WorldWideScience

Sample records for critical organ preservation

  1. Critical Organ Preservation in Reirradiation Brachytherapy by Injectable Spacer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, Kazushi; Sonomura, Tetsuo; Shirai, Shintaro; Sato, Morio; Tanaka, Kayo

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This case series study evaluated the feasibility and effectiveness of an interstitial high-dose rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT) procedure combined with an at-risk organ-sparing procedure. Methods and Materials: Thirty patients who were scheduled for reirradiation treatment for recurrent cancer after receiving a median dose of 60 Gy (range, 44-70 Gy) in 2-Gy fractions of previous external beam treatment were enrolled. Thirteen patients had lesions in the head and neck, and other lesions were located in the axilla, skeleton, breast, pelvis, and abdominal wall. Chief complaints included local masses (for 25) and refractory pain (for 21). After high-dose rate brachytherapy applicator needle implantation, an optimal CT-based three-dimensional brachytherapy plan was created with a virtual at-risk organ shift from the target. According to the plan, hyaluronic acid gel was injected to maintain the shift during irradiation. The prescribed dose was the result of an individualized tradeoff between target dose and at-risk organ dose, to avoid serious complications. A single-fraction dose of 18.0 Gy (median, equivalent to 75.6 Gy at an α/β value of 3; range, 16-20 Gy) was applied to the tumor. Results: The at-risk organ dose decreased from 9.1 ± 0.9 Gy to 4.4 ± 0.4 Gy (mean ± standard deviation, p < 0.01), and the normal tissue complication probability decreased from 60.8% ± 12.6% to 16.1% ± 19.8% (p < 0.01). The shift effect lasted at least 4 hours and disappeared gradually. Distinct tumor shrinkage in 20 of 21 eligible patients, including tumor disappearance in 6 patients, pain reduction in 18 of 21 eligible patients, and no unexpected late toxicity greater than grade 2 were observed during the 19.5-month observation period. Conclusions: This at-risk organ-sparing preservation procedure may provide a safe and efficient reirradiation treatment.

  2. Normothermic perfusion: a new paradigm for organ preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockmann, Jens; Reddy, Srikanth; Coussios, Constantin; Pigott, David; Guirriero, Dino; Hughes, David; Morovat, Alireza; Roy, Debabrata; Winter, Lucy; Friend, Peter J

    2009-07-01

    Transplantation of organs retrieved after cardiac arrest could increase the donor organ supply. However, the combination of warm ischemia and cold preservation is highly detrimental to the reperfused organ. Our objective was to maintain physiological temperature and organ function during preservation and thereby alleviate this injury and allow successful transplantation. We have developed a liver perfusion device that maintains physiological temperature with provision of oxygen and nutrition. Reperfusion experiments suggested that this allows recovery of ischemic damage. In a pig liver transplant model, we compared the outcome following either conventional cold preservation or warm preservation. Preservation periods of 5 and 20 hours and durations of warm ischemia of 40 and 60 minutes were tested. After 20 hours preservation without warm ischemia, post-transplant survival was improved (27%-86%, P = 0.026), with corresponding differences in transaminase levels and histological analysis. With the addition of 40 minutes warm ischemia, the differences were even more marked (cold vs. warm groups 0% vs. 83%, P = 0.001). However, with 60 minutes warm ischemia and 20 hours preservation, there were no survivors. Analysis of hemodynamic and liver function data during perfusion showed several factors to be predictive of posttransplant survival, including bile production, base excess, portal vein flow, and hepatocellular enzymes. Organ preservation by warm perfusion, maintaining physiological pressure and flow parameters, has enabled prolonged preservation and successful transplantation of both normal livers and those with substantial ischemic damage. This technique has the potential to address the shortage of organs for transplantation.

  3. Temperature and oxygenation during organ preservation: friends or foes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbo, Nicholas; Monbaliu, Diethard

    2017-06-01

    The liberalization of donor selection criteria in organ transplantation, with the increased use of suboptimal grafts, has stimulated interest in ischemia-reperfusion injury prevention and graft reconditioning. Organ preservation technologies are changing considerably, mostly through the reintroduction of dynamic machine preservation. Here, we review the current evidence on the role of temperature and oxygenation during dynamic machine preservation. A large but complex body of evidence exists and comparative studies are few. Oxygenation seems to support an advantageous effect in hypothermic machine preservation and is mandatory in normothermic machine preservation, although in the latter, supraphysiological oxygen tensions should be avoided. High-risk grafts, such as suboptimal organs, may optimally benefit from oxygenated perfusion conditions that support metabolism and activate mechanisms of repair such as subnormothermic machine preservation, controlled oxygenated rewarming, and normothermic machine preservation. For lower risk grafts, oxygenation during hypothermic machine preservation may sufficiently reduce injuries and recharge the cellular energy to secure functional recovery after transplantation. The relationship between temperature and oxygenation in organ preservation is more complex than physiological laws would suggest. Rather than one default perfusion temperature/oxygenation standard, perfusion protocols should be tailored for specific needs of grafts of different quality.

  4. Organic preservation of fossil musculature with ultracellular detail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Maria; Orr, Patrick J; Kearns, Stuart L; Alcalá, Luis; Anadón, Pere; Peñalver-Mollá, Enrique

    2010-02-07

    The very labile (decay-prone), non-biomineralized, tissues of organisms are rarely fossilized. Occurrences thereof are invaluable supplements to a body fossil record dominated by biomineralized tissues, which alone are extremely unrepresentative of diversity in modern and ancient ecosystems. Fossil examples of extremely labile tissues (e.g. muscle) that exhibit a high degree of morphological fidelity are almost invariably replicated by inorganic compounds such as calcium phosphate. There is no consensus as to whether such tissues can be preserved with similar morphological fidelity as organic remains, except when enclosed inside amber. Here, we report fossilized musculature from an approximately 18 Myr old salamander from lacustrine sediments of Ribesalbes, Spain. The muscle is preserved organically, in three dimensions, and with the highest fidelity of morphological preservation yet documented from the fossil record. Preserved ultrastructural details include myofilaments, endomysium, layering within the sarcolemma, and endomysial circulatory vessels infilled with blood. Slight differences between the fossil tissues and their counterparts in extant amphibians reflect limited degradation during fossilization. Our results provide unequivocal evidence that high-fidelity organic preservation of extremely labile tissues is not only feasible, but likely to be common. This is supported by the discovery of similarly preserved tissues in the Eocene Grube Messel biota.

  5. Endothelial cell preservation at hypothermic to normothermic conditions using clinical and experimental organ preservation solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Ivo C. J. H.; de Boon, Wadim M. I.; Heger, Michal; van Wijk, Albert C. W. A.; Kroon, Jeffrey; van Buul, Jaap D.; van Gulik, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Endothelial barrier function is pivotal for the outcome of organ transplantation. Since hypothermic preservation (gold standard) is associated with cold-induced endothelial damage, endothelial barrier function may benefit from organ preservation at warmer temperatures. We therefore assessed

  6. Recent developments in persufflation for organ preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Catherine G; Papas, Klearchos K

    2018-06-01

    To summarize current literature and recent findings on the potential of humidified oxygenated gas perfusion (persufflation) as an alternative method for improved organ preservation. Although there are some conflicting data, the majority of the evidence suggests that persufflation, by enhancing oxygenation, can improve preservation and even rescue organs, including organs with prior exposure to warm ischemia. In some cases, persufflation produced better results than hypothermic machine perfusion. The timing of persufflation is of importance; benefits of persufflation appear to increase as the timing of its administration postprocurement decreases. This may be particularly true for tissues that are more sensitive to ischemia, such as the pancreas prior to islet isolation. Combining oxygen persufflation with nitric oxide and addition of pulsatile flow may provide further benefits and amplify its effects on improving transplant outcomes. Persufflation is a promising, relatively simple, preservation technique that enables improved oxygenation, which provides protection and improvement in the graft condition during preservation and prior to transplantation. More detailed studies are needed to optimize persufflation and evaluate its short and long-term effects in vivo.

  7. The promise of organ and tissue preservation to transform medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giwa, Sebastian; Lewis, Jedediah K; Alvarez, Luis; Langer, Robert; Roth, Alvin E; Church, George M; Markmann, James F; Sachs, David H; Chandraker, Anil; Wertheim, Jason A; Rothblatt, Martine; Boyden, Edward S; Eidbo, Elling; Lee, W P Andrew; Pomahac, Bohdan; Brandacher, Gerald; Weinstock, David M; Elliott, Gloria; Nelson, David; Acker, Jason P; Uygun, Korkut; Schmalz, Boris; Weegman, Brad P; Tocchio, Alessandro; Fahy, Greg M; Storey, Kenneth B; Rubinsky, Boris; Bischof, John; Elliott, Janet A W; Woodruff, Teresa K; Morris, G John; Demirci, Utkan; Brockbank, Kelvin G M; Woods, Erik J; Ben, Robert N; Baust, John G; Gao, Dayong; Fuller, Barry; Rabin, Yoed; Kravitz, David C; Taylor, Michael J; Toner, Mehmet

    2017-06-07

    The ability to replace organs and tissues on demand could save or improve millions of lives each year globally and create public health benefits on par with curing cancer. Unmet needs for organ and tissue preservation place enormous logistical limitations on transplantation, regenerative medicine, drug discovery, and a variety of rapidly advancing areas spanning biomedicine. A growing coalition of researchers, clinicians, advocacy organizations, academic institutions, and other stakeholders has assembled to address the unmet need for preservation advances, outlining remaining challenges and identifying areas of underinvestment and untapped opportunities. Meanwhile, recent discoveries provide proofs of principle for breakthroughs in a family of research areas surrounding biopreservation. These developments indicate that a new paradigm, integrating multiple existing preservation approaches and new technologies that have flourished in the past 10 years, could transform preservation research. Capitalizing on these opportunities will require engagement across many research areas and stakeholder groups. A coordinated effort is needed to expedite preservation advances that can transform several areas of medicine and medical science.

  8. Organ Preservation: Current Concepts and New Strategies for the Next Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guibert, Edgardo E.; Petrenko, Alexander Y.; Balaban, Cecilia L.; Somov, Alexander Y.; Rodriguez, Joaquín V.; Fuller, Barry J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Organ transplantation has developed over the past 50 years to reach the sophisticated and integrated clinical service of today through several advances in science. One of the most important of these has been the ability to apply organ preservation protocols to deliver donor organs of high quality, via a network of organ exchange to match the most suitable recipient patient to the best available organ, capable of rapid resumption of life-sustaining function in the recipient patient. This has only been possible by amassing a good understanding of the potential effects of hypoxic injury on donated organs, and how to prevent these by applying organ preservation. This review sets out the history of organ preservation, how applications of hypothermia have become central to the process, and what the current status is for the range of solid organs commonly transplanted. The science of organ preservation is constantly being updated with new knowledge and ideas, and the review also discusses what innovations are coming close to clinical reality to meet the growing demands for high quality organs in transplantation over the next few years. PMID:21566713

  9. Deterioration and preservation of organic materials on the seabed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregory, David; Matthiesen, Henning

    2018-01-01

    Easily degradable organic materials can be preserved astonishingly well in underwater environments. This applies, for instance, to the seabed of the relatively cold and brackish Waters of the Baltic Sea as well as the warmer and much more salty Mediterranean Sea. We provide an overview of the many...... kinds of biodeterioration processes in water-saturated sediments, with special attention to wood and the activity of organisms that can both rapidly and totally degrade organic materials. The main reason that well-preserved archaeological artefacts do, nevertheless, exist in abundance in buried...

  10. The promise of organ and tissue preservation to transform medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giwa, Sebastian; Lewis, Jedediah K; Alvarez, Luis; Langer, Robert; Roth, Alvin E; Church, George M; Markmann, James F; Sachs, David H; Chandraker, Anil; Wertheim, Jason A; Rothblatt, Martine; Boyden, Edward S; Eidbo, Elling; Lee, W P Andrew; Pomahac, Bohdan; Brandacher, Gerald; Weinstock, David M; Elliott, Gloria; Nelson, David; Acker, Jason P; Uygun, Korkut; Schmalz, Boris; Weegman, Brad P; Tocchio, Alessandro; Fahy, Greg M; Storey, Kenneth B; Rubinsky, Boris; Bischof, John; Elliott, Janet A W; Woodruff, Teresa K; Morris, G John; Demirci, Utkan; Brockbank, Kelvin G M; Woods, Erik J; Ben, Robert N; Baust, John G; Gao, Dayong; Fuller, Barry; Rabin, Yoed; Kravitz, David C; Taylor, Michael J; Toner, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    The ability to replace organs and tissues on demand could save or improve millions of lives each year globally and create public health benefits on par with curing cancer. Unmet needs for organ and tissue preservation place enormous logistical limitations on transplantation, regenerative medicine, drug discovery, and a variety of rapidly advancing areas spanning biomedicine. A growing coalition of researchers, clinicians, advocacy organizations, academic institutions, and other stakeholders has assembled to address the unmet need for preservation advances, outlining remaining challenges and identifying areas of underinvestment and untapped opportunities. Meanwhile, recent discoveries provide proofs of principle for breakthroughs in a family of research areas surrounding biopreservation. These developments indicate that a new paradigm, integrating multiple existing preservation approaches and new technologies that have flourished in the past 10 years, could transform preservation research. Capitalizing on these opportunities will require engagement across many research areas and stakeholder groups. A coordinated effort is needed to expedite preservation advances that can transform several areas of medicine and medical science. PMID:28591112

  11. Hyperbranched polyglycerol as a colloid in cold organ preservation solutions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihai Gao

    Full Text Available Hydroxyethyl starch (HES is a common colloid in organ preservation solutions, such as in University of Wisconsin (UW solution, for preventing graft interstitial edema and cell swelling during cold preservation of donor organs. However, HES has undesirable characteristics, such as high viscosity, causing kidney injury and aggregation of erythrocytes. Hyperbranched polyglycerol (HPG is a branched compact polymer that has low intrinsic viscosity. This study investigated HPG (MW-0.5 to 119 kDa as a potential alternative to HES for cold organ preservation. HPG was synthesized by ring-opening multibranching polymerization of glycidol. Both rat myocardiocytes and human endothelial cells were used as an in vitro model, and heart transplantation in mice as an in vivo model. Tissue damage or cell death was determined by both biochemical and histological analysis. HPG polymers were more compact with relatively low polydispersity index than HES in UW solution. Cold preservation of mouse hearts ex vivo in HPG solutions reduced organ damage in comparison to those in HES-based UW solution. Both size and concentration of HPGs contributed to the protection of the donor organs; 1 kDa HPG at 3 wt% solution was superior to HES-based UW solution and other HPGs. Heart transplants preserved with HPG solution (1 kDa, 3% as compared with those with UW solution had a better functional recovery, less tissue injury and neutrophil infiltration in syngeneic recipients, and survived longer in allogeneic recipients. In cultured myocardiocytes or endothelial cells, significantly more cells survived after cold preservation with the HPG solution than those with the UW solution, which was positively correlated with the maintenance of intracellular adenosine triphosphate and cell membrane fluidity. In conclusion, HPG solution significantly enhanced the protection of hearts or cells during cold storage, suggesting that HPG is a promising colloid for the cold storage of donor organs

  12. [Organ-preserving method in the surgical treatment of the spleen injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khripun, A I; Alimov, A N; Salikov, A V; Priamikov, A D; Alimov, V A; Sukiasian, A A; Popov, T V; Urvantseva, O M

    2014-01-01

    The authors have experience in organ-preserving operations for spleen rupture with the splenic artery ligation in 156 casualties. They consider that such operations let to preserve the spleen, to avoid the postoperative rebleeding and ischemia of pancreas tail and body. Also it is accompanied by the low indications of lethality and postoperative complications. The authors consider that this operation is alternative to splenectomy and other techniques of organ-preserving operations in case of spleen trauma.

  13. Acid-base buffering in organ preservation solutions as a function of temperature: new parameters for comparing buffer capacity and efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baicu, Simona C; Taylor, Michael J

    2002-08-01

    Control of acidity and preventing intracellular acidosis are recognized as critical properties of an effective organ preservation solution. Buffer capacity and efficiency are therefore important for comparing the relative merits of preservation fluids for optimum hypothermic storage, but these parameters are not available for the variety of organ preservation solutions of interest in transplantation today. Moreover, buffer capacity is dependent upon both concentration and pH such that buffer capacity is not easily predicted for a complex solution containing multiple buffer species. Using standard electrometric methods to measure acid dissociation constants, this study was undertaken to determine the maximum and relative buffer capacities of a variety of new and commonly used hypothermic preservation solutions as a function of temperature. The reference data provided by these measurements show that comparative buffer capacity and efficiency vary widely between the commonly used solutions. Moreover, the fluids containing zwitterionic sulfonic acid buffers such as Hepes possess superior buffering for alpha-stat pH regulation in the region of physiological importance.

  14. Preservation of autophagy should not direct nutritional therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McClave, S.A.; Weijs, P.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Recent reports in the literature have proposed that forced mandatory feeding should be avoided in the first week of critical illness to preserve autophagy, in order to maximize responses to oxidative stress, preserve organ function, and improve outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Autophagy

  15. A privacy-preserving sharing method of electricity usage using self-organizing map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Nakamura

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Smart meters for measuring electricity usage are expected in electricity usage management. Although the relevant power supplier stores the measured data, the data are worth sharing among power suppliers because the entire data of a city will be required to control the regional grid stability or demand–supply balance. Even though many techniques and methods of privacy-preserving data mining have been studied to share data while preserving data privacy, a study on sharing electricity usage data is still lacking. In this paper, we propose a sharing method of electricity usage while preserving data privacy using a self-organizing map. Keywords: Privacy preserving, Data sharing, Self-Organizing map

  16. Critical Care Organizations: Business of Critical Care and Value/Performance Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Sharon; Gregg, Sara R; Coopersmith, Craig M; Layon, A Joseph; Oropello, John; Brown, Daniel R; Pastores, Stephen M; Kvetan, Vladimir

    2018-01-01

    New, value-based regulations and reimbursement structures are creating historic care management challenges, thinning the margins and threatening the viability of hospitals and health systems. The Society of Critical Care Medicine convened a taskforce of Academic Leaders in Critical Care Medicine on February 22, 2016, during the 45th Critical Care Congress to develop a toolkit drawing on the experience of successful leaders of critical care organizations in North America for advancing critical care organizations (Appendix 1). The goal of this article was to provide a roadmap and call attention to key factors that adult critical care medicine leadership in both academic and nonacademic setting should consider when planning for value-based care. Relevant medical literature was accessed through a literature search. Material published by federal health agencies and other specialty organizations was also reviewed. Collaboratively and iteratively, taskforce members corresponded by electronic mail and held monthly conference calls to finalize this report. The business and value/performance critical care organization building section comprised of leaders of critical care organizations with expertise in critical care administration, healthcare management, and clinical practice. Two phases of critical care organizations care integration are described: "horizontal," within the system and regionalization of care as an initial phase, and "vertical," with a post-ICU and postacute care continuum as a succeeding phase. The tools required for the clinical and financial transformation are provided, including the essential prerequisites of forming a critical care organization; the manner in which a critical care organization can help manage transformational domains is considered. Lastly, how to achieve organizational health system support for critical care organization implementation is discussed. A critical care organization that incorporates functional clinical horizontal and

  17. Self organized criticality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutz, M.

    1993-03-01

    Self organized criticality refers to the tendency of highly dissipative systems to drive themselves to a critical state. This has been proposed to explain why observed physics often displays a wide disparity of length and time scales. The phenomenon can be studied in simple cellular automaton models

  18. Preserved Organic Matter in the Alpine Tethyan Ocean Continental Transition (Totalp unit, Eastern Swiss Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateeva, T.; Wolff, G. A.; Kusznir, N.; Wheeler, J.; Manatschal, G.

    2015-12-01

    Observations at hydrothermal systems in modern ocean settings suggest that methane produced by serpentinization can support methanotrophic bio-systems. An important question is whether such bio-systems are localised or are more pervasive in their association with serpentinized mantle in the subsurface. This has implications for the global importance of the hidden sub-surface bio-systems, the fate of methane and the carbon cycle. The Totalp unit, a remnant of a former Ocean Continent Transition (OCT) exposed in Alps of Eastern Switzerland, has been chosen to investigate the presence or absence of methanotrophic biosystems within serpentinized exhumed mantle in the Alpine Tethyan margin. The Totalp unit is made of serpentinized mantle and ophicalcites overlain by Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous post-rift sediments. The Totalp unit has undergone little Alpine deformation and only a low-grade metamorphic overprint (serpentinized peridotite, ophicalcite and post-rift sediments contain hydrocarbons in the form of n-alkanes in the range C20 - C40; isoprenoids, for example pristane and phytane are present in sediments. The organic biological marker distribution is consistent with the temperature history of the OCT (i.e.lower maximum temperature than 200°C). First results from Totalp show evidence for preservation of marine organic matter in the serpentinized mantle and overlying sediments, although there is no evidence that any organic matter is generated from methanotrophic bio-systems. Nevertheless, focussing on Tethyan hydrothermal systems and preserved hydrocarbons will be critical in understanding whether methanotrophic biomarkers can be preserved and if so whether the methane originated from serpentenization.

  19. The Rusty Sink: Iron Promotes the Preservation of Organic Matter in Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, K. M.; Mucci, A.; Moritz, A.; Ouellet, A.; Gelinas, Y.

    2011-12-01

    The biogeochemical cycles of iron (Fe) and organic carbon (OC) are strongly interlinked. In oceanic waters, organic ligands have been shown to control the concentration of dissolved Fe [1], whereas in soils, solid Fe phases provide a sheltering and preservative effect for organic matter [2]. Until now however, the role of iron in the preservation of OC in sediments has not been clearly established. Here we show that 21.5 ± 8.6% of the OC in sediments is directly bound to reactive iron phases, which promote the preservation of OC in sediments. Iron-bound OC represents a global mass of 19 to 45 × 10^15 g of OC in surface marine sediments. This pool of OC is different from the rest of sedimentary OC, with 13C and nitrogen-enriched organic matter preferentially bound to Fe which suggests that biochemical fractionation occurs with OC-Fe binding. Preferential binding also affects the recovery of high molecular weight lipid biomarkers and acidic lignin oxidation products, changing the environmental message of proxies derived from these biomarkers. [1] Johnson, K. S., Gordon, R. M. & Coale, K. H. What controls dissolved iron in the world ocean? Marine Chemistry 57, 137-161 (1997). [2] Kaiser, K. & Guggenberger, G. The role of DOM sorption to mineral surfaces in the preservation of organic matter in soils. Organic Geochemistry 31, 711-725 (2000).

  20. Persufflation (or gaseous oxygen perfusion) as a method of organ preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszynski, Thomas M; Rizzari, Michael D; Scott, William E; Tempelman, Linda A; Taylor, Michael J; Papas, Klearchos K

    2012-06-01

    Improved preservation techniques have the potential to improve transplant outcomes by better maintaining donor organ quality and by making more organs available for allotransplantation. Persufflation, (PSF, gaseous oxygen perfusion) is potentially one such technique that has been studied for over a century in a variety of tissues, but has yet to gain wide acceptance for a number of reasons. A principal barrier is the perception that ex vivo PSF will cause in vivo embolization post-transplant. This review summarizes the extensive published work on heart, liver, kidney, small intestine and pancreas PSF, discusses the differences between anterograde and retrograde PSF, and between PSF and other conventional methods of organ preservation (static cold storage, hypothermic machine perfusion). Prospective implications of PSF within the broader field of organ transplantation, and in the specific application with pancreatic islet isolation and transplant are also discussed. Finally, key issues that need to be addressed before PSF becomes a more widely utilized preservation strategy are summarized and discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Oxidative Damage in Erythrocytes During Cold Storage With Organ Preservation Solution

    OpenAIRE

    MEMMEDOĞLU, Akif B.

    1999-01-01

    It is known that erythrocyte aggregation in renal tissue during preserva-tion is cause of microcirculation defects in the reperfusion period. The aim of our study is to investigate oxidative damage in erythrocytes relative to the time of cold ischemia during organ preservation and relationship between lipid peroxidation and development of these damages. In experiments with a rabbit model, explanted kidneys were exposed to perfusion and 96 hours preservation with Euro-Collins (EC) in the 1...

  2. A modern framework for knowledge preservation at government R and D organizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acar, M. Elizabeth D., E-mail: acar@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Barroso, Antonio Carlos de Oliveira, E-mail: barroso@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Knowledge management - KM has attracted considerable attention in recent years and is being practiced in most of the organizations. In the nuclear area, the adoption of the expression 'Nuclear Knowledge Management' emphasizes that there are a few knowledge issues and characteristics that are peculiar of nuclear organizations. It is a fact that such organizations in most of the countries are facing an process of their professionals, as a result of loss of emphasis or phasing down of their nuclear programs and consequent low interest of young people to enroll in nuclear science and technology carriers. For the reasons mentioned above, many of the KM initiatives in nuclear organizations have targeted the called class of 'knowledge preservation problems'. This paper describes a work that is being carried out at the Radioprotection and Dosimetry Institute, more precisely at the Ionizing Radiation Metrology National Laboratory. The work addresses a number of problems that can be described in terms of the questions and approaches that are being used to solve it. A methodology encompassing process mapping and analysis, knowledge elicitation and mapping, critical analysis and socio technical analysis based on social network analysis have been put together. This paper describes the conceived methodological framework and gives examples of its application so far. (author)

  3. A modern framework for knowledge preservation at government R and D organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acar, M. Elizabeth D.; Barroso, Antonio Carlos de Oliveira

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge management - KM has attracted considerable attention in recent years and is being practiced in most of the organizations. In the nuclear area, the adoption of the expression 'Nuclear Knowledge Management' emphasizes that there are a few knowledge issues and characteristics that are peculiar of nuclear organizations. It is a fact that such organizations in most of the countries are facing an process of their professionals, as a result of loss of emphasis or phasing down of their nuclear programs and consequent low interest of young people to enroll in nuclear science and technology carriers. For the reasons mentioned above, many of the KM initiatives in nuclear organizations have targeted the called class of 'knowledge preservation problems'. This paper describes a work that is being carried out at the Radioprotection and Dosimetry Institute, more precisely at the Ionizing Radiation Metrology National Laboratory. The work addresses a number of problems that can be described in terms of the questions and approaches that are being used to solve it. A methodology encompassing process mapping and analysis, knowledge elicitation and mapping, critical analysis and socio technical analysis based on social network analysis have been put together. This paper describes the conceived methodological framework and gives examples of its application so far. (author)

  4. Atmospheric Convective Organization: Self-Organized Criticality or Homeostasis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Jun-Ichi

    2015-04-01

    Atmospheric convection has a tendency organized on a hierarchy of scales ranging from the mesoscale to the planetary scales, with the latter especially manifested by the Madden-Julian oscillation. The present talk examines two major possible mechanisms of self-organization identified in wider literature from a phenomenological thermodynamic point of view by analysing a planetary-scale cloud-resolving model simulation. The first mechanism is self-organized criticality. A saturation tendency of precipitation rate with the increasing column-integrated water, reminiscence of critical phenomena, indicates self-organized criticality. The second is a self-regulation mechanism that is known as homeostasis in biology. A thermodynamic argument suggests that such self-regulation maintains the column-integrated water below a threshold by increasing the precipitation rate. Previous analyses of both observational data as well as cloud-resolving model (CRM) experiments give mixed results. A satellite data analysis suggests self-organized criticality. Some observational data as well as CRM experiments support homeostasis. Other analyses point to a combination of these two interpretations. In this study, a CRM experiment over a planetary-scale domain with a constant sea-surface temperature is analyzed. This analysis shows that the relation between the column-integrated total water and precipitation suggests self-organized criticality, whereas the one between the column-integrated water vapor and precipitation suggests homeostasis. The concurrent presence of these two mechanisms are further elaborated by detailed statistical and budget analyses. These statistics are scale invariant, reflecting a spatial scaling of precipitation processes. These self-organization mechanisms are most likely be best theoretically understood by the energy cycle of the convective systems consisting of the kinetic energy and the cloud-work function. The author has already investigated the behavior of this

  5. Critical Care Organizations: Building and Integrating Academic Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jason E; Oropello, John M; Stoltzfus, Daniel; Masur, Henry; Coopersmith, Craig M; Nates, Joseph; Doig, Christopher; Christman, John; Hite, R Duncan; Angus, Derek C; Pastores, Stephen M; Kvetan, Vladimir

    2018-04-01

    Academic medical centers in North America are expanding their missions from the traditional triad of patient care, research, and education to include the broader issue of healthcare delivery improvement. In recent years, integrated Critical Care Organizations have developed within academic centers to better meet the challenges of this broadening mission. The goal of this article was to provide interested administrators and intensivists with the proper resources, lines of communication, and organizational approach to accomplish integration and Critical Care Organization formation effectively. The Academic Critical Care Organization Building section workgroup of the taskforce established regular monthly conference calls to reach consensus on the development of a toolkit utilizing methods proven to advance the development of their own academic Critical Care Organizations. Relevant medical literature was reviewed by literature search. Materials from federal agencies and other national organizations were accessed through the Internet. The Society of Critical Care Medicine convened a taskforce entitled "Academic Leaders in Critical Care Medicine" on February 22, 2016 at the 45th Critical Care Congress using the expertise of successful leaders of advanced governance Critical Care Organizations in North America to develop a toolkit for advancing Critical Care Organizations. Key elements of an academic Critical Care Organization are outlined. The vital missions of multidisciplinary patient care, safety, and quality are linked to the research, education, and professional development missions that enhance the value of such organizations. Core features, benefits, barriers, and recommendations for integration of academic programs within Critical Care Organizations are described. Selected readings and resources to successfully implement the recommendations are provided. Communication with medical school and hospital leadership is discussed. We present the rationale for critical

  6. REHABILITATION OF ORGAN FROM DECEASED DONORS. NEW PRESERVATION TREND OR NEW PARADIGM IN TRANSPLANTOLOGY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. F. Bagnenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The articleis is dedicated to the main problem of transplantology which is shortage of acceptable donors’ organs. The tendency of expanding the donor’s pool should include policy of prevention and reduction the ischemia- reperfusion trauma of donor’s organs. The crucial role of machine perfusion in pretransplantaion improving organs quality is highlighted. The large review of literature is listed in order to state several new approaches in modern preservation trend. The definition of organ preservation is given as well as new strategy in organ acceptance is grounded. 

  7. Anthropogenic Forcing of Carbonate and Organic Carbon Preservation in Marine Sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Richard

    2017-01-03

    Carbon preservation in marine sediments, supplemented by that in large lakes, is the primary mechanism that moves carbon from the active surficial carbon cycle to the slower geologic carbon cycle. Preservation rates are low relative to the rates at which carbon moves between surface pools, which has led to the preservation term largely being ignored when evaluating anthropogenic forcing of the global carbon cycle. However, a variety of anthropogenic drivers-including ocean warming, deoxygenation, and acidification, as well as human-induced changes in sediment delivery to the ocean and mixing and irrigation of continental margin sediments-all work to decrease the already small carbon preservation term. These drivers affect the cycling of both carbonate and organic carbon in the ocean. The overall effect of anthropogenic forcing in the modern ocean is to decrease delivery of carbon to sediments, increase sedimentary dissolution and remineralization, and subsequently decrease overall carbon preservation.

  8. Long-term preservation of Leptospira spp.: challenges and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, Noraini; Garba, Bashiru; Neela, Vasantha Kumari

    2018-05-08

    Preservation of leptospiral cultures is tantamount to success in leptospiral diagnostics, research, and development of preventive strategies. Each Leptospira isolate has imperative value not only in disease diagnosis but also in epidemiology, virulence, pathogenesis, and drug development studies. As the number of circulating leptospires is continuously increasing and congruent with the importance to retain their original characteristics and properties, an efficient long-term preservation is critically needed to be well-established. However, the preservation of Leptospira is currently characterized by difficulties and conflicting results mainly due to the biological nature of this organism. Hence, this review seeks to describe the efforts in developing efficient preservation methods, to discover the challenges in preserving this organism and to identify the factors that can contribute to an effective long-term preservation of Leptospira. Through the enlightenment of the previous studies, a potentially effective method has been suggested. The article also attempts to evaluate novel strategies used in other industrial and biotechnological preservation efforts and consider their potential application to the conservation of Leptospira spp.

  9. Bacterial cell wall preservation during organic matter diagenesis in sediments off Peru

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomstein, Bente Aagaard; Niggemann, Jutta; Jørgensen, Bo Barker

    BACTERIAL CELL WALL PRESERVATION DURING ORGANIC MATTER DIAGENESIS IN SEDIMENTS OFF PERU The spatial distribution of total hydrolysable amino acids, total hydrolysable amino sugars and amino acid enantiomers (D- and L-forms) were investigated in surface sediments at 20 stations in the Peru margin: 9......°45 S - 13º32 S. The objective of this study was to assess the preservation of bacterial cell walls during diagenesis of organic matter. Bacterial cell walls were traced by analysis of biomarkers uniquely produced by bacteria (D-amino acids and muramic acid). The diagenetic status of the sediments......:00 Presentation is given by student: No...

  10. Self-organizing of critical state in granulated superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, S.L.; Savitskaya, N.E.

    2000-01-01

    Critical state in granulated superconductors was studied on the basis of two mathematical models - the system of differential equations for calibration and invariant difference of phases and a simplified model describing the system of associated images and equivalent to the standard models to study self-organizing criticality. The critical state of granulated superconductors in all studied cases was shown to be self-organized. Besides, it is shown that the applied models are practically equivalent ones, that is they both show similar critical behavior and lead to coincidence of noncritical phenomena. For the first time one showed that the occurrence of self-organized critically within the system of nonlinear differential equations and its equivalence to self-organized critically in the standard models [ru

  11. Preserved Flora and Organics in Impact Melt Breccias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, P. H.; Harris, R. Scott; Clemett, S. J.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Zarate, M.

    2014-01-01

    At least seven glass-bearing strata of varying ages occur at different horizons in the Pampean sediments of Argentina dating back to the Miocene. In a strict sense, these impact glasses are melt-matrix breccias composed of partially digested minerals clasts and basement fragments indicative of crater excavation. Ar-40/Ar-39 dating yield ages (+/- 2 sigma) of 6 +/- 2 Ka, 114 +/- 26 Ka, 230 +/- 30 Ka, 445 +/- 21 Ka, 3.27 +/- 0.08 Ma (near Mar del Plata = MdP), 5.28 +/- 0.04 Ma, and 9.21 +/- 0.08 Ma (near Chasico = CH) Where found in place (not reworked), these ages are consistent with the local stratigraphy and faunal assemblages. A striking property of some of these impact glasses is the encapsulation of preserved fragments of floral (and even soft-tissue faunal remains). Here we identify retained organics and describe a likely process of encapsulation and preservation.

  12. Consumer attitudes toward new technique for preserving organic meat using herbs and berries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Pernille; Hansen, Flemming; Jensen, Martin

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore consumers´ attitude toward a new preservation technique using herbs and berries in organic meat production, which enables to minimize the amount of chemical additives and to reduce the salt content in meat products. Consumer acceptance of the preservation technique using...... and appearance of the products, the price and information level....

  13. Fast Reactor Knowledge Preservation Activities at the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Ian

    2013-01-01

    • NEA is organizing significant activities are ongoing to preserve fast reactor information: – Integral experiments supporting fast reactors; – Often “use it, or lose it”; – Difficult to preserve everything, critical information is identified; – Organisation is a large but important task; – Electronic databases needed to manage the data. • Authoritative Handbooks and state of the art reports: – These tend to be the documents that last. • OECD/NEA will continue to support member countries in fast reactor knowledge preservation: – forum for exchange of information; – collaborative activities

  14. Criticality meets learning: Criticality signatures in a self-organizing recurrent neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Papa, Bruno; Priesemann, Viola; Triesch, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    Many experiments have suggested that the brain operates close to a critical state, based on signatures of criticality such as power-law distributed neuronal avalanches. In neural network models, criticality is a dynamical state that maximizes information processing capacities, e.g. sensitivity to input, dynamical range and storage capacity, which makes it a favorable candidate state for brain function. Although models that self-organize towards a critical state have been proposed, the relation between criticality signatures and learning is still unclear. Here, we investigate signatures of criticality in a self-organizing recurrent neural network (SORN). Investigating criticality in the SORN is of particular interest because it has not been developed to show criticality. Instead, the SORN has been shown to exhibit spatio-temporal pattern learning through a combination of neural plasticity mechanisms and it reproduces a number of biological findings on neural variability and the statistics and fluctuations of synaptic efficacies. We show that, after a transient, the SORN spontaneously self-organizes into a dynamical state that shows criticality signatures comparable to those found in experiments. The plasticity mechanisms are necessary to attain that dynamical state, but not to maintain it. Furthermore, onset of external input transiently changes the slope of the avalanche distributions - matching recent experimental findings. Interestingly, the membrane noise level necessary for the occurrence of the criticality signatures reduces the model's performance in simple learning tasks. Overall, our work shows that the biologically inspired plasticity and homeostasis mechanisms responsible for the SORN's spatio-temporal learning abilities can give rise to criticality signatures in its activity when driven by random input, but these break down under the structured input of short repeating sequences.

  15. Consumer attitudes toward new technique for preserving organic meat using herbs and berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugaard, Pernille; Hansen, Flemming; Jensen, Martin; Grunert, Klaus G

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to explore consumers' attitude toward a new preservation technique using herbs and berries in organic meat production, which enables to minimize the amount of chemical additives and to reduce the salt content in meat products. Consumer acceptance of the preservation technique using herbs and berries and intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries were investigated through a qualitative approach by means of three focus groups. In general, most participants were positive toward the preservation technique using herbs and berries and there were only few concerns related to the technique. Concerns were related not as much to the technique but more to the products. Four factors seem important in this relation: shelf life, taste, appearance and texture. The intention to purchase products preserved with herbs and berries is generally high, but is dependent on taste and appearance of the products, the price and information level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Singularity spectrum of self-organized criticality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canessa, E.

    1992-10-01

    I introduce a simple continuous probability theory based on the Ginzburg-Landau equation that provides for the first time a common analytical basis to relate and describe the main features of two seemingly different phenomena of condensed-matter physics, namely self-organized criticality and multifractality. Numerical support is given by a comparison with reported simulation data. Within the theory the origin of self-organized critical phenomena is analysed in terms of a nonlinear singularity spectrum different form the typical convex shape due to multifractal measures. (author). 29 refs, 5 figs

  17. Prerequisites of ideal safety-critical organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, Michiru; Hikono, Masaru; Matsui, Yuko; Goto, Manabu; Sakuda, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the prerequisites of ideal safety-critical organizations, marshalling arguments of 4 areas of organizational research on safety, each of which has overlap: a safety culture, high reliability organizations (HROs), organizational resilience, and leadership especially in safety-critical organizations. The approach taken in this study was to retrieve questionnaire items or items on checklists of the 4 research areas and use them as materials of abduction (as referred to in the KJ method). The results showed that the prerequisites of ideal safety-oriented organizations consist of 9 factors as follows: (1) The organization provides resources and infrastructure to ensure safety. (2) The organization has a sharable vision. (3) Management attaches importance to safety. (4) Employees openly communicate issues and share wide-ranging information with each other. (5) Adjustments and improvements are made as the organization's situation changes. (6) Learning activities from mistakes and failures are performed. (7) Management creates a positive work environment and promotes good relations in the workplace. (8) Workers have good relations in the workplace. (9) Employees have all the necessary requirements to undertake their own functions, and act conservatively. (author)

  18. Preservation and restoration of organic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchene, J.

    2002-01-01

    Nucleart laboratory was one of the first to use gamma irradiation to preserve ancient artifacts made of wood or leather. The object to be consolidated is soaked with a special resin (methyl methacrylate-MMA or polyethylene glycol-PEG) that will harden under irradiation (polymerization), cobalt-60 is used as gamma radiation source. This technique has allowed to treat thousands of objects such ancient floors, statues, mummies, ships, wood panels, leather tapestries...No radioactivity is induced in the object itself because the threshold energies required to activate nuclei like C 12 , O 16 and N 14 are far higher than the energy carried by the photons emitted by the Co 60 source. Gamma irradiation is also used to kill insects and micro-organisms, the typical dose required for resin polymerization is about 20.000 grays whereas 1.500 grays is sufficient to kill wood-eating insects. (A.C.)

  19. Knowledge preservation of Atucha type reactor: Practical approaches and lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eppenstein, M.; Vetere, C.

    2004-01-01

    As Siemens, designer of the Atucha type HWRs, has transferred its nuclear activities to Framatome ANP, Argentina must undertake the knowledge preservation of this type of reactor, both if life extension is decided for the operating Atucha I NPP, and/or if ending the construction of Atucha II is decided. Another reason for undertaking a knowledge preservation program is aging and increasing retirement of personnel in the nuclear field, and the small number of young people in nuclear related disciplines at the universities. This situation motivated CNEA to implement a Knowledge Management system (KM), in order to capture and capitalize the tacit and explicit knowledge, to spread it and share it, making use of the technical and suitable tools through the organization. The strategy was based on recognizing the critical knowledge by means of a methodology incorporating the critical knowledge map technique. This map is a tool that uses the cognitive surfing in order to access to the organization heritage knowledge. Different techniques and methodologies are applied for identifying the critical knowledge domains. The result is a vigorous graphical tool with a certain formalism, able to describe knowledge in a hierarchical way in order to preserve it. It is used to analyze the criticality, and as an access portal to the knowledge patrimony, pointing out, according to each knowledge area, the people skills, publications, related documents and others. Experience obtained through the KM system development shows how training techniques are put into practice, in order not to interfere with normal plant operation, and how to initiate the KM processes in order to improve the criticity. (author)

  20. Superselective intra-arterial chemoradiotherapy for advanced head and neck cancers. Evaluation of preservation of organ function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akisada, Takeshi; Harada, Tamotsu; Imai, Shigeki; Gyoten, Masayuki; Hiraoka, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate preservation of organ function in the treatment of superselective intra-arterial chemoradiotherapy for advanced head and neck cancers. Among 96 patients receiving concomitant radiation and intra-arterial docetaxel, systemic cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (FU) chemotherapy, we identified laryngeal preservation rate, studied tracheostomy cases and gastrostomy cases, and evaluated videofluoroscopic examination and videoendoscopy. Laryngeal preservation rate of hypopharyngeal cancer is very high at 96.2%, and that of laryngeal cancer is high at 71.4%. Videofluoroscopic examination revealed improved swallowing function in 2 of 12, no change in 3, slightly worse in 5, and worse in 2 patients. Following treatment, the incidence of aspiration increased to 4 patients. Videoendoscopy revealed residual vallecula in a few cases. Only 7 patients (7.3%) required a tracheostomy and 4 patients (4.2%) required a gastrostomy. Most of the patients are able to swallow after chemoradiation. Our new chemoradiation protocol is as good as other treatment modalities for maintaining organ preservation and function. (author)

  1. Organ preservation at low temperature: a physical and biological problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aussedat, J.; Boutron, P.; Coquilhat, P.; Descotes, J. L.; Faure, G.; Ferrari, M.; Kay, L.; Mazuer, J.; Monod, P.; Odin, J.; Ray, A.

    1993-02-01

    Before reporting the preliminary results obtained by our group, we first review the main problems to be solved in the preservation of organs at very low temperature, before being transplanted. This cryopreservation is being presently explored in order to increase the preservation tiine of transplants and to contribute to a better control of the donor recipient compatibility. We recall that, for the isolated cells to be preserved at nitrogen liquid temperatures, as now successfully performed at industrial scale, it is necessary to immerse the cells in a solution containing more or less t,oxical additives (so-called cryopro tect ants). Furthermore cooling and warming rates must be specific of each type of cells. We then show that cryo preservation could be extrapolated to whole organs by means of vitrification, the only way to avoid any ice crystallization. This vitrification will be the result of two directions of research, the one on the elaboration of cryoprotective solutions, the least toxic possible, the other on the obtention of high enough and homogeneous cooling and warming rates. After having briefly summarized the state of research on the heart and kidneys of small mammals, we present the first results that we have obtained on perfusion at 4 ^{circ}C and the auto-transplantation of rabbit kidneys, on the toxicity of a new cryoprotectant, 2,3-butanediol, on the heart rate, and on the cooling of experimental models of organs. Avant de présenter les résultats préliminaires obtenus par notre groupe, nous passons d'abord en revue les principaux problèmes à résoudre pour conserver à très basse température des organes en vue de leur transplantation. Cette cryopréservation est une voie de recherche actuellement explorée pour augmenter la durée de conservation des greffons et permettre ainsi de mieux contrôler la compatibilité donneur-receveur. Nous rappelons que la conservation des cellules isolées à la température de l'azote liquide, actuellement

  2. Preserving Digital Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Ross

    2011-01-01

    This book provides a single-volume introduction to the principles, strategies and practices currently applied by librarians and recordkeeping professionals to the critical issue of preservation of digital information. It incorporates practice from both the recordkeeping and the library communities, taking stock of current knowledge about digital preservation and describing recent and current research, to provide a framework for reflecting on the issues that digital preservation raises in professional practice.

  3. Review of randomized clinical trials of donor management and organ preservation in deceased donors: opportunities and issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikdan, George S; Mora-Esteves, Cesar; Koneru, Baburao

    2012-09-15

    Given the static number of deceased donors, improvements in donor management and organ preservation to increase the number and quality of organs transplanted per donor are more pressing. Because controlled trials provide the best evidence, we conducted a review of English-language literature of trials in donor management and organ preservation to provide a compendium and to promote additional discussion and studies. Eighty-seven reports were retrieved: 13 on hemodynamic and fluid management, 7 on immunosuppressants, 12 on preconditioning, 34 on preservation fluids, and 21 on pulsatile perfusion. Sixteen studies are ongoing. Although hormonal therapy is used widely, additional studies are needed to determine the benefit of thyroid hormone and insulin replacement and to optimize steroid regimens. Dopamine's success in reducing kidney delayed graft function highlights the opportunity for additional preconditioning trials of remote ischemia, gases, opioids, and others. More rapid progress requires addressing unique barriers in consent and research approval, legal constraints precluding research in cardiac death donors, and streamlining collaboration of multiple stakeholders. With little interest from industry, federal funding needs to be increased. While the University of Wisconsin solution still reigns supreme, several promising preservative solutions and additives with not only biophysical but also pharmacological effects are on the cusp of phase 1 to 2 trials. After nearly three decades of uncertainty, the recent success of a European trial has reenergized the topic not only of machine preservation of the kidney but also of other organs evident by trials in progress. However, the costs of such technical innovations merit the burden of rigorous proof from controlled trials.

  4. Organic carbon production, mineralisation and preservation on the Peruvian margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, A. W.; Sommer, S.; Lomnitz, U.; Montes, I.; Treude, T.; Liebetrau, V.; Gier, J.; Hensen, C.; Dengler, M.; Stolpovsky, K.; Bryant, L. D.; Wallmann, K.

    2015-03-01

    Carbon cycling in Peruvian margin sediments (11 and 12° S) was examined at 16 stations, from 74 m water depth on the middle shelf down to 1024 m, using a combination of in situ flux measurements, sedimentary geochemistry and modelling. Bottom water oxygen was below detection limit down to ca. 400 m and increased to 53 μM at the deepest station. Sediment accumulation rates decreased sharply seaward of the middle shelf and subsequently increased at the deep stations. The organic carbon burial efficiency (CBE) was unusually low on the middle shelf (60%) at the deep oxygenated sites. In line with other studies, CBE was elevated under oxygen-deficient waters in the mid-water oxygen minimum zone. Organic carbon rain rates calculated from the benthic fluxes alluded to efficient mineralisation of organic matter in the water column compared to other oxygen-deficient environments. The observations at the Peruvian margin suggest that a lack of oxygen does not greatly affect the degradation of organic matter in the water column but promotes the preservation of organic matter in sediments.

  5. Self-organized dynamical complexity in human wakefulness and sleep: Different critical brain-activity feedback for conscious and unconscious states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegrini, Paolo; Paradisi, Paolo; Menicucci, Danilo; Laurino, Marco; Piarulli, Andrea; Gemignani, Angelo

    2015-09-01

    Criticality reportedly describes brain dynamics. The main critical feature is the presence of scale-free neural avalanches, whose auto-organization is determined by a critical branching ratio of neural-excitation spreading. Other features, directly associated to second-order phase transitions, are: (i) scale-free-network topology of functional connectivity, stemming from suprathreshold pairwise correlations, superimposable, in waking brain activity, with that of ferromagnets at Curie temperature; (ii) temporal long-range memory associated to renewal intermittency driven by abrupt fluctuations in the order parameters, detectable in human brain via spatially distributed phase or amplitude changes in EEG activity. Herein we study intermittent events, extracted from 29 night EEG recordings, including presleep wakefulness and all phases of sleep, where different levels of mentation and consciousness are present. We show that while critical avalanching is unchanged, at least qualitatively, intermittency and functional connectivity, present during conscious phases (wakefulness and REM sleep), break down during both shallow and deep non-REM sleep. We provide a theory for fragmentation-induced intermittency breakdown and suggest that the main difference between conscious and unconscious states resides in the backwards causation, namely on the constraints that the emerging properties at large scale induce to the lower scales. In particular, while in conscious states this backwards causation induces a critical slowing down, preserving spatiotemporal correlations, in dreamless sleep we see a self-organized maintenance of moduli working in parallel. Critical avalanches are still present, and establish transient auto-organization, whose enhanced fluctuations are able to trigger sleep-protecting mechanisms that reinstate parallel activity. The plausible role of critical avalanches in dreamless sleep is to provide a rapid recovery of consciousness, if stimuli are highly arousing.

  6. The role of clay minerals in the preservation of organic matter in sediments of Qinghai Lake, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bingsong; Dong, Hailiang; Jiang, Hongchen; Lv, Guo; Eberl, Dennis D.; Li, Shanying; Kim, Jinwook

    2009-01-01

    The role of saline lake sediments in preserving organic matter has long been recognized. In order to further understand the preservation mechanisms, the role of clay minerals was studied. Three sediment cores, 25, 57, and 500 cm long, were collected from Qinghai Lake, NW China, and dissected into multiple subsamples. Multiple techniques were employed, including density fractionation, X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), total organic carbon (TOC) and carbon compound analyses, and surface area determination. The sediments were oxic near the water-sediment interface, but became anoxic at depth. The clay mineral content was as much as 36.8%, consisting mostly of illite, chlorite, and halloysite. The TEM observations revealed that organic matter occurred primarily as organic matter-clay mineral aggregates. The TOC and clay mineral abundances are greatest in the mid-density fraction, with a positive correlation between the TOC and mineral surface area. The TOC of the bulk sediments ranges from 1 to 3% with the non-hydrocarbon fraction being predominant, followed by bitumen, saturated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbons, and chloroform-soluble bitumen. The bimodal distribution of carbon compounds of the saturated hydrocarbon fraction suggests that organic matter in the sediments was derived from two sources: terrestrial plants and microorganisms/algae. Depthrelated systematic changes in the distribution patterns of the carbon compounds suggest that the oxidizing conditions and microbial abundance near the water-sediment interface promote degradation of labile organic matter, probably in adsorbed form. The reducing conditions and small microbial biomass deeper in the sediments favor preservation of organic matter, because of the less labile nature of organic matter, probably occurring within clay mineral-organic matter aggregates that are inaccessible to microorganisms. These results have important implications for our

  7. Self-organized criticality in fragmenting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, L.; Dimon, P.; Bohr, J.

    1993-01-01

    The measured mass distributions of fragments from 26 fractured objects of gypsum, soap, stearic paraffin, and potato show evidence of obeying scaling laws; this suggests the possibility of self-organized criticality in fragmenting. The probability of finding a fragment scales inversely to a power...

  8. On self-organized criticality in nonconserving systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Socolar, J.E.S.; Grinstein, G.; Jayaprakash, C.

    1993-01-01

    Two models with nonconserving dynamics and slow continuous deterministic driving, a stick-slip model (SSM) of earthquake dynamics and a toy forest-fire model (FFM), have recently been argued to show numerical evidence of self-organized criticality (generic, scale-invariant steady states). To determine whether the observed criticality is indeed generic, we study these models as a function of a parameter γ which was implicitly tuned to a special value, γ=1, in their original definitions. In both cases, the maximum Lyapunov exponent vanishes at γ=1. We find that the FFM does not exhibit self-organized criticality for any γ, including γ=1; nor does the SSM with periodic boundary conditions. Both models show evidence of macroscopic periodic oscillations in time for some range of γ values. We suggest that such oscillations may provide a mechanism for the generation of scale-invariant structure in nonconserving systems, and, in particular, that they underlie the criticality previously observed in the SSM with open boundary conditions

  9. Practical digital preservation a how-to guide for organizations of any size

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    A practical guide to the development and operation of digital preservation services for organizations of any size. This offers an overview of best practice and provides guidance as to how to implement strategies with minimal time and resources. It is intended at the non-specialist, assuming only a basic understanding of IT and offering guidance.

  10. Self-organized critical pinball machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, H.

    2004-01-01

    The nature of self-organized criticality (SOC) is pin-pointed with a simple mechanical model: a pinball machine. Its phase space is fully parameterized by two integer variables, one describing the state of an on-going game, the other describing the state of the machine. This is the simplest...

  11. Influence of pH on extracellular matrix preservation during lung decellularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Tomoshi; Balestrini, Jenna L; Mendez, Julio; Calle, Elizabeth A; Zhao, Liping; Niklason, Laura E

    2014-12-01

    The creation of decellularized organs for use in regenerative medicine requires the preservation of the organ extracellular matrix (ECM) as a means to provide critical cues for differentiation and migration of cells that are seeded onto the organ scaffold. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of varying pH levels on the preservation of key ECM components during the decellularization of rat lungs. Herein, we show that the pH of the 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS)-based decellularization solution influences ECM retention, cell removal, and also the potential for host response upon implantation of acellular lung tissue. The preservation of ECM components, including elastin, fibronectin, and laminin, were better retained in the lower pH conditions that were tested (pH ranges tested: 8, 10, 12); glycosaminoglycans were preserved to a higher extent in the lower pH groups as well. The DNA content following decellularization of the rat lung was inversely correlated with the pH of the decellularization solution. Despite detectible levels of cyotoskeletal proteins and significant residual DNA, tissues decellularized at pH 8 demonstrated the greatest tissue architecture maintenance and the least induction of host response of all acellular conditions. These results highlight the effect of pH on the results obtained by organ decellularization and suggest that altering the pH of the solutions used for decellularization may influence the ability of cells to properly differentiate and home to appropriate locations within the scaffold, based on the preservation of key ECM components and implantation results.

  12. POSSIBILITIES OF ORGAN-PRESERVING TREATMENT OF PATIENTS WITH MULTIPLE RENAL TUMORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ya. Alekseev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC occupies one of the leading places in the world for morbidity among malignant neoplasms of the genitourinary system. The frequency of occurrence of bilateral RCC according to different authors is 2–6% of the total population of patients with RCC. Currently, the only effective method of treatment of bilateral RCC is surgical treatment. Patients with bilateral RCC are at high risk of dev eloping of local recurrence or progression of the disease after organ-preserving surgeries, which is why the surgeon is faced with a choice between a high risk of developing renal failure or relapse and/or progression of the disease, depending on the extent of the surgical intervention. According to the literature, in patients with bilateral RCC there was an increase in the incidence of papillary variant of RCC up to 19% and the presence of multifocal lesion. Surgical treatment of bilateral RCC is the only effective method to achieve satisfactory oncological results at a low incidence of complications. The m ost justified option for the treatment of bilateral RCC is the implementation of bilateral organ-preserving treatment, which allows achieving the optimal functional results. This article presents a clinical case of successful surgical treatment of a patient with bilateral RCC with multiple tumors.

  13. Extending Particle Swarm Optimisers with Self-Organized Criticality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvbjerg, Morten; Krink, Thiemo

    2002-01-01

    Particle swarm optimisers (PSOs) show potential in function optimisation, but still have room for improvement. Self-organized criticality (SOC) can help control the PSO and add diversity. Extending the PSO with SOC seems promising reaching faster convergence and better solutions.......Particle swarm optimisers (PSOs) show potential in function optimisation, but still have room for improvement. Self-organized criticality (SOC) can help control the PSO and add diversity. Extending the PSO with SOC seems promising reaching faster convergence and better solutions....

  14. Comparison of contamination rates between preserved and preservative-free fluoroquinolone eyedrops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mo Sae; Kim, Hong Kyun; Kim, Joon Mo; Choi, Chul Young

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the antimicrobial effectiveness of preservative-free fluoroquinolone products compared with benzalkonium chloride containing fluoroquinolones using the challenge test provided by the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) and the in-use test. 1. Challenge test: to compare the growth of microorganisms between different fluoroquinolone preparations, four test organisms, including Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus niger were chosen among five microorganisms listed by USP 2004. The inoculated products were sampled for microbial survivors at days 7, 14, and 28 following initial inoculation at room temperature. The number of surviving organisms were calculated as a Log10 reduction from the original inocula. 2. In-use test: a total of 100 bottles were collected after instillation of preservative-free fluoroquinolone eyedrops in volunteer patients after 1 week of use. The remaining fluid and tips of the bottles were cultured. Colonies on the plates were counted at the end of the incubation period. All microorganisms were identified by Gram staining and biochemical assays. 1. Challenge test: preservative-free gatifloxacin and levofloxacin demonstrated a lower log reduction against A. niger than preserved fluoroquinolones and preservative-free moxifloxacin at all time points. 2. In-use test: There was no contamination identified on plates inoculated by preservative-free quinolone bottles after 1 week of use in this study. Physicians should be aware of the lower antifungal preservative effectiveness of some preservative-free fluoroquinolone preparations than preserved ones.

  15. The Preservation and Detection of Organic Matter within Jarosite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J. M. T.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; McAdam, A.; Andrejkovicova, S. C.; Knudson, C. A.; Wong, G. M.; Millan, M.; Freissinet, C.; Szopa, C.; Li, X.; Bower, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    Since its arrival at Mt. Sharp in 2014 the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover has been examining the mountain's lower stratigraphy, which shows a progression from clay-bearing to sulfate-bearing strata. Clay minerals are known to be effective long-term preservers of organic matter [1], but it is important to also consider the potential for Martian sulfate minerals to host organic molecules. The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite on board the rover uses pyrolysis to liberate organic fragments from sampled materials [2]. However, the surface of Mars hosts widespread oxychlorine phases, which thermally decompose to release oxygen and chlorine that can degrade and destroy organic signals [3]. Francois et al. (2016) demonstrated that synthetic magnesium sulfate can incorporate phthalic acid and protect it from oxychlorine phases during pyrolysis [4]. Magnesium sulfate as well as calcium sulfate and jarosite have all been observed by instruments on the rover. The addition of organic standards to the starting materials in jarosite synthesis reactions has conclusively demonstrated that jarosite can incorporate organic molecules. The samples were analyzed by SAM-like evolved gas analysis (EGA) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and the influence of perchlorates assessed. Jarosite has been observed by multiple missions to the Martian surface and from orbit, thus the probability of future organic detection missions encountering the mineral is high. Samples from this study were examined by laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry and Raman spectroscopy, which will be utilized by the ExoMars rover and Mars 2020 rover respectively. The data inform the sampling and analysis strategies for sulfate-rich regions of Mars for present and future organic-detection missions. [1] Farmer & Des Marais (1999) JGR: Planets 104, [2] Mahaffy et al., (2012) Space Science Reviews 170 [3] Glavin et al., (2013) JGR: Planets 118 [4] Francois et al., (2016) JGR

  16. Comparative Effects of Phosphoenolpyruvate, a Glycolytic Intermediate, as an Organ Preservation Agent with Glucose and N-Acetylcysteine against Organ Damage during Cold Storage of Mouse Liver and Kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Ishitsuka, Yoichi; Fukumoto, Yusuke; Kondo, Yuki; Irikura, Mitsuru; Kadowaki, Daisuke; Narita, Yuki; Hirata, Sumio; Moriuchi, Hiroshi; Maruyama, Toru; Hamasaki, Naotaka; Irie, Tetsumi

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP), a glycolytic intermediate with antioxidative and energy supplementation potentials, as an organ preservation agent. Using ex vivo mouse liver and kidney of a static cold storage model, we compared the effects of PEP against organ damage and oxidative stress during cold preservation with those of glucose or N-acetylcysteine (NAC). Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage, histological changes, and oxidative stress parameters (measured as thi...

  17. Modes of fossil preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    The processes of geologic preservation are important for understanding the organisms represented by fossils. Some fossil differences are due to basic differences in organization of animals and plants, but the interpretation of fossils has also tended to be influenced by modes of preservation. Four modes of preservation generally can be distinguished: (1) Cellular permineralization ("petrifaction") preserves anatomical detail, and, occasionally, even cytologic structures. (2) Coalified compression, best illustrated by structures from coal but characteristic of many plant fossils in shale, preserves anatomical details in distorted form and produces surface replicas (impressions) on enclosing matrix. (3) Authigenic preservation replicates surface form or outline (molds and casts) prior to distortion by compression and, depending on cementation and timing, may intergrade with fossils that have been subject to compression. (4) Duripartic (hard part) preservation is characteristic of fossil skeletal remains, predominantly animal. Molds, pseudomorphs, or casts may form as bulk replacements following dissolution of the original fossil material, usually by leaching. Classification of the kinds of preservation in fossils will aid in identifying the processes responsible for modifying the fossil remains of both animals and plants. ?? 1975.

  18. Critical Care Organizations in Academic Medical Centers in North America: A Descriptive Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastores, Stephen M; Halpern, Neil A; Oropello, John M; Kostelecky, Natalie; Kvetan, Vladimir

    2015-10-01

    With the exception of a few single-center descriptive reports, data on critical care organizations are relatively sparse. The objectives of our study were to determine the structure, governance, and experience to date of established critical care organizations in North American academic medical centers. A 46-item survey questionnaire was electronically distributed using Survey Monkey to the leadership of 27 identified critical care organizations in the United States and Canada between September 2014 and February 2015. A critical care organization had to be headed by a physician and have primary governance over the majority, if not all, of the ICUs in the medical center. We received 24 responses (89%). The majority of the critical care organizations (83%) were called departments, centers, systems, or operations committees. Approximately two thirds of respondents were from larger (> 500 beds) urban institutions, and nearly 80% were primary university medical centers. On average, there were six ICUs per academic medical center with a mean of four ICUs under critical care organization governance. In these ICUs, intensivists were present in-house 24/7 in 49%; advanced practice providers in 63%; hospitalists in 21%; and telemedicine coverage in 14%. Nearly 60% of respondents indicated that they had a separate hospital budget to support data management and reporting, oversight of their ICUs, and rapid response teams. The transition from the traditional model of ICUs within departmentally controlled services or divisions to a critical care organization was described as gradual in 50% and complete in only 25%. Nearly 90% indicated that their critical care organization governance structure was either moderately or highly effective; a similar number suggested that their critical care organizations were evolving with increasing domain and financial control of the ICUs at their respective institutions. Our survey of the very few critical care organizations in North American

  19. Nuclear Criticality Safety Organization qualification program. Revision 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, K.J.; Taylor, R.G.; Worley, C.A.

    1997-01-01

    The Nuclear Criticality Safety Organization (NCSO) is committed to developing and maintaining a staff of highly qualified personnel to meet the current and anticipated needs in Nuclear Criticality Safety (NCS) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. This document defines the Qualification Program to address the NCSO technical and managerial qualification as required by the Y-12 Training Implementation Matrix (TIM). It is implemented through a combination of LMES plant-wide training courses and professional nuclear criticality safety training provided within the organization. This Qualification Program is applicable to technical and managerial NCSO personnel, including temporary personnel, sub-contractors and/or LMES employees on loan to the NCSO, who perform the NCS tasks or serve NCS-related positions as defined in sections 5 and 6 of this program

  20. Terminological and methodological aspects in investigating the preservation of rare library materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Hasenay

    2008-07-01

    efficient management and good organization of preservation presupposes a systematic and comprehensive approach applicable independent of the type of institution or type of material. The management and organization issues concerning the preservation of rare library materials is shown as an overview of their most important elements, with a critical evaluation of the most important achievements in theory in practice. The methodological aspect is also very important in investigating the preservation of rare library materials.The special emphasis is placed on the systematic investigation of the status of library holdings and the possibilities offered by the qualitative and quantitative description of holdings on the one hand, and the possibilities offered by the methods of interview and/or questionnaire on the other. Several practical examples that may serve as test models in the approach to this issue have been analyzed.The existing organization of the collection of historical newspapers from the city of Osijek area, and the organization of the collection of old books in the library of the Franciscan monastery in Mostar in relation to their status and protection activities have also been discussed. By comparing these models a significant difference in the material and content characteristics of the analyzed rare library holdings have been identified. This difference calls for the use of different methodologies for investigating the condition of the holdings. The information on the condition of the library holdings and approaches to their preservation serve as a starting point for planning further steps for the efficient preservation of rare library materials. The insights into the problem of preservation presented in this paper should be understood as a foundation for further implementation on similar examples.Key words : preservation of library materials, rare library materials, rare books, historical newspapers, organization and management of preservation, description of the

  1. Combined-modality treatment and organ preservation in bladder cancer. Do molecular markers predict outcome?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, C.; Roedel, F.; Wolf, I.; Sauer, R.; Roedel, C.; Papadopoulos, T.; Engehausen, D.G.; Schrott, K.M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: in invasive bladder cancer, several groups have reported the value of organ preservation by a combined-treatment approach, including transurethral resection (TUR-BT) and radiochemotherapy (RCT). As more experience is acquired with this organ-sparing treatment, patient selection needs to be optimized. Clinical factors are limited in their potential to identify patients most likely to respond to RCT, thus, additional molecular markers for predicting treatment response of individual lesions are sorely needed. Patients and methods: the apoptotic index (AI) and Ki-67 index were evaluated by immunohistochemistry on pretreatment biopsies of 134 patients treated for bladder cancer by TUR-BT and RCT. Expression of each marker as well as clinicopathologic factors were then correlated with initial response, local control and cancer-specific survival with preserved bladder in univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: the median AI for all patients was 1.5% (range 0.2-7.4%). The percentage of Ki-67-positive cells in the tumors ranged from 0.2% to 85% with a median of 14.2%. A significant correlation was found for AI and tumor differentiation (G1/2: AI = 1.3% vs. G3/4: AI = 1.6%; p = 0.01). A complete response at restaging TUR-BT was achieved in 76% of patients. Factors predictive of complete response included T-category (p < 0.0001), resection status (p = 0.02), lymphovascular invasion (p = 0.01), and Ki-67 index (p = 0.02). For local control, AI (p = 0.04) and Ki-67 index (p = 0.05) as well as T-category (p = 0.005), R-status (p = 0.05), and lymphatic vessel invasion (p = 0.05) reached statistical significance. Out of the molecular markers only high Ki-67 levels were associated to cause-specific survival with preserved bladder. On multivariate analysis, T-category was the strongest independent factor for initial response, local control and cancer-specific survival with preserved bladder. Conclusion: The indices of pretreatment apoptosis and Ki-67 predict a

  2. Contamination versus preservation of cosmetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, Michael Dyrgaard; Moesby, Lise; Zachariae, Claus

    2009-01-01

    Cosmetics with high water content are at a risk of being contaminated by micro-organisms that can alter the composition of the product or pose a health risk to the consumer. Pathogenic micro-organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are frequently found in contaminated...... cosmetics. In order to avoid contamination of cosmetics, the manufacturers add preservatives to their products. In the EU and the USA, cosmetics are under legislation and all preservatives must be safety evaluated by committees. There are several different preservatives available but the cosmetic market...

  3. Whale Preservation. Grades Five to Nine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racicot, Darlene

    Dedicated to the conservation and preservation of whales, dolphins, and porpoises through public education, this instructional unit for grades 5-9 provides current (1993) facts, lesson plans, activities, and conservation and preservation techniques. Interdisciplinary activities involve students in debates, critical thinking, research, and…

  4. Self-organized criticality in a network of interacting neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cowan, J.D.; Neuman, J.; Kiewiet, B.; van Drongelen, W.

    2013-01-01

    This paper contains an analysis of a simple neural network that exhibits self-organized criticality. Such criticality follows from the combination of a simple neural network with an excitatory feedback loop that generates bistability, in combination with an anti-Hebbian synapse in its input pathway.

  5. Preservation of both kidneys in the case of treatments of abdominal cancers with RapidArc{sup R}; Preservation des deux reins dans le cas de traitements de cancer abdominaux avec RapidArc{sup R}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenoglietto, P.; Vieillot, S.; Llacer Moscardo, C.; Dubois, J.B.; Azria, D. [CRLC Val-d' Aurelle, Montpellier (France)

    2011-10-15

    The authors report the implementation of RapidArc for the treatment of abdominal cancers and the improvement of preservation of critical organs in comparison with three-dimensional treatments. 15 patients have been treated for a pancreas cancer and 12 for a cholangio-carcinoma. Internal target volumes, and previsional target volumes of organs at risk (planning organ at risk volume) have been determined. Dose has been delivered in 28 fractions. Dosimetry has been performed for volumetric arc-therapy and for three-dimensional conformational radiotherapy. Short communication

  6. OAIS and Distributed Digital Preservation in Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld

    The aim of the paper is to illustrate how the distributed aspects of digital preservation can be aligned in practice, with the concepts and principles of the Open Archival Information System (OAIS) Reference Model. There has been a growing awareness within the digital preservation community...... of the need for cooperation between organizations to address digital preservation requirements. One common example is that replicas of preservation copies of digital objects need to be independently preserved (e.g., stored, managed, monitored, documented) to ensure that at least one correct replica...... will survive for as long as needed. Such independence can be achieved through distributed digital preservation that relies upon specific agreements between participating and contributing organizations. The OAIS Reference Model does not address the challenges of distributed digital preservation in detail...

  7. Self-Organized Criticality of Rainfall in Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiliang Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall is a complexity dynamics process. In this paper, our objective is to find the evidence of self-organized criticality (SOC for rain datasets in China by employing the theory and method of SOC. For this reason, we analyzed the long-term rain records of five meteorological stations in Henan, a central province of China. Three concepts, that is, rain duration, drought duration, accumulated rain amount, are proposed to characterize these rain events processes. We investigate their dynamics property by using scale invariant and found that the long-term rain processes in central China indeed exhibit the feature of self-organized criticality. The proposed theory and method may be suitable to analyze other datasets from different climate zones in China.

  8. Ex-vivo machine perfusion for kidney preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamar, Matyas; Selzner, Markus

    2018-06-01

    Machine perfusion is a novel strategy to decrease preservation injury, improve graft assessment, and increase organ acceptance for transplantation. This review summarizes the current advances in ex-vivo machine-based kidney preservation technologies over the last year. Ex-vivo perfusion technologies, such as hypothermic and normothermic machine perfusion and controlled oxygenated rewarming, have gained high interest in the field of organ preservation. Keeping kidney grafts functionally and metabolically active during the preservation period offers a unique chance for viability assessment, reconditioning, and organ repair. Normothermic ex-vivo kidney perfusion has been recently translated into clinical practice. Preclinical results suggest that prolonged warm perfusion appears superior than a brief end-ischemic reconditioning in terms of renal function and injury. An established standardized protocol for continuous warm perfusion is still not available for human grafts. Ex-vivo machine perfusion represents a superior organ preservation method over static cold storage. There is still an urgent need for the optimization of the perfusion fluid and machine technology and to identify the optimal indication in kidney transplantation. Recent research is focusing on graft assessment and therapeutic strategies.

  9. Preservation of martian organic and environmental records: final report of the Mars biosignature working group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summons, Roger E; Amend, Jan P; Bish, David; Buick, Roger; Cody, George D; Des Marais, David J; Dromart, Gilles; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L; Knoll, Andrew H; Sumner, Dawn Y

    2011-03-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) has an instrument package capable of making measurements of past and present environmental conditions. The data generated may tell us if Mars is, or ever was, able to support life. However, the knowledge of Mars' past history and the geological processes most likely to preserve a record of that history remain sparse and, in some instances, ambiguous. Physical, chemical, and geological processes relevant to biosignature preservation on Earth, especially under conditions early in its history when microbial life predominated, are also imperfectly known. Here, we present the report of a working group chartered by the Co-Chairs of NASA's MSL Project Science Group, John P. Grotzinger and Michael A. Meyer, to review and evaluate potential for biosignature formation and preservation on Mars. Orbital images confirm that layered rocks achieved kilometer-scale thicknesses in some regions of ancient Mars. Clearly, interplays of sedimentation and erosional processes govern present-day exposures, and our understanding of these processes is incomplete. MSL can document and evaluate patterns of stratigraphic development as well as the sources of layered materials and their subsequent diagenesis. It can also document other potential biosignature repositories such as hydrothermal environments. These capabilities offer an unprecedented opportunity to decipher key aspects of the environmental evolution of Mars' early surface and aspects of the diagenetic processes that have operated since that time. Considering the MSL instrument payload package, we identified the following classes of biosignatures as within the MSL detection window: organism morphologies (cells, body fossils, casts), biofabrics (including microbial mats), diagnostic organic molecules, isotopic signatures, evidence of biomineralization and bioalteration, spatial patterns in chemistry, and biogenic gases. Of these, biogenic organic molecules and biogenic atmospheric gases are

  10. Modeling the role of microplastics in Bioaccumulation of organic chemicals to marine aquatic organisms. Critical Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelmans, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that ingestion of microplastics may increase bioaccumulation of organic chemicals by aquatic organisms. This paper critically reviews the literature on the effects of plastic ingestion on the bioaccumulation of organic chemicals, emphasizing quantitative approaches and mechanistic

  11. Organic carbon production, mineralization and preservation on the Peruvian margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, A. W.; Sommer, S.; Lomnitz, U.; Montes, I.; Treude, T.; Gier, J.; Hensen, C.; Dengler, M.; Stolpovsky, K.; Bryant, L. D.; Wallmann, K.

    2014-09-01

    Carbon cycling in Peruvian margin sediments (11° S and 12° S) was examined at 16 stations from 74 m on the inner shelf down to 1024 m water depth by means of in situ flux measurements, sedimentary geochemistry and modeling. Bottom water oxygen was below detection limit down to ca. 400 m and increased to 53 μM at the deepest station. Sediment accumulation rates and benthic dissolved inorganic carbon fluxes decreased rapidly with water depth. Particulate organic carbon (POC) content was lowest on the inner shelf and at the deep oxygenated stations (< 5%) and highest between 200 and 400 m in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ, 15-20%). The organic carbon burial efficiency (CBE) was unexpectedly low on the inner shelf (< 20%) when compared to a global database, for reasons which may be linked to the frequent ventilation of the shelf by oceanographic anomalies. CBE at the deeper oxygenated sites was much higher than expected (max. 81%). Elsewhere, CBEs were mostly above the range expected for sediments underlying normal oxic bottom waters, with an average of 51 and 58% for the 11° S and 12° S transects, respectively. Organic carbon rain rates calculated from the benthic fluxes alluded to a very efficient mineralization of organic matter in the water column, with a Martin curve exponent typical of normal oxic waters (0.88 ± 0.09). Yet, mean POC burial rates were 2-5 times higher than the global average for continental margins. The observations at the Peruvian margin suggest that a lack of oxygen does not affect the degradation of organic matter in the water column but promotes the preservation of organic matter in marine sediments.

  12. A self-organized criticality model for plasma transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreras, B.A.; Newman, D.; Lynch, V.E.

    1996-01-01

    Many models of natural phenomena manifest the basic hypothesis of self-organized criticality (SOC). The SOC concept brings together the self-similarity on space and time scales that is common to many of these phenomena. The application of the SOC modelling concept to the plasma dynamics near marginal stability opens new possibilities of understanding issues such as Bohm scaling, profile consistency, broad band fluctuation spectra with universal characteristics and fast time scales. A model realization of self-organized criticality for plasma transport in a magnetic confinement device is presented. The model is based on subcritical resistive pressure-gradient-driven turbulence. Three-dimensional nonlinear calculations based on this model show the existence of transport under subcritical conditions. This model that includes fluctuation dynamics leads to results very similar to the running sandpile paradigm

  13. Self-organized criticality as a paradigm for transport processes in magnetically confined plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karreras, B.A.; N'yuman, D.; Linch, V.E.

    1996-01-01

    Many models of natural events prove the basic hypotheses of self-organized critically. The concept on self-organized criticality combines self similarity on a spatial and time scale, characteristic of many such events. Application of the self-organized criticality concept to plasma dynamics close to the stability limit opens new possibilities for comprehension of such events as the Bom scaling, profile selfconsistency, wide band fluctuation spectra with universal characteristics and small time scales. Refs. 51, figs. 17

  14. Self-organization of the critical state in Josephson lattices and granulated superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginzburg, S.L.

    1994-01-01

    A number of models of a Josephson medium and granulated superconductors are studied. It is shown that an important parameter is the quantity V∼j c a 3 /Φ 0 , where j c is the Josephson-current density, a is the granule size, and Φ 0 is the quantum of flux. In the limit V>>1 the continuum approximation is inapplicable. In this case the Josephson medium is transformed into a system in which pinning is realized on elementary loops that incorporate Josephson junctions. Here, nonlinear properties of these junctions obtain. The equations obtained for the currents of the Josephson lattice are identical to the standard formulation in the problem of self-organized criticality, while in granulated superconductors a problem of self-organized criticality with a different symmetry arises-a problem not of sites, but of loop. From the point of view of the critical state in granulated superconductors the concept of self-organized criticality radically changes the entire customary picture. The usual equations of the critical state describe only the average values of the magnetic field in the hydrodynamic approximation. However, it follows from the concept of self-organized criticality that the critical state has an extremely complicated structure, much more complicated than that which follows from the equation of the critical state. In particular, the fluctuations of various quantities in the critical state are much stronger than the ordinary statistical fluctuations, since there are large-scale fluctuations of the currents and fields, with a power-law (scaling) behavior that extends up to scales of the order of the size of the system, as in a turbulent medium. On the other hand, the basic equations in it reflect all the features of pinning - hysteresis and threshold behavior. Therefore, the self-organization of the critical state of a superconductor is a natural realization of this extremely general problem. 15 refs., 4 figs

  15. Establishment of a world food preservation center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Charles L

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A World Food Preservation Center (WFPC is proposed in response to a pending civilization-threatening food shortage and our limited ability to adequately increase food production. Some estimates put losses of food in developing countries after it is produced and before it is consumed at 50%. These losses are particularly threatening to individuals and farmers who are living in the midst of food insecurity. Although numerous organizations have attempted to address this problem worldwide, the magnitude of the effort has not come close to the enormity of the problem. Most of these programs are also short-term and require continuous input by postharvest specialists from developed countries in order to be sustainable. A critical need exists for a substantial and sustainable worldwide program that can significantly reduce losses and waste of food in developing countries. The World Food Preservation Center proposed here meets this need by educating young scientists in developing countries about low-input, appropriate technologies for preserving food postharvest. It also conducts research on postharvest technologies especially suited for application in developing countries such as biological control, solar refrigeration, and coordinated transport and marketing schemes that support and sustain the local production of food commodities.

  16. Preservation of Built Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Marie Kirstine

    When built environments and recently also cultural environments are to be preserved, the historic and architectural values are identified as the key motivations. In Denmark the SAVE system is used as a tool to identify architectural values, but in recent years it has been criticized for having...... architectural value in preservation work as a matter of maintaining the buildings -as keeping them "alive" and allowing this to continue in the future. The predominantly aesthetic preservation approach will stop the buildings' life process, which is the same as - "letting them die". Finnebyen in Aarhus...... is an example of a residential area, where the planning authority currently has presented a preservational district plan, following guidelines from the SAVE method. The purpose is to protect the area's architectural values in the future. The predominantly aesthetic approach is here used coupled to the concept...

  17. Mechanical properties of wood from Pinus sylvestris L. treated with Light Organic Solvent Preservative and with waterborne Copper Azole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Villasante

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: To determine the effect on wood from Pinus sylvestris of treatment with preservatives on mechanical properties and to establish the relation between the penetration and compression strength.Area of study: SpainMaterial and Methods: 40 samples of defect-free wood from Pinus sylvestris L. were treated with Light Organic Solvent Preservative (Vacsol Azure WR 2601 and 50 with waterborne Copper Azole (Tanalith E 3492. 40 control samples were not treated (water or preservative. Mechanical resistance to static bending, modulus of elasticity and compression strength parallel to the grain were compared with untreated wood. Regression analysis between the penetration and compression strength parallel was done with the samples treated with waterborne preservative.Main results: The results indicate that the treated wood (with either product presents a statistically significant increase in mechanical resistance in all three mechanical characteristics. The results obtained differ from earlier studies carried out by other authors.There was no correlation between parallel compression strength and the degree of impregnation of the wood with waterborne Copper Azole . The most probable explanation for these results concerns changes in pressure during treatment.The use of untreated control samples instead of samples treated only with water is more likely to produce significant results in the mechanical resistance studies.Research highlights: Treated wood presents a statistically significant increase in MOE, modulus of rupture to static bending  and parallel compression strength.There was no correlation between parallel compression strength and the degree of impregnation with waterborne preservative.Keywords: Light Organic Solvent Preservative; MOE; parallel compression; static bending; waterborne Copper Azole; wood technology.

  18. Preserved entropy and fragile magnetism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Paul C; Bud'ko, Sergey L

    2016-08-01

    A large swath of quantum critical and strongly correlated electron systems can be associated with the phenomena of preserved entropy and fragile magnetism. In this overview we present our thoughts and plans for the discovery and development of lanthanide and transition metal based, strongly correlated systems that are revealed by suppressed, fragile magnetism, quantum criticality, or grow out of preserved entropy. We will present and discuss current examples such as YbBiPt, YbAgGe, YbFe2Zn20, PrAg2In, BaFe2As2, CaFe2As2, LaCrSb3 and LaCrGe3 as part of our motivation and to provide illustrative examples.

  19. Self-organized criticality in neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarenkov, Vladimir I.; Kirillov, A. B.

    1991-08-01

    Possible mechanisms of creating different types of persistent states for informational processing are regarded. It is presented two origins of criticalities - self-organized and phase transition. A comparative analyses of their behavior is given. It is demonstrated that despite a likeness there are important differences. These differences can play a significant role to explain the physical issue of such highest functions of the brain as a short-term memory and attention. 1.

  20. Sustained activity in hierarchical modular neural networks: self-organized criticality and oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Jun Wang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral cortical brain networks possess a number of conspicuous features of structure and dynamics. First, these networks have an intricate, non-random organization. They are structured in a hierarchical modular fashion, from large-scale regions of the whole brain, via cortical areas and area subcompartments organized as structural and functional maps to cortical columns, and finally circuits made up of individual neurons. Second, the networks display self-organized sustained activity, which is persistent in the absence of external stimuli. At the systems level, such activity is characterized by complex rhythmical oscillations over a broadband background, while at the cellular level, neuronal discharges have been observed to display avalanches, indicating that cortical networks are at the state of self-organized criticality. We explored the relationship between hierarchical neural network organization and sustained dynamics using large-scale network modeling. It was shown that sparse random networks with balanced excitation and inhibition can sustain neural activity without external stimulation. We find that a hierarchical modular architecture can generate sustained activity better than random networks. Moreover, the system can simultaneously support rhythmical oscillations and self-organized criticality, which are not present in the respective random networks. The underlying mechanism is that each dense module cannot sustain activity on its own, but displays self-organized criticality in the presence of weak perturbations. The hierarchical modular networks provide the coupling among subsystems with self-organized criticality. These results imply that the hierarchical modular architecture of cortical networks plays an important role in shaping the ongoing spontaneous activity of the brain, potentially allowing the system to take advantage of both the sensitivityof critical state and predictability and timing of oscillations for efficient

  1. The Critical Role of Organic Chemistry in Drug Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotella, David P

    2016-10-19

    Small molecules remain the backbone for modern drug discovery. They are conceived and synthesized by medicinal chemists, many of whom were originally trained as organic chemists. Support from government and industry to provide training and personnel for continued development of this critical skill set has been declining for many years. This Viewpoint highlights the value of organic chemistry and organic medicinal chemists in the complex journey of drug discovery as a reminder that basic science support must be restored.

  2. Workplace Accidents and Self-Organized Criticality

    OpenAIRE

    Mauro, John C.; Diehl, Brett; Marcellin, Richard F.; Vaughn, Daniel J.

    2018-01-01

    The occurrence of workplace accidents is described within the context of self-organized criticality, a theory from statistical physics that governs a wide range of phenomena across physics, biology, geosciences, economics, and the social sciences. Workplace accident data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics reveal a power-law relationship between the number of accidents and their severity as measured by the number of days lost from work. This power-law scaling is indicative of workplace a...

  3. Organ preservation in invasive bladder cancer: Brachytherapy, an alternative to cystectomy and combined modality treatment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pos, Floris; Horenblas, Simon; Dom, Paul; Moonen, Luc; Bartelink, Harry

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate our long-term results of bladder preservation with brachytherapy in the treatment of bladder cancer. Methods and materials: Between 1987 and 2000, 108 patients with T1-G3 and T2-T3a stages of bladder cancer were treated with a transurethral resection (TUR) and a course of external beam radiotherapy (30 Gy in 15 fractions) followed by brachytherapy (40 Gy). All tumors were solitary lesions with a diameter ≤5 cm. Median follow-up was 54 months (range, 1-178 months). Results: The 5-year and 10-year overall survival rates were 62% and 50%, respectively. The 5-year and 10-year disease-specific survival rates were 73% and 67%, respectively. The actuarial local control rate was 73% at 5 and 73% at 10 years, respectively. The 5-year and 10-year disease-specific survival rates for patients with a preserved bladder were 68% and 59%, respectively. Of all long-term surviving patients, 90% preserved their native bladders. The treatment was well tolerated. Acute toxicity was mild. Two patients experienced serious late toxicity: 1 patient developed a persisting vesicocutaneous fistula and the other a stricture of the urethra and ureters. Conclusion: For patients with solitary, organ confined invasive bladder cancer ≤5 cm, bladder preservation with brachytherapy is an excellent alternative to radical cystectomy and combined modality treatment

  4. [Importance of preservation of biophysical organization of isolated mitochondria for revealing physiological regulation of their functions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharchenko, M V; Khunderiakova, N V; Kondrashova, M N

    2011-01-01

    A method has been elaborated that preserves the mitochondrial-reticular network in lymphocytes in composition to the physiological one. Physiologicalby the immobilization of a blood smear on glass and its subsequent incubation in a medium closeresponses of respiration to excitation in the ition of early responses of ions. The recogn organism are well pronounced on these preparat mitochondria to pathogenic agents in the organism is a timely problem of basic and medicinal e- investigations since they play a leading role in the development of pathological states.

  5. Heat shock and salicylic acid on postharvest preservation of organic strawberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidiane Coltro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock and salicylic acid have been studied on shelf-life extension of fruits. The benefits of these techniques have been related to their effect on inducing physiological defense responses against the oxidative stress and pathogen development. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of heat shock and salicylic acid on the postharvest preservation and contents of total phenolics, anthocyanins, ascorbic acid, fresh weight loss and microbiological quality of organic strawberries cv. Dover. Strawberries produced organically and stored at 5 ºC were subjected to heat shock (45 ºC ± 3 ºC for 3 h, application of salicylic acid (soaking in 2.0 mmol L-1 solution, heat shock in combination with salicylic acid and control. After treatment, the fruits were packed and stored in a climatic chamber at 5 ºC ± 2 ºC. At 1, 7 and 14 days, the experimental units were removed from refrigeration and kept at room temperature of approximately 20 ºC for two days. There was no effect of treatments on fresh weight loss, incidence of pathogens or chemical variations in strawberry fruits during the storage period. In natural conditions, organically grown strawberries remained in good condition for sale up to seven days of storage in all treatments.

  6. [Critical appraisal of organ procurement under Maastricht 3 condition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puybasset, L; Bazin, J-E; Beloucif, S; Bizouarn, P; Crozier, S; Devalois, B; Eon, B; Fieux, F; Gisquet, E; Guibet-Lafaye, C; Kentish, N; Lienhart, A; Nicolas-Robin, A; Otero Lopez, M; Pelluchon, C; Roussin, F; Beydon, L

    2012-05-01

    The ethics committee of the French Society of Anesthesia and Intensive Care (Sfar) has been requested by the French Biomedical Agency to consider the issue of organ donation in patients after a decision of withdrawing life supporting therapies has been taken. This category of organ donation is performed in the USA, Canada, United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Belgium. The three former countries have published recommendations, which formalize procedures and operations. The Sfar ethics committee has considered this issue and envisioned the different aspects of the whole process. Consequently, it sounds a note of caution regarding the applicability of this type of organ procurement in unselected patient following a decision to withdraw life supporting therapies. According to the French regulation concerning organ procurement in brain dead patients, the committee stresses the need to restrict this specific way of procurement to severely brain injured patients, once confirmatory investigations predicting a catastrophic prognosis have been performed. It suggests that the nature of the confirmatory investigation required should be formalized by the French Biomedical Agency on behalf of the French parliamentarians. This should help preserving population trust regarding organ procurement and provide a framework to medical decision. This text has been endorsed by the Sfar. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  7. Organized versus self-organized criticality in the abelian sandpile model

    OpenAIRE

    Fey-den Boer, AC Anne; Redig, FHJ Frank

    2005-01-01

    We define stabilizability of an infinite volume height configuration and of a probability measure on height configurations. We show that for high enough densities, a probability measure cannot be stabilized. We also show that in some sense the thermodynamic limit of the uniform measures on the recurrent configurations of the abelian sandpile model (ASM) is a maximal element of the set of stabilizable measures. In that sense the self-organized critical behavior of the ASM can be understood in ...

  8. Fast-freezing with liquid nitrogen preserves bulk dissolved organic matter concentrations, but not its composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thieme, Lisa; Graeber, Daniel; Kaupenjohann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    -freezing with liquid nitrogen) on DOM concentrations measured as organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and on spectroscopic properties of DOM from different terrestrial ecosystems (forest and grassland). Fresh and differently frozen throughfall, stemflow, litter leachate and soil solution samples were analyzed for DOC...... concentrations, UV-vis absorption and fluorescence excitation–emission matrices combined with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC). Fast-freezing with liquid nitrogen prevented a significant decrease of DOC concentrations observed after freezing at −18 °C. Nonetheless, the share of PARAFAC components 1 (EXmax...... component 4 (EXmax: 280 nm, EXmax: 328 nm) to total fluorescence was not affected by freezing. We recommend fast-freezing with liquid nitrogen for preservation of bulk DOC concentrations of samples from terrestrial sources, whereas immediate measuring is preferable to preserve spectroscopic properties...

  9. Organ Preservation With Concurrent Chemoradiation for Advanced Laryngeal Cancer: Are We Succeeding?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, Louise; Fortin, Bernard; Soulieres, Denis; Guertin, Louis; Coulombe, Genevieve; Charpentier, Danielle; Tabet, Jean-Claude; Belair, Manon; Khaouam, Nader; Nguyen-Tan, Phuc Felix

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the rates of organ preservation and function in patients with advanced laryngeal and hypopharyngeal carcinomas treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Methods and Materials: Between April 1999 and September 2005, 82 patients with advanced laryngeal (67%) and hypopharyngeal carcinomas (33%) underwent conventional radiotherapy and concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy with curative intent. Sixty-two patients were male (75.6%). The median age was 59 years. Eighteen patients (22%) were in Stage III and 64 (78%) were in Stage IV. The median radiation dose was 70 Gy. The median potential follow-up was 3.9 years. Results: Overall survival and disease-free survival were respectively 63% and 73% at 3 years. Complete response rate from CRT was 75%. Nineteen patients (23%) experienced significant long-term toxicity after CRT: 6 (7.3%) required a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy, 5 (6%) had persistent Grade 2 or 3 dysphagia, 2 (2.4%) had pharyngoesophageal stenosis requiring multiple dilations, 2 (2.4%) had chronic lung aspiration, and 7 (8.5%) required a permanent tracheostomy. Four patients (4.9%) underwent laryngectomy without pathologic evidence of disease. At last follow-up, 5 (6%) patients were still dependent on a gastrostomy. Overall, 42 patients (52%) were alive, in complete response, with a functional larynx and no other major complications. Conclusions: In our institution, CRT for advanced hypopharyngeal and laryngeal carcinoma has provided good overall survival and locoregional control in the majority of patients, but a significant proportion did not benefit from this approach because of either locoregional failure or late complications. Better organ preservation approaches are necessary to improve locoregional control and to reduce long-term toxicities.

  10. Martian Chlorobenzene Identified by Curiosity in Yellowknife Bay: Evidence for the Preservation of Organics in a Mudstone on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Freissinet, Caroline; Mahaffy, P.; Miller, K.; Eigenbrode, J.; Summons, R.; Martin, M.; Franz, H.; Steele, A.; Archer, D.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument on the Curiosity rover is designed to determine the inventory of organic and inorganic volatiles thermally evolved from solid samples using a combination of evolved gas analysis (EGA), gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS), and tunable laser spectroscopy. The first sample analyzed by SAM at the Rocknest (RN) aeolian deposit revealed chlorohydrocarbons derived primarily from reactions between a martian oxychlorine phase (e.g. perchlorate) and terrestrial carbon from N-methyl-N-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide (MTBSTFA) vapor present in the SAM instrument background. No conclusive evidence for martian chlorohydrocarbons in the RN sand was found. After RN, Curiosity traveled to Yellowknife Bay and drilled two holes separated by 2.75 m designated John Klein (JK) and Cumberland (CB). Analyses of JK and CB by both SAM and the CheMin x-ray diffraction instrument revealed a mudstone (called Sheepbed) consisting of approx.20 wt% smectite clays, which on Earth are known to aid the concentration and preservation of organic matter. Last year at LPSC we reported elevated abundances of chlorobenzene (CBZ) and a more diverse suite of chlorinated hydrocarbons including dichloroalkanes in CB compared to RN, suggesting that martian or meteoritic organic compounds may be preserved in the mudstone. Here we present SAM data from additional analyses of the CB sample and of Confidence Hills (CH), another drill sample collected at the base of Mt. Sharp. This new SAM data along with supporting laboratory analog experiments indicate that most of the chlorobenzene detected in CB is derived from martian organic matter preserved in the mudstone.

  11. Inhibition of Rho and Rac geranylgeranylation by atorvastatin is critical for preservation of endothelial junction integrity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbing Xiao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Small GTPases (guanosine triphosphate, GTP are involved in many critical cellular processes, including inflammation, proliferation, and migration. GTP loading and isoprenylation are two important post-translational modifications of small GTPases, and are critical for their normal function. In this study, we investigated the role of post-translational modifications of small GTPases in regulating endothelial cell inflammatory responses and junctional integrity. METHODS AND RESULTS: Confluent human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVECs treated with atorvastatin demonstrated significantly decreased lipopolysaccharide (LPS-mediated IL-6 and IL-8 generation. The inhibitory effect of atorvastatin (Atorva was attenuated by co-treatment with 100 µM mevalonate (MVA or 10 µM geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP, but not by 10 µM farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP. Atorvastatin treatment of HUVECs produced a time-dependent increase in GTP loading of all Rho GTPases, and induced the translocation of small Rho GTPases from the cellular membrane to the cytosol, which was reversed by 100 µM MVA and 10 µM GGPP, but not by 10 µM FPP. Atorvastatin significantly attenuated thrombin-induced HUVECs permeability, increased VE-cadherin targeting to cell junctions, and preserved junction integrity. These effects were partially reversed by GGPP but not by FPP, indicating that geranylgeranylation of small GTPases plays a major role in regulating endothelial junction integrity. Silencing of small GTPases showed that Rho and Rac, but not Cdc42, play central role in HUVECs junction integrity. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our studies show that post-translational modification of small GTPases plays a vital role in regulating endothelial inflammatory response and endothelial junction integrity. Atorvastatin increased GTP loading and inhibited isoprenylation of small GTPases, accompanied by reduced inflammatory response and preserved cellular junction integrity.

  12. Knowledge preservation strategies for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koruna, S.; Bachmann, H.

    2004-01-01

    The nuclear industry is currently facing several challenges. An internal threat to the safety and operations of nuclear power plants is the loss of those employees who hold knowledge that is either critical to operations or safety. This report discusses the possibilities to preserve knowledge in nuclear power plants. Dependent on the degree of tacitness two different knowledge preservation strategies can be discerned: personalization and codification. The knowledge preservation activities discussed are valued according to the criteria: cost, immediacy of availability and completeness

  13. Self-Organized Criticality and $1/f$ Noise in Traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Paczuski, Maya; Nagel, Kai

    1996-01-01

    Phantom traffic jams may emerge ``out of nowhere'' from small fluctuations rather than being triggered by large, exceptional events. We show how phantom jams arise in a model of single lane highway traffic, which mimics human driving behavior. Surprisingly, the optimal state of highest efficiency, with the largest throughput, is a critical state with traffic jams of all sizes. We demonstrate that open systems self-organize to the most efficient state. In the model we study, this critical stat...

  14. Radiation risk to critical organ during brain CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alaraki, N. M. E.

    2012-08-01

    Study was performed to evaluate dose to critical organ for patient undergoing CT brain in modern medical center a total of 61 patient were examined in this study. The data collected from Modern Medical Center for brain. The data collected from Modern Medical Center for brain. The eye lens dose was 31.31 mSv, skin 29.23 mSv, cranium 30.01 mSv, brain 34.50 mSv, mandible 4.39 mSv, thyroid 2.59 mSv. The organ dose value were comparable to the previous studies. (Author)

  15. Do earthquakes exhibit self-organized criticality?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xiaosong; Ma Jin; Du Shuming

    2004-01-01

    If earthquakes are phenomena of self-organized criticality (SOC), statistical characteristics of the earthquake time series should be invariant after the sequence of events in an earthquake catalog are randomly rearranged. In this Letter we argue that earthquakes are unlikely phenomena of SOC because our analysis of the Southern California Earthquake Catalog shows that the first-return-time probability P M (T) is apparently changed after the time series is rearranged. This suggests that the SOC theory should not be used to oppose the efforts of earthquake prediction

  16. Problem based learning and involvement in off campus organization enhance students’ critical participation behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endang Lestari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim Developing students’ critical thinking and critical participation in solving patients’ as well as a community’s problem should become the concern of medical education. This study aimed to identify several factors related to medical students’ critical participation behavior.Methods The subjects consisted of students of Sultan Agung Medical School (Unissula, year entry 2005, 2006, and 2007. Critical participation behavior was assessed using modified EMI: Critical Thinking Disposition Assessment. Relative risks (RR were calculated using Cox regression analysis with constant time.Results 64,6% (388 out of 600 of the students participated in this study. Those who were involved in PBL for two and three years, rather than one year, had twice as high good critical thinking behavior [adjusted relative risk (RR = 2.07; 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.37–3.14; and RR = 2.33; 95% CI = 155–3.49, respectively.] Students who were more involved in off-campus organizations had a good critical participation behavior; 75% higher than those who were not involved in off-campus organizations (RR = 1.75; 95% CI = 0.99–3.11.Conclusion Besides involving in PBL learning approach, students should be motivated to be involved in off-campus organizations in order to improve their critical participation behavior (Med J Indones 2009;18:215-20Key words: critical participation behavior, PBL, off-campus organization

  17. A Policy-Based Framework for Preserving Confidentiality in BYOD Environments: A Review of Information Security Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalee Vorakulpipat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, many organizations allow their employees to bring their own smartphones or tablets to work and to access the corporate network, which is known as a bring your own device (BYOD. However, many such companies overlook potential security risks concerning privacy and confidentiality. This paper provides a review of existing literature concerning the preservation of privacy and confidentiality, with a focus on recent trends in the use of BYOD. This review spans a large spectrum of information security research, ranging from management (risk and policy to technical aspects of privacy and confidentiality in BYOD. Furthermore, this study proposes a policy-based framework for preserving data confidentiality in BYOD. This framework considers a number of aspects of information security and corresponding techniques, such as policy, location privacy, centralized control, cryptography, and operating system level security, which have been omitted in previous studies. The main contribution is to investigate recent trends concerning the preservation of confidentiality in BYOD from the perspective of information security and to analyze the critical and comprehensive factors needed to strengthen data privacy in BYOD. Finally, this paper provides a foundation for developing the concept of preserving confidentiality in BYOD and describes the key technical and organizational challenges faced by BYOD-friendly organizations.

  18. Preservation of the liver for transplantation: Machine perfusion-based strategies for extended preservation and recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinsma, B.G.

    2015-01-01

    The field of liver transplantation remains burdened by a severe shortage of donor organs. An important limitation to the use of many livers is the ex vivo preservation of the organ, as maintaining the viability of the donor organ while outside the body is essential for successful transplantation.

  19. Survival analysis of patients with uveal melanoma after organ preserving and liquidation treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Grishina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Rationale: Uveal melanoma is the most common primary malignancy of the eye.Aim: To evaluate survival in patients with uveal melanoma stratified according to the type of treatment and to identify factors significantly associated with their survival.Materials and methods: The study was performed on the data extracted from medical files and follow-up forms of patients with uveal melanoma seen in the Ophthalmological Clinical Hospital of the Department of Healthcare, Moscow, from 1977 to 2012. Analysis of survival was used to assess the life longevity of patients with uveal melanoma. The analysis was censored at January 2013, when vital status (dead or alive of all patients was assessed. The factors included into the study analysis, were those taken from the follow-up forms. The incidence of uveal melanoma in Moscow (2012 was 0.9 per 100,000 of the population, whereas its prevalence was 11.1 per 100,000.Results: 698 patients with uveal melanoma were included into the study, among them 260 (37% men (aged from 19 to 87 years, median age 60 years and 438 (63% women (aged from 18 to 93 years, median age 63 years; therefore, the proportion of women under the follow-up monitoring was by 26% higher than that of men. The liquidation treatment (mostly enucleation was performed in 358 (51% of the patients, whereas the organ preserving treatment in 340 (49%. At 5, 7, and 10 years of the follow-up, the disease-specific survival of patients with uveal melanoma after the organ preserving treatment (median survival has not been reached and after the liquidation treatment (median, 88 months were 89 ± 2, 83 ± 3, and 75 ± 4% versus 63 ± 3, 52 ± 4, and 47 ± 5%, respectively (р = 0.001. Overall survival and disease-specific survival of the patients after the liquidation treatment were significantly lower than in the patients after the organ-preserving treatment. According to multiple regression analysis, this was associated not with the type of

  20. Self-organized criticality revisited: non-local transport by turbulent amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milovanov, Alexander V.; Rasmussen, Jens Juul

    2015-01-01

    We revise the applications of self-organized criticality (SOC) as a paradigmatic model for tokamak plasma turbulence. The work, presented here, is built around the idea that some systems do not develop a pure critical state associable with SOC, since their dynamical evolution involves as a compet......We revise the applications of self-organized criticality (SOC) as a paradigmatic model for tokamak plasma turbulence. The work, presented here, is built around the idea that some systems do not develop a pure critical state associable with SOC, since their dynamical evolution involves...... as a competing key factor an inverse cascade of the energy in reciprocal space. Then relaxation of slowly increasing stresses will give rise to intermittent bursts of transport in real space and outstanding transport events beyond the range of applicability of the 'conventional' SOC. Also, we are concerned...... with the causes and origins of non-local transport in magnetized plasma, and show that this type of transport occurs naturally in self-consistent strong turbulence via a complexity coupling to the inverse cascade. We expect these coupling phenomena to occur in the parameter range of strong nonlinearity and time...

  1. The origin of power-law distributions in self-organized criticality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C B

    2004-01-01

    The origin of power-law distributions in self-organized criticality is investigated by treating the variation of the number of active sites in the system as a stochastic process. An avalanche is then regarded as a first-return random-walk process in a one-dimensional lattice. Power-law distributions of the lifetime and spatial size are found when the random walk is unbiased with equal probability to move in opposite directions. This shows that power-law distributions in self-organized criticality may be caused by the balance of competitive interactions. At the mean time, the mean spatial size for avalanches with the same lifetime is found to increase in a power law with the lifetime. (letter to the editor)

  2. Spontaneous neuronal activity as a self-organized critical phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Arcangelis, L.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2013-01-01

    Neuronal avalanches are a novel mode of activity in neuronal networks, experimentally found in vitro and in vivo, and exhibit a robust critical behaviour. Avalanche activity can be modelled within the self-organized criticality framework, including threshold firing, refractory period and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. The size and duration distributions confirm that the system acts in a critical state, whose scaling behaviour is very robust. Next, we discuss the temporal organization of neuronal avalanches. This is given by the alternation between states of high and low activity, named up and down states, leading to a balance between excitation and inhibition controlled by a single parameter. During these periods both the single neuron state and the network excitability level, keeping memory of past activity, are tuned by homeostatic mechanisms. Finally, we verify if a system with no characteristic response can ever learn in a controlled and reproducible way. Learning in the model occurs via plastic adaptation of synaptic strengths by a non-uniform negative feedback mechanism. Learning is a truly collective process and the learning dynamics exhibits universal features. Even complex rules can be learned provided that the plastic adaptation is sufficiently slow.

  3. An Ocean Basin of Dirt? Using Molecular Biomarkers and Radiocarbon to Identify Organic Carbon Sources and their Preservation in the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, H.; Belicka, L. L.

    2005-12-01

    In the modern Arctic Ocean, primary production in waters over the broad continental shelves and under ice contributes an estimated 250 Mt/yr of POC to Arctic waters. The delivery of terrestrial material from large rivers, ice transport and through coastal erosion adds at least an additional 12 Mt/yr of POC. Although the marine organic carbon signal in Arctic Ocean exceeds that of terrestrial carbon by an order or magnitude or more, recent evidence suggests that this balance is not maintained and significant fractions of terrestrial carbon is preserved in sediments. Using an integrated approach combining lipid biomarkers and radiocarbon dating in particles and sediments, the process of organic carbon recycling and historical changes in its sources and preservation has been examined. A suite of lipid biomarkers in particles and sediments of western Arctic shelves and basins were measured and principle components analysis (PCA) used to allow a robust comparison among the 120+ individual compounds to assign organic sources and relative inputs. Offshore particles from the chlorophyll maximum contained abundant algal markers (e.g. 20:5 and 22:6 FAMEs), low concentrations of terrestrial markers (amyrins and 24-ethylcholest-5-en-3b-ol), and reflected modern 14C values. Particles present in deeper halocline waters also reflect marine production, but a portion of older, terrestrial carbon accompanies the sinking of the spring bloom. Surface and deeper sediments of basins contain older organic carbon and low concentrations of algal biomarkers, suggesting that marine carbon produced in surface waters is rapidly recycled. Taken together, these observations suggest that marine derived organic matter produced in shallow waters fuels carbon cycling, but relatively small amounts are preserved in sediments. As a result, the organic carbon preserved in sediments contrasts sharply to that typically observed in lower latitudes, with an increasing terrestrial signature with distance

  4. Clay mineral formation under oxidized conditions and implications for paleoenvironments and organic preservation on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gainey, Seth R; Hausrath, Elisabeth M; Adcock, Christopher T; Tschauner, Oliver; Hurowitz, Joel A; Ehlmann, Bethany L; Xiao, Yuming; Bartlett, Courtney L

    2017-11-01

    Clay mineral-bearing locations have been targeted for martian exploration as potentially habitable environments and as possible repositories for the preservation of organic matter. Although organic matter has been detected at Gale Crater, Mars, its concentrations are lower than expected from meteoritic and indigenous igneous and hydrothermal reduced carbon. We conducted synthesis experiments motivated by the hypothesis that some clay mineral formation may have occurred under oxidized conditions conducive to the destruction of organics. Previous work has suggested that anoxic and/or reducing conditions are needed to synthesize the Fe-rich clay mineral nontronite at low temperatures. In contrast, our experiments demonstrated the rapid formation of Fe-rich clay minerals of variable crystallinity from aqueous Fe 3+ with small amounts of aqueous Mg 2+ . Our results suggest that Fe-rich clay minerals such as nontronite can form rapidly under oxidized conditions, which could help explain low concentrations of organics within some smectite-containing rocks or sediments on Mars.

  5. Clay mineral formation under oxidized conditions and implications for paleoenvironments and organic preservation on Mars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gainey, Seth R.; Hausrath, Elisabeth M.; Adcock, Christopher T.; Tschauner, Oliver; Hurowitz, Joel A.; Ehlmann, Bethany L.; Xiao, Yuming; Bartlett, Courtney L. (CIW); (UNLV); (CIT); (SBU)

    2017-11-01

    Clay mineral-bearing locations have been targeted for martian exploration as potentially habitable environments and as possible repositories for the preservation of organic matter. Although organic matter has been detected at Gale Crater, Mars, its concentrations are lower than expected from meteoritic and indigenous igneous and hydrothermal reduced carbon. We conducted synthesis experiments motivated by the hypothesis that some clay mineral formation may have occurred under oxidized conditions conducive to the destruction of organics. Previous work has suggested that anoxic and/or reducing conditions are needed to synthesize the Fe-rich clay mineral nontronite at low temperatures. In contrast, our experiments demonstrated the rapid formation of Fe-rich clay minerals of variable crystallinity from aqueous Fe3+ with small amounts of aqueous Mg2+. Our results suggest that Fe-rich clay minerals such as nontronite can form rapidly under oxidized conditions, which could help explain low concentrations of organics within some smectite-containing rocks or sediments on Mars.

  6. Nuclear Criticality Safety Organization training implementation. Revision 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, K.J.; Taylor, R.G.; Worley, C.A.

    1997-01-01

    The Nuclear Criticality Safety Organization (NCSO) is committed to developing and maintaining a staff of qualified personnel to meet the current and anticipated needs in Nuclear Criticality Safety (NCS) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. This document provides a listing of the roles and responsibilities of NCSO personnel with respect to training and details of the Training Management System (TMS) programs, Mentoring Checklists and Checksheets, as well as other documentation utilized to implement the program. This Training Implementation document is applicable to all technical and managerial NCSO personnel, including temporary personnel, sub-contractors and/or LMES employees on loan to the NCSO, who are in a qualification program

  7. Nuclear Criticality Safety Organization training implementation. Revision 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, K.J.; Taylor, R.G.; Worley, C.A.

    1997-05-19

    The Nuclear Criticality Safety Organization (NCSO) is committed to developing and maintaining a staff of qualified personnel to meet the current and anticipated needs in Nuclear Criticality Safety (NCS) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. This document provides a listing of the roles and responsibilities of NCSO personnel with respect to training and details of the Training Management System (TMS) programs, Mentoring Checklists and Checksheets, as well as other documentation utilized to implement the program. This Training Implementation document is applicable to all technical and managerial NCSO personnel, including temporary personnel, sub-contractors and/or LMES employees on loan to the NCSO, who are in a qualification program.

  8. VT Historic Preservation Grant

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The State-funded Historic Preservation Grant Program helps municipalities and non-profit organizations rehabilitate the historic buildings that are a vital part of...

  9. 210Pb dating of sediments from the central and the northern Adriatic Sea: The deposition and preservation of sedimentary organic carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, T.; Fowler, S.; Miquel, J.C.; La Rosa, J.

    1996-04-01

    A central goal of the ELNA project is to assess the carbon assimilation capacity of the Northern Adriatic Sea. This requires fundamental quantitative information on budgets and sinks of organic carbon. Any change in carbon production in the water column should be reflected in the underlying sediments. Moreover, the fraction of particulate organic carbon reaching the sea floor which is subsequently preserved in the sediment will be strongly coupled to sediment accumulation and mixing. In this study a series of box cores were collected in order to characterize a hypothetical eutrophication gradient extending from the Po River outflow region in the north down to the shallow meso-Adriatic depression (Jabuka Pit). The main tasks assigned to IAEA-MEL were to provide 210 Pb derived sedimentation and dry-mass accumulation rates and to examine the possible correlations between sedimentary processes, the deposition and preservation of sedimentary organic carbon and pelagic primary productivity

  10. How nature works the science of self-organized criticality

    CERN Document Server

    Bak, Per

    1996-01-01

    This is an acclaimed book intended for the general reader who is interested in science. The author is a physicist who is well-known for his development of the property called "self-organized criticality", a property or phenomenon that lies at the heart of large dynamical systems. It can be used to analyse systems that are complicated, and which are part of the new science of complexity. It is a unifying concept that can be used to study phenomena in fields as diverse as economics, astronomy, the earth sciences, and physics. The author discusses his discovery of self-organized criticality; its relation to the world of classical physics; computer simulations and experiments which aid scientists' understanding of the property; and the relation of the subject to popular areas such as fractal geometry and power laws; cellular automata, and a wide range of practical applications.

  11. Chronopolis Digital Preservation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Minor

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Chronopolis Digital Preservation Initiative, one of the Library of Congress’ latest efforts to collect and preserve at-risk digital information, has completed its first year of service as a multi-member partnership to meet the archival needs of a wide range of domains.Chronopolis is a digital preservation data grid framework developed by the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC at UC San Diego, the UC San Diego Libraries (UCSDL, and their partners at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR in Colorado and the University of Maryland's Institute for Advanced Computer Studies (UMIACS.Chronopolis addresses a critical problem by providing a comprehensive model for the cyberinfrastructure of collection management, in which preserved intellectual capital is easily accessible, and research results, education material, and new knowledge can be incorporated smoothly over the long term. Integrating digital library, data grid, and persistent archive technologies, Chronopolis has created trusted environments that span academic institutions and research projects, with the goal of long-term digital preservation.A key goal of the Chronopolis project is to provide cross-domain collection sharing for long-term preservation. Using existing high-speed educational and research networks and mass-scale storage infrastructure investments, the partnership is leveraging the data storage capabilities at SDSC, NCAR, and UMIACS to provide a preservation data grid that emphasizes heterogeneous and highly redundant data storage systems.In this paper we will explore the major themes within Chronopolis, including:a The philosophy and theory behind a nationally federated data grid for preservation. b The core tools and technologies used in Chronopolis. c The metadata schema that is being developed within Chronopolis for all of the data elements. d Lessons learned from the first year of the project.e Next steps in digital preservation using Chronopolis: how we

  12. Self-Organized Criticality and Mass Extinction in Evolutionary Algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krink, Thiemo; Thomsen, Rene

    2001-01-01

    The gaps in the fossil record gave rise to the hypothesis that evolution proceeded in long periods of stasis, which alternated with occasional, rapid changes that yielded evolutionary progress. One mechanism that could cause these punctuated bursts is the re-colonbation of changing and deserted...... at a critical state between chaos and order, known as self-organized criticality (SOC). Based on this background, we used SOC to control the size of spatial extinction zones in a diffusion model. The SOC selection process was easy to implement and implied only negligible computational costs. Our results show...

  13. Presumed consent for organ preservation in uncontrolled donation after cardiac death in the United States: a public policy with serious consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rady Mohamed Y

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Organ donation after cessation of circulation and respiration, both controlled and uncontrolled, has been proposed by the Institute of Medicine as a way to increase opportunities for organ procurement. Despite claims to the contrary, both forms of controlled and uncontrolled donation after cardiac death raise significant ethical and legal issues. Identified causes for concern include absence of agreement on criteria for the declaration of death, nonexistence of universal guidelines for duration before stopping resuscitation efforts and techniques, and assumption of presumed intent to donate for the purpose of initiating temporary organ-preservation interventions when no expressed consent to donate is present. From a legal point of view, not having scientifically valid criteria of cessation of circulation and respiration for declaring death could lead to a conclusion that organ procurement itself is the proximate cause of death. Although the revised Uniform Anatomical Gift Act of 2006 provides broad immunity to those involved in organ-procurement activities, courts have yet to provide an opinion on whether persons can be held liable for injuries arising from the determination of death itself. Preserving organs in uncontrolled donation after cardiac death requires the administration of life-support systems such as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. These life-support systems can lead to return of signs of life that, in turn, have to be deliberately suppressed by the administration of pharmacological agents. Finally, allowing temporary organ-preservation interventions without expressed consent is inherently a violation of the principle of respect for a person's autonomy. Proponents of organ donation from uncontrolled donation after cardiac death, on the other hand, claim that these nonconsensual interventions enhance respect for autonomy by allowing people, through surrogate decision making, to execute their right to donate organs

  14. Presumed consent for organ preservation in uncontrolled donation after cardiac death in the United States: a public policy with serious consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheijde, Joseph L; Rady, Mohamed Y; McGregor, Joan

    2009-01-01

    Organ donation after cessation of circulation and respiration, both controlled and uncontrolled, has been proposed by the Institute of Medicine as a way to increase opportunities for organ procurement. Despite claims to the contrary, both forms of controlled and uncontrolled donation after cardiac death raise significant ethical and legal issues. Identified causes for concern include absence of agreement on criteria for the declaration of death, nonexistence of universal guidelines for duration before stopping resuscitation efforts and techniques, and assumption of presumed intent to donate for the purpose of initiating temporary organ-preservation interventions when no expressed consent to donate is present. From a legal point of view, not having scientifically valid criteria of cessation of circulation and respiration for declaring death could lead to a conclusion that organ procurement itself is the proximate cause of death. Although the revised Uniform Anatomical Gift Act of 2006 provides broad immunity to those involved in organ-procurement activities, courts have yet to provide an opinion on whether persons can be held liable for injuries arising from the determination of death itself. Preserving organs in uncontrolled donation after cardiac death requires the administration of life-support systems such as extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. These life-support systems can lead to return of signs of life that, in turn, have to be deliberately suppressed by the administration of pharmacological agents. Finally, allowing temporary organ-preservation interventions without expressed consent is inherently a violation of the principle of respect for a person's autonomy. Proponents of organ donation from uncontrolled donation after cardiac death, on the other hand, claim that these nonconsensual interventions enhance respect for autonomy by allowing people, through surrogate decision making, to execute their right to donate organs. However, the lack of transparency

  15. Pharmacists' guide to the management of organ donors after brain death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korte, Catherine; Garber, Jennifer L; Descourouez, Jillian L; Richards, Katelyn R; Hardinger, Karen

    2016-11-15

    This article reviews organ donor pathophysiology as it relates to medication use with the goal of maximizing the successful procurement and transplantation of donor organs. The number of patients requiring organ transplantation continues to grow, yet organ donation rates remain flat, making it critical to appropriately manage each organ donor in order to ensure viability of all transplantable organs. The care given to one organ donor is tantamount to the care of several transplant recipients. Aggressive donor management ensures that the largest number of organs can be successfully procured and improves the organs' overall quality. Hospital pharmacists are responsible for processing orders and preparing the medications outlined in donor management algorithms developed by their respective medical systems. It is important that pharmacists understand the details of the medications used in these protocols in order to critically evaluate each medication order and appropriately manage the donor. Typical medications used in organ donors after brain death include medications for blood pressure management and fluid resuscitation, medications necessary for electrolyte management, blood products, vasopressors, hormone replacement therapy, antiinfectives, anticoagulants, paralytics, and organ preservation solutions. It is essential to provide optimal pharmacotherapy for each organ donor to ensure organ recovery and donation. Typical medications used in organ donors include agents for blood pressure management and fluid resuscitation, medications necessary for electrolyte management, blood products, vasopressors, hormone replacement therapy, antiinfectives, anticoagulants, paralytics, and organ preservation solutions. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Confidence in critical care nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Jeanne; Bell, Jennifer L; Sweeney, Annemarie E; Morgan, Jennifer I; Kelly, Helen M

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to gain an understanding of the nursing phenomenon, confidence, from the experience of nurses in the nursing subculture of critical care. Leininger's theory of cultural care diversity and universality guided this qualitative descriptive study. Questions derived from the sunrise model were used to elicit nurses' perspectives about cultural and social structures that exist within the critical care nursing subculture and the influence that these factors have on confidence. Twenty-eight critical care nurses from a large Canadian healthcare organization participated in semistructured interviews about confidence. Five themes arose from the descriptions provided by the participants. The three themes, tenuously navigating initiation rituals, deliberately developing holistic supportive relationships, and assimilating clinical decision-making rules were identified as social and cultural factors related to confidence. The remaining two themes, preserving a sense of security despite barriers and accommodating to diverse challenges, were identified as environmental factors related to confidence. Practice and research implications within the culture of critical care nursing are discussed in relation to each of the themes.

  17. New insights into the gut as the driver of critical illness and organ failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Mei; Klingensmith, Nathan J; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2017-04-01

    The gut has long been hypothesized to be the 'motor' of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. This review serves as an update on new data elucidating the role of the gut as the propagator of organ failure in critical illness. Under basal conditions, the gut absorbs nutrients and serves as a barrier that prevents approximately 40 trillion intraluminal microbes and their products from causing host injury. However, in critical illness, gut integrity is disrupted with hyperpermeability and increased epithelial apoptosis, allowing contamination of extraluminal sites that are ordinarily sterile. These alterations in gut integrity are further exacerbated in the setting of preexisting comorbidities. The normally commensal microflora is also altered in critical illness, with increases in microbial virulence and decreases in diversity, which leads to further pathologic responses within the host. All components of the gut are adversely impacted by critical illness. Gut injury can not only propagate local damage, but can also cause distant injury and organ failure. Understanding how the multifaceted components of the gut interact and how these are perturbed in critical illness may play an important role in turning off the 'motor' of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in the future.

  18. Mechanical and natural durability properties of wood treated with a novel organic preservative/consolidant product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lionetto, Francesca; Frigione, Mariaenrica

    2009-01-01

    An organic preservative/consolidant of new formulation was selected in order to evaluate its effect on the mechanical properties of worm-eaten walnut wood. Walnut wood is widely used for the realization of artistic handworks (e.g. statues, altars, etc.) furniture and flooring. The flexural strength and modulus of elasticity, the toughness and the hardness were determined on both treated and untreated samples. The experimental results showed that the product increased significantly the flexural strength while the other mechanical properties were not appreciably affected by the chemical treatment. The microstructure of the samples tested was observed using scanning electron microscopy. The preserving character against insects of the investigated product was assessed by both visual inspection and measurements of weight loss on the treated specimens after their exposure to living insects. The samples on which the product was applied, exposed to Oligomerus ptilinoides for one year, were more resistant to decay than the corresponding untreated samples.

  19. Initial radiation dose in critical organs el pediatric radiology in INEN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquez, J. F.; Benavente, T.; Cisneros, F.

    2006-01-01

    The medical practices diagnostic, therapeutic and interventionists, the patients and professionals are exposed to a radiological risk that in many cases is a critic due to the severity of the damage that it might cause, for example for the cases of pregnant patients, children and in general in a the irradiation of organs of high risk as thyroid, gonads, crystalline, others. In this work I develop a methodology that allows determining the dose absorbed of the beam of X-ray. In the critical organs out of the region to examination in paediatric radiology of thorax, using a system shaped by detectors thermoluminescence of fluoride of lithium activated with magnesium and titanium (LiF: Mg, Ti), and of fluoride of calcium activated with disprosio (CaF2: Dy). The results show that by means of the implementation of this methodology it is possible to reduce up to 50% the dose received for the paediatric patients (in the critical organs thyroid, crystalline and gonads) in the diagnostic practices with X-ray. With this there would be to reducing up to 50% the possibility of appearance of an effect stochastic. (Author)

  20. Lexical Organization in Second Language Acquisition: Does the Critical Period Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardimona, Kimberly; Smith, Pamela; Roberts, Lauren Sones

    2016-01-01

    This study examined lexical organization in English language learners (ELLs) who acquired their second language (L2) either during or after the period of maximal sensitivity related to the critical period hypothesis. Twenty-three native-Spanish-speaking ELLs completed psycholinguistic tasks to examine age effects in bilingual lexical organization.…

  1. Discerning Thermodynamic Basis of Self-Organization in Critical Zone Structure and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, M.; Kumar, P.

    2017-12-01

    Self-organization characterizes the spontaneous emergence of order. Self-organization in the Critical Zone, the region of Earth's skin from below the groundwater table to the top of the vegetation canopy, involves the interaction of biotic and abiotic processes occurring through a hierarchy of temporal and spatial scales. The self-organization is sustained through input of energy and material in an open system framework, and the resulting formations are called dissipative structures. Why do these local states of organization form and how are they thermodynamically favorable? We hypothesize that structure formation is linked to energy conversion and matter throughput rates across driving gradients. Furthermore, we predict that structures in the Critical Zone evolve based on local availability of nutrients, water, and energy. By considering ecosystems as open thermodynamic systems, we model and study the throughput signatures on short times scales to determine origins and characteristics of ecosystem structure. This diagnostic approach allows us to use fluxes of matter and energy to understand the thermodynamic drivers of the system. By classifying the fluxes and dynamics in a system, we can identify patterns to determine the thermodynamic drivers for organized states. Additionally, studying the partitioning of nutrients, water, and energy throughout ecosystems through dissipative structures will help identify reasons for structure shapes and how these shapes impact major Critical Zone functions.

  2. Self-organized criticality paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, I.; Stoeckel, J.; Hron, M.; Horacek, J.; Jakubka, K.; Kryska, L.

    2000-01-01

    According to the paradigm of the Self-Organized Criticality (SOC), the anomalous transport in tokamaks is caused by fast transient processes - avalanches. One of the manifestations of these phenomena should be 1/f decay of electrostatic fluctuations power spectra in a certain frequency range. In this paper, the frequency spectra of floating potential, density and fluctuation-induced flux, measured by poloidal and radial arrays of Langmuir probes on the CASTOR tokamak, are presented. The floating potential and the fluctuation-induced flux decay from 30 kHz up to 100 kHz as f -1 . The plasma density decays as f -1 in a more narrow band, 20 to 40 kHz. The possible limitation of SOC behavior for frequencies higher than 100 kHz due to intermittency is stressed. For this reason the Probability Distribution Functions (PDFs) of floating potential fluctuations were computed at different time scales using wavelet transform. A clear departure of the computed PDFs from Gaussianity, which is a classical signature of intermittency, is observed at time scales under 10 μs (100 kHz). (author)

  3. Self-organized criticality in developing neuronal networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Tetzlaff

    Full Text Available Recently evidence has accumulated that many neural networks exhibit self-organized criticality. In this state, activity is similar across temporal scales and this is beneficial with respect to information flow. If subcritical, activity can die out, if supercritical epileptiform patterns may occur. Little is known about how developing networks will reach and stabilize criticality. Here we monitor the development between 13 and 95 days in vitro (DIV of cortical cell cultures (n = 20 and find four different phases, related to their morphological maturation: An initial low-activity state (≈19 DIV is followed by a supercritical (≈20 DIV and then a subcritical one (≈36 DIV until the network finally reaches stable criticality (≈58 DIV. Using network modeling and mathematical analysis we describe the dynamics of the emergent connectivity in such developing systems. Based on physiological observations, the synaptic development in the model is determined by the drive of the neurons to adjust their connectivity for reaching on average firing rate homeostasis. We predict a specific time course for the maturation of inhibition, with strong onset and delayed pruning, and that total synaptic connectivity should be strongly linked to the relative levels of excitation and inhibition. These results demonstrate that the interplay between activity and connectivity guides developing networks into criticality suggesting that this may be a generic and stable state of many networks in vivo and in vitro.

  4. Firm Size, a Self-Organized Critical Phenomenon: Evidence from the Dynamical Systems Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Akhilesh

    This research draws upon a recent innovation in the dynamical systems literature called the theory of self -organized criticality (SOC) (Bak, Tang, and Wiesenfeld 1988) to develop a computational model of a firm's size by relating its internal and the external sub-systems. As a holistic paradigm, the theory of SOC implies that a firm as a composite system of many degrees of freedom naturally evolves to a critical state in which a minor event starts a chain reaction that can affect either a part or the system as a whole. Thus, the global features of a firm cannot be understood by analyzing its individual parts separately. The causal framework builds upon a constant capital resource to support a volume of production at the existing level of efficiency. The critical size is defined as the production level at which the average product of a firm's factors of production attains its maximum value. The non -linearity is inferred by a change in the nature of relations at the border of criticality, between size and the two performance variables, viz., the operating efficiency and the financial efficiency. The effect of breaching the critical size is examined on the stock price reactions. Consistent with the theory of SOC, it is hypothesized that the temporal response of a firm breaching the level of critical size should behave as a flicker noise (1/f) process. The flicker noise is characterized by correlations extended over a wide range of time scales, indicating some sort of cooperative effect among a firm's degrees of freedom. It is further hypothesized that a firm's size evolves to a spatial structure with scale-invariant, self-similar (fractal) properties. The system is said to be self-organized inasmuch as it naturally evolves to the state of criticality without any detailed specifications of the initial conditions. In this respect, the critical state is an attractor of the firm's dynamics. Another set of hypotheses examines the relations between the size and the

  5. Critical appraisal of organ procurement under Maastricht 3 condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puybasset, L; Bazin, J-E; Beloucif, S; Bizouarn, P; Crozier, S; Devalois, B; Eon, B; Fieux, F; Gisquet, E; Guibet-Lafaye, C; Kentish, N; Lienhart, A; Nicolas-Robin, A; Otero Lopez, M; Pelluchon, C; Roussin, F; Beydon, L

    2014-02-01

    The ethics committee of the French Society of Anesthesia and Intensive Care (Sfar) has been requested by the French Biomedical Agency to consider the issue of organ donation in patients after the decision to withdraw life-supportive therapies has been taken. This type of organ donation is performed in the USA, Canada, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands and Belgium. The three former countries have published recommendations formalizing procedures and operations. The French Society of Anesthesia and Intensive Care (Société française d'anesthésie et de reanimation [Sfar]) ethics committee has considered this issue and envisioned the different aspects of the whole process. Consequently, it sounded a note of caution regarding the applicability of this type of organ procurement in unselected patients following a decision to withdraw life-supportive therapies. According to French regulations concerning organ procurement in brain-dead patients, the committee stresses the need to restrict this specific way of procurement to severely brain-injured patients, once confirmatory investigations predicting a catastrophic prognosis have been performed. This suggests that the nature of the confirmatory investigation required should be formalized by the French Biomedical Agency on behalf of the French parliamentarians, which should help preserve population trust regarding organ procurement and provide a framework for medical decision. This text has been endorsed by the Sfar. Copyright © 2013 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Preserving high-purity 233U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krichinsky, Alan; Giaquinto, Joe; Canaan, Doug

    2016-01-01

    The MARC X Conference hosted a workshop for the scientific community to communicate needs for high-purity 233 U and its by-products in order to preserve critical items otherwise slated for downblending and disposal. Currently, only small portions of the U.S. holdings of separated 233 U are being preserved. However, many additional kilograms of 233 U (>97 % pure) still are destined to be disposed, and it is unlikely that this material will ever be replaced due to a lack of operating production capability. Summaries of information conveyed at the workshop and feedback obtained from the scientific community are presented herein. (author)

  7. Towards Building a Blog Preservation Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Kasioumis, Nikos; Kalb, Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    Social media content and user participation has increased dramatically since the advent of Web 2.0. Blogs have become relevant to every aspect of business and personal life. Nevertheless, we do not have the right tools to aggregate and preserve blog content correctly, as well as to manage blog archives effectively. Given the rising importance of blogs, it is crucial to build systems to facilitate blog preservation, safeguarding an essential part of our heritage that will prove valuable for current and future generations. In this paper, we present our work in progress towards building a novel blog preservation platform featuring robust digital preservation, management and dissemination facilities for blogs. This work is part of the BlogForever project which is aiming to make an impact to the theory and practice of blog preservation by creating guidelines and software that any individual or organization could use to preserve their blogs.

  8. Mechanism for Burgess Shale-type preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaines, Robert R.; Hammarlund, Emma U.; Hou, Xianguang

    2012-01-01

    Exceptionally preserved fossil biotas of the Burgess Shale and a handful of other similar Cambrian deposits provide rare but critical insights into the early diversification of animals. The extraordinary preservation of labile tissues in these geographically widespread but temporally restricted......-oxygen bottom water conditions at the sites of deposition resulted in reduced oxidant availability. Subsequently, rapid entombment of fossils in fine-grained sediments and early sealing of sediments by pervasive carbonate cements at bed tops restricted oxidant flux into the sediments. A permeability barrier...

  9. Nucleart, cultural inheritance and nuclear preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Application of gamma radiation to the preservation of artistic objects: destruction of living organisms by irradiation to a suitable dose and possibility to initiate and control polymerization of organic monomers. Penetrating power of gamma rays allows treatment of thick objects [fr

  10. Self-organized criticality and urban development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Batty

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban society is undergoing as profound a spatial transformation as that associated with the emergence of the industrial city two centuries ago. To describe and measure this transition, we introduce a new theory based on the concept that large-scale, complex systems composed of many interacting elements, show a surprising degree of resilience to change, holding themselves at critical levels for long periods until conditions emerge which move the system, often abruptly, to a new threshold. This theory is called ‘self-organized criticality’; it is consistent with systems in which global patterns emerge from local action which is the hallmark of self-organization, and it is consistent with developments in system dynamics and their morphology which find expression in fractal geometry and weak chaos theory. We illustrate the theory using a unique space–time series of urban development for Buffalo, Western New York, which contains the locations of over one quarter of a million sites coded by their year of construction and dating back to 1773, some 60 years before the city began to develop. We measure the emergence and growth of the city using urban density functions from which measures of fractal dimension are used to construct growth paths of the way the city has grown to fill its region. These phase portraits suggest the existence of transitions between the frontier, the settled agricultural region, the centralized industrial city and the decentralized postindustrial city, and our analysis reveals that Buffalo has maintained itself at a critical threshold since the emergence of the automobile city some 70 years ago. Our implied speculation is: how long will this kind of urban form be maintained in the face of seemingly unstoppable technological change?

  11. A Data-Driven, Integrated Flare Model Based on Self-Organized Criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitropoulou, M.; Isliker, H.; Vlahos, L.; Georgoulis, M.

    2013-09-01

    We interpret solar flares as events originating in solar active regions having reached the self-organized critical state, by alternatively using two versions of an "integrated flare model" - one static and one dynamic. In both versions the initial conditions are derived from observations aiming to investigate whether well-known scaling laws observed in the distribution functions of characteristic flare parameters are reproduced after the self-organized critical state has been reached. In the static model, we first apply a nonlinear force-free extrapolation that reconstructs the three-dimensional magnetic fields from two-dimensional vector magnetograms. We then locate magnetic discontinuities exceeding a threshold in the Laplacian of the magnetic field. These discontinuities are relaxed in local diffusion events, implemented in the form of cellular-automaton evolution rules. Subsequent loading and relaxation steps lead the system to self-organized criticality, after which the statistical properties of the simulated events are examined. In the dynamic version we deploy an enhanced driving mechanism, which utilizes the observed evolution of active regions, making use of sequential vector magnetograms. We first apply the static cellular automaton model to consecutive solar vector magnetograms until the self-organized critical state is reached. We then evolve the magnetic field inbetween these processed snapshots through spline interpolation, acting as a natural driver in the dynamic model. The identification of magnetically unstable sites as well as their relaxation follow the same rules as in the static model after each interpolation step. Subsequent interpolation/driving and relaxation steps cover all transitions until the end of the sequence. Physical requirements, such as the divergence-free condition for the magnetic field vector, are approximately satisfied in both versions of the model. We obtain robust power laws in the distribution functions of the modelled

  12. Pancreas preservation for pancreas and islet transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Yasuhiro; Sutherland, David E.R.; Harmon, James V.; Papas, Klearchos K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize advances and limitations in pancreas procurement and preservation for pancreas and islet transplantation, and review advances in islet protection and preservation. Recent findings Pancreases procured after cardiac death, with in-situ regional organ cooling, have been successfully used for islet transplantation. Colloid-free Celsior and histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate preservation solutions are comparable to University of Wisconsin solution when used for cold storage before pancreas transplantation. Colloid-free preservation solutions are inferior to University of Wisconsin solution for pancreas preservation prior to islet isolation and transplantation. Clinical reports on pancreas and islet transplants suggest that the two-layer method may not offer significant benefits over cold storage with the University of Wisconsin solution: improved oxygenation may depend on the graft size; benefits in experimental models may not translate to human organs. Improvements in islet yield and quality occurred from pancreases treated with inhibitors of stress-induced apoptosis during procurement, storage, isolation or culture. Pancreas perfusion may be desirable before islet isolation and transplantation and may improve islet yields and quality. Methods for real-time, noninvasive assessment of pancreas quality during preservation have been implemented and objective islet potency assays have been developed and validated. These innovations should contribute to objective evaluation and establishment of improved pancreas preservation and islet isolation strategies. Summary Cold storage may be adequate for preservation before pancreas transplants, but insufficient when pancreases are processed for islets or when expanded donors are used. Supplementation of cold storage solutions with cytoprotective agents and perfusion may improve pancreas and islet transplant outcomes. PMID:18685343

  13. Organization and methods of radiation monitoring while working at nuclear critical assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishkin, G.V.; Komissarov, L.A.

    1980-01-01

    The organization and methods of environmental radiation monitoring while working at nuclear critical assemblies, are described. Necessary equipment for critical assemblies (signal and Ventilation systems, devices for recording accidental radiation levels of and for measuring radiation field distribution) and the personnel program of actions in case of nuclear accident. The dosimetric control at critical assemblies is usually ensured by telesystems. 8004-01 multi-channel dosimetric device is described as an example of such-system [ru

  14. Normothermic liver preservation : a new paradigm?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravikumar, Reena; Leuvenink, Henri; Friend, Peter J.

    Despite increasing donor numbers, waiting lists and pre-transplant mortality continue to grow in many countries. The number of donor organs suitable for liver transplantation is restricted by cold preservation and ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Transplantation of marginal donor organs has led to

  15. Calculational assessment of critical experiments with mixed-oxide fuel pin arrays moderated by organic solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolen, G.R.; Funabashi, H.

    1987-01-01

    Critical experiments have been conducted with organically moderated mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel pin assemblies at the Pacific Northwest Lab. Critical Mass Lab. These experiments are part of a joint exchange program between the US Dept. of Energy and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp. of Japan in the area of criticality data development. The purpose of these experiments is to benchmark computer codes and cross-section libraries and to assess the reactivity difference between systems moderated by water and those moderated by an organic solution. Past studies have indicated that some organic mixtures may be better moderators than water. This topic is of particular importance to the criticality safety of fuel processing plants where fissile material is dissolved in organic solutions during the solvent extraction process. In the past, it has been assumed that the codes and libraries benchmarked with water-moderated experiments were adequate when performing design and licensing studies of organically moderated systems. Calculations presented in this paper indicated that the Scale code system and the 27-energy-group cross-section library accurately compute k/sub eff/ for organically moderated MOX fuel pin assemblies. Furthermore, the reactivity of an organic solution with a 32 vol % TBP/68 vol% NPH mixture in a heterogeneous configuration is the same, for practical purposes, as water

  16. Calculational assessment of critical experiments with mixed oxide fuel pin arrays moderated by organic solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolen, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    Critical experiments have been conducted with organic-moderated mixed oxide (MOX) fuel pin assemblies at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) Critical Mass Laboratory (CML). These experiments are part of a joint exchange program between the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) of Japan in the area of criticality data development. The purpose of these experiments is to benchmark computer codes and cross-section libraries and to assess the reactivity difference between systems moderated by water and those moderated by an organic solution. Past studies have indicated that some organic mixtures may be better moderators than water. This topic is of particular importance to the criticality safety of fuel processing plants where fissile material is dissolved in organic solutions during the solvent extraction process. In the past, it has been assumed that the codes and libraries benchmarked with water-moderated experiments were adequate when performing design and licensing studies of organic-moderated systems. Calculations presented in this paper indicated that the SCALE code system and the 27-energy-group cross-section accurately compute k-effectives for organic moderated MOX fuel-pin assemblies. Furthermore, the reactivity of an organic solution with a 32-vol-% TBP/68-vol-% NPH mixture in a heterogeneous configuration is the same, for practical purposes, as water. 5 refs

  17. Emerging concepts in liver graft preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejaoui, Mohamed; Pantazi, Eirini; Folch-Puy, Emma; Baptista, Pedro M; García-Gil, Agustín; Adam, René; Roselló-Catafau, Joan

    2015-01-01

    The urgent need to expand the donor pool in order to attend to the growing demand for liver transplantation has obliged physicians to consider the use of suboptimal liver grafts and also to redefine the preservation strategies. This review examines the different methods of liver graft preservation, focusing on the latest advances in both static cold storage and machine perfusion (MP). The new strategies for static cold storage are mainly designed to increase the fatty liver graft preservation via the supplementation of commercial organ preservation solutions with additives. In this paper we stress the importance of carrying out effective graft washout after static cold preservation, and present a detailed discussion of the future perspectives for dynamic graft preservation using MP at different temperatures (hypothermia at 4 °C, normothermia at 37 °C and subnormothermia at 20 °C-25 °C). Finally, we highlight some emerging applications of regenerative medicine in liver graft preservation. In conclusion, this review discusses the “state of the art” and future perspectives in static and dynamic liver graft preservation in order to improve graft viability. PMID:25593455

  18. Optimization of SDS exposure on preservation of ECM characteristics in whole organ decellularization of rat kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, M; Callanan, A; Lagaras, K; Steele, J A M; Stevens, M M

    2017-08-01

    Renal transplantation is well established as the optimal form of renal replacement therapy but is restricted by the limited pool of organs available for transplantation. The whole organ decellularisation approach is leading the way for a regenerative medicine solution towards bioengineered organ replacements. However, systematic preoptimization of both decellularization and recellularization parameters is essential prior to any potential clinical application and should be the next stage in the evolution of whole organ decellularization as a potential strategy for bioengineered organ replacements. Here we have systematically assessed two fundamental parameters (concentration and duration of perfusion) with regards to the effects of differing exposure to the most commonly used single decellularizing agent (sodium dodecyl sulphate/SDS) in the perfusion decellularization process for whole rat kidney ECM bioscaffolds, with findings showing improved preservation of both structural and functional components of the whole kidney ECM bioscaffold. Whole kidney bioscaffolds based on our enhanced protocol were successfully recellularized with rat primary renal cells and mesenchymal stromal cells. These findings should be widely applicable to decellularized whole organ bioscaffolds and their optimization in the development of regenerated organ replacements for transplantation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 1352-1360, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Cost Model for Digital Preservation: Cost of Digital Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Thirifays, Alex

    2011-01-01

    The Danish Ministry of Culture has funded a project to set up a model for costing preservation of digital materials held by national cultural heritage institutions. The overall objective of the project was to increase cost effectiveness of digital preservation activities and to provide a basis...... for comparing and estimating future cost requirements for digital preservation. In this study we describe an activity-based costing methodology for digital preservation based on the Open Archice Information System (OAIS) Reference Model. Within this framework, which we denote the Cost Model for Digital...... Preservation (CMDP), the focus is on costing the functional entity Preservation Planning from the OAIS and digital migration activities. In order to estimate these costs we have identified cost-critical activities by analysing the functions in the OAIS model and the flows between them. The analysis has been...

  20. Mechanical properties of wood from Pinus sylvestris L. treated with Light Organic Solvent Preservative and with waterborne Copper Azole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villasante, A.; Laina, R.; Rojas, J. A. M.; Rojas, I. M.; Vignote, S.

    2013-07-01

    Aim of study: To determine the effect on wood from Pinus sylvestris of treatment with preservatives on mechanical properties and to establish the relation between the penetration and compression strenght. Area of study: Spain. Material and methods: 40 samples of defect-free wood from Pinus sylvestris L. were treated with Light Organic Solvent Preservative (Vacsol Azure WR 2601) and 50 with waterborne Copper Azole (Tanalith E 3492). 40 control samples were not treated (water or preservative). Mechanical resistance to static bending, modulus of elasticity and compression strength parallel to the grain were compared with untreated wood. Regression analysis between the penetration and compression strength parallel was done with the samples treated with waterborne preservative. Main results: The results indicate that the treated wood (with either product) presents a statistically significant increase in mechanical resistance in all three mechanical characteristics. The results obtained differ from earlier studies carried out by other authors. There was no correlation between parallel compression strength and the degree of impregnation of the wood with waterborne Copper Azole. The most probable explanation for these results concerns changes in pressure during treatment. The use of untreated control samples instead of samples treated only with water is more likely to produce significant results in the mechanical resistance studies. Research highlights: Treated wood presents a statistically significant increase in MOE, modulus of rupture to static bending and parallel compression strength. There was no correlation between parallel compression strength and the degree of impregnation with waterborne preservative. (Author)

  1. Scaling, phase transitions, and nonuniversality in a self-organized critical cellular-automaton model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, K.; Olami, Z.

    1992-01-01

    We present a two-dimensional continuous cellular automaton that is equivalent to a driven spring-block model. Both the conservation and the anisotropy in the model are controllable quantities. Above a critical level of conservation, the model exhibits self-organized criticality. The self-organization of this system and hence the critical exponents depend on the conservation and the boundary conditions. In the critical isotropic nonconservative phase, the exponents change continuously as a function of conservation. Furthermore, the exponents vary continuously when changing the boundary conditions smoothly. Consequently, there is no universality of the critical exponents. We discuss the relevance of this for earthquakes. Introducing anisotropy changes the scaling of the distribution function, but not the power-law exponent. We explore the phase diagram of this model. We find that at low conservation levels a localization transition occurs. We see two additional phase transitions. The first is seen when moving from the conservative into the nonconservative model. The second appears when passing from the anisotropic two-dimensional system to the purely one-dimensional system

  2. Dynamic data-driven integrated flare model based on self-organized criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitropoulou, M.; Isliker, H.; Vlahos, L.; Georgoulis, M. K.

    2013-05-01

    Context. We interpret solar flares as events originating in active regions that have reached the self-organized critical state. We describe them with a dynamic integrated flare model whose initial conditions and driving mechanism are derived from observations. Aims: We investigate whether well-known scaling laws observed in the distribution functions of characteristic flare parameters are reproduced after the self-organized critical state has been reached. Methods: To investigate whether the distribution functions of total energy, peak energy, and event duration follow the expected scaling laws, we first applied the previously reported static cellular automaton model to a time series of seven solar vector magnetograms of the NOAA active region 8210 recorded by the Imaging Vector Magnetograph on May 1 1998 between 18:59 UT and 23:16 UT until the self-organized critical state was reached. We then evolved the magnetic field between these processed snapshots through spline interpolation, mimicking a natural driver in our dynamic model. We identified magnetic discontinuities that exceeded a threshold in the Laplacian of the magnetic field after each interpolation step. These discontinuities were relaxed in local diffusion events, implemented in the form of cellular automaton evolution rules. Subsequent interpolation and relaxation steps covered all transitions until the end of the processed magnetograms' sequence. We additionally advanced each magnetic configuration that has reached the self-organized critical state (SOC configuration) by the static model until 50 more flares were triggered, applied the dynamic model again to the new sequence, and repeated the same process sufficiently often to generate adequate statistics. Physical requirements, such as the divergence-free condition for the magnetic field, were approximately imposed. Results: We obtain robust power laws in the distribution functions of the modeled flaring events with scaling indices that agree well

  3. Checking collagen preservation in archaeological bone by non-destructive studies (Micro-CT and IBA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, L.; Cuif, J.-P.; Pichon, L.; Vaubaillon, S.; Dambricourt Malassé, A.; Abel, R. L.

    2012-02-01

    The material to be studied is a piece of human skull discovered (1999) in Pleistocene sediments from the Orsang river (Gujarat state, India). From anatomical view point, this skull is highly composite: modern Homo sapiens characters are associated to undoubtedly more ancient features. Absolute dating by 14C is critical to understand this discovery. Prior to dating measurements, non-destructive studies have been carried out. Micro-CT reconstruction (X-ray microtomography) and Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) have been undertaken to check the structural preservation of the fossil and the collagen preservation. PIXE elemental map was used to select well-preserved bone area. RBS/EBS and NRA were used for light element quantification, in particular C, N and O contents. We also demonstrate that the PIXE-RBS/EBS combination is a effective tool for the whole characterization of archaeological and recent bones by analysing in one experiment both mineral and organic fractions. We have shown that the archaeological bone, a fragment of the potentially oldest modern Indian, is enough preserved for radiocarbon dating. We propose that Elastic Backscattering Spectrometry (EBS) using 3 MeV protons could be a good non destructive alternative to conventional CHN method using Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen analyzer for measuring C and N before 14C dating.

  4. Checking collagen preservation in archaeological bone by non-destructive studies (Micro-CT and IBA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, L.; Cuif, J.-P.; Pichon, L.; Vaubaillon, S.; Dambricourt Malassé, A.; Abel, R.L.

    2012-01-01

    The material to be studied is a piece of human skull discovered (1999) in Pleistocene sediments from the Orsang river (Gujarat state, India). From anatomical view point, this skull is highly composite: modern Homo sapiens characters are associated to undoubtedly more ancient features. Absolute dating by 14 C is critical to understand this discovery. Prior to dating measurements, non-destructive studies have been carried out. Micro-CT reconstruction (X-ray microtomography) and Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) have been undertaken to check the structural preservation of the fossil and the collagen preservation. PIXE elemental map was used to select well-preserved bone area. RBS/EBS and NRA were used for light element quantification, in particular C, N and O contents. We also demonstrate that the PIXE-RBS/EBS combination is a effective tool for the whole characterization of archaeological and recent bones by analysing in one experiment both mineral and organic fractions. We have shown that the archaeological bone, a fragment of the potentially oldest modern Indian, is enough preserved for radiocarbon dating. We propose that Elastic Backscattering Spectrometry (EBS) using 3 MeV protons could be a good non destructive alternative to conventional CHN method using Carbon–Hydrogen–Nitrogen analyzer for measuring C and N before 14 C dating.

  5. Checking collagen preservation in archaeological bone by non-destructive studies (Micro-CT and IBA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, L., E-mail: lucile.beck@cea.fr [C2RMF - UMR171 CNRS, Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, Palais du Louvre, Porte des Lions, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); CEA, DEN, Service de Recherches de Metallurgie Physique, Laboratoire JANNUS, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Cuif, J.-P. [UMR IDES 8148, Universite Paris XI-Orsay, 91405 Orsay cedex (France); Pichon, L. [C2RMF - UMR171 CNRS, Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, Palais du Louvre, Porte des Lions, 14 quai Francois Mitterrand, 75001 Paris (France); Vaubaillon, S. [CEA, INSTN, Laboratoire JANNUS, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dambricourt Malasse, A. [Departement de Prehistoire, Museum national d' Histoire naturelle, UMR 7194 - CNRS, Institut de Paleontologie Humaine, 1, rue Rene Panhard, 75013 Paris (France); Abel, R.L. [The Natural History Museum, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-15

    The material to be studied is a piece of human skull discovered (1999) in Pleistocene sediments from the Orsang river (Gujarat state, India). From anatomical view point, this skull is highly composite: modern Homo sapiens characters are associated to undoubtedly more ancient features. Absolute dating by {sup 14}C is critical to understand this discovery. Prior to dating measurements, non-destructive studies have been carried out. Micro-CT reconstruction (X-ray microtomography) and Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) have been undertaken to check the structural preservation of the fossil and the collagen preservation. PIXE elemental map was used to select well-preserved bone area. RBS/EBS and NRA were used for light element quantification, in particular C, N and O contents. We also demonstrate that the PIXE-RBS/EBS combination is a effective tool for the whole characterization of archaeological and recent bones by analysing in one experiment both mineral and organic fractions. We have shown that the archaeological bone, a fragment of the potentially oldest modern Indian, is enough preserved for radiocarbon dating. We propose that Elastic Backscattering Spectrometry (EBS) using 3 MeV protons could be a good non destructive alternative to conventional CHN method using Carbon-Hydrogen-Nitrogen analyzer for measuring C and N before {sup 14}C dating.

  6. Increased Dicarbonyl Stress as a Novel Mechanism of Multi-Organ Failure in Critical Illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas C. T. van Bussel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Molecular pathological pathways leading to multi-organ failure in critical illness are progressively being unravelled. However, attempts to modulate these pathways have not yet improved the clinical outcome. Therefore, new targetable mechanisms should be investigated. We hypothesize that increased dicarbonyl stress is such a mechanism. Dicarbonyl stress is the accumulation of dicarbonyl metabolites (i.e., methylglyoxal, glyoxal, and 3-deoxyglucosone that damages intracellular proteins, modifies extracellular matrix proteins, and alters plasma proteins. Increased dicarbonyl stress has been shown to impair the renal, cardiovascular, and central nervous system function, and possibly also the hepatic and respiratory function. In addition to hyperglycaemia, hypoxia and inflammation can cause increased dicarbonyl stress, and these conditions are prevalent in critical illness. Hypoxia and inflammation have been shown to drive the rapid intracellular accumulation of reactive dicarbonyls, i.e., through reduced glyoxalase-1 activity, which is the key enzyme in the dicarbonyl detoxification enzyme system. In critical illness, hypoxia and inflammation, with or without hyperglycaemia, could thus increase dicarbonyl stress in a way that might contribute to multi-organ failure. Thus, we hypothesize that increased dicarbonyl stress in critical illness, such as sepsis and major trauma, contributes to the development of multi-organ failure. This mechanism has the potential for new therapeutic intervention in critical care.

  7. Voice and swallowing outcomes of an organ-preservation trial for advanced laryngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fung, Kevin; Lyden, Teresa H.; Lee, Julia; Urba, Susan G.; Worden, Frank; Eisbruch, Avraham; Tsien, Christina; Bradford, Carol R.; Chepeha, Douglas B.; Hogikyan, Norman D.; Prince, Mark E.P.; Teknos, Theodoros N.; Wolf, Gregory T.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction: Organ-preservation treatment approaches for advanced laryngeal cancer patients that use combination chemoradiotherapy result in cure rates similar to primary laryngectomy with postoperative radiotherapy. In the national VA Larynx Cancer Trial, successful organ preservation was associated with an overall improvement in quality of life but not in subjective speech compared with long-term laryngectomy survivors. As part of a Phase II clinical trial, a prospective study of speech and swallowing results was conducted to determine if larynx preservation is associated with improved voice and swallowing compared with results in patients who require salvage laryngectomy. Subjects: A total of 97 patients with advanced laryngeal cancer (46 Stage III, 51 Stage IV) were given a single course of induction chemotherapy (cisplatin 100 mg/m 2 on Day 1 and 5-FU 1,000 mg/m 2 /day x 5 days), followed by assessment of response. Patients with less than 50% response underwent early salvage laryngectomy, and patients with 50% or better response underwent concurrent chemoradiation (72 Gy and cisplatin 100 mg/m 2 on Days 1, 22, and 43), followed by two cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy (DDP/5-FU). Direct laryngoscopy and biopsy were performed 8 weeks after radiation therapy to determine final tumor response. Late salvage surgery was performed on patients with persistent or recurrent disease. Methods: Completed survey data on voice and swallowing utilizing the Voice-Related Quality of Life Measure (V-RQOL) and the List Performance Status Scale for Head and Neck Cancer Patients (PSS-HN) were obtained from 56 patients who were alive and free of disease at the time of survey, with a minimum follow-up of 8 months. Comparisons were made between patients with an intact larynx (n = 37) vs. laryngectomy (n = 19), as well as early (n = 12) vs. late salvage laryngectomy (n = 7). Multivariate analysis was performed to determine factors predictive of voice and swallowing outcomes. Overall 3

  8. In Defense of Advance Organizers: A Reply to the Critics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausubel, David P.

    1978-01-01

    The most common criticism of advance organizers is that their definition and instructions for construction are vague. Ausubel's books and research articles offer a precise operational definition. Construction can only be described generally because it varies according to nature of learning material, age of learner, and learner's degree of…

  9. Can We Protect the Gut in Critical Illness: The Role of Growth Factors and Other Novel Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Dominguez, Jessica A.; Coopersmith, Craig M.

    2010-01-01

    The intestine plays a central role in the pathophysiology of critical illness and is frequently called the “motor” of the systemic inflammatory response. Perturbations to the intestinal barrier can lead to distant organ damage and multiple organ failure. Therefore, identifying ways to preserve intestinal integrity may be of paramount importance. Growth factors and other peptides have emerged as potential tools for modulation of intestinal inflammation and repair due to their roles in cellular...

  10. Preservation of Reduced Carbon on Mars: Implications for Understanding Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Pamela; Fogel, Marilyn; Steele, Andrew; Summons, Roger E.

    2007-01-01

    Upcoming Mars missions (e.g., Mars Science Laboratory, ExoMars, Astrobiology Field Laboratory, and Mars Sample Return) will search for evidence of extant and fossil microbial habitats and the potential for future habitation. Understanding the distribution and composition of reduced carbon (or organic carbon) is critical for unraveling the Martian carbon cycle, potential for life, and possible biosignature record. Reduced carbon may be produced from biological, geochemical, or interstellar processes; however, evidence for reduced carbon on Mars is lacking with the exception of parts per billion of atmospheric methane. In contrast, abundant atmospheric carbon dioxide may reflect surface oxidation of reduced carbon and accumulation over geological timescales. This suggests that there is an undetected or lost pool of reduced carbon - a pool that may host molecular biosignatures, a characteristic of extant or extinct habitability. In this presentation, we will evaluate factors influencing the preservation potential for organic molecules in rocks on Earth and Martian. We,draw examples from organic molecules in sulfates, basalts, and ancient shales from Mars-analog settings to show how the distribution of organics and their structural patterns will aid Mars habitability studies.

  11. [Organ-preserving interventions in combined therapy of children and adolescents with osteosarcoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punanov, Iu A; Gafton, G I; Gudz', Iu V; Nabokov, V V; Ivanova, T V; Safonova, S A; Levchenko, E V; Kupatadze, D D; Novik, V I; Lazareva, Iu R; Krzhivitskiĭ, P I; Petrov, V G

    2012-01-01

    An analyzed cohort consists of 50 pediatric patients with osteosarcoma receiving combined therapy in N. N. Petrov Research Institute for Oncology (1999-2010). Thirty nine of them had localized disease, 11 patients had distant metastases. The treatment scheme included neoadjuvant therapy with cisplatin and doxorubicin, surgical treatment and adjuvant therapy depended on initial response and could include cisplatin, doxorubicin, high-dose methotrexate, ifosfamide, etoposide. Four-year overall and relapse-free survival in children with localized disease was 74.3% and 69.2% accordingly. In 62% of patients were performed organ-preserving surgical interventions, in 22 patients was performed endoprosthetics, in 4 patients the defect was replaced by a bone autograft on a vascular bundle. The effectiveness of initial treatment and secondary endoprosthetics were analyzed. Six patients with lung metastases received normotermic lung chemoperfusion, 4 of them are alive and disease-free for 8 to 24 months.

  12. Recent approaches in food bio-preservation - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Veer Pal

    2018-01-01

    Bio-preservation is a technique of extending the shelf life of food by using natural or controlled microbiota or antimicrobials. The fermentation products as well as beneficial bacteria are generally selected in this process to control spoilage and render pathogen inactive. The special interest organism or central organism used for this purpose is lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and their metabolites. They are capable to exhibit antimicrobial properties and helpful in imparting unique flavour and texture to the food products. The major compounds produced by LAB are bacteriocin, organic acids and hydrogen peroxide. Bacteriocin is peptides or proteins with antimicrobial activity. On the basis of size, structure and post-translational modification, bacteriocin is divided into four different classes. Due to non-toxic, non-immunogenic, thermo-resistance characteristics and broad bactericidal activity, LAB bacteriocins are considered good bio-preservative agents. The most common LAB bactriocin is nisin which has wider applications in food industry and has been Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved. Nisin and other bacteriocin are being used in vegetables products, dairy and meat industries. Apart from LAB metabolites, bacteriophages and endolysins has promising role in food processing, preservation and safety. Bacteriocins and endolysins are more suitable for DNA shuffling and protein engineering to generate highly potent variants with expanded activity spectrum. Genetically modified bacteriophages may also be helpful in bio-preservation, however; their safety issues must be addressed properly before selection as bio-preservative agent.

  13. Recent approaches in food bio-preservation - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veer Pal Singh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bio-preservation is a technique of extending the shelf life of food by using natural or controlled microbiota or antimicrobials. The fermentation products as well as beneficial bacteria are generally selected in this process to control spoilage and render pathogen inactive. The special interest organism or central organism used for this purpose is lactic acid bacteria (LAB and their metabolites. They are capable to exhibit antimicrobial properties and helpful in imparting unique flavour and texture to the food products. The major compounds produced by LAB are bacteriocin, organic acids and hydrogen peroxide. Bacteriocin is peptides or proteins with antimicrobial activity. On the basis of size, structure and post-translational modification, bacteriocin is divided into four different classes. Due to non-toxic, non-immunogenic, thermo-resistance characteristics and broad bactericidal activity, LAB bacteriocins are considered good bio-preservative agents. The most common LAB bactriocin is nisin which has wider applications in food industry and has been Food and Drug Administration (FDA approved. Nisin and other bacteriocin are being used in vegetables products, dairy and meat industries. Apart from LAB metabolites, bacteriophages and endolysins has promising role in food processing, preservation and safety. Bacteriocins and endolysins are more suitable for DNA shuffling and protein engineering to generate highly potent variants with expanded activity spectrum. Genetically modified bacteriophages may also be helpful in bio-preservation, however; their safety issues must be addressed properly before selection as bio-preservative agent.

  14. Can We Protect the Gut in Critical Illness: The Role of Growth Factors and Other Novel Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Jessica A.; Coopersmith, Craig M.

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis The intestine plays a central role in the pathophysiology of critical illness and is frequently called the “motor” of the systemic inflammatory response. Perturbations to the intestinal barrier can lead to distant organ damage and multiple organ failure. Therefore, identifying ways to preserve intestinal integrity may be of paramount importance. Growth factors and other peptides have emerged as potential tools for modulation of intestinal inflammation and repair due to their roles in cellular proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival. In this review, we will examine the involvement of growth factors and other peptides in intestinal epithelial repair during critical illness and their potential use as therapeutic targets. PMID:20643306

  15. Can we protect the gut in critical illness? The role of growth factors and other novel approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Jessica A; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2010-07-01

    The intestine plays a central role in the pathophysiology of critical illness and is frequently called the "motor" of the systemic inflammatory response. Perturbations to the intestinal barrier can lead to distant organ damage and multiple organ failure. Therefore, identifying ways to preserve intestinal integrity may be of paramount importance. Growth factors and other peptides have emerged as potential tools for modulation of intestinal inflammation and repair due to their roles in cellular proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival. This review examines the involvement of growth factors and other peptides in intestinal epithelial repair during critical illness and their potential use as therapeutic targets. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Nuclear Criticality Safety Organization guidance for the development of continuing technical training. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, K.J.; Taylor, R.G.; Worley, C.A.

    1997-01-01

    The Nuclear Criticality Safety Organization (NCSO) is committed to developing and maintaining a staff of highly qualified personnel to meet the current and anticipated needs in nuclear criticality safety at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant and throughout the DOE complex. Continuing technical training is training outside of the initial qualification program to address identified organization-wide needs. Typically, this training is used to improve organization performance in the conduct of business. This document provides guidelines for the development of the technical portions of the Continuing Training Program. It is not a step-by-step procedure, but a collection of considerations to be used during the development process

  17. Recovery of Organic and Amino Acids from Sludge and Fish Waste in Sub Critical Water Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Faisal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of organic and amino acid production from the treatment of sludge and fish waste using water at sub critical conditions was investigated. The results indicated that at sub-critical conditions, where the ion product of water went through a maximum, the formation of organic acids was favorable. The presence of oxidant favored formation of acetic and formic acid. Other organic acids of significant amount were propionic, succinic and lactic acids. Depending on the type of wastes, formation of other organic acids was also possible. Knowing the organic acids obtained by hydrolysis and oxidation in sub-critical water of various wastes are useful in designing of applicable waste treatment process, complete degradation of organic wastes into volatile carbon and water, and also on the viewpoint of resource recovery. The production of lactic acid was discussed as well. The results indicated that temperature of 573 K, with the absence of oxidant, yield of lactic acid from fish waste was higher than sewage sludge. The maximum yield of total amino acids (137 mg/g-dry fish from waste fish entrails was obtained at subcritical condition (T = 523 K, P = 4 MPa at reaction time of 60 min by using the batch reactor. The amino acids obtained in this study were mainly alanine and glycine. Keywords:  organic acids, amino acids, sub-critical water, hydrothermal, resources recovery

  18. Chain length dependence of the critical density of organic homologous series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontogeorgis, Georgios M.; Fredenslund, Aage; Tassios, Dimitrios P.

    1995-01-01

    Whether the critical density of organic compounds belonging to a certain homologous series increases or decreases with (increasing) molecular weight has been a challenging question over the years. Two sets of experimental data have recently appeared in the literature for the critical density of n......-alkanes: Steele's data (up to n-decane) suggest that critical density increases with carbon number and reaches a limiting value. On the other hand, the data of Teja et al., 1990 which cover a broader range of n-alkanes (up to n-octadecane), reveal a decreasing trend of the critical density after a maximum at n......-heptane. Teja et al. have also presented critical density measurements for 1-alkenes (up to 1-decene) and 1-alkanols (up to 1-undecanol). These data follow the same decreasing trend with the molecular weight as n-alkanes. This trend is not in agreement with the predictions of most group-contribution methods...

  19. ACHP | Advisory Council on Historic Preservation Membership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suquamish Museum. Forsman is a graduate of the University of Washington (B.A. Anthropology) and Goucher with a number of national conservation organizations and initiatives, having co-founded the African Robert Wilkie) Ex-officio representatives of national preservation organizations round out ACHP's

  20. Cold storage as a method for the long-term preservation of tropical dissolved organic carbon (DOC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cook

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Fluvial fluxes of dissolved organic carbon (DOC may represent an important loss for terrestrial carbon stores in the tropics. However, there is currently limited guidance on the preservation of tropical water samples for DOC analysis. Commonly employed preservation techniques such as freezing or acidification can limit degradation but may also alter sample properties, complicating DOC analysis. We examined the effects of cold storage at 4 °C on DOC concentration and quality in water samples collected from a tropical peat catchment. Samples were stored in the dark at 4 °C for periods of 6–12 weeks. Freeze/thaw experiments were also made. Mean DOC concentrations in samples stored for six weeks at 4 °C were 6.1 % greater than in samples stored at ambient room temperature (33 °C over the same period. Changes in DOC concentrations, in two sample sets, during cold storage were 2.25 ± 2.9 mg L-1 (8 % to 2.69 ± 1.4 mg L-1 (11 % over a 12-week period. Freeze/thaw resulted in alterations in the optical properties of samples, and this in turn altered the calculated DOC concentrations by an average of 10.9 %. We conclude that cold storage at 4 °C is an acceptable preservation method for tropical DOC water samples, for moderate time periods, and is preferable to freezing or storage at ambient temperatures.

  1. Foreword [IJEGMBE 2015: India-Japan expert group meeting on biomolecular electronics and organic nanotechnology for environment preservation, Fukuoka (Japan), 23-26 December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-01-01

    There is increased interest in organic nanotechnology and biomolecular electronics for environmental preservation, and in their anticipated impact on the economics of both the developing and the developed world. Keeping this in mind, the Department of Biological Functions, Graduate School of Life Sciences and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology (KIT), Kitakyushu, Japan, and the Department of Science and Technology Centre on Biomolecular Electronics (DSTCBE), National Physical Laboratory (NPL) jointly organized the India-Japan Workshop on Biomolecular Electronics and Organic Nanotechnology for Environmental Preservation (IJWBME 2009) at NPL, New Delhi from 17 th - 19 th December 2009, IJWBME 2011 at EGRET Himeji, Himeji, from 7 th - 10 th December, Japan, and IJWBME 2013 at Delhi Technological University, New Delhi, from 13 th - 15 th December. The India-Japan Expert Group Meeting on Biomolecular Electronics and Organic Nanotechnology for Environment Preservation (IJEGMBE) will be held from 22 th – 25 th , December, 2015, at Nakamura Centenary Memorial Hall, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Kitakyushu, Japan in association with Delhi Technological University, Delhi, India. Recent years have seen rapid growth in the area of Biomolecular Electronics involving the association and expertise of physicists, biologists, chemists, electronics engineers and information technologists. There is increasing interest in the development of nanotechnology and biomolecular electronic devices for the preservation of our precious environment. In this context, the world of the electronics, which developed on Si semiconductors, is going to change drastically. A paradigm shift towards organic or printed electronics is more likely in the future. The field of organic electronics promises exciting new technologies based on inexpensive and mechanically flexible electronic devices, and is now starting to see commercial success. On the sidelines of this increasingly well

  2. Knowledge Preservation and Data Collection on FR in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andropenkov, S.

    2013-01-01

    Since 2004 after the JSC NAK “Kazatomprom” became the owner of the “MAEK-Kazatomprom” LLP, the work on search, collecting and preservation of the knowledge connected with life cycle of BN-350 RI was initiated. The participating organizations, which were involved in work connected with different stages of life cycle of BN-350 RI, including international were defined. The structure of the organization of works on preservation of knowledge of BN-350 RI was defined. The main objectives of the knowledge preservation initiative are: • Halt the on-going loss of the knowledge connected with stages of life cycle of BN-350 RI. • Search, collecting, retrieving and preservation of the accumulated knowledge connected with stages of life cycle of BN-350 RI, for their possible use when developing the program of development of nuclear power in the RK, maintenance of the reached level of safety and its increase

  3. Thermoluminescent dosimetry of critical organs in CT pediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azorin, Juan; Tabares, Musel

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the determination of absorbed dose in critical organs of pediatric patients submitted to head computed tomography (CT) studies. This research included patients up to 16 years old submitted to head CT studies using a Siemens Somaton 16 plus multislice CT scanner. Doses were measured using locally made LiF: Mg,Cu,P + PTFE thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) due to its tissue equivalence and low fading. Results showed that both the organ absorbed doses and the volume computed tomography dose index (CTDI vol ) determined for simple studies were half of those obtained for contrasted studies. In the case of head three-dimensional reconstruction CT studies the CTDI vol value obtained was almost the same that the obtained for simple CT studies but the organ doses were significantly different. These results suggest that the CTDI vol value is a good indication for choosing the exposure parameters of the CT studies and is useful in the determination of the effective dose but it is not related with the organ doses. (author)

  4. Risk organ preservation technique in reirradiation. Injection of native type high molecular weight hyaluronate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, Kazushi; Noda, Yasutaka; Tanaka, Kayo

    2012-01-01

    We developed a practical method of brachytherapy effective for reirradiation, using hyaluronate gel injection to separate the target to be intensively. We intended curative reirradiation with preserving organs at risk. Native-type high molecular weight hyaluronate that has an ideal biologic property to reduce inflammation via inhibitory activity to CD44 and other inflammation receptors was injected to create space during radiotherapy. Rectum, small intestines, skin, and various normal organs are effectively separated and thus eradicative re-irradiation was carried out in safe. We reviewed 55 patients who required the method. There were no complications related to the procedure. Prescribed dose to 100% of the planning target volume (PTV) was 77.93 Gy (range 54-92) equivalent at alpha/beta ratio of 3, with much higher subvolume effect, and the saving effects were enhanced at 3.35 times in the average of those without gel injection. In conclusion, the interventional brachytherapy with hyaluronate gel injection provided 3.35 times safer dose-escalated and eradicative treatment in reirradiation. (author)

  5. Critical Dose of Internal Organs Internal Exposure - 13471

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoryan, G.; Amirjanyan, A. [Nuclear and Radiation Safety Centre (Armenia); Grigoryan, N. [Yerevan State Medical University 4Tigran Mets,375010 Yerevan (Armenia)

    2013-07-01

    The health threat posed by radionuclides has stimulated increased efforts to developed characterization on the biological behavior of radionuclides in humans in all ages. In an effort motivated largely by the Chernobyl nuclear accident, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is assembling a set of age specific biokinetic models for environmentally important radioelements. Radioactive substances in the air, mainly through the respiratory system and digestive tract, is inside the body. Radioactive substances are unevenly distributed in various organs and tissues. Therefore, the degree of damage will depend not only on the dose of radiation have but also on the critical organ, which is the most accumulation of radioactive substances, which leads to the defeat of the entire human body. The main objective of radiation protection, to avoid exceeding the maximum permissible doses of external and internal exposure of a person to prevent the physical and genetic damage people. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of radiation is called a dose of radiation a person in uniform getting her for 50 years does not cause changes in the health of the exposed individual and his progeny. The following classification of critical organs, depending on the category of exposure on their degree of sensitivity to radiation: First group: the whole body, gonads and red bone marrow; Second group: muscle, fat, liver, kidney, spleen, gastrointestinal tract, lungs and lens of the eye; The third group: bone, thyroid and skin; Fourth group: the hands, forearms, feet. MTD exposure whole body, gonads and bone marrow represent the maximum exposures (5 rem per year) experienced by people in their normal activities. The purpose of this article is intended dose received from various internal organs of the radionuclides that may enter the body by inhalation, and gastrointestinal tract. The biokinetic model describes the time dependent distribution and excretion of different

  6. Self-organized criticality in a sheared granular stick-slip system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, Fergal; Corcoran, David

    2001-01-01

    We present an analysis of results obtained from a mechanical apparatus consisting of an annular plate shearing over a granular bed. The size, energy dissipation, and duration of slips in the system exhibit power-law distributions and a 1/f 2 power spectrum, in accordance with self-organized criticality. We draw similarities with earthquakes

  7. Consciousness as a phenomenon in the operational architectonics of brain organization: Criticality and self-organization considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fingelkurts, Andrew A.; Fingelkurts, Alexander A.; Neves, Carlos F.H.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we aim to show that phenomenal consciousness is realized by a particular level of brain operational organization and that understanding human consciousness requires a description of the laws of the immediately underlying neural collective phenomena, the nested hierarchy of electromagnetic fields of brain activity – operational architectonics. We argue that the subjective mental reality and the objective neurobiological reality, although seemingly worlds apart, are intimately connected along a unified metastable continuum and are both guided by the universal laws of the physical world such as criticality, self-organization and emergence

  8. Preservation technologies for fresh meat - a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, G H; Xu, X L; Liu, Y

    2010-09-01

    Fresh meat is a highly perishable product due to its biological composition. Many interrelated factors influence the shelf life and freshness of meat such as holding temperature, atmospheric oxygen (O(2)), endogenous enzymes, moisture, light and most importantly, micro-organisms. With the increased demand for high quality, convenience, safety, fresh appearance and an extended shelf life in fresh meat products, alternative non-thermal preservation technologies such as high hydrostatic pressure, superchilling, natural biopreservatives and active packaging have been proposed and investigated. Whilst some of these technologies are efficient at inactivating the micro-organisms most commonly related to food-borne diseases, they are not effective against spores. To increase their efficacy against vegetative cells, a combination of several preservation technologies under the so-called hurdle concept has also been investigated. The objective of this review is to describe current methods and developing technologies for preserving fresh meat. The benefits of some new technologies and their industrial limitations is presented and discussed.

  9. Radiation dose in critical organs due to non-coplanar irradiation of the pituitary gland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, R.W.M.; Rittmann, K.L.; Meinass, H.J.; Rennicke, P.

    1996-01-01

    In order to estimate the somatic and genetic risk associated with a non-coplanar linac-based radiation technique of the pituitary gland, systematic secondary-dose measurements in a phantom and sample measurements of the dose near critical organs of patients were performed. For measurements of the dose outside the primary radiation field an acrylic-PVC phantom was used which was irradiated with a single field (4x4 cm 2 ). Eight patients with pituitary tumors were treated isocentrically with a combination of sagittal and transverse rotational arcs. To measure the dose in critical organs, LiF thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD) in chip form were placed onto 1 eyelid, the skin over the thyroid, and the patient's clothes covering the region of breasts and ovaries of female patients and the testicles of male patients. Measurements were performed for all patients during 1 sagittal irradiation and for the majority of patients during 1 transverse irradiation. The phantom measurements demonstrated that the secondary dose measured on the patients surface can be considered as a good approximation for the dose in adjacent organs. The median dose in critical organs for sagittal irradiation was in the range of 25.8 mGy (eyes) to 1.9 mGy (testicles), and for transverse irradiation in the range of 23.3 mGy (eyes) to 1.3 mGy (testicles). The ratio of median organ doses for sagittal and transverse irradiation was 2.1 for the thyroid gland, 1.1 for the eyes, and 1.5 for the other organs. The dose in critical organs due to non-coplanar irradiation of the pituitary gland is only a small fraction of the dose delivered to the reference point of the planning target volume. The risk of a radiation-induced tumor and a genetic consequence associated with these small doses is generally less than 1% and 0.1%, respectively. (orig./MG) [de

  10. Organizational needs for managing and preserving geospatial data and related electronic records

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R R Downs

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Government agencies and other organizations are required to manage and preserve records that they create and use to facilitate future access and reuse. The increasing use of geospatial data and related electronic records presents new challenges for these organizations, which have relied on traditional practices for managing and preserving records in printed form. This article reports on an investigation of current and future needs for managing and preserving geospatial electronic records on the part of localand state-level organizations in the New York City metropolitan region. It introduces the study and describes organizational needs observed, including needs for organizational coordination and interorganizational cooperation throughout the entire data lifecycle.

  11. Whole-brain structural topology in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Preserved global - disturbed local network organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidlauskaite, Justina; Caeyenberghs, Karen; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Roeyers, Herbert; Wiersema, Jan R

    2015-01-01

    Prior studies demonstrate altered organization of functional brain networks in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, the structural underpinnings of these functional disturbances are poorly understood. In the current study, we applied a graph-theoretic approach to whole-brain diffusion magnetic resonance imaging data to investigate the organization of structural brain networks in adults with ADHD and unaffected controls using deterministic fiber tractography. Groups did not differ in terms of global network metrics - small-worldness, global efficiency and clustering coefficient. However, there were widespread ADHD-related effects at the nodal level in relation to local efficiency and clustering. The affected nodes included superior occipital, supramarginal, superior temporal, inferior parietal, angular and inferior frontal gyri, as well as putamen, thalamus and posterior cerebellum. Lower local efficiency of left superior temporal and supramarginal gyri was associated with higher ADHD symptom scores. Also greater local clustering of right putamen and lower local clustering of left supramarginal gyrus correlated with ADHD symptom severity. Overall, the findings indicate preserved global but altered local network organization in adult ADHD implicating regions underpinning putative ADHD-related neuropsychological deficits.

  12. Freezing and fractionation: effects of preservation on carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of some limnetic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, J Marshall; Johnson, Brett; Silver, Douglas; Pate, William; Christianson, Kyle

    2016-03-15

    Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen have become important natural tracers for studying food-web structure and function. Considerable research has demonstrated that chemical preservatives and fixatives shift the isotopic ratios of aquatic organisms. Much less is known about the effects of freezing as a preservation method although this technique is commonly used. We conducted a controlled experiment to test the effects of freezing (-10 °C) and flash freezing (–79 °C) on the carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios of zooplankton (Cladocera), Mysis diluviana and Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Subsamples (~0.5 mg) of dried material were analyzed for percentage carbon, percentage nitrogen, and the relative abundance of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes (δ13C and δ15N values) using a Carlo Erba NC2500 elemental analyzer interfaced to a ThermoFinnigan MAT Delta Plus isotope ratio mass spectrometer. The effects of freezing were taxon-dependent. Freezing had no effect on the isotopic or elemental values of Rainbow Trout muscle. Effects on the δ13C and δ15N values of zooplankton and Mysis were statistically significant but small relative to typical values of trophic fractionation. The treatment-control offsets had larger absolute values for Mysis (δ13C: ≤0.76 ± 0.41‰, δ15N: ≤0.37 ± 0.16‰) than for zooplankton (δ13C: ≤0.12 ± 0.06‰, δ15N: ≤0.30 ± 0.27‰). The effects of freezing were more variable for the δ13C values of Mysis, and more variable for the δ15N values of zooplankton. Generally, both freezing methods reduced the carbon content of zooplankton and Mysis, but freezing had a negative effect on the %N of zooplankton and a positive effect on the %N of Mysis. The species-dependencies and variability of freezing effects on aquatic organisms suggest that more research is needed to understand the mechanisms responsible for freezing-related fractionation before standardized protocols for freezing as a preservation method can be adopted.

  13. Self-organized Criticality in a Modified Evolution Model on Generalized Barabasi-Albert Scale-Free Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Min; Wang Gang; Chen Tianlun

    2007-01-01

    A modified evolution model of self-organized criticality on generalized Barabasi-Albert (GBA) scale-free networks is investigated. In our model, we find that spatial and temporal correlations exhibit critical behaviors. More importantly, these critical behaviors change with the parameter b, which weights the distance in comparison with the degree in the GBA network evolution.

  14. Histologic features of harvested canine kidneys preserved in four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Endless efforts are required in the investigation of the best organ preservative. Normal Saline, 5% dextrose, Darrows and Ringers' Lactate were used as preservatives with the view to investigate the prospect of kidney survival in these solutions post harvest at the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Ahmadu Bello University-Zaria.

  15. Management of the Potential Organ Donor in the ICU: Society of Critical Care Medicine/American College of Chest Physicians/Association of Organ Procurement Organizations Consensus Statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotloff, Robert M; Blosser, Sandralee; Fulda, Gerard J; Malinoski, Darren; Ahya, Vivek N; Angel, Luis; Byrnes, Matthew C; DeVita, Michael A; Grissom, Thomas E; Halpern, Scott D; Nakagawa, Thomas A; Stock, Peter G; Sudan, Debra L; Wood, Kenneth E; Anillo, Sergio J; Bleck, Thomas P; Eidbo, Elling E; Fowler, Richard A; Glazier, Alexandra K; Gries, Cynthia; Hasz, Richard; Herr, Dan; Khan, Akhtar; Landsberg, David; Lebovitz, Daniel J; Levine, Deborah Jo; Mathur, Mudit; Naik, Priyumvada; Niemann, Claus U; Nunley, David R; O'Connor, Kevin J; Pelletier, Shawn J; Rahman, Omar; Ranjan, Dinesh; Salim, Ali; Sawyer, Robert G; Shafer, Teresa; Sonneti, David; Spiro, Peter; Valapour, Maryam; Vikraman-Sushama, Deepak; Whelan, Timothy P M

    2015-06-01

    This document was developed through the collaborative efforts of the Society of Critical Care Medicine, the American College of Chest Physicians, and the Association of Organ Procurement Organizations. Under the auspices of these societies, a multidisciplinary, multi-institutional task force was convened, incorporating expertise in critical care medicine, organ donor management, and transplantation. Members of the task force were divided into 13 subcommittees, each focused on one of the following general or organ-specific areas: death determination using neurologic criteria, donation after circulatory death determination, authorization process, general contraindications to donation, hemodynamic management, endocrine dysfunction and hormone replacement therapy, pediatric donor management, cardiac donation, lung donation, liver donation, kidney donation, small bowel donation, and pancreas donation. Subcommittees were charged with generating a series of management-related questions related to their topic. For each question, subcommittees provided a summary of relevant literature and specific recommendations. The specific recommendations were approved by all members of the task force and then assembled into a complete document. Because the available literature was overwhelmingly comprised of observational studies and case series, representing low-quality evidence, a decision was made that the document would assume the form of a consensus statement rather than a formally graded guideline. The goal of this document is to provide critical care practitioners with essential information and practical recommendations related to management of the potential organ donor, based on the available literature and expert consensus.

  16. Embryology of Early Jurassic dinosaur from China with evidence of preserved organic remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisz, Robert R; Huang, Timothy D; Roberts, Eric M; Peng, ShinRung; Sullivan, Corwin; Stein, Koen; LeBlanc, Aaron R H; Shieh, DarBin; Chang, RongSeng; Chiang, ChengCheng; Yang, Chuanwei; Zhong, Shiming

    2013-04-11

    Fossil dinosaur embryos are surprisingly rare, being almost entirely restricted to Upper Cretaceous strata that record the late stages of non-avian dinosaur evolution. Notable exceptions are the oldest known embryos from the Early Jurassic South African sauropodomorph Massospondylus and Late Jurassic embryos of a theropod from Portugal. The fact that dinosaur embryos are rare and typically enclosed in eggshells limits their availability for tissue and cellular level investigations of development. Consequently, little is known about growth patterns in dinosaur embryos, even though post-hatching ontogeny has been studied in several taxa. Here we report the discovery of an embryonic dinosaur bone bed from the Lower Jurassic of China, the oldest such occurrence in the fossil record. The embryos are similar in geological age to those of Massospondylus and are also assignable to a sauropodomorph dinosaur, probably Lufengosaurus. The preservation of numerous disarticulated skeletal elements and eggshells in this monotaxic bone bed, representing different stages of incubation and therefore derived from different nests, provides opportunities for new investigations of dinosaur embryology in a clade noted for gigantism. For example, comparisons among embryonic femora of different sizes and developmental stages reveal a consistently rapid rate of growth throughout development, possibly indicating that short incubation times were characteristic of sauropodomorphs. In addition, asymmetric radial growth of the femoral shaft and rapid expansion of the fourth trochanter suggest that embryonic muscle activation played an important role in the pre-hatching ontogeny of these dinosaurs. This discovery also provides the oldest evidence of in situ preservation of complex organic remains in a terrestrial vertebrate.

  17. Interfacial spectroscopic characterization of organic/ferromagnet hetero-junction of 3,4,9,10-perylene-teracarboxylic dianhydride-based organic spin valves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Jhen-Yong; Ou Yang, Kui-Hon; Li, Kai-Shin [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, 10617 Taipei, Taiwan (China); Wang, Bo-Yao [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, 10617 Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, National Changhua University of Education, Changhua 500, Taiwan (China); Shiu, Hung-Wei; Chen, Chia-Hao; Chan, Yuet-Loy; Wei, Der-Hsin; Chang, Fan-Hsiu; Lin, Hong-Ji [National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, 30076 Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Chiang, Wen-Chung, E-mail: wchiang@faculty.pccu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, Chinese Culture University, 11114 Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lin, Minn-Tsong, E-mail: mtlin@phys.ntu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, 10617 Taipei, Taiwan (China); Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, 10617 Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-02-24

    We report interfacial characterization of 3,4,9,10-perylene-teracarboxylic dianhydride (PTCDA)-based organic spin valves (OSV) dusted with a thin layer of partially oxidized alumina at the organic semiconductor (OSC)/ferromagnet (FM) interfaces. Up to 13.5% magnetoresistance is achieved at room temperature. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements reveal interfacial electronic interaction between PTCDA and FM while the application of a thin alumina layer at the PTCDA/FM interfaces prevents the electronic hybridization and effectively preserves the spin injection into the OSC spacer. This finding demonstrates the critical effect of interfacial structure on magnetotransport behavior in OSV.

  18. Self-organized critical behavior in pinned flux lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pla, O.; Nori, F.

    1991-01-01

    We study the response of pinned fluxed lattices, under small perturbations in the driving force, below and close to the pinning-depinning transition. For driving Lorentz forces below F c (the depinning force at which the whole flux lattice slides), the system has instabilities against small force increases, with a power-law distribution characteristic of self-organized criticality. Specifically, D(d)∼d -1,3 , where d is the displacement of a flux line after a very small force increase. We also study the initial stages of the motion of the lattice once the driving force overcomes the pinning forces

  19. Evaluation of dose delivered to critical organs during pituitary radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awoda, Marwa Elrashied Mohammed

    2017-12-01

    The selection of an appropriate energy in radiation therapy for tumor and the delivery adequate dose to the tumors to be treated, is very important during the radiation treatment planning. Also the dose received to critical organs surrounding the tumor has be considered. In addition, validation of treatment plan quality is important, so the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of teletherapy cobalt and 6MV linac energies on dose distribution for the pituitary gland tumors and dose delivered to critical organs surrounding the tumor. 10 patients with pituitary adenocarcinomas were selected. For treatment plans with three field technique, verdes and two lateral fields, were used. For the therapeutic area, five organs left and right eye lens left and right optic never and chasms and brain stem, were considered as Organ at risk (OARS). Several physical indices for for planning target volume (PTV) and the organs at risk 9 (OARS) as means dose (MD). 95%, dose (D950), 5% dose (D5) and normal tissue dose (NTID), were calculated, and the homogeneity index and conformity index were also two other evaluation parameters have been taken into account. The comparative evaluation was based on dose volume histogram ( DVH) analysis for both energies plans. After performing the treatment planning with two different energies the dose received to critical organs and dose distribution in PTV were studied. Results showed that the difference between the integral dose received to OARs with Co-60 and 6-MV linac respectively, 2.16±1.48, 1.85±1.55 for Lt eye lens. 3.01±2.52, 1.89±2.09 for Rt eye lens, 18.5±10.97, 19.43±10.65 for Lt optic nerve and chasms, 15.86±11.30, 17.44±15.73 for Rt optic nerve and chasms and 24.03±13.68, 23.77±16.64 for Brain stem case showed higher integral dose for linac than Co-60 than due to using the 6-MV energy as an open field with no beam modifiers such MLCs or shielding blocks. Eventually, it found that using of 6-MV linac provides better

  20. Human Milk Composition and Preservation: Evaluation of High-pressure Processing as a Nonthermal Pasteurization Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Sílvia G; Delgadillo, Ivonne; Saraiva, Jorge A

    2016-01-01

    Human milk is seen not only as a food, but as a functional and dynamic biologic system. It provides nutrients, bioactive components, and immune factors, promoting adequate and healthy growth of newborn infants. When mothers cannot supply their children, donated breast milk is the nutrition recommended by the World Health Organization, as it is a better alternative than infant formula. However, because of the manner in which donor milk is handled in human milk banks (HMB) many of the properties ascribed to mother's own milk are diminished or destroyed. The major process responsible for these losses is Holder pasteurization. High-pressure processing (HPP) is a novel nonthermal pasteurization technology that is being increasingly applied in food industries worldwide, primarily as an alternative to thermal treatment. This is due to its capacity to inactivate microorganisms while preserving both nutritional and bioactive components of foods. This review describes human milk composition and preservation, and critically discusses HMB importance and practices, highlighting HPP as a potential nonthermal pasteurization technology for human milk preservation. HPP technology is described and the few currently existing studies of its effects in human milk are presented.

  1. Nuclear knowledge preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bettencourt, Marcia Pires da Luz

    2009-01-01

    The nuclear technology has encouraged the world development and brought a number of benefits to society. These benefits occurred in important social sectors such as Agriculture, Industry, Health Sciences, Environmental Sciences and the production of energy. The research in the nuclear area is justified, accordingly, as an important factor for science development, technology and innovation. Despite the importance of nuclear energy, there is a collapse in the generation, transmission and sharing of nuclear knowledge. The threat of regression in this area is evidenced by the difficulty of generating new knowledge and practices regarding the maintenance of some critical areas. This project focuses its attention on studying, specifically, the lack of young engineers and technical professionals to replace the older, considered this, an alarming situation. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and record the key skills of experienced workers, through a set of tools to elicitation (capture) this knowledge, as expertise is mainly with people, and is lost when they leave the organization. Against, the Knowledge Management provides methodologies for the process of stimulating the creation, collection and knowledge dissemination process, in order to achieve strategic objectives. This study aims to contribute to the building of a model for the Brazilian nuclear knowledge preservation and, therefore, contributes to the maintenance and innovation of activities in this area. (author)

  2. A simple rank-based Markov chain with self-organized criticality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Swart, Jan M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 1 (2017), s. 87-102 ISSN 1024-2953 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/12/2613; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08819S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : self-reinforcement * self-organized criticality * canyon Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics OBOR OECD: Pure mathematics Impact factor: 0.397, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/SI/swart-0476009.pdf

  3. A fixed-jaw method to protect critical organs during intensity-modulated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Jiayun; Chen, Xinyuan; Huang, Manni; Dai, Jianrong

    2014-01-01

    Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) plays an important role in cancer radiotherapy. For some patients being treated with IMRT, the extremely low tolerances of critical organs (such as lens, ovaries, and testicles) cannot be met during treatment planning. The aim of this article is to introduce a new planning method to overcome that problem. In current planning practice, jaw positions are automatically set to cover all target volumes by the planning system (e.g., Pinnacle 3 system). Because of such settings, critical organs may be fully blocked by the multileaf collimator (MLC), but they still sit in the field that is shaped by collimator jaws. These critical organs receive doses from the transmission and leakage of MLC leaves. We manually fixed jaw positions to block them to further reduce such doses. This method has been used for different treatment sites in our clinic, and it was thoroughly evaluated in patients with radical hysterectomy plus ovarian transposition after surgery. For each patient, 2 treatment plans were designed with the same optimization parameters: the original plan with automatically chosen jaw positions (called O-plan) and the plan with fixed-jaw positions (named F-plan). In the F-plan, the jaws were manually fixed to block the ovaries. For target coverage, the mean conformity index (CI) of the F-plan (1.28 ± 0.02) was remarkably lower than that of the O-plan (1.53 ± 0.09) (p < 0.05). The F-plan and the O-plan performed similarly in target dose homogeneity. Meanwhile, for the critical organ sparing, the mean dose of both ovaries were much lower in the F-plan than that in the O-plan (p < 0.05). The V 20 , V 30 , and V 40 of bladder were also lower in the F-plan (93.57 ± 1.98, 73.99 ± 5.76, and 42.33 ± 3.7, respectively) than those in the O-plan (97.98 ± 1.11, 85.07 ± 4.04, and 49.71 ± 3.63, respectively) (p < 0.05). The maximum dose to the spinal cord planning organ at risk (OAR) volume (PRV) in the O-plan (3940.24 ± 102.8) was

  4. Phase transitions and self-organized criticality in networks of stochastic spiking neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochini, Ludmila; de Andrade Costa, Ariadne; Abadi, Miguel; Roque, Antônio C; Stolfi, Jorge; Kinouchi, Osame

    2016-11-07

    Phase transitions and critical behavior are crucial issues both in theoretical and experimental neuroscience. We report analytic and computational results about phase transitions and self-organized criticality (SOC) in networks with general stochastic neurons. The stochastic neuron has a firing probability given by a smooth monotonic function Φ(V) of the membrane potential V, rather than a sharp firing threshold. We find that such networks can operate in several dynamic regimes (phases) depending on the average synaptic weight and the shape of the firing function Φ. In particular, we encounter both continuous and discontinuous phase transitions to absorbing states. At the continuous transition critical boundary, neuronal avalanches occur whose distributions of size and duration are given by power laws, as observed in biological neural networks. We also propose and test a new mechanism to produce SOC: the use of dynamic neuronal gains - a form of short-term plasticity probably located at the axon initial segment (AIS) - instead of depressing synapses at the dendrites (as previously studied in the literature). The new self-organization mechanism produces a slightly supercritical state, that we called SOSC, in accord to some intuitions of Alan Turing.

  5. Optimization of preservation activities and preservation engineering (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Takayuki; Mimaki, Hidehito; Oda, Mitsuyuki

    2004-01-01

    In order to deal with the optimization of preservation activities and 'preservation engineering' which makes it possible, the relation between general society and preservation, the content and the structure of preservation activities, and the viewpoint and the approach of the optimization of the preventive preservation are described. The optimization of the preventive preservation is shown respectively in the four stages of planning, implementation, result evaluation and countermeasure. (K. Kato)

  6. Enhancement of biomembrane functions under phase-separated conditions: A self-organized criticality phenomenon?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eze, M.O.; Chela Flores, J.

    1993-12-01

    Self-organized criticality (SOC) is hereby proposed as a possible physical basis for explaining observations in the temperature-dependence of the rates of biological membrane-associated events. The biomembrane undergoes a reversible, cooperative, thermotropic gel-to-liquid crystalline phase transition which is broad, and involves lateral phase separation. The lateral phase separated (rather than the totally gel-, or the totally liquid crystalline-) membrane state has been observed to be the state in which vital membrane functions are facilitated. The membrane in this unique state is viewed, for our purposes here, as a dynamical, extended dissipative system with spatial and temporal degrees of freedom, exhibiting power law behaviour, typical of the self-organized critical state. Experiments are suggested for verifying this hypothesis. (author). 30 refs

  7. The central nervous system of the fetus in pregnant women after organ-preserving treatment of precancer and early stages of cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egorov, O.O.

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging is a promising method of research in tocology. The use of MRI for the first time with high precision anatomical interpretation to diagnose the state of the Central nervous system of the fetus in pregnant women after organ-preserving treatment of precancerous cervical disease and early stages of cervical cancer

  8. Fertility preservation in young patients with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virender Suhag

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Infertility can arise as a consequence of treatment of oncological conditions. The parallel and continued improvement in both the management of oncology and fertility cases in recent times has brought to the forefront the potential for fertility preservation in patients being treated for cancer. Many survivors will maintain their reproductive potential after the successful completion of treatment for cancer. However total body irradiation, radiation to the gonads, and certain high dose chemotherapy regimens can place women at risk for acute ovarian failure or premature menopause and men at risk for temporary or permanent azoospermia. Providing information about risk of infertility and possible interventions to maintain reproductive potential are critical for the adolescent and young adult population at the time of diagnosis. There are established means of preserving fertility before cancer treatment; specifically, sperm cryopreservation for men and in vitro fertilization and embryo cryopreservation for women. Several innovative techniques are being actively investigated, including oocyte and ovarian follicle cryopreservation, ovarian tissue transplantation, and in vitro follicle maturation, which may expand the number of fertility preservation choices for young cancer patients. Fertility preservation may also require some modification of cancer therapy; thus, patients' wishes regarding future fertility and available fertility preservation alternatives should be discussed before initiation of therapy.

  9. Persufflation Improves Pancreas Preservation When Compared With the Two-Layer Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, W.E.; O'Brien, T.D.; Ferrer-Fabrega, J.; Avgoustiniatos, E.S.; Weegman, B.P.; Anazawa, T.; Matsumoto, S.; Kirchner, V.A.; Rizzari, M.D.; Murtaugh, M.P.; Suszynski, T.M.; Aasheim, T.; Kidder, L.S.; Hammer, B.E.; Stone, S.G.; Tempelman, L.; Sutherland, D.E.R.; Hering, B.J.; Papas, K.K.

    2010-01-01

    Islet transplantation is emerging as a promising treatment for patients with type 1 diabetes. It is important to maximize viable islet yield for each organ due to scarcity of suitable human donor pancreata, high cost, and the high dose of islets required for insulin independence. However, organ transport for 8 hours using the two-layer method (TLM) frequently results in lower islet yields. Since efficient oxygenation of the core of larger organs (eg, pig, human) in TLM has recently come under question, we investigated oxygen persufflation as an alternative way to supply the pancreas with oxygen during preservation. Porcine pancreata were procured from non–heart-beating donors and preserved by either TLM or persufflation for 24 hours and fixed. Biopsies were collected from several regions of the pancreas, sectioned, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and evaluated by a histologist. Persufflated tissues exhibited distended capillaries due to gas perfusion and significantly less autolysis/cell death than regions not exposed to persufflation or tissues exposed to TLM. The histology presented here suggests that after 24 hours of preservation, persufflation dramatically improves tissue health when compared with TLM. These results indicate the potential for persufflation to improve viable islet yields and extend the duration of preservation, allowing more donor organs to be utilized. PMID:20692396

  10. In vivo xenogeneic scaffold fate is determined by residual antigenicity and extracellular matrix preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Maelene L; Wong, Janelle L; Vapniarsky, Natalia; Griffiths, Leigh G

    2016-06-01

    The immunological potential of animal-derived tissues and organs is the critical hurdle to increasing their clinical implementation. Glutaraldehyde-fixation cross-links proteins in xenogeneic tissues (e.g., bovine pericardium) to delay immune rejection, but also compromises the regenerative potential of the resultant biomaterial. Unfixed xenogeneic biomaterials in which xenoantigenicity has been ameliorated and native extracellular matrix (ECM) architecture has been maintained have the potential to overcome limitations of current clinically utilized glutaraldehyde-fixed biomaterials. The objective of this work was to determine how residual antigenicity and ECM architecture preservation modulate recipient immune and regenerative responses towards unfixed bovine pericardium (BP) ECM scaffolds. Disruption of ECM architecture during scaffold generation, with either SDS-decellularization or glutaraldehyde-fixation, stimulated recipient foreign body response and resultant fibrotic encapsulation following leporine subpannicular implantation. Conversely, BP scaffolds subjected to stepwise removal of hydrophilic and lipophilic antigens using amidosulfobetaine-14 (ASB-14) maintained native ECM architecture and thereby avoided fibrotic encapsulation. Removal of hydrophilic and lipophilic antigens significantly decreased local and systemic graft-specific, adaptive immune responses and subsequent calcification of BP scaffolds compared to scaffolds undergoing hydrophile removal only. Critically, removal of antigenic components and preservation of ECM architecture with ASB-14 promoted full-thickness recipient non-immune cellular repopulation of the BP scaffold. Further, unlike clinically utilized fixed BP, ASB-14-treated scaffolds fostered rapid intimal and medial vessel wall regeneration in a porcine carotid patch angioplasty model. This work highlights the importance of residual antigenicity and ECM architecture preservation in modulating recipient immune and regenerative

  11. Using Gordon's functional health patterns to organize a critical care orientation program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recker, D; O'Brien, C

    1992-02-01

    We have described how we revised our critical care orientation according to Gordon's FHPs. The process will require continuous review and revision. Research is necessary to determine the effectiveness of an orientation organized by a nursing framework in facilitating holistic nursing practice.

  12. Assessment of organ culture for the conservation of human skin allografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hautier, A; Sabatier, F; Stellmann, P; Andrac, L; Nouaille De Gorce, Y; Dignat-George, F; Magalon, G

    2008-03-01

    Human skin allografts are used in the treatment of severe burns and their preservation is therefore critical for optimal clinical benefit. Current preservation methods, such as 4 degrees C storage or cryopreservation, cannot prevent the decrease of tissue viability. The aim of this study was to assess viability and function of skin allografts in a new skin organ culture model, allowing conservation parameters as close as possible to physiological conditions: 32 degrees C, air-liquid interface and physiological skin tension. Twelve skin samples, harvested from 6 living surgical donors, were conserved 35 days in two conditions: conservation at 4 degrees C and organ culture. Viability and function of skin samples were investigated at Day 0, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 using cell culture methods (trypan blue exclusion, Colony Forming Efficiency and Growth Rate), histopathological and histoenzymological studies (Ki67 immunostaining). In the two conditions, fibroblast and keratinocyte viability was progressively affected by storage, with a significant decrease observed after 35 days. No statistical difference could be observed between the two conditions. The two methods were also comparable regarding alterations of fibroblast and keratinocyte culture parameters, which were respectively significantly reduced at Day 7 and 21, compared to fresh skin. By contrast, histopathological and histoenzymological studies revealed a better preservation of skin architecture and proliferative potential at 4 degrees C, as compared to organ culture. These results indicate that skin organ culture does not provide significant advantages for skin allograft preservation. However, its potential use as an experimental model to study skin physiology and wound healing should be further evaluated.

  13. Self-organized Criticality Model for Ocean Internal Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Gang; Hou Yijun; Lin Min; Qiao Fangli

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we present a simple spring-block model for ocean internal waves based on the self-organized criticality (SOC). The oscillations of the water blocks in the model display power-law behavior with an exponent of -2 in the frequency domain, which is similar to the current and sea water temperature spectra in the actual ocean and the universal Garrett and Munk deep ocean internal wave model [Geophysical Fluid Dynamics 2 (1972) 225; J. Geophys. Res. 80 (1975) 291]. The influence of the ratio of the driving force to the spring coefficient to SOC behaviors in the model is also discussed. (general)

  14. Self-organized critical model for protein folding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moret, M. A.

    2011-09-01

    The major factor that drives a protein toward collapse and folding is the hydrophobic effect. At the folding process a hydrophobic core is shielded by the solvent-accessible surface area of the protein. We study the fractal behavior of 5526 protein structures present in the Brookhaven Protein Data Bank. Power laws of protein mass, volume and solvent-accessible surface area are measured independently. The present findings indicate that self-organized criticality is an alternative explanation for the protein folding. Also we note that the protein packing is an independent and constant value because the self-similar behavior of the volumes and protein masses have the same fractal dimension. This power law guarantees that a protein is a complex system. From the analyzed data, q-Gaussian distributions seem to fit well this class of systems.

  15. Thermal death rate of ascospores of Neosartorya fischeri ATCC 200957 in the presence of organic acids and preservatives in fruit juices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajashekhara, E; Suresh, E R; Ethiraj, S

    1998-10-01

    Heat-resistant molds, including Neosartorya fischeri, are known to spoil thermally processed fruit products. The control measures required for such problems must not cause an appreciable loss of the organoleptic qualities of the final products. In the present study we determined the thermal death rates of ascospores of N. fischeri ATCC 200957 in fruit juices containing organic acids and preservatives. The ascospores were able to survive for more than 6 h of heating at 75 degrees C, 5 h at 80 degrees C, and 3 to 4 h at 85 degrees C in mango or grape juice. Of the four organic acids tested, citric acid exhibited the maximal destruction of ascospores in mango juice at 85 degrees C (1/k = 27.22 min), and tartaric acid the least (1/k = 61.73 min). The effect of common preservatives on the thermal death rates of ascospores at .85 degrees C in mango and grape juices was studied. Almost similar effects on thermal inactivation of ascospores were noted when potassium sorbate (1/k = 29.38 min) or sodium benzoate (1/k = 27.64 min) or the combination of both (1/k = 27.53 min) was used in mango juice. In grape juice, potassium sorbate (1/k = 25.07 min) was more effective than sodium benzoate (1/k = 50.08 min) or the combination of both (1/k = 40.79 min) in inactivation of ascospores of the mold. The thermal death rate (1/k) values in mango and grape juices in the absence of any preservative were 63.51 and 69.27 min respectively.

  16. Power laws and self-organized criticality in theory and nature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marković, Dimitrije; Gros, Claudius

    2014-01-01

    Power laws and distributions with heavy tails are common features of many complex systems. Examples are the distribution of earthquake magnitudes, solar flare intensities and the sizes of neuronal avalanches. Previously, researchers surmised that a single general concept may act as an underlying generative mechanism, with the theory of self organized criticality being a weighty contender. The power-law scaling observed in the primary statistical analysis is an important, but by far not the only feature characterizing experimental data. The scaling function, the distribution of energy fluctuations, the distribution of inter-event waiting times, and other higher order spatial and temporal correlations, have seen increased consideration over the last years. Leading to realization that basic models, like the original sandpile model, are often insufficient to adequately describe the complexity of real-world systems with power-law distribution. Consequently, a substantial amount of effort has gone into developing new and extended models and, hitherto, three classes of models have emerged. The first line of models is based on a separation between the time scales of an external drive and an internal dissipation, and includes the original sandpile model and its extensions, like the dissipative earthquake model. Within this approach the steady state is close to criticality in terms of an absorbing phase transition. The second line of models is based on external drives and internal dynamics competing on similar time scales and includes the coherent noise model, which has a non-critical steady state characterized by heavy-tailed distributions. The third line of models proposes a non-critical self-organizing state, being guided by an optimization principle, such as the concept of highly optimized tolerance. We present a comparative overview regarding distinct modeling approaches together with a discussion of their potential relevance as underlying generative models for real

  17. Power laws and self-organized criticality in theory and nature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marković, Dimitrije, E-mail: markovic@cbs.mpg.de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Goethe University Frankfurt (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences, Leipzig (Germany); Biomagnetic Center, Hans Berger Clinic for Neurology, University Hospital Jena, Jena (Germany); Gros, Claudius, E-mail: gros@itp.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Goethe University Frankfurt (Germany)

    2014-03-01

    Power laws and distributions with heavy tails are common features of many complex systems. Examples are the distribution of earthquake magnitudes, solar flare intensities and the sizes of neuronal avalanches. Previously, researchers surmised that a single general concept may act as an underlying generative mechanism, with the theory of self organized criticality being a weighty contender. The power-law scaling observed in the primary statistical analysis is an important, but by far not the only feature characterizing experimental data. The scaling function, the distribution of energy fluctuations, the distribution of inter-event waiting times, and other higher order spatial and temporal correlations, have seen increased consideration over the last years. Leading to realization that basic models, like the original sandpile model, are often insufficient to adequately describe the complexity of real-world systems with power-law distribution. Consequently, a substantial amount of effort has gone into developing new and extended models and, hitherto, three classes of models have emerged. The first line of models is based on a separation between the time scales of an external drive and an internal dissipation, and includes the original sandpile model and its extensions, like the dissipative earthquake model. Within this approach the steady state is close to criticality in terms of an absorbing phase transition. The second line of models is based on external drives and internal dynamics competing on similar time scales and includes the coherent noise model, which has a non-critical steady state characterized by heavy-tailed distributions. The third line of models proposes a non-critical self-organizing state, being guided by an optimization principle, such as the concept of highly optimized tolerance. We present a comparative overview regarding distinct modeling approaches together with a discussion of their potential relevance as underlying generative models for real

  18. A Generic Privacy Quantification Framework for Privacy-Preserving Data Publishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zutao

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the concerns about the privacy for the electronic data collected by government agencies, organizations, and industries are increasing. They include individual privacy and knowledge privacy. Privacy-preserving data publishing is a research branch that preserves the privacy while, at the same time, withholding useful information in…

  19. The displacement of archaeological structures in Spain. Relocate to preserve, preserve to present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Manuel López-Menchero Bendicho

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Clearly it is not always feasible to conserve and exhibit the archaeological remains in situ, either for lack of funds in some cases, or for manifest incompatibility with the new land uses in others. This second case mix, ie the need to "free" land for new uses, sentences, in most cases, the archaeological remains to suffer a partial destruction since only movable materials are extracted, preserved and in some cases presented to the public, while the unmovable archaeological heritage, ie fixed archaeological structures, is destroyed, once it has been "properly" documented. However, in this field there is a kind of third way in which archaeological remains, including structures, are preserved and on display, while clearing the ground originally occupied. It is the displacement of archaeological structures. This article discusses the long history of such interventions in the Spanish case, making a typological classification proposal and finally a critical appraisal.

  20. Emergency Preservation and Resuscitation for Cardiac Arrest from Trauma (EPR CAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-07-1-0682 TITLE: Emergency Preservation and Resuscitation for Cardiac Arrest from Trauma ( EPR -CAT) PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...Preservation and Resuscitation ( EPR ) was developed to rapidly preserve the organism during ischemia, using hypothermia, drugs, and fluids, to “buy time...privileges for cannulation for the EPR flush. This has been accomplished. Given the complexity of our planned intervention for trauma patients in

  1. Radiation preservation of cultural and museum objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, J.

    1985-01-01

    The possibilities are summed up of using ionizing radiation for the treatment of museum collections, namely the biocidal effect of radiation on living organisms. An approximate assessment is made of the extent of damage to art and book collections by biological pests. Radiation preservation is compared with conventional methods which are unsatisfactory, because they do not affect deeper layers of materials. Experience is summed up with the use of radiation preservation in the Central Bohemian Museum in Roztoky. (J.C.)

  2. Data Preservation, Information Preservation, and Lifecyle of Information Management at NASA GES DISC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayat, Mo; Kempler, Steve; Deshong, Barbara; Johnson, James; Gerasimov, Irina; Esfandiari, Ed; Berganski, Michael; Wei, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Data lifecycle management awareness is common today; planners are more likely to consider lifecycle issues at mission start. NASA remote sensing missions are typically subject to life cycle management plans of the Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC), and NASA invests in these national centers for the long-term safeguarding and benefit of future generations. As stewards of older missions, it is incumbent upon us to ensure that a comprehensive enough set of information is being preserved to prevent the risk for information loss. This risk is greater when the original data experts have moved on or are no longer available. Preservation of items like documentation related to processing algorithms, pre-flight calibration data, or input-output configuration parameters used in product generation, are examples of digital artifacts that are sometimes not fully preserved. This is the grey area of information preservation; the importance of these items is not always clear and requires careful consideration. Missing important metadata about intermediate steps used to derive a product could lead to serious challenges in the reproducibility of results or conclusions. Organizations are rapidly recognizing that the focus of life-cycle preservation needs to be enlarged from the strict raw data to the more encompassing arena of information lifecycle management. By understanding what constitutes information, and the complexities involved, we are better equipped to deliver longer lasting value about the original data and derived knowledge (information) from them. The NASA Earth Science Data Preservation Content Specification is an attempt to define the content necessary for long-term preservation. It requires new lifecycle infrastructure approach along with content repositories to accommodate artifacts other than just raw data. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) setup an open-source Preservation System capable of long-term archive of

  3. Optimization of preservation activities and preservation engineering (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Takayuki; Mimaki, Hidehito; Oda, Mitsuyuki

    2004-01-01

    In order to deal with the optimization of preservation activities and 'preservation engineering' which makes it possible, the viewpoint and the approach of the optimization of the ex post facto preservation and the content to be possessed in 'preservation engineering' are described. The optimization of the ex post facto preservation is shown respectively in the four stages of planning, implementation, result evaluation and countermeasure. (K. Kato)

  4. Technique for laparoscopic autonomic nerve preserving total mesorectal excision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breukink, S O; Pierie, J P E N; Hoff, C; Wiggers, T; Meijerink, W J H J

    2006-05-01

    With the introduction of total mesorectal excision (TME) for treatment of rectal cancer, the prognosis of patients with rectal cancer is improved. With this better prognosis, there is a growing awareness about the quality of life of patients after rectal carcinoma. Laparoscopic total mesorectal excision (LTME) for rectal cancer offers several advantages in comparison with open total mesorectal excision (OTME), including greater patient comfort and an earlier return to daily activities while preserving the oncologic radicality of the procedure. Moreover, laparoscopy allows good exposure of the pelvic cavity because of magnification and good illumination. The laparoscope seems to facilitate pelvic dissection including identification and preservation of critical structures such as the autonomic nervous system. The technique for laparoscopic autonomic nerve preserving total mesorectal excision is reported. A three- or four-port technique is used. Vascular ligation, sharp mesorectal dissection and identification and preservation of the autonomic pelvic nerves are described.

  5. Nuclear Knowledge Preservation in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleslic, S.; Novosel, N.

    2006-01-01

    Since the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA, Vienna, Austria) was founded in 1957 as an autonomous intergovernmental organization, it was authorized for exchange of technical and scientific information on peaceful uses of atomic energy. 35 years ago the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) was established from IAEA as an international bibliographic database in the nuclear field and in nuclear related areas. INIS as an instrument for a comprehensive and systematic dissemination of all information and knowledge becomes a big technological and science information system with 134 Members (114 countries and 20 international organizations). In INIS Membership Arrangements all Members are responsible for the collection, selection, description of information and providing the Agency with the full text of each item of non-conventional literature. Participation of each Member is important because decentralized information management is an operational philosophy of INIS. During all these years status of nuclear power changed significantly in the world. Some developing countries started to develop nuclear power programme and some developed countries showed tendency to decrease use of nuclear power. Anyway, expert knowledge accumulated over decades and the achievements in the field of nuclear science and technology have to be preserved and later transferred to future generations. It became obvious that the INIS is practically a pioneer in the area of nuclear knowledge preservation with well defined goals of knowledge preservation: selection of the most valuable information to convey to the future, ensuring that it remains accessible, readable and understandable and management of technological change. Main components of knowledge preservation are: selection of information for preservation including evaluation and prioritisation by value, use and risk, information capture (purchasing, copy, digitise, web links), describing, classifying, store and access

  6. The nuclear criticality information system's project to archive unpublished critical experiment data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koponen, B.L.; Doherty, A.L.; Clayton, E.D.

    1991-01-01

    Critical experiment facilities produced a large amount of important data during the past forty-five years. However, much useful data remains unpublished. The unpublished material exists in the form of experimenters' logbooks, notes, photographs, material descriptions, etc. These data could be important for computer code validation, understanding the physics of criticality, facility design, or for setting process limits. In the past, criticality specialists have been able to obtain unpublished details by direct contact with the experimenters. The closure of facilities and the loss of personnel is likely to lead to the loss of the facility records unless an effort is made to ensure that the records are preserved. It has been recognized for some time that the unpublished records of critical experiment facilities comprise a valuable resource, thus the Nuclear Criticality Information System (NCIS) is working to ensure that the records are preserved and made available via NCIS. As a first step in the archiving project, we identified criteria to help judge which series of experiments should be considered for archiving. Data that are used for validating calculations or the basis for subcritical limits in standards, handbooks, and guides are of particular importance. In this paper we will discuss the criteria for archiving, the priority list of experiments for archiving, and progress in developing an NCIS image database using current CD-ROM technology. (Author)

  7. Impact of network topology on self-organized criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Heiko

    2018-02-01

    The general mechanisms behind self-organized criticality (SOC) are still unknown. Several microscopic and mean-field theory approaches have been suggested, but they do not explain the dependence of the exponents on the underlying network topology of the SOC system. Here, we first report the phenomena that in the Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld (BTW) model, sites inside an avalanche area largely return to their original state after the passing of an avalanche, forming, effectively, critically arranged clusters of sites. Then, we hypothesize that SOC relies on the formation process of these clusters, and present a model of such formation. For low-dimensional networks, we show theoretically and in simulation that the exponent of the cluster-size distribution is proportional to the ratio of the fractal dimension of the cluster boundary and the dimensionality of the network. For the BTW model, in our simulations, the exponent of the avalanche-area distribution matched approximately our prediction based on this ratio for two-dimensional networks, but deviated for higher dimensions. We hypothesize a transition from cluster formation to the mean-field theory process with increasing dimensionality. This work sheds light onto the mechanisms behind SOC, particularly, the impact of the network topology.

  8. A service-oriented approach to assess the value of digital preservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chituc, C.-M.; Ristau, P.; Ghose, A.; Zhu, H.; Yu, Q.; Delis, A.; Sheng, Q.Z.

    2013-01-01

    Assessing the economic value of a preservation system that preserves increasing amounts of digital data produced and collected by public and private organizations is a challenging task. The financial sector, in particular the investment business, is characterized by constantly increasing volumes of

  9. Organic chloramines in chlorine-based disinfected water systems: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    How, Zuo Tong; Kristiana, Ina; Busetti, Francesco; Linge, Kathryn L; Joll, Cynthia A

    2017-08-01

    This paper is a critical review of current knowledge of organic chloramines in water systems, including their formation, stability, toxicity, analytical methods for detection, and their impact on drinking water treatment and quality. The term organic chloramines may refer to any halogenated organic compounds measured as part of combined chlorine (the difference between the measured free and total chlorine concentrations), and may include N-chloramines, N-chloramino acids, N-chloraldimines and N-chloramides. Organic chloramines can form when dissolved organic nitrogen or dissolved organic carbon react with either free chlorine or inorganic chloramines. They are potentially harmful to humans and may exist as an intermediate for other disinfection by-products. However, little information is available on the formation or occurrence of organic chloramines in water due to a number of challenges. One of the biggest challenges for the identification and quantification of organic chloramines in water systems is the lack of appropriate analytical methods. In addition, many of the organic chloramines that form during disinfection are unstable, which results in difficulties in sampling and detection. To date research has focussed on the study of organic monochloramines. However, given that breakpoint chlorination is commonly undertaken in water treatment systems, the formation of organic dichloramines should also be considered. Organic chloramines can be formed from many different precursors and pathways. Therefore, studying the occurrence of their precursors in water systems would enable better prediction and management of their formation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Self-organized criticality in asymmetric exclusion model with noise for freeway traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    1995-02-01

    The one-dimensional asymmetric simple-exclusion model with open boundaries for parallel update is extended to take into account temporary stopping of particles. The model presents the traffic flow on a highway with temporary deceleration of cars. Introducing temporary stopping into the asymmetric simple-exclusion model drives the system asymptotically into a steady state exhibiting a self-organized criticality. In the self-organized critical state, start-stop waves (or traffic jams) appear with various sizes (or lifetimes). The typical interval between consecutive jams scales as ≃ Lv with v = 0.51 ± 0.05 where L is the system size. It is shown that the cumulative jam-interval distribution Ns( L) satisfies the finite-size scaling form ( Ns( L) ≃ L- vf( s/ Lv). Also, the typical lifetime ≃ Lv‧ with v‧ = 0.52 ± 0.05. The cumulative distribution Nm( L) of lifetimes satisfies the finite-size scaling form Nm( L)≃ L-1g( m/ Lv‧).

  11. Modeling financial markets by self-organized criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondo, Alessio Emanuele; Pluchino, Alessandro; Rapisarda, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    We present a financial market model, characterized by self-organized criticality, that is able to generate endogenously a realistic price dynamics and to reproduce well-known stylized facts. We consider a community of heterogeneous traders, composed by chartists and fundamentalists, and focus on the role of informative pressure on market participants, showing how the spreading of information, based on a realistic imitative behavior, drives contagion and causes market fragility. In this model imitation is not intended as a change in the agent's group of origin, but is referred only to the price formation process. We introduce in the community also a variable number of random traders in order to study their possible beneficial role in stabilizing the market, as found in other studies. Finally, we also suggest some counterintuitive policy strategies able to dampen fluctuations by means of a partial reduction of information.

  12. Self-Organized Criticality Theory Model of Thermal Sandpile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Xiao-Dong; Qu Hong-Peng; Xu Jian-Qiang; Han Zui-Jiao

    2015-01-01

    A self-organized criticality model of a thermal sandpile is formulated for the first time to simulate the dynamic process with interaction between avalanche events on the fast time scale and diffusive transports on the slow time scale. The main characteristics of the model are that both particle and energy avalanches of sand grains are considered simultaneously. Properties of intermittent transport and improved confinement are analyzed in detail. The results imply that the intermittent phenomenon such as blobs in the low confinement mode as well as edge localized modes in the high confinement mode observed in tokamak experiments are not only determined by the edge plasma physics, but also affected by the core plasma dynamics. (paper)

  13. Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) and Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) as Critical In Situ Investigation for Targeting Mars Returned Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freissinet, C.; Glavin, D. P.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Szopa, C.; Buch, A.; Goesmann, F.; Goetz, W.; Raulin, F.; SAM Science Team; MOMA Science Team

    2018-04-01

    SAM (Curiosity) and MOMA (ExoMars) Mars instruments, seeking for organics and biosignatures, are essential to establish taphonomic windows of preservation of molecules, in order to target the most interesting samples to return from Mars.

  14. Influence of microbial biofilms on the preservation of primary soft tissue in fossil and extant archosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph E Peterson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mineralized and permineralized bone is the most common form of fossilization in the vertebrate record. Preservation of gross soft tissues is extremely rare, but recent studies have suggested that primary soft tissues and biomolecules are more commonly preserved within preserved bones than had been presumed. Some of these claims have been challenged, with presentation of evidence suggesting that some of the structures are microbial artifacts, not primary soft tissues. The identification of biomolecules in fossil vertebrate extracts from a specimen of Brachylophosaurus canadensis has shown the interpretation of preserved organic remains as microbial biofilm to be highly unlikely. These discussions also propose a variety of potential mechanisms that would permit the preservation of soft-tissues in vertebrate fossils over geologic time. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study experimentally examines the role of microbial biofilms in soft-tissue preservation in vertebrate fossils by quantitatively establishing the growth and morphology of biofilms on extant archosaur bone. These results are microscopically and morphologically compared with soft-tissue extracts from vertebrate fossils from the Hell Creek Formation of southeastern Montana (Latest Maastrichtian in order to investigate the potential role of microbial biofilms on the preservation of fossil bone and bound organic matter in a variety of taphonomic settings. Based on these analyses, we highlight a mechanism whereby this bound organic matter may be preserved. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results of the study indicate that the crystallization of microbial biofilms on decomposing organic matter within vertebrate bone in early taphonomic stages may contribute to the preservation of primary soft tissues deeper in the bone structure.

  15. Cost Model for Digital Preservation: Cost of Digital Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulla Bøgvad Kejser

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The Danish Ministry of Culture has funded a project to set up a model for costing preservation of digital materials held by national cultural heritage institutions. The overall objective of the project was to increase cost effectiveness of digital preservation activities and to provide a basis for comparing and estimating future cost requirements for digital preservation. In this study we describe an activity-based costing methodology for digital preservation based on the Open Archice Information System (OAIS Reference Model. Within this framework, which we denote the Cost Model for Digital Preservation (CMDP, the focus is on costing the functional entity Preservation Planning from the OAIS and digital migration activities. In order to estimate these costs we have identified cost-critical activities by analysing the functions in the OAIS model and the flows between them. The analysis has been supplemented with findings from the literature, and our own knowledge and experience. The identified cost-critical activities have subsequently been deconstructed into measurable components, cost dependencies have been examined, and the resulting equations expressed in a spreadsheet. Currently the model can calculate the cost of different migration scenarios for a series of preservation formats for text, images, sound, video, geodata, and spreadsheets. In order to verify the model it has been tested on cost data from two different migration projects at the Danish National Archives (DNA. The study found that the OAIS model provides a sound overall framework for the cost breakdown, but that some functions need additional detailing in order to cost activities accurately. Running the two sets of empirical data showed among other things that the model underestimates the cost of manpower-intensive migration projects, while it reinstates an often underestimated cost, which is the cost of developing migration software. The model has proven useful for estimating the

  16. Crossover to self-organized criticality in an inertial sandpile model

    OpenAIRE

    Head, DA; Rodgers, GJ

    1996-01-01

    We introduce a one-dimensional sandpile model which incorporates particle inertia. The inertial dynamics are governed by a new parameter which, as it passes through a threshold value, alters the toppling dynamics in such a way that the system no longer evolves to a self-organized critical state. A range of mean-field theories based on a kinetic equation approach is presented which confirm the numerical findings. We conclude by considering the physical applications of this model, particularly ...

  17. Evaluation of radiation doses on critical organs in the treatment of cancer of the cervix using HDR-brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Taciana; Jansem, Teresa

    2000-01-01

    High dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy is one type of treatment of the cervix carcinoma. During the planning for this therapy, especial attention is given to proximal normal organs such as bladder and rectum. In fact, due to their radiosensibility and localization, bladder and rectum are considered as critical organs. In this work we have studied the influence of the positioning of patient legs in the dose delivered to these critical organs in the treatment of cancer of the cervix using HDR-brachytherapy. (author)

  18. Fossil avian eggshell preserves ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskam, Charlotte L; Haile, James Seymour; McLay, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Owing to exceptional biomolecule preservation, fossil avian eggshell has been used extensively in geochronology and palaeodietary studies. Here, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time that fossil eggshell is a previously unrecognized source of ancient DNA (aDNA). We describe the successful...... isolation and amplification of DNA from fossil eggshell up to 19 ka old. aDNA was successfully characterized from eggshell obtained from New Zealand (extinct moa and ducks), Madagascar (extinct elephant birds) and Australia (emu and owl). Our data demonstrate excellent preservation of the nucleic acids......, evidenced by retrieval of both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA from many of the samples. Using confocal microscopy and quantitative PCR, this study critically evaluates approaches to maximize DNA recovery from powdered eggshell. Our quantitative PCR experiments also demonstrate that moa eggshell has...

  19. Natural hazards and self-organized criticality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krenn, R.

    2012-01-01

    Several natural hazards exhibit power-law behavior on their frequency-size distributions. Self-organized criticality has become a promising candidate that could offer a more in-depth understanding of the origin of temporal and spatial scaling in dissipative nonequilibrium systems. The outcomes of this thesis are presented in three scientific papers followed by a concluding summary and an appendix.In paper (A) we present a semi-phenomenological approach to explain the complex scaling behavior of the Drossel-Schwabl forest-fire model (DS-FFM) in two dimensions. We derive the scaling exponent solely from the scaling exponent of the clusters' accessible perimeter. Furthermore, the unusual transition to an exponential decay is explained both qualitatively and quantitatively. The exponential decay itself could be reproduced at least qualitatively. In paper (B) we extend the DS-FFM towards anthropogenic ignition factors. The main outcomes are an increase of the scaling exponent with decreasing lightning probability as well as a splitting of the partial frequency-size distributions of lightning induced and man made fires. Lightning is identified as the dominant mechanism in the regime of the largest fires. The results could be validated through an analysis of the Canadian Large Fire Database.In paper (C) we obtain an almost complete theory of the Olami-Feder-Christensen (OFC) model's complex spatio-temporal behavior. Synchronization pushes the system towards a critical state and generates the Gutenberg-Richter law. Desynchronization prevents the system from becoming overcritical and generates foreshocks and aftershocks. Our approach also provides a simple explanation of Omori's law. Beyond this, it explains the phenomena of foreshock migration and aftershock diffusion and the occurrence of large earthquakes without any foreshocks. A novel integer algorithm for the numerics is presented in appendix (A).(author) [de

  20. Reconstruction of structure and function in tissue engineering of solid organs: Toward simulation of natural development based on decellularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Chen-Xi; Sui, Bing-Dong; Hu, Cheng-Hu; Qiu, Xin-Yu; Zhao, Pan; Jin, Yan

    2018-04-27

    Failure of solid organs, such as the heart, liver, and kidney, remains a major cause of the world's mortality due to critical shortage of donor organs. Tissue engineering, which uses elements including cells, scaffolds, and growth factors to fabricate functional organs in vitro, is a promising strategy to mitigate the scarcity of transplantable organs. Within recent years, different construction strategies that guide the combination of tissue engineering elements have been applied in solid organ tissue engineering and have achieved much progress. Most attractively, construction strategy based on whole-organ decellularization has become a popular and promising approach, because the overall structure of extracellular matrix can be well preserved. However, despite the preservation of whole structure, the current constructs derived from decellularization-based strategy still perform partial functions of solid organs, due to several challenges, including preservation of functional extracellular matrix structure, implementation of functional recellularization, formation of functional vascular network, and realization of long-term functional integration. This review overviews the status quo of solid organ tissue engineering, including both advances and challenges. We have also put forward a few techniques with potential to solve the challenges, mainly focusing on decellularization-based construction strategy. We propose that the primary concept for constructing tissue-engineered solid organs is fabricating functional organs based on intact structure via simulating the natural development and regeneration processes. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Navy Contracting Analyzing Critical Success Factors and Perceived Impact on Success within an Organization

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Josh R.; McGraw, Kevin L.

    2012-01-01

    MBA Professional Report Approved for public release, distribution unlimited Critical Success Factors (CSF) are essential ingredients within an organization that are necessary to meet critical mission objectives. Identifying those factors can be a vital asset and assist leadership in achieving successful outcomes in contract management. This report will focus on three major contracting commands within the United States Navy Naval Supply Systems Command, Global Logistics Support (NAVSUP-G...

  2. Whole-brain structural topology in adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Preserved global – disturbed local network organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justina Sidlauskaite

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prior studies demonstrate altered organization of functional brain networks in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. However, the structural underpinnings of these functional disturbances are poorly understood. In the current study, we applied a graph-theoretic approach to whole-brain diffusion magnetic resonance imaging data to investigate the organization of structural brain networks in adults with ADHD and unaffected controls using deterministic fiber tractography. Groups did not differ in terms of global network metrics — small-worldness, global efficiency and clustering coefficient. However, there were widespread ADHD-related effects at the nodal level in relation to local efficiency and clustering. The affected nodes included superior occipital, supramarginal, superior temporal, inferior parietal, angular and inferior frontal gyri, as well as putamen, thalamus and posterior cerebellum. Lower local efficiency of left superior temporal and supramarginal gyri was associated with higher ADHD symptom scores. Also greater local clustering of right putamen and lower local clustering of left supramarginal gyrus correlated with ADHD symptom severity. Overall, the findings indicate preserved global but altered local network organization in adult ADHD implicating regions underpinning putative ADHD-related neuropsychological deficits.

  3. The Gut as the Motor of Multiple Organ Dysfunction in Critical Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingensmith, Nathan J; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2016-04-01

    All elements of the gut - the epithelium, the immune system, and the microbiome - are impacted by critical illness and can, in turn, propagate a pathologic host response leading to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that this can occur by release of toxic gut-derived substances into the mesenteric lymph where they can cause distant damage. Further, intestinal integrity is compromised in critical illness with increases in apoptosis and permeability. There is also increasing recognition that microbes alter their behavior and can become virulent based upon host environmental cues. Gut failure is common in critically ill patients; however, therapeutics targeting the gut have proven to be challenging to implement at the bedside. Numerous strategies to manipulate the microbiome have recently been used with varying success in the ICU. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Organizational prerequisites for the preservation of library collections in monastery libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Krtalić

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to investigate the preservation of written heritage in monastery libraries from legislative, institutional and organizational perspectives, and establish the necessary organizational prerequisites for improvement. Setting off from the presupposition that the library collections of monastery libraries are of immense cultural value, and can therefore be considered cultural good and part of Croatian written heritage, the paper discussed the need for a systematic approach to its protection, both on the operative level, in libraries themselves, and on the strategic level, by the authorities and other relevant institutions in the Republic of Croatia. In addition to the analysis of the legal and institutional frameworks and library collections preservation projects, three case studies were conducted in Franciscan monasteries in Mostar, Požega and Zadar, including interviews with their managers and one subject from the Croatian Institute of Librarianship. The case study aimed to investigate the context of the preservation of library collections in monastery libraries and provide answers to the following questions: how is the preservation in monastery libraries defined; how does it differ from the preservation in other libraries, and how is the preservation of collections in these libraries organized on institutional, local, and national levels? The research sets off from several core presuppositions: monastery libraries have valuable collections of Croatian and European written heritage; the heritage collections in monastery libraries are not investigated, organized, protected or presented at an adequate level; the responsibility for its preservation is not clearly assigned, there is not enough staff trained for preservation; the improvements in preservation and availability of library collections in monastery libraries should result from a better organization and management of the heritage preservation system in monastery

  5. A critical evaluation of depositional parameters controlling the variability of organic carbon in Arabian Sea sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Paropkari, A.L.; PrakashBabu, C.; Mascarenhas, A.

    source of organic matter. However, a critical examination reveals that the organic enrichment on the slope of the Indian margin is two to four fold higher (max. 16.71%) than on the slope of the Arabian Peninsula (max. 7.54%) while the productivity...

  6. Self-organized criticality occurs in non-conservative neuronal networks during `up' states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millman, Daniel; Mihalas, Stefan; Kirkwood, Alfredo; Niebur, Ernst

    2010-10-01

    During sleep, under anaesthesia and in vitro, cortical neurons in sensory, motor, association and executive areas fluctuate between so-called up and down states, which are characterized by distinct membrane potentials and spike rates. Another phenomenon observed in preparations similar to those that exhibit up and down states-such as anaesthetized rats, brain slices and cultures devoid of sensory input, as well as awake monkey cortex-is self-organized criticality (SOC). SOC is characterized by activity `avalanches' with a branching parameter near unity and size distribution that obeys a power law with a critical exponent of about -3/2. Recent work has demonstrated SOC in conservative neuronal network models, but critical behaviour breaks down when biologically realistic `leaky' neurons are introduced. Here, we report robust SOC behaviour in networks of non-conservative leaky integrate-and-fire neurons with short-term synaptic depression. We show analytically and numerically that these networks typically have two stable activity levels, corresponding to up and down states, that the networks switch spontaneously between these states and that up states are critical and down states are subcritical.

  7. When to ask male adolescents to provide semen sample for fertility preservation?

    OpenAIRE

    Dabaja, Ali A.; Wosnitzer, Matthew S.; Bolyakov, Alexander; Schlegel, Peter N.; Paduch, Darius A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Fertility preservation in adolescents undergoing sterilizing radiation and/or chemotherapy is the standard of care in oncology. The opportunity for patients to provide a semen sample by ejaculation is a critical issue in adolescent fertility preservation. Methods Fifty males with no medical or sexual developmental abnormalities were evaluated. The subjects were screened for evidence of orgasmic, erectile, and ejaculatory dysfunction. A detailed sexual development history was obtain...

  8. World Health Organization Ranking of Antimicrobials According to Their Importance in Human Medicine: A Critical Step for Developing Risk Management Strategies to Control Antimicrobial Resistance From Food Animal Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collignon, Peter C; Conly, John M; Andremont, Antoine; McEwen, Scott A; Aidara-Kane, Awa; Agerso, Yvonne; Andremont, Antoine; Collignon, Peter; Conly, John; Dang Ninh, Tran; Donado-Godoy, Pilar; Fedorka-Cray, Paula; Fernandez, Heriberto; Galas, Marcelo; Irwin, Rebecca; Karp, Beth; Matar, Gassan; McDermott, Patrick; McEwen, Scott; Mitema, Eric; Reid-Smith, Richard; Scott, H Morgan; Singh, Ruby; DeWaal, Caroline Smith; Stelling, John; Toleman, Mark; Watanabe, Haruo; Woo, Gun-Jo

    2016-10-15

    Antimicrobial use in food animals selects for antimicrobial resistance in bacteria, which can spread to people. Reducing use of antimicrobials-particularly those deemed to be critically important for human medicine-in food production animals continues to be an important step for preserving the benefits of these antimicrobials for people. The World Health Organization ranking of antimicrobials according to their relative importance in human medicine was recently updated. Antimicrobials considered the highest priority among the critically important antimicrobials were quinolones, third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, macrolides and ketolides, and glycopeptides. The updated ranking allows stakeholders in the agriculture sector and regulatory agencies to focus risk management efforts on drugs used in food animals that are the most important to human medicine. In particular, the current large-scale use of fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and third-generation cephalosporins and any potential use of glycopeptides and carbapenems need to be addressed urgently. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Does a strong pycnocline impact organic-matter preservation and accumulation in an anoxic setting? The case of the Orca Basin, Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribovillard, Nicolas; Bout-Roumazeilles, Viviane; Sionneau, Thomas; Serrano, Jean Carlos Montero; Riboulleau, Armelle; Baudin, François

    2009-01-01

    The Orca Basin (an intraslope depression located in the Gulf of Mexico) collects sedimentary particles of terrestrial origin (clastic and organic particles mainly supplied by the Mississippi River) and of marine origin (biogenic productivity). The basin is partly filled with dense brines leached from salt diapirs cropping out on the sea floor, and is permanently stratified. A strong pycnocline induces anoxic bottom conditions, expectedly favorable to organic matter (OM) preservation. Here, we report on OM in the upper 750 cm below sea floor of Core MD02-2552 (Holocene). The organic content is dominated by marine-derived amorphous OM. The organic assemblage is unexpectedly degraded to some extent, which may be accounted for by a relatively long residence time of organic particles at the halocline-pycnocline at ˜2240 m. Thus the organic particles are temporarily trapped and kept in contact with the dissolved oxygen-rich overlying water mass. Lastly, the land-derived organic fraction shows co-variations with the land-derived clay mineral supply.

  10. Sustained Activity in Hierarchical Modular Neural Networks: Self-Organized Criticality and Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Jun; Hilgetag, Claus C.; Zhou, Changsong

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral cortical brain networks possess a number of conspicuous features of structure and dynamics. First, these networks have an intricate, non-random organization. In particular, they are structured in a hierarchical modular fashion, from large-scale regions of the whole brain, via cortical areas and area subcompartments organized as structural and functional maps to cortical columns, and finally circuits made up of individual neurons. Second, the networks display self-organized sustained activity, which is persistent in the absence of external stimuli. At the systems level, such activity is characterized by complex rhythmical oscillations over a broadband background, while at the cellular level, neuronal discharges have been observed to display avalanches, indicating that cortical networks are at the state of self-organized criticality (SOC). We explored the relationship between hierarchical neural network organization and sustained dynamics using large-scale network modeling. Previously, it was shown that sparse random networks with balanced excitation and inhibition can sustain neural activity without external stimulation. We found that a hierarchical modular architecture can generate sustained activity better than random networks. Moreover, the system can simultaneously support rhythmical oscillations and SOC, which are not present in the respective random networks. The mechanism underlying the sustained activity is that each dense module cannot sustain activity on its own, but displays SOC in the presence of weak perturbations. Therefore, the hierarchical modular networks provide the coupling among subsystems with SOC. These results imply that the hierarchical modular architecture of cortical networks plays an important role in shaping the ongoing spontaneous activity of the brain, potentially allowing the system to take advantage of both the sensitivity of critical states and the predictability and timing of oscillations for efficient information

  11. Preferential soft-tissue preservation in the Hot Creek carbonate spring deposit, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainey, Dustin K.; Jones, Brian

    2010-05-01

    The relict Holocene Hot Creek carbonate spring deposit in southeast British Columbia is characterized by excellent preservation of soft-tissue organisms (e.g. cyanobacteria), but poor preservation of organisms with hard-tissue (e.g. wood, diatoms). The deposit is formed mainly of calcified cyanobacteria, with fewer mineralized macrophytes (plants), bryophytes (mosses), wood, and diatoms. Cyanobacteria grew as solitary filaments ( Lyngbya) and as radiating hemispherical colonies ( Rivularia). Both were preserved by encrustation and encapsulation while alive, and as casts after filament death and decay. Sheath impregnation was rare to absent. Filament encrustation, whereby calcite crystals nucleated on, and grew away from the sheath exterior, produced moulds that replicated external filament morphology, but hastened filament decay. Filament encapsulation, whereby calcite nucleated in the vicinity of, and grew towards the encapsulated filament, promoted sheath preservation even after trichome decay. Subsequent calcite precipitation inside the hollow sheath generated sheath casts. The inability of mineralizing spring water to penetrate durable cell walls meant that bryophytes, macrophytes, and most wood was preserved by encrustation. Some wood resisted complete decay for several thousand years, and its lignified cell walls allowed rare permineralizations. Diatoms were not preserved in the relict deposit because the frustules were dissolved by the basic spring water. Amorphous calcium carbonate produced by photosynthetic CO 2 removal may have acted as nucleation sites for physicochemically precipitated calcite. Thus, metabolic activities of floral organisms probably initiated biotic mineralization, but continuous inorganic calcite precipitation on and in flora ensured that soft tissues were preserved.

  12. Achievements and barriers in the organ donation process: a critical analysis of donation coordinators' discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado-Martínez, Francisco J; Díaz-Medina, Blanca A; Hernández-Ibarra, Eduardo

    2013-09-01

    Donation coordinators play an important role in the success or failure of organ donation and transplant programs. Nevertheless, these professionals' perspectives and practices have hardly been explored, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. To examine donation coordinators' discourse on the organ donation process and the barriers they perceive. A critical qualitative study was carried out in Guadalajara, Mexico. Twelve donation coordinators from public and private hospitals participated. DATA GATHERING AND ANALYSIS: Data were gathered by using semistructured interviews and critical discourse analysis. Participants indicated that partial results have been achieved in deceased organ donation. Concomitantly, multiple obstacles have adversely affected the process and outcomes: at the structural level, the fragmentation of the health system and the scarcity of financial and material resources; at the relational level, nonegalitarian relationships between coordinators and hospital personnel; at the ideational level, the transplant domain and its specialists overshadow the donation domain and its coordinators. Negative images are associated with donation coordinators. Organ donation faces structural, relational, and ideational barriers; hence, complex interventions should be undertaken. Donation coordinators also should be recognized by the health system.

  13. A case of traumatic pancreaticoduodenal injury: a simple and an organ-preserving approach as damage control surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sae Byeol; You, Jiyoung; Choi, Sang Yong

    2012-01-10

    Traumatic pancreaticoduodenal injury still remains challenging with high morbidity and mortality. Optimal management by performing simple and fast damage control surgery ensures better outcomes. A 36-year-old man was admitted with a combined pancreaticoduodenal injury after being assaulted. More than 80% of duodenal circumference (first portion) was disrupted and the neck of the pancreas was transected. Primary repair of the duodenum and pancreaticogastrostomy were performed. The stump of the proximal pancreatic duct was also sutured. The patient developed an intra-abdominal abscess with pancreatic fistula that eventually recovered by conservative treatment. Pancreaticogastrostomy can be a treatment option for pancreatic transection. Rapid and simple damage control surgery with functional preservation of the organ will be beneficial for trauma patients.

  14. Short-term preservation of porcine oocytes in ambient temperature: novel approaches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai-Rong Yang

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of preserving porcine oocytes without freezing. To optimize preservation conditions, porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs were preserved in TCM-199, porcine follicular fluid (pFF and FCS at different temperatures (4°C, 20°C, 25°C, 27.5°C, 30°C and 38.5°C for 1 day, 2 days or 3 days. After preservation, oocyte morphology, germinal vesicle (GV rate, actin cytoskeleton organization, cortical granule distribution, mitochondrial translocation and intracellular glutathione level were evaluated. Oocyte maturation was indicated by first polar body emission and spindle morphology after in vitro culture. Strikingly, when COCs were stored at 27.5°C for 3 days in pFF or FCS, more than 60% oocytes were still arrested at the GV stage and more than 50% oocytes matured into MII stages after culture. Almost 80% oocytes showed normal actin organization and cortical granule relocation to the cortex, and approximately 50% oocytes showed diffused mitochondria distribution patterns and normal spindle configurations. While stored in TCM-199, all these criteria decreased significantly. Glutathione (GSH level in the pFF or FCS group was higher than in the TCM-199 group, but lower than in the non-preserved control group. The preserved oocytes could be fertilized and developed to blastocysts (about 10% with normal cell number, which is clear evidence for their retaining the developmental potentiality after 3d preservation. Thus, we have developed a simple method for preserving immature pig oocytes at an ambient temperature for several days without evident damage of cytoplasm and keeping oocyte developmental competence.

  15. Short-term preservation of porcine oocytes in ambient temperature: novel approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cai-Rong; Miao, De-Qiang; Zhang, Qing-Hua; Guo, Lei; Tong, Jing-Shan; Wei, Yanchang; Huang, Xin; Hou, Yi; Schatten, Heide; Liu, ZhongHua; Sun, Qing-Yuan

    2010-12-07

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of preserving porcine oocytes without freezing. To optimize preservation conditions, porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were preserved in TCM-199, porcine follicular fluid (pFF) and FCS at different temperatures (4°C, 20°C, 25°C, 27.5°C, 30°C and 38.5°C) for 1 day, 2 days or 3 days. After preservation, oocyte morphology, germinal vesicle (GV) rate, actin cytoskeleton organization, cortical granule distribution, mitochondrial translocation and intracellular glutathione level were evaluated. Oocyte maturation was indicated by first polar body emission and spindle morphology after in vitro culture. Strikingly, when COCs were stored at 27.5°C for 3 days in pFF or FCS, more than 60% oocytes were still arrested at the GV stage and more than 50% oocytes matured into MII stages after culture. Almost 80% oocytes showed normal actin organization and cortical granule relocation to the cortex, and approximately 50% oocytes showed diffused mitochondria distribution patterns and normal spindle configurations. While stored in TCM-199, all these criteria decreased significantly. Glutathione (GSH) level in the pFF or FCS group was higher than in the TCM-199 group, but lower than in the non-preserved control group. The preserved oocytes could be fertilized and developed to blastocysts (about 10%) with normal cell number, which is clear evidence for their retaining the developmental potentiality after 3d preservation. Thus, we have developed a simple method for preserving immature pig oocytes at an ambient temperature for several days without evident damage of cytoplasm and keeping oocyte developmental competence.

  16. ACEH IN HISTORY: Preserving Traditions and Embracing Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirul Hadi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to critically discuss on how the Acehnese in history, while trying to embrace the modern world, have made every effort at preserving their traditions. As an ethnic group which has a glorious past, Aceh has strongly been connected to “identity”; and this is expressed in various means, including “social memory.” For this very reason, “traditions”, including those of the past, are explored and preserved. Yet, the challenges of modernity are also apparent. It is in this context that the Acehnese are trapped at the crossroad. On the one hand, they tend to preserve their traditions, yet, on the other, they need to embrace modern lives. The Acehnese seem to have encountered considerable obstacles on this issue, for they tend to focus more on historical “romanticism” (nostalgia rather than historical “awareness” (consciousness. Eventually, the “spirit” of the past cannot be brought into light.

  17. An Examination of the Adoption of Preservation Metadata in Cultural Heritage Institutions: An Exploratory Study Using Diffusion of Innovations Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemneh, Daniel Gelaw

    2009-01-01

    Digital preservation is a significant challenge for cultural heritage institutions and other repositories of digital information resources. Recognizing the critical role of metadata in any successful digital preservation strategy, the Preservation Metadata Implementation Strategies (PREMIS) has been extremely influential on providing a "core" set…

  18. Beneficial bread without preservatives

    OpenAIRE

    Denkova, Zapryana; Denkova, Rositsa

    2014-01-01

    Besides their inherent nutritional value functional foods contain substances that have beneficial impact on the functioning of organs and systems in the human body and reduce the risk of disease. Bread and bakery goods are basic foods in the diet of contemporary people. Preservatives are added to the composition of foods in order to ensure their microbiological safety, but these substances affect directly the balance of microflora in the tract. A great problem is mold and bacterial spoilage (...

  19. Prevention of ischemia-reperfusion lung injury during static cold preservation by supplementation of standard preservation solution with HEMO2life® in pig lung transplantation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorion, M; Polard, V; Favereau, F; Hauet, T; Zal, F; Fadel, E; Sage, E

    2017-10-25

    We describe the results of adding a new biological agent HEMO 2 life ® to a standard preservation solution for hypothermic static lung preservation aiming to improve early functional parameters after lung transplantation. HEMO 2 life ® is a natural oxygen carrier extracted from Arenicola marina with high oxygen affinity developed as an additive to standard organ preservation solutions. Standard preservation solution (Perfadex ® ) was compared with Perfadex ® associated with HEMO 2 life ® and with sham animals after 24 h of hypothermic preservation followed by lung transplantation. During five hours of lung reperfusion, functional parameters and biomarkers expression in serum and in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were measured. After five hours of reperfusion, HEMO 2 life ® group led to significant improvement in functional parameters: reduction of graft vascular resistance (p preservation improves early graft function after prolonged cold ischemia in lung transplantation.

  20. Comparison of Tissue Preservation using Formalin and Ethanol as Preservative Formula

    OpenAIRE

    See Woan Shian; Arifin Soenggono; Sawkar Vijay Pramod

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tissue preservation can be performed through embalming, by providing the chemical embalming fluid to the human remains. Formalin’s preservative formula is the foundation for modern methods of embalming. Unfortunately, this preservative formula has several disadvantages. While Ethanol’s preservative formula is a considerable agent to replace formalin’s preservative formula. The aim of this study was to compare the tissue preservation using formalin and ethanol as preservative formu...

  1. Plasticity of ductile metallic glasses: a self-organized critical state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, B A; Yu, H B; Jiao, W; Bai, H Y; Zhao, D Q; Wang, W H

    2010-07-16

    We report a close correlation between the dynamic behavior of serrated flow and the plasticity in metallic glasses (MGs) and show that the plastic deformation of ductile MGs can evolve into a self-organized critical state characterized by the power-law distribution of shear avalanches. A stick-slip model considering the interaction of multiple shear bands is presented to reveal complex scale-free intermittent shear-band motions in ductile MGs and quantitatively reproduce the experimental observations. Our studies have implications for understanding the precise plastic deformation mechanism of MGs.

  2. Preserving the memory of waste disposal centres for the future generations; Preserver la memoire des centre de stockage pour les generations futures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    Radioactive waste disposal and storage facilities are designed to be intrinsically safe (lowest possible impact) for a duration depending on the lifetime of wastes. The French national agency of waste management (ANDRA) wishes to preserve as long as possible the memory of its waste facilities taking into account a possible loss of this memory beyond the legal monitoring period. For this reason, the ANDRA has analyzed the means that have permitted the preservation of the historical heritage through the centuries. The conclusions show that it is possible to preserve with a good confidence a patrimony during long time scales providing some organizing and structuring of this memory (archiving on numerical media and on permanent paper). (J.S.)

  3. Self-Organized Criticality in an Anisotropic Earthquake Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin-Quan; Wang, Sheng-Jun

    2018-03-01

    We have made an extensive numerical study of a modified model proposed by Olami, Feder, and Christensen to describe earthquake behavior. Two situations were considered in this paper. One situation is that the energy of the unstable site is redistributed to its nearest neighbors randomly not averagely and keeps itself to zero. The other situation is that the energy of the unstable site is redistributed to its nearest neighbors randomly and keeps some energy for itself instead of reset to zero. Different boundary conditions were considered as well. By analyzing the distribution of earthquake sizes, we found that self-organized criticality can be excited only in the conservative case or the approximate conservative case in the above situations. Some evidence indicated that the critical exponent of both above situations and the original OFC model tend to the same result in the conservative case. The only difference is that the avalanche size in the original model is bigger. This result may be closer to the real world, after all, every crust plate size is different. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11675096 and 11305098, the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities under Grant No. GK201702001, FPALAB-SNNU under Grant No. 16QNGG007, and Interdisciplinary Incubation Project of SNU under Grant No. 5

  4. Clinical impact of culture-positive preservation fluid on solid organ transplantation: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriol, Isabel; Sabé, N; Tebé, C; Veroux, M; Boin, I F S F; Carratalà, J

    2018-04-01

    Contamination of the preservation fluid (PF) used for donated organs is a potential source of post-transplant infection. However, the information on this issue is scarce. We therefore conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the incidence of culture-positive PF and its impact on solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. Seventeen studies were identified and included. The overall incidence of culture-positive PF was 37% (95% CI: 27% to 49%), and the incidence of PF-related infections among SOT recipients with PF cultures that grew pathogenic microorganisms was 10% (95% CI: 7% to 15%). There were differences in the rates of infections due to pathogenic microorganisms between SOT recipients who received pre-emptive treatment and those who did not, but without statistical significance. The mortality rate among SOT recipients with PF-related infection was 35% (95% CI: 21% to 53%). In conclusion, although contamination of the PF of donated organs is frequent, the incidence of PF-related infection is relatively low. A closely clinical and microbiologic monitoring of the SOT recipient in case of culture-positive PF, regardless of the type of microorganism isolated might be do in order to establish a prompt diagnosis of PF-related infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Knowledge preservation in scope of International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Hafizal Yusof; Habibah Adnan; Iberahim Ali

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge preservation is one of the important aspects in knowledge management. Developing organization must look back how they preserve their knowledge from loss because of retirement and so on. One approach suggested by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) through establishment of International Nuclear Information System (INIS) that can functioned as database and research centres where its operation based on cooperation between the member states. This system also can function as main contributor to knowledge preservation centres based on research in nuclear science and technology related. The main objectives of this paper is to see how far this system relevant to meet this agency to preserve their knowledge. Besides that, the process of increasing individual competency also is discussed in context of INIS scope. (author)

  6. On Origin of Power-Law Distributions in Self-Organized Criticality from Random Walk Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Xiaofeng; Deng Zongwei; Yang Chunbin

    2008-01-01

    The origin of power-law distributions in self-organized criticality is investigated by treating the variation of the number of active sites in the system as a stochastic process. An avalanche is then regarded as a first-return random walk process in a one-dimensional lattice. We assume that the variation of the number of active sites has three possibilities in each update: to increase by 1 with probability f 1 , to decrease by 1 with probability f 2 , or remain unchanged with probability 1-f 1 -f 2 . This mimics the dynamics in the system. Power-law distributions of the lifetime are found when the random walk is unbiased with equal probability to move in opposite directions. This shows that power-law distributions in self-organized criticality may be caused by the balance of competitive interactions.

  7. The Etiology, Incidence, and Impact of Preservation Fluid Contamination during Liver Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriol, Isabel; Lladó, Laura; Vila, Marina; Baliellas, Carme; Tubau, Fe; Sabé, Núria; Fabregat, Joan; Carratalà, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    The role of contaminated preservation fluid in the development of infection after liver transplantation has not been fully elucidated. To assess the incidence and etiology of contaminated preservation fluid and determine its impact on the subsequent development of infection after liver transplantation, we prospectively studied 50 consecutive liver transplants, and cultured the following samples in each instance: preservation fluid (immediately before and at the end of the back-table procedure, and just before implantation), blood, and bile from the donor, and ascitic fluid from the recipient. When any culture was positive, blood cultures were obtained and targeted antimicrobial therapy was started. We found that the incidence of contaminated preservation fluid was 92% (46 of 50 cases of liver transplantation per year), but only 28% (14/50) were contaminated by recognized pathogens. Blood and bile cultures from the donor were positive in 28% and 6% respectively, whereas ascitic fluid was positive in 22%. The most frequently isolated microorganisms were coagulase-negative staphylococci. In nine cases, the microorganisms isolated from the preservation fluid concurred with those grown from the donor blood cultures, and in one case, the isolate matched with the one obtained from bile culture. No liver transplant recipient developed an infection due to the transmission of an organism isolated from the preservation fluid. Our findings indicate that contamination of the preservation fluid is frequent in liver transplantation, and it is mainly caused by saprophytic skin flora. Transmission of infection is low, particularly among those recipients given targeted antimicrobial treatment for organisms isolated in the preservation fluid.

  8. Special characteristics of safety critical organizations. Work psychological perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oedewald, P.; Reiman, T.

    2007-03-15

    This book deals with organizations that operate in high hazard industries, such as the nuclear power, aviation, oil and chemical industry organizations. The society puts a great strain on these organizations to rigorously manage the risks inherent in the technology they use and the products they produce. In this book, an organizational psychology view is taken to analyse what are the typical challenges of daily work in these environments. The analysis is based on a literature review about human and organizational factors in safety critical industries, and on the interviews of Finnish safety experts and safety managers from four different companies. In addition to this, personnel interviews conducted in the Finnish nuclear power plants are utilised. The authors come up with eight themes that seem to be common organizational challenges cross the industries. These include e.g. how does the personnel understand the risks and what is the right level for rules and procedures to guide the work activities. The primary aim of this book is to contribute to the nuclear safety research and safety management discussion. However, the book is equally suitable for risk management, organizational development and human resources management specialists in different industries. The purpose is to encourage readers to consider how the human and organizational factors are seen in the field they work in. (orig.)

  9. Elevate and Uterine Preservation: Two-Year Results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stanford, Edward J.; Moore, Robert D.; Roovers, Jan-Paul W. R.; Vandrie, Douglas M.; Giudice, Thomas P.; Lukban, James C.; Bataller, Eduardo; Sutherland, Suzette E.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate efficacy of the Elevate Anterior and Apical (EAA) in the repair of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) when performed after previous hysterectomy and with or without uterine preservation during POP surgery. One hundred forty-two women with anterior vaginal prolapse and/or apical descent ≥ stage

  10. 9 CFR 114.10 - Antibiotics as preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Antibiotics as preservatives. 114.10 Section 114.10 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PRODUCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR...

  11. Self-organized criticality, long-time correlations, and the standard transport paradigm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krommes, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    Some aspects of low-frequency, long-wavelength fluctuations are considered. A stochastic model is used to show that power-law time correlations need not arise from self-organized criticality. A formula for the frequency spectrum of uncorrelated, overlapping avalanches is shown to be a special case of the spectral balance equation of renormalized statistical turbulence theory. It is argued that there need be no contradiction between the presence of long-time correlations and the existence of local transport coefficients

  12. Scintigraphic test of the vitality and functional fitness of organs conserved for transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozduganov, A.; Marinov, V.

    1976-01-01

    Having reviewed critically present-day methods of testing the vitality of isolated perfused organs, the authors propose their own. It is founded in the principles of colour scintigraphy after introduction of short-lived nuclides. The method was applied in testing 57 isolated preserved organs (5 kidneys, 12 livers, 5 hearts and 4 spleens from dogs; 2 kidneys and 27 livers from rabbits; 1 kidney and 1 liver from young pigs). Moreover, compararive scintigraphic and biochemical investigations were conducted on 2 dogs and 4 young pigs (A. Bozduganov, E. Simeonov, N. Bogdanova). The techniques of isolation and perfusion of the organ have been given a detailed description. Sup(113m)In was used as tracer. Areas of radioactivity deposits were visualized more or less intensely, depending on the degree of vitality and functional fitness still present actually; else, blanks were seen. Orthotransplantation and heterotransplantation with subsequent scintigraphic examination in vivo served, in scattered instances, the purpose of confirming or of rejecting ambiguous vitality findings in preserved organs. Advantages of the method are a general and specified evaluation of the organ in all of its areas; anatomical integrity of the object under test; applicability to various organs; possibility of conducting dynamic tests; accurate reproduction of vitality and functional findings, etc

  13. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gottschalk, M.

    1978-01-01

    In November, 1977, an International Symposium on Food Preservation by Irradiation was held at Wageningen, the Netherlands. About 200 participants attended the Symposium which was organised by the International Atomic Energy Agency, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization; a reflection of the active interest which is being shown in food irradiation processing, particularly among developing countries. The 75 papers presented provided an excellent review of the current status of food irradiation on a wide range of different topics, and the Symposium also afforded the valuable opportunity for informal discussion among the participants and for developing personal contacts. A brief survey of the salient aspects discussed during the course of the meeting are reported on. (orig.) [de

  14. Preservation of three-dimensional anatomy in phosphatized fossil arthropods enriches evolutionary inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwermann, Achim H; Dos Santos Rolo, Tomy; Caterino, Michael S; Bechly, Günter; Schmied, Heiko; Baumbach, Tilo; van de Kamp, Thomas

    2016-02-05

    External and internal morphological characters of extant and fossil organisms are crucial to establishing their systematic position, ecological role and evolutionary trends. The lack of internal characters and soft-tissue preservation in many arthropod fossils, however, impedes comprehensive phylogenetic analyses and species descriptions according to taxonomic standards for Recent organisms. We found well-preserved three-dimensional anatomy in mineralized arthropods from Paleogene fissure fillings and demonstrate the value of these fossils by utilizing digitally reconstructed anatomical structure of a hister beetle. The new anatomical data facilitate a refinement of the species diagnosis and allowed us to reject a previous hypothesis of close phylogenetic relationship to an extant congeneric species. Our findings suggest that mineralized fossils, even those of macroscopically poor preservation, constitute a rich but yet largely unexploited source of anatomical data for fossil arthropods.

  15. Introduction to the special issue on "critical reflections on management and organizations: A postcolonial perspective"

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, S. B.; Prasad, A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to present a short note on postcolonialism as a field of critical inquiry in the business management field, and enable the guest editors to introduce the contents of a special issue entitled "Critical reflections on management and organization: a postcolonial perspective". \\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach - The paper states that postcolonial theory seeks to critique and analyze the complex and multifaceted dynamics of modern Western colonialism and to...

  16. Hybrid Food Preservation Program Improves Food Preservation and Food Safety Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Sarah L.

    2014-01-01

    The growing trend in home food preservation raises concerns about whether the resulting food products will be safe to eat. The increased public demand for food preservation information led to the development of the comprehensive food preservation program, Preserve the Taste of Summer (PTTS). PTTS is a comprehensive hybrid food preservation program…

  17. Methods to preserve potentially toxigenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Costa Guimarães

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms are a source of many high-value compounds which are useful to every living being, such as humans, plants and animals. Since the process of isolating and improving a microorganism can be lengthy and expensive, preserving the obtained characteristic is of paramount importance, so the process does not need to be repeated. Fungi are eukaryotic, achlorophyllous, heterotrophic organisms, usually filamentous, absorb their food, can be either macro or microscopic, propagate themselves by means of spores and store glycogen as a source of storage. Fungi, while infesting food, may produce toxic substances such as mycotoxins. The great genetic diversity of the Kingdom Fungi renders the preservation of fungal cultures for many years relevant. Several international reference mycological culture collections are maintained in many countries. The methodologies that are most fit for preserving microorganisms for extended periods are based on lowering the metabolism until it reaches a stage of artificial dormancy . The goal of this study was to analyze three methods for potentially toxigenic fungal conservation (Castellani's, continuous subculture and lyophilization and to identify the best among them.

  18. Information Sources on Scientific Research Related to the Preservation of Books, Paper, and Adhesives. Directory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commission on Preservation and Access, Washington, DC.

    Produced as part of an effort by the Commission on Preservation and Access to assist with the formation of a preservation research agenda, this report contains: (1) a directory of laboratories and organizations working in the four specific areas of concern in preservation--books, paper, adhesives, and mold; (2) directories of indexes, abstracts,…

  19. How not to preserve Kripke´s fundamental insight

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, William R.

    1998-01-01

    Kripke´s work on names and identity continues to be subject of intense critical scrutiny. The Kripkean message, briefly statet, is that names are rigid designators and that identy statements formulated in terms of names are, if true, necessarily true. Recently Micheal Jubien developes a revisionist line that denies that names serve a referential role but allows, nonetheless, that Kripke´s fundamental insight can be preserved. In my paper, I critically examine Jubien´s proposal for preservi...

  20. Persufflation (gaseous oxygen perfusion) as a method of heart preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszynski, Thomas M; Rizzari, Michael D; Scott, William E; Eckman, Peter M; Fonger, James D; John, Ranjit; Chronos, Nicolas; Tempelman, Linda A; Sutherland, David E R; Papas, Klearchos K

    2013-04-22

    Persufflation (PSF; gaseous oxygen perfusion) is an organ preservation technique with a potential for use in donor heart preservation. Improved heart preservation with PSF may improve outcomes by maintaining cardiac tissue quality in the setting of longer cold ischemia times and possibly increasing the number of donor hearts available for allotransplant. Published data suggests that PSF is able to extend the cold storage times for porcine hearts up to 14 hours without compromising viability and function, and has been shown to resuscitate porcine hearts following donation after cardiac death. This review summarizes key published work on heart PSF, including prospective implications and future directions for PSF in heart transplantation. We emphasize the potential impact of extending preservation times and expanding donor selection criteria in heart allotransplant. Additionally, the key issues that need to be addressed before PSF were to become a widely utilized preservation strategy prior to clinical heart transplantation are summarized and discussed.

  1. Exceptional soft tissues preservation in a mummified frog-eating Eocene salamander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémy Tissier

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Fossils are almost always represented by hard tissues but we present here the exceptional case of a three-dimensionally preserved specimen that was ‘mummified’ (likely between 40 and 34 million years ago in a terrestrial karstic environment. This fossil is the incomplete body of a salamander, Phosphotriton sigei, whose skeleton and external morphology are well preserved, as revealed by phase-contrast synchrotron X-ray microtomography. In addition, internal structures composed of soft tissues preserved in three dimensions are now identified: a lung, the spinal cord, a lumbosacral plexus, the digestive tract, muscles and urogenital organs that may be cloacal glands. These are among the oldest known cases of three-dimensional preservation of these organs in vertebrates and shed light on the ecology of this salamander. Indeed, the digestive tract contains remains of a frog, which represents the only known case of an extinct salamander that fed on a frog, an extremely rare type of predation in extant salamanders. These new data improve our scarce knowledge on soft tissue anatomy of early urodeles and should prove useful for future biologists and palaeontologists working on urodele evolutionary biology. We also suggest that the presence of bat guano and carcasses represented a close source of phosphorus, favouring preservation of soft tissues. Bone microanatomy indicates that P. sigei was likely amphibious or terrestrial, and was probably not neotenic.

  2. Exceptional soft tissues preservation in a mummified frog-eating Eocene salamander.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissier, Jérémy; Rage, Jean-Claude; Laurin, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Fossils are almost always represented by hard tissues but we present here the exceptional case of a three-dimensionally preserved specimen that was 'mummified' (likely between 40 and 34 million years ago) in a terrestrial karstic environment. This fossil is the incomplete body of a salamander, Phosphotriton sigei , whose skeleton and external morphology are well preserved, as revealed by phase-contrast synchrotron X-ray microtomography. In addition, internal structures composed of soft tissues preserved in three dimensions are now identified: a lung, the spinal cord, a lumbosacral plexus, the digestive tract, muscles and urogenital organs that may be cloacal glands. These are among the oldest known cases of three-dimensional preservation of these organs in vertebrates and shed light on the ecology of this salamander. Indeed, the digestive tract contains remains of a frog, which represents the only known case of an extinct salamander that fed on a frog, an extremely rare type of predation in extant salamanders. These new data improve our scarce knowledge on soft tissue anatomy of early urodeles and should prove useful for future biologists and palaeontologists working on urodele evolutionary biology. We also suggest that the presence of bat guano and carcasses represented a close source of phosphorus, favouring preservation of soft tissues. Bone microanatomy indicates that P. sigei was likely amphibious or terrestrial, and was probably not neotenic.

  3. Radiation preservation of spices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badshah, A.; Tasnim, A.; Khan, M.; Sattar, A.; Khan, I.

    1989-01-01

    The use of gamma irradiation for preservation of red hot pepper has been explained in report, as it can kill the harmful organisms without altering the organolpetic properties. The sample were dried and reduced to pass through 20 mesh. The samples were irradiated at different dose levels of 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 KGy and results have been shown after different time intervals. Radiation and packaging treatments resulted normaly no effect on the color of dry fruits. (A.B)

  4. How preservation time changes the linear viscoelastic properties of porcine liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wex, C; Stoll, A; Fröhlich, M; Arndt, S; Lippert, H

    2013-01-01

    The preservation time of a liver graft is one of the crucial factors for the success of a liver transplantation. Grafts are kept in a preservation solution to delay cell destruction and cellular edema and to maximize organ function after transplantation. However, longer preservation times are not always avoidable. In this paper we focus on the mechanical changes of porcine liver with increasing preservation time, in order to establish an indicator for the quality of a liver graft dependent on preservation time. A time interval of 26 h was covered and the rheological properties of liver tissue studied using a stress-controlled rheometer. For samples of 1 h preservation time 0.8% strain was found as the limit of linear viscoelasticity. With increasing preservation time a decrease in the complex shear modulus as an indicator for stiffness was observed for the frequency range from 0.1 to 10 Hz. A simple fractional derivative representation of the Kelvin Voigt model was applied to gain further information about the changes of the mechanical properties of liver with increasing preservation time. Within the small shear rate interval of 0.0001-0.01 s⁻¹ the liver showed Newtonian-like flow behavior.

  5. Software preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Vodopivec

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Comtrade Ltd. covers a wide range of activities related to information and communication technologies; its deliverables include web applications, locally installed programs,system software, drivers, embedded software (used e.g. in medical devices, auto parts,communication switchboards. Also the extensive knowledge and practical experience about digital long-term preservation technologies have been acquired. This wide spectrum of activities puts us in the position to discuss the often overlooked aspect of the digital preservation - preservation of software programs. There are many resources dedicated to digital preservation of digital data, documents and multimedia records,but not so many about how to preserve the functionalities and features of computer programs. Exactly these functionalities - dynamic response to inputs - render the computer programs rich compared to documents or linear multimedia. The article opens the questions on the beginning of the way to the permanent digital preservation. The purpose is to find a way in the right direction, where all relevant aspects will be covered in proper balance. The following questions are asked: why at all to preserve computer programs permanently, who should do this and for whom, when we should think about permanent program preservation, what should be persevered (such as source code, screenshots, documentation, and social context of the program - e.g. media response to it ..., where and how? To illustrate the theoretic concepts given the idea of virtual national museum of electronic banking is also presented.

  6. Critical Issues in Radiation Protection Knowledge Management for Preserving Radiation Protection Research and Development Capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewji, Shaheen Azim

    2017-02-01

    As a hub of domestic radiation protection capabilities, Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Center for Radiation Protection Knowledge has a mandate to develop and actuate a formal knowledge management (KM) effort. This KM approach exceeds recruitment and training efforts but focuses on formalized strategies for knowledge transfer from outgoing subject matter experts in radiation protection to incoming generations. It is envisioned that such an effort will provide one avenue for preserving domestic capabilities to support stakeholder needs in the federal government and the nuclear industry while continuing to lead and innovate in research and development on a global scale. However, in the absence of broader coordination within the United States, preservation of radiation protection knowledge continues to be in jeopardy in the absence of a dedicated KM effort.

  7. Achieve Location Privacy-Preserving Range Query in Vehicular Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qinglei; Lu, Rongxing; Ma, Maode; Bao, Haiyong

    2017-08-08

    Modern vehicles are equipped with a plethora of on-board sensors and large on-board storage, which enables them to gather and store various local-relevant data. However, the wide application of vehicular sensing has its own challenges, among which location-privacy preservation and data query accuracy are two critical problems. In this paper, we propose a novel range query scheme, which helps the data requester to accurately retrieve the sensed data from the distributive on-board storage in vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) with location privacy preservation. The proposed scheme exploits structured scalars to denote the locations of data requesters and vehicles, and achieves the privacy-preserving location matching with the homomorphic Paillier cryptosystem technique. Detailed security analysis shows that the proposed range query scheme can successfully preserve the location privacy of the involved data requesters and vehicles, and protect the confidentiality of the sensed data. In addition, performance evaluations are conducted to show the efficiency of the proposed scheme, in terms of computation delay and communication overhead. Specifically, the computation delay and communication overhead are not dependent on the length of the scalar, and they are only proportional to the number of vehicles.

  8. IAEA Technical Meeting on Status of IAEA Fast Reactor Knowledge Preservation Initiative. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    In response to needs expressed by Member States and within a broader IAEA-wide effort in nuclear knowledge preservation, the IAEA has been carrying out a dedicated initiative on Fast Reactor Data Knowledge Preservation (FRKP). The main objectives of the FRKP initiative are to: • Halt the on-going loss of information related to Fast Reactors (FR); • Collect, retrieve, preserve and make accessible already existing data and information on FR. These objectives require the implementation of activities supporting digital document archival, exchange, search and retrieval and facilitating, by developing and using suitable standards and IT tools, the knowledge preservation over the next decades. To this purpose the IAEA has developed the Fast Reactor Knowledge Organization System (FRKOS), a web-based application employing IAEA methodology and approach for categorization of FR knowledge domain, which allows creating a comprehensive and well-structured international inventory of fast reactor data and information provided by different Member States. The resulting Web Portal is established and maintained by the IAEA. The IAEA knowledge preservation initiatives and tools in the field of fast neutron systems - which were presented and very well received during the recent IAEA Fast Reactor and Related Fuel Cycles Conference (FR13) - are supposed to be of interest for national nuclear authorities, regulators, scientific and research organizations, commercial companies and all other stakeholders involved in fast reactor activities at national or international level. The objectives of the technical meeting were to: • Exchange information between the member states/international organizations on national and international initiatives addressing knowledge preservation and data retrieval/collection in the field of fast neutron systems; • Present and discuss the member states’/international organizations’ policies and conditions for releasing to the IAEA both publicly

  9. Preservation and Dissolution of the Target Firm's Embedded Ties in Acquisitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Spedale-Latimer (Simona); F.A.J. van den Bosch (Frans); H.W. Volberda (Henk)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractOur study builds on extant theory on embeddness to concentrate on the process of preservation and dissolution of the target firm’s embedded ties in acquisitions. We identify four critical areas - communication, idiosyncratic investments, inter-personal relations and, personnel turnover –

  10. Effects of Some Neurobiological Factors in a Self-organized Critical Model Based on Neural Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Liming; Zhang Yingyue; Chen Tianlun

    2005-01-01

    Based on an integrate-and-fire mechanism, we investigate the effect of changing the efficacy of the synapse, the transmitting time-delayed, and the relative refractoryperiod on the self-organized criticality in our neural network model.

  11. Digital Preservation at International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savic, Dobrica; St-Pierre, Germain

    2013-01-01

    Since its creation in 1970 until 1996, the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) collected and converted to microfiche over 312 000 non-conventional literature (NCL) reports received from IAEA member states and international organizations. The microfiche collection contains over 1 million items, with an estimated total of 25 million pages of full-texts. In 1997, the INIS Secretariat replaced the microfiche-based production system with an imaging system to process and to disseminate all NCL documents in electronic format. That marked the beginning of digital preservation efforts that still continue today. This paper provides an overview of the digital preservation practices and the technical infrastructure of the International Nuclear Information System (INIS). It describes the technical processes, the standards in place, the hardware and software used, as well as all practices related to scanning, quality control, OCR, preservation and storage. (author)

  12. Food preservation : relevance of nuclear techniques to developing nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiyar, A.S.; Sundaram, K.

    1977-01-01

    The usefulness of radiation processes over conventional methods for preservation of foods has been discussed in detail. There are five distinct objectives that can be achieved by exposing food to ionising radiation, and these are : (a) total elimination of food spoilage or disease-causing organisms, thus confering indefinite stability on the pre-packaged food; (b) significant reduction of spoilage microorganisms to enable extended shelf-life; (c) inactivation of organisms that poses public health hazards; (d) elimination of losses in dry foods due to insect infestation, by killing the eggs and their insects; and (e) control of post-harvest physiological processes such as sprouting, ripening etc. For highly perishable sea foods, such as, Bombay Duck, irradiation represents the only possible soultion to the problem of its preservation in the fresh state. An evaluation of the wholesomeness of irradiated mackerel is currently underway in India as part of an international effort at obtaining such data collectively, to minimise the enormour costs involved in such experimentation. Recently, clearances have been authorised for the release of irradiated foods for human consumption. A summary of international approvals for radiation preservation processes is presented. (A.K.)

  13. Changes in Ocular Surface Characteristics after Switching from Benzalkonium Chloride-Preserved Latanoprost to Preservative-Free Tafluprost or Benzalkonium Chloride-Preserved Tafluprost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoto Tokuda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of switching from Latanoprost ophthalmic solution containing a preservative to preservative-free Tafluprost ophthalmic solution or Tafluprost containing a preservative on ocular surfaces. Materials and Methods. Forty patients (40 eyes with glaucoma (mean age: 62.0 ± 10.9 years using Latanoprost with preservative for six months or longer were assigned either to a Tafluprost-containing-preservative group (20 eyes or preservative-free-Tafluprost group (20 eyes. The intraocular pressure, corneal epithelial barrier function (fluorescein uptake concentration with fluorophotometer FL-500, superficial punctate keratopathy (AD classification, and tear film breakup time (TBUT were assessed before switching and at 12 weeks after switching. Results. No significant differences in intraocular pressure were noted after switching in either group. Corneal epithelial barrier function was improved significantly after switching in both the Tafluprost-containing-preservative and the preservative-free-Tafluprost groups. There were no significant differences in AD scores after switching in the Tafluprost-containing-preservative group, but significant improvements were noted in the preservative-free-Tafluprost group. No significant differences in TBUT were noted in the Tafluprost-containing-preservative or preservative-free-Tafluprost groups after switching. Conclusion. After switching from preservative Latanoprost to Tafluprost containing-preservative or preservative-free Tafluprost, corneal epithelial barrier function was improved while the intraocular pressure reduction was retained.

  14. Changes in Ocular Surface Characteristics after Switching from Benzalkonium Chloride-Preserved Latanoprost to Preservative-Free Tafluprost or Benzalkonium Chloride-Preserved Tafluprost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuda, Naoto; Kitaoka, Yasushi; Matsuzawa, Akiko; Tsukamoto, Ayaka; Sase, Kana; Sakae, Shinsuke; Takagi, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of switching from Latanoprost ophthalmic solution containing a preservative to preservative-free Tafluprost ophthalmic solution or Tafluprost containing a preservative on ocular surfaces. Forty patients (40 eyes) with glaucoma (mean age: 62.0 ± 10.9 years) using Latanoprost with preservative for six months or longer were assigned either to a Tafluprost-containing-preservative group (20 eyes) or preservative-free-Tafluprost group (20 eyes). The intraocular pressure, corneal epithelial barrier function (fluorescein uptake concentration with fluorophotometer FL-500), superficial punctate keratopathy (AD classification), and tear film breakup time (TBUT) were assessed before switching and at 12 weeks after switching. No significant differences in intraocular pressure were noted after switching in either group. Corneal epithelial barrier function was improved significantly after switching in both the Tafluprost-containing-preservative and the preservative-free-Tafluprost groups. There were no significant differences in AD scores after switching in the Tafluprost-containing-preservative group, but significant improvements were noted in the preservative-free-Tafluprost group. No significant differences in TBUT were noted in the Tafluprost-containing-preservative or preservative-free-Tafluprost groups after switching. After switching from preservative Latanoprost to Tafluprost containing-preservative or preservative-free Tafluprost, corneal epithelial barrier function was improved while the intraocular pressure reduction was retained.

  15. Accretion and Preservation of Organic Matter in Carbonaceous Chondrites as Revealed by NanoSIMS Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remusat, L.; Guan, Y.; Eiler, J.

    2008-12-01

    Carbonaceous chondrites are the most primitive known meteorites. Their parent bodies accreted several discrete components of the early solar system: CAIs, other silicates, oxides, sulfides, ice, organics, and noble gases. Radioactive decay of short live radionucleides quickly heated these parent bodies and drove thermal metamorphism and aqueous alteration of their constituents. Despite this post-acretionary modification, at least some components of the organic matter in the carbaceous chondrites retained distinctive isotopic and molecular properties that may relate to their pre-acretionary origins in the protosolar nebula or in the molecular cloud that gave birth to it [1]. These processes that gave rise to early solar-system organic matter and the extent to which it was modified by parent body processes are still a matter of debate [2]. We have acquired NanoSIMS images of matrices of several CI, CM, CR and CV chondrites to document, in- situ, the distribution of organics and their textural and chemical relationships to co-existing inorganic components. Importantly, we performed these analyses on essentially unmodified fragments of matrix material pressed into indium, rather than on extracts, which have been the focus of most previous work on meteoritic organic matter. Specifically, we simultaneously collected H, D, 12C, 18O, 26CN, 28Si and 32S with a spatial resolution of 200 nm. Inorganic constituents of the imaged domains were determined by SEM imaging and EDS analysis. We identify two textural classes of organic constituents: diffuse organic matter and organic particles ~ 1 micron in diameter. The particles are common and do not exhibit any textural association with any inorganic matrix constituent. This distribution is consistent with previous observations by fluorescence optical microscopy [3]. These organic particles are likely primarily composed of insoluble organic matter (IOM) that grew prior to accretion as pure organic particules and was preserved in

  16. Critical issues in radiation protection knowledge management for preserving radiation protection research and development capabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewji, Shaheen Azim

    2017-01-01

    As a hub of domestic radiation protection capabilities, Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s Center for Radiation Protection Knowledge has a mandate to develop and actuate a formal knowledge management (KM) effort. This KM approach exceeds recruitment and training efforts but focuses on formalized strategies for knowledge transfer from outgoing subject matter experts in radiation protection to incoming generations. It is envisioned that such an effort will provide one avenue for preserving domestic capabilities to support stakeholder needs in the federal government and the nuclear industry while continuing to lead and innovate in research and development on a global scale. Furthermore, in the absence of broader coordination within the United States, preservation of radiation protection knowledge continues to be in jeopardy in the absence of a dedicated KM effort.

  17. Privacy-Preserving Computation with Trusted Computing via Scramble-then-Compute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dang Hung

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We consider privacy-preserving computation of big data using trusted computing primitives with limited private memory. Simply ensuring that the data remains encrypted outside the trusted computing environment is insufficient to preserve data privacy, for data movement observed during computation could leak information. While it is possible to thwart such leakage using generic solution such as ORAM [42], designing efficient privacy-preserving algorithms is challenging. Besides computation efficiency, it is critical to keep trusted code bases lean, for large ones are unwieldy to vet and verify. In this paper, we advocate a simple approach wherein many basic algorithms (e.g., sorting can be made privacy-preserving by adding a step that securely scrambles the data before feeding it to the original algorithms. We call this approach Scramble-then-Compute (StC, and give a sufficient condition whereby existing external memory algorithms can be made privacy-preserving via StC. This approach facilitates code-reuse, and its simplicity contributes to a smaller trusted code base. It is also general, allowing algorithm designers to leverage an extensive body of known efficient algorithms for better performance. Our experiments show that StC could offer up to 4.1× speedups over known, application-specific alternatives.

  18. Microbiological Problems in Food Preservation by Irradiation. Report of a Panel on Microbiological Problems in Food Preservation by Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    Irradiation is a technique that may increasingly be employed to help preserve the world's food supplies. Some countries have already given public-health clearance for particular irradiated foodstuffs, and pilot and semi-industrial irradiation plants have already been established or are under construction. Wide-spread industrial application is likely in the not too distant future. However, there are still problems to be solved; some of these are microbiological. A Panel on Microbiological Problems in Food Preservation by Irradiation was organized by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture on 27 June to 1 July 1966. A detailed evaluation was made of research and development needs in radicidation (i.e. destroying micro-organisms harmful to human health), in radurization (i.e. extending the shelf life of perishable foods by reducing the spoilage micro-organisms in it), in the elimination of viruses and in the inactivation of preformed toxins. The Panel also considered the unification and standardization of experimental methodology. Recommendations were drawn up for the Directors General of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and of the International Atomic Energy Agency on how these two organizations could best fulfil their roles in this field. It was considered important to continue sponsoring and co-ordinating research.. Establishing an international pilot and demonstration plant was thought essential for progress in development work, especially on radicidation. Experts on radio- and food microbiology and a representative of the World Health Organization attended the meeting. The proceedings contains the contributions of the members of the Panel together with the general conclusions and recommendations

  19. Radiation exposure and risk assessment for critical female body organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atwell, W.; Weyland, M.D.; Hardy, A.C.

    1991-07-01

    Space radiation exposure limits for astronauts are based on recommendations of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. These limits now include the age at exposure and sex of the astronaut. A recently-developed computerized anatomical female (CAF) model is discussed in detail. Computer-generated, cross-sectional data are presented to illustrate the completeness of the CAF model. By applying ray-tracing techniques, shield distribution functions have been computed to calculate absorbed dose and dose equivalent values for a variety of critical body organs (e.g., breasts, lungs, thyroid gland, etc.) and mission scenarios. Specific risk assessments, i.e., cancer induction and mortality, are reviewed. 13 refs

  20. Self-Organized Criticality and Scaling in Lifetime of Traffic Jams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagatani, Takashi

    1995-01-01

    The deterministic cellular automaton 184 (the one-dimensional asymmetric simple-exclusion model with parallel dynamics) is extended to take into account injection or extraction of particles. The model presents the traffic flow on a highway with inflow or outflow of cars.Introducing injection or extraction of particles into the asymmetric simple-exclusion model drives the system asymptotically into a steady state exhibiting a self-organized criticality. The typical lifetime of traffic jams scales as \\cong Lν with ν=0.65±0.04. It is shown that the cumulative distribution Nm (L) of lifetimes satisfies the finite-size scaling form Nm (L) \\cong L-1 f(m/Lν).

  1. Ranking of critical species to preserve the functionality of mutualistic networks using the k-core decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Algarra, Javier; Pastor, Juan Manuel; Iriondo, José María; Galeano, Javier

    2017-01-01

    Network analysis has become a relevant approach to analyze cascading species extinctions resulting from perturbations on mutualistic interactions as a result of environmental change. In this context, it is essential to be able to point out key species, whose stability would prevent cascading extinctions, and the consequent loss of ecosystem function. In this study, we aim to explain how the k -core decomposition sheds light on the understanding the robustness of bipartite mutualistic networks. We defined three k -magnitudes based on the k -core decomposition: k -radius, k -degree, and k -risk. The first one, k -radius, quantifies the distance from a node to the innermost shell of the partner guild, while k -degree provides a measure of centrality in the k -shell based decomposition. k -risk is a way to measure the vulnerability of a network to the loss of a particular species. Using these magnitudes we analyzed 89 mutualistic networks involving plant pollinators or seed dispersers. Two static extinction procedures were implemented in which k -degree and k -risk were compared against other commonly used ranking indexes, as for example MusRank, explained in detail in Material and Methods. When extinctions take place in both guilds, k -risk is the best ranking index if the goal is to identify the key species to preserve the giant component. When species are removed only in the primary class and cascading extinctions are measured in the secondary class, the most effective ranking index to identify the key species to preserve the giant component is k -degree. However, MusRank index was more effective when the goal is to identify the key species to preserve the greatest species richness in the second class. The k -core decomposition offers a new topological view of the structure of mutualistic networks. The new k -radius, k -degree and k -risk magnitudes take advantage of its properties and provide new insight into the structure of mutualistic networks. The k -risk and k

  2. Ranking of critical species to preserve the functionality of mutualistic networks using the k-core decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier García-Algarra

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Network analysis has become a relevant approach to analyze cascading species extinctions resulting from perturbations on mutualistic interactions as a result of environmental change. In this context, it is essential to be able to point out key species, whose stability would prevent cascading extinctions, and the consequent loss of ecosystem function. In this study, we aim to explain how the k-core decomposition sheds light on the understanding the robustness of bipartite mutualistic networks. Methods We defined three k-magnitudes based on the k-core decomposition: k-radius, k-degree, and k-risk. The first one, k-radius, quantifies the distance from a node to the innermost shell of the partner guild, while k-degree provides a measure of centrality in the k-shell based decomposition. k-risk is a way to measure the vulnerability of a network to the loss of a particular species. Using these magnitudes we analyzed 89 mutualistic networks involving plant pollinators or seed dispersers. Two static extinction procedures were implemented in which k-degree and k-risk were compared against other commonly used ranking indexes, as for example MusRank, explained in detail in Material and Methods. Results When extinctions take place in both guilds, k-risk is the best ranking index if the goal is to identify the key species to preserve the giant component. When species are removed only in the primary class and cascading extinctions are measured in the secondary class, the most effective ranking index to identify the key species to preserve the giant component is k-degree. However, MusRank index was more effective when the goal is to identify the key species to preserve the greatest species richness in the second class. Discussion The k-core decomposition offers a new topological view of the structure of mutualistic networks. The new k-radius, k-degree and k-risk magnitudes take advantage of its properties and provide new insight into the structure of

  3. Kinetic study of treatment of wastewater contains food preservative agent by anaerobic baffled reactor : An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumantri, Indro; Purwanto,; Budiyono [Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University Jl. Prof. H. Soedarto, SH, Kampus Baru Tembalang, Semarang (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    The characteristic of wastewater of food industries with preservative substances is high content of organic substances, degradable and high total suspended solid. High organic content in this waste forced the treatment is biologically and pointed out to anaerobic treatment. Anaerobic showed the better performance of degradation than aerobic for high content organic and also for toxic materials. During that day the treatment of food wastewater is aerobically which is high consume of energy required and high volume of sludge produced. The advantage of anaerobic is save high energy, less product of sludge, less requirement of nutrients of microorganism and high efficiency reduction of organic load. The high efficiency of reduction will reduce the load of further treatment, so that, the threshold limit based on the regulation would be easy to achieve. Research of treatment of wastewater of food industries would be utilized by both big scale industries and small industries using addition of preservative substances. The type reactor of anaerobic process is anaerobic baffled reactor that will give better contact between wastewater and microorganism in the sludge. The variables conducted in this research are the baffled configuration, sludge height, preservative agent contents, hydralic retention time and influence of micro nutrients. The respons of this research are the COD effluent, remaining preservative agent, pH, formation of volatile fatty acid and total suspended solid. The result of this research is kinetic model of the anaerobic baffled reactor, reaction kinetic of preservative agent degradation and technology of treatment wastewater contains preservative agent. The benefit of this research is to solve the treatment of wastewater of food industries with preservative substance in order to achieve wastewater limit regulation and also to prevent the environmental deterioration.

  4. Kinetic study of treatment of wastewater contains food preservative agent by anaerobic baffled reactor : An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumantri, Indro; Purwanto,; Budiyono

    2015-01-01

    The characteristic of wastewater of food industries with preservative substances is high content of organic substances, degradable and high total suspended solid. High organic content in this waste forced the treatment is biologically and pointed out to anaerobic treatment. Anaerobic showed the better performance of degradation than aerobic for high content organic and also for toxic materials. During that day the treatment of food wastewater is aerobically which is high consume of energy required and high volume of sludge produced. The advantage of anaerobic is save high energy, less product of sludge, less requirement of nutrients of microorganism and high efficiency reduction of organic load. The high efficiency of reduction will reduce the load of further treatment, so that, the threshold limit based on the regulation would be easy to achieve. Research of treatment of wastewater of food industries would be utilized by both big scale industries and small industries using addition of preservative substances. The type reactor of anaerobic process is anaerobic baffled reactor that will give better contact between wastewater and microorganism in the sludge. The variables conducted in this research are the baffled configuration, sludge height, preservative agent contents, hydralic retention time and influence of micro nutrients. The respons of this research are the COD effluent, remaining preservative agent, pH, formation of volatile fatty acid and total suspended solid. The result of this research is kinetic model of the anaerobic baffled reactor, reaction kinetic of preservative agent degradation and technology of treatment wastewater contains preservative agent. The benefit of this research is to solve the treatment of wastewater of food industries with preservative substance in order to achieve wastewater limit regulation and also to prevent the environmental deterioration

  5. Kinetic study of treatment of wastewater contains food preservative agent by anaerobic baffled reactor : An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumantri, Indro; Purwanto, Budiyono

    2015-12-01

    The characteristic of wastewater of food industries with preservative substances is high content of organic substances, degradable and high total suspended solid. High organic content in this waste forced the treatment is biologically and pointed out to anaerobic treatment. Anaerobic showed the better performance of degradation than aerobic for high content organic and also for toxic materials. During that day the treatment of food wastewater is aerobically which is high consume of energy required and high volume of sludge produced. The advantage of anaerobic is save high energy, less product of sludge, less requirement of nutrients of microorganism and high efficiency reduction of organic load. The high efficiency of reduction will reduce the load of further treatment, so that, the threshold limit based on the regulation would be easy to achieve. Research of treatment of wastewater of food industries would be utilized by both big scale industries and small industries using addition of preservative substances. The type reactor of anaerobic process is anaerobic baffled reactor that will give better contact between wastewater and microorganism in the sludge. The variables conducted in this research are the baffled configuration, sludge height, preservative agent contents, hydralic retention time and influence of micro nutrients. The respons of this research are the COD effluent, remaining preservative agent, pH, formation of volatile fatty acid and total suspended solid. The result of this research is kinetic model of the anaerobic baffled reactor, reaction kinetic of preservative agent degradation and technology of treatment wastewater contains preservative agent. The benefit of this research is to solve the treatment of wastewater of food industries with preservative substance in order to achieve wastewater limit regulation and also to prevent the environmental deterioration.

  6. Preservation of knowledge: general principals, methodology and application in nuclear industry. Working material. Report prepared within the framework of the Programmes: C.3. Nuclear Knowledge Management and A.2. Improving Quality Assurance, Technical Infrastructure and Human Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    There is an immediate need to preserve existing knowledge in nuclear science and technology for peaceful applications for future generations, as it represents a valuable human capital asset. The development of an exciting vision for nuclear technology is prerequisite for attracting young scientists and professionals to seek careers in nuclear science and technology. Irrespective of current national energy policies, the need to maintain or even enhance the nuclear knowledge base and national capability will persist. In this way, the knowledge base will be available to meet requirements for evolving policy development. A number of IAEA advisory committees and technical meetings stressed the importance of preserving and further enhancing nuclear science and technology for socio-economic development. For nuclear science and technology to contribute to sustainable development requires knowledge and capacity on three levels: (a) basic nuclear science, (b) technology, (c) engineering and operation. There was unanimous consensus that IAEA has an obligation to lead activities towards preservation and enhancement of nuclear knowledge by complementing, and as appropriate supplementing, activities by governments, industry, academia and international organizations. International co-operation is of vital importance. Unless action is taken now, invaluable assets in critical nuclear knowledge and capacity will soon be lost. The IAEA is developing guidance documents on nuclear knowledge management including knowledge preservation and knowledge transfer in nuclear sector. This activity would assist nuclear organizations in MS to effectively apply this guidance, and to assist them in benchmarking their practices against those of other industry organizations. The present Working Material provides general principals for knowledge preservation in nuclear sector, which could be applied in different nuclear organization and in particular in Nuclear Power Plants.

  7. Preservation of knowledge: general principals, methodology and application in nuclear industry. Working material. Report prepared within the framework of the Programmes: C.3. Nuclear Knowledge Management and A.2. Improving Quality Assurance, Technical Infrastructure and Human Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    There is an immediate need to preserve existing knowledge in nuclear science and technology for peaceful applications for future generations, as it represents a valuable human capital asset. The development of an exciting vision for nuclear technology is prerequisite for attracting young scientists and professionals to seek careers in nuclear science and technology. Irrespective of current national energy policies, the need to maintain or even enhance the nuclear knowledge base and national capability will persist. In this way, the knowledge base will be available to meet requirements for evolving policy development. A number of IAEA advisory committees and technical meetings stressed the importance of preserving and further enhancing nuclear science and technology for socio-economic development. For nuclear science and technology to contribute to sustainable development requires knowledge and capacity on three levels: (a) basic nuclear science, (b) technology, (c) engineering and operation. There was unanimous consensus that IAEA has an obligation to lead activities towards preservation and enhancement of nuclear knowledge by complementing, and as appropriate supplementing, activities by governments, industry, academia and international organizations. International co-operation is of vital importance. Unless action is taken now, invaluable assets in critical nuclear knowledge and capacity will soon be lost. The IAEA is developing guidance documents on nuclear knowledge management including knowledge preservation and knowledge transfer in nuclear sector. This activity would assist nuclear organizations in MS to effectively apply this guidance, and to assist them in benchmarking their practices against those of other industry organizations. The present Working Material provides general principals for knowledge preservation in nuclear sector, which could be applied in different nuclear organization and in particular in Nuclear Power Plants

  8. Status, Antimicrobial Mechanism, and Regulation of Natural Preservatives in Livestock Food Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Na-Kyoung; Paik, Hyun-Dong

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses the status, antimicrobial mechanisms, application, and regulation of natural preservatives in livestock food systems. Conventional preservatives are synthetic chemical substances including nitrates/nitrites, sulfites, sodium benzoate, propyl gallate, and potassium sorbate. The use of artificial preservatives is being reconsidered because of concerns relating to headache, allergies, and cancer. As the demand for biopreservation in food systems has increased, new natural antimicrobial compounds of various origins are being developed, including plant-derived products (polyphenolics, essential oils, plant antimicrobial peptides (pAMPs)), animal-derived products (lysozymes, lactoperoxidase, lactoferrin, ovotransferrin, antimicrobial peptide (AMP), chitosan and others), and microbial metabolites (nisin, natamycin, pullulan, ε-polylysine, organic acid, and others). These natural preservatives act by inhibiting microbial cell walls/membranes, DNA/RNA replication and transcription, protein synthesis, and metabolism. Natural preservatives have been recognized for their safety; however, these substances can influence color, smell, and toxicity in large amounts while being effective as a food preservative. Therefore, to evaluate the safety and toxicity of natural preservatives, various trials including combinations of other substances or different food preservation systems, and capsulation have been performed. Natamycin and nisin are currently the only natural preservatives being regulated, and other natural preservatives will have to be legally regulated before their widespread use.

  9. Update on fertility preservation from the Barcelona International Society for Fertility Preservation-ESHRE-ASRM 2015 expert meeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Francisca; Yding Andersen, Claus

    2017-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: What progress has been made in fertility preservation (FP) over the last decade? SUMMARY ANSWER: FP techniques have been widely adopted over the last decade and therefore the establishment of international registries on their short- and long-term outcomes is strongly recommended...... on the need to provide counselling about currently available FP options to all individuals wishing to preserve their fertility. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: An international meeting with representatives from expert scientific societies involved in FP was held in Barcelona, Spain, in June 2015. PARTICIPANTS...... treatment, and need an adequate FP approach. Women wishing to postpone maternity and transgender individuals before starting hormone therapy or undergoing surgery to remove/alter their reproductive organs should also be counselled accordingly. Embryo and oocyte cryopreservation are first-line FP methods...

  10. SOIL ORGANIC MATTER FRACTIONS IN PRESERVED AND DISTURBED WETLANDS OF THE CERRADO BIOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Fernandes de Sousa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Veredas are humid tropical ecosystems, generally associated to hydromorphic soils and a shallow water table. The soils of these ecosystems are affected by the use of the areas around these veredas. The objective of this study was to determine soil organic matter (SOM fractions in veredas adjacent to preserved (native savanna and disturbed environments (agricultural areas and pastures in the Cerrado biome. Soil samples were collected from the 0-10 and 10-20 cm layers along reference lines drawn along the relief following the upper, middle and lower positions of one of the slopes, in the direction of the draining line of the vereda. The soil analysis determined: total soil OC, total nitrogen and C:N ratio; C and N contents and C:N ratio in particulate and mineral-associated fractions (of SOM; fulvic acids, humic acids and humin fractions and ratio between humic and fulvic acids. The agricultural use around the veredas induced changes in the SOM fractions, more pronounced in the lower part of the slope. In the soil surface of this part, the OC levels in the humic substances and the particulate fraction of SOM, as well as total soil OC were reduced in the vereda next to crop fields.

  11. Management to optimize organ procurement in brain dead donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascia, L; Mastromauro, I; Viberti, S; Vincenzi, M; Zanello, M

    2009-03-01

    The demand for donor organs continues to exceed the number of organs available for transplantation. Many reasons may account for this discrepancy, such as the lack of consent, the absence of an experienced coordinator team able to solve logistical problems, the use of strict donor criteria, and suboptimal, unstandardized critical care management of potential organ donors. This has resulted in efforts to improve the medical care delivered to potential organ donors, so as to reduce organ shortages, improve organ procurement, and promote graft survival. The physiological changes that follow brain death entail a high incidence of complications jeopardizing potentially transplantable organs. Adverse events include cardiovascular changes, endocrine and metabolic disturbances, and disruption of internal homeostasis. Brain death also upregulates the release of pro-inflammatory molecules. Recent findings support the hypothesis that a preclinical lung injury characterized by an enhanced inflammatory response is present in potential donors and may predispose recipients to an adverse clinical prognosis following lung transplantation. In clinical practice, hypotension, diabetes insipidus, relative hypothermia, and natremia are more common than disseminated intravascular coagulation, cardiac arrhythmias, pulmonary oedema, acute lung injury, and metabolic acidosis. Strategies for the management of organ donors exist and consist of the normalization of donor physiology. Management has been complicated by the recent use of ''marginal'' donors and donors of advanced age or with ''extended'' criteria. Current guidelines suggest that the priority of critical care management for potential organ donors should be shifted from a ''cerebral protective'' strategy to a multimodal strategy aimed to preserve peripheral organ function.

  12. For a complete preservation of the new media art: Notes on art technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Gobira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This work discuss on digital art and its preservation. Being a kind of art recognized as born digital, it is among the field of contemporary art and the wide field of digital technology. At the same time, it is part of a society in which the technology has established itself worldwide providing means to criticize the idea of "digital" as advancement or progress. Based on those assumptions, we have tried to think about the complexity of that artistic expression which is manifested in its preservation. In this article, which features notes derived from research on art and its preservation, we seek to think on the relationship between art and data and how the preservation effort beyond the data (informational/computational of technological art work reveals its statute from its industrial and artistic composition.

  13. Preservation of RNA and DNA from mammal samples under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Sanchez, Miguel; Burraco, Pablo; Gomez-Mestre, Ivan; Leonard, Jennifer A

    2013-07-01

    Ecological and conservation genetics require sampling of organisms in the wild. Appropriate preservation of the collected samples, usually by cryostorage, is key to the quality of the genetic data obtained. Nevertheless, cryopreservation in the field to ensure RNA and DNA stability is not always possible. We compared several nucleic acid preservation solutions appropriate for field sampling and tested them on rat (Rattus rattus) blood, ear and tail tip, liver, brain and muscle. We compared the efficacy of a nucleic acid preservation (NAP) buffer for DNA preservation against 95% ethanol and Longmire buffer, and for RNA preservation against RNAlater (Qiagen) and Longmire buffer, under simulated field conditions. For DNA, the NAP buffer was slightly better than cryopreservation or 95% ethanol, but high molecular weight DNA was preserved in all conditions. The NAP buffer preserved RNA as well as RNAlater. Liver yielded the best RNA and DNA quantity and quality; thus, liver should be the tissue preferentially collected from euthanized animals. We also show that DNA persists in nonpreserved muscle tissue for at least 1 week at ambient temperature, although degradation is noticeable in a matter of hours. When cryopreservation is not possible, the NAP buffer is an economical alternative for RNA preservation at ambient temperature for at least 2 months and DNA preservation for at least 10 months. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Detoxification of wood preserving waste under ambient, enhanced and chemical pretreatment conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, M.S.; Brown, K.W.; Dale, B.E.; Donnelly, K.C.; He, L.Y.; Markiewicz, K.V. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Detoxification of pentachlorophenol-containing wood preserving waste was monitored under ambient, enhanced and chemical pretreatment conditions for genotoxicity and parent compound removal. Samples were collected throughout the treatment periods and sequentially extracted with dichloromethane and methanol with the Tecator Soxtec apparatus. The organic extracts were analyzed on GC/ECD and GC/MS. The extract mutagenic and genotoxic potentials were evaluated with and without metabolic activation with the Salmonella Microsomal and E. coli Prophage Induction assays. The Salmonella mutagenic responses of extracts from Weswood soil amended with wood preserving waste and treated under ambient conditions were 2.0, 34.6 and 2.4 times greater than the solvent control on days 0, 540 and 1,200 respectively. Organic extracts of soil amended with wood preserving waste and treated under enhanced conditions in a solid-phase rotating drum bioreactor had mutagenic potentials of 3.4, 4.9 and 3.5 on days 0, 14 and 30, respectively. Extracts from wood preserving waste sludge treated with potassium polyethylene glycol were shown to have mutagenic potentials of 2.8, 6.1 and 3.8 at 0, 10 and 30 minutes. The results indicate that the initial products of the wood preserving waste detoxification under all treatment conditions appear to have greater genotoxic potentials than the starting material. The results also suggest that a more rapid detoxification occurs under enhanced and chemical pretreatment conditions.

  15. Self-preserving cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvaresou, A; Papageorgiou, S; Tsirivas, E; Protopapa, E; Kintziou, H; Kefala, V; Demetzos, C

    2009-06-01

    Preservatives are added to products for two reasons: first, to prevent microbial spoilage and therefore to prolong the shelf life of the product; second, to protect the consumer from a potential infection. Although chemical preservatives prevent microbial growth, their safety is questioned by a growing segment of consumers. Therefore, there is a considerable interest in the development of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics. In these formulations traditional/chemical preservatives have been replaced by other cosmetic ingredients with antimicrobial properties that are not legislated as preservatives according to the Annex VI of the Commission Directive 76/768/EEC and the amending directives (2003/15/EC, 2007/17/EC and 2007/22/EC). 'Hurdle Technology', a technology that has been used for the control of product safety in the food industry since 1970s, has also been applied for the production of self-preserving cosmetics. 'Hurdle Technology' is a term used to describe the intelligent combination of different preservation factors or hurdles to deteriorate the growth of microorganisms. Adherence to current good manufacturing practice, appropriate packaging, careful choice of the form of the emulsion, low water activity and low or high pH values are significant variables for the control of microbial growth in cosmetic formulations. This paper describes the application of the basic principles of 'Hurdle Technology' in the production of self-preserving cosmetics. Multifunctional antimicrobial ingredients and plant-derived essential oils and extracts that are used as alternative or natural preservatives and are not listed in Annex VI of the Cosmetic Directive are also reported.

  16. Compressing climate model simulations: reducing storage burden while preserving information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerling, Dorit; Baker, Allison; Xu, Haiying; Clyne, John; Li, Samuel

    2017-04-01

    Climate models, which are run at high spatial and temporal resolutions, generate massive quantities of data. As our computing capabilities continue to increase, storing all of the generated data is becoming a bottleneck, which negatively affects scientific progress. It is thus important to develop methods for representing the full datasets by smaller compressed versions, which still preserve all the critical information and, as an added benefit, allow for faster read and write operations during analysis work. Traditional lossy compression algorithms, as for example used for image files, are not necessarily ideally suited for climate data. While visual appearance is relevant, climate data has additional critical features such as the preservation of extreme values and spatial and temporal gradients. Developing alternative metrics to quantify information loss in a manner that is meaningful to climate scientists is an ongoing process still in its early stages. We will provide an overview of current efforts to develop such metrics to assess existing algorithms and to guide the development of tailored compression algorithms to address this pressing challenge.

  17. Cinematic Operation of the Cerebral Cortex Interpreted via Critical Transitions in Self-Organized Dynamic Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Robert; Freeman, Walter J

    2017-01-01

    Measurements of local field potentials over the cortical surface and the scalp of animals and human subjects reveal intermittent bursts of beta and gamma oscillations. During the bursts, narrow-band metastable amplitude modulation (AM) patters emerge for a fraction of a second and ultimately dissolve to the broad-band random background activity. The burst process depends on previously learnt conditioned stimuli (CS), thus different AM patterns may emerge in response to different CS. This observation leads to our cinematic theory of cognition when perception happens in discrete steps manifested in the sequence of AM patterns. Our article summarizes findings in the past decades on experimental evidence of cinematic theory of cognition and relevant mathematical models. We treat cortices as dissipative systems that self-organize themselves near a critical level of activity that is a non-equilibrium metastable state. Criticality is arguably a key aspect of brains in their rapid adaptation, reconfiguration, high storage capacity, and sensitive response to external stimuli. Self-organized criticality (SOC) became an important concept to describe neural systems. We argue that transitions from one AM pattern to the other require the concept of phase transitions, extending beyond the dynamics described by SOC. We employ random graph theory (RGT) and percolation dynamics as fundamental mathematical approaches to model fluctuations in the cortical tissue. Our results indicate that perceptions are formed through a phase transition from a disorganized (high entropy) to a well-organized (low entropy) state, which explains the swiftness of the emergence of the perceptual experience in response to learned stimuli.

  18. An exploratory study to identify critical factors of innovation culture in organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Asgari

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades, there has been a growing trend on knowledge-based organizations. Innovation, on the other hand, plays essential role on building competitive business units. In this paper, we present an exploratory study to identify critical factors of innovation culture in organizations. We detect important factors influencing innovation culture in construction industry based on the implementation of factor analysis. The proposed study designs a questionnaire and distributes it among 400 experts who are involved in construction industry. Cronbach alpha has been calculated as 0.779, which validates the overall questionnaire. The results of factor analysis have indicated that six factors of building cultural infrastructures, education, organizational vision, established culture, strategic culture and flexible culture are the most important items influencing innovation culture.

  19. Study on self organized criticality of China power grid blackouts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xingyong; Zhang, Xiubin; He, Bin [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Minhang District, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2009-03-15

    Based on the complex system theory and the concept of self organized criticality (SOC) theory, the mechanism of China power grid blackout is studied by analyzing the blackout data in the China power system from 1981 to 2002. The probability distribution functions of various measures of blackout size have a power tail. The analysis of scaled window variance and rescaled range statistics of the time series show moderate long time correlations. The blackout data seem consistent with SOC; the results obtained show that SOC dynamics may play an important role in the dynamics of power systems blackouts. It would be possible to propose novel approaches for understanding and controlling power systems blackouts. (author)

  20. Study on self organized criticality of China power grid blackouts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Xingyong [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Minhang District, Shanghai 200240 (China)], E-mail: zhaoxingyong@sjtu.edu.cn; Zhang Xiubin; He Bin [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, Minhang District, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2009-03-15

    Based on the complex system theory and the concept of self organized criticality (SOC) theory, the mechanism of China power grid blackout is studied by analyzing the blackout data in the China power system from 1981 to 2002. The probability distribution functions of various measures of blackout size have a power tail. The analysis of scaled window variance and rescaled range statistics of the time series show moderate long time correlations. The blackout data seem consistent with SOC; the results obtained show that SOC dynamics may play an important role in the dynamics of power systems blackouts. It would be possible to propose novel approaches for understanding and controlling power systems blackouts.

  1. Preservation of Fish by Irradiation. Proceedings of a Panel on the Irradiation Preservation of Foods of Marine Origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    The increasing emphasis on the need for protein-rich foods to improve the nutritional status of the world’s population has stimulated research on new methods of preserving fishery products. The sea offers a source of protein that could markedly reduce the protein gap existing in many parts of the world. The major problem in attaining a more complete exploitation of these products is how to preserve them so that they can be transported from the points of origin to areas of greatest need. The use of ionizing radiation as a preservation method has been satisfactorily demonstrated in many countries. In some respects it offers advantages over conventional methods; for example, it prolongs the market life without using heat or chemicals, and what is more, the products are treated while they are sealed in commercial types of containers. Although radiation processing appears feasible, additional research is needed to improve certain quality attributes of some treated foods and to demonstrate to the satisfaction of health authorities' that no deleterious effects result. To obtain advice on the problems that need attention a Panel on Irradiation Preservation of Foods of Marine Origin was convened in Vienna, by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture, on 15—19 December 1969. The main purpose of the panel’s work was to advise the Director General of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency on how these organizations can best fulfil their roles in radiation research on fishery products. The meeting was attended by thirteen experts from various countries and one representative of the World Health Organization. Reports were presented on research performed and detailed discussions were held on work done in perfecting the radurization treatment of fishery products. Evaluations were made of the microbiology of the radurization process, with special reference to

  2. Preservation of Fish by Irradiation. Proceedings of a Panel on the Irradiation Preservation of Foods of Marine Origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1970-11-15

    The increasing emphasis on the need for protein-rich foods to improve the nutritional status of the world's population has stimulated research on new methods of preserving fishery products. The sea offers a source of protein that could markedly reduce the protein gap existing in many parts of the world. The major problem in attaining a more complete exploitation of these products is how to preserve them so that they can be transported from the points of origin to areas of greatest need. The use of ionizing radiation as a preservation method has been satisfactorily demonstrated in many countries. In some respects it offers advantages over conventional methods; for example, it prolongs the market life without using heat or chemicals, and what is more, the products are treated while they are sealed in commercial types of containers. Although radiation processing appears feasible, additional research is needed to improve certain quality attributes of some treated foods and to demonstrate to the satisfaction of health authorities' that no deleterious effects result. To obtain advice on the problems that need attention a Panel on Irradiation Preservation of Foods of Marine Origin was convened in Vienna, by the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Atomic Energy in Food and Agriculture, on 15-19 December 1969. The main purpose of the panel's work was to advise the Director General of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency on how these organizations can best fulfil their roles in radiation research on fishery products. The meeting was attended by thirteen experts from various countries and one representative of the World Health Organization. Reports were presented on research performed and detailed discussions were held on work done in perfecting the radurization treatment of fishery products. Evaluations were made of the microbiology of the radurization process, with special reference to the

  3. Microfilm and digitization as choices in preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yola de Lusenet

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The first conference the European Commission on Preservation and Access (ECPA organized, 'Choosing to preserve', took place in Leipzig in 1996. For the keynote lecture we had invited a scholar, Professor Bernhard Fabian. This was a very deliberate choice, as the ECPA subscribed to the view that academic researchers, as users of the resources kept in libraries and archives, have to be involved in discussions about their preservation. The conference had attracted quite a crowd, around 150 people who were of course all there for the opening lecture. We invited Professor Fabian because he was a very good speaker, who could really present a convincing case to an audience, which he did also on that occasion. He devoted a large part of his presentation of 45 minutes to the horrors of microfilm, showing us pictures of illegible film, with bits missing, that was impossible to use. He explained how distressing it was for scholars to be forced to use surrogates that don't do justice to the originals that they need to study.

  4. PRESERVATION OF DATA for the DIGITAL SOCIETY

    CERN Document Server

    SHIERS, J; VUERLI, C; MAGGI, M; DONVITO, G; BETKHE, S; KLUTH, S; KENNEDY, J

    2011-01-01

    The preservation of data for future re-use is a topic that is becoming increasingly important across a wide range of disciplines and is expected to become essential in the coming years as a cornerstone of the digital society. The strategy of this project is to combine the forces of several large-scale organizations to ensure that research work in this area is well coordinated and that the results are made available to a wide range of disciplines. The project aims to both document and verify techniques for the preservation of digital data with a strong focus on the continued ability to fully re-use the data, to raise awareness of the importance of this issue as widely as possible, to act as a forum for the interchange of information and best practices, and to develop a roadmap for the coming decade in order that digital preservation moves from being a challenge to a solution. Disciplines targeted range from Life Sciences to High Energy Physics – fields that have diverse needs in terms of data volume and life...

  5. IAEA Technical Meeting on Status of IAEA Fast Reactor Knowledge Preservation Initiative. Presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of the technical meeting were to: • exchange information between the Member States/International Organizations on national and international initiatives addressing knowledge preservation and data retrieval/collection in the field of fast neutron systems; • present and discuss the Member States’/International Organizations’ policies and conditions for releasing to the IAEA both publicly available and confidential information on fast neutron systems; • collect data on fast neutron systems provided by participating Member States/International Organizations and encourage participants to contribute in data collection; • provide recommendations for further IAEA initiatives in the field of fast reactor knowledge preservation

  6. Simple methods for in vitro pollen germination and pollen preservation of selected species of the genus Agave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigifredo López Díaz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Simple methods to evaluate the viability and to preserve Agave tequilana Weber var. azul and A. angustifolia Haw pollen were established. Pollen viability was assessed by improving a growing media and evaluating three common pollen germination media components: sucrose, boric acid, and calcium ion. Optimal germination of pollen was obtained at 0.300 M sucrose, 0.324 mM boric acid, and 1.219 mM calcium nitrate and incubated at a temperature of 25°C. Agave pollen was preserved in olive oil and organic solvents. Olive oil, which is immiscible with water, provides an anhydrous environment and limits available oxygen, conditions similar to those provided by some organic solvents. Fresh pollen was put into eppendorf tubes containing n-butanol, n-propanol, isopropanol, extra virgin olive oil and preserved at -20, 4, and 25°C. The germination of the preserved pollen was scored at different time periods during preservation employing the optimal germination medium. The viability of pollen grains preserved at -20°C in olive oil, proved olive oil as an efficient medium for agave pollen preservation for at least 6 months.

  7. Nuclear criticality predictability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, J.B.

    1999-01-01

    As a result of lots of efforts, a large portion of the tedious and redundant research and processing of critical experiment data has been eliminated. The necessary step in criticality safety analyses of validating computer codes with benchmark critical data is greatly streamlined, and valuable criticality safety experimental data is preserved. Criticality safety personnel in 31 different countries are now using the 'International Handbook of Evaluated Criticality Safety Benchmark Experiments'. Much has been accomplished by the work of the ICSBEP. However, evaluation and documentation represents only one element of a successful Nuclear Criticality Safety Predictability Program and this element only exists as a separate entity, because this work was not completed in conjunction with the experimentation process. I believe; however, that the work of the ICSBEP has also served to unify the other elements of nuclear criticality predictability. All elements are interrelated, but for a time it seemed that communications between these elements was not adequate. The ICSBEP has highlighted gaps in data, has retrieved lost data, has helped to identify errors in cross section processing codes, and has helped bring the international criticality safety community together in a common cause as true friends and colleagues. It has been a privilege to associate with those who work so diligently to make the project a success. (J.P.N.)

  8. Preservation of three-dimensional spatial structure in the gut microbiome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Hasegawa

    Full Text Available Preservation of three-dimensional structure in the gut is necessary in order to analyze the spatial organization of the gut microbiota and gut luminal contents. In this study, we evaluated preparation methods for mouse gut with the goal of preserving micron-scale spatial structure while performing fluorescence imaging assays. Our evaluation of embedding methods showed that commonly used media such as Tissue-Tek Optimal Cutting Temperature (OCT compound, paraffin, and polyester waxes resulted in redistribution of luminal contents. By contrast, a hydrophilic methacrylate resin, Technovit H8100, preserved three-dimensional organization. Our mouse intestinal preparation protocol optimized using the Technovit H8100 embedding method was compatible with microbial fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH and other labeling techniques, including immunostaining and staining with both wheat germ agglutinin (WGA and 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI. Mucus could be visualized whether the sample was fixed with paraformaldehyde (PFA or with Carnoy's fixative. The protocol optimized in this study enabled simultaneous visualization of micron-scale spatial patterns formed by microbial cells in the mouse intestines along with biogeographical landmarks such as host-derived mucus and food particles.

  9. Researching critical reflection in management education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkjaer, Bente; Nickelsen, Niels Christian Mossfeldt

    2016-01-01

    Critical reflection for professionals involves the ability to learn directly from their practice experience, so that they can improve their own work in an ongoing and flexible way. By examining the fundamental bases of what they do systematically, critical reflection can also function as a form...... to deal with change and critical reflection provides one method for being able to incorporate changes in a way which allows individuals to preserve a sense of what is fundamentally important to them as professionals. Since many different professionals work together in most organisations, research...... of education, management, health and social work....

  10. Towards a consensus on a hearing preservation classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarzynski, Henryk; van de Heyning, P; Agrawal, S; Arauz, S L; Atlas, M; Baumgartner, W; Caversaccio, M; de Bodt, M; Gavilan, J; Godey, B; Green, K; Gstoettner, W; Hagen, R; Han, D M; Kameswaran, M; Karltorp, E; Kompis, M; Kuzovkov, V; Lassaletta, L; Levevre, F; Li, Y; Manikoth, M; Martin, J; Mlynski, R; Mueller, J; O'Driscoll, M; Parnes, L; Prentiss, S; Pulibalathingal, S; Raine, C H; Rajan, G; Rajeswaran, R; Rivas, J A; Rivas, A; Skarzynski, P H; Sprinzl, G; Staecker, H; Stephan, K; Usami, S; Yanov, Y; Zernotti, M E; Zimmermann, K; Lorens, A; Mertens, G

    2013-01-01

    The comprehensive Hearing Preservation classification system presented in this paper is suitable for use for all cochlear implant users with measurable pre-operative residual hearing. If adopted as a universal reporting standard, as it was designed to be, it should prove highly beneficial by enabling future studies to quickly and easily compare the results of previous studies and meta-analyze their data. To develop a comprehensive Hearing Preservation classification system suitable for use for all cochlear implant users with measurable pre-operative residual hearing. The HEARRING group discussed and reviewed a number of different propositions of a HP classification systems and reviewed critical appraisals to develop a qualitative system in accordance with the prerequisites. The Hearing Preservation Classification System proposed herein fulfills the following necessary criteria: 1) classification is independent from users' initial hearing, 2) it is appropriate for all cochlear implant users with measurable pre-operative residual hearing, 3) it covers the whole range of pure tone average from 0 to 120 dB; 4) it is easy to use and easy to understand.

  11. Comparison of DNA preservation methods for environmental bacterial community samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Michael A; Pratte, Zoe A; Kellogg, Christina A

    2013-02-01

    Field collections of environmental samples, for example corals, for molecular microbial analyses present distinct challenges. The lack of laboratory facilities in remote locations is common, and preservation of microbial community DNA for later study is critical. A particular challenge is keeping samples frozen in transit. Five nucleic acid preservation methods that do not require cold storage were compared for effectiveness over time and ease of use. Mixed microbial communities of known composition were created and preserved by DNAgard(™), RNAlater(®), DMSO-EDTA-salt (DESS), FTA(®) cards, and FTA Elute(®) cards. Automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis and clone libraries were used to detect specific changes in the faux communities over weeks and months of storage. A previously known bias in FTA(®) cards that results in lower recovery of pure cultures of Gram-positive bacteria was also detected in mixed community samples. There appears to be a uniform bias across all five preservation methods against microorganisms with high G + C DNA. Overall, the liquid-based preservatives (DNAgard(™), RNAlater(®), and DESS) outperformed the card-based methods. No single liquid method clearly outperformed the others, leaving method choice to be based on experimental design, field facilities, shipping constraints, and allowable cost. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Ramifications of Meddling with Systems Governed by Self-organized Critical Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreras, B. A.; Newman, D. E.; Dobson, I.

    2002-12-01

    Complex natural, well as man-made, systems often exhibit characteristics similar to those seen in self-organized critical (SOC) systems. The concept of self-organized criticality brings together ideas of self-organization of nonlinear dynamical systems with the often-observed near critical behavior of many natural phenomena. These phenomena exhibit self-similarities over extended ranges of spatial and temporal scales. In those systems, scale lengths may be described by fractal geometry and time scales that lead to 1/f-like power spectra. Natural applications include modeling the motion of tectonics plates, forest fires, magnetospheric dynamics, spin glass systems, and turbulent transport. In man-made systems, applications have included traffic dynamics, power and communications networks, and financial markets among many others. Simple cellular automata models such as the running sandpile model have been very useful in reproducing the complexity and characteristics of these systems. One characteristic property of the SOC systems is that they relax through what we call events. These events can happen over all scales of the system. Examples of these events are: earthquakes in the case of plate tectonic; fires in forest evolution extinction in the co evolution of biological species; and blackouts in power transmission systems. In a time-averaged sense, these systems are subcritical (that is, they lie in an average state that should not trigger any events) and the relaxation events happen intermittently. The time spent in a subcritical state relative to the time of the events varies from one system to another. For instance, the chance of finding a forest on fire is very low with the frequency of fires being on the order of one fire every few years and with many of these fires small and inconsequential. Very large fires happen over time periods of decades or even centuries. However, because of their consequences, these large but infrequent events are the important ones

  13. Technical note: preservation of tissues and gastrointestinal tract portions by plastic coating or plastination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pond, K R; Holladay, S D; Luginbuhl, J M

    1992-04-01

    Two methods to preserve gastrointestinal tract (GIT) organs and tissues, plastic coating (PC) and plastination (PN), were investigated and compared. Specimens to be preserved were removed from animals within 2 h of death and immediately cleaned with water. Digesta contents were removed by flushing desired portions of GIT with water until the exiting water was clear. In the PC method, cleaned specimens were dehydrated by immersion in an isopropanol solution, dried with forced air after positioning and orientation as in situ, and finally coated on the outer and inner surfaces with a clear plastic material. In the PN procedure, specimens were filled with, and submerged in, a low-formaldehyde fixative, then dehydrated by immersion in a cold acetone solution. Dehydrated specimens were immersed in silicone and placed in a freeze drier for impregnation under low vacuum, followed by overnight gas curing with a silicone crosslinker. Finally, viewing windows were cut out with a scalpel in GIT preserved by both methods. Preserved GIT and tissues had an appearance similar to their appearance in vivo. The PC method was simple and inexpensive. Plastinated specimens were more flexible, durable, and lifelike than those preserved by the PC method. In addition, many body parts, such as muscles, nerves, bones, ligaments, and central nervous system specimens, were preserved by PN. Both methods were found to be useful tools for postmortem studies of tissues and GIT organs.

  14. BangA: An Efficient and Flexible Generalization-Based Algorithm for Privacy Preserving Data Publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeel Anjum

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Privacy-Preserving Data Publishing (PPDP has become a critical issue for companies and organizations that would release their data. k-Anonymization was proposed as a first generalization model to guarantee against identity disclosure of individual records in a data set. Point access methods (PAMs are not well studied for the problem of data anonymization. In this article, we propose yet another approximation algorithm for anonymization, coined BangA, that combines useful features from Point Access Methods (PAMs and clustering. Hence, it achieves fast computation and scalability as a PAM, and very high quality thanks to its density-based clustering step. Extensive experiments show the efficiency and effectiveness of our approach. Furthermore, we provide guidelines for extending BangA to achieve a relaxed form of differential privacy which provides stronger privacy guarantees as compared to traditional privacy definitions.

  15. Wood preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin Archer; Stan Lebow

    2006-01-01

    Wood preservation can be interpreted to mean protection from fire, chemical degradation, mechanical wear, weathering, as well as biological attack. In this chapter, the term preservation is applied more restrictively to protection from biological hazards.

  16. Preserving the memory of waste disposal centres for the future generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Radioactive waste disposal and storage facilities are designed to be intrinsically safe (lowest possible impact) for a duration depending on the lifetime of wastes. The French national agency of waste management (ANDRA) wishes to preserve as long as possible the memory of its waste facilities taking into account a possible loss of this memory beyond the legal monitoring period. For this reason, the ANDRA has analyzed the means that have permitted the preservation of the historical heritage through the centuries. The conclusions show that it is possible to preserve with a good confidence a patrimony during long time scales providing some organizing and structuring of this memory (archiving on numerical media and on permanent paper). (J.S.)

  17. Sources, distribution and preservation of organic matter in a tropical estuary (Godavari, India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishna, M.S.; Naidu, S.A.; Subbaiah, Ch.V.; Gawade, L.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Reddy, N.P.C.

    the lower estuary, relatively low sediment OC was found in the former than the latter region, suggesting that strong influence of preservation conditions rather than surface biological production on OC accumulation in sediments. This is attributed to intense...

  18. Preservation and phylogeny of Cambrian ecdysozoans tested by experimental decay of Priapulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansom, Robert S.

    2016-09-01

    The exceptionally preserved Cambrian fossil record provides unique insight into the early evolutionary history of animals. Understanding of the mechanisms of exceptional soft tissue preservation frames all interpretations of the fauna and its evolutionary significance. This is especially true for recent interpretations of preserved nervous tissues in fossil ecdysozoans. However, models of soft tissue preservation lack empirical support from actualistic studies. Here experimental decay of the priapulid Priapulus reveal consistent bias towards rapid loss of internal non-cuticular anatomy compared with recalcitrant cuticular anatomy. This is consistent with models of Burgess Shale-type preservation and indicates that internal tissues are unlikely to be preserved with fidelity if organically preserved. This pattern, along with extreme body margin distortion, is consistent with onychophoran decay, and is therefore resolved as general for early ecdysozoans. Application of these patterns to phylogenetic data finds scalidophoran taxa to be very sensitive to taphonomically informed character coding, but not panarthropodan taxa. Priapulid decay also have unexpected relevance for interpretation of myomeres in fossil chordates. The decay data presented serve not only as a test of models of preservation but also a framework with which to interpret ecdysozoan fossil anatomies, and the subsequent evolutionary inferences drawn from them.

  19. Evolutionarily significant units of the critically endangered leaf frog Pithecopus ayeaye (Anura, Phyllomedusidae) are not effectively preserved by the Brazilian protected areas network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Magalhães, Rafael Félix; Lemes, Priscila; Camargo, Arley; Oliveira, Ubirajara; Brandão, Reuber Albuquerque; Thomassen, Hans; Garcia, Paulo Christiano de Anchietta; Leite, Felipe Sá Fortes; Santos, Fabrício Rodrigues

    2017-11-01

    Protected areas (PAs) are essential for biodiversity conservation, but their coverage is considered inefficient for the preservation of all species. Many species are subdivided into evolutionarily significant units (ESUs) and the effectiveness of PAs in protecting them needs to be investigated. We evaluated the usefulness of the Brazilian PAs network in protecting ESUs of the critically endangered Pithecopus ayeaye through ongoing climate change. This species occurs in a threatened mountaintop ecosystem known as campos rupestres . We used multilocus DNA sequences to delimit geographic clusters, which were further validated as ESUs with a coalescent approach. Ecological niche modeling was used to estimate spatial changes in ESUs' potential distributions, and a gap analysis was carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of the Brazilian PAs network to protect P. ayeaye in the face of climate changes. We tested the niche overlap between ESUs to gain insights for potential management alternatives for the species. Pithecopus ayeaye contains at least three ESUs isolated in distinct mountain regions, and one of them is not protected by any PA. There are no climatic niche differences between the units, and only 4% of the suitable potential area of the species is protected in present and future projections. The current PAs are not effective in preserving the intraspecific diversity of P. ayeaye in its present and future range distributions. The genetic structure of P. ayeaye could represent a typical pattern in campos rupestres endemics, which should be considered for evaluating its conservation status.

  20. INCORRECT PRESERVATION OF AMPUTATED DIGITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uroš Ahčan

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. A decision to replant is critically dependent on the condition of the amputated digit and the way it was preserved during transport. The most common error is exposing the amputated digit to very low temperatures. Preservation directly on ice, on cooling devices in portable refrigerators, or on top of packets of frozen meat often result in a frozen and therefore unusable body digit.Methods. An inquiry questionnaire on correct methods of preservation of amputated digits was conducted on a sample of 30 lay persons, 30 medical students, and 15 physicians.Three simulations of most frequently used methods of preservation of amputated digit were conducted (the correct method; directly on ice; on cooling devices of portable refrigerators. Environment temperature of the (simulated amputated digits stored was measured.In a retrospective study, hospital records of patients treated at the Clinical department of plastic surgery and burns in Ljubljana between 1998 and 2002 were examined. We determined the number of replantations performed, gender of the patients, their age, the mechanism of the injury, the success rate of the replantation, and the duration of hospitalisation. In five case described in detail, we present an inadequate treatment of the amputated digits.Results. The results of the questionnaire survey show that no less than 86.7% of lay person respondents would have treated the injuries in an incorrect way; same holds for 43.4% students of medicine, and 33.3% of practicing physicians.The temperature of the simulated amputated digit remained above 5°C throughout the simulated correct treatment. When preserved directly on ice on or coolant bodies, the temperature dropped below the freezing point and never climbed above 0°C throughout the duration of the simulation (150 minutes.Between years 1998 and 2002, Clinical department of plastic surgery and burns at the University clinical centre Ljubljana admitted 124 injured persons with

  1. Assessment of the Dutch organ-culture system of corneal preservation within the Eye Bank of South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, K A; Noack, L M; Alfrich, S J; Danz, R; Erickson, S A; Coster, D J

    1988-02-01

    Thirteen per cent of all corneas harvested by the Eye Bank of South Australia during 1986 were discarded because storage time in McCarey-Kaufman medium exceeded four days. We have therefore examined the suitability of the Dutch method of long-term corneal storage for our purposes. Twenty-two human corneas that had been discarded from the Eye Bank were assessed using the trypan blue-sucrose staining technique, and then placed into long-term storage for 15 to 17 days. They were then reassessed by vital dye staining before permanent flat-mounts were prepared for silver staining of the endothelium. A good correlation (albeit subjective) was found between the non-destructive and destructive techniques of endothelial cell assessment. Those corneas that failed to survive organ culture storage were easily detected. The Dutch system of corneal preservation and post-storage assessment seems well-suited to Australian eye-banking.

  2. Changes in Ocular Surface Characteristics after Switching from Benzalkonium Chloride-Preserved Latanoprost to Preservative-Free Tafluprost or Benzalkonium Chloride-Preserved Tafluprost

    OpenAIRE

    Tokuda, Naoto; Kitaoka, Yasushi; Matsuzawa, Akiko; Tsukamoto, Ayaka; Sase, Kana; Sakae, Shinsuke; Takagi, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of switching from Latanoprost ophthalmic solution containing a preservative to preservative-free Tafluprost ophthalmic solution or Tafluprost containing a preservative on ocular surfaces. Materials and Methods. Forty patients (40 eyes) with glaucoma (mean age: 62.0 ± 10.9 years) using Latanoprost with preservative for six months or longer were assigned either to a Tafluprost-containing-preservative group (20 eyes) or preservativ...

  3. Evaluating safety-critical organizations - emphasis on the nuclear industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiman, Teemu; Oedewald, Pia (VTT, Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland))

    2009-04-15

    - it is understood that safety is a complex phenomenon. Safety is understood as a property of an entire system and not just absence of incidents - people feel personally responsible for the safety of the entire system, they feel they can have an effect on safety - the organizations aims for understanding the hazards and anticipating the risks in their activities - the organization is alert to the possibility of an unanticipated event - good prerequisites for carrying out the daily work exist. An organizational evaluation should aim at reasoning the: - sources of effectiveness in the organizational dimensions - sources of ineffectiveness in the organization dimensions - social processes in the organization - psychological outcomes of the current organization on a personnel level, e.g. motivation, understanding of hazards and sense of control. When drawing inferences from the organizational evaluations and defining development initiatives, it is important to consider actions that will promote and maintain the strengths of the organization as well as actions that will address and develop the weak areas. Issues associated with data collection and choice of methods has been a topic of much discussion in the field of evaluation of safety-critical organizations. We argue that the problem of collecting data is not the most important problem in terms of facilitating valid evaluations. A more important problem concerns the criteria that are used, as well as the operationalization of criteria into something measurable. Too much effort has been spent on methods and too little on contemplating the question of valid evaluation criteria and a valid means of deducing from the data whether the criteria are fulfilled. In order to accomplish this, a valid evaluation framework is needed, which incorporates the idea of organization as a complex sociotechnical system. This report has been an attempt to illustrate the premises and key issues to consider in organizational evaluations. No

  4. Evaluating safety-critical organizations - emphasis on the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, Teemu; Oedewald, Pia

    2009-04-01

    understood that safety is a complex phenomenon. Safety is understood as a property of an entire system and not just absence of incidents - people feel personally responsible for the safety of the entire system, they feel they can have an effect on safety - the organizations aims for understanding the hazards and anticipating the risks in their activities - the organization is alert to the possibility of an unanticipated event - good prerequisites for carrying out the daily work exist. An organizational evaluation should aim at reasoning the: - sources of effectiveness in the organizational dimensions - sources of ineffectiveness in the organization dimensions - social processes in the organization - psychological outcomes of the current organization on a personnel level, e.g. motivation, understanding of hazards and sense of control. When drawing inferences from the organizational evaluations and defining development initiatives, it is important to consider actions that will promote and maintain the strengths of the organization as well as actions that will address and develop the weak areas. Issues associated with data collection and choice of methods has been a topic of much discussion in the field of evaluation of safety-critical organizations. We argue that the problem of collecting data is not the most important problem in terms of facilitating valid evaluations. A more important problem concerns the criteria that are used, as well as the operationalization of criteria into something measurable. Too much effort has been spent on methods and too little on contemplating the question of valid evaluation criteria and a valid means of deducing from the data whether the criteria are fulfilled. In order to accomplish this, a valid evaluation framework is needed, which incorporates the idea of organization as a complex sociotechnical system. This report has been an attempt to illustrate the premises and key issues to consider in organizational evaluations. No method can

  5. Preservation in the Age of Google: Digitization, Digital Preservation, and Dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The cultural heritage preservation community now functions largely within the environment of digital technologies. This article begins by juxtaposing definitions of the terms "digitization for preservation" and "digital preservation" within a sociotechnical environment for which Google serves as a relevant metaphor. It then reviews two reports…

  6. Influence of a modified preservation solution in kidney transplantation: A comparative experimental study in a porcine model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Golriz

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Although the new preservation HTK solution is in several points a well-thought-out modification of the standard HTK solution, its preservation efficacy, at least for kidney preservation in a pig model for 30 hours, seems to be comparable to the current used solutions. A real advantage, however, could be confirmed in clinical settings, where marginal organs may influence the clinical outcome.

  7. Effect of Preservative on the Shelf Life of Yoghurt Produced from Soya Beans Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uduak G. AKPAN

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This study concentrated on the effects of preservatives on shelf life of yoghurt produced from Soya beans milk. The yoghurt was produced by heating Soya beans milk slurry, cooled and incubated with starter culture. After the required yoghurt has been formed, sugar, flavour and preservatives were added. Study of the effect of preservatives revealed that Sodium benzoate preservative used at 20mg/ml give the best (optimum preservation on both shelf and refrigeration storage for 15 and 21 days respectively. This is because the inhibitive ability of Sodium benzoate at lower temperature is higher than that of Potassium metabisulphate preservative. The study also revealed that 40mg/ml concentration of the combined preservatives gives the best (optimum concentration level for both shelf and refrigeration storage with pH values of 3.92 and 4.01 respectively after 14 days fermentation. The preservatives concentration added are within the threshold values specified by Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON and National Agency for Food Administration and Control (NAFDAC.

  8. Critical analysis of radioiodination techniques for micro and macro organic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajid Mushtaq; Jongho Jeon; Beom Su Jang; Sang Hyun Park; Korea University of Science and Technology, Daejeon; Aqeela Shaheen

    2016-01-01

    A variety of radioiodination methods is available in the literature depending upon the nature of organic compound to be labeled, however only few can completely fulfill manufacturing requirements.Ideally a selected method should be one which offers maximum benefits like regioselectivity, minimum reaction steps, minimum reaction time, high radiochemical yield and high specific activity. In this review radioiodination techniques were critically analyzed. Advantages, drawbacks, possible mode of action and special reaction conditions required to get high radiochemical yield were taken into account. The influence of iodine introduction on physicochemical properties, in vivo or in vitro pharmacological properties of pharmaceutical due to increase of lipophilicity were discussed along with examples. (author)

  9. Criticality is an emergent property of genetic networks that exhibit evolvability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Torres-Sosa

    Full Text Available Accumulating experimental evidence suggests that the gene regulatory networks of living organisms operate in the critical phase, namely, at the transition between ordered and chaotic dynamics. Such critical dynamics of the network permits the coexistence of robustness and flexibility which are necessary to ensure homeostatic stability (of a given phenotype while allowing for switching between multiple phenotypes (network states as occurs in development and in response to environmental change. However, the mechanisms through which genetic networks evolve such critical behavior have remained elusive. Here we present an evolutionary model in which criticality naturally emerges from the need to balance between the two essential components of evolvability: phenotype conservation and phenotype innovation under mutations. We simulated the Darwinian evolution of random Boolean networks that mutate gene regulatory interactions and grow by gene duplication. The mutating networks were subjected to selection for networks that both (i preserve all the already acquired phenotypes (dynamical attractor states and (ii generate new ones. Our results show that this interplay between extending the phenotypic landscape (innovation while conserving the existing phenotypes (conservation suffices to cause the evolution of all the networks in a population towards criticality. Furthermore, the networks produced by this evolutionary process exhibit structures with hubs (global regulators similar to the observed topology of real gene regulatory networks. Thus, dynamical criticality and certain elementary topological properties of gene regulatory networks can emerge as a byproduct of the evolvability of the phenotypic landscape.

  10. Discontinuity Preserving Image Registration through Motion Segmentation: A Primal-Dual Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silja Kiriyanthan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Image registration is a powerful tool in medical image analysis and facilitates the clinical routine in several aspects. There are many well established elastic registration methods, but none of them can so far preserve discontinuities in the displacement field. These discontinuities appear in particular at organ boundaries during the breathing induced organ motion. In this paper, we exploit the fact that motion segmentation could play a guiding role during discontinuity preserving registration. The motion segmentation is embedded in a continuous cut framework guaranteeing convexity for motion segmentation. Furthermore we show that a primal-dual method can be used to estimate a solution to this challenging variational problem. Experimental results are presented for MR images with apparent breathing induced sliding motion of the liver along the abdominal wall.

  11. Preserving and sharing tacit knowledge in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuronen, T.; Saeaemaenen, K.; Jaervenpaeae, E.; Rintala, N.

    2007-01-01

    Tacit knowledge of nuclear experts is essential for reliable and competent performance of nuclear power plants. This report discusses preserving and sharing tacit knowledge in nuclear power plant context. Tacit knowledge as well as its structure and content in this complex and safety-critical context are described, and the role of tacit knowledge in expertise is discussed. In order to contribute to tacit knowledge preserving the challenges in and prerequisites for tacit knowledge sharing are identified. In addition, based on empirical case studies and literature, good practices and methods for tacit knowledge sharing are described. The report is based on the results of DIAMOND research project conducted in 2004-2006 in Finnish nuclear power plants, tacit knowledge, nuclear power plant, tacit knowledge sharing methods, expertise. (author abstract)

  12. The Ethics of Fertility Preservation for Paediatric Cancer Patients: From Offer to Rebuttable Presumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Rosalind

    2015-11-01

    Given advances in the science of fertility preservation and the link between fertility choices and wellbeing, it is time to reframe our ethical thinking around fertility preservation procedures for children and young people with cancer. The current framing of fertility preservation as a possible offer may no longer be universally appropriate. There is an increasingly pressing need to discuss the ethics of failing to preserve fertility, particularly for patient groups for whom established techniques exist. I argue that the starting point for deliberating about a particular patient should be a rebuttable presumption that fertility preservation ought to be attempted. Consideration of the harms applicable to that specific patient may then override this presumption. I outline the benefits of attempting fertility preservation; these justify a presumption in favour of the treatment. I then discuss the potential harms associated with fertility preservation procedures, which may justify failing to attempt fertility preservation in an individual patient's particular case. Moving from a framework of offer to one of rebuttable presumption in favour of fertility preservation would have significant implications for medical practice, healthcare organizations and the state. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Distributed privacy preserving data collection

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Mingqiang

    2011-01-01

    We study the distributed privacy preserving data collection problem: an untrusted data collector (e.g., a medical research institute) wishes to collect data (e.g., medical records) from a group of respondents (e.g., patients). Each respondent owns a multi-attributed record which contains both non-sensitive (e.g., quasi-identifiers) and sensitive information (e.g., a particular disease), and submits it to the data collector. Assuming T is the table formed by all the respondent data records, we say that the data collection process is privacy preserving if it allows the data collector to obtain a k-anonymized or l-diversified version of T without revealing the original records to the adversary. We propose a distributed data collection protocol that outputs an anonymized table by generalization of quasi-identifier attributes. The protocol employs cryptographic techniques such as homomorphic encryption, private information retrieval and secure multiparty computation to ensure the privacy goal in the process of data collection. Meanwhile, the protocol is designed to leak limited but non-critical information to achieve practicability and efficiency. Experiments show that the utility of the anonymized table derived by our protocol is in par with the utility achieved by traditional anonymization techniques. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  14. Digital preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Deegan, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Digital preservation is an issue of huge importance to the library and information profession right now. With the widescale adoption of the internet and the rise of the world wide web, the world has been overwhelmed by digital information. Digital data is being produced on a massive scale by individuals and institutions: some of it is born, lives and dies only in digital form, and it is the potential death of this data, with its impact on the preservation of culture, that is the concern of this book. So how can information professionals try to remedy this? Digital preservation is a complex iss

  15. Improved biochemical preservation of lung slices during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, D A; Connors, R C; Reid, B B; Albanil, A; Stringham, J C; Karwande, S V

    2000-05-15

    Development of lung preservation solutions typically requires whole-organ models which are animal and labor intensive. These models rely on physiologic rather than biochemical endpoints, making accurate comparison of the relative efficacy of individual solution components difficult. We hypothesized that lung slices could be used to assess preservation of biochemical function during cold storage. Whole rat lungs were precision cut into slices with a thickness of 500 microm and preserved at 4 degrees C in the following solutions: University of Wisconsin (UW), Euro-Collins (EC), low-potassium-dextran (LPD), Kyoto (K), normal saline (NS), or a novel lung preservation solution (NPS) developed using this model. Lung biochemical function was assessed by ATP content (etamol ATP/mg wet wt) and capacity for protein synthesis (cpm/mg protein) immediately following slicing (0 h) and at 6, 12, 18, and 24 h of cold storage. Six slices were assayed at each time point for each solution. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance and are presented as means +/- SD. ATP content was significantly higher in the lung slices stored in NPS compared with all other solutions at each time point (P cold storage. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  16. A new shock wave assisted wood preservative injection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K. S.; Ravikumar, G.; Lai, Ram; Jagadeesh, G.

    Preservative treatment of many tropical hard woods and bamboo pose severe problem. A number of wood preservatives (chemical formulations toxic to wood decay/ destroying organisms like fungi, wood destroying termites, marine borers etc.) and wood impregnating techniques are currently in use for improving bio resistance of timber and bamboo and thereby enhancing service life for different end uses. How ever, some species of tropical hardwoods and many species of bamboo are difficult to treat, posing technical problems. In this paper we report preliminary results of treatment of bamboo with a novel Shockwave assisted injection treatment. Samples (30×2.5×1.00 cm) of an Indian species of bamboo Dendrocalamus strictus prepared from defect free culms of dry bamboo are placed in the driven section of a vertical shock tube filled with the 4Coppepr-Chrome-Arsenic(CCA) preservative solution.The bamboo samples are subjected to repeated shock wave loading (3 shots) with typical over pressures of 30 bar. The results from the study indicate excellent penetration and retention of CCA preservative in bamboo samples. The method itself is much faster compared to the conventional methods like pressure treatment or hot and cold process.

  17. Fossilization processes in siliceous thermal springs: trends in preservation along thermal gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, S. L.; Farmer, J. D.

    1996-01-01

    To enhance our ability to extract palaeobiological and palaeoenvironmental information from ancient thermal spring deposits, we have studied the processes responsible for the development and preservation of stromatolites in modern subaerial thermal spring systems in Yellowstone National Park (USA). We investigated specimens collected from silica-depositing thermal springs along the thermal gradient using petrographic techniques and scanning electron microscopy. Although it is known that thermophilic cyanobacteria control the morphogenesis of thermal spring stromatolites below 73 degrees C, we have found that biofilms which contain filamentous thermophiles contribute to the microstructural development of subaerial geyserites that occur along the inner rims of thermal spring pools and geyser effluents. Biofilms intermittently colonize the surfaces of subaerial geyserites and provide a favoured substrate for opaline silica precipitation. We have also found that the preservation of biotically produced microfabrics of thermal spring sinters reflects dynamic balances between rates of population growth, decomposition of organic matter, silica deposition and early diagenesis. Major trends in preservation of thermophilic organisms along the thermal gradient are defined by differences in the mode of fossilization, including replacement, encrustation and permineralization.

  18. Hydrologic Drivers of Soil Organic Carbon Erosion and Burial: Insights from a Spatially-explicit Model of a Degraded Landscape at the Calhoun Critical Zone Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dialynas, Y. G.; Bras, R. L.; Richter, D. D., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Soil erosion and burial of organic material may constitute a substantial sink of atmospheric CO2. Attempts to quantify impacts of soil erosion on the soil-atmosphere C exchange are limited by difficulties in accounting for the fate of eroded soil organic carbon (SOC), a key factor in estimating of the net effect of erosion on the C cycle. Processes that transport SOC are still inadequately represented in terrestrial carbon (C) cycle models. This study investigates hydrologic controls on SOC redistribution across the landscape focusing on dynamic feedbacks between watershed hydrology, soil erosional processes, and SOC burial. We use tRIBS-ECO (Triangulated Irregular Network-based Real-time Integrated Basin Simulator-Erosion and Carbon Oxidation), a spatially-explicit model of SOC dynamics coupled with a physically-based hydro-geomorphic model. tRIBS-ECO systematically accounts for the fate of eroded SOC across the watershed: Rainsplash erosion and sheet erosion redistribute SOC from upland sites to depositional environments, altering depth-dependent soil biogeochemical properties in diverse soil profiles. Eroded organic material is transferred with sediment and can be partially oxidized upon transport, or preserved from decomposition by burial. The model was applied in the Calhoun Critical Zone Observatory (CZO), a site that is recovering from some of the most serious agricultural erosion in North America. Soil biogeochemical characteristics at multiple soil horizons were used to initialize the model and test performance. Remotely sensed soil moisture data (NASA SMAP) were used for model calibration. Results show significant rates of hydrologically-induced burial of SOC at the Calhoun CZO. We find that organic material at upland eroding soil profiles is largely mobilized by rainsplash erosion. Sheet erosion mainly drives C transport in lower elevation clayey soils. While SOC erosion and deposition rates declined with recent reforestation at the study site, the

  19. Preservation of labile organic matter in soils of drained thaw lakes in Northern Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Carsten W.; Rethemeyer, Janet; Kao-Kniffin, Jenny; Löppmann, Sebastian; Hinkel, Kenneth; Bockheim, James

    2014-05-01

    A large number of studies predict changing organic matter (OM) dynamics in arctic soils due to global warming. In contrast to rather slowly altering bulk soil properties, single soil organic matter (SOM) fractions can provide a more detailed picture of the dynamics of differently preserved SOM pools in climate sensitive arctic regions. By the study of the chemical composition of such distinctive SOM fractions using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) together with radiocarbon analyses it is possible to evaluate the stability of the major OM pools. Approximately 50-75% of Alaska's Arctic Coastal Plain is covered with thaw lakes and drained thaw lakes that follow a 5,000 yr cycle of development (between creation and final drainage), thus forming a natural soil chronosequence. The drained thaw lakes offer the possibility to study SOM dynamics affected by permafrost processes over millennial timescales. In April 2010 we sampled 16 soil cores (including the active and permanent layer) reaching from young drained lakes (0-50 years since drainage) to ancient drained lakes (3000-5500 years since drainage). Air dried soil samples from soil horizons of the active and permanent layer were subjected to density fractionation in order to differentiate particulate OM and mineral associated OM. The chemical composition of the SOM fractions was analyzed by 13C CPMAS NMR spectroscopy. For a soil core of a young and an ancient drained thaw lake basin we also analyzed the 14C content. For the studied soils we can show that up to over 25 kg OC per square meter are stored mostly as labile, easily degradable organic matter rich in carbohydrates. In contrast only 10 kg OC per square meter were sequestered as presumably more stable mineral associated OC dominated by aliphatic compounds. Comparable to soils of temperate regions, we found small POM (dating we could show the stabilization of younger more labile OM at greater depth in buried O horizons. Additionally the study of the

  20. Ultrametricity and memory in a solvable model of self-organized criticality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boettcher, S.; Paczuski, M.

    1996-01-01

    Slowly driven dissipative systems may evolve to a critical state where long periods of apparent equilibrium are punctuated by intermittent avalanches of activity. We present a self-organized critical model of punctuated equilibrium behavior in the context of biological evolution, and solve it in the limit that the number of independent traits for each species diverges. We derive an exact equation of motion for the avalanche dynamics from the microscopic rules. In the continuum limit, avalanches propagate via a diffusion equation with a nonlocal, history dependent potential representing memory. This nonlocal potential gives rise to a non-Gaussian (fat) tail for the subdiffusive spreading of activity. The probability for the activity to spread beyond a distance r in time s decays as √(24/π)s -3/2 x 1/3 exp[-3/4x 1/3 ] for x=r 4 /s>1. The potential represents a hierarchy of time scales that is dynamically generated by the ultrametric structure of avalanches, which can be quantified in terms of open-quote open-quote backward close-quote close-quote avalanches. In addition, a number of other correlation functions characterizing the punctuated equilibrium dynamics are determined exactly

  1. Twenty-five-year-old Woman with Bilateral Borderline Ovarian Tumour Desiring to Preserve Fertility - Case Report and Literature Review on the Current State of Fertility Preservation in Women with Borderline Ovarian Tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findeklee, S; Lotz, L; Heusinger, K; Hoffmann, I; Dittrich, R; Beckmann, M W

    2016-11-01

    Borderline ovarian tumours are semimalignant tumours occurring unilaterally or bilaterally with a peak incidence among women of reproductive age. Since the affected women often wish to preserve fertility, particular precautions must be taken when counselling the patient and obtaining consent prior to planning an individual treatment. Options for preserving fertility include an organ-sparing surgical procedure and cryopreservation of oocytes and/or ovarian tissue. In this article, we report on a 25-year-old patient with a bilateral seromucinous borderline tumour who desired all fertility-preserving options. In order to perform the procedure without delay, we opted to perform luteal phase stimulation prior to oocyte retrieval. We conclude by discussing the current literature on the state of fertility preservation in the treatment of borderline ovarian tumours.

  2. Survival or revival: long-term preservation induces a reversible viable but non-culturable state in methane-oxidizing bacteria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Hoefman

    Full Text Available Knowledge on long-term preservation of micro-organisms is limited and research in the field is scarce despite its importance for microbial biodiversity and biotechnological innovation. Preservation of fastidious organisms such as methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB has proven difficult. Most MOB do not survive lyophilization and only some can be cryopreserved successfully for short periods. A large-scale study was designed for a diverse set of MOB applying fifteen cryopreservation or lyophilization conditions. After three, six and twelve months of preservation, the viability (via live-dead flow cytometry and culturability (via most-probable number analysis and plating of the cells were assessed. All strains could be cryopreserved without a significant loss in culturability using 1% trehalose in 10-fold diluted TSB (TT as preservation medium and 5% DMSO as cryoprotectant. Several other cryopreservation and lyophilization conditions, all of which involved the use of TT medium, also allowed successful preservation but showed a considerable loss in culturability. We demonstrate here that most of these non-culturables survived preservation according to viability assessment indicating that preservation induces a viable but non-culturable (VBNC state in a significant fraction of cells. Since this state is reversible, these findings have major implications shifting the emphasis from survival to revival of cells in a preservation protocol. We showed that MOB cells could be significantly resuscitated from the VBNC state using the TT preservation medium.

  3. Why Mission-Critical Systems Are Critical to the Future of Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlander, Cyril

    2012-01-01

    A mission-critical system is one that is so intertwined with the operation of an organization that the organization can scarcely function without it. Just as in corporations, mission-critical library systems offer the capability to unlock talent and time. They are essential to the transformation of higher education and the learning environment. A…

  4. A birational mapping with a strange attractor: post-critical set and covariant curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouamra, M; Hassani, S; Maillard, J-M

    2009-01-01

    We consider some two-dimensional birational transformations. One of them is a birational deformation of the Henon map. For some of these birational mappings, the post-critical set (i.e. the iterates of the critical set) is infinite and we show that this gives straightforwardly the algebraic covariant curves of the transformation when they exist. These covariant curves are used to build the preserved meromorphic 2-form. One may also have an infinite post-critical set yielding a covariant curve which is not algebraic (transcendental). For two of the birational mappings considered, the post-critical set is finite and we claim that there is no algebraic covariant curve and no preserved meromorphic 2-form. For these two mappings with finite post-critical sets, attracting sets occur and we show that they pass the usual tests (Lyapunov exponents and the fractal dimension) for being strange attractors. The strange attractor of one of these two mappings is unbounded.

  5. Critical carbon input to maintain current soil organic carbon stocks in global wheat systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guocheng; Luo, Zhongkui; Han, Pengfei; Chen, Huansheng; Xu, Jingjing

    2016-01-13

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics in croplands is a crucial component of global carbon (C) cycle. Depending on local environmental conditions and management practices, typical C input is generally required to reduce or reverse C loss in agricultural soils. No studies have quantified the critical C input for maintaining SOC at global scale with high resolution. Such information will provide a baseline map for assessing soil C dynamics under potential changes in management practices and climate, and thus enable development of management strategies to reduce C footprint from farm to regional scales. We used the soil C model RothC to simulate the critical C input rates needed to maintain existing soil C level at 0.1° × 0.1° resolution in global wheat systems. On average, the critical C input was estimated to be 2.0 Mg C ha(-1) yr(-1), with large spatial variability depending on local soil and climatic conditions. Higher C inputs are required in wheat system of central United States and western Europe, mainly due to the higher current soil C stocks present in these regions. The critical C input could be effectively estimated using a summary model driven by current SOC level, mean annual temperature, precipitation, and soil clay content.

  6. SCIDIP-ES - A science data e-infrastructure for preservation of earth science data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddick, Andrew; Glaves, Helen; Marelli, Fulvio; Albani, Mirko; Tona, Calogera; Marketakis, Yannis; Tzitzikas, Yannis; Guarino, Raffaele; Giaretta, David; Di Giammatteo, Ugo

    2013-04-01

    The capability for long term preservation of earth science data is a key requirement to support on-going research and collaboration within and between many earth science disciplines. A number of critically important current research directions (e.g. understanding climate change, and ensuring sustainability of natural resources) rely on the preservation of data often collected over several decades in a form in which it can be accessed and used easily. In many branches of the earth sciences the capture of key observational data may be difficult or impossible to repeat. For example, a specific geological exposure or subsurface borehole may be only temporarily available, and deriving earth observation data from a particular satellite mission is clearly often a unique opportunity. At the same time such unrepeatable observations may be a critical input to environmental, economic and political decision making. Another key driver for strategic long term data preservation is that key research challenges (such as those described above) frequently require cross disciplinary research utilising raw and interpreted data from a number of earth science disciplines. Effective data preservation strategies can support this requirement for interoperability, and thereby stimulate scientific innovation. The SCIDIP-ES project (EC FP7 grant agreement no. 283401) seeks to address these and other data preservation challenges by developing a Europe wide e-infrastructure for long term data preservation comprising appropriate software tools and infrastructure services to enable and promote long term preservation of earth science data. Because we define preservation in terms of continued usability of the digitally encoded information, the generic infrastructure services will allow a wide variety of data to be made usable by researchers from many different domains. This approach will enable the cost for long-term usability across disciplines to be shared supporting the creation of strong

  7. An official American Thoracic Society/International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation/Society of Critical Care Medicine/Association of Organ and Procurement Organizations/United Network of Organ Sharing Statement: ethical and policy considerations in organ donation after circulatory determination of death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gries, Cynthia J; White, Douglas B; Truog, Robert D; Dubois, James; Cosio, Carmen C; Dhanani, Sonny; Chan, Kevin M; Corris, Paul; Dark, John; Fulda, Gerald; Glazier, Alexandra K; Higgins, Robert; Love, Robert; Mason, David P; Nakagawa, Thomas A; Shapiro, Ron; Shemie, Sam; Tracy, Mary Fran; Travaline, John M; Valapour, Maryam; West, Lori; Zaas, David; Halpern, Scott D

    2013-07-01

    Donation after circulatory determination of death (DCDD) has the potential to increase the number of organs available for transplantation. Because consent and management of potential donors must occur before death, DCDD raises unique ethical and policy issues. To develop an ethics and health policy statement on adult and pediatric DCDD relevant to critical care and transplantation stakeholders. A multidisciplinary panel of stakeholders was convened to develop an ethics and health policy statement. The panel consisted of representatives from the American Thoracic Society, Society of Critical Care Medicine, International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation, Association of Organ Procurement Organizations, and the United Network of Organ Sharing. The panel reviewed the literature, discussed important ethics and health policy considerations, and developed a guiding framework for decision making by stakeholders. A framework to guide ethics and health policy statement was established, which addressed the consent process, pre- and post mortem interventions, the determination of death, provisions of end-of-life care, and pediatric DCDD. The information presented in this Statement is based on the current evidence, experience, and clinical rationale. New clinical research and the development and dissemination of new technologies will eventually necessitate an update of this Statement.

  8. Preserving heritage and technical professional motivation of antiquary workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuñez, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted at "Francisco Sánchez Betancourt" trade school. It is aimed at developing environmental education and professional and technical motivation by means of the heritage preserving work in masonry trainees. Theoretical research methods were used for systematizing referents, likewise observation, interviews, surveys and experiments were used to advance the proposal consisting of a system of tasks for the subject "Technology of Masonry" based on organized visits to historical buildings and sites. These visits allow masonry trainees to know about the importance of preserving heritage the ways to accomplish it. In addition lectures, video showing sections, book sales and other activities were carried out for promoting students enrolment.

  9. The Untapped Potential of Patient and Family Engagement in the Organization of Critical Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, Kimberley J; Kelly, Phillipa; Fitzgerald, Peter; Skinner, Elizabeth H; Iwashyna, Theodore J

    2017-05-01

    There is growing interest in patient and family participation in critical care-not just as part of the bedside, but as part of educational and management organization and infrastructure. This offers tremendous opportunities for change but carries risk to patients, families, and the institution. The objective is to provide a concise definitive review of patient and family organizational participation in critical care as a high-risk population and other vulnerable groups. A pragmatic, codesigned model for critical care is offered as a suggested approach for clinicians, researchers, and policy-makers. To inform this review, a systematic search of Ovid Medline, PubMed, and Embase was undertaken in April 2016 using the MeSH terms: patient participation and critical care. A second search was undertaken in PubMed using the terms: patient participation and organizational models to search for other examples of engagement in vulnerable populations. We explicitly did not seek to include discussions of bedside patient-family engagement or shared decision-making. Two reviewers screened citations independently. Included studies either actively partnered with patients and families or described a model of engagement in critical care and other vulnerable populations. Data or description of how patient and family engagement occurred and/or description of model were extracted into a standardized form. There was limited evidence of patient and family engagement in critical care although key recommendations can be drawn from included studies. Patient and family engagement is occurring in other vulnerable populations although there are few described models and none which address issues of risk. A model of patient and family engagement in critical care does not exist, and we propose a pragmatic, codesigned model that takes into account issues of psychologic safety in this population. Significant opportunity exists to document processes of engagement that reflect a changing paradigm of

  10. Planktonic foraminifera-derived environmental DNA extracted from abyssal sediments preserves patterns of plankton macroecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Morard

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Deep-sea sediments constitute a unique archive of ocean change, fueled by a permanent rain of mineral and organic remains from the surface ocean. Until now, paleo-ecological analyses of this archive have been mostly based on information from taxa leaving fossils. In theory, environmental DNA (eDNA in the sediment has the potential to provide information on non-fossilized taxa, allowing more comprehensive interpretations of the fossil record. Yet, the process controlling the transport and deposition of eDNA onto the sediment and the extent to which it preserves the features of past oceanic biota remains unknown. Planktonic foraminifera are the ideal taxa to allow an assessment of the eDNA signal modification during deposition because their fossils are well preserved in the sediment and their morphological taxonomy is documented by DNA barcodes. Specifically, we re-analyze foraminiferal-specific metabarcodes from 31 deep-sea sediment samples, which were shown to contain a small fraction of sequences from planktonic foraminifera. We confirm that the largest portion of the metabarcode originates from benthic bottom-dwelling foraminifera, representing the in situ community, but a small portion (< 10 % of the metabarcodes can be unambiguously assigned to planktonic taxa. These organisms live exclusively in the surface ocean and the recovered barcodes thus represent an allochthonous component deposited with the rain of organic remains from the surface ocean. We take advantage of the planktonic foraminifera portion of the metabarcodes to establish to what extent the structure of the surface ocean biota is preserved in sedimentary eDNA. We show that planktonic foraminifera DNA is preserved in a range of marine sediment types, the composition of the recovered eDNA metabarcode is replicable and that both the similarity structure and the diversity pattern are preserved. Our results suggest that sedimentary eDNA could preserve the ecological structure of

  11. The nature of expertise and human resource functions supporting expertise in nuclear industry organizations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rintala, N.; Katri, S.; Eila, J.; Pahkin, K.; Anneli, L.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The nuclear industry worldwide faces the challenge of preserving the existing expertise, competence and knowledge despite of the ageing workforce and upcoming retirements. Challenges are also imposed by the reducing amount of new recruits and students entering the nuclear industry, which amounts to fewer young professionals that have the potential to become nuclear experts in the future. Although many other industries share similar challenges, the preservation of expertise in the nuclear industry is even more important due to the safety-critical nature of the nuclear operations and the special characteristics that high-reliability organizations such as nuclear power plants have. As a response to the risk of knowledge loss, nuclear organizations have engaged in knowledge capturing efforts. New information systems and organizational practices have been implemented to safeguard nuclear expertise. Recently, IAEA has proposed nuclear organizations to design and adopt people-centered programs that encompass themes such as workforce planning, recruitment, training, succession planning, leadership development and knowledge management. Thus, in order to address the current risks to nuclear expertise, attention should be focused on these different areas and corresponding human resources (HR) functions within the nuclear organizations. Our paper presents results from a project which examines the nature of expert work and human resources (HR) functions that support the development and preservation of expertise. The study adopts a qualitative cross-sectional case study design. Two organizational units from different nuclear industry organizations have been selected as cases. The research data will be gathered in April-May 2007 and preliminary results will be presented in the International Conference of Knowledge Management in Nuclear Facilities, in June 2007. The main data will comprise of thematic interviews to experts, their managers and HR representatives

  12. Fertility preservation for non-medical reasons: controversial, but increasingly common.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Wolff, Michael; Germeyer, Ariane; Nawroth, Frank

    2015-01-16

    Fertility-preserving measures for women are increasingly being performed for non-medical reasons in Germany. This is now a controversial matter. The authors searched the PubMed database for pertinent publications on the basis of their clinical and scientific experience and evaluated relevant data from the registry of the German FertiPROTEKT network (www.fertiprotekt. com). The various fertility-preserving measures that are available are described and critically discussed. In most cases, the creation of a fertility reserve currently involves the cryopreservation of unfertilized oocytes, rather than of ovarian tissue. Most of the women who decide to undergo this procedure are over 35 years old. According to data from the FertiPROTEKT registry, most such procedures carried out in the years 2012 and 2013 involved a single stimulation cycle. The theoretical probability of childbirth per stimulation is 40% in women under age 35 and 30% in women aged 35 to 39. If the oocytes are kept for use at a later date, rather than at once, the maternal risk is higher, because the mother is older during pregnancy. The risk to the child may be higher as well because of the need for in vitro fertilization (IVF). Pregnancy over age 40 often leads to complications such as gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia. IVF may be associated with a higher risk of epigenetic abnormalities. Ethicists have upheld women's reproductive freedom while pointing out that so-called social freezing merely postpones social problems, rather than solving them. Fertility preservation for non-medical reasons should be critically discussed, and decisions should be made on a case-by-case basis.

  13. Fertility preservation and cancer: How many persons are concerned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Bihan-Benjamin, Christine; Hoog-Labouret, Natalie; Lefeuvre, Delphine; Carré-Pigeon, Frédérique; Bousquet, Philippe Jean

    2018-06-01

    A significant proportion of cancer survivors experience chronic health sequelae, one of them being fertility impairment. However, even if many reports, guidelines and positions papers focus on fertility preservation and its needs, access to fertility preservation is not currently offered to all the patients concerned, and the targeted population is not well counted. A cross sectional study was conducted using the French cancer cohort, a cohort covering the whole French population and including around 7 million of cancer patients. Women under the age of 40 and men under the age of 60 included in the cancer cohort in 2013 who had, in the first year, cancer surgery, chemotherapy or radiotherapy were considered. Patients treated by surgery alone for cancers in locations distant from the reproductive organs, or being treated for a cancer the past 3 years were excluded. The number of patients concerned by fertility preservation was estimated at a national and regional level, and by cancer types. 40,000 patients - 30,000 men under the age of 60 years and 10,000 women under the age of 40 years - were identified. A second estimation concerning women under the age of 35 and men under 50 reduced the number of patients to 17,200-10,400 men and 6800 women. The most frequent locations were malignant neoplasm of lymphoid and hematopoietic tissue, lung cancer, cervix uteri, prostate and colorectal cancer. In 2014, around 5 400 persons had a preservation. Around 17,200 cancer patients of reproductive age should be informed about the fertility preservation options available. Medical professionals have to better integrate in their daily practice fertility preservation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Improved biochemical preservation of heart slices during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, D A; Reid, B B; Connors, R C; Albanil, A; Stringham, J C; Karwande, S V

    2000-01-01

    Development of myocardial preservation solutions requires the use of whole organ models which are animal and labor intensive. These models rely on physiologic rather than biochemical endpoints, making accurate comparison of the relative efficacy of individual solution components difficult. We hypothesized that myocardial slices could be used to assess preservation of biochemical function during cold storage. Whole rat hearts were precision cut into slices with a thickness of 200 microm and preserved at 4 degrees C in one of the following solutions: Columbia University (CU), University of Wisconsin (UW), D5 0.2% normal saline with 20 meq/l KCL (QNS), normal saline (NS), or a novel cardiac preservation solution (NPS) developed using this model. Myocardial biochemical function was assessed by ATP content (etamoles ATP/mg wet weight) and capacity for protein synthesis (counts per minute (cpm)/mg protein) immediately following slicing (0 hours), and at 6, 12, 18, and 24 hours of cold storage. Six slices were assayed at each time point for each solution. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance and are presented as the mean +/- standard deviation. ATP content was higher in the heart slices stored in the NPS compared to all other solutions at 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours of cold storage (p cold storage (p cold storage.

  15. Microbial bioavailability regulates organic matter preservation in marine sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koho, K. A.; Nierop, K. G. J.; Moodley, L.; Middelburg, J. J.; Pozzato, L.; Soetaert, K.; van der Plicht, J.; Reichart, G-J.; Herndl, G.

    2013-01-01

    Burial of organic matter (OM) plays an important role in marine sediments, linking the short-term, biological carbon cycle with the long-term, geological subsurface cycle. It is well established that low-oxygen conditions promote organic carbon burial in marine sediments. However, the mechanism

  16. Biopolymers for sample collection, protection, and preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokulova, Iryna; Olsen, Eric; Vodyanoy, Vitaly

    2015-07-01

    One of the principal challenges in the collection of biological samples from air, water, and soil matrices is that the target agents are not stable enough to be transferred from the collection point to the laboratory of choice without experiencing significant degradation and loss of viability. At present, there is no method to transport biological samples over considerable distances safely, efficiently, and cost-effectively without the use of ice or refrigeration. Current techniques of protection and preservation of biological materials have serious drawbacks. Many known techniques of preservation cause structural damages, so that biological materials lose their structural integrity and viability. We review applications of a novel bacterial preservation process, which is nontoxic and water soluble and allows for the storage of samples without refrigeration. The method is capable of protecting the biological sample from the effects of environment for extended periods of time and then allows for the easy release of these collected biological materials from the protective medium without structural or DNA damage. Strategies for sample collection, preservation, and shipment of bacterial, viral samples are described. The water-soluble polymer is used to immobilize the biological material by replacing the water molecules within the sample with molecules of the biopolymer. The cured polymer results in a solid protective film that is stable to many organic solvents, but quickly removed by the application of the water-based solution. The process of immobilization does not require the use of any additives, accelerators, or plastifiers and does not involve high temperature or radiation to promote polymerization.

  17. Effectiveness of Anonymization Methods in Preserving Patients' Privacy: A Systematic Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langarizadeh, Mostafa; Orooji, Azam; Sheikhtaheri, Abbas

    2018-01-01

    An ever growing for application of electronic health records (EHRs) has improved healthcare providers' communications, access to data for secondary use and promoted the quality of services. Patient's privacy has been changed to a great issue today since there are large loads of critical information in EHRs. Therefore, many privacy preservation techniques have been proposed and anonymization is a common one. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of anonymization in preserving patients' privacy. The articles published in the 2005-2016 were included. Pubmed, Cochrane, IEEE and ScienceDirect were searched with a variety of related keywords. Finally, 18 articles were included. In the present study, the relevant anonymization issues were investigated in four categories: secondary use of anonymized data, re-identification risk, anonymization effect on information extraction and inadequacy of current methods for different document types. The results revealed that though anonymization cannot reduce the risk of re-identification to zero, if implemented correctly, can manage to help preserve patient's privacy.

  18. Crisis Behavior in Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Self-Organized Criticality Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Tonello

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD represents a set of life-long disorders. In particular, subjects with ASD can display momentary behaviors of acute agitation and aggressiveness called crisis behaviors. These events are problematic for the subject and care providers but little is known about their occurrence, namely, possible relations among intensity, frequency, and duration. A group of ASD subjects (n=33 has been observed for 12 months reporting data on each crisis (n=1137 crises. Statistical analysis did not find significant results, while the relation between crisis duration and frequency showed a good fit to a “power law” curve, suggesting the application of Self-Organized Criticality (SOC model. The SOC is used to describe natural phenomena as earthquakes, bank failures of rivers, mass extinctions, and other systems where a type of “catastrophic events” is necessary to maintain a critical equilibrium. In a sense, subjects at risk of crisis behavior seem to fit the same model as seismic zones at risk of earthquakes. The employment of the same strategies, as those successfully developed for known SOC systems, could lead to important insights for ASD management. Moreover, the SOC model offers possible interpretations of crisis behavior dynamics suggesting that they are unpredictable and, in a sense, necessary.

  19. Supercooling as a viable non-freezing cell preservation method of rat hepatocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Berk Usta

    Full Text Available Supercooling preservation holds the potential to drastically extend the preservation time of organs, tissues and engineered tissue products, and fragile cell types that do not lend themselves well to cryopreservation or vitrification. Here, we investigate the effects of supercooling preservation (SCP at -4(oC on primary rat hepatocytes stored in cryovials and compare its success (high viability and good functional characteristics to that of static cold storage (CS at +4(oC and cryopreservation. We consider two prominent preservation solutions a Hypothermosol (HTS-FRS and b University of Wisconsin solution (UW and a range of preservation temperatures (-4 to -10 (oC. We find that there exists an optimum temperature (-4(oC for SCP of rat hepatocytes which yields the highest viability; at this temperature HTS-FRS significantly outperforms UW solution in terms of viability and functional characteristics (secretions and enzymatic activity in suspension and plate culture. With the HTS-FRS solution we show that the cells can be stored for up to a week with high viability (~56%; moreover we also show that the preservation can be performed in large batches (50 million cells with equal or better viability and no loss of functionality as compared to smaller batches (1.5 million cells performed in cryovials.

  20. Differential preservation of vertebrates in Southeast Asian caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Louys

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Caves have been an important source of vertebrate fossils for much of Southeast Asia, particularly for the Quaternary. Despite this importance, the mechanisms by which vertebrate remains accumulate and preserve in Southeast Asian caves has never been systematically reviewed or examined. Here, we present the results of three years of cave surveys in Indonesia and Timor-Leste, describing cave systems and their attendant vertebrate accumulations in diverse geological, biogeographical, and environmental settings. While each cave system is unique, we find that the accumulation and preservation of vertebrate remains are highly dependent on local geology and environment. These factors notwithstanding, we find the dominant factor responsible for faunal deposition is the presence or absence of biological accumulating agents, a factor directly dictated by biogeographical history. In small, isolated, volcanic islands, the only significant accumulation occurs in archaeological settings, thereby limiting our understanding of the palaeontology of those islands prior to human arrival. In karstic landscapes on both oceanic and continental islands, our understanding of the long-term preservation of vertebrates is still in its infancy. The formation processes of vertebrate-bearing breccias, their taphonomic histories, and the criteria used to determine whether these represent syngenetic or multiple deposits remain critically understudied. The latter in particular has important implications for arguments on how breccia deposits from the region should be analysed and interpreted when reconstructing palaeoenvironments.

  1. Preservation of rat hearts in subfreezing temperature isochoric conditions to - 8 °C and 78 MPa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Lili; Powell-Palm, Matthew J; Lee, Charles; Gupta, Anshal; Weegman, Bradley P; Clemens, Mark G; Rubinsky, Boris

    2018-02-12

    Isochoric (constant volume) preservation at subfreezing temperatures is being investigated as a novel method for preserving cells and organs. This study is a first initial effort to evaluate the efficacy of this method for heart preservation, and to provide a preliminary outline of appropriate preservation parameters. To establish a baseline for further studies, rat hearts were preserved in a University of Wisconsin (UW) intracellular solution for one hour under isochoric conditions at: 0 °C (atmospheric pressure - 0.1 MPa), - 4 °C (41 MPa), - 6 °C (60 MPa) and - 8 °C (78 MPa). The viability of the heart was evaluated using Langendorff perfusion and histological examination. The physiological performance of hearts preserved at - 4 °C (41 MPa) was comparable to that of a heart preserved on ice at atmospheric pressure, with no statistically significant difference in histological injury score. However, hearts preserved at -4 °C displayed substantially reduced interstitial edema compared to hearts preserved by conventional hypothermic preservation in UW on ice at atmospheric pressure, suggesting significant protection from increased vascular permeability following preservation. Hearts preserved at - 6 °C (60 MPa) suffered injury from cellular swelling and extensive edema, and at - 8 °C (78 MPa) hearts experienced significant morphological disruption. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first publication showing that a mammalian organ can survive low subfreezing temperatures without the use of a cryoprotective additive. Lowering the preservation temperature reduces metabolism and improves preservation quality, and these results suggest that improvements in preservation are possible at subzero temperatures with low to moderate pressures observed at -4 °C. Notably, tissue damage was observed at lower temperatures (-6 °C or below) accompanying further elevation of pressure associated with isochoric preservation that may

  2. From the ethical code to the international convention. A critical panorama of the World Tourism Organization from the cosmopolitanism perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. López-González

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses a critical analysis of the nature of cosmopolitan order encouraged by the World Tourism Organization. Given the growth of tourism activity and the challenges that it poses, this specialized agency of the United Nations has formally promoted equitable, responsible and sustainable development of tourism. However, the criticism of the principles from which the organization shapes tourism has put the focus on the objectives pursued. The conversion of these principles, included in the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism, adopted in 1999, into an international convention, approved in September 2017, presents a new scene that this work outlines from the cosmopolitanism perspective.

  3. Involved-nodal radiation therapy leads to lower doses to critical organs-at-risk compared to involved-field radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulvihill, David J.; McMichael, Kevin; Goyal, Sharad; Drachtman, Richard; Weiss, Aaron; Khan, Atif J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Involved field radiotherapy (IFRT) after cytotoxic chemotherapy has become the standard of care in treating pediatric patients with Hodgkin lymphoma. However, recent interest in shrinking the treatment volume to involved node radiotherapy (INRT) may allow lower doses to critical organ structures. We dosimetrically compared IFRT and INRT treatment approaches. Methods: INRT treatment plans were retrospectively constructed from 17 consecutively treated pediatric patients identified with Hodgkin lymphoma who had been previously treated with conventional IFRT. The radiation doses delivered to organs-at-risk (OARs) with virtual INRT treatment plans based on INRT field design were then compared to the original IFRT treatment plans. Metrics for comparison included mean doses to organs and volumes of organ receiving at least 50% of the original prescription dose (V50%). A one-tailed, paired t-test was then performed to verify statistical significance at an alpha level of 0.05. Results: All organs at risk compared in this investigation (kidneys, heart, thyroid, parotids, and lungs) had significantly lower doses of radiation with INRT when compared to IFRT (p < 0.05). Furthermore, the volume of the breast receiving at least 50% of the initial prescription dose was statistically lower in the INRT plans. Conclusions: Utilizing the concept of INRT results in a reduction of radiation dose to critical organ structures in pediatric patients with Hodgkin lymphoma when compared to the more traditional method of IFRT

  4. Effects of a propionic-acid based preservative on storage characteristics of alfalfa-orchardgrass hay in large-rectangular bales

    Science.gov (United States)

    For many years, various formulations of organic acids have been marketed as preservatives, most specifically for use on hays that could not be field-dried to moisture concentrations low enough to reduce or eliminate spontaneous heating during storage. These preservatives are often propionic-acid-bas...

  5. Self-organized criticality as a paradigm for transport in magnetically confined plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreras, B.A.; Newman, D.; Lynch, V.E.; Diamond, P.H.

    1996-01-01

    Many models of natural phenomena manifest the basic hypothesis of self-organized criticality (SOC) [P. Bak, C. Tang, and K. Weisenfeld, Phys. Rev. Lett., 1987, vol. 59, p. 381]. The SOC concept brings together the self-similarity on space and time scales that are common to many of these phenomena. The application of the SOC modeling concept to the plasma dynamics near marginal stability opens new possibilities of understanding issues such as Bohm scaling, profile consistency, broad-band fluctuation spectra with universal characteristics, and fast time scales. In this paper, we review the SOC concept and its possible applications to the study of transport in magnetically confined plasmas

  6. Pig Pancreas Anatomy: Implications for Pancreas Procurement, Preservation, and Islet Isolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Joana; Scott, William E; Weegman, Bradley P; Suszynski, Thomas M; Sutherland, David E R; Hering, Bernhard J; Papas, Klearchos K

    2009-01-01

    Background Islet transplantation is emerging as a treatment option for selected patients with type 1 diabetes. The limited human islet supply from cadavers and poor islet yield and quality remain substantial impediments to progress in the field. Use of porcine islets holds great promise for large-scale application of islet transplantation. Consistent isolation of porcine islets is dependent on advances in pancreas procurement and preservation, and islet isolation requiring detailed knowledge of the porcine pancreatic anatomy. The primary aim of this study was to describe the vascular and ductal anatomy of the porcine pancreas in order to guide and improve organ preservation and enzyme perfusion. Methods Pancreata were removed by en bloc viscerectomy from 65 female Landrace pigs. Results 15% of organs exhibited inconsistent vascular branching from the celiac trunk. All organs had uniform patterns of branching at the superior mesenteric artery. The superior and inferior mesenteric veins (IMV) merged to become the portal vein in all but one case in which the IMV drained into the splenic vein. 97% of pancreata had three lobes: duodenal (DL), connecting (CL), and splenic (SL); 39% demonstrated ductal communication between the CL and the other two lobes; 50% had ductal communication only between the CL and DL; and 11% presented other types of ductal delineation. Conclusions Accounting for the variations in vascular and ductal anatomy, as detailed in this study, will facilitate development of protocols for preservation, optimal enzyme administration, and pancreas distention and digestion, and ultimately lead to substantial improvements in isolation outcomes. PMID:19077881

  7. [The organ-preserving surgical treatment of the splenic rupture after the blunt abdominal trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimov, A N; Zubarev, A R; Priamikov, A D; Alimov, V A; Sukiasian, A A; Murashina, I V; Safronov, É P; Kim, Iu E

    2013-01-01

    The outcomes of 383 cases of heavy combined traumas (n=273) and isolated (n=110) closed injuries of the abdomen with spleen damage were analyzed. The overall mortality was 11.74% (n=45), whereas the mortality rate during the first day after admission was 7.83% (n=30). Removal of a spleen was executed at 228 patients. The spleen-preserving operation with ligation of splenic artery, was performed in 155 patients. The optimal level of the splenic artery ligation proved to be in its proximal and median parts. The postoperative CT-angiogarphy and Doppler US scanning together with the three-dimensional reconstruction confirmed that blood supply of the body and tail of the pancreas was satisfactory thanks to the natural collateral blood circulation. The dramatic decrease in lethality and of postoperative complication rates allows to consider spleen-preserving resections to be a good alternative to spleenectomy.

  8. Tracking the Transformation and Preservation of Organic Biomarkers in a Varved Sediment-Core Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolu, J.; Bigler, C.; Bindler, R.

    2014-12-01

    An important premise for reconstructing environmental changes using sediment records is to understand which environmental information reaches the lake bottom and how diagenetic processes may affect the proxies, such as terrestrial and aquatic organic biomarkers. We can tackle this question using a unique series of varved sediment cores collected from the lake Nylandssjön (northern Sweden). In addition to limnological and sediment trap sampling since 2001, we have a collection of freeze cores taken in late winter and stored since 1979, which allows us to track individual varve years (e.g., 1978) over time (~30 years). A previous study using this collection showed that 23 % of C and 35 % of N were lost during the first 25 years with a C:N ratio increase of ≈21, suggesting important implications for diagenetic effects on organic biomarkers. To assess the preservation/transformation of organic biomarkers, we developed a new Pyrolysis-Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry method that allows the rapid determination of biomarkers from the common OM classes (e.g., plant waxes, microbial lipids, lignins) using sub-mg sample sizes and thus applicable to high-resolution sampling of the varved sediment (Tolu et al., under review). Our results show that the different biomarkers exhibit a broad spectrum of reactivities over ~30 years -% change determined by ([Peak area at t] - [Peak area at t=0])/ [peak area at t=0] x 100-. For example: 67-80 % of the algal chlorophyll-derived product 'phytene' is lost depending which single varve year is followed over time (e.g., 1979). Only 12-32 % of "pristene", the degraded form of algal chlorophyll, is lost. The guaiacyl and syringyl lignin units are affected by a smaller loss, i.e. 5-15 %, and the S/G ratio, indicative of angiosperm/gymnosperm plant input remains stable, which is contrary to previous work on non-varved lake sediments. Considering all biomarkers, the degradation/production plateaued after ~15 years, which indicates that

  9. Examining the role of dissolved organic nitrogen in stream ecosystems across biomes and Critical Zone gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wymore, A.; Rodriguez-Cardona, B.; Coble, A. A.; Potter, J.; Lopez Lloreda, C.; Perez Rivera, K.; De Jesus Roman, A.; Bernal, S.; Martí Roca, E.; Kram, P.; Hruska, J.; Prokishkin, A. S.; McDowell, W. H.

    2016-12-01

    Watershed nitrogen exports are often dominated by dissolved organic nitrogen (DON); yet, little is known about the role ambient DON plays in ecosystems. As an organic nutrient, DON may serve as either an energy source or as a nutrient source. One hypothesized control on DON is nitrate (NO3-) availability. Here we examine the interaction of NO3- and DON in streams across temperate forests, tropical rainforests, and Mediterranean and taiga biomes. Experimental streams also drain contrasting Critical Zones which provide gradients of vegetation, soil type and lithology (e.g. volcaniclastic, granitic, ultramafic, Siberian Traps Flood Basalt) in which to explore how the architecture of the Critical Zone affects microbial biogeochemical reactions. Streams ranged in background dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration (1-50 mg C/L) and DOC: NO3- ratios (10-2000). We performed a series of ecosystem-scale NO3- additions in multiple streams within each environment and measured the change in DON concentration. Results demonstrate that there is considerable temporal and spatial variation across systems with DON both increasing and decreasing in response to NO3- addition. Ecologically this suggests that DON can serve as both a nutrient source and an energy source to aquatic microbial communities. In contrast, DOC concentrations rarely changed in response to NO3- additions suggesting that the N-rich fraction of the ambient dissolved organic matter pool is more bioreactive than the C-rich fraction. Contrasting responses of the DON and DOC pools indicate different mechanisms controlling their respective cycling. It is likely that DON plays a larger role in ecosystems than previously recognized.

  10. Histology of a Woolly Mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) Preserved in Permafrost, Yamal Peninsula, Northwest Siberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgopoulou, Christina; Link, Karl; Rühli, Frank J

    2015-06-01

    In 2007, the baby woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) named Lyuba was found frozen in the Siberian tundra permafrost along the Yuribey River. She was proclaimed the best-preserved mammoth discovery. As part of the endoscopic examination of Lyuba, tissue samples of hair, muscle, and internal organs were taken. The sectioned biopsies were stained using standard and special histological stains. In general, the microscopic preservation of the tissue was good although no clearly identifiable cell nuclei were found by standard staining methods. Only a few cell nuclei could be identified in some samples when fluorescence stained with DAPI. The best-preserved structures were collagen fibers and muscle tissue, which gave some structural resemblance to the organs. In the hairs, evidence of pigmentation, a scaly surface, diagonal intra-hair structures, and a medulla were seen. Fat droplets could be identified with Sudan Red in the subcutaneous fat sample and in several organs. Bacteria were seen on the lumen side of the small intestine and caecum, and in the liver and lung tissue. In addition, fungi and pollen were seen in the lung sample. In the wall of the caecum and small intestine, blood vessels and nerves were visualized. Iron was identified in the vivianite sample. Some biopsies compared well structurally with the African elephant tissue sections. The histological findings support the theory that Lyuba drowned in muddy water. The microscopic tissue preservation and cell nuclei destruction indicate that Lyuba's body underwent at least one freeze-thaw cycle. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Self-Organized Criticality in Astrophysics The Statistics of Nonlinear Processes in the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Aschwanden, Markus

    2011-01-01

    The concept of ‘self-organized criticality’ (SOC) has been applied to a variety of problems, ranging from population growth and traffic jams to earthquakes, landslides and forest fires. The technique is now being applied to a wide range of phenomena in astrophysics, such as planetary magnetospheres, solar flares, cataclysmic variable stars, accretion disks, black holes and gamma-ray bursts, and also to phenomena in galactic physics and cosmology. Self-organized Criticality in Astrophysics introduces the concept of SOC and shows that, due to its universality and ubiquity, it is a law of nature. The theoretical framework and specific physical models are described, together with a range of applications in various aspects of astrophyics. The mathematical techniques, including the statistics of random processes, time series analysis, time scale and waiting time distributions, are presented and the results are applied to specific observations of astrophysical phenomena.

  12. Critical Point in Self-Organized Tissue Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-Hidalgo, Daniel; Werner, Steffen; Wartlick, Ortrud; González-Gaitán, Marcos; Friedrich, Benjamin M.; Jülicher, Frank

    2018-05-01

    We present a theory of pattern formation in growing domains inspired by biological examples of tissue development. Gradients of signaling molecules regulate growth, while growth changes these graded chemical patterns by dilution and advection. We identify a critical point of this feedback dynamics, which is characterized by spatially homogeneous growth and proportional scaling of patterns with tissue length. We apply this theory to the biological model system of the developing wing of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and quantitatively identify signatures of the critical point.

  13. The challenge of archiving and preserving remotely sensed data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L Faundeen

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Few would question the need to archive the scientific and technical (S&T data generated by researchers. At a minimum, the data are needed for change analysis. Likewise, most people would value efforts to ensure the preservation of the archived S&T data. Future generations will use analysis techniques not even considered today. Until recently, archiving and preserving these data were usually accomplished within existing infrastructures and budgets. As the volume of archived data increases, however, organizations charged with archiving S&T data will be increasingly challenged (U.S. General Accounting Office, 2002. The U.S. Geological Survey has had experience in this area and has developed strategies to deal with the mountain of land remote sensing data currently being managed and the tidal wave of expected new data. The Agency has dealt with archiving issues, such as selection criteria, purging, advisory panels, and data access, and has met with preservation challenges involving photographic and digital media. That experience has allowed the USGS to develop management approaches, which this paper outlines.

  14. The challenge of archiving and preserving remotely sensed data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faundeen, John L.

    2003-01-01

    Few would question the need to archive the scientific and technical (S&T) data generated by researchers. At a minimum, the data are needed for change analysis. Likewise, most people would value efforts to ensure the preservation of the archived S&T data. Future generations will use analysis techniques not even considered today. Until recently, archiving and preserving these data were usually accomplished within existing infrastructures and budgets. As the volume of archived data increases, however, organizations charged with archiving S&T data will be increasingly challenged (U.S. General Accounting Office, 2002). The U.S. Geological Survey has had experience in this area and has developed strategies to deal with the mountain of land remote sensing data currently being managed and the tidal wave of expected new data. The Agency has dealt with archiving issues, such as selection criteria, purging, advisory panels, and data access, and has met with preservation challenges involving photographic and digital media. That experience has allowed the USGS to develop management approaches, which this paper outlines.

  15. Advanced X-ray Optics Metrology for Nanofocusing and Coherence Preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Yashchuk, Valeriy

    2007-12-01

    What is the point of developing new high-brightness light sources if beamline optics won't be available to realize the goals of nano-focusing and coherence preservation? That was one of the central questions raised during a workshop at the 2007 Advanced Light Source Users Meeting. Titled, 'Advanced X-Ray Optics Metrology for Nano-focusing and Coherence Preservation', the workshop was organized by Kenneth Goldberg and Valeriy Yashchuk (both of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, LBNL), and it brought together industry representatives and researchers from Japan, Europe, and the US to discuss the state of the art and to outline the optics requirements of new light sources. Many of the presentations are viewable on the workshop website http://goldberg.lbl.gov/MetrologyWorkshop07/. Many speakers shared the same view of one of the most significant challenges facing the development of new high-brightness third and fourth generation x-ray, soft x-ray, and EUV light sources: these sources place extremely high demands on the surface quality of beamline optics. In many cases, the 1-2-nm surface error specs that define the outer bounds of 'diffraction-limited' quality are beyond the reach of leading facilities and optics vendors. To focus light to 50-nm focal spots, or smaller, from reflective optics and to preserve the high coherent flux that new sources make possible, the optical surface quality and alignment tolerances must be measured in nano-meters and nano-radians. Without a significant, well-supported research effort, including the development of new metrology techniques for use both on and off the beamline, these goals will likely not be met. The scant attention this issue has garnered is evident in the stretched budgets and limited manpower currently dedicated to metrology. With many of the world's leading groups represented at the workshop, it became clear that Japan and Europe are several steps ahead of the US in this critical area

  16. Management of fertility preservation in young breast cancer patients in a large breast cancer centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrenz, B; Neunhoeffer, E; Henes, M; Lessmann-Bechle, S; Krämer, B; Fehm, Tanja

    2010-11-01

    The increase of breast cancer in young women under 40 years and the increasing age of women at the time of the birth of their first child underlines the importance to implement counselling for fertility-preserving strategies in the management of breast cancer care. We present the fertility-preserving procedures performed after routine counselling for primary breast cancer patients in a large certified breast cancer centre. Since November 2006, patients aged below 40 years with histologically confirmed breast cancer are routinely counselled on fertility-preserving possibilities before breast surgery and chemotherapy in the fertility centre of the University Women's Hospital in Tuebingen. The recommendations are based on the treatment recommendations of the network FertiPROTEKT. During the last 40 months, 56 primary breast cancer patients were counselled. Forty-one of these patients were hormone receptor positive. Thirty-four patients (63%) underwent fertility-preserving strategies. The majority of the patients (n = 22) decided on ovarian tissue cryopreservation. GnRH protection was performed in 14 patients. In 12 patients an ovarian stimulation protocol was initiated to cryopreserve fertilized or unfertilized oocytes. A combination of different fertility-preserving methods was performed in 12 patients. The preservation of ovarian function and fertility are of great importance to young breast cancer patients. Counselling on fertility-preserving strategies is therefore critical in these patients and should be routinely performed.

  17. Effects of water activity on the performance of potassium sorbate and natamycin as preservatives against cheese spoilage moulds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marín P.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This work investigated the effects of the food preservatives potassium sorbate and natamycin, combined with different levels of ionic (sodium chloride and non-ioinic (glycerol water activity (aw, on growth of fungi involved in cheese spoilage. In general, the combined effect of water stress and presence of preservatives enhanced fungal inhibition. However, some doses of potassium sorbate (0.02% and natamycin (1, 5 and 10 ppm were able to stimulate growth of Aspergillus varians, Mucor racemosus, Penicillium chrysogenum and P. roqueforti at aw values in the range of 0.93–0.97. P. solitum was the only species whose growth was consistently reduced by any doses of preservative. The results also showed that sodium chloride and glycerol differentially affected the efficacy of preservatives. This study indicates that aw of cheese is a critical parameter to be considered in the formulation of preservative coatings used against fungal spoilage.

  18. Electronic Processes at Organic−Organic Interfaces: Insight from Modeling and Implications for Opto-electronic Devices †

    KAUST Repository

    Beljonne, David

    2011-02-08

    We report on the recent progress achieved in modeling the electronic processes that take place at interfaces between π-conjugated materials in organic opto-electronic devices. First, we provide a critical overview of the current computational techniques used to assess the morphology of organic: organic heterojunctions; we highlight the compromises that are necessary to handle large systems and multiple time scales while preserving the atomistic details required for subsequent computations of the electronic and optical properties. We then review some recent theoretical advances in describing the ground-state electronic structure at heterojunctions between donor and acceptor materials and highlight the role played by charge-transfer and long-range polarization effects. Finally, we discuss the modeling of the excited-state electronic structure at organic:organic interfaces, which is a key aspect in the understanding of the dynamics of photoinduced electron-transfer processes. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  19. Mechanisms of self-organized criticality in social processes of knowledge creation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadić, Bosiljka; Dankulov, Marija Mitrović; Melnik, Roderick

    2017-09-01

    In online social dynamics, a robust scale invariance appears as a key feature of collaborative efforts that lead to new social value. The underlying empirical data thus offers a unique opportunity to study the origin of self-organized criticality (SOC) in social systems. In contrast to physical systems in the laboratory, various human attributes of the actors play an essential role in the process along with the contents (cognitive, emotional) of the communicated artifacts. As a prototypical example, we consider the social endeavor of knowledge creation via Questions and Answers (Q&A). Using a large empirical data set from one of such Q&A sites and theoretical modeling, we reveal fundamental characteristics of SOC by investigating the temporal correlations at all scales and the role of cognitive contents to the avalanches of the knowledge-creation process. Our analysis shows that the universal social dynamics with power-law inhomogeneities of the actions and delay times provides the primary mechanism for self-tuning towards the critical state; it leads to the long-range correlations and the event clustering in response to the external driving by the arrival of new users. In addition, the involved cognitive contents (systematically annotated in the data and observed in the model) exert important constraints that identify unique classes of the knowledge-creation avalanches. Specifically, besides determining a fine structure of the developing knowledge networks, they affect the values of scaling exponents and the geometry of large avalanches and shape the multifractal spectrum. Furthermore, we find that the level of the activity of the communities that share the knowledge correlates with the fluctuations of the innovation rate, implying that the increase of innovation may serve as the active principle of self-organization. To identify relevant parameters and unravel the role of the network evolution underlying the process in the social system under consideration, we

  20. Mechanisms of self-organized criticality in social processes of knowledge creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadić, Bosiljka; Dankulov, Marija Mitrović; Melnik, Roderick

    2017-09-01

    In online social dynamics, a robust scale invariance appears as a key feature of collaborative efforts that lead to new social value. The underlying empirical data thus offers a unique opportunity to study the origin of self-organized criticality (SOC) in social systems. In contrast to physical systems in the laboratory, various human attributes of the actors play an essential role in the process along with the contents (cognitive, emotional) of the communicated artifacts. As a prototypical example, we consider the social endeavor of knowledge creation via Questions and Answers (Q&A). Using a large empirical data set from one of such Q&A sites and theoretical modeling, we reveal fundamental characteristics of SOC by investigating the temporal correlations at all scales and the role of cognitive contents to the avalanches of the knowledge-creation process. Our analysis shows that the universal social dynamics with power-law inhomogeneities of the actions and delay times provides the primary mechanism for self-tuning towards the critical state; it leads to the long-range correlations and the event clustering in response to the external driving by the arrival of new users. In addition, the involved cognitive contents (systematically annotated in the data and observed in the model) exert important constraints that identify unique classes of the knowledge-creation avalanches. Specifically, besides determining a fine structure of the developing knowledge networks, they affect the values of scaling exponents and the geometry of large avalanches and shape the multifractal spectrum. Furthermore, we find that the level of the activity of the communities that share the knowledge correlates with the fluctuations of the innovation rate, implying that the increase of innovation may serve as the active principle of self-organization. To identify relevant parameters and unravel the role of the network evolution underlying the process in the social system under consideration, we

  1. High utility-itemset mining and privacy-preserving utility mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry Chun-Wei Lin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, high-utility itemset mining (HUIM has emerging a critical research topic since the quantity and profit factors are both concerned to mine the high-utility itemsets (HUIs. Generally, data mining is commonly used to discover interesting and useful knowledge from massive data. It may, however, lead to privacy threats if private or secure information (e.g., HUIs are published in the public place or misused. In this paper, we focus on the issues of HUIM and privacy-preserving utility mining (PPUM, and present two evolutionary algorithms to respectively mine HUIs and hide the sensitive high-utility itemsets in PPUM. Extensive experiments showed that the two proposed models for the applications of HUIM and PPUM can not only generate the high quality profitable itemsets according to the user-specified minimum utility threshold, but also enable the capability of privacy preserving for private or secure information (e.g., HUIs in real-word applications.

  2. Preparation for Social Service Leadership: Field Work and Virtual Organizations that Promote Critical Thinking in Administration Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Gray, Brenda

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how to prepare professional social workers for real-world nonprofit leadership roles. A pilot course assignment that incorporates a quasi-organization fieldwork simulation developed by the author is described. Development and application of critical thinking skills are reviewed, the course objective is explained, and methods…

  3. The Department of Energy nuclear criticality safety program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felty, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper broadly covers key events and activities from which the Department of Energy Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP) evolved. The NCSP maintains fundamental infrastructure that supports operational criticality safety programs. This infrastructure includes continued development and maintenance of key calculational tools, differential and integral data measurements, benchmark compilation, development of training resources, hands-on training, and web-based systems to enhance information preservation and dissemination. The NCSP was initiated in response to Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 97-2, Criticality Safety, and evolved from a predecessor program, the Nuclear Criticality Predictability Program, that was initiated in response to Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 93-2, The Need for Critical Experiment Capability. This paper also discusses the role Dr. Sol Pearlstein played in helping the Department of Energy lay the foundation for a robust and enduring criticality safety infrastructure.

  4. Preservation of knowledge through networking with retirees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barroso, A.C.O.; Reis-Junior, J.S.B.; Monteiro, C.A.; Seary, A

    2009-01-01

    Loss of emphasis or phasing down of nuclear programs has reduced substantially the hiring of new employees as a result nuclear organizations, in most countries, are experiencing reduction in the workforce and the average age of their technical professionals are around mid fifties. Knowledge management activities with emphasis on knowledge preservation have become a crucial issue for such organizations. This work studied a spontaneous knowledge preservation mechanism at IPEN that could be leveraged and may be replicated in other organizations. Crossing examining publications and human resources data base, with some alias detecting algorithm a large collaboration network involving retirees and current workers of IPEN was unveiled. Using simple indicators and advance techniques of social network analysis the following studies were performed: assessment of the network performance; characterization of its key global properties and detailed structure; characterization and assessment of the role of its key actors; analysis of groups and subgroups patterns; and longitudinal (time evolution) of the network and assessment of its robustness. Rich insights came from this study concerning the value of this mechanism for IPEN and also about the essence of the common interest that constitutes the 'glue' for such mechanism. While more detailed network analysis will still go on for a couple of months, a new phase has already been started with a formulated conceptual model, consisting of four latent variables and thirty six observable ones, to 'explain' at the actor level, in this particular setting what matters when engaging in collaboration. Upon finishing this new phase network data and actors' survey data will be cross correlate to provide a more fully understanding of this amazing mechanism. (author)

  5. Preservation of knowledge through networking with retirees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barroso, A.C.O.; Reis-Junior, J.S.B.; Monteiro, C.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: barroso@ipen.br, e-mail: jose.sergio.junior@googlemail.com, e-mail: monteiro@ipen.br; Seary, A [Simon Fraser University School of Comunication, Burnaby, BC (Canada)], e-mail: seary@sfu.ca

    2009-07-01

    Loss of emphasis or phasing down of nuclear programs has reduced substantially the hiring of new employees as a result nuclear organizations, in most countries, are experiencing reduction in the workforce and the average age of their technical professionals are around mid fifties. Knowledge management activities with emphasis on knowledge preservation have become a crucial issue for such organizations. This work studied a spontaneous knowledge preservation mechanism at IPEN that could be leveraged and may be replicated in other organizations. Crossing examining publications and human resources data base, with some alias detecting algorithm a large collaboration network involving retirees and current workers of IPEN was unveiled. Using simple indicators and advance techniques of social network analysis the following studies were performed: assessment of the network performance; characterization of its key global properties and detailed structure; characterization and assessment of the role of its key actors; analysis of groups and subgroups patterns; and longitudinal (time evolution) of the network and assessment of its robustness. Rich insights came from this study concerning the value of this mechanism for IPEN and also about the essence of the common interest that constitutes the 'glue' for such mechanism. While more detailed network analysis will still go on for a couple of months, a new phase has already been started with a formulated conceptual model, consisting of four latent variables and thirty six observable ones, to 'explain' at the actor level, in this particular setting what matters when engaging in collaboration. Upon finishing this new phase network data and actors' survey data will be cross correlate to provide a more fully understanding of this amazing mechanism. (author)

  6. Summary of the preservation techniques and the evolution of the anammox bacteria characteristics during preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Jin, Ren-Cun

    2017-06-01

    The anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process is a promising wastewater treatment method for biological nitrogen removal. A sufficient amount of active anammox sludge as a seed is crucial to the fast establishment and stability of the anammox process. Anammox bacteria is a kind of microorganism which is sensitive to the environmental conditions, e.g., oxygen, temperature. The optimum temperature and pH for the growth of the anammox bacteria are 30-40 °C and 6.7-8.3. A proper preservation technique allows fast start-up of the anammox process, overcoming the long doubling time of anammox biomass. The preservation of the anammox sludge is influenced by various factors, e.g., preservation techniques, duration, temperature, substrates, and protective agents. During preservation, the characteristics of the anammox biomass, including the bioactivity, heme c content, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and sludge morphology, change with time. The optimum preservation technique is not invariable and it depends on the purpose of preservation (precedence of bioactivity or quantity), the bacterial community, and other parameters. It is important for the preserved anammox biomass to achieve reactivation so that stable anammox reactors can be established as soon as possible. However, because the preservation process is complicated, the knowledge regarding preservation is far from complete, and much future work will be required to increase the understanding of preservation.

  7. Promoting Sustainability through EMS Application: A Survey Examining the Critical Factors about EMAS Registration in Italian Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Merli

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the tools set by the European Community (EC to reduce the environmental impact of firms is EMAS Regulation (Regulation (EC No 1221/2009, setting up an Environmental Management System (EMS, which aims for a continuous improvement of environmental performances. Italy has the highest number of certified organization among all European Member States, accounting for over one thousand registrations. The paper presents the result of a survey conducted through a questionnaire about EMAS implementation and targeted to all Italian registered organizations. Of nearly 1000 organizations, over 500 answers were collected. The main goal is to understand how organizations experience the scheme, focusing on main drivers for its adoption, main difficulties encountered, and perceived benefits. In particular, survey results contribute to define a reflection on the difficulties regarding EMAS diffusion among European companies. Aspects identified as critical can lead to a contraction of registration requests, especially those formulated by SMEs, which constitute the majority of Italian companies. Moreover, perceived difficulties might affect the firms’ willingness to renew EMAS registration. Data provided by the Italian Institute for Environmental Protection and Research (ISPRA recently highlighted the increasing rate of firms who decide to withdraw from registration. This study offers interesting inputs related to main critical issues in EMAS implementation, which can be the baseline for future research on companies that abandon the certification scheme, in order to provide suggestions for the improvement of its effectiveness both for national and communitarian institutions.

  8. MRI for transformation of preserved organs and their pathologies into digital formats for medical education and creation of a virtual pathology museum. A pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatesh, S.K.; Wang, G.; Seet, J.E.; Teo, L.L.S.; Chong, V.F.H.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the feasibility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the transformation of preserved organs and their disease entities into digital formats for medical education and creation of a virtual museum. Materials and methods: MRI of selected 114 pathology specimen jars representing different organs and their diseases was performed using a 3 T MRI machine with two or more MRI sequences including three-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted (T1W), 3D-T2W, 3D-FLAIR (fluid attenuated inversion recovery), fat–water separation (DIXON), and gradient-recalled echo (GRE) sequences. Qualitative assessment of MRI for depiction of disease and internal anatomy was performed. Volume rendering was performed on commercially available workstations. The digital images, 3D models, and photographs of specimens were archived into a workstation serving as a virtual pathology museum. Results: MRI was successfully performed on all specimens. The 3D-T1W and 3D-T2W sequences demonstrated the best contrast between normal and pathological tissues. The digital material is a useful aid for understanding disease by giving insights into internal structural changes not apparent on visual inspection alone. Volume rendering produced vivid 3D models with better contrast between normal tissue and diseased tissue compared to real specimens or their photographs in some cases. The digital library provides good illustration material for radiological–pathological correlation by enhancing pathological anatomy and information on nature and signal characteristics of tissues. In some specimens, the MRI appearance may be different from corresponding organ and disease in vivo due to dead tissue and changes induced by prolonged contact with preservative fluid. Conclusions: MRI of pathology specimens is feasible and provides excellent images for education and creating a virtual pathology museum that can serve as permanent record of digital material for self-directed learning, improving teaching aids, and

  9. Minimally invasive esthetic ridge preservation with growth-factor enhanced bone matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevins, Marc L; Said, Sherif

    2017-12-28

    Extraction socket preservation procedures are critical to successful esthetic implant therapy. Conventional surgical approaches are technique sensitive and often result in alteration of the soft tissue architecture, which then requires additional corrective surgical procedures. This case series report presents the ability of flapless surgical techniques combined with a growth factor-enhanced bone matrix to provide esthetic ridge preservation at the time of extraction for compromised sockets. When considering esthetic dental implant therapy, preservation, or further enhancement of the available tissue support at the time of tooth extraction may provide an improved esthetic outcome with reduced postoperative sequelae and decreased treatment duration. Advances in minimally invasive surgical techniques combined with recombinant growth factor technology offer an alternative for bone reconstruction while maintaining the gingival architecture for enhanced esthetic outcome. The combination of freeze-dried bone allograft (FDBA) and rhPDGF-BB (platelet-derived growth factor-BB) provides a growth-factor enhanced matrix to induce bone and soft tissue healing. The use of a growth-factor enhanced matrix is an option for minimally invasive ridge preservation procedures for sites with advanced bone loss. Further studies including randomized clinical trials are needed to better understand the extent and limits of these procedures. The use of minimally invasive techniques with growth factors for esthetic ridge preservation reduces patient morbidity associated with more invasive approaches and increases the predictability for enhanced patient outcomes. By reducing the need for autogenous bone grafts the use of this technology is favorable for patient acceptance and ease of treatment process for esthetic dental implant therapy. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Low-level efficacy of cosmetic preservatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, M D; Johansen, J D; Zachariae, C

    2011-01-01

    Preservation using combinations of preservatives has several advantages. This study shows that the concentration of some of the most frequently used allergenic preservatives can be markedly lowered when they are combined with phenoxyethanol. The antimicrobial efficacy of cosmetic preservatives...... of the preservatives indicated additive effects against the microorganisms. No combination of preservatives showed any inhibitory action on each other. Challenge tests with different concentrations and combinations were performed in a cosmetic cream. Diazolidinyl urea and MCI/MI alone were ineffective against C....... albicans in a challenge test at concentrations up to 16 times higher than the observed MIC values. When combining phenoxyethanol with either one of the allergenic preservatives diazolidinyl urea, MCI/MI or MI, the cosmetic cream was adequately preserved at concentrations well below the preservatives' MIC values as well...

  11. A study on critical success factors on building IT based flat organization: A case study of Mellat Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Farajollah Rahnavard; Azadeh Asefikia

    2014-01-01

    A flat organization is a firm that has an organizational structure with few or no levels of middle management between employee and executives. The idea is to take advantage of well-trained workers when they are more directly involved in the decision making process, rather than closely supervised by various layers of management. This paper presents an empirical investigation to determine critical success factors on building information technology (IT) based flat organization in a case study of...

  12. Effects of wood preservative leachates from docks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, P.H.; Van Dolah, R.F.; Bobo, M.Y.; Mathews, T.D. [South Carolina Marine Resources Research Inst., Charleston, SC (United States)

    1994-12-31

    Recent evidence indicates that the wood preservative commonly used in dock pilings (chromated copper arsenate or CCA) is highly toxic to several estuarine organisms in laboratory experiments. Increasing demand for residential docks prompted a field study intended to complement these earlier laboratory investigations. Objectives of the study were to: (1) examine concentrations of Cu, Cr, and As in sediments and oysters from intertidal locations in several creeks with and without high densities of docks; (2) examine the bioaccumulation of wood preservative leachates by laboratory-reared oysters transferred to field sites near and distant from newly constructed docks; and (3) investigate the acute toxicity of wood preservative leachates for several species of estuarine fishes and invertebrates exposed to these compounds in the field. Preliminary results indicate that sediment concentrations of all three metals were well below ER-L levels reported by Long and Morgan at all but one dock site. In an ancillary study, 24h LC{sub 50} bioassays were performed using rotifers (Brachionus plicatilis) which were exposed to pore water from sediments in creeks with and without docks. Toxicities of bulk sediments from the same sites were examined using Microtox which measures decreases in bioluminescence of marine bacteria (Photobacterium phosphoreum) as a function of sediment concentration. Neither the rotifer nor the Microtox bioassays showed any significant differences in toxicity between creeks with and without docks.

  13. Using endografts from superelastic titanium-nickelid-based alloy singular tissue plural tissues in organ-preserving surgery of laryngeal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulbakin, D. E., E-mail: kulbakin-d@mail.ru [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, 5 Kooperativny Street, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Mukhamedov, M. R., E-mail: muhamedov@oncology.tomsk.ru [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, 5 Kooperativny Street, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Siberian State Medical University, 2, Moscow Highway, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Choynzonov, E. L., E-mail: choynzonov@gmail.com [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, 5 Kooperativny Street, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Siberian State Medical University, 2, Moscow Highway, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Gynter, V. E., E-mail: tc77@rec.tsu.ru [Tomsk State University, 36, Lenin Avenue, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Research Institute of Medical Materials, 17, 19 Gv. Divizii, Tomsk, 634034 (Russian Federation)

    2015-11-17

    Our study has demonstrated feasibility of performing larynx preservation surgeries in patients with recurrent laryngeal cancer after failure of radiotherapy. The technique of combined laryngeal reconstruction with endografts from superelastic titanium-nickelid-based alloy Singular tissue Plural tissues results in improvement of life quality by preserving laryngeal functions.

  14. Preservation and reactivation of Candidatus Jettenia asiatica and Anammoxoglobus propionicus using different preservative agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viancelli, A; Pra, M C; Scussiato, L A; Cantão, M; Ibelli, A M G; Kunz, A

    2017-11-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria have peculiar characteristics that make them difficult to cultivate. The conservation of these microorganisms in culture collections or laboratories requires successful preservation and reactivation techniques. Furthermore, studies have shown that successful reactivation may be preservative dependent. Considering this, the present study aimed to evaluate the preservation and reactivation of anammox consortia enriched from swine manure treatment lagoons, by using different preservative agents at different temperatures: KNO 3 (at 4 °C), glycerol (-20 °C, -80 °C), and skimmed cow milk (-20 °C, -80 °C, -200 °C). After 4 months, the biomass was thawed (except for KNO 3 ), and the reestablishment of anammox activity was evaluated by stoichiometric coefficients. Microbial community transformation during the reactivation process was also studied by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The results showed that the anammox biomass preserved with glycerol or skimmed cow milk at -80 °C recovered activity, while the biomass preserved with other methodologies did not reestablish activity during the studied time (90 days). The bacterial community from the biomass with anammox activity was characterized and showed the presence of Candidatus Brocadia anammoxidans, Candidatus Jettenia asiatica, and Candidatus Anammoxoglobus propionicus. Preservation with skimmed cow milk at -80 °C favored the selection of Candidatus Anammoxoglobus propionicus, while preservation with glycerol at -80 °C was successful for Candidatus Jettenia asiatica. The present study was effective on anammox sludge preservation and reactivation using low-cost processes for anammox cultures preservation, which is important for biomass transport and deammonification reactor start up. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Antimicrobial activity of a new preservative for multiuse ophthalmic solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghelardi, Emilia; Celandroni, Francesco; Gueye, Sokhna A; Salvetti, Sara; Campa, Mario; Senesi, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the antimicrobial activity and the preservative efficacy of a novel preservative solution containing sodium hydroxymethyl glycinate (SHMG) and edetate disodium (EDTA), which is used for preservation of some commercial ophthalmic formulations. In vitro susceptibility assays were performed against several gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Bacillus cereus) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria representative of the microbial flora of epithelial surfaces or colonizing the conjunctiva, as well as against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Using different concentrations of SHMG alone or in combination with EDTA, the minimal inhibitory and microbicidal concentrations against these organisms were assessed. In addition, 8 brands of multidose eye drops containing 0.002% SHMG and 0.1% EDTA as preservative were tested for antimicrobial activity using the antimicrobial effectiveness test recommended by the international pharmacopoeias. The minimal inhibitory and bactericidal/fungicidal concentration values of SHMG ranged from 0.0025% to 0.0125% for bacteria and from 0.125% to 0.50% for mold and yeast. Susceptibility testing demonstrated that the addition of EDTA substantially increased the SHMG activity against all bacterial and fungal strains. The preservative effectiveness test was applied to commercial eye drops. All the drop solutions met the criteria reported by the U.S. Pharmacopeia for parenteral and ophthalmic preparations. All products also satisfied the major acceptance criteria of the European Pharmacopeia with respect to the antifungal activity. With regard to the antibacterial activity, the less-stringent criteria of the European Pharmacopeia were fulfilled. The present study demonstrates the efficacy of a novel preservative for ophthalmic solutions (SHMG/EDTA) and its activity in protecting selected commercial artificial tears against microbial

  16. Similarities between several major extinctions and preservation of life - biomolecules to geomolecules: an interdisciplinary approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grice, Kliti; Melendez, Ines; Tulipani, Svenja

    2015-04-01

    WA Organic and Isotope Geochemistry Centre, The Institute for Geoscience Research, Department of Chemistry, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987 Perth, WA 6845, Australia Photic zone euxinia in ancient seas has proven signficant for elucidating biogeochemical changes that occurred during three of the five Phanerozoic mass extinctions, viz. the Permian/Triassic [1], Triassic/Jurassic [2] and Late Givetian (Devonian) [3] events, including the conditions associated with exceptional fossil preservation [4,5]. The series of events preceding, during and post the Triassic/Jurassic event, is remarkably similar to that reported for the Permian/Triassic extinction, the largest of the Phanerozoic Era. For the Late Givetian event, the first forests evolved and reef-building communities and associated fauna in tropical, marine settings were largely affected [6]. Sedimentary rocks on the margins of the Devonian reef slope in the Canning Basin, WA, contain novel biomarker, isotopic and palynological evidence for the existence of a persistently stratified water-column (comprising a freshwater lens overlying a more saline hypolimnion), with prevailing anoxia and PZE [7]. Also from the Canning Basin, the exceptional preservation of a suite of biomarkers in a Devonian invertebrate fossil within a carbonate concretion supports rapid encasement of the crustacean (identified by % of C27 steroids) enhanced by sulfate reducing bacteria under PZE conditions. PZE plays a critical role in fossil (including soft tissue) and biomarker preservation. In the same sample, the oldest occurrence of intact sterols shows that they have been preserved for ca. 380 Ma [5]. The exceptional preservation of this biomass is attributed to microbially induced carbonate encapsulation, preventing full decomposition and transformation, thus extending the record of sterol occurrences in the geosphere by 250 Ma. A suite of ca. 50 diagenetic transformation products of sterols is also reported, showing the unique

  17. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction: mechanisms, clinical features, and therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kavita; Kass, David A

    2014-06-20

    The clinical syndrome comprising heart failure (HF) symptoms but with a left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) that is not diminished, eg, HF with preserved EF, is increasingly the predominant form of HF in the developed world, and soon to reach epidemic proportions. It remains among the most challenging of clinical syndromes for the practicing clinician and scientist alike, with a multitude of proposed mechanisms involving the heart and other organs and complex interplay with common comorbidities. Importantly, its morbidity and mortality are on par with HF with reduced EF, and as the list of failed treatments continues to grow, HF with preserved EF clearly represents a major unmet medical need. The field is greatly in need of a more unified approach to its definition and view of the syndrome that engages integrative and reserve pathophysiology beyond that related to the heart alone. We need to reflect on prior treatment failures and the message this is providing, and redirect our approaches likely with a paradigm shift in how the disease is viewed. Success will require interactions between clinicians, translational researchers, and basic physiologists. Here, we review recent translational and clinical research into HF with preserved EF and give perspectives on its evolving demographics and epidemiology, the role of multiorgan deficiencies, potential mechanisms that involve the heart and other organs, clinical trials, and future directions. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Preserving Accuracy in GenBank

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidartondo, M.I.; Bruns, T. D.; Blackwell, M.

    2008-01-01

    GenBank, the public repository for nucleotide and protein sequences, is a critical resource for molecular biology, evolutionary biology, and ecology. While some attention has been drawn to sequence errors (1), common annotation errors also reduce the value of this database. In fact, for organisms...

  19. A Scalable Permutation Approach Reveals Replication and Preservation Patterns of Network Modules in Large Datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Scott C; Watts, Stephen; Fearnley, Liam G; Holt, Kathryn E; Abraham, Gad; Inouye, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Network modules-topologically distinct groups of edges and nodes-that are preserved across datasets can reveal common features of organisms, tissues, cell types, and molecules. Many statistics to identify such modules have been developed, but testing their significance requires heuristics. Here, we demonstrate that current methods for assessing module preservation are systematically biased and produce skewed p values. We introduce NetRep, a rapid and computationally efficient method that uses a permutation approach to score module preservation without assuming data are normally distributed. NetRep produces unbiased p values and can distinguish between true and false positives during multiple hypothesis testing. We use NetRep to quantify preservation of gene coexpression modules across murine brain, liver, adipose, and muscle tissues. Complex patterns of multi-tissue preservation were revealed, including a liver-derived housekeeping module that displayed adipose- and muscle-specific association with body weight. Finally, we demonstrate the broader applicability of NetRep by quantifying preservation of bacterial networks in gut microbiota between men and women. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Selection of irradiator for potato preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinsara, A R; Melaibari, A G; Abulfaraj, W H; Mamoon, A M; Kamal, S E [Nuclear Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, King Abdulaziz University P.O.Box 9027, Jeddah-21413, (Saudi Arabia)

    1997-12-31

    A formal decision methodology is a sound approach for assisting in decision making needed for the selection of irradiators for Potato preservation. A formal analysis is preferred over an informal intuitive analysis which has limitations. This will focus on substantial issues and provide the basis for a compromise between conflicting objectives. All critical issues in selection of irradiators for Potato preservation can be addressed within the decision analysis framework. Of special significance is the treatment of the uncertainly associated with consequences of a decision and the preferences of the experts. A decision theory is employed in providing a strategy for implementation of the irradiator selection for food preservation for Saudi Arabia. To select a suitable decision methodology for the present case, a detailed survey of available decision methods was conducted. These methods have been developed and applied with varying degrees of success to many diverse areas of interest. Based on detailed surveys, the Analytic Hierarchy process (AHP) was selected to evaluate the various irradiators for Potato irradiation. These are electron accelerators, X-ray irradiators, and gamma irradiators. The purpose was to determine the optimal. The set of factors impacting irradiator selection were developed and defined to provide comprehensive and realistic variables that judge the represented irradiator alternatives. The factors developed are economic considerations, technical considerations, safety aspects, and compatibility with local environment. The AHP computer program was developed to computerize the tedious complicated computations towards implementing the AHP systematic procedures to solve the present problem. The program was developed using FOXPRO. Based upon the available data, and employing the APH computer program, the results show superiority of {sup 60} Co gamma-ray irradiator over other irradiators for saudi arabia`s present circumstances. 2 figs.,7 tabs.

  1. Histotopography of the radiopharmaceuticals 75Se-selenomethionine and 75Se-selenite in critical organs of adult and embryonic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khant, S.E.; Norets, T.A.

    1981-01-01

    Adult male and pregnant mice received 75 Se-labelled methionine and selenite, resp. The critical organs and the embryos were examined histoautoradiographically at different time intervals as to the organ distribution of the radiopharmaceuticals. All organs revealed a heterogeneity of the 75 Se distribution with an intensity being unequally organo-specific and depending on the type of the radiopharmaceutical. 75 Se-selenomethionine was deposited mainly in functional areas of kidneys, liver, bone marrow and testes thus causing a long-term retention and an intensive irradiation of these organs. In the embryos 75 Se-seleno-methionine was distributed unequally preferring liver, hematopoietic areas of the bone marrow and the lens

  2. Effects of Vertex Activity and Self-organized Criticality Behavior on a Weighted Evolving Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Guiqing; Yang Qiuying; Chen Tianlun

    2008-01-01

    Effects of vertex activity have been analyzed on a weighted evolving network. The network is characterized by the probability distribution of vertex strength, each edge weight and evolution of the strength of vertices with different vertex activities. The model exhibits self-organized criticality behavior. The probability distribution of avalanche size for different network sizes is also shown. In addition, there is a power law relation between the size and the duration of an avalanche and the average of avalanche size has been studied for different vertex activities

  3. PAVS: A New Privacy-Preserving Data Aggregation Scheme for Vehicle Sensing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chang; Lu, Rongxing; Wang, Huaxiong; Zhu, Liehuang; Huang, Cheng

    2017-03-03

    Air pollution has become one of the most pressing environmental issues in recent years. According to a World Health Organization (WHO) report, air pollution has led to the deaths of millions of people worldwide. Accordingly, expensive and complex air-monitoring instruments have been exploited to measure air pollution. Comparatively, a vehicle sensing system (VSS), as it can be effectively used for many purposes and can bring huge financial benefits in reducing high maintenance and repair costs, has received considerable attention. However, the privacy issues of VSS including vehicles' location privacy have not been well addressed. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a new privacy-preserving data aggregation scheme, called PAVS, for VSS. Specifically, PAVS combines privacy-preserving classification and privacy-preserving statistics on both the mean E(·) and variance Var(·), which makes VSS more promising, as, with minimal privacy leakage, more vehicles are willing to participate in sensing. Detailed analysis shows that the proposed PAVS can achieve the properties of privacy preservation, data accuracy and scalability. In addition, the performance evaluations via extensive simulations also demonstrate its efficiency.

  4. Characteristics of safety critical organizations . work psychological perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oedewald, P.; Reiman, T.

    2006-02-01

    This book deals with organizations that operate in high hazard industries, such as the nuclear power, aviation, oil and chemical industry organisations. The society puts a great strain on these organisations to rigorously manage the risks inherent in the technology they use and the products they produce. In this book, an organisational psychology view is taken to analyse what are the typical challenges of daily work in these environments. The analysis is based on a literature review about human and organisational factors in safety critical industries, and on the interviews of Finnish safety experts and safety managers from four different companies. In addition to this, personnel interviews conducted in the Finnish nuclear power plants are utilised. The authors come up with eight themes that seem to be common organizational challenges cross the industries. These include e.g. how does the personnel understand the risks and what is the right level for rules and procedures to guide the work activities. The primary aim of this book is to contribute to the Finnish nuclear safety research and safety management discussion. However, the book is equally suitable for risk management, organizational development and human resources management specialists in different industries. The purpose is to encourage readers to consider how the human and organizational factors are seen in the field they work in. (orig.)

  5. Repair of the threatened feminine identity: experience of women with cervical cancer undergoing fertility preservation surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komatsu, Hiroko; Yagasaki, Kaori; Shoda, Rie; Chung, Younghui; Iwata, Takashi; Sugiyama, Juri; Fujii, Takuma

    2014-01-01

    Fertility preservation is important for women of reproductive age with cervical cancer. The underlying reasons behind suboptimal reproductive results after successful fertility-preserving surgery have not yet been fully revealed. The objective of this study was to explore the experience of fertility preservation with radical trachelectomy from the perspective of women with cervical cancer. We conducted interviews with women with cervical cancer who underwent radical trachelectomy using a Grounded Theory methodology with a theoretical framework of symbolic interactionism. Our findings articulate a process in which feminine identity is first threatened by a diagnosis of cancer, then repaired by fertility preservation with radical trachelectomy, and finally reconstructed after the surgery, through interactions with self, others, and external events in women with cervical cancer. Feeling incomplete as a woman because of the loss of the uterus was a critical factor in the women's feeling that their feminine identity was threatened. Thus, fertility preservation was significant for these women. The meaning of fertility preservation varied among the women, and their life perspectives were therefore distinct after the surgery. Women with cervical cancer who undergo radical trachelectomy experience an identity transformation process, and child bearing is not the only expected outcome of fertility preservation. Nurses should coordinate care through the cancer trajectory. Understanding the identity transformation process helps nurses to assess patients' needs and provide appropriate individual care.

  6. Extending Critical Performativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spicer, André; Alvesson, Mats; Kärreman, Dan

    2016-01-01

    In this article we extend the debate about critical performativity. We begin by outlining the basic tenets of critical performativity and how this has been applied in the study of management and organization. We then address recent critiques of critical performance. We note these arguments suffer...... of public importance; engaging with non-academic groups using dialectical reasoning; scaling up insights through movement building; and propagating deliberation...

  7. Organ preservation in head and neck cancer: myth or reality? the case for the larynx; La conservation d`organes en cancerologie ORL: mythe ou realite. A propos de la conservation laryngee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eschwege, F.; Bourhis, J.; Luboinski, B. [Institut Gustave Roussy, 94 - Villejuif (France); Lefebvre, J.L. [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Oscar-Lambret, 59 - Lille (France)

    1998-09-01

    The conservation of a functional larynx is an important goal in the various attempts to improve the treatment of locally advanced pharyngo-laryngeal cancers. Several axes have been followed: conservative surgery (subtotal laryngectomy), exclusive irradiation (with conventional or non-conventional fractionation), initial chemotherapy (followed by surgery or irradiation ) or concomitant chemotherapy-radiotherapy. The numerous studies, including some major randomized trials, dealing with the issue of larynx preservation are reviewed in the present article. A critical comparison of their results and its integration in a consistent approach are difficult, especially because the different options are aimed at different patients. Total laryngectomy and its psychological and social consequences can be avoided in a significant number of patients, although the long term functional outcome is poorly known and the choice of the optimal treatment modality is largely dependent on the expertise and experience of the medical team. (author)

  8. Minimally Invasive, Organ-preserving Surgery for Large Submucosal Tumors in the Abdominal Esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanehira, Eiji; Tanida, Takashi; Kamei, Aya; Takahashi, Kodai

    2017-06-01

    Surgical resection of submucosal tumors (SMTs) in the abdominal esophagus is not standardized. Enucleation may be a minimally invasive option, whereas its oncological validity is not very clear. Moreover, how to treat the esophageal wall defect after enucleation and necessity of additional antireflux procedure are also undetermined. In 13 patients with a SMT originating the abdominal esophagus laparoscopic enucleation was performed with preserving the integrity of submucosa. When the muscular layer defect was esophagus was dissected posteriorly or the myotomy was not closed. Tumors were resected en-bloc without rupture in all cases. In 5 patients myotomy was closed, whereas in the remaining 8 it was left open. In 11 patients fundoplication was added (Toupet in 5 and Dor in 6). The patients developed neither regurgitation nor stenosis postoperatively. The histopathologic findings revealed leiomyoma in 9 patients, whereas the other 4 were miscellaneous. The average tumor size was 5.5 cm (range, 2.8 to 8.8). Microscopically surgical margin was negative in all cases. Laparoscopic enucleation of SMTs in the abdominal esophagus seems to be safe, reproducible operation enabling preservation of function of the lower esophagus and esophagogastric junction. Even when the muscular defect is not approximated additional fundoplication can minimize the risk of postoperative reflux disease.

  9. Critical assessment of digital PCR for the detection and quantification of genetically modified organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demeke, Tigst; Dobnik, David

    2018-07-01

    The number of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) on the market is steadily increasing. Because of regulation of cultivation and trade of GMOs in several countries, there is pressure for their accurate detection and quantification. Today, DNA-based approaches are more popular for this purpose than protein-based methods, and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) is still the gold standard in GMO analytics. However, digital PCR (dPCR) offers several advantages over qPCR, making this new technique appealing also for GMO analysis. This critical review focuses on the use of dPCR for the purpose of GMO quantification and addresses parameters which are important for achieving accurate and reliable results, such as the quality and purity of DNA and reaction optimization. Three critical factors are explored and discussed in more depth: correct classification of partitions as positive, correctly determined partition volume, and dilution factor. This review could serve as a guide for all laboratories implementing dPCR. Most of the parameters discussed are applicable to fields other than purely GMO testing. Graphical abstract There are generally three different options for absolute quantification of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) using digital PCR: droplet- or chamber-based and droplets in chambers. All have in common the distribution of reaction mixture into several partitions, which are all subjected to PCR and scored at the end-point as positive or negative. Based on these results GMO content can be calculated.

  10. TO THE TOPIC ON THE CONTRIBUTION OF INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS TO THE PRESERVATION OF THE BIO-RESOURCES STOCKS OF THE CASPIAN SEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. T. Asanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The purpose of the work was to assess the activity of international organizations and determine theirs contribution to the preservation and rational use of water biological resources of the Caspian Sea and their inhabitant in the period after 1991.Results. The work presents a high management level of the state of water-biological resources during the history of the fishery basin. The management level of stocks, carried out by one country, including protection measures and artificial reproduction, allows to quickly respond to the dangers till the end of the XX century. It is shown that the activity of many out-regional and (or non-state international organizations, heightened during the last the last-day period, is limited to piece of information, comprised of data collection about basin and preparing of the base for the adoption of binding decisions in the international legal field , often there is in a negative context for the Russian Federation. It is noted the leading input of specialized state departments, institutes and organizations to the protection, reproduction, researching of water bio-resources and their inhabitant, the results of which were integrated in the frames of work of the Commission on water bio-resources of the Caspian Sea.Main conclusions. The abstract presents suggestions on activity of designated global institution taking into account the beginning of the Agreement on protection and rational use of water biological resources of the Caspian Sea. The article presents proposals for the activity of international organizations at the Caspian basin. 

  11. Globalization and Localization of Heritage Preservation in Taiwan - an Analysis Perspective under the Cultural Heritage Preservation Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.-C.; Fu, C.-C.

    2015-08-01

    The key contribution to the legislation of heritage preservation in Taiwan primarily derived from the historical monument movements in the 1970s. Specific legislation results include the establishment of Council for Cultural Affairs and the implementation of the Cultural Heritage Preservation Act in 1982. Although the Cultural Heritage Preservation Act is the first subjective cultural act, its lack of structure during the initial commencement stages made it un-conducive to heritage preservation and thus unable to meet the people's expectations. Therefore, throughout the 33 years after the implementation of the Cultural Heritage Preservation Act, the Act has been amended 6 times. These amendments reflect the degree of importance that the society has attached to heritage preservation, and the innovative system also showcases the progress in preservation concepts and methods. These innovative orientations, such as emphasizing on the authenticity and integrity of heritage preservation, intangible cultural heritage, and cultural diversity, conform to the international preservation trends. They are also local trends such as encouraging community participation, adaptive-reuse, or enhancing the local governments' powers to implement local cultural governance. This is particularly true for the fifth comprehensive revision in 2005, which has symbolic significance because its contents epitomized the heritage preservation work while moving Taiwan's heritage preservation system towards globalization and localization. Therefore, we analyzed the Cultural Heritage Preservation Act amendment and revision processes over the past 33 years to highlight the innovations in Taiwan's cultural heritage work and illustrate their globalization and localization features. Finally, we proposed recommendations for Taiwan's preservation work in the future as the Cultural Heritage Preservation Act is about to undergo its seventh amendment in 2015.

  12. Economic feasibility study of potato preservation by irradiation in saudi arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinsara, A A; Abulfaraj, W H; Mamoon, A M; Kamal, S E [Nuclear Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    1997-12-31

    Comprehensive studies were carried out to investigate the economic feasibility of the preservation of potato crop by cobalt-60 gamma irradiation sprout inhibition by potato irradiation was approved by international organization and concerned authorities in many countries. The dose level range authorized for potato sprout inhibition extends from about 80-150 Gy depending on potato variety, time of irradiation after harvest, and post irradiation storage temperature. Sprout inhibition is most effective by irradiation after harvest, and after healing of any inflicted injuries, that when the potatoes are dormant. Irradiation at the recommended doses minimizes storage losses of potatoes that are refrigerated or stored on shelves. Despite the limited data available, an attempt was made to quantify the monetary value of preserving potato by irradiation. With economy scale taken in consideration, potato preservation by irradiation is economically feasible since at the local consumption rates there will be lot of potatoes that ned storage for off season use. 5 tabs.

  13. Post-consumer use efficacies of preservatives in personal care and topical drug products: relationship to preservative category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravita, Timothy D; Tanner, Ralph S; Ahearn, Donald G; Arms, Erin L; Crockett, Patrick W

    2009-01-01

    Ninety-six used personal care and topical OTC drug items collected from consumers in the USA were examined for the presence of microbial contaminants. Of the eye and face product type containing global preservative chemistries (i.e., acceptable for use in Japan without major restrictions), 55% yielded numbers of microorganisms in excess of 500 CFU/g (P preservative chemistries, 79% yielded numbers of microorganisms in excess of 500 CFU/g (P preservative chemistries accounted for 88% (n = 14) of the products that had microbial contents above 10(4) CFU/g (P preserved with global preservative chemistries did not maintain as adequate preservation as products with non-global preservatives.

  14. Slip-Size Distribution and Self-Organized Criticality in Block-Spring Models with Quenched Randomness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakaguchi, Hidetsugu; Kadowaki, Shuntaro

    2017-07-01

    We study slowly pulling block-spring models in random media. Second-order phase transitions exist in a model pulled by a constant force in the case of velocity-strengthening friction. If external forces are slowly increased, nearly critical states are self-organized. Slips of various sizes occur, and the probability distributions of slip size roughly obey power laws. The exponent is close to that in the quenched Edwards-Wilkinson model. Furthermore, the slip-size distributions are investigated in cases of Coulomb friction, velocity-weakening friction, and two-dimensional block-spring models.

  15. Elevate and Uterine Preservation: Two-Year Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Edward J; Moore, Robert D; Roovers, Jan-Paul W R; VanDrie, Douglas M; Giudice, Thomas P; Lukban, James C; Bataller, Eduardo; Sutherland, Suzette E

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate efficacy of the Elevate Anterior and Apical (EAA) in the repair of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) when performed after previous hysterectomy and with or without uterine preservation during POP surgery. One hundred forty-two women with anterior vaginal prolapse and/or apical descent ≥ stage II were enrolled. The primary outcome was treatment failure defined as > stage II POP-Q during follow-up using the Last observed Failure Carried Forward method. Three sub-groups were analysed: baseline previous hysterectomy (N = 61); concomitant hysterectomy (N = 29), and preserved uterus/no hysterectomy (N = 51). Demographics, primary and secondary outcomes, and extrusion were compared between the groups. A P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Anatomic success shows significant and durable improvement at 24 months. The success for the apical compartment ranged between 93.8% and 100%. Success was slightly lower for the anterior compartment (70.8-89.1%). No statistically significant difference between the 3 subgroups. Age was the only patient characteristic to be found different between the 3 subgroups. In addition, there was no difference in overall intraoperative complications (P = 0.263). Mesh extrusion was found in all groups: 3 of 61 (4.9%) had previous hysterectomy; 4 of 29 (13.8%) had concomitant hysterectomy; and 1 of 51 (2.0%) had uterus preserved (P = 0.094). There appears to be a trend toward higher extrusion when a hysterectomy was performed with the EAA. Anatomic success and complications for the EAA do not appear to be significantly impacted when the uterus is removed before or during surgery or preserved. There may be a trend toward increased mesh extrusion when a hysterectomy is performed. However, larger cohort studies are needed to determine if concomitant hysterectomy impact extrusion.

  16. Working Group Proposed to Preserve Archival Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    The AAS and AIP co-hosted a Workshop in April 2012 with NSF support (AST-1110231) that recommends establishing a Working Group on Time Domain Astronomy (WGTDA) to encourage and advise on preserving historical observations in a form meaningful for future scientific analysis. Participants specifically considered archival observations that could describe how astronomical objects change over time. Modern techniques and increased storage capacity enable extracting additional information from older media. Despite the photographic plate focus, other formats also concerned participants. To prioritize preservation efforts, participants recommended considering the information density, the amount of previously published data, their format and associated materials, their current condition, and their expected deterioration rate. Because the best digitization still produces an observation of an observation, the originals should be retained. For accessibility, participants recommended that observations and their metadata be available digitally and on-line. Standardized systems for classifying, organizing, and listing holdings should enable discovery of historical observations through the Virtual Astronomical Observatory. Participants recommended pilot projects that produce scientific results, demonstrate the dependence of some advances on heritage data, and open new avenues of exploration. Surveying a broad region of the sky with a long time-base and high cadence should reveal new phenomena and improve statistics for rare events. Adequate financial support is essential. While their capacity to produce new science is the primary motivation for preserving astronomical records, their potential for historical research and citizen science allows targeting cultural institutions and other private sources. A committee was elected to prepare the WGTDA proposal. The WGTDA executive committee should be composed of ~10 members representing modern surveys, heritage materials, data management

  17. Improved HVAC operation to preserve a church organ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schijndel, van A.W.M.; Schellen, H.L.; Wit, de M.H.

    2009-01-01

    The common operation of heating systems installed in churches in the Netherlands has led to typical building physics problems directly related with heating. One of the main problems is the drying related shrinkage and damage to (monumental) wooden organs under cold winter conditions. The paper

  18. Inducing self-organized criticality in a network toy model by neighborhood assortativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen-Perkins, Alfonso; Galeano, Javier; Pastor, Juan Manuel

    2016-11-01

    Complex networks are a recent type of framework used to study complex systems with many interacting elements, such as self-organized criticality (SOC). The network nodes' tendency to link to other nodes of similar type is characterized by assortative mixing. Real networks exhibit assortative mixing by vertex degree, however, typical random network models, such as the Erdős-Rényi or the Barabási-Albert model, show no assortative arrangements. In this paper we introduce the notion of neighborhood assortativity as the tendency of a node to belong to a community (its neighborhood) showing an average property similar to its own. Imposing neighborhood assortative mixing by degree in a network toy model, SOC dynamics can be found. These dynamics are driven only by the network topology. The long-range correlations resulting from criticality have been characterized by means of fluctuation analysis and show an anticorrelation in the node's activity. The model contains only one parameter and its statistics plots for different values of the parameter can be collapsed into a single curve. The simplicity of the model allows us to perform numerical simulations and also to study analytically the statistics for a specific value of the parameter, making use of the Markov chains.

  19. Dietary Capsaicin Protects Cardiometabolic Organs from Dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Sun

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Chili peppers have a long history of use for flavoring, coloring, and preserving food, as well as for medical purposes. The increased use of chili peppers in food is very popular worldwide. Capsaicin is the major pungent bioactivator in chili peppers. The beneficial effects of capsaicin on cardiovascular function and metabolic regulation have been validated in experimental and population studies. The receptor for capsaicin is called the transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1. TRPV1 is ubiquitously distributed in the brain, sensory nerves, dorsal root ganglia, bladder, gut, and blood vessels. Activation of TRPV1 leads to increased intracellular calcium signaling and, subsequently, various physiological effects. TRPV1 is well known for its prominent roles in inflammation, oxidation stress, and pain sensation. Recently, TRPV1 was found to play critical roles in cardiovascular function and metabolic homeostasis. Experimental studies demonstrated that activation of TRPV1 by capsaicin could ameliorate obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. Additionally, TRPV1 activation preserved the function of cardiometabolic organs. Furthermore, population studies also confirmed the beneficial effects of capsaicin on human health. The habitual consumption of spicy foods was inversely associated with both total and certain causes of specific mortality after adjustment for other known or potential risk factors. The enjoyment of spicy flavors in food was associated with a lower prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. These results suggest that capsaicin and TRPV1 may be potential targets for the management of cardiometabolic vascular diseases and their related target organs dysfunction.

  20. Fast Reactor Knowledge Preservation Efforts. An Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grandy, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    • ARC-AFR Program is involved in a number of knowledge preservation activities; • Recovery of Information from EBR-II, FFTF, and TREAT is very important; • Recovery of Information from Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and conversion to electronic format; • Organizing some data into electronic databases – EBR-II Plant Testing Data, FFTF Plant Testing Data, TREAT Test Data, SFR Fuels and Materials Irradiation Data, etc.; • Information is being used to support existing U.S. SFR programs along with international programs such as the IAEA CRP EBR-II Safety Benchmark

  1. A Holistic Approach to Bit Preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld Maj-Britt Olmütz

    2011-01-01

    This thesis presents three main results for a holistic approach to bit preservation, where the ultimate goal is to find the optimal bit preservation strategy for specific digital material that must be digitally preserved. Digital material consists of sequences of bits, where a bit is a binary digit...... which can have the value 0 or 1. Bit preservation must ensure that the bits remain intact and readable in the future, but bit preservation is not concerned with how bits can be interpreted as e.g. an image. A holistic approach to bit preservation includes aspects that influence the final choice of a bit...... a holistic approach and include aspects of digital representation, confidentiality, availability, bit safety and costs when defining requirements for the bit preservation. Analysis of such requirements and choice of the final bit preservation solution can be supported by the three main results presented...

  2. Local quantum channels preserving classical correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Zhihua; Cao Huaixin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss local quantum channels that preserve classical correlations. First, we give two equivalent characterizations of classical correlated states. Then we obtain the relationships among classical correlation-preserving local quantum channels, commutativity-preserving local quantum channels and commutativity-preserving quantum channels on each subsystem. Furthermore, for a two-qubit system, we show the general form of classical correlation-preserving local quantum channels. (paper)

  3. Self-organized critical neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bornholdt, Stefan; Roehl, Torsten

    2003-01-01

    A mechanism for self-organization of the degree of connectivity in model neural networks is studied. Network connectivity is regulated locally on the basis of an order parameter of the global dynamics, which is estimated from an observable at the single synapse level. This principle is studied in a two-dimensional neural network with randomly wired asymmetric weights. In this class of networks, network connectivity is closely related to a phase transition between ordered and disordered dynamics. A slow topology change is imposed on the network through a local rewiring rule motivated by activity-dependent synaptic development: Neighbor neurons whose activity is correlated, on average develop a new connection while uncorrelated neighbors tend to disconnect. As a result, robust self-organization of the network towards the order disorder transition occurs. Convergence is independent of initial conditions, robust against thermal noise, and does not require fine tuning of parameters

  4. Preservation of rodent bones from El Harhoura 2 cave (Morocco, Neolithic - Middle Palaeolithic): Microstructure, mineralogy, crystallinity and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farre, Bastien; Massard, Pierre; Nouet, Julius; Dauphin, Yannicke

    2014-04-01

    Thin sections, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), diffraction X (DRX) and infrared spectrometry (FTIR) have been used to study the structure, mineralogy, crystallinity and bulk composition of fossil rodent long bones extracted from a succession of sedimentary layers in a cave from Morocco (Neolithic - Middle Palaeolithic, El Harhoura 2). The microstructure of fossil bones is well-preserved at this scale of observation, and encrusted deposits are rare. All bones are preserved in apatite, but the crystallinity is modified, as well as the crystallite shape, the organic content and the organic-mineral ratio. No fluor enrichment has been observed. Alone or together, the studied parameters do not show a regular trend from the upper to the lower layers of the cave. The preservation of the fossil bones does not confirm the sequence of arid and humid periods inferred from taphonomic analyses.

  5. Training for Preservation Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam M. Foot

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available In August 1997 the first of a series of summer schools in Preservation Management was held at the Archivschule in Marburg (Germany. The school was organised by the ECPA, the LIBER Division on Preservation, ICA and the Archivschule itself and was aimed at archivists and librarians in management positions from European institutions. It dealt with managerial, organisational and financial aspects of preservation and required active participation by those attending. Apart from introductory sessions by the teaching staff at the Archivschule, a large part of the course took the form of working groups, discussions, assignments and role play, to which participants were expected to take their own experience and problems. The school was conducted in German. Topics, spread over five days, ranged from preservation in the context of the core activities of libraries and archives; planning of preservation projects; general management issues, such as resource management, budgeting, priority setting, communication and effecting change; to more detailed considerations of day-to-day issues, such as storage, disaster control, microfilming and digitising, mass conservation processes, and moulds and fungi.

  6. 36 CFR 910.32 - Historic preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Historic preservation. 910.32... DEVELOPMENT AREA Standards Uniformly Applicable to the Development Area § 910.32 Historic preservation... Preservation Plan of the Corporation, are specified for preservation, shall be acomplished (a) in accordance...

  7. Emittance preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kain, V; Arduini, G; Goddard, B; Holzer, B J; Jowett, J M; Meddahi, M; Mertens, T; Roncarolo, F; Schaumann, M; Versteegen, R; Wenninger, J [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    Emittance measurements during the LHC proton run 2011 indicated a blow-up of 20 % to 30 % from LHC injection to collisions. This presentation will show the emittance preservation throughout the different parts of the LHC cycle and discuss the current limitations on emittance determination. An overview of emittance preservation through the injector complex as function of bunch intensity will also be given. Possible sources for the observed blow-up and required tests in 2012 will be presented. Possible improvements of emittance diagnostics and analysis tools for 2012 will be shown.

  8. Effectiveness of ophthalmic solution preservatives: a comparison of latanoprost with 0.02% benzalkonium chloride and travoprost with the sofZia preservative system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovelace Cherie

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although in vitro and in vivo laboratory studies have suggested that benzalkonium chloride (BAK in topical ophthalmic solutions may be detrimental to corneal epithelial cells, multiple short- and long-term clinical studies have provided evidence supporting the safety of BAK. Despite the conflicting evidence, BAK is the most commonly used preservative in ophthalmic products largely due to its proven antimicrobial efficacy. This study was designed to characterize the antimicrobial performance of two commonly used topical ocular hypotensive agents that employ different preservative systems: latanoprost 0.005% with 0.02% BAK and travoprost 0.004% with sofZia, a proprietary ionic buffer system. Methods Each product was tested for antimicrobial effectiveness by European Pharmacopoeia A (EP-A standards, the most stringent standards of the three major compendia, which specify two early sampling time points (6 and 24 hours not required by the United States Pharmacopeia or Japanese Pharmacopoeia. Aliquots were inoculated with between 105 and 106 colony-forming units of the test organisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Aspergillus brasiliensis. Sampling and enumeration were conducted at protocol-defined time points through 28 days. Results BAK-containing latanoprost met EP-A criteria by immediately reducing all bacterial challenge organisms to the test sensitivity and fungal challenges within the first six hours while the preservative activity of travoprost with sofZia did not. Complete bacterial reduction by travoprost with sofZia was not shown until seven days into the test, and fungal reduction never exceeded the requisite 2 logs during the 28-day test. Travoprost with sofZia also did not meet EP-B criteria due to its limited effectiveness against Staphylococcus aureus. Both products satisfied United States and Japanese pharmacopoeial criteria. Conclusions Latanoprost with 0

  9. Effectiveness of ophthalmic solution preservatives: a comparison of latanoprost with 0.02% benzalkonium chloride and travoprost with the sofZia preservative system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Gerard; Fain, Joel M; Lovelace, Cherie; Gelotte, Karl M

    2011-04-21

    Although in vitro and in vivo laboratory studies have suggested that benzalkonium chloride (BAK) in topical ophthalmic solutions may be detrimental to corneal epithelial cells, multiple short- and long-term clinical studies have provided evidence supporting the safety of BAK. Despite the conflicting evidence, BAK is the most commonly used preservative in ophthalmic products largely due to its proven antimicrobial efficacy. This study was designed to characterize the antimicrobial performance of two commonly used topical ocular hypotensive agents that employ different preservative systems: latanoprost 0.005% with 0.02% BAK and travoprost 0.004% with sofZia, a proprietary ionic buffer system. Each product was tested for antimicrobial effectiveness by European Pharmacopoeia A (EP-A) standards, the most stringent standards of the three major compendia, which specify two early sampling time points (6 and 24 hours) not required by the United States Pharmacopeia or Japanese Pharmacopoeia. Aliquots were inoculated with between 10(5) and 10(6) colony-forming units of the test organisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Aspergillus brasiliensis. Sampling and enumeration were conducted at protocol-defined time points through 28 days. BAK-containing latanoprost met EP-A criteria by immediately reducing all bacterial challenge organisms to the test sensitivity and fungal challenges within the first six hours while the preservative activity of travoprost with sofZia did not. Complete bacterial reduction by travoprost with sofZia was not shown until seven days into the test, and fungal reduction never exceeded the requisite 2 logs during the 28-day test. Travoprost with sofZia also did not meet EP-B criteria due to its limited effectiveness against Staphylococcus aureus. Both products satisfied United States and Japanese pharmacopoeial criteria. Latanoprost with 0.02% BAK exhibited more effective microbial protection than

  10. [Analysis of anatomical pieces preservation with polyester resin for human anatomy study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Ítalo Martins; Mindêllo, Marcela Maria Aguiar; Martins, Yasmin de Oliveira; da Silva Filho, Antônio Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the use of polyester resin in preserving anatomical specimens for the study of human anatomy. We used 150 anatomical specimens, comprised of unfixed (fresh), fixed in 10% formalin and vascular casts of organs injected with vinyl acetate and polyester resin. The solution used consisted of polyester resin with the diluent styrene monomer and catalyst (peroxol). After embedding in this solution, models in transparent resin were obtained, allowing full observation of structures and conservation of the specimens used. upon evaluation of the specimens, we observed a high degree of transparency, which promoted a complete visualization of structures with perfect preservation of the anatomy. The average time for the completion of the embedding was 48 hours. Only 14 specimens (9.3%) were lost during the preparation. Polyester resin can be used for preserving anatomical specimens for teaching human anatomy in a practical, aesthetic and durable way.

  11. Are the evidences of forensic entomology preserved in ethanol suitable for SEM studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Esclapez, Raquel; García, María-Dolores; Arnaldos, María-Isabel; Presa, Juan José; Ubero-Pascal, Nicolás

    2014-07-01

    In forensic practice, the use of arthropod evidences to estimate the postmortem interval is a very good approach when the elapsed time from death is long, but it requires the correct identification of the specimens. This is a crucial step, not always easy to achieve, in particular when dealing with immature specimens. In this case, scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) can be useful, but the techniques used to preserve specimens in forensic practice are usually different from those used to prepare specimens for SEM studies. To determine whether forensic evidences preserving techniques are also compatible with SEM analysis, we have compared specimens of all the immature stages of Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (Diptera, Calliphoridae) preserved in 70% ethanol, with others prepared with aldehydic fixative techniques that are more appropriate for SEM studies. At the same time, two drying techniques have also been compared with both fixative techniques, the critical point drying and air-drying following with hexamethyldisilizane treatment (HMDS). Our results indicate that there are not basis against recommending the use of ethanol to preserve forensic entomological evidences and that both drying methods appear to offer good results for second and third instar larvae, although HMDS behaves better with eggs and pupae. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The critical oxide thickness for Pb-free reflow soldering on Cu substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, C. Key [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan (China); Assembly Test Global Materials, Intel Microelectronics Asia Ltd, B1, No. 205, Tun-Hwa North Road, 10595 Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Y.J.; Li, C.C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan (China); Kao, C.R., E-mail: crkao@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road, Taipei, 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2012-06-01

    Oxidation is an undesirable effect of reflow soldering. Non-wetting occurs when the oxide layer grows above the critical thickness. Characterizing the critical oxide thickness for soldering is challenging due to oxide's nano-scale thickness and irregular topographic surface. In this paper, the critical copper oxide thickness was characterized by Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy-Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Transmission Electron Microscopy. Copper substrates were coated with an Organic-Solderable-Preservative (OSP) layer and baked at 150 Degree-Sign C and 85% Relative Humidity for different amounts of time. The onset of the non-wetting phenomenon occurred when the oxide thickness reached 18 {+-} 5 nm. As the oxide grew beyond this critical thickness, the percentage of non-wetting solder joint increased exponentially. The growth of the oxide thickness followed a parabolic rate law. The rate constant of oxidation was 0.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -15} cm{sup 2} min{sup -1}. Oxidation resulted from interdiffusion of copper and oxygen atoms through the OSP and oxide layers. The oxidation mechanism will be presented and discussed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Critical oxide thickness for Pb free solder on Cu substrate is 18 {+-} 5 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Above the critical oxide, non-wet solder joint increases exponentially. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A maximum 13-nm oxide thickness is suggested for good solder joint. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Initial growth of oxide thickness is logarithmic and then parabolic after 12 nm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thick oxide (360-560 nm) is formed as pores shorten the oxidation path.

  13. Recent advances in the preservation of food by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vas, K.

    1976-01-01

    There are two ways in which the world food problem can be attacked: (1) by increasing food production, that is, growing more food by utilizing agricultural knowledge and material input, and (2) by preserving more of the food that is already being produced by utilizing food science and technology. While both lines of action should be followed, it is logical that preservation should play a key role not only because it would reduce wastage of existing food that is desperately needed by millions of people, but also prevent the wastage of the energy invested in growing food. The preservation of food is, therefore, a vital technology, and studies of both traditional food preservation methods and new techniques should be actively pursued. The irradiation of food, usually by gamma rays from a cobalt-60 source, offers advantages over traditional methods, irradiation not only can delay the processes that lead to the onset of undesirable physiological changes (sprouting, over-ripening), microbial spoilage (rot, mould formation) and damage caused by insects, but also can kill disease-causing organisms that will infect the food if it is left untreated. It is rather surprising to find that after 25 years of extensive studies, practical introduction of food preservation by irradiation has only recently been started in one Member State of the IAEA. The main obstacles are of a psychological nature, but a number of other problems also remains to be solved. Nevertheless, it is clear that many questions have already been settled and significant progress has been made. Some of these developments will be briefly enumerated below. However, it should be noted right at the onset that, like the conventional methods, irradiation also has its limitations and cannot be considered a cure-all for all food problems under all conditions

  14. Dopamine improves hypothermic machine preservation of the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Thomas; Lüer, Bastian; Efferz, Patrik

    2011-10-01

    Hypothermic machine preservation (HMP) is currently reconsidered as alternative to standard cold storage of organs from non-heart-beating donors. The present study was aimed at investigating the possible synergistic effect of HMP and the addition of dopamine to the circulating perfusate during preservation. Cardiac arrest was induced in male Wistar rats (250-300 g) by phrenotomy. Thirty minutes later livers were flushed via the portal vein and subjected to 20 h of HMP at 5ml/min at 4°C. During HMP the preservation solution was equilibrated with 100% oxygen and dopamine was added at 0, 10, 50 or 100 μM (D0, D10, D50, D100; n=6 resp.). Graft viability was assessed thereafter upon warm reperfusion in vitro for 2h. During HMP, D50 and D100 significantly reduced hepatic release of ALT to about 50%. No influence of dopamine was found on vascular resistance, oxygen uptake or lactate production at any concentration. D50 significantly reduced enzyme release during reperfusion (∼50%), enhanced bile flow and oxygen consumption. D10 was less effective while D100 even rose enzyme release compared with D0. Enhanced oxygen free radical mediated lipid peroxidation (LPO), found in the tissue of D0 livers was significantly reduced by D50; D50 significantly abrogated molecular upregulation of vWillebrand factor upon reperfusion suggesting vascular protection of the endothelial cell. Efficiency of HMP might be increased by stimulating livers with dopamine during ex vivo preservation, limiting vascular side effects and improving functional recovery upon early reperfusion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The critical success factor approach to strategic alignment: seeking a trail from a health organization's goals to its management information infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, J K

    1999-11-01

    The critical success factor (CSF) approach is a technique that will aid health administrators, planners and managers to identify, specify and sort among the most relevant and critical factors determining an organization's survival and success. Following a top-down management perspective, this paper discusses the CSF methodology as a strategic information management process comprising several important phases: (i) understanding the external factors such as the organization's industry, market and environment; (ii) achieving strong support and championship from top management; (iii) encouraging the proactive involvement of management and staff in generic CSF identification; (iv) educating and directing the participation of staff members in CSF verification and further refinement of generic CSFs into specific CSFs; and (v) aggregating, prioritizing and translating activity-related CSFs into organizational information requirements for the design of the organization's management information infrastructure. The implementation of this CSF approach is illustrated in the context of a British Columbia community hospital, with insights provided into key issues for future health researchers and practitioners.

  16. Preservative treatments for building components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan Lebow

    2007-01-01

    The wood species most commonly used in construction have little natural durability Thus, they are treated with preservatives when used in conditions that favor biodeterioration. The type of preservative used varies with the type of wood product, exposure condition, and specific agent of deterioration. This paper discusses the characteristics of several preservative...

  17. High Endothelial Venules and Other Blood Vessels: Critical Regulators of Lymphoid Organ Development and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, Ann

    2017-01-01

    The blood vasculature regulates both the development and function of secondary lymphoid organs by providing a portal for entry of hemopoietic cells. During the development of lymphoid organs in the embryo, blood vessels deliver lymphoid tissue inducer cells that initiate and sustain the development of lymphoid tissues. In adults, the blood vessels are structurally distinct from those in other organs due to the requirement for high levels of lymphocyte recruitment under non-inflammatory conditions. In lymph nodes (LNs) and Peyer’s patches, high endothelial venules (HEVs) especially adapted for lymphocyte trafficking form a spatially organized network of blood vessels, which controls both the type of lymphocyte and the site of entry into lymphoid tissues. Uniquely, HEVs express vascular addressins that regulate lymphocyte entry into lymphoid organs and are, therefore, critical to the function of lymphoid organs. Recent studies have demonstrated important roles for CD11c+ dendritic cells in the induction, as well as the maintenance, of vascular addressin expression and, therefore, the function of HEVs. Tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) are HEV containing LN-like structures that develop inside organized tissues undergoing chronic immune-mediated inflammation. In autoimmune lesions, the development of TLOs is thought to exacerbate disease. In cancerous tissues, the development of HEVs and TLOs is associated with improved patient outcomes in several cancers. Therefore, it is important to understand what drives the development of HEVs and TLOs and how these structures contribute to pathology. In several human diseases and experimental animal models of chronic inflammation, there are some similarities between the development and function of HEVs within LN and TLOs. This review will summarize current knowledge of how hemopoietic cells with lymphoid tissue-inducing, HEV-inducing, and HEV-maintaining properties are recruited from the bloodstream to induce the development and

  18. Preservation of hydrogen absorbing alloy for alkaline storage battery; Arukari chikudenchiyo suiso kyuzo gokin no hozon hoho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizutaki, F.

    1996-04-16

    A method of dipping preservation in organic solvent has been practiced conventionally for storing hydrogen absorbing alloy powder. This method is simple and useful in that alloy powder can be isolated simply from the outside environment. Organic solvent, however, generally involves danger of ignition and explosion and is liable to injure the health of workers, and has problems in the handling and workability. This invention relates to preserving hydrogen absorbing alloy by dipping in aqueous solution added with surfactant. The addition of surfactant to alloy preserving aqueous solution is desirable to be from 1 to 10{sup 4}ppm against the total weight of hydrogen absorbing alloy to be dipped. Any type of the anion system, cation system, non-ionic system, and amphoteric system can be used as the surfactant, but anion system surfactant is desirable because it has excellent surface active effect and can form favorable barriers. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  19. OSS4EVA: Using Open-Source Tools to Fulfill Digital Preservation Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Dowding

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper builds on the findings of a workshop held at the 2015 International Conference on Digital Preservation (iPRES, entitled, “Using Open-Source Tools to Fulfill Digital Preservation Requirements” (OSS4PRES hereafter. This day-long workshop brought together participants from across the library and archives community, including practitioners, proprietary vendors, and representatives from open-source projects. The resulting conversations were surprisingly revealing: while OSS’ significance within the preservation landscape was made clear, participants noted that there are a number of roadblocks that discourage or altogether prevent its use in many organizations. Overcoming these challenges will be necessary to further widespread, sustainable OSS adoption within the digital preservation community. This article will mine the rich discussions that took place at OSS4PRES to (1 summarize the workshop’s key themes and major points of debate, (2 provide a comprehensive analysis of the opportunities, gaps, and challenges that using OSS entails at a philosophical, institutional, and individual level, and (3 offer a tangible set of recommendations for future work designed to broaden community engagement and enhance the sustainability of open source initiatives, drawing on both participants’ experience as well as additional research.

  20. MYTH AND REALITY:ORGANIC VS NON-ORGANIC

    OpenAIRE

    Azeez, Ms G

    2001-01-01

    This report examines some of the key issues around organic food and its production. It takes up the challenge of answering the critics - critics who range from companies defending agri-business, through to the heads of national food authorities and some academics. It exposes the misleading and erroneous statements made against organic food, and provides the facts that proves them wrong.

  1. Paramagnetic limiting of the upper critical field of the layered organic superconductor κ-(BEDT-TTF)2Cu(SCN)2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo, F.; Brooks, J.S.; McKenzie, R.H.; Schlueter, J.A.; Williams, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    We report detailed measurements of the interlayer magnetoresistance of the layered organic superconductor κ-(BEDT-TTF) 2 Cu(SCN) 2 for temperatures down to 0.5 K and fields up to 30 T. The upper critical field is determined from the resistive transition for a wide range of temperatures and field directions. For magnetic fields parallel to the layers, the upper critical field increases approximately linearly with decreasing temperature. The upper critical field at low temperatures is compared to the Pauli paramagnetic limit, at which singlet superconductivity should be destroyed by the Zeeman splitting of the electron spins. The measured value is comparable to a value for the paramagnetic limit calculated from thermodynamic quantities but exceeds the limit calculated from BCS theory. The angular dependence of the upper critical field shows a cusplike feature for fields close to the layers, consistent with decoupled layers.

  2. Ventilator-associated pneumonia in critically ill African patients on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Stress ulcer prophylaxis is an integral part of the care of the critically ill. Agents that alter gastric pH may predispose these patients to gastric colonisation, with subsequent pneumonia and/or sepsis. Cytoprotective agents such as sucralfate preserve gastric acidity and may be protective. Objective: To determine ...

  3. PRIVACY PRESERVING DATA MINING USING MULTIPLE OBJECTIVE OPTIMIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Shyamala Susan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Privacy preservation is that the most targeted issue in information publication, because the sensitive data shouldn't be leaked. For this sake, several privacy preservation data mining algorithms are proposed. In this work, feature selection using evolutionary algorithm and data masking coupled with slicing is treated as a multiple objective optimisation to preserve privacy. To start with, Genetic Algorithm (GA is carried out over the datasets to perceive the sensitive attributes and prioritise the attributes for treatment as per their determined sensitive level. In the next phase, to distort the data, noise is added to the higher level sensitive value using Hybrid Data Transformation (HDT method. In the following phase slicing algorithm groups the correlated attributes organized and by this means reduces the dimensionality by retaining the Advanced Clustering Algorithm (ACA. With the aim of getting the optimal dimensions of buckets, tuple segregating is accomplished by Metaheuristic Firefly Algorithm (MFA. The investigational consequences imply that the anticipated technique can reserve confidentiality and therefore the information utility is additionally high. Slicing algorithm allows the protection of association and usefulness in which effects in decreasing the information dimensionality and information loss. Performance analysis is created over OCC 7 and OCC 15 and our optimization method proves its effectiveness over two totally different datasets by showing 92.98% and 96.92% respectively.

  4. A continuum self organized critically model of turbulent heat transport in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tangri, V; Das, A; Kaw, P; Singh, R [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar (India)

    2003-09-01

    Based on the now well known and experimentally observed critical gradient length (R/L{sub Te} = RT/{nabla}T) in tokamaks, we present a continuum one dimensional model for explaining self organized heat transport in tokamaks. Key parameters of this model include a novel hysteresis parameter which ensures that the switch of heat transport coefficient {chi} upwards and downwards takes place at two different values of R/L{sub Te}. Extensive numerical simulations of this model reproduce many features of present day tokamaks such as submarginal temperature profiles, intermittent transport events, 1/f scaling of the frequency spectra, propagating fronts, etc. This model utilises a minimal set of phenomenological parameters, which may be determined from experiments and/or simulations. Analytical and physical understanding of the observed features has also been attempted. (author)

  5. Knowledge Management (KM) Risk Assessment of Critical Knowledge Loss in an Organization with Expanding Nuclear Power Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohsin, M.

    2014-01-01

    Risk and KM risk assessment of critical knowledge loss: • Risk is defined in the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK,2004) as an event or unclear situation that will influence the timing, cost and quality of a project. • This study considers attrition due to retirements of its workforce -- A risk for the organization as it has implications of loss of knowledge for the organization and thereby on its quality and output. • This study assesses the magnitude of the anticipated Risk of Knowledge Loss in three Operational NPPs namely CNPGS (C-1 and C-2) and K-1 based on the factor of Time until Retirement

  6. Preservative-free versus preserved latanoprost eye drops in patients with open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aptel, Florent; Choudhry, Reena; Stalmans, Ingeborg

    2016-08-01

    This study compared the efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetics of a preservative-free latanoprost formulation to an established, benzalkonium chloride (BAK) containing formulation for the treatment of open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension. This was a phase II, randomized, cross-over, investigator-masked, multi-center, pilot study (NCT01494753). A total of 30 untreated adult patients (aged ≥18 years) with primary open angle glaucoma, pseudo-exfoliative glaucoma, pigmentary glaucoma, or ocular hypertension received either preservative-free or preserved latanoprost once daily in both eyes for 6 weeks, before crossing over to receive the other treatment. Efficacy (intraocular pressure [IOP] at 8 am, midday, 4 pm and 8 pm, and global efficacy assessment by investigator), safety (adverse events, ocular symptoms and global tolerance, slit lamp examination, funduscopy, visual field examination, visual acuity, and heart rate), and pharmacokinetics were assessed at Days 0, 42, and 84. Both treatments resulted in a reduction in IOP that was similar for the preservative-free and the preserved formulation at all time points. Similarly, the overall diurnal reduction was similar in both groups (6.3 mmHg [27.9% reduction] and 6.4 mmHg [28.1% reduction] for preserved and preservative-free latanoprost, respectively). There were no differences in global efficacy assessment or in the safety and tolerance of each treatment. Systemic concentrations of latanoprost were very low; AUC0-30 and Cmax were lower and tmax was longer for preservative-free latanoprost. Preservative-free latanoprost showed similar efficacy at all time points compared to BAK preservative containing formulation, with no difference in tolerance, allowing progression to phase III clinical development.

  7. MRI for transformation of preserved organs and their pathologies into digital formats for medical education and creation of a virtual pathology museum. A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, S K; Wang, G; Seet, J E; Teo, L L S; Chong, V F H

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the transformation of preserved organs and their disease entities into digital formats for medical education and creation of a virtual museum. MRI of selected 114 pathology specimen jars representing different organs and their diseases was performed using a 3 T MRI machine with two or more MRI sequences including three-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted (T1W), 3D-T2W, 3D-FLAIR (fluid attenuated inversion recovery), fat-water separation (DIXON), and gradient-recalled echo (GRE) sequences. Qualitative assessment of MRI for depiction of disease and internal anatomy was performed. Volume rendering was performed on commercially available workstations. The digital images, 3D models, and photographs of specimens were archived into a workstation serving as a virtual pathology museum. MRI was successfully performed on all specimens. The 3D-T1W and 3D-T2W sequences demonstrated the best contrast between normal and pathological tissues. The digital material is a useful aid for understanding disease by giving insights into internal structural changes not apparent on visual inspection alone. Volume rendering produced vivid 3D models with better contrast between normal tissue and diseased tissue compared to real specimens or their photographs in some cases. The digital library provides good illustration material for radiological-pathological correlation by enhancing pathological anatomy and information on nature and signal characteristics of tissues. In some specimens, the MRI appearance may be different from corresponding organ and disease in vivo due to dead tissue and changes induced by prolonged contact with preservative fluid. MRI of pathology specimens is feasible and provides excellent images for education and creating a virtual pathology museum that can serve as permanent record of digital material for self-directed learning, improving teaching aids, and radiological-pathological correlation. Copyright © 2012

  8. Comparative in vitro toxicology study of travoprost polyquad-preserved, travoprost BAK-preserved, and latanoprost BAK-preserved ophthalmic solutions on human conjunctival epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignole-Baudouin, Françoise; Riancho, Luisa; Liang, Hong; Baudouin, Christophe

    2011-11-01

    To compare the toxicological profile of a new formulation of travoprost 0.004% ophthalmic solution (travoprost PQ), containing the preservative polyquaternium-1(PQ, polyquad), with the commercially available formulation of benzalkonium chloride (BAK)-preserved travoprost 0.004% ophthalmic solution (travoprost BAK) and BAK-preserved latanoprost 0.005% ophthalmic solution (latanoprost BAK). Human conjunctival epithelial cells were incubated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), BAK 0.015%, BAK 0.020%, PQ 0.001%, travoprost PQ preserved with PQ 0.001%, travoprost preserved with BAK 0.015%, or latanoprost preserved with BAK 0.020%. Six toxicological assays were used to assess: cell viability (neutral red, Alamar blue), apoptosis (YO-PRO-1, Hoechst 33342), and oxidative stress (H(2)DCF-DA, hydroethidine). Apoptosis and oxidative stress were each reported according to cell viability as observed with neutral red and Alamar blue for a total of 10 analyses per treatment depending on the cell viability test used to interpret apoptosis and oxidative stress responses. There were no significant differences in toxicity between cells exposed to PBS and cells exposed to travoprost PQ (10/10 analyses) or PQ 0.001% (9/10 analyses). Ten out of 10 analyses revealed that travoprost PQ produced significantly less cytotoxicity than latanoprost BAK (p solution in 9 of 10 analyses (p < 0.0001). A panel of in vitro toxicity analyses supports the safety of travoprost PQ. Travoprost PQ may be better for ocular surface health than BAK-preserved formulations of latanoprost or travoprost but clinical studies are required to validate these comparisons.

  9. Melatonin Secretion Pattern in Critically Ill Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyko, Yuliya; Holst, René; Jennum, Poul

    2017-01-01

    effect of remifentanil on melatonin secretion. We found that the risk of atypical sleep compared to normal sleep was significantly lower (p REM) sleep was only observed during the nonsedation period. We found preserved diurnal pattern of melatonin...... secretion in these patients. Remifentanil did not affect melatonin secretion but was associated with lower risk of atypical sleep pattern. REM sleep was only registered during the period of nonsedation.......Critically ill patients have abnormal circadian and sleep homeostasis. This may be associated with higher morbidity and mortality. The aims of this pilot study were (1) to describe melatonin secretion in conscious critically ill mechanically ventilated patients and (2) to describe whether melatonin...

  10. Microbial control and food Preservation: Theory and practice:Principles of food preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food preservation is an action or method used to maintain foods at certain desirable properties or quality to obtain maximum benefit. A good method of food preservation is one that slows down or prevents altogether the action of the agents of spoilage without damaging the food. To achieve this, cert...

  11. Structure, Organization, and Delivery of Critical Care in Asian ICUs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabi, Yaseen M; Phua, Jason; Koh, Younsuck; Du, Bin; Faruq, Mohammad Omar; Nishimura, Masaji; Fang, Wen-Feng; Gomersall, Charles; Al Rahma, Hussain N; Tamim, Hani; Al-Dorzi, Hasan M; Al-Hameed, Fahad M; Adhikari, Neill K J; Sadat, Musharaf

    2016-10-01

    Despite being the epicenter of recent pandemics, little is known about critical care in Asia. Our objective was to describe the structure, organization, and delivery in Asian ICUs. A web-based survey with the following domains: hospital organizational characteristics, ICU organizational characteristics, staffing, procedures and therapies available in the ICU and written protocols and policies. ICUs from 20 Asian countries from April 2013 to January 2014. Countries were divided into low-, middle-, and high-income based on the 2011 World Bank Classification. ICU directors or representatives. Of 672 representatives, 335 (50%) responded. The average number of hospital beds was 973 (SE of the mean [SEM], 271) with 9% (SEM, 3%) being ICU beds. In the index ICUs, the average number of beds was 21 (SEM, 3), of single rooms 8 (SEM, 2), of negative-pressure rooms 3 (SEM, 1), and of board-certified intensivists 7 (SEM, 3). Most ICUs (65%) functioned as closed units. The nurse-to-patient ratio was 1:1 or 1:2 in most ICUs (84%). On multivariable analysis, single rooms were less likely in low-income countries (p = 0.01) and nonreferral hospitals (p = 0.01); negative-pressure rooms were less likely in private hospitals (p = 0.03) and low-income countries (p = 0.005); 1:1 nurse-to-patient ratio was lower in private hospitals (p = 0.005); board-certified intensivists were less common in low-income countries (p structure, organization, and delivery in Asia, which was related to hospital funding source and size, and country income. The lack of single and negative-pressure rooms in many Asian ICUs should be addressed before any future pandemic of severe respiratory illness.

  12. Conceptual Paper: Digital Preservation Strategies in Archival Institution

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail Adila; Bullah Affandy Habee

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the overall overview of concept of preservation regardless if it is preservation of physical records/archives or digital records/archives is discussed. The concept of the preservation discussed includes preventive preservation, restorative preservation, and content preservation. Then the concept of digital preservation. Furthermore, this paper highlighted the strategies and methods used in implementing the preservation of digital records/archives. The issues those are involved ...

  13. Mass preserving image registration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Sporring, Jon; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents results the mass preserving image registration method in the Evaluation of Methods for Pulmonary Image Registration 2010 (EMPIRE10) Challenge. The mass preserving image registration algorithm was applied to the 20 image pairs. Registration was evaluated using four different...

  14. Scaling laws and indications of self-organized criticality in urban systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yanguang; Zhou Yixing

    2008-01-01

    Evolution of urban systems has been considered to exhibit some form of self-organized criticality (SOC) in the literature. This paper provides further mathematical foundations and empirical evidences to support the supposition. The hierarchical structure of systems of cities can be formulated as three exponential functions: the number law, the population size law, and the area law. These laws are identical in form to the Horton-Strahler laws of rivers and Gutenberg-Richter laws of earthquakes. From the exponential functions, three indications of SOC are also derived: the frequency-spectrum relation indicting the 1/f noise, the power laws indicating the fractal structure, and the Zipf's law indicating the rank-size distribution. These mathematical models form a set of scaling laws for urban systems, as demonstrated in the empirical study of the system of cities in China. The fact that the scaling laws of urban systems bear an analogy to those on rivers and earthquakes lends further support to the notion of possible SOC in urban systems

  15. Attitudes to brain death and organ procurement among university students and critical care physicians in poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubler, A; Lipinska-Gediga, M; Kedziora, J; Kubler, M

    2009-06-01

    The practice of retrieving vital organs from brain-dead heart-beating donors is legally and medically accepted in Poland, but public beliefs and opinions regarding these matters have not been sufficiently explored. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the attitude of university students to the concepts of brain death and organ retrieval, compared with the attitude of critical care physicians. The cohorts of 989 students and 139 physicians completed a questionnaire based on a survey instrument developed in an earlier reported study on Ohio residents. Participants assessed 3 scenarios: (1) brain death, (2) coma, and (3) vegetative state. More than 48% of students classified the patient from the brain death scenario as alive, and 51% of them were willing to donate organs of this patient. Ninety percent of students classified the patients in coma and in a vegetative state as alive, but still 34% of them would donate organs of those patients. The group of physicians properly determined the patients' diagnoses, but 10% of them accepted organ procurement from patients in coma and in a vegetative state. Our results supported the earlier observations of low public knowledge and inadequate understanding of brain death criteria and organ procurement processes. The majority of students were willing to accept organ procurement from severely ill but alive patients, in contrast with physicians. A considerable increase in public educational activity in this field is urgently recommended.

  16. Hereditary History Preserving Bisimilarity Is Undecidable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurdzinski, Marcin; Nielsen, Mogens

    2000-01-01

    History preserving bisimilarity (hp-bisimilarity) and hereditary history preserving bisimilarity (hhp-bisimilarity) are behavioural equivalences taking into account causal relationships between events of concurrent systems. Their prominent feature is being preserved under action refinement...

  17. Preservation of microbial communities enriched on lignocellulose under thermophilic and high-solid conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chaowei; Reddy, Amitha P; Simmons, Christopher W; Simmons, Blake A; Singer, Steven W; VanderGheynst, Jean S

    2015-01-01

    Microbial communities enriched from diverse environments have shown considerable promise for the targeted discovery of microorganisms and enzymes for bioconversion of lignocellulose to liquid fuels. While preservation of microbial communities is important for commercialization and research, few studies have examined storage conditions ideal for preservation. The goal of this study was to evaluate the impact of preservation method on composition of microbial communities enriched on switchgrass before and after storage. The enrichments were completed in a high-solid and aerobic environment at 55 °C. Community composition was examined for each enrichment to determine when a stable community was achieved. Preservation methods included cryopreservation with the cryoprotective agents DMSO and glycerol, and cryopreservation without cryoprotective agents. Revived communities were examined for their ability to decompose switchgrass under high-solid and thermophilic conditions. High-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing of DNA extracted from enrichment samples showed that the majority of the shift in composition of the switchgrass-degrading community occurred during the initial three 2-week enrichments. Shifts in community structure upon storage occurred in all cryopreserved samples. Storage in liquid nitrogen in the absence of cryoprotectant resulted in variable preservation of dominant microorganisms in enriched samples. Cryopreservation with either DMSO or glycerol provided consistent and equivalent preservation of dominant organisms. A stable switchgrass-degrading microbial community was achieved after three 2-week enrichments. Dominant microorganisms were preserved equally well with DMSO and glycerol. DMSO-preserved communities required more incubation time upon revival to achieve pre-storage activity levels during high-solid thermophilic cultivation on switchgrass. Despite shifts in the community with storage, the samples were active upon revival under thermophilic and

  18. Preservation Copying Endangered Historic Negative Collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses preservation copying of unstable B&W nitrate and acetate still photographic negatives. It focuses on evaluating two different strategies for preserving the copies from a point of view of quality and cost-effectiveness. The evaluated strategies are preservation of the master...... by describing essential characteristics of negatives, which must be passed on to the copies, and the required metadata and technical imaging specifications. Next the paper discusses strategies for preservation and makes an analysis with the LIFE2 Costing Model. The paper concludes that the most beneficial...... and cost-effective preservation solution for large format negatives is to keep the preservation copies as digital files. However, it also acknowledges that it is important to revisit such strategies regularly to monitor changes in user expectations, technologies and costs....

  19. X-ray photoelectron emission spectromicroscopic analysis of arborescent lycopsid cell wall composition and Carboniferous coal ball preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyce, C. Kevin [Department of the Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Abrecht, Mike; Zhou, Dong; Gilbert, P.U.P.A. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Two alternative processes complicate understanding of the biochemical origins and geochemical alteration of organic matter over geologic time: selective preservation of original biopolymers and in situ generation of new geopolymers. One of the best constrained potential sources of bio- and geochemical information about extinct fossil plants is frequently overlooked. Permineralized anatomically preserved plant fossils allow analysis of individual cell and tissue types that have an original biochemical composition already known from living plants. The original composition of more enigmatic fossils can be constrained by geochemical comparisons to tissues of better understood fossils from the same locality. This strategy is possible using synchrotron-based techniques for submicron-scale imaging with X-rays over a range of frequencies in order to provide information concerning the relative abundance of different organic bonds with X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy. In this study, X-ray PhotoElectron Emission spectroMicroscopy (X-PEEM) was used to analyze the tissues of Lepidodendron, one of the lycopsid trees that were canopy dominants of many Pennsylvanian coal swamp forests. Its periderm or bark - the single greatest biomass contributor to many Late Paleozoic coals - is found to have a greater aliphatic content and an overall greater density of organic matter than lignified wood. Because X-PEEM allows simultaneous analysis of organic matter and matrix calcite in fully mineralized fossils, this technique also has great potential for analysis of fossil preservation, including documentation of significant traces of organic matter entrained in the calcite crystal fabric that fills the cell lumens. (author)

  20. Food preservation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labots, H.; Huis in 't Veld, G.J.P.; Verrips, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    After a review of several methods for the preservation of food and the routes of food infections, the following chapters are devoted to the preservation by irradiation. Applications and legal aspects of food irradiation are described. Special reference is made to the international situation. (Auth.)

  1. Implementing an innovated preservation technology: The American Society of Transplant Surgeons' (ASTS) Standards Committee White Paper on Ex Situ Liver Machine Perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintini, Cristiano; Martins, Paulo N; Shah, Shimul; Killackey, Mary; Reed, Alan; Guarrera, James; Axelrod, David A

    2018-05-23

    The pervasive shortage of deceased donor liver allografts contributes to significant waitlist mortality despite efforts to increase organ donation. Ex vivo liver perfusion appears to enhance preservation of donor organs, extending viability and potentially evaluating function in organs previously considered too high risk for transplant. These devices pose novel challenges for organ allocation, safety, training, and finances. This white paper describes the American Society of Transplant Surgeons' belief that organ preservation technology is a vital advance, but its use should not change fundamental aspects of organ allocation. Additional data elements need to be collected, made available for organ assessment by transplant professionals to allow determination of organ suitability in the case of reallocation and incorporated into risk adjustment methodology. Finally, further work is needed to determine the optimal strategy for management and oversight of perfused organs prior to transplantation. © 2018 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  2. Spleen and splenic vessel preserving distal pancreatectomy for bifocal PNET in a young patient with MEN1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Claudius; Schwarz, Lilian; Perrier, Nancy; Fleming, Jason B; Katz, Matthew H G; Aloia, Thomas A; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas; Lee, Jeffrey E

    2016-10-01

    MEN1 patients requiring resection of neuroendocrine tumors (pNET) are frequently young, active patients in whom a minimal access approach minimizes perioperative morbidity and splenic preservation decreases the risk of post-splenectomy sepsis. Laparoscopic spleen preserving distal pancreatectomy can be performed with removal (Warshaw's technique) or preservation of the splenic vessels, the later having a higher rate of successful splenic preservation. This is an active, 16-year-old Jehovah's Witness with trifocal nonfunctioning neuroendocrine tumor in the proximal body and tail of the pancreas as part of MEN1 syndrome. A spleen preserving distal pancreatectomy was performed with the final pathology showing three pNET with low mitotic count and three lymph nodes free of cancer (final stage pT2pN0). This video demonstrates patient and trocar positioning as well as operative tactics for a laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy with preservation of splenic vessels. Intraoperative ultrasound is crucial in assessing pNETs' relation to critical vessels, pancreatic duct, and to exclude synchronous lesions. The video focuses on safe laparoscopic creation of the retropancreatic tunnel and dissecting the pancreas off the splenic vessels using novel energy devises to control direct splenic venous branches into the pancreas. Improvements in laparoscopic techniques and technology have enabled surgeons to preserve the major splenic vessels to avoid splenic infarcts, abscesses and re-operations, and minimize the risk of left-sided portal hypertension. Splenic preservation is particularly important in young MEN1 patients undergoing laparoscopic pancreatectomy for pNET due to the increased risk of overwhelming post-splenectomy sepsis.

  3. Preserving Employee Privacy in Wellness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Paul E

    2017-07-01

    The proposed "Preserving Employee Wellness Programs Act" states that the collection of information about the manifested disease or disorder of a family member shall not be considered an unlawful acquisition of genetic information. The bill recognizes employee privacy protections that are already in place and includes specific language relating to nondiscrimination based on illness. Why did legislation expressly intending to "preserve wellness programs" generate such antipathy about wellness among journalists? This article argues that those who are committed to preserving employee wellness must be equally committed to preserving employee privacy. Related to this, we should better parse between discussions and rules about commonplace health screenings versus much less common genetic testing.

  4. Polypropylene mesh as an alternative option for uterine preservation in pelvic reconstruction in patients with uterine prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kuan-Hui; Chuang, Fei-Chi; Fu, Hung-Chun; Kung, Fu-Tsai

    2012-01-01

      The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of polypropylene mesh for uterine preservation during pelvic reconstruction in patients with severe uterine prolapse. The study included 67 women with severe uterine prolapse (pelvic organ prolapse quantification stage III/IV) who received transvaginal mesh reconstruction with uterine preservation. Surgery combined with a transobturator membrane sling procedure (tension-free vaginal tape-transobturator route) was performed in 54 patients. Among them, 18 had urodynamic stress incontinence, 30 had occult stress urinary incontinence, and six had mixed urinary incontinence. Objective assessments were carried out with the pelvic organ prolapse quantification staging system, urodynamic examination, and 1-h pad test. Evaluation of urinary and prolapse symptoms comprised the subjective assessment. The mean follow-up interval was 19.6 months (12-40 months). The objective cure rate for the treatment of uterine prolapse was 89.5%, and the objective cure rate for the treatment of urinary incontinence was more than 90%. Uterine preservation in pelvic reconstruction is technically feasible and the subjective and objective assessments imply that uterine preservation in pelvic reconstruction is an alternative option for indicated patients. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2011 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  5. Preservation of information about the repository for spent nuclear fuels - proposal for action plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen-Schrire, Monica; Eckerhall, Daniel; Jander, Hans; Waniewska, Katarina

    2008-10-01

    This report is a proposal for an action plan with the ultimate aim of ensuring that information about the repository for spent nuclear fuel can be preserved and transferred for future generations. The purpose of the proposal for an action plan is to present ideas on tangible measures and guidelines for information preservation and transfer, in the short and long term. The report deals with a number of aspects relating to information preservation as well as risks that can lead to the loss of important information. The proposal for an action plan is based on reasoning about these subjects. The main emphasis is on measures that need to be implemented in the near future to ensure that successive and direct information transfer is handled in a suitable manner. It is suggested that the following measures should be implemented within a five-year period: - Designate a person responsible for information preservation. - Work out guidelines for information preservation and transfer. - Form a network with other organizations in Sweden. - Initiate a dialogue with other countries, especially USA and France. - Participate in seminars, conferences and workgroups on an international level within the IAEA and NEA. In a longer time perspective the following measures should also be implemented: - Implement guidelines for information preservation and transfer. - Document the archiving system. - Establish a communication plan. - Archive information about the repository. - Keep the action plan up to date

  6. Preservative-free tafluprost/timolol fixed combination: a new opportunity in the treatment of glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstas, Anastasios G P; Holló, Gabor

    2016-06-01

    Medical therapy of glaucoma aims to maintain the patient's visual function and quality of life. This generally commences with monotherapy, but it is often difficult to reach the predetermined target pressure with this approach. Fixed combinations (FCs) are therefore selected as the next step of the medical therapy algorithm. By employing a prostaglandin/timolol fixed combination (PTFC) the desired target 24-hour intraocular pressure can be reached in many glaucoma patients with the convenience of once-a-day administration and the associated high rate of adherence. The current role and value of FCs in the medical therapy of glaucoma is critically appraised. Special attention is paid to the PTFCs and the emerging role of preservative-free PTFCs. This review summarizes existing information on the efficacy and tolerability of the new preservative-free tafluprost/timolol FC (Taptiqom®). The preservative-free tafluprost/timolol FC represents a promising stepwise treatment option for those patients whose intraocular pressure is insufficiently controlled with available monotherapy options. This novel FC has the potential to substantially improve glaucoma management and through evolution of the current glaucoma treatment paradigm, to become a core therapeutic option in the future. Nonetheless, future research is needed to better delineate the therapeutic role of current and future preservative-free FCs in glaucoma therapy.

  7. Limits of the Learning Organization: A Critical Look.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, Tara J.

    The development of the "learning organization" may be traced to three converging trends: the tradition of organizational development; economic shifts to globalization, deregulation, and information-based industry; and total quality management. Learning organizations are generally characterized as follows: organizations that create…

  8. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Provider Pocket Guides Provider Guides Fertility Preservation for Women Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Men Diagnosed ... Patient Pocket Guides Patient Guides Fertility Preservation for Women Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Men Diagnosed ...

  9. Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed with Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Women Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Men Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed ... for Women Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Men Diagnosed with Cancer Fertility Preservation for Children Diagnosed ...

  10. Radiation in response to food preservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharti, Navaldey; Ram, R.B.; Gautam, Shreesh Kumar; Kumar, Vikas; Singh, Abhishek

    2012-01-01

    Preservation of food items is a pre-requisite for food security. The seasonal nature of production, perishable nature of food materials (fruits, vegetables and other value added products) and the rising gap between demand and supply have posed great challenges to conventional techniques of food preservation and thereby to food security. Food irradiation, one of the beneficial applications of atomic energy, is an important innovation in food preservation, since the development of canning in the 19th century. It provides an effective alternative to fumigants, which are being phased out owing to their adverse effects on the environment and human health. Moreover, exposure of food material to radiation has strong advantages over conventional methods of preservation such as cold storage, fumigation, salting and drying because it does not lead to loss of taste, texture, flavour, odour etc. or overall quality attributes. Generally, two types of radiations are used i.e., ionizing and non-ionizing. Since radiation does not generate heat, it is termed 'cold sterilization'. Gamma rays, E-beam and X-rays are used for irradiation. Irradiation under approved conditions has been demonstrated to have no dangerous effects on food, either chemical or microbial in nature and does not cause any significant loss of macronutrients. Proteins, fats and carbohydrates undergo little change in nutritional value during irradiation even with doses over 10 kGy, though there may be sensory changes. Similarly, the essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, minerals and trace elements are also unaffected. There can be a decrease in certain vitamins (particularly thiamin) but these are of the same order of magnitude as occurs in other manufacturing processes such as drying/dehydration or canning (thermal sterilization). So, there is urgent need to exploit the benefits of irradiation involve standardization, communication and education. The potential benefits of irradiation technology have been

  11. Preservation of amorphous ultrafine material: A proposed proxy for slip during recent earthquakes on active faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirono, Tetsuro; Asayama, Satoru; Kaneki, Shunya; Ito, Akihiro

    2016-11-09

    The criteria for designating an "Active Fault" not only are important for understanding regional tectonics, but also are a paramount issue for assessing the earthquake risk of faults that are near important structures such as nuclear power plants. Here we propose a proxy, based on the preservation of amorphous ultrafine particles, to assess fault activity within the last millennium. X-ray diffraction data and electron microscope observations of samples from an active fault demonstrated the preservation of large amounts of amorphous ultrafine particles in two slip zones that last ruptured in 1596 and 1999, respectively. A chemical kinetic evaluation of the dissolution process indicated that such particles could survive for centuries, which is consistent with the observations. Thus, preservation of amorphous ultrafine particles in a fault may be valuable for assessing the fault's latest activity, aiding efforts to evaluate faults that may damage critical facilities in tectonically active zones.

  12. Is my network module preserved and reproducible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Langfelder

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In many applications, one is interested in determining which of the properties of a network module change across conditions. For example, to validate the existence of a module, it is desirable to show that it is reproducible (or preserved in an independent test network. Here we study several types of network preservation statistics that do not require a module assignment in the test network. We distinguish network preservation statistics by the type of the underlying network. Some preservation statistics are defined for a general network (defined by an adjacency matrix while others are only defined for a correlation network (constructed on the basis of pairwise correlations between numeric variables. Our applications show that the correlation structure facilitates the definition of particularly powerful module preservation statistics. We illustrate that evaluating module preservation is in general different from evaluating cluster preservation. We find that it is advantageous to aggregate multiple preservation statistics into summary preservation statistics. We illustrate the use of these methods in six gene co-expression network applications including 1 preservation of cholesterol biosynthesis pathway in mouse tissues, 2 comparison of human and chimpanzee brain networks, 3 preservation of selected KEGG pathways between human and chimpanzee brain networks, 4 sex differences in human cortical networks, 5 sex differences in mouse liver networks. While we find no evidence for sex specific modules in human cortical networks, we find that several human cortical modules are less preserved in chimpanzees. In particular, apoptosis genes are differentially co-expressed between humans and chimpanzees. Our simulation studies and applications show that module preservation statistics are useful for studying differences between the modular structure of networks. Data, R software and accompanying tutorials can be downloaded from the following webpage: http://www.genetics.ucla.edu/labs/horvath/CoexpressionNetwork/ModulePreservation.

  13. Remarkable preservation of terpenoids and record of volatile signalling in plant-animal interactions from Miocene amber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Suryendu; Mehrotra, Rakesh C; Paul, Swagata; Tiwari, R P; Bhattacharya, Sharmila; Srivastava, Gaurav; Ralte, V Z; Zoramthara, C

    2017-09-08

    Plants produce and release a large array of volatile organic compounds that play many ecological functions. These volatile plant metabolites serve as pollinator attractants, herbivore and pathogen repellents and protect plants from abiotic stresses. To date, the geological evolution of these organic compounds remains unknown. The preservation potential of these metabolites in the fossil record is very poor due to their low boiling points. Here we report a series of volatile sesquiterpenoids, including δ-elemene, α-copaene, β-elemene, β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, germacrene D, δ-cadiene and spathunenol, from early Miocene (~17 million year) amber from eastern India. The survival of these unaltered bioterpenoids can be attributed to the existence of extraordinary taphonomic conditions conducive to the preservation of volatile biomolecules through deep time. Furthermore, the occurrence of these volatiles in the early Miocene amber suggests that the plants from this period had evolved metabolic pathways to synthesize these organic molecules to play an active role in forest ecology, especially in plant-animal interactions.

  14. Contact dermatitis caused by preservatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Elizabeth; Baquerizo Nole, Katherine L; Tosti, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Preservatives are biocidal chemicals added to food, cosmetics, and industrial products to prevent the growth of microorganisms. They are usually nontoxic and inexpensive and have a long shelf life. Unfortunately, they commonly cause contact dermatitis. This article reviews the most important classes of preservatives physicians are most likely to encounter in their daily practice, specifically isothiazolinones, formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, methyldibromoglutaronitrile, and parabens. For each preservative mentioned, the prevalence of sensitization, clinical presentation of contact dermatitis, patch testing concentrations, cross reactions, and related legislation will be discussed. Mandatory labeling of preservatives is required in some countries, but not required in others. Until policies are made, physicians and patients must be proactive in identifying potential sensitizers and removing their use. We hope that this article will serve as a guide for policy makers in creating legislation and future regulations on the use and concentration of certain preservatives in cosmetics and industrial products.

  15. Stochastic Oscillation in Self-Organized Critical States of Small Systems: Sensitive Resting State in Neural Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Jun; Ouyang, Guang; Guang, Jing; Zhang, Mingsha; Wong, K Y Michael; Zhou, Changsong

    2016-01-08

    Self-organized critical states (SOCs) and stochastic oscillations (SOs) are simultaneously observed in neural systems, which appears to be theoretically contradictory since SOCs are characterized by scale-free avalanche sizes but oscillations indicate typical scales. Here, we show that SOs can emerge in SOCs of small size systems due to temporal correlation between large avalanches at the finite-size cutoff, resulting from the accumulation-release process in SOCs. In contrast, the critical branching process without accumulation-release dynamics cannot exhibit oscillations. The reconciliation of SOCs and SOs is demonstrated both in the sandpile model and robustly in biologically plausible neuronal networks. The oscillations can be suppressed if external inputs eliminate the prominent slow accumulation process, providing a potential explanation of the widely studied Berger effect or event-related desynchronization in neural response. The features of neural oscillations and suppression are confirmed during task processing in monkey eye-movement experiments. Our results suggest that finite-size, columnar neural circuits may play an important role in generating neural oscillations around the critical states, potentially enabling functional advantages of both SOCs and oscillations for sensitive response to transient stimuli.

  16. Summary of major radiation fractionation and chemotherapy trials for organ preservation therapy in locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, James T; Greene, Bruce D

    2015-01-01

    To review radiation fractionation and chemotherapy trials for patients undergoing organ preservation therapy for locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Radiation therapy fractionation and chemotherapy trial results as well as historical evidence are systematically reviewed. Trial results, which involve nearly 30,000 patients, have been interpreted, compared, and presented in a structured manner to demonstrate the changing approaches in treatment over the years from the 1960s to the present. The review includes data from the split-course radiation therapy era, meta-analyses of chemotherapy and radiation therapy fractionation trials, cetuximab trials, "triple-drug trials," and modern trials of induction chemotherapy followed by concomitant chemotherapy and radiation therapy. This summary will be useful to clinicians making treatment decisions today and to investigators designing trials in the future. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Radiation Oncology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. PROBLEMS OF FORMING FUTURE PRIMARY SCHOOL TEACHERS’ HEALTH-PRESERVING TECHNOLOGIES AND IMPLEMENTING THEM INTO THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liudmyla Horobets

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The issues of forming future primary school teachers’ health-preserving technologies and implementing them into the educational process are discussed in the article. Motivational, information and knowledgeable, and operational and instrumental components are singled out as main ones in teachers’ training. Filling the components takes place during the theoretical training while teaching natural, psychological, pedagogical and methodological disciplines, as well as during practical pedagogical training. One of the main tasks of practical pedagogical training is students’ independent work in school hygiene. Methodological recommendations to the independent work are made by the authors; the list of tasks is given. Doing tasks in school hygiene, students assess hygienic conditions for pupils’ work: determine the air-thermal regime, lighting, room equipment, analyze the working mode of a school and a timetable. Unfavorable social and economic problems in contemporary Ukraine, the difficult ecological situation, overloads of information and intensification of educational process cause the tendencies to schoolchildren’s health impairment. Primary school teacher plays an especially important part in organization of preserving and strengthening children’s health that is caused by young learners’ age peculiarities. Primary school teacher, as a main organizer of the educational process, should systematically and effectively influence his/her pupils’ healthy development. Nowadays the problem of preserving pupils’ health is studied by R. Aizman, H. Zaitsev, V. Kabanov, O. Yazlovetska; the ways of preserving and strengthening pupils’ health through implementing health-preserving technologies are disclosed by A. Akhutina, V. Kovalko, V.Lozynskyi, M. Smirnov; the approaches to organizing the holistic educational process as the basis of forming, preserving and incipiency of pupils’ health are developed by M. Bezrukikh, P. Bohdan, V

  18. Organ donation in adults: a critical care perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citerio, Giuseppe; Cypel, Marcelo; Dobb, Geoff J; Dominguez-Gil, Beatriz; Frontera, Jennifer A; Greer, David M; Manara, Alex R; Shemie, Sam D; Smith, Martin; Valenza, Franco; Wijdicks, Eelco F M

    2016-03-01

    The shortage of organs for transplantation is an important medical and societal problem because transplantation is often the best therapeutic option for end-stage organ failure. We review the potential deceased organ donation pathways in adult ICU practice, i.e. donation after brain death (DBD) and controlled donation after circulatory death (cDCD), which follows the planned withdrawal of life-sustaining treatments (WLST) and subsequent confirmation of death using cardiorespiratory criteria. Strategies in the ICU to increase the number of organs available for transplantation are discussed. These include timely identification of the potential organ donor, optimization of the brain-dead donor by aggressive management of the physiological consequence of brain death, implementation of cDCD protocols, and the potential for ex vivo perfusion techniques. Organ donation should be offered as a routine component of the end-of-life care plan of every patient dying in the ICU where appropriate, and intensivists are the key professional in this process.

  19. Radiations to preserve world heritage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurel, T.

    2017-01-01

    This article details the use of radiation to preserve the archaeological and artistic heritage. Gamma radiations are used to kill living organisms (insects, fungi and moulds) and to solidify styren-polyester resins that may be injected in wood items to reinforce them. Neutron irradiations are used to reveal the structure of an item and to get information on the materials the item is made of. Both irradiations are non-destructive. Carbon 14 dating is efficient to age items but beyond 50.000 years the method becomes ineffective and other methods like thermoluminescence take over. For instance it is the thermoluminescence method applied on flints found on the Jebel Irhoud site (Morocco) that has allowed to push back the age of the first Homo Sapiens by 100.000 years to reach 300.000 years. (A.C.)

  20. Specifications in the application form for environmental assessment of wood preservatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucks, U J [ed.

    2000-09-01

    In 1990 the former Federal Health Office (Bundesgesundheitsamt) and the Federal Environmental Agency (Umweltbundesamt) jointly elaborated a catalogue of test requirements necessary for assessing the impact of wood preservatives on man and environment. Based on several years of experience, a revision was deemed necessary. Complying with the provisions of the Directive 98/8/EC of the European Parliament and the Council of 16 February 1998 concerning the placing of biocidal products on the market, which have to be transposed into national laws, the regulatory bodies BAM, BgVV and UBA, in cooperation with industry and academia (IUCT), developed an amended application form for wood preservatives. The provisions laid down there include different sets of data for wood preservatives, depending on the intended uses/hazard classes, e.g. physico-chemical and ecotoxicological properties, data on exposure, fate and behaviour in the environment and on waste management. The tests should be conducted according to standardized test protocols. Next to the list of data requirements explanations and justifications are given on why the data are needed and how they contribute to the risk assessment. Furthermore, recommendations are given on which test guidelines should preferably be followed to generate the data. In addition, annex I includes a proposal for a test guideline on how to screen leachates from preservative-treated wood surfaces for their ecotoxic potential to aquatic organisms. (orig.)

  1. Organ preservation in stage II and III head and neck cancer utilizing alternate week concomitant chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansur, David B.; Vokes, Everett; Mittal, Bharat B.; Stenson, Kerstin; Kies, M.; Pelzer, H.; Nautiyal, Jaishanker; Kozloff, Mark; Weichselbaum, Ralph R.; Haraf, Daniel J.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: A prospective phase II trial was conducted to determine the efficacy and rate of organ preservation of alternate week concomitant chemoradiotherapy in stage II and III head and neck cancer. Methods: Forty-nine patients (10 stage II and 39 stage III) with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck region have been entered into a prospective phase II trial. Pretreatment evaluation included history and physical examination, computed tomography of the neck, bone scan, chest x-ray, panendoscopy and biopsy confirmation of malignancy. Therapy is given in 2 week cycles consisting of 5 days of concomitant chemoradiotherapy followed by a nine day break during which no treatment is given. Each cycle of treatment consists of 1.0 gm hydroxyurea P.O. every 12 hours for 6 days (11 doses per cycle) and 800mg/m 2 /d continuous infusion 5-fluorouracil along with concomitant radiation therapy (RT) administered in 1.8-2.0 Gy daily fractions for five days. This alternate week (week on/week off) schedule is continued for a total of 7 cycles resulting in an overall treatment time of 13 weeks and a total RT dose of 70 Gy. Extent of initial surgery included biopsy only (59.2%), minimal laser debulking (12.2%), and resection with or without neck dissection (28.6%). Results: The majority of patients are male (71.4%), with a median age of 61.3 years. Primary sites included oral cavity (16.3%), oropharynx (12.2%), larynx (57.1%), hypopharynx (8.1%), and nasopharynx (4.1%). T stage included T3 (32 patients, 65.3%), T2 (16 patients, 32.7%), and T1 (1 patient). N stage included N1 (17 patients, 34.7%), and N0 (32 patients, 65.3%). With a median follow-up of 27 months, the overall response rate is 100% (91.7 complete response, and 8.3% partial response). The 5 year actuarial local control, disease free survival, and overall survival is 90.1%, 88.3%, and 65.0%, respectively. One patient has failed with distant disease alone. Four patients had isolated local failures and (3(4)) were

  2. Machine perfusion preservation of the pig liver using a new preservation solution, polysol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bessems, M.; Doorschodt, B. M.; Dinant, S.; de Graaf, W.; van Gulik, T. M.

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The current gold standard for donor liver preservation is cold storage in a preservation solution (4 degrees C), such as Celsior or the University of Wisconsin solution (UW). Recent studies have suggested the benefits of machine perfusion (MP) over cold storage. To improve the results

  3. Laparoscopic Distal Pancreatectomy with or without Preservation of the Spleen for Solid Pseudopapillary Neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohide Hori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN is a rare tumor of the pancreas. Laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy (DP is a feasible and safe procedure, and successful spleen preservation rates are higher using a laparoscopic approach. We hypothesized that certain patients with SPN would be good candidates for laparoscopic surgery; however, few surgeons have reported laparoscopic DP for SPN. We discuss the preoperative assessment and surgical simulation for two SPN cases. A simulation was designed because we consider that a thorough preoperative understanding of the procedure based on three-dimensional image analysis is important for successful laparoscopic DP. We also discuss the details of the actual laparoscopic DP with or without splenic preservation that we performed for our two SPN cases. It is critical to use appropriate instruments at appropriate points in the procedure; surgical instruments are numerous and varied, and surgeons should maximize the use of each instrument. Finally, we discuss the key techniques and surgical pitfalls in laparoscopic DP with or without splenic preservation. We conclude that experience alone is inadequate for successful laparoscopic surgery.

  4. Environmentally friendly wood preservatives formulated with enzymatic-hydrolyzed okara, copper and/or boron salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Sye Hee; Oh, Sei Chang; Choi, In-gyu; Han, Gyu-seong; Jeong, Han-seob; Kim, Ki-woo; Yoon, Young-ho; Yang, In

    2010-01-01

    Novel biocides, such as copper azole (CuAz) and ammoniacal copper quaternary (ACQ), are extensively used as substitutes for chromate copper arsenate (CCA) in wood preservation. However, the expense of these biocides has necessitated the development of cost-effective and environmentally friendly wood preservatives. This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness against decaying fungi of the preservatives formulated with enzymatic-hydrolyzed okara (OK), which is an organic waste produced from the manufacture of tofu, CuCl 2 (CC) and/or Na 2 B 4 O 7 .10H 2 O (B). With the addition of NH 4 OH as a dissociating agent, the addition of OK facilitated the target retention of most of the OK/CC and OK/CC/B preservative formulations in wood blocks. The OK-based wood preservatives (OK-WPs) were stable against hot-water leaching. When compared with control and CC-treated wood blocks, the leached wood blocks treated with OK/CC and OK/CC/B formulations showed excellent decay resistance against both Postia placenta and Gloeophyllum trabeum, especially when OK was hydrolyzed by Celluclast at a loading level of 0.1 ml/g. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and SEM-energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) spectrometry analyses demonstrated that preservative complexes, such as OK-CC and OK-CC-B, existed in the wood blocks treated with OK/CC and OK/CC/B formulations. This study results support the potential application of OK-WPs as environmentally friendly wood preservatives capable of replacing CuAz and ACQ.

  5. Environmentally friendly wood preservatives formulated with enzymatic-hydrolyzed okara, copper and/or boron salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Sye Hee; Oh, Sei Chang [Department of Forest Resources, Daegu University, Gyeongsan 712-714 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, In-gyu [Department of Forest Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Gyu-seong [Department of Wood and Paper Sciences, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Han-seob [Department of Forest Sciences, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki-woo [National Instrumentation Center for Environmental Management, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Young-ho [KCI Co. Ltd., Seosan, Chungcheongnam-do 356-874 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, In, E-mail: dahadad2000@yahoo.com [Research Institute for Agriculture and Life Sciences, Seoul National University, San 56-1 Sillim-Dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151-921 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Novel biocides, such as copper azole (CuAz) and ammoniacal copper quaternary (ACQ), are extensively used as substitutes for chromate copper arsenate (CCA) in wood preservation. However, the expense of these biocides has necessitated the development of cost-effective and environmentally friendly wood preservatives. This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness against decaying fungi of the preservatives formulated with enzymatic-hydrolyzed okara (OK), which is an organic waste produced from the manufacture of tofu, CuCl{sub 2} (CC) and/or Na{sub 2}B{sub 4}O{sub 7}.10H{sub 2}O (B). With the addition of NH{sub 4}OH as a dissociating agent, the addition of OK facilitated the target retention of most of the OK/CC and OK/CC/B preservative formulations in wood blocks. The OK-based wood preservatives (OK-WPs) were stable against hot-water leaching. When compared with control and CC-treated wood blocks, the leached wood blocks treated with OK/CC and OK/CC/B formulations showed excellent decay resistance against both Postia placenta and Gloeophyllum trabeum, especially when OK was hydrolyzed by Celluclast at a loading level of 0.1 ml/g. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and SEM-energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) spectrometry analyses demonstrated that preservative complexes, such as OK-CC and OK-CC-B, existed in the wood blocks treated with OK/CC and OK/CC/B formulations. This study results support the potential application of OK-WPs as environmentally friendly wood preservatives capable of replacing CuAz and ACQ.

  6. Critical Transition in Critical Zone of Intensively Managed Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P.

    2017-12-01

    Intensification of industrial agriculture has resulted in severe unintended global impacts, including degradation of arable land and eutrophication of receiving water bodies. Modern agricultural practices rely on significant direct and indirect human energy inputs, which have created imbalances between increased rates of biogeochemical processes related to production and background rates of natural processes. These imbalances have cascaded through the deep inter-dependencies between carbon, soil, water, nutrient and ecological processes, resulting in a critical transition of the Critical Zone and creating emergent dynamics and evolutionary trajectories. Understanding of these novel organization and function of the Critical Zone is vital for developing sustainable agricultural practices.

  7. A Novel Type of Oil—generating Organic Matter —Crystal—enclosed Organic Matter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周中毅; 裴存民; 等

    1992-01-01

    The comparative study of organic matter in carbonate rocks and argillaceous rocks from the same horizon indicates that the organic thermal maturities of carbonate rocks are much lower than those of argillaceous rocks .Ana extensive analysis of extracted and inclused organic matter from the same sample shows that inclused organic matter is different from extracted organic matter,and the thermal maturity of the former is usually lower than that of the latter in terms of biomarker structural parameters.It seems that carbonate mineras could preserve organic matter and retard organic maturation.The inclused organic matter,abundant in most carbonate rocks,will be released from minerals and transformed into oil and gas during the high-thermal maturity sta