definition, the source of software with better processing effect is not open, a two--step registration method based on normal vector distribution feature and coarse feature based iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm is proposed in this paper. This method combines fast point feature histogram (FPFH) algorithm, define the adjacency region of point cloud and the calculation model of the distribution of normal vectors, setting up the local coordinate system for each key point, and obtaining the transformation matrix to finish rough registration, the rough registration results of two stations are accurately registered by using the ICP algorithm. Experimental results show that, compared with the traditional ICP algorithm, the method used in this paper has obvious time and precision advantages for large amount of point clouds.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsallis, C.; Santos, R.J.V. dos
1983-01-01
On conjectural grounds an equation that provides a very good approximation for the critical temperature of the fully-anisotropic homogeneous quenched bond-random q-state Potts ferromagnet in triangular and honeycomb lattices is presented. Almost all the exact particular results presently known for the square, triangular and honeycomb lattices are recovered; the numerical discrepancy is quite small for the few exceptions. Some predictions that we believe to be exact are made explicite as well. (Author) [pt
Vermeulen, Emma Emmerenza
2006-01-01
Main aim: To supply recommendations to implement a Hazard Analysis of Critical Control Points (HACCP) system in a hospital food service unit serving low bacterial diets in order to prevent or decrease the infection rates in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant (HSCT) patients. Objectives: Firstly, to investigate the current food safety and hygiene status in a hospital food service unit, serving low bacterial diets, by means of a questionnaire and bacterial swabs taken from the...
Xiu-Xing, Zhang; Fu-Li, Li
2012-01-01
We study the classical correlation (CC) and quantum discord (QD) between two spin subgroups of the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick (LMG) model in both binary and trinary decompositions of spins. In the case of bipartition, we find that the classical correlations and all the quantum correlations including the QD, the entanglement of formation (EoF) and the logarithmic negativity (LN) are divergent in the same singular behavior at the critical point of the LMG model. In the case of tripartition, however, ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vial, Alexandre; Laroche, Thierry [Institut Charles Delaunay, Universite de Technologie de Troyes, CNRS FRE 2848, Laboratoire de Nanotechnologie et d' Instrumentation Optique 12, rue Marie Curie, BP-2060, F-10010 Troyes Cedex (France)
2007-11-21
Using a combination of Drude and critical points models, we show that the permittivity of several metals can be more efficiently described than using the well-known Drude-Lorentz model. The numerical implementation in a finite-difference time-domain code together with a non-uniform grid enables the study of thin metallic intermediate layers often neglected in simulations but found in realistic resonant structures.
A Biomechanical Model of Single-joint Arm Movement Control Based on the Equilibrium Point Hypothesis
Masataka, SUZUKI; Yoshihiko, YAMAZAKI; Yumiko, TANIGUCHI; Department of Psychology, Kinjo Gakuin University; Department of Health and Physical Education, Nagoya Institute of Technology; College of Human Life and Environment, Kinjo Gakuin University
2003-01-01
SUZUKI,M., YAMAZAKI,Y. and TANIGUCHI,Y., A Biomechanical Model of Single-joint Arm Movement Control Based on the Equilibrium Point Hypothesis. Adv. Exerc. Sports Physiol., Vol.9, No.1 pp.7-25, 2003. According to the equilibrium point hypothesis of motor control, control action of muscles is not explicitly computed, but rather arises as a consequence of interaction among moving equilibrium point, reflex feedback and muscle mechanical properties. This approach is attractive as it obviates the n...
Three-dimensional digital imaging based on shifted point-array encoding.
Tian, Jindong; Peng, Xiang
2005-09-10
An approach to three-dimensional (3D) imaging based on shifted point-array encoding is presented. A kind of point-array structure light is projected sequentially onto the reference plane and onto the object surface to be tested and thus forms a pair of point-array images. A mathematical model is established to formulize the imaging process with the pair of point arrays. This formulation allows for a description of the relationship between the range image of the object surface and the lateral displacement of each point in the point-array image. Based on this model, one can reconstruct each 3D range image point by computing the lateral displacement of the corresponding point on the two point-array images. The encoded point array can be shifted digitally along both the lateral and the longitudinal directions step by step to achieve high spatial resolution. Experimental results show good agreement with the theoretical predictions. This method is applicable for implementing 3D imaging of object surfaces with complex topology or large height discontinuities.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haruvy, Y.F.
2009-01-01
The classical methodology of hazard analysis and critical control points focuses on hazards and related implications. A new methodology is suggested here, one that attempts at a systematic simultaneous assessment of safety hazards, sensorial failures and economic risks, and the critical control points necessary for their early detection and/or prevention of their potential outcomes. The new methodology also attempts to combine the three parameters to form a qualitative prioritization of the numerous control points and to screen those that can be cost effective for implementation. This is demonstrated in this paper for a complex product, i.e. radiation sterilized ready-to-eat meals. Hence, a fourth parameter specific to this product - the radiation specific pitfall - is also assessed. The advantages and drawbacks of the combined assessment methodology are described and their overall possible impact is discussed. Finally, the suggested combined assessment and control system for ensuring the safety and quality of food can provide a more structured and critical approach to control identified hazards, compared with that achievable by traditional inspection and quality control procedures. It has the potential to identify areas of concern where failure has not yet been experienced, making it particularly useful for new operations and products thereafter. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mauguière, Frédéric A. L., E-mail: frederic.mauguiere@bristol.ac.uk; Collins, Peter, E-mail: peter.collins@bristol.ac.uk; Wiggins, Stephen, E-mail: stephen.wiggins@mac.com [School of Mathematics, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TW (United Kingdom); Kramer, Zeb C., E-mail: zebcolterkramer@gmail.com; Ezra, Gregory S., E-mail: gse1@cornell.edu [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Baker Laboratory, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Carpenter, Barry K., E-mail: carpenterb1@cardiff.ac.uk [School of Chemistry, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF10 3AT (United Kingdom); Farantos, Stavros C., E-mail: farantos@iesl.forth.gr [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, Foundation for Research and Technology - Hellas, and Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, Iraklion 711 10, Crete (Greece)
2016-02-07
We examine the phase space structures that govern reaction dynamics in the absence of critical points on the potential energy surface. We show that in the vicinity of hyperbolic invariant tori, it is possible to define phase space dividing surfaces that are analogous to the dividing surfaces governing transition from reactants to products near a critical point of the potential energy surface. We investigate the problem of capture of an atom by a diatomic molecule and show that a normally hyperbolic invariant manifold exists at large atom-diatom distances, away from any critical points on the potential. This normally hyperbolic invariant manifold is the anchor for the construction of a dividing surface in phase space, which defines the outer or loose transition state governing capture dynamics. We present an algorithm for sampling an approximate capture dividing surface, and apply our methods to the recombination of the ozone molecule. We treat both 2 and 3 degrees of freedom models with zero total angular momentum. We have located the normally hyperbolic invariant manifold from which the orbiting (outer) transition state is constructed. This forms the basis for our analysis of trajectories for ozone in general, but with particular emphasis on the roaming trajectories.
Self-Similarity Based Corresponding-Point Extraction from Weakly Textured Stereo Pairs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Min Mao
2014-01-01
Full Text Available For the areas of low textured in image pairs, there is nearly no point that can be detected by traditional methods. The information in these areas will not be extracted by classical interest-point detectors. In this paper, a novel weakly textured point detection method is presented. The points with weakly textured characteristic are detected by the symmetry concept. The proposed approach considers the gray variability of the weakly textured local regions. The detection mechanism can be separated into three steps: region-similarity computation, candidate point searching, and refinement of weakly textured point set. The mechanism of radius scale selection and texture strength conception are used in the second step and the third step, respectively. The matching algorithm based on sparse representation (SRM is used for matching the detected points in different images. The results obtained on image sets with different objects show high robustness of the method to background and intraclass variations as well as to different photometric and geometric transformations; the points detected by this method are also the complement of points detected by classical detectors from the literature. And we also verify the efficacy of SRM by comparing with classical algorithms under the occlusion and corruption situations for matching the weakly textured points. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed weakly textured point detection algorithm.
Analysis of the IPEN/MB-01 critical unit based on criticality experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santos, Adimir dos; Yamaguchi, Mitsuo; Ferreira, Carlos Roberto; Yoriyaz, Helio
1995-01-01
The analysis of the critical loading of the IPEN/MB-01 was performed by using several reactor cell methodologies. The results obtained by using the coupled NJOY/AMPX-II/HAMMER-TECHNION shows the good quality of the available nuclear data files as well as the methodologies in the Reactor Physics area. The original HAMMER system shows results that are well as the methodologies in the Reactor Physics area. The original HAMMER system shows results that are well outside of the desired quality for a cell code. (author), 15 refs, 3 figs, 5 tabs
ERROR DISTRIBUTION EVALUATION OF THE THIRD VANISHING POINT BASED ON RANDOM STATISTICAL SIMULATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Li
2012-07-01
Full Text Available POS, integrated by GPS / INS (Inertial Navigation Systems, has allowed rapid and accurate determination of position and attitude of remote sensing equipment for MMS (Mobile Mapping Systems. However, not only does INS have system error, but also it is very expensive. Therefore, in this paper error distributions of vanishing points are studied and tested in order to substitute INS for MMS in some special land-based scene, such as ground façade where usually only two vanishing points can be detected. Thus, the traditional calibration approach based on three orthogonal vanishing points is being challenged. In this article, firstly, the line clusters, which parallel to each others in object space and correspond to the vanishing points, are detected based on RANSAC (Random Sample Consensus and parallelism geometric constraint. Secondly, condition adjustment with parameters is utilized to estimate nonlinear error equations of two vanishing points (VX, VY. How to set initial weights for the adjustment solution of single image vanishing points is presented. Solving vanishing points and estimating their error distributions base on iteration method with variable weights, co-factor matrix and error ellipse theory. Thirdly, under the condition of known error ellipses of two vanishing points (VX, VY and on the basis of the triangle geometric relationship of three vanishing points, the error distribution of the third vanishing point (VZ is calculated and evaluated by random statistical simulation with ignoring camera distortion. Moreover, Monte Carlo methods utilized for random statistical estimation are presented. Finally, experimental results of vanishing points coordinate and their error distributions are shown and analyzed.
Error Distribution Evaluation of the Third Vanishing Point Based on Random Statistical Simulation
Li, C.
2012-07-01
POS, integrated by GPS / INS (Inertial Navigation Systems), has allowed rapid and accurate determination of position and attitude of remote sensing equipment for MMS (Mobile Mapping Systems). However, not only does INS have system error, but also it is very expensive. Therefore, in this paper error distributions of vanishing points are studied and tested in order to substitute INS for MMS in some special land-based scene, such as ground façade where usually only two vanishing points can be detected. Thus, the traditional calibration approach based on three orthogonal vanishing points is being challenged. In this article, firstly, the line clusters, which parallel to each others in object space and correspond to the vanishing points, are detected based on RANSAC (Random Sample Consensus) and parallelism geometric constraint. Secondly, condition adjustment with parameters is utilized to estimate nonlinear error equations of two vanishing points (VX, VY). How to set initial weights for the adjustment solution of single image vanishing points is presented. Solving vanishing points and estimating their error distributions base on iteration method with variable weights, co-factor matrix and error ellipse theory. Thirdly, under the condition of known error ellipses of two vanishing points (VX, VY) and on the basis of the triangle geometric relationship of three vanishing points, the error distribution of the third vanishing point (VZ) is calculated and evaluated by random statistical simulation with ignoring camera distortion. Moreover, Monte Carlo methods utilized for random statistical estimation are presented. Finally, experimental results of vanishing points coordinate and their error distributions are shown and analyzed.
Extracting Corresponding Point Based on Texture Synthesis for Nearly Flat Textureless Object Surface
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Min Mao
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Since the image feature points are always gathered at the range with significant intensity change, such as textured portions or edges of an image, which can be detected by the state-of-the-art intensity based point-detectors, there is nearly no point in the areas of low textured detected by classical interest-point detectors. In this paper we describe a novel algorithm based on affine transform and graph cut for interest point detecting and matching from wide baseline image pairs with weakly textured object. The detection and matching mechanism can be separated into three steps: firstly, the information on the large textureless areas will be enhanced by adding textures through the proposed texture synthesis algorithm TSIQ. Secondly, the initial interest-point set is detected by classical interest-point detectors. Finally, graph cuts are used to find the globally optimal set of matching points on stereo pairs. The efficacy of the proposed algorithm is verified by three kinds of experiments, that is, the influence of point detecting from synthetic texture with different texture sample, the stability under the different geometric transformations, and the performance to improve the quasi-dense matching algorithm, respectively.
Continuously deformation monitoring of subway tunnel based on terrestrial point clouds
Kang, Z.; Tuo, L.; Zlatanova, S.
2012-01-01
The deformation monitoring of subway tunnel is of extraordinary necessity. Therefore, a method for deformation monitoring based on terrestrial point clouds is proposed in this paper. First, the traditional adjacent stations registration is replaced by sectioncontrolled registration, so that the
An integrated approach to fingerprint indexing using spectral clustering based on minutiae points
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Mngenge, NA
2015-07-01
Full Text Available this problem by constructing a rotational, scale and translation (RST) invariant fingerprint descriptor based on minutiae points. The proposed RST invariant descriptor dimensions are then reduced and passed to a spectral clustering algorithm which automatically...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carvalho Gonçalves, Wemerson de; Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Carvalho da Silva, Fernando
2015-01-01
Highlights: • We define the new function importance. • We calculate the kinetic parameters Λ, β, Γ and Q to: 0.95, 0.96, 0.97, 0.98 and 0.99. • We compared the results with those obtained by the main important functions. • We found that the calculated kinetic parameters are physically consistent. - Abstract: This paper aims to determine the parameters for a new set of equations of point kinetic subcritical systems, based on the concept of importance of Heuristic Generalized Perturbation Theory (HGPT). The importance function defined here is related to both the subcriticality and the external neutron source worth (which keeps the system at steady state). The kinetic parameters defined in this work are compared with the corresponding parameters when adopting the importance functions proposed by Gandini and Salvatores (2002), Dulla et al. (2006) and Nishihara et al. (2003). Furthermore, the point kinetics equations developed here are solved for two different transients, considering the parameters obtained with different importance functions. The results collected show that there is a similar behavior of the solution of the point kinetics equations, when used with the parameters obtained by the importance functions proposed by Gandini and Salvatores (2002) and Dulla et al. (2006), specially near the criticality. However, this is not verified as the system gets farther from criticality
FPFH-based graph matching for 3D point cloud registration
Zhao, Jiapeng; Li, Chen; Tian, Lihua; Zhu, Jihua
2018-04-01
Correspondence detection is a vital step in point cloud registration and it can help getting a reliable initial alignment. In this paper, we put forward an advanced point feature-based graph matching algorithm to solve the initial alignment problem of rigid 3D point cloud registration with partial overlap. Specifically, Fast Point Feature Histograms are used to determine the initial possible correspondences firstly. Next, a new objective function is provided to make the graph matching more suitable for partially overlapping point cloud. The objective function is optimized by the simulated annealing algorithm for final group of correct correspondences. Finally, we present a novel set partitioning method which can transform the NP-hard optimization problem into a O(n3)-solvable one. Experiments on the Stanford and UWA public data sets indicates that our method can obtain better result in terms of both accuracy and time cost compared with other point cloud registration methods.
Reflector automatic acquisition and pointing based on auto-collimation theodolite
Luo, Jun; Wang, Zhiqian; Wen, Zhuoman; Li, Mingzhu; Liu, Shaojin; Shen, Chengwu
2018-01-01
An auto-collimation theodolite (ACT) for reflector automatic acquisition and pointing is designed based on the principle of autocollimators and theodolites. First, the principle of auto-collimation and theodolites is reviewed, and then the coaxial ACT structure is developed. Subsequently, the acquisition and pointing strategies for reflector measurements are presented, which first quickly acquires the target over a wide range and then points the laser spot to the charge coupled device zero position. Finally, experiments are conducted to verify the acquisition and pointing performance, including the calibration of the ACT, the comparison of the acquisition mode and pointing mode, and the accuracy measurement in horizontal and vertical directions. In both directions, a measurement accuracy of ±3″ is achieved. The presented ACT is suitable for automatic pointing and monitoring the reflector over a small scanning area and can be used in a wide range of applications such as bridge structure monitoring and cooperative target aiming.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knoeri, Christof; Wäger, Patrick A.; Stamp, Anna; Althaus, Hans-Joerg; Weil, Marcel
2013-01-01
Emerging technologies such as information and communication-, photovoltaic- or battery technologies are expected to increase significantly the demand for scarce metals in the near future. The recently developed methods to evaluate the criticality of mineral raw materials typically provide a ‘snapshot’ of the criticality of a certain material at one point in time by using static indicators both for supply risk and for the impacts of supply restrictions. While allowing for insights into the mechanisms behind the criticality of raw materials, these methods cannot account for dynamic changes in products and/or activities over time. In this paper we propose a conceptual framework intended to overcome these limitations by including the dynamic interactions between different possible demand and supply configurations. The framework integrates an agent-based behaviour model, where demand emerges from individual agent decisions and interaction, into a dynamic material flow model, representing the materials' stocks and flows. Within the framework, the environmental implications of substitution decisions are evaluated by applying life-cycle assessment methodology. The approach makes a first step towards a dynamic criticality assessment and will enhance the understanding of industrial substitution decisions and environmental implications related to critical metals. We discuss the potential and limitation of such an approach in contrast to state-of-the-art methods and how it might lead to criticality assessments tailored to the specific circumstances of single industrial sectors or individual companies. - Highlights: ► Current criticality assessment methods provide a ‘snapshot’ at one point in time. ► They do not account for dynamic interactions between demand and supply. ► We propose a conceptual framework to overcomes these limitations. ► The framework integrates an agent-based behaviour model with a dynamic material flow model. ► The approach proposed makes
Basu, Malabika; Das, S. P.; Dubey, Gopal
2008-01-01
The unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) is one of the major custom power solutions, which is capable of mitigating the effect of supply voltage sag at the load end or at the point of common coupling (PCC) in a distributed network. It also prevents the propagation of the load current harmonics to the utility and improves the input power factor of the load. The control of series compensator (SERC) of the UPQC is such that it injects voltage in quadrature advance to the supply current. Thus...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bartłomiej Kraszewski
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The article presents the results of research on the effect that radiometric quality of point cloud RGB attributes have on color-based segmentation. In the research, a point cloud with a resolution of 5 mm, received from FAROARO Photon 120 scanner, described the fragment of an office’s room and color images were taken by various digital cameras. The images were acquired by SLR Nikon D3X, and SLR Canon D200 integrated with the laser scanner, compact camera Panasonic TZ-30 and a mobile phone digital camera. Color information from images was spatially related to point cloud in FAROARO Scene software. The color-based segmentation of testing data was performed with the use of a developed application named “RGB Segmentation”. The application was based on public Point Cloud Libraries (PCL and allowed to extract subsets of points fulfilling the criteria of segmentation from the source point cloud using region growing method.Using the developed application, the segmentation of four tested point clouds containing different RGB attributes from various images was performed. Evaluation of segmentation process was performed based on comparison of segments acquired using the developed application and extracted manually by an operator. The following items were compared: the number of obtained segments, the number of correctly identified objects and the correctness of segmentation process. The best correctness of segmentation and most identified objects were obtained using the data with RGB attribute from Nikon D3X images. Based on the results it was found that quality of RGB attributes of point cloud had impact only on the number of identified objects. In case of correctness of the segmentation, as well as its error no apparent relationship between the quality of color information and the result of the process was found.[b]Keywords[/b]: terrestrial laser scanning, color-based segmentation, RGB attribute, region growing method, digital images, points cloud
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pieter Craffert
2015-07-01
Full Text Available In recent years there was a steady flow of academic studies claiming that the mind or consciousness can function independently from a working brain. Such research is presented with great confidence as a scientific breakthrough and one that will alter received views on both humanity and the meaning of life as well as medical science in general and neuroscience in particular. In this article the three major streams of evidence for the existence of nonlocal consciousness are critically evaluated. Neither the testimonies of thousands of experients nor research on cardiac arrest patients or experimental research on veridical perception during out-of-body experiences at this stage provide sufficient evidence for such claims about nonlocal consciousness. Extraordinary claims about paradigm chances in the scientific world should be supported by uncontroversial and high quality evidence, which is currently not available.
A General Schema for Constructing One-Point Bases in the Lambda Calculus
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Goldberg, Mayer
2001-01-01
In this paper, we present a schema for constructing one-point bases for recursively enumerable sets of lambda terms. The novelty of the approach is that we make no assumptions about the terms for which the one-point basis is constructed: They need not be combinators and they may contain constants...... and free variables. The significance of the construction is twofold: In the context of the lambda calculus, it characterises one-point bases as ways of ``packaging'' sets of terms into a single term; And in the context of realistic programming languages, it implies that we can define a single procedure...