Sample records for critical inquiry twenty-first

  1. Seminar in Critical Inquiry Twenty-first Century Nuclear Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeMone, D. V.


    Critical Inquiry, has not only been successful in increasing university student retention rate but also in improving student academic performance beyond the initial year of transition into the University. The seminar course herein reviewed is a balanced combination of student personal and academic skill development combined with a solid background in modern nuclear systems. It is a valid premise to assume that entering students as well as stakeholders of the general public demonstrate equal levels of capability. Nuclear systems is designed to give a broad and basic knowledge of nuclear power, medical, industrial, research, and military systems (nuclear systems) in 20-25 hours.

  2. Seminar in Critical Inquiry Twenty-first Century Nuclear Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeMone, D. V.


    Critical Inquiry, has not only been successful in increasing university student retention rate but also in improving student academic performance beyond the initial year of transition into the University. The seminar course herein reviewed is a balanced combination of student personal and academic skill development combined with a solid background in modern nuclear systems. It is a valid premise to assume that entering students as well as stakeholders of the general public demonstrate equal levels of capability. Nuclear systems is designed to give a broad and basic knowledge of nuclear power, medical, industrial, research, and military systems (nuclear systems) in 20-25 hours

  3. Bruce's Magnificent Quartet: Inquiry, Community, Technology and Literacy--Implications for Renewing Qualitative Research in the Twenty-First Century (United States)

    Davidson, Judith


    Bruce and Bishop's community informatics work brings forward four critical concepts: inquiry, community, technology, and literacy. These four terms serve as the basis for a discussion of qualitative research in the twenty-first century--what is lacking and what is needed. The author suggests that to resolve the tensions or challenges…

  4. 2010 Critical Success Factors for the North Carolina Community College System. Twenty First Annual Report (United States)

    North Carolina Community College System (NJ1), 2010


    First mandated by the North Carolina General Assembly in 1989 (S.L. 1989; C. 752; S. 80), the Critical Success Factors report has evolved into the major accountability document for the North Carolina Community College System. This twenty first annual report on the critical success factors is the result of a process undertaken to streamline and…

  5. Cultivating Inquiry-Driven Learners: A College Education for the Twenty-First Century (United States)

    Conrad, Clifton; Dunek, Laura


    Inquiry-driven learners anticipate, embrace, and adapt to disruptive change. Clifton Conrad and Laura Dunek advance a transformative purpose of a college education. They invite stakeholders from across higher education to engage in vigorous dialogue about the aims of a college education--and how to realize those aims. Increasingly influenced by…

  6. Intelligent machines in the twenty-first century: foundations of inference and inquiry. (United States)

    Knuth, Kevin H


    The last century saw the application of Boolean algebra to the construction of computing machines, which work by applying logical transformations to information contained in their memory. The development of information theory and the generalization of Boolean algebra to Bayesian inference have enabled these computing machines, in the last quarter of the twentieth century, to be endowed with the ability to learn by making inferences from data. This revolution is just beginning as new computational techniques continue to make difficult problems more accessible. Recent advances in our understanding of the foundations of probability theory have revealed implications for areas other than logic. Of relevance to intelligent machines, we recently identified the algebra of questions as the free distributive algebra, which will now allow us to work with questions in a way analogous to that which Boolean algebra enables us to work with logical statements. In this paper, we examine the foundations of inference and inquiry. We begin with a history of inferential reasoning, highlighting key concepts that have led to the automation of inference in modern machine-learning systems. We then discuss the foundations of inference in more detail using a modern viewpoint that relies on the mathematics of partially ordered sets and the scaffolding of lattice theory. This new viewpoint allows us to develop the logic of inquiry and introduce a measure describing the relevance of a proposed question to an unresolved issue. Last, we will demonstrate the automation of inference, and discuss how this new logic of inquiry will enable intelligent machines to ask questions. Automation of both inference and inquiry promises to allow robots to perform science in the far reaches of our solar system and in other star systems by enabling them not only to make inferences from data, but also to decide which question to ask, which experiment to perform, or which measurement to take given what they have

  7. A Critical Feminist and Race Critique of Thomas Piketty's "Capital in the Twenty-First Century" (United States)

    Moeller, Kathryn


    Thomas Piketty's "Capital in the Twenty-first Century" documents the foreboding nature of rising wealth inequality in the twenty-first century. In an effort to promote a more just and democratic global society and rein in the unfettered accumulation of wealth by the few, Piketty calls for a global progressive annual tax on corporate…

  8. Critical Remarks on Piketty's 'Capital in the Twenty-first Century'


    Homburg, Stefan


    This paper discusses the central macroeconomic claims that are made in Thomas Piketty's book 'Capital in the Twenty-first Century'. The paper aims to show that Piketty's contentions are not only logically flawed but also contradicted by his own data.

  9. Teachers' Critical Reflective Practice in the Context of Twenty-First Century Learning (United States)

    Benade, Leon


    In the twenty-first century, learning and teaching at school must prepare young people for engaging in a complex and dynamic world deeply influenced by globalisation and the revolution in digital technology. In addition to the use of digital technologies, is the development of flexible learning spaces. It is claimed that these developments demand,…

  10. Towards a Rational Kingdom in Africa: Knowledge, Critical Rationality and Development in a Twenty-First Century African Cultural Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence Ogbo Ugwuanyi


    Full Text Available This paper seeks to locate the kind of knowledge that is relevant for African development in the twenty-first century African cultural context and to propose the paradigm for achieving such knowledge. To do this, it advances the view that the concept of twenty-first century in an African context must be located with the colonial and post-colonial challenges of the African world and applied to serve the African demand. Anchored on this position, the paper outlines and critiques the wrong assumption on which modern state project was anchored in post-colonial Africa and its development dividend to suggest that this is an outcome of a wrong knowledge design that is foundational to the state project and which the project did not address. It proposes a shift in the knowledge paradigm in Africa and suggests critical self-consciousness as a more desirable knowledge design for Africa. It applies the term ‘rational kingdom’ (defined as a community of reason marked by critical conceptual self-awareness driven by innovation and constructivism to suggest this paradigm. ‘Innovation’ is meant as the application of reason with an enlarged capacity to anticipate and address problems with fresh options and ‘constructivism’ is meant as the disposition to sustain innovation by advancing an alternative but more reliable worldview that can meet the exigencies of modernity in an African cultural context. The paper then proceeds to outline the nature of the rational kingdom and its anticipated gains and outcomes. It applies the method of inductive reasoning to advance its position. To do this it invokes selected but crucial areas of African life to locate how the developmental demands of these aspects of life suggest a critical turn in African rationality.

  11. Critical Quantitative Inquiry in Context (United States)

    Stage, Frances K.; Wells, Ryan S.


    This chapter briefly traces the development of the concept of critical quantitative inquiry, provides an expanded conceptualization of the tasks of critical quantitative research, offers theoretical explanation and justification for critical research using quantitative methods, and previews the work of quantitative criticalists presented in this…

  12. Twenty-first century vaccines (United States)

    Rappuoli, Rino


    In the twentieth century, vaccination has been possibly the greatest revolution in health. Together with hygiene and antibiotics, vaccination led to the elimination of many childhood infectious diseases and contributed to the increase in disability-free life expectancy that in Western societies rose from 50 to 78–85 years (Crimmins, E. M. & Finch, C. E. 2006 Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 103, 498–503; Kirkwood, T. B. 2008 Nat. Med 10, 1177–1185). In the twenty-first century, vaccination will be expected to eliminate the remaining childhood infectious diseases, such as meningococcal meningitis, respiratory syncytial virus, group A streptococcus, and will address the health challenges of this century such as those associated with ageing, antibiotic resistance, emerging infectious diseases and poverty. However, for this to happen, we need to increase the public trust in vaccination so that vaccines can be perceived as the best insurance against most diseases across all ages. PMID:21893537

  13. Teaching Art Criticism As Aesthetic Inquiry (United States)

    Ecker, David W.


    The teaching model in the visual arts will be derived less from the painter and more from the art critic as art education moves into aesthetic inquiry. There are implications for other arts as well. (Editor)

  14. Seeing the Wood from the Trees: A Critical Policy Analysis of Intersections between Social Class Inequality and Education in Twenty-First Century Ireland (United States)

    Cahill, Kevin


    This paper is a critical policy analysis of intersections between social class inequality and education policy in Ireland. The focus is upon contemporary policy and legislation such as The Irish Constitution and equality legislation; social inclusion policies such as the DEIS scheme; literacy and numeracy policy documents; as well as current…

  15. Philosophy of Education in the World of Twenty-First Century Capitalism: A Response to My "Theory and Research in Education" Critics (United States)

    White, John


    This is a reply to six "Theory and Research in Education" commentators on views I expressed in a 2013 "Theory and Research in Education" piece about priorities in philosophy of education today. The first section is about a concession to my critics; the second, about various misconceptions in their views. The third section…

  16. Comparing Critical Capitalist Commodity Chains in the Early Twenty-first Century: Opportunities For and Constraints on Labor and Political Movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Sowers


    Full Text Available There have been a number of critical historical opportunities for labor to exert power by interrupting long distance flows of commodities at the extraction, processing, and transport stages. This vulnerability has been used by workers in these industries to gain higher wages and better working conditions and to achieve political goals in national and international arenas. In this paper, we compare two commodity chains that are critical components of the global economy. The first, which we describe as transport, is a broad category involving a range of manufactured goods, whose delivery to customers around the world was fundamentally changed in the past fifty years via "containerization" and "the logistics revolution." The second is oil and gas, which also has experienced recently dramatic changes in both extraction (via "tar sands" and "[racking" and transportation. In each case, we discuss possibilities and challenges for labor and political organizing to disrupt capital in these key commodity chains. We identify the "stakes" in each commodity chain by demonstrating the vulnerabilities on which labor and political organizations/movements could capitalize, which usually stem from the capital intensity and global integration of each critical commodity chain. These vulnerabilities are the factors which form the most basic opportunities for organizing in these sectors. Our analysis further suggests that while transport and raw materials remain vulnerable nodes in capitalist commodity chains, there are also constraints and challenges to be faced by labor and social movement organizations (SMOs that might attempt to leverage power over these circuits of the world-economy.

  17. Seeing the Wood from the Trees: A Critical Policy Analysis of Intersections between Social Class Inequality and Education in Twenty-first Century Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin CAHILL


    Full Text Available This paper is a critical policy analysis of intersections between social class inequality and education policy in Ireland. The focus is upon contemporary policy and legislation such as The Irish Constitution and equality legislation; social inclusion policies such as the DEIS scheme; literacy and numeracy policy documents; as well as current government policy statements on education. It utilises Stephen Ball’s policy analysis tools of policy as text, policy as discourse and policy effects to examine the social, cultural and political constructs of policy and legislation influencing social class inequality in education in Ireland (Ball, 1993. The focus is upon the refusal to name social class as a significant issue despite the weight of evidence showing the key influence class position and access to economic and cultural resources has on one’s educational opportunities, experiences and outcomes. The approach taken here is discursive in the sense that the documents are the data and the findings are infused with detailed theoretical discussion of contemporary issues around inequality in education in Ireland. The analysis finds that the absence of social class in official policy and legislative discourses is indicative of a growing neoliberalisation of education policy in Ireland where increased foci on international comparisons and a consumer-driven philosophy of educational provision militate against equality for students from lower socio-economic groups.

  18. Capital in the Twenty-First Century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per H.


    Review essay on: Capital in the Twenty-First Century. By Thomas Piketty . Translated by Arthur Goldhammer . Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2014. viii + 685 pp......Review essay on: Capital in the Twenty-First Century. By Thomas Piketty . Translated by Arthur Goldhammer . Cambridge, Mass.: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2014. viii + 685 pp...

  19. Why the American public supports twenty-first century learning. (United States)

    Sacconaghi, Michele


    Aware that constituent support is essential to any educational endeavor, the AOL Time Warner Foundation (now the Time Warner Foundation), in conjunction with two respected national research firms, measured Americans' attitudes toward the implementation of twenty-first century skills. The foundation's national research survey was intended to explore public perceptions of the need for changes in the educational system, in school and after school, with respect to the teaching of twenty-first century skills. The author summarizes the findings of the survey, which were released by the foundation in June 2003. One thousand adults were surveyed by telephone, including African Americans, Latinos, teachers, and business executives. In general, the survey found that Americans believe today's students need a "basics-plus" education, meaning communication, technology, and critical thinking skills in addition to the traditional basics of reading, writing, and math. In fact, 92 percent of respondents stated that students today need different skills from those of ten to twenty years ago. Also, after-school programs were found to be an appropriate vehicle to teach these skills. Furthermore, the survey explored how well the public perceives schools to be preparing youth for the workforce and postsecondary education, which twenty-first century skills are seen as being taught effectively, and the level of need for after-school and summer programs. The survey results provide conclusive evidence of national support for basics-plus education. Thus, a clear opportunity exists to build momentum for a new model of education for the twenty-first century.

  20. The twenty-first century in space

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Ben


    This final entry in the History of Human Space Exploration mini-series by Ben Evans continues with an in-depth look at the latter part of the 20th century and the start of the new millennium. Picking up where Partnership in Space left off, the story commemorating the evolution of manned space exploration unfolds in further detail. More than fifty years after Yuri Gagarin’s pioneering journey into space, Evans extends his overview of how that momentous voyage continued through the decades which followed. The Twenty-first Century in Space, the sixth book in the series, explores how the fledgling partnership between the United States and Russia in the 1990s gradually bore fruit and laid the groundwork for today’s International Space Station. The narrative follows the convergence of the Shuttle and Mir programs, together with standalone missions, including servicing the Hubble Space Telescope, many of whose technical and human lessons enabled the first efforts to build the ISS in orbit. The book also looks to...

  1. Guidelines to Design Engineering Education in the Twenty-First Century for Supporting Innovative Product Development (United States)

    Violante, Maria Grazia; Vezzetti, Enrico


    In the twenty-first century, meeting our technological challenges demands educational excellence, a skilled populace that is ready for the critical challenges society faces. There is widespread consensus, however, that education systems are failing to adequately prepare all students with the essential twenty-first century knowledge and skills…

  2. Critical inquiry and knowledge translation: exploring compatibilities and tensions. (United States)

    Reimer-Kirkham, Sheryl; Varcoe, Colleen; Browne, Annette J; Lynam, M Judith; Khan, Koushambhi Basu; McDonald, Heather


    Knowledge translation has been widely taken up as an innovative process to facilitate the uptake of research-derived knowledge into health care services. Drawing on a recent research project, we engage in a philosophic examination of how knowledge translation might serve as vehicle for the transfer of critically oriented knowledge regarding social justice, health inequities, and cultural safety into clinical practice. Through an explication of what might be considered disparate traditions (those of critical inquiry and knowledge translation), we identify compatibilities and discrepancies both within the critical tradition, and between critical inquiry and knowledge translation. The ontological and epistemological origins of the knowledge to be translated carry implications for the synthesis and translation phases of knowledge translation. In our case, the studies we synthesized were informed by various critical perspectives and hence we needed to reconcile differences that exist within the critical tradition. A review of the history of critical inquiry served to articulate the nature of these differences while identifying common purposes around which to strategically coalesce. Other challenges arise when knowledge translation and critical inquiry are brought together. Critique is one of the hallmark methods of critical inquiry and, yet, the engagement required for knowledge translation between researchers and health care administrators, practitioners, and other stakeholders makes an antagonistic stance of critique problematic. While knowledge translation offers expanded views of evidence and the complex processes of knowledge exchange, we have been alerted to the continual pull toward epistemologies and methods reminiscent of the positivist paradigm by their instrumental views of knowledge and assumptions of objectivity and political neutrality. These types of tensions have been productive for us as a research team in prompting a critical reconceptualization of

  3. Critical inquiry and knowledge translation: exploring compatibilities and tensions (United States)

    Reimer-Kirkham, Sheryl; Varcoe, Colleen; Browne, Annette J.; Lynam, M. Judith; Khan, Koushambhi Basu; McDonald, Heather


    Knowledge translation has been widely taken up as an innovative process to facilitate the uptake of research-derived knowledge into health care services. Drawing on a recent research project, we engage in a philosophic examination of how knowledge translation might serve as vehicle for the transfer of critically oriented knowledge regarding social justice, health inequities, and cultural safety into clinical practice. Through an explication of what might be considered disparate traditions (those of critical inquiry and knowledge translation), we identify compatibilities and discrepancies both within the critical tradition, and between critical inquiry and knowledge translation. The ontological and epistemological origins of the knowledge to be translated carry implications for the synthesis and translation phases of knowledge translation. In our case, the studies we synthesized were informed by various critical perspectives and hence we needed to reconcile differences that exist within the critical tradition. A review of the history of critical inquiry served to articulate the nature of these differences while identifying common purposes around which to strategically coalesce. Other challenges arise when knowledge translation and critical inquiry are brought together. Critique is one of the hallmark methods of critical inquiry and, yet, the engagement required for knowledge translation between researchers and health care administrators, practitioners, and other stakeholders makes an antagonistic stance of critique problematic. While knowledge translation offers expanded views of evidence and the complex processes of knowledge exchange, we have been alerted to the continual pull toward epistemologies and methods reminiscent of the positivist paradigm by their instrumental views of knowledge and assumptions of objectivity and political neutrality. These types of tensions have been productive for us as a research team in prompting a critical reconceptualization of

  4. The Turn to Precarity in Twenty-First Century Fiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrison Jago


    Full Text Available Recent years have seen several attempts by writers and critics to understand the changed sensibility in post-9/11 fiction through a variety of new -isms. This essay explores this cultural shift in a different way, finding a ‘turn to precarity’ in twenty-first century fiction characterised by a renewal of interest in the flow and foreclosure of affect, the resurgence of questions about vulnerability and our relationships to the other, and a heightened awareness of the social dynamics of seeing. The essay draws these tendencies together via the work of Judith Butler in Frames of War, in an analysis of Trezza Azzopardi’s quasi-biographical study of precarious life, Remember Me.

  5. China's iGeneration - Cinema and Moving Image Culture for the Twenty-First Century


    Johnson, Matthew D.; Wagner, Keith B.; Yu, Tianqui; Vulpiani, Luke


    Collection of essays on twenty-first century Chinese cinema and moving image culture. This innovative collection of essays on twenty-first century Chinese cinema and moving image culture features contributions from an international community of scholars, critics, and practitioners. Taken together, their perspectives make a compelling case that the past decade has witnessed a radical transformation of conventional notions of cinema. Following China's accession to the WTO in 2001, personal ...

  6. Ethics as a Form of Critical and Rhetorical Inquiry in the Writing Classroom (United States)

    Henning, Teresa


    To define ethics as a mode of inquiry, it is first important to consider how ethics relates to critical thinking. Put simply, ethical inquiry is one type of inquiry required to think critically. A connection between critical thinking and ethics is only possible, however, when ethics is defined not as a static list of rules but as a "mode of…

  7. Guidelines to design engineering education in the twenty-first century for supporting innovative product development (United States)

    Violante, Maria Grazia; Vezzetti, Enrico


    In the twenty-first century, meeting our technological challenges demands educational excellence, a skilled populace that is ready for the critical challenges society faces. There is widespread consensus, however, that education systems are failing to adequately prepare all students with the essential twenty-first century knowledge and skills necessary to succeed in life, career, and citizenship. The purpose of this paper is to understand how twenty-first century knowledge and skills can be appropriately embedded in engineering education finalised to innovative product development by using additive manufacturing (AM). The study designs a learning model by which to achieve effective AM education to address the requirements of twenty-first century and to offer students the occasion to experiment with STEM (Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) concepts. The study is conducted using the quality function deployment (QFD) methodology.

  8. Can critical inquiry differ from criticism? A dialogue with current occupational science and occupational therapy schools of inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessie Wilson


    Full Text Available Introduction: Critical inquiry has been adopted by various academic disciplines. However, there is a lack of consistency and transparency in the way this complex theoretical and methodological position is applied in research. For novice researchers that ambiguity can lead to blurring the conceptual distinction between critical research and the act of criticizing. Objective: The purpose of this essay is to reflect on what it means to keep a critical perspective for novice researchers. Method: The concepts are explored through a personal narrative that allows authors to examine the details of their trajectory to embrace a critical perspective, which has the power to lead to change, both personal and social. Results: We explore the methodological foundations of the critical research and observe how the emotion is taken over or suppressed in the investigation process. Conclusion: We contextualize key concepts of critical investigation, examining its recent application both in occupational science and in occupational therapy.

  9. Qualitative inquiry and the debate between hermeneutics and critical theory. (United States)

    Shaw, James A; DeForge, Ryan T


    Two issues have been central to ongoing disputes about judgments of quality in qualitative inquiry: (a) the ways in which paradigmatic orientations are understood to guide procedural decisions and (b) the meaning and intelligibility of paradigmatic incommensurability. In this article, we address these two key issues through an exploration of the debates between hermeneutics and critical social theory, including the exchanges between Hans-Georg Gadamer and Jurgen Habermas, and between Richard Rorty and Thomas McCarthy. We suggest that the key epistemological issue addressed in these debates is the nature of interpretation, separating the two philosophical camps based on beliefs about whether foundational knowledge is possible to achieve. We conclude the article by discussing the implications of these different positions for beliefs about quality in qualitative inquiry, and comment on the role of judgment in assessments of the value and quality of different approaches to qualitative research. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Visual Literacy: Does It Enhance Leadership Abilities Required for the Twenty-First Century? (United States)

    Bintz, Carol


    The twenty-first century hosts a well-established global economy, where leaders are required to have increasingly complex skills that include creativity, innovation, vision, relatability, critical thinking and well-honed communications methods. The experience gained by learning to be visually literate includes the ability to see, observe, analyze,…

  11. Digital earth applications in the twenty-first century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de By, R.A.; Georgiadou, P.Y.


    In these early years of the twenty-first century, we must look at how the truly cross-cutting information technology supports other innovations, and how it will fundamentally change the information positions of government, private sector and the scientific domain as well as the citizen. In those

  12. Afterword: Victorian Sculpture for the Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Getsy


    Full Text Available Commenting on the directions proposed by this issue of '19', the afterword discusses the broad trends in twenty-first century studies of Victorian sculpture and the opportunity for debate arising from the first attempt at a comprehensive exhibition.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    $154,37 ( hardback). With the publication of Seapower: A Guide for the Twenty-First Century. Geoffrey Till has set the standard for publications on all things maritime. The updated and expanded new edition of the book is an essential guide for students of naval history and maritime strategy and provides ...

  14. Exercise in Inquiry: Critical Thinking in an Inquiry-Based Exercise Physiology Laboratory Course. (United States)

    DiPasquale, Dana M.; Mason, Cheryl L.; Kolkhorst, Fred W.


    Describes an inquiry-based teaching method implemented in an undergraduate exercise physiology laboratory course. Indicates students' strong, positive feelings about the inquiry-based teaching method and shows that inquiry-based learning results in a higher order of learning not typically observed in traditional style classes. This teaching method…

  15. Proceedings of the twenty-first LAMPF users group meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Twenty-First Annual LAMPF Users Group Meeting was held November 9-10, 1987, at the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility. The program included a number of invited talks on various aspects of nuclear and particle physics as well as status reports on LAMPF and discussions of upgrade options. The LAMPF working groups met and discussed plans for the secondary beam lines, experimental programs, and computing facilities

  16. Technological sciences society of the twenty-first century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This book introduces information-oriented society of the twenty-first century connected to computer network for example memory of dream : F-ram, information-oriented society : New media, communications network for next generation ; ISDN on what is IDSN?, development of information service industry, from office automation to an intelligent building in the future, home shopping and home banking and rock that hinders information-oriented society.

  17. NATO’s Relevance in the Twenty-First Century (United States)


    reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching...5d. PROJECT NUMBER Colonel John K. Jones 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES...Christopher Coker, Globalisation and Insecurity in the Twenty-first Century: NATO and the Management of Risk (The International Institute for Strategic

  18. Designing Vaccines for the Twenty-First Century Society


    Finco, Oretta; Rappuoli, Rino


    The history of vaccination clearly demonstrates that vaccines have been highly successful in preventing infectious diseases, reducing significantly the incidence of childhood diseases and mortality. However, many infections are still not preventable with the currently available vaccines and they represent a major cause of mortality worldwide. In the twenty-first century, the innovation brought by novel technologies in antigen discovery and formulation together with a deeper knowledge of the h...

  19. Early twenty-first-century droughts during the warmest climate

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    Felix Kogan


    Full Text Available The first 13 years of the twenty-first century have begun with a series of widespread, long and intensive droughts around the world. Extreme and severe-to-extreme intensity droughts covered 2%–6% and 7%–16% of the world land, respectively, affecting environment, economies and humans. These droughts reduced agricultural production, leading to food shortages, human health deterioration, poverty, regional disturbances, population migration and death. This feature article is a travelogue of the twenty-first-century global and regional droughts during the warmest years of the past 100 years. These droughts were identified and monitored with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration operational space technology, called vegetation health (VH, which has the longest period of observation and provides good data quality. The VH method was used for assessment of vegetation condition or health, including drought early detection and monitoring. The VH method is based on operational satellites data estimating both land surface greenness (NDVI and thermal conditions. The twenty-first-century droughts in the USA, Russia, Australia and Horn of Africa were intensive, long, covered large areas and caused huge losses in agricultural production, which affected food security and led to food riots in some countries. This research also investigates drought dynamics presenting no definite conclusion about drought intensification or/and expansion during the time of the warmest globe.

  20. Unethical conduct by the nurse: a critical discourse analysis of Nurses Tribunal inquiries. (United States)

    Dixon, Kathleen A


    The aim of this study was to uncover and critically examine hidden assumptions that underpin the findings of nurses' unethical conduct arising from inquiries conducted by the Nurses Tribunal in New South Wales. This was a qualitative study located within a post-structural theoretical framework. Transcripts of five inquiries conducted between 1998 and 2003 were analysed using critical discourse analysis. The findings revealed two dominant discourses that were drawn upon in the inquiries to construct nurses' conduct as unethical. These were discourses of trust and accountability. The way the nurses were spoken about during the inquiries was shaped by normalising judgements that were used to discursively position the nurse through narrative.

  1. Twenty-first-century medical microbiology services in the UK. (United States)

    Duerden, Brian


    With infection once again a high priority for the UK National Health Service (NHS), the medical microbiology and infection-control services require increased technology resources and more multidisciplinary staff. Clinical care and health protection need a coordinated network of microbiology services working to consistent standards, provided locally by NHS Trusts and supported by the regional expertise and national reference laboratories of the new Health Protection Agency. Here, I outline my thoughts on the need for these new resources and the ways in which clinical microbiology services in the UK can best meet the demands of the twenty-first century.

  2. Accelerators for the twenty-first century a review

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Edmund J N


    The development of the synchrotron, and later the storage ring, was based upon the electrical technology at the turn of this century, aided by the microwave radar techniques of World War II. This method of acceleration seems to have reached its limit. Even superconductivity is not likely to lead to devices that will satisfy physics needs into the twenty-first century. Unless a new principle for accelerating elementary particles is discovered soon, it is difficult to imagine that high-energy physics will continue to reach out to higher energies and luminosities.

  3. Increasing precipitation volatility in twenty-first-century California (United States)

    Swain, Daniel L.; Langenbrunner, Baird; Neelin, J. David; Hall, Alex


    Mediterranean climate regimes are particularly susceptible to rapid shifts between drought and flood—of which, California's rapid transition from record multi-year dryness between 2012 and 2016 to extreme wetness during the 2016-2017 winter provides a dramatic example. Projected future changes in such dry-to-wet events, however, remain inadequately quantified, which we investigate here using the Community Earth System Model Large Ensemble of climate model simulations. Anthropogenic forcing is found to yield large twenty-first-century increases in the frequency of wet extremes, including a more than threefold increase in sub-seasonal events comparable to California's `Great Flood of 1862'. Smaller but statistically robust increases in dry extremes are also apparent. As a consequence, a 25% to 100% increase in extreme dry-to-wet precipitation events is projected, despite only modest changes in mean precipitation. Such hydrological cycle intensification would seriously challenge California's existing water storage, conveyance and flood control infrastructure.

  4. Twenty-First Water Reaction Safety Information Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteleone, S.


    This three-volume report contains 90 papers out of the 102 that were presented at the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 25--27, 1993. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Germany, Japan, Russia, Switzerland, Taiwan, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. Individual papers have been cataloged separately. This document, Volume 2, presents papers on severe accident research

  5. Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteleone, S.


    This three-volume report contains 90 papers out of the 102 that were presented at the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 25-27, 1993. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Germany, Japan, Russia, Switzerland, Taiwan, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. Selected papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database

  6. The Dialectics of Discrimination in the Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Stone


    Full Text Available This article explores some of the latest developments in the scholarship on race relations and nationalism that seek to address the impact of globalization and the changed geo-political relations of the first decade of the twenty-first century. New patterns of identification, some of which challenge existing group boundaries and others that reinforce them, can be seen to flow from the effects of global market changes and the political counter-movements against them. The impact of the “war on terrorism”, the limits of the utility of hard power, and the need for new mechanisms of inter-racial and inter-ethnic conflict resolution are evaluated to emphasize the complexity of these group relations in the new world disorder.

  7. Ecological restoration should be redefined for the twenty-first century. (United States)

    Martin, David M


    Forty years ago, ecological restoration was conceptualized through a natural science lens. Today, ecological restoration has evolved into a social and scientific concept. The duality of ecological restoration is acknowledged in guidance documents on the subject but is not apparent in its definition. Current definitions reflect our views about what ecological restoration does but not why we do it. This viewpoint does not give appropriate credit to contributions from social sciences, nor does it provide compelling goals for people with different motivating rationales to engage in or support restoration. In this study, I give a concise history of the conceptualization and definition of ecological restoration, and I propose an alternative definition and corresponding viewpoint on restoration goal-setting to meet twenty-first century scientific and public inquiry.

  8. Philosophical inquiry and the goals of nursing: a critical approach for disciplinary knowledge development and action. (United States)

    Grace, Pamela J; Perry, Donna J


    Philosophical inquiry remains critically important for nursing education, practice, and knowledge development. We propose a 3-level taxonomy of philosophical inquiry to guide nursing curricula and research development. Important background information about philosophy and the development of philosophical methods is given. Then philosophical inquiry is linked to the goals of nursing using our proposed taxonomy: level I-cultivating an attitude of "critical consciousness" related to all nursing situations and actions, level II-analysis and application of philosophical perspectives to nursing problems and level III-generating new knowledge for nursing purposes including new theories of practice and research.

  9. Developing the critical thinking skills of astrobiology students through creative and scientific inquiry. (United States)

    Foster, Jamie S; Lemus, Judith D


    Scientific inquiry represents a multifaceted approach to explore and understand the natural world. Training students in the principles of scientific inquiry can help promote the scientific learning process as well as help students enhance their understanding of scientific research. Here, we report on the development and implementation of a learning module that introduces astrobiology students to the concepts of creative and scientific inquiry, as well as provide practical exercises to build critical thinking skills. The module contained three distinct components: (1) a creative inquiry activity designed to introduce concepts regarding the role of creativity in scientific inquiry; (2) guidelines to help astrobiology students formulate and self-assess questions regarding various scientific content and imagery; and (3) a practical exercise where students were allowed to watch a scientific presentation and practice their analytical skills. Pre- and post-course surveys were used to assess the students' perceptions regarding creative and scientific inquiry and whether this activity impacted their understanding of the scientific process. Survey results indicate that the exercise helped improve students' science skills by promoting awareness regarding the role of creativity in scientific inquiry and building their confidence in formulating and assessing scientific questions. Together, the module and survey results confirm the need to include such inquiry-based activities into the higher education classroom, thereby helping students hone their critical thinking and question asking skill set and facilitating their professional development in astrobiology.

  10. Strategies for Teaching Maritime Archaeology in the Twenty First Century (United States)

    Staniforth, Mark


    Maritime archaeology is a multi-faceted discipline that requires both theoretical learning and practical skills training. In the past most universities have approached the teaching of maritime archaeology as a full-time on-campus activity designed for ‘traditional’ graduate students; primarily those in their early twenties who have recently come from full-time undergraduate study and who are able to study on-campus. The needs of mature-age and other students who work and live in different places (or countries) and therefore cannot attend lectures on a regular basis (or at all) have largely been ignored. This paper provides a case study in the teaching of maritime archaeology from Australia that, in addition to ‘traditional’ on-campus teaching, includes four main components: (1) learning field methods through field schools; (2) skills training through the AIMA/NAS avocational training program; (3) distance learning topics available through CD-ROM and using the Internet; and (4) practicums, internships and fellowships. The author argues that programs to teach maritime archaeology in the twenty first century need to be flexible and to address the diverse needs of students who do not fit the ‘traditional’ model. This involves collaborative partnerships with other universities as well as government underwater cultural heritage management agencies and museums, primarily through field schools, practicums and internships.

  11. Nuclear energy into the twenty-first century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, G.P.


    The historical development of the civil nuclear power generation industry is examined in the light of the need to meet conflicting energy-supply and environmental pressures over recent decades. It is suggested that fission (thermal and fast) reactors will dominate the market up to the period 2010-2030, with fusion being relegated to the latter part of the twenty-first century. A number of issues affecting the use of nuclear electricity generation in Western Europe are considered including its cost, industrial strategy needs, and the public acceptability of nuclear power. The contribution of nuclear power stations to achieving CO2 targets aimed at relieving global warming is discussed in the context of alternative strategies for sustainable development, including renewable energy sources and energy-efficiency measures. Trends in the generation of nuclear electricity from fission reactors are finally considered in terms of the main geopolitical groupings that make up the world in the mid-1990s. Several recent, but somewhat conflicting, forecasts of the role of nuclear power in the fuel mix to about 2020 are reviewed. It is argued that the only major expansion in generating capacity will take place on the Asia-Pacific Rim and not in the developing countries generally. Nevertheless, the global nuclear industry overall will continue to be dominated by a small number of large nuclear electricity generating countries; principally the USA, France and Japan. (UK)

  12. The twenty-first century challenges to sexuality and religion. (United States)

    Turner, Yolanda; Stayton, William


    Clergy and religious leaders are facing a wide variety of sexual needs and concerns within their faith communities. Conflicts over sexual issues are growing across the entire spectrum of religious denominations, and clerics remain ill prepared to deal with them. As religious communities work to remain influential in public policy debates, clergy and the institutions that train them need to be properly prepared for twenty-first century challenges that impact sexuality and religion. Clergy are often the first point of contact for sexual problems and concerns of their faith community members-complex issues centered on morals, spirituality, and ethics. Yet, there still exists a significant lack of sexual curricula in the programs that are educating our future religious leaders. The resulting paucity of knowledge leaves these leaders unprepared to address the needs and concerns of their congregants. However, with accurate, relevant human sexuality curricula integrated into theological formation programs, future leaders will be equipped to competently serve their constituencies. This paper provides a rationale for the need for such training, an overview of the faith- and theology-based history of a pilot training project, and a description of how the Christian faith and the social sciences intersect in a training pilot project's impetus and process.

  13. Twenty-first workshop on geothermal reservoir engineering: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    PREFACE The Twenty-First Workshop on Geothermal Reservoir Engineering was held at the Holiday Inn, Palo Alto on January 22-24, 1996. There were one-hundred fifty-five registered participants. Participants came from twenty foreign countries: Argentina, Austria, Canada, Costa Rica, El Salvador, France, Iceland, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Nicaragua, the Philippines, Romania, Russia, Switzerland, Turkey and the UK. The performance of many geothermal reservoirs outside the United States was described in several of the papers. Professor Roland N. Horne opened the meeting and welcomed visitors. The key note speaker was Marshall Reed, who gave a brief overview of the Department of Energy's current plan. Sixty-six papers were presented in the technical sessions of the workshop. Technical papers were organized into twenty sessions concerning: reservoir assessment, modeling, geology/geochemistry, fracture modeling hot dry rock, geoscience, low enthalpy, injection, well testing, drilling, adsorption and stimulation. Session chairmen were major contributors to the workshop, and we thank: Ben Barker, Bobbie Bishop-Gollan, Tom Box, Jim Combs, John Counsil, Sabodh Garg, Malcolm Grant, Marcel0 Lippmann, Jim Lovekin, John Pritchett, Marshall Reed, Joel Renner, Subir Sanyal, Mike Shook, Alfred Truesdell and Ken Williamson. Jim Lovekin gave the post-dinner speech at the banquet and highlighted the exciting developments in the geothermal field which are taking place worldwide. The Workshop was organized by the Stanford Geothermal Program faculty, staff, and graduate students. We wish to thank our students who operated the audiovisual equipment. Shaun D. Fitzgerald Program Manager.

  14. Students' Use of Self-Regulatory Tool and Critical Inquiry in Online Discussions (United States)

    Bai, Hua


    Facilitating students' critical thinking in asynchronous discussions is important in online learning environments. Since students need to be self-regulated in online learning, the instructors are expected to scaffold students by providing structure and guidance. This paper discusses critical inquiry in two groups of students' online discussions.…

  15. Twenty-First Century Instructional Classroom Practices and Reading Motivation: Probing the Effectiveness of Interventional Reading Programs (United States)

    Boulhrir, Taoufik


    Twenty-first century education has undoubtedly witnessed changes of the definition of literacy to cope with the economic, social, and intellectual trends. Technological advances, which include skills of communication, creativity, critical thinking, and collaboration have become key in education, especially when dealing with literacy and reading…

  16. Restructuring the Foreign Affairs Agencies for the Twenty First Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smythe, Ana


    This paper underscores the critical need for cultural change and professional development in the Foreign Affairs Agencies of the United States in order to meet the challenge of a dynamically changed...

  17. Critical Race Theory, Hip Hop, and "Huck Finn": Narrative Inquiry in a High School English Classroom (United States)

    Martin, Jennifer L.


    This study explores the impact of reading "Huckleberry Finn" through the lens of critical race theory for both teacher and students in a racially diverse urban high school environment. The teacher/researcher used narrative inquiry and creative non-fiction to examine student language usage, white privilege (including her own), and student…

  18. An Inquiry-Based Approach to Critical Literacy: Pedagogical Nuances of a Second Grade Classroom (United States)

    Beach, Pamela; Cleovoulou, Yiola


    This case study explores the pedagogy and practices of an elementary school teacher who combines inquiry pedagogy and critical literacy. The authors gathered data for this analysis by conducting two interviews with a classroom teacher and observing classroom practices 12 times over a 6 month period. Through a general inductive approach to…

  19. A Journal of Critical Inquiry and Professional Learning: Telling Tales of Community Art, Aesthetics, and Cultures (United States)

    Krug, Don H.; Parker, Ann


    In this article, the authors share some of their learning about art, aesthetics, and people's ways of living. They discuss why the renewal of professional learning is important and demonstrate how K-12 teachers can engage in this process by creating a journal of critical inquiry about their own local communities' art, aesthetics, and cultures.…

  20. The Effect of the Inquiry-Based Learning Approach on Student's Critical-Thinking Skills (United States)

    Duran, Meltem; Dökme, Ilbilge


    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of an activity set developed according to the inquiry-based learning (IBL) approach in the unit "Particulate Structure of Matter" on students' critical-thinking skills in science and technology courses. The study was conducted with 90 students from the 6th grade attending four, 6th…

  1. Continuing Professional Development in the Twenty-First Century. (United States)

    Sachdeva, Ajit K


    The critical role of continuing professional development (CPD) in supporting delivery of patient care of the highest quality and safety is receiving significant attention in the current era of monumental change. CPD is essential in efforts to ensure effectiveness of new models of health care delivery, improve outcomes and value in health care, address external regulations, and foster patient engagement. The unique features of CPD; the use of special mastery-based teaching, learning, and assessment methods, and other special interventions to promote excellence; and direct involvement of a variety of key stakeholders differentiate CPD from undergraduate medical education and graduate medical education. The needs of procedural specialties relating to CPD are different from those of primary care disciplines and require special attention for the greatest impact. Simulation-based education and training can be very useful in CPD aimed at improving outcomes and promoting patient safety. Preceptoring, proctoring, mentoring, and coaching should be used routinely to address specific needs in CPD. Distinct CPD strategies are necessary for retraining, reentry, and remediation. Participation in CPD programs can be encouraged by leveraging the joy of learning, which should drive physicians and surgeons to strive continually to be the best in their professional work.

  2. The Neglected Patent Controversies in the Twenty First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birgitte Andersen


    Full Text Available Na virada do século, assistimos a um reforço do sistema de patentes. No entanto, os gestores de políticas deixam sistematicamente de lado as controvérsias sobre patentes. Este artigo examina criticamente as complexas relações entre, por um lado, as razões para os direitos de patente e, por outro lado, seus efeitos sociais e econômicos. Só quando entendermos essa relação, seremos capazes de projetar regimes adequados de Direitos de Propriedade Intelectual (DPI para o novo paradigma tecnoeconômico de microeletrônica baseada em conhecimento e invenções de amplo alcance implementadas por computador. O foco se concentra nas razões morais, nas razões de incentivo econômico, e nas razões de aumento da concorrência e "proteção do talento empresarial no mercado", e nas razões econômicas para organizar ciência, tecnologia e criatividade. Afirma-se aqui que os sistemas de patentes não são neutros, eles estabelecem as regras do jogo em que indivíduos e organizações são os jogadores.At the turn of the century we have seen a tightening of the patent system. However, policy makers systematically neglect the patent controversies. This article critically reviews the complex relationships between the rationales for patent rights on the one hand, and the social and economic effects of such on the other hand. Only when we understand this relationship, will we be able to design appropriate Intellectual Property Right (IPR regimes for the new technoeconomic paradigm of knowledge-based micro-electronics and computer implemented pervasive inventions. Focus is on moral rationales, economic incentive rationales, increased competition and "market protection of entrepreneurial talent" rationales, and the economic rationales for organizing science, technology and creativity. It is argued that patent systems are not neutral, but set the rules of the game in which individuals and organizations are the players.

  3. The effect of reading assignments in guided inquiry learning on students’ critical thinking skills (United States)

    Syarkowi, A.


    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of reading assignment in guided inquiry learning on senior high school students’ critical thinking skills. The research method which was used in this research was quasi-experiment research method with reading task as the treatment. Topic of inquiry process was Kirchhoff law. The instrument was used for this research was 25 multiple choice interpretive exercises with justification. The multiple choice test was divided on 3 categories such as involve basic clarification, the bases for a decision and inference skills. The result of significance test proved the improvement of students’ critical thinking skills of experiment class was significantly higher when compared with the control class, so it could be concluded that reading assignment can improve students’ critical thinking skills.

  4. Training of Students’ Critical Thinking Skills through the implementation of a Modified Free Inquiry Model (United States)

    Hadi, S. A.; Susantini, E.; Agustini, R.


    This research aimed at training students’ critical thinking skills through the implementation of a modified free inquiry learning model. The subjects of this research were 21 students of Mathematics Semester II. Using One-Group Pretest-Posttest Design, the data were analyzed descriptively using N-gain indicator. The results indicate that the modified free inquiry learning model was effective to train students’ critical thinking skills. The increase in the students’ critical thinking skills viewed from the value of N-Gain has a range of values with the categories of medium and high with a score between 0,25-0,95. Overall, the change in N-Gain score of each student and each indicator of critical thinking skills is as increasing with a moderate category. The increase of N-Gain value is resulted from the fact that the students were directly involved in organizing their learning process. These criteria indicate that the modified free inquiry learning model can be used to train students’ critical thinking skills on photosynthesis and cellular respiration materials. The results of this research are expected to be nationally implemented to familiarize students with andragogy learning style which places the students as the subjects of learning.

  5. "Methods of Inquiry": Using Critical Thinking to Retain Students (United States)

    Ahuna, Kelly H.; Tinnesz, Christine Gray; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol


    In the late 1980s a large northeastern university implemented a critical thinking course for undergraduate students. Combining insights from cognitive psychology and philosophy, this class was designed to give students concrete strategies to promote self-regulated learning and ensure academic success. The analyses in this study are based on…

  6. Twenty-first century learning in states: the case of the Massachusetts educational system. (United States)

    Driscoll, David P


    A current crisis in education is leaving students less prepared to succeed in the working world than any generation before them. Increasingly complex external, nonacademic pressures have an impact on many of today's students, often causing them to drop out of school. Only 76 percent of Massachusetts high school students graduate, and only 29 percent earn a college degree. National figures are worse. Most educational institutions share a common goal to support students in becoming skilled, productive, successful members of society, but the author argues that this goal is not being met. Despite the constant changes in the world, educational practices have remained static. Most public schools are not adapting to meet the shifting needs of students. Universities are not able to prepare the right mix of prospective employees for the demands of the job market; for example, schools are graduating only 10 percent of the needed engineers. Institutions of higher learning cannot keep up with employers' needs in an evolving global market: strong math, science, and writing abilities; critical thinking skills; and the ability to work in teams. The author draws on exemplary efforts at work in his home state of Massachusetts--whose improvements in student achievement outcomes have been some of the best in the nation--to suggest there is promise in twenty-first century learning. Middle school students involved in a NASA-funded project write proposals, work in teams, and engage in peer review. Older students participate in enhanced, hands-on cooperative school-to-work and after-school programs. Schools are starting to offer expanded day learning, increasing the number of hours they are engaged in formal learning. Yet such programs have not reached significant levels of scale. The author calls for a major shift in education to help today's students be successful in the twenty-first century.

  7. On Resonance: A Critical Pluralistic Inquiry into Advertising Rhetoric.


    McQuarrie, Edward F; Mick, David Glen


    Print ads exhibit resonance when they combine wordplay with a relevant picture to create ambiguity and incongruity. This article uses multiple perspectives and methods within a framework of critical pluralism to investigate advertising resonance. Semiotic text analyses, a content analysis of contemporary magazine ads, two experiments, and phenomenological interviews combine to yield insights into the operation, prevalence, impact and experience of resonance. Specifically, the two experiments ...

  8. Analyze Critical Thinking Skills and Scientific Attitude in Physics Learning Used Inquiry Training and Direct Instruction Learning Model


    Parsaoran Damanik, Dede; Bukit, Nurdin


    This study was aimed to determine the differences: (1) the difference of critical thinking skills of students' that using Inquiry Training and Direct Instruction. (2) The difference of critical thinking skills among students who at high scientific attitude and students who at low scientific attitude. (3) To see if there is interaction between inquiry learning model of the scientific attitude students' to increase the ability to critical thinking. This is a quasi experimental research. Which s...

  9. Twenty-First Century Literacy: A Matter of Scale from Micro to Mega (United States)

    Brown, Abbie; Slagter van Tryon, Patricia J.


    Twenty-first century technologies require educators to look for new ways to teach literacy skills. Current communication methods are combinations of traditional and newer, network-driven forms. This article describes the changes twenty-first century technologies cause in the perception of time, size, distance, audience, and available data, and…

  10. Inquiry Guided Learning Projects for the Development of Critical Thinking in the College Classroom: A Pilot Study (United States)

    Bentley, Danielle C.


    This paper describes the inaugural success of implementing Inquiry Guided Learning Projects within a college-level human anatomy and physiology course. In this context, scientific inquiry was used as a means of developing skills required for critical thinking among students. The projects were loosely designed using the Information Search Process…

  11. Critical Analysis of Strategies for Determining Rigor in Qualitative Inquiry. (United States)

    Morse, Janice M


    Criteria for determining the trustworthiness of qualitative research were introduced by Guba and Lincoln in the 1980s when they replaced terminology for achieving rigor, reliability, validity, and generalizability with dependability, credibility, and transferability. Strategies for achieving trustworthiness were also introduced. This landmark contribution to qualitative research remains in use today, with only minor modifications in format. Despite the significance of this contribution over the past four decades, the strategies recommended to achieve trustworthiness have not been critically examined. Recommendations for where, why, and how to use these strategies have not been developed, and how well they achieve their intended goal has not been examined. We do not know, for example, what impact these strategies have on the completed research. In this article, I critique these strategies. I recommend that qualitative researchers return to the terminology of social sciences, using rigor, reliability, validity, and generalizability. I then make recommendations for the appropriate use of the strategies recommended to achieve rigor: prolonged engagement, persistent observation, and thick, rich description; inter-rater reliability, negative case analysis; peer review or debriefing; clarifying researcher bias; member checking; external audits; and triangulation. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Twenty-first nuclear accident dosimetry intercomparison study, August 6-10, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaja, R.E.; Ragan, G.E.; Sims, C.S.


    The twenty-first in a series of nuclear accident dosimetry (NAD) intercomparison (NAD) studies was conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Dosimetry Applications Research Facility during August 6-10, 1984. The Health Physics Research Reactor operated in the pulse mode was used to simulate three criticality accidents with different radiation fields. Participants from five organizations measured neutron doses between 0.53 and 4.36 Gy and gamma doses between 0.19 and 1.01 Gy at area monitoring stations and on phantoms. About 75% of all neutron dose estimates based on foil activation, hair activation, simulated blood sodium activation, and thermoluminescent methods were within +-25% of reference values. Approximately 86% of all gamma results measured using thermoluminescent (TLD-700 or CaSO 4 ) systems were within +-20% of reference doses which represents a significant improvement over previous studies. Improvements observed in the ability of intercomparison participants to estimate neutron and gamma doses under criticality accident conditions can be partly attributed to experience in previous NAD studies which have provided practical tests of dosimetry systems, enabled participants to improve evaluation methods, and standardized dose reporting conventions. 16 refs., 15 tabs

  13. Book Review: Africa and Europe in the Twenty-First Century ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Title: Africa and Europe in the Twenty-First Century. Author: Osita C. Eze and Amadu Sesay. Publisher: Nigerian Institute of International Affairs, 2010, xvi + 397pp, Tables, Index. ISBN: 978-002-102-7 ...

  14. Nuclear power in the twenty-first century - An assessment (Part 1)


    von Hirschhausen, Christian


    Nuclear power was one of the most important discoveries of the twentieth century, and it continues to play an important role in twenty-first century discussions about the future energy mix, climate change, innovation, proliferation, geopolitics, and many other crucial policy topics. This paper addresses some key issues around the emergence of nuclear power in the twentieth century and perspectives going forward in the twenty-first, including questions of economics and competitiveness, the str...

  15. Developing twenty-first century skills: insights from an intensive interdisciplinary workshop Mosaic of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Milosevic


    Full Text Available The Baltic Sea, one of the world’s largest semi-enclosed seas, which, with its very low salinity and quasi-isolation from the big oceans cannot decide whether it is a sea or a large lake. This geologically-unique environment supports an even more surprising and delicate marine ecosystem, where a complex community of fishes, marine mammals and important microscopic organisms creates a magical mosaic of life. Humans have enjoyed the abundance of life in the Baltic Sea for thousands of years, and major Scandinavian and Baltic cities have oriented themselves towards this geo-ecosystem in order to develop and seek ecological, economical and cultural inspiration and wealth. The ‘Mosaic of Life’ workshop aimed at going beyond the obvious in examining the meaning of the Baltic Sea by gathering together a selection of young, creative minds from different backgrounds ranging from the arts and economics to geology and life sciences. This intensive workshop was designed as a unique training opportunity to develop essential twenty-first century skills – to introduce and develop creative, critical and interdisciplinary thinking and collaborative teamwork, as well as to foster a visual and scientific literacy, using project-based learning and hands-on activities. Our final goal has been to be inspired by the resulting connections, differences and unifying concepts, creating innovative, interdisciplinary projects which would look further than the sea – further than the eye can see and further into the future.

  16. Effectiveness of guided inquiry learning model to improve students’ critical thinking skills at senior high school (United States)

    Nisa, E. K.; Koestiari, T.; Habibbulloh, M.; Jatmiko, Budi


    This research aimed to describe the effectiveness of guided inquiry learning model to improve students' critical thinking skills. Subjects in the research were 90 students at three groups of senior high school grade X on Tarik (Indonesia), which follows a physics lesson on static fluid material in academic year 2016/2017. The research was used one group pre-test and post-test design. Before and after being given physics learning with guided discovery learning model, students in the three groups were given the same test (pre-test and post-test). The results of this research showed: 1) there is an increased score of students' critical thinking skills in each group on α = 5%; 2) average N-gain of students' critical thinking skills of each group is a high category; and 3) average N-gain of the three groups did not differ. The conclusion of this research is that learning model of guided inquiry effective to improve students' critical thinking skills.

  17. Community-based inquiry improves critical thinking in general education biology. (United States)

    Quitadamo, Ian J; Faiola, Celia L; Johnson, James E; Kurtz, Martha J


    National stakeholders are becoming increasingly concerned about the inability of college graduates to think critically. Research shows that, while both faculty and students deem critical thinking essential, only a small fraction of graduates can demonstrate the thinking skills necessary for academic and professional success. Many faculty are considering nontraditional teaching methods that incorporate undergraduate research because they more closely align with the process of doing investigative science. This study compared a research-focused teaching method called community-based inquiry (CBI) with traditional lecture/laboratory in general education biology to discover which method would elicit greater gains in critical thinking. Results showed significant critical-thinking gains in the CBI group but decreases in a traditional group and a mixed CBI/traditional group. Prior critical-thinking skill, instructor, and ethnicity also significantly influenced critical-thinking gains, with nearly all ethnicities in the CBI group outperforming peers in both the mixed and traditional groups. Females, who showed decreased critical thinking in traditional courses relative to males, outperformed their male counterparts in CBI courses. Through the results of this study, it is hoped that faculty who value both research and critical thinking will consider using the CBI method.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dede Parsaoran Damanik


    Full Text Available This study was aimed to determine the differences: (1 the difference of critical thinking skills of students' that using Inquiry Training and Direct Instruction. (2 The difference of critical thinking skills among students who at high scientific attitude and students who at low scientific attitude. (3 To see if there is interaction between inquiry learning model of the scientific attitude students' to increase the ability to critical thinking. This is a quasi experimental research. Which students of private junior high school Two Raya Kahean District Simalungun. Population choose random sample of each class. Instrument used consisted of: (1 test the scientific attitude of students through a questionnaire with 25 statements questionnaire number (2 test the critical thinking skills in the form of descriptions by 9 questions. The data were analyzed according to ANAVA. It showed that: (1 There are differences in students' critical thinking of skills achievement Inquiry Training model and Direct Instruction model, (2 there was a difference of students' critical thinking in scientific attitude at high is better than who thought there is a difference of students' critical thinking in scientific attitude at low. (3 There was no interaction between Inquiry Training model and Direct Instruction with the scientific attitude students' to increase student’s critical thinking of skills.

  19. Border Crossing in Contemporary Brazilian Culture: Global Perspectives from the Twenty-First Century Literary Scene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cimara Valim de Melo


    Full Text Available Abstract: This paper investigates the process of internationalisation of Brazilian literature in the twenty-first century from the perspective of the publishing market. For this, we analyse how Brazil has responded to globalisation and what effects of cultural globalisation can be seen in the Brazilian literary scene, focusing on the novel. Observing the movement of the novelists throughout the globe, the reception of Brazilian literature in the United Kingdom and the relations between art and the literary market in Brazil, we intend to provoke some reflections on Brazilian cultural history in the light of the twenty-first century.

  20. Critical Issues in Language and Education Planning in Twenty First Century in South Africa (United States)

    Brook Napier, Diane


    Language and education planning issues and democratic policy implementation in the post-apartheid era in South Africa encompass a range of language-related issues and dilemmas that have counterparts in many countries, within the emerging global education system. The issues in South Africa were and continue to be shaped by the historical legacy of…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hersulastuti Hersulastuti


    Full Text Available This paper was mainly intended to shed light on students‘ response towards the implementation of Inquiry-Based Learning (IBL in Reading and Writing subject, and explore its benefits for enhancing critical thinking skills from students‘perspectives in ELT context. This research was conducted through a qualitative case study approach. Three students of graduate program were purposively selected to be the participants. Data were gathered primarily from observation notes and interviews, and then further analyzed using interractive model analysis as proposed by Miles & Huberman (1994. The findings demonstrate that students have good responses towards the implementation of IBL. Moreover, IBL is beneficial to make students become more self-directed, selfdisciplined, self-monitored thinkers. Through IBL, students develop their critical thinking abilities: 1 raise vital questions and problems; 2 gather and assess relevant information; 3 drawing well-reasoned conclusions; and 4 communicate effectively with others to seek solution to complex problems.

  2. The Challenges of Teaching and Learning about Science in the Twenty-First Century: Exploring the Abilities and Constraints of Adolescent Learners (United States)

    Anderman, Eric M.; Sinatra, Gale M.; Gray, DeLeon L.


    In this article, we critically examine skills that are necessary for the effective learning of science in adolescent populations. We argue that a focus on twenty-first-century skills among adolescents within the context of science instruction must be considered in light of research on cognitive and social development. We first review adolescents'…

  3. Formatively Assessing Teamwork in Technology-Enabled Twenty-First Century Classrooms: Exploratory Findings of a Teamwork Awareness Programme in Singapore (United States)

    Koh, Elizabeth; Hong, Helen; Tan, Jennifer Pei-Ling


    Teamwork, one of the core competencies for the twenty-first century learner, is a critical skill for work and learning. However, assessing teamwork is complex, in particular, developing a measure of teamwork that is domain-generic and applicable across a wide range of learners. This paper documents one such study that leverages technology to help…

  4. Critical-Inquiry-Based-Learning: Model of Learning to Promote Critical Thinking Ability of Pre-service Teachers (United States)

    Prayogi, S.; Yuanita, L.; Wasis


    This study aimed to develop Critical-Inquiry-Based-Learning (CIBL) learning model to promote critical thinking (CT) ability of preservice teachers. The CIBL learning model was developed by meeting the criteria of validity, practicality, and effectiveness. Validation of the model involves 4 expert validators through the mechanism of the focus group discussion (FGD). CIBL learning model declared valid to promote CT ability, with the validity level (Va) of 4.20 and reliability (r) of 90,1% (very reliable). The practicality of the model was evaluated when it was implemented that involving 17 of preservice teachers. The CIBL learning model had been declared practice, its measuring from learning feasibility (LF) with very good criteria (LF-score = 4.75). The effectiveness of the model was evaluated from the improvement CT ability after the implementation of the model. CT ability were evaluated using the scoring technique adapted from Ennis-Weir Critical Thinking Essay Test. The average score of CT ability on pretest is - 1.53 (uncritical criteria), whereas on posttest is 8.76 (critical criteria), with N-gain score of 0.76 (high criteria). Based on the results of this study, it can be concluded that developed CIBL learning model is feasible to promote CT ability of preservice teachers.

  5. Theoretical Contexts and Conceptual Frames for the Study of Twenty-First Century Capitalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hull Kristensen, Peer; Morgan, Glenn


    This chapter argues that the comparative institutionalist approach requires rethinking in the light of developments in the twenty-first century. The chapter emphasizes the following features of the new environment: first, the rise of the BRIC and the emerging economies; secondly, the changed...

  6. 76 FR 21741 - Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Programming Accessibility Act; Announcement of Town... (United States)


    ... equipment distribution program for people who are deaf-blind. In addition, the law will fill accessibility... Programming Accessibility Act; Announcement of Town Hall Meeting AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... The Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Programming Accessibility Act (the Act or CVAA...

  7. How Do Students Value the Importance of Twenty-First Century Skills? (United States)

    Ahonen, Arto Kalevi; Kinnunen, Päivi


    Frameworks of twenty-first century skills have attained a central role in school development and curriculum changes all over the world. There is a common understanding of the need for meta-skills such as problem solving, reasoning, collaboration, and self-regulation. This article presents results from a Finnish study, in which 718 school pupils…

  8. Speaking American: Comparing Supreme Court and Hollywood Racial Interpretation in the Early Twenty-First Century (United States)

    Hawkins, Paul Henry


    Apprehending that race is social, not biological, this study examines U.S. racial formation in the early twenty-first century. In particular, Hollywood and Supreme Court texts are analyzed as media for gathering, shaping and transmitting racial ideas. Representing Hollywood, the 2004 film "Crash" is analyzed. Representing the Supreme Court, the…

  9. Testing Students under Cognitive Capitalism: Knowledge Production of Twenty-First Century Skills (United States)

    Morgan, Clara


    Scholars studying the global governance of education have noted the increasingly important role corporations play in educational policy making. I contribute to this scholarship by examining the Assessment and Teaching of twenty-first century skills (ATC21S™) project, a knowledge production apparatus operating under cognitive capitalism. I analyze…

  10. Humanities: The Unexpected Success Story of the Twenty-First Century (United States)

    Davis, Virginia


    Humanities within universities faced challenges in the latter half of the twentieth century as their value in the modern world was questioned. This paper argues that there is strong potential for the humanities to thrive in the twenty-first century university sector. It outlines some of the managerial implications necessary to ensure that this…

  11. Movies to the Rescue: Keeping the Cold War Relevant for Twenty-First-Century Students (United States)

    Gokcek, Gigi; Howard, Alison


    What are the challenges of teaching Cold War politics to the twenty-first-century student? How might the millennial generation be educated about the political science theories and concepts associated with this period in history? A college student today, who grew up in the post-Cold War era with the Internet, Facebook, Twitter, smart phones,…

  12. Thomas Piketty – The Adam Smith of the Twenty-First Century?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Dahl Rendtorff


    Full Text Available Piketty’s book, Capital in the Twenty-First Century (2014 has become a bestseller in the world. Two month after its publication, it had sold more than 200.000 copies, and this success will surely continue for a long time. Piketty has established a new platform to discuss political economy.

  13. TPACK Updated to Measure Pre-Service Teachers' Twenty-First Century Skills (United States)

    Valtonen, Teemu; Sointu, Erkko; Kukkonen, Jari; Kontkanen, Sini; Lambert, Matthew C.; Mäkitalo-Siegl, Kati


    Twenty-first century skills have attracted significant attention in recent years. Students of today and the future are expected to have the skills necessary for collaborating, problem solving, creative and innovative thinking, and the ability to take advantage of information and communication technology (ICT) applications. Teachers must be…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akosz Ozan


    Full Text Available Tourism is one of the fastest growing industries in the world. Besides its sustained growth the tourism industry has shown in the first years of the twenty first century that it can deal with political, military and natural disasters. The present paper ac

  15. Leadership for Twenty-First-Century Schools and Student Achievement: Lessons Learned from Three Exemplary Cases (United States)

    Schrum, Lynne; Levin, Barbara B.


    The purpose of this research was to understand ways exemplary award winning secondary school leaders have transformed their schools for twenty-first-century education and student achievement. This article presents three diverse case studies and identifies ways that each school's leader and leadership team reconfigured its culture and expectations,…

  16. Synthesis of Carbon Nano tubes: A Revolution in Material Science for the Twenty-First Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allaf, Abd. W.


    The aim of this work is to explain the preparation procedures of single walled carbon nano tubes using arc discharge technique. The optimum conditions of carbon nano tubes synthesis are given. It should be pointed out that this sort of materials would be the twenty-first century materials

  17. Twenty First Century Education: Transformative Education for Sustainability and Responsible Citizenship (United States)

    Bell, David V. J.


    Many ministries of education focus on twenty-first century education but unless they are looking at this topic through a sustainability lens, they will be missing some of its most important elements. The usual emphasis on developing skills for employability in the current global economy begs the question whether the global economy is itself…

  18. The conundrum of religious schools in twenty-first-century Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merry, M.S.


    In this paper Merry examines in detail the continued - and curious - popularity of religious schools in an otherwise ‘secular’ twenty-first century Europe. To do this he considers a number of motivations underwriting the decision to place one's child in a religious school and delineates what are

  19. Twenty-first Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress, January 1957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Lewis L.


    The document represents the twenty-first semiannual Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) report to Congress. The report sums up the major activities and developments in the national atomic energy program covering the period July - December 1956. A special part two of this semiannual report addresses specifically Radiation Safety in Atomic Energy Activities.

  20. Teaching and Learning in the Twenty-First Century: What Is an "Institute of Education" for? (United States)

    Husbands, Chris


    As we begin the twenty-first century, schools and teachers are subject to enormous pressures for change. The revolution in digital technologies, the pressure to develop consistently high-performing schools systems, and the drive between excellence and equity all combine to raise profound questions about the nature of successful teaching and…

  1. Establishing the R&D Agenda for Twenty-First Century Learning (United States)

    Kay, Ken; Honey, Margaret


    Much ink has flowed over the past few years describing the need to incorporate twenty-first century skills into K-12 education. Preparing students to succeed as citizens, thinkers, and workers--the bedrock of any educational system--in this environment means arming them with more than a list of facts and important dates. Infusing twenty-first…

  2. Twenty-first century learning for teachers: helping educators bring new skills into the classroom. (United States)

    Wilson, John I


    The motivation behind every educator's dedication and hard work in the classroom is the knowledge that his or her teaching will result in students' success in life. Educators are committed to implementing twenty-first century skills; they have no question that students need such skills to be equipped for life beyond school. Members of the National Education Association are enthusiastic about the Partnership for 21st Century Skills framework, yet express frustration that many schools do not have adequate resources to make the necessary changes. Teaching these skills poses significant new responsibilities for schools and educators. To make it possible for teachers to build twenty-first century skills into the curriculum, physical and policy infrastructures must exist, professional development and curriculum materials must be offered, and meaningful assessments must be available. With an established understanding of what skills need to be infused into the classroom-problem solving, analysis, and com- munications-and educators' commitment to the new skill set, this chapter explores how to make such a dramatic reform happen. The author discusses existing strategies that will guide educators in infusing twenty-first century skills into traditional content areas such as math, English, geography, and science. Ultimately, public policy regarding educational standards, professional development, assessments, and physical school structures must exist to enable educators to employ twenty-first century skills, leading to student success in contemporary life. Any concern about the cost of bringing this nation's educational system up to par internationally should be offset by the price that not making twenty-first century skills a priority in the classroom will have on future economic well-being.

  3. Evaluation Research as a Mechanism for Critical Inquiry and Knowledge Construction in Architectural and Urban Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf M. Salama


    Full Text Available This article responds to the misconceptions that continue to characterize the delivery of knowledge content in architectural courses. Based on reviewing the literature on pedagogy the paper explores the value and benefits of introducing evaluation research as a mechanism for critical inquiry and knowledge construction in theory courses in architecture and urbanism. A framework is developed and employed to demonstrate the way in which this type of learning can be incorporated.   The development and implementation of a series of in-class and off campus exercises in two different contexts reveal that structured actions and experiences help students to be in control over their learning while invigorating their understanding of the body of knowledge delivered in a typical lecture format. It firmly believed that this would offer students multiple learning opportunities while fostering their capabilities to shift from passive listeners to active learners and from knowledge consumers to knowledge producers.

  4. Literacy Tools in the Classroom: Teaching through Critical Inquiry, Grades 5-12. Language and Literacy Series (United States)

    Beach, Richard; Campano, Gerald; Edmiston, Brian; Borgmann, Melissa


    This innovative resource describes how teachers can help students employ "literacy tools" across the curriculum to foster learning. The authors demonstrate how literacy tools such as narratives, question-asking, spoken-word poetry, drama, writing, digital communication, images, and video encourage critical inquiry in the 5-12 classroom. The book…

  5. Autonomous Robotic Weapons: US Army Innovation for Ground Combat in the Twenty-First Century (United States)


    1 Introduction Today the robot is an accepted fact, but the principle has not been pushed far enough. In the twenty-first century the...2013, accessed March 29, 2015, 113 Steven Kotler , “Say Hello to Comrade Terminator: Russia’s...of autonomous robotic weapons, black- marketed directed energy weapons, and or commercially available software, potential adversaries may find

  6. Automation and robotics for Space Station in the twenty-first century (United States)

    Willshire, K. F.; Pivirotto, D. L.


    Space Station telerobotics will evolve beyond the initial capability into a smarter and more capable system as we enter the twenty-first century. Current technology programs including several proposed ground and flight experiments to enable development of this system are described. Advancements in the areas of machine vision, smart sensors, advanced control architecture, manipulator joint design, end effector design, and artificial intelligence will provide increasingly more autonomous telerobotic systems.

  7. Twenty-First Century Instructional Classroom Practices and Reading Motivation: Probing the Effectiveness of Interventional Reading Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taoufik Boulhrir


    Full Text Available Twenty-first century education has undoubtedly witnessed changes of the definition of literacy to cope with the economic, social, and intellectual trends. Technological advances, which include skills of communication, creativity, critical thinking, and collaboration have become key in education, especially when dealing with literacy and reading motivation. As motivation hinges around two major theoretical approaches, intrinsic and extrinsic, numerous studies argue for the first to be more sustainable in enhancing reading motivation. Accordingly, many research-based interventional programs have emerged since the late nineties with increasing popularity to offer answers to the dwindling rates in reading among youth. This article discusses traits of 21st century education in light of trends and challenges as it probes the effectiveness of some interventional programs that are meant, and argued for, to enhance literacy skills and reading motivation.

  8. Why American business demands twenty-first century skills: an industry perspective. (United States)

    Bruett, Karen


    Public education is the key to individual and business prosperity. With a vested stake in education, educators, employers, parents, policymakers, and the public should question how this nation's public education system is faring. Knowing that recent international assessments have shown little or no gains in American students' achievement, the author asserts the clear need for change. As both a large American corporate employer and a provider of technology for schools, Dell is concerned with ensuring that youth will thrive in their adult lives. Changing workplace expectations lead to a new list of skills students will need to acquire before completing their schooling. Through technology, Dell supports schools in meeting educational goals, striving to supply students with the necessary skills, referred to as twenty-first century skills. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills, of which Dell is a member, has led an initiative to define what twenty-first century learning should entail. Through extensive research, the partnership has built a framework outlining twenty-first century skills: analytical thinking, communication, collaboration, global awareness, and technological and economic literacy. Dell and the partnership are working state by state to promote the integration of these skills into curricula, professional development for teachers, and classroom environments. The authors describe two current initiatives, one in Virginia, the other in Texas, which both use technology to help student learning. All stakeholders can take part in preparing young people to compete in the global economy. Educators and administrators, legislators, parents, and employers must play their role in helping students be ready for what the workforce and the world has in store for them.

  9. A history of meniscal surgery: from ancient times to the twenty-first century. (United States)

    Di Matteo, B; Moran, C J; Tarabella, V; Viganò, A; Tomba, P; Marcacci, M; Verdonk, R


    The science and surgery of the meniscus have evolved significantly over time. Surgeons and scientists always enjoy looking forward to novel therapies. However, as part of the ongoing effort at optimizing interventions and outcomes, it may also be useful to reflect on important milestones from the past. The aim of the present manuscript was to explore the history of meniscal surgery across the ages, from ancient times to the twenty-first century. Herein, some of the investigations of the pioneers in orthopaedics are described, to underline how their work has influenced the management of the injured meniscus in modern times. Level of evidence V.

  10. Neurogenetics in Child Neurology: Redefining a Discipline in the Twenty-first Century. (United States)

    Kaufmann, Walter E


    Increasing knowledge on genetic etiology of pediatric neurologic disorders is affecting the practice of the specialty. I reviewed here the history of pediatric neurologic disorder classification and the role of genetics in the process. I also discussed the concept of clinical neurogenetics, with its role in clinical practice, education, and research. Finally, I propose a flexible model for clinical neurogenetics in child neurology in the twenty-first century. In combination with disorder-specific clinical programs, clinical neurogenetics can become a home for complex clinical issues, repository of genetic diagnostic advances, educational resource, and research engine in child neurology.

  11. Managing the twenty-first century reference department challenges and prospects

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Linda S


    Learn the skills needed to update and manage a reference department that efficiently meets the needs of clients today?and tomorrow! Managing the Twenty-First Century Reference Department: Challenges and Prospects provides librarians with the knowledge and skills they need to manage an effective reference service. Full of useful and practical ideas, this book presents successful methods for recruiting and retaining capable reference department staff and management, training new employees and adapting current services to an evolving field. Expert practitioners address the changing role of the r

  12. The impact of inquiry-based learning on the critical thinking dispositions of pre-service science teachers (United States)

    Arsal, Zeki


    In the study, the impact of inquiry-based learning on pre-service teachers' critical thinking dispositions was investigated. The sample of the study comprised of 56 pre-service teachers in the science education teacher education programme at the public university in the north of Turkey. In the study, quasi-experimental design with an experimental and a control group were applied to find out the impact of inquiry-based learning on the critical thinking dispositions of the pre-service teachers in the teacher education programme. The results showed that the pre-service teachers in the experimental group did not show statistically significant greater progress in terms of critical thinking dispositions than those in the control group. Teacher educators who are responsible for pedagogical courses in the teacher education programme should consider that the inquiry-based learning could not be effective method to improve pre-service teachers' critical thinking dispositions. The results are discussed in relation to potential impact on science teacher education and implications for future research.

  13. Combination of inquiry learning model and computer simulation to improve mastery concept and the correlation with critical thinking skills (CTS) (United States)

    Nugraha, Muhamad Gina; Kaniawati, Ida; Rusdiana, Dadi; Kirana, Kartika Hajar


    Among the purposes of physics learning at high school is to master the physics concepts and cultivate scientific attitude (including critical attitude), develop inductive and deductive reasoning skills. According to Ennis et al., inductive and deductive reasoning skills are part of critical thinking. Based on preliminary studies, both of the competence are lack achieved, it is seen from student learning outcomes is low and learning processes that are not conducive to cultivate critical thinking (teacher-centered learning). One of learning model that predicted can increase mastery concepts and train CTS is inquiry learning model aided computer simulations. In this model, students were given the opportunity to be actively involved in the experiment and also get a good explanation with the computer simulations. From research with randomized control group pretest-posttest design, we found that the inquiry learning model aided computer simulations can significantly improve students' mastery concepts than the conventional (teacher-centered) method. With inquiry learning model aided computer simulations, 20% of students have high CTS, 63.3% were medium and 16.7% were low. CTS greatly contribute to the students' mastery concept with a correlation coefficient of 0.697 and quite contribute to the enhancement mastery concept with a correlation coefficient of 0.603.

  14. Post-Enlightenment theorising and global polity in the twenty-first ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    My paper argues that, the philosophical and scientific achievements of the Enlightenment duly acknowledged (I have in mind here the positive central role that philosophical doubt plays in academic inquiry, for example), its destructive elements, epitomized by its dualistic, individualist, and, consequently, predatory ...

  15. Report of the twenty-first session, London, 18-22 February 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution (GESAMP) held its twenty-first session at the Headquarters of the International Maritime Organization (IMO), London, from 18 to 22 February 1991. Marine pollution is primarily linked to coastal development. The most serious problems are those associated with inadequately controlled coastal development and intensive human settlement of the coastal zone. GESAMP emphasizes the importance of the following problems and issues: State of the marine environment; comprehensive framework for the assessment and regulation of waste disposal in the marine environment; information on preparations for the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development; review of potentially harmful substances: 1. Carcinogenic substances. 2. Mutagenic substances. 3. Teratogenic substances. 4. Organochlorine compounds. 5. Oil, and other hydrocarbons including used lubricating oils, oil spill dispersants and chemicals used in offshore oil exploration and exploitation; environmental impacts of coastal aquaculture; global change and the air/sea exchange of chemicals; future work programme

  16. A Farewell to Innocence? African Youth and Violence in the Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Ugochukwu Ukeje


    Full Text Available This is a broad examination of the issue of youth violence in twenty-first-century Africa, looking at the context within which a youth culture of violence has evolved and attempting to understand the underlining discourses of hegemony and power that drive it. The article focuses specifically on youth violence as apolitical response to the dynamics of (disempowerment, exclusion, and economic crisis and uses (postconflict states like Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Nigeriato explain not just the overall challenge of youth violence but also the nature of responses that it has elicited from established structures of authority. Youth violence is in many ways an expression of youth agency in the context of a social and economic system that provides little opportunity.

  17. Global threats from invasive alien species in the twenty-first century and national response capacities (United States)

    Early, Regan; Bradley, Bethany A.; Dukes, Jeffrey S.; Lawler, Joshua J.; Olden, Julian D.; Blumenthal, Dana M.; Gonzalez, Patrick; Grosholz, Edwin D.; Ibañez, Ines; Miller, Luke P.; Sorte, Cascade J. B.; Tatem, Andrew J.


    Invasive alien species (IAS) threaten human livelihoods and biodiversity globally. Increasing globalization facilitates IAS arrival, and environmental changes, including climate change, facilitate IAS establishment. Here we provide the first global, spatial analysis of the terrestrial threat from IAS in light of twenty-first century globalization and environmental change, and evaluate national capacities to prevent and manage species invasions. We find that one-sixth of the global land surface is highly vulnerable to invasion, including substantial areas in developing economies and biodiversity hotspots. The dominant invasion vectors differ between high-income countries (imports, particularly of plants and pets) and low-income countries (air travel). Uniting data on the causes of introduction and establishment can improve early-warning and eradication schemes. Most countries have limited capacity to act against invasions. In particular, we reveal a clear need for proactive invasion strategies in areas with high poverty levels, high biodiversity and low historical levels of invasion. PMID:27549569

  18. Niels Bohr and the philosophy of physics twenty-first century perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Folse, Henry


    Niels Bohr and Philosophy of Physics: Twenty-First Century Perspectives examines the philosophical views, influences and legacy of the Nobel Prize physicist and philosophical spokesman of the quantum revolution, Niels Bohr. The sixteen contributions in this collection by some of the best contemporary philosophers and physicists writing on Bohr's philosophy today all carefully distinguish his subtle and unique interpretation of quantum mechanics from views often imputed to him under the banner of the “Copenhagen Interpretation.” With respect to philosophical influences on Bohr's outlook, the contributors analyse prominent similarities between his viewpoint and Kantian ways of thinking, the views of the Danish philosopher Harald Høffding, and themes characteristic of American pragmatism. In recognizing the importance of Bohr's epistemological naturalism they examine his defence of the indispensability of classical concepts from a variety of different perspectives. This collection shows us that Bohr's int...

  19. Golf science research at the beginning of the twenty-first century. (United States)

    Farrally, M R; Cochran, A J; Crews, D J; Hurdzan, M J; Price, R J; Snow, J T; Thomas, P R


    At the beginning of the twenty-first century, there are 30,000 golf courses and 55 million people who play golf worldwide. In the USA alone, the value of golf club memberships sold in the 1990s was US dollar 3.2 billion. Underpinning this significant human activity is a wide variety of people researching and applying science to sustain and develop the game. The 11 golf science disciplines recognized by the World Scientific Congress of Golf have reported 311 papers at four world congresses since 1990. Additionally, scientific papers have been published in discipline-specific peer-reviewed journals, research has been sponsored by the two governing bodies of golf, the Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St. Andrews and the United States Golf Association, and confidential research is undertaken by commercial companies, especially equipment manufacturers. This paper reviews much of this human endeavour and points the way forward for future research into golf.

  20. Civil Rights Laws as Tools to Advance Health in the Twenty-First Century. (United States)

    McGowan, Angela K; Lee, Mary M; Meneses, Cristina M; Perkins, Jane; Youdelman, Mara


    To improve health in the twenty-first century, to promote both access to and quality of health care services and delivery, and to address significant health disparities, legal and policy approaches, specifically those focused on civil rights, could be used more intentionally and strategically. This review describes how civil rights laws, and their implementation and enforcement, help to encourage health in the United States, and it provides examples for peers around the world. The review uses a broad lens to define health for both classes of individuals and their communities--places where people live, learn, work, and play. Suggestions are offered for improving health and equity broadly, especially within societal groups and marginalized populations. These recommendations include multisectorial approaches that focus on the social determinants of health.

  1. Uncertainty in Twenty-First-Century CMIP5 Sea Level Projections (United States)

    Little, Christopher M.; Horton, Radley M.; Kopp, Robert E.; Oppenheimer, Michael; Yip, Stan


    The representative concentration pathway (RCP) simulations included in phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) quantify the response of the climate system to different natural and anthropogenic forcing scenarios. These simulations differ because of 1) forcing, 2) the representation of the climate system in atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs), and 3) the presence of unforced (internal) variability. Global and local sea level rise projections derived from these simulations, and the emergence of distinct responses to the four RCPs depend on the relative magnitude of these sources of uncertainty at different lead times. Here, the uncertainty in CMIP5 projections of sea level is partitioned at global and local scales, using a 164-member ensemble of twenty-first-century simulations. Local projections at New York City (NYSL) are highlighted. The partition between model uncertainty, scenario uncertainty, and internal variability in global mean sea level (GMSL) is qualitatively consistent with that of surface air temperature, with model uncertainty dominant for most of the twenty-first century. Locally, model uncertainty is dominant through 2100, with maxima in the North Atlantic and the Arctic Ocean. The model spread is driven largely by 4 of the 16 AOGCMs in the ensemble; these models exhibit outlying behavior in all RCPs and in both GMSL and NYSL. The magnitude of internal variability varies widely by location and across models, leading to differences of several decades in the local emergence of RCPs. The AOGCM spread, and its sensitivity to model exclusion and/or weighting, has important implications for sea level assessments, especially if a local risk management approach is utilized.

  2. Twenty-first century learning after school: the case of Junior Achievement Worldwide. (United States)

    Box, John M


    Efforts to increase after-school programming indicate the nation's concern about how youth are engaged during out-of-school time. There are clear benefits to extending the learning that goes on during the school day. Research from the U.S. Departments of Education and Justice shows that after-school participants do better in school and have stronger expectations for the future than youth who are not occupied after school. And the need is evident: 14.3 million students return to an empty house after school, yet only 6.5 million children are currently enrolled in after-school programs. If an after-school program were available, parents of 15.3 million would enroll their child. JA Worldwide began in 1919 and has been rooted in the afterschool arena from its origins. Its after-school programs teach students about the free enterprise system through curriculum focusing on business, citizenship, economics, entrepreneurship, ethics and character, financial literacy, and career development. At the same time, JA Worldwide incorporates hands-on learning and engagement with adults as role models, both key elements to a successful after-school program. Now focused on developing curriculum emphasizing skills needed for the twenty-first century, JA adopted the key elements laid out for after-school programs by the Partnership for 21st Century Skills. To ensure that the next generation of students enters the workforce prepared, America's education system must provide the required knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Programs such as JA Worldwide serve as models of how to provide the twenty-first century skills that all students need to succeed.

  3. Guided-inquiry based laboratory instruction: Investigation of critical thinking skills, problem solving skills, and implementing student roles in chemistry (United States)

    Gupta, Tanya

    Recent initiatives in the laboratory curriculum have encouraged an inquiry-based approach to learning and teaching in the laboratory. It has been argued that laboratory instruction should not just be hands-on, but it should portray the essence of inquiry through the process of experiential learning and reflective engagement in collaboration with peers and in facilitation by the instructor. A student-centered active learning approach may be an effective way to enhance student understanding of concepts in the laboratory. The dissertation research work explores the impact of laboratory instruction and its relevance for college-level chemistry. Each chapter is different from the preceding chapter in terms of the purpose of the study and the research questions asked. However, the overarching idea is to address the importance of guided-inquiry based laboratory instruction in chemistry and its relevance in helping students to make connections with the chemistry content and in imparting skills to students. Such skills include problem solving, collaborative group work and critical thinking. The first research study (Chapter 2) concerns the impact of first year co-requisite general chemistry laboratory instruction on the problem-solving skills of students. The second research study (Chapter 3) examines the impact of implementing student roles also known as Student-Led Instructor Facilitated Guided-Inquiry based Laboratories, SLIFGIL) by modifying the Science Writing Heuristic approach of laboratory instruction. In the third research study (Chapter 4), critical thinking skills of first semester general chemistry laboratory students were compared to advanced (third or fourth year) chemistry laboratory students based on the analysis of their laboratory reports.

  4. Projected status of the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) in the twenty-first century (United States)

    Jay, Chadwick V.; Marcot, Bruce G.; Douglas, David C.


    Extensive and rapid losses of sea ice in the Arctic have raised conservation concerns for the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens), a large pinniped inhabiting arctic and subarctic continental shelf waters of the Chukchi and Bering seas. We developed a Bayesian network model to integrate potential effects of changing environmental conditions and anthropogenic stressors on the future status of the Pacific walrus population at four periods through the twenty-first century. The model framework allowed for inclusion of various sources and levels of knowledge, and representation of structural and parameter uncertainties. Walrus outcome probabilities through the century reflected a clear trend of worsening conditions for the subspecies. From the current observation period to the end of century, the greatest change in walrus outcome probabilities was a progressive decrease in the outcome state of robust and a concomitant increase in the outcome state of vulnerable. The probabilities of rare and extirpated states each progressively increased but remained level of 10% in 2004 to 22% by 2050 and 40% by 2095. The degree of uncertainty in walrus outcomes increased monotonically over future periods. In the model, sea ice habitat (particularly for summer/fall) and harvest levels had the greatest influence on future population outcomes. Other potential stressors had much smaller influences on walrus outcomes, mostly because of uncertainty in their future states and our current poor understanding of their mechanistic influence on walrus abundance.

  5. New and newer[The New Physics for the Twenty-First Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C. [Electron and Optical Physics Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, MD (United States)]. E-mail:


    Stephen Hawking's inaugural lecture as Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge University in 1980 caused quite a stir. Its title - 'Is the end in sight for theoretical physics?' - raised the prospect of a unified 'theory of everything'. Hawking suggested that there was a good chance of resolving the remaining inconsistencies between the two big 'theories of something' - quantum mechanics and general relativity - before the turn of the century. My first impression on reading The New Physics for the Twenty-First Century, a collection of essays edited by science journalist Gordon Fraser, is that a theory of everything may still be attainable by the turn of the century. However, there is now 20 times more of everything in the universe than there was in the past century, 95% of which no-one has ever actually seen, or had even heard of until a few years ago - as summarized in articles by Wendy Freedman, Edward Kolb and Ronald Adler. Despite this, Michael Green describes amazing developments in string theory that could tie everything together, if one could just figure out which, if any, of the apparently infinite varieties of string theory applies to our world, and why. (U.K.)

  6. Indication to Open Anatrophic Nephrolithotomy in the Twenty-First Century: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Maria Bove


    Full Text Available Introduction. Advances in endourology have greatly reduced indications to open surgery in the treatment of staghorn kidney stones. Nevertheless in our experience, open surgery still represents the treatment of choice in rare cases. Case Report. A 71-year-old morbidly obese female patient complaining about occasional left flank pain, and recurrent cystitis for many years, presented bilateral staghorn kidney stones. Comorbidities were obesity (BMI 36.2, hypertension, type II diabetes, and chronic obstructive pulmunary disease (COPD hyperlipidemia. Due to these comorbidities, endoscopic and laparoscopic approaches were not indicated. We offered the patient staged open anatrophic nephrolithotomy. Results. Operative time was 180 minutes. Blood loss was 500 cc. requiring one unit of packed red blood cells. Hospital stay was 7 days. The renal function was unaffected based on preoperative and postoperative serum creatinine levels. Stone-free status of the left kidney was confirmed after surgery with CT scan. Conclusions. Open surgery can represent a valid alterative in the treatment of staghorn kidney stones of very selected cases. A discussion of the current indications in the twenty-first century is presented.

  7. Diverging seasonal extremes for ocean acidification during the twenty-first century (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Lester; Orr, James C.


    How ocean acidification will affect marine organisms depends on changes in both the long-term mean and the short-term temporal variability of carbonate chemistry1-8. Although the decadal-to-centennial response to atmospheric CO2 and climate change is constrained by observations and models1, 9, little is known about corresponding changes in seasonality10-12, particularly for pH. Here we assess the latter by analysing nine earth system models (ESMs) forced with a business-as-usual emissions scenario13. During the twenty-first century, the seasonal cycle of surface-ocean pH was attenuated by 16 ± 7%, on average, whereas that for hydrogen ion concentration [H+] was amplified by 81 ± 16%. Simultaneously, the seasonal amplitude of the aragonite saturation state (Ωarag) was attenuated except in the subtropics, where it was amplified. These contrasting changes derive from regionally varying sensitivities of these variables to atmospheric CO2 and climate change and to diverging trends in seasonal extremes in the primary controlling variables (temperature, dissolved inorganic carbon and alkalinity). Projected seasonality changes will tend to exacerbate the impacts of increasing [H+] on marine organisms during the summer and ameliorate the impacts during the winter, although the opposite holds in the high latitudes. Similarly, over most of the ocean, impacts from declining Ωarag are likely to be intensified during the summer and dampened during the winter.

  8. Between vanguard and exclusion- young people of the twenty-first century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Gil


    Full Text Available This study has been narrowed down to reveal a paradox. Here the vanguard of culture and civilization - which is regarded as young people of the twenty-first century – is embroiled in a discourse of exclusion: economic, political and cultural life. In secondary school programs and high schools we do not find specific references and studies, primarily based on the needs of students, about the theory of popular culture and cultural education in the area of pop culture. The paradox of exclusion of mainstream culture from educational discourse is schizophrenic. The political exclusion of young people of the XXI century I consider all the disparaging scientific discourse, which skips the actual media and communication competence of young people. Prosumers, cognitarchy, digital natives, C-generation – they are for the modern economy “Silicon Valley” - their market power to exclude is already unstoppable. In other areas it remains to be considered whether excluding young people from the cultural discourse will not deprive our future teachers and translators of the next civilization revolution of social reality...

  9. Civil engineering at the crossroads in the twenty-first century. (United States)

    Ramírez, Francisco; Seco, Andres


    The twenty-first century presents a major challenge for civil engineering. The magnitude and future importance of some of the problems perceived by society are directly related to the field of the civil engineer, implying an inescapable burden of responsibility for a group whose technical soundness, rational approach and efficiency is highly valued and respected by the citizen. However, the substantial changes in society and in the way it perceives the problems that it considers important call for a thorough review of our structures, both professional and educational; so that our profession, with its undeniable historical prestige, may modernize certain approaches and attitudes in order to continue to be a reliable instrument in the service of society, giving priority from an ethical standpoint to its actions in pursuit of "the public good". It possesses important tools to facilitate this work (new technologies, the development of communications, the transmission of scientific thought.···); but there is nevertheless a need for deep reflection on the very essence of civil engineering: what we want it to be in the future, and the ability and willingness to take the lead at a time when society needs disinterested messages, technically supported, reasonably presented and dispassionately transmitted.

  10. Challenges and Opportunities for Occupational Epidemiology in the Twenty-first Century. (United States)

    Stayner, L T; Collins, J J; Guo, Y L; Heederik, D; Kogevinas, M; Steenland, K; Wesseling, C; Demers, P A


    There are many opportunities and challenges for conducting occupational epidemiologic studies today. In this paper, we summarize the discussion of a symposium held at the Epidemiology in Occupational Health (EPICOH) conference, Chicago 2014, on challenges for occupational epidemiology in the twenty-first century. The increasing number of publications and attendance at our conferences suggests that worldwide interest in occupational epidemiology has been growing. There are clearly abundant opportunities for new research in occupational epidemiology. Areas ripe for further work include developing improved methods for exposure assessment, statistical analysis, studying migrant workers and other vulnerable populations, the use of biomarkers, and new hazards. Several major challenges are also discussed such as the rapidly changing nature and location of work, lack of funding, and political/legal conflicts. As long as work exists there will be occupational diseases that demand our attention, and a need for epidemiologic studies designed to characterize these risks and to support the development of preventive strategies. Despite the challenges and given the important past contribution in this field, we are optimistic about the importance and continued vitality of the research field of occupational epidemiology.

  11. Space power technology for the twenty-first century (SPT21)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borger, W.U.; Massie, L.D.


    During the spring and summer months of 1987, the Aero Propulsion Laboratory of the Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories, Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio in cooperation with the Air Force Space Technology Center at Kirtland AFB, New Mexico, undertook an initiative to develop a Strategic Plan for Space Power Technology Development. The initiative was called SPT21, Space Power Technology for the Twenty-First Century. The planning process involved the participation of other Government organizations (U.S. Army, Navy, DOE and NASA) along with major aerospace companies and universities. Following an SPT21 kickoff meeting on 28 May 1987, detailed strategic planning was accomplished through seven (7) Space Power Technology Discipline Workshops commencing in June 1987 and concluding in August 1987. Technology Discipline Workshops were conducted in the following areas: (1) Solar Thermal Dynamic Power Systems (2) Solar Photovoltaic Cells and Arrays (3) Thermal Management Technology (4) Energy Storage Technology (5) Nuclear Power Systems Technology (6) Power Conditioning, Distribution and Control and (7) Systems Technology/Advanced Concepts. This technical paper summarizes the planning process and describes the salient findings and conclusions of the workshops


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astuti Wijayanti


    Full Text Available This research is aimed to 1 develop simple sciences instrument device based on a guided inquiry to improve the skill of the students on critical thinking. 2 to know the appropriateness of physic instrument based on guided inquiry.3 to know increase critical thinking skill by using the appropriateness of this instruments. This research is research and development with 4D models. The average score in an aspect based on the whole result of the assessment by media expert is 99,33%, the material expert is 88,20%, peer reviewer 83,02%, and science teacher upon the simple props is 88,41%, then it can be stated as Good (B. There is an improvement in the student’s result when doing pretest and posttest. The average score of the students when doing pretest is 5,29, and posttest is 7,9. The level of critical thinking skill of the students is on the level medium because the criteria are 0,54.

  13. Twenty-first century learning in schools: A case study of New Technology High School in Napa, California. (United States)

    Pearlman, Bob


    The most pertinent question concerning teaching and learning in the twenty-first century is not what knowledge and skills students need--that laundry list was identified over a decade ago--but rather how to foster twenty-first century learning. What curricula, experiences, assessments, environments, and technology best support twenty-first century learning? New Technology High School (NTHS) in Napa, California, is one example of a successful twenty-first century school. In this chapter, the author describes the components of this exemplary high school, illustrating an environment that will cultivate twenty-first century student learning. New Technology High School began by defining eight learning outcomes, aligned with the standards of the Partnership for 21st Century Skills; to graduate, students demonstrate mastery of these outcomes through an online portfolio. To help students achieve the outcomes, NTHS employs project- and problem-based learning. Whereas in traditional classrooms students work alone on short-term assignments that do not lend themselves to deep understanding, the project-based learning approach has students working in teams on long-term, in-depth, rigorous projects. Students' work is supported by the school's workplace-like environment and effectiv use of technology. Meaningful assessment is essential to project-based learning; students receive continuous feedback, helping them become self-directed learners. In fact, NTHS uses outcome-based grading through which students constantly know how they are performing on the twenty-first century outcomes. Research has shown that NTHS graduates are better prepared for postsecondary education, careers, and citizenship than their peers from other schools. To facilitate twenty-first century learning, all schools need to rethink their approach to teaching and learning. New Technology High School is one way to do so.

  14. Strong Inference in Mathematical Modeling: A Method for Robust Science in the Twenty-First Century. (United States)

    Ganusov, Vitaly V


    While there are many opinions on what mathematical modeling in biology is, in essence, modeling is a mathematical tool, like a microscope, which allows consequences to logically follow from a set of assumptions. Only when this tool is applied appropriately, as microscope is used to look at small items, it may allow to understand importance of specific mechanisms/assumptions in biological processes. Mathematical modeling can be less useful or even misleading if used inappropriately, for example, when a microscope is used to study stars. According to some philosophers (Oreskes et al., 1994), the best use of mathematical models is not when a model is used to confirm a hypothesis but rather when a model shows inconsistency of the model (defined by a specific set of assumptions) and data. Following the principle of strong inference for experimental sciences proposed by Platt (1964), I suggest "strong inference in mathematical modeling" as an effective and robust way of using mathematical modeling to understand mechanisms driving dynamics of biological systems. The major steps of strong inference in mathematical modeling are (1) to develop multiple alternative models for the phenomenon in question; (2) to compare the models with available experimental data and to determine which of the models are not consistent with the data; (3) to determine reasons why rejected models failed to explain the data, and (4) to suggest experiments which would allow to discriminate between remaining alternative models. The use of strong inference is likely to provide better robustness of predictions of mathematical models and it should be strongly encouraged in mathematical modeling-based publications in the Twenty-First century.

  15. Fusion energy from the Moon for the twenty-first century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulcinski, G.L.; Cameron, E.N.; Santarius, J.F.; Sviatoslavsky, I.N.; Wittenberg, L.J.; Schmitt, H.H.


    It is shown in this paper that the D-He-3 fusion fuel cycle is not only credible from a physics standpoint, but that its breakeven and ignition characteristics could be developed on roughly the same time schedule as the DT cycle. It was also shown that the extremely low fraction of power in neutrons, the lack of significant radioactivity in the reactants, and the potential for very high conversion efficiencies, can result in definite advantages for the D-He-3 cycle with respect to DT fusion and fission reactors in the twenty-first century. More specifically, the D-He-3 cycle can accomplish the following: (1) eliminate the need for deep geologic waste burial facilities and the wastes can qualify for Class A, near-surface land burial; (2) allow inherently safe reactors to be built that, under the worst conceivable accident, cannot cause a civilian fatality or result in a significant (greater than 100 mrem) exposure to a member of the public; (3) reduce the radiation damage levels to a point where no scheduled replacement of reactor structural components is required, i.e., full reactor lifetimes (approximately 30 FPY) can be credibly claimed; (4) increase the reliability and availability of fusion reactors compared to DT systems because of the greatly reduced radioactivity, the low neutron damage, and the elimination of T breeding; and (5) greatly reduce the capital costs of fusion power plants (compared to DT systems) by as much as 50 percent and present the potential for a significant reduction on the COE. The concepts presented in this paper tie together two of the most ambitious high-technology endeavors of the twentieth century: the development of controlled thermonuclear fusion for civilian power applications and the utilization of outer space for the benefit of mankind on Earth

  16. Gendering inequality: a note on Piketty's Capital in the twenty-first century. (United States)

    Perrons, Diane


    Thomas Piketty's Capital in the Twenty-First Century is remarkable for moving inequality from the margins to mainstream debate through detailed analysis of longitudinal statistics and, for an economist, by advocating an interdisciplinary perspective and writing in a witty and accessible style. With reference to the post 1970 period, when wage increases are largely responsible for the increase in inequality, Piketty shows how patrimonial capitalists (elite managers) in the top decile and centile of the distribution appropriate a growing share of social wealth as a consequence of their 'power to set their own remuneration' in the context of tolerant social norms rather than through their productive contributions. Piketty raises but defers the question of where these social norms come from to other disciplines. A Feminist Economics perspective indicates that these questions are central to a more inclusive form of economic analysis and such an approach would enrich Piketty's analysis in two main ways. First, by paying greater attention to the processes and social norms through which inequalities are produced and justified and second by highlighting the ways in which inequality is experienced differently depending not only on class, but also on other aspects of identity including gender. This approach also suggests that it is necessary to supplement the ex-post redistributive policies recommended by Piketty: a global wealth tax and more steeply progressive income tax, with ex-ante measures to stop the rise in wage inequality in the first place, especially by bridging the huge gulf that exists between those who care for people and those who manage money. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  17. Latvian Security and Defense Policy within the Twenty-First Century Security Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rublovskis Raimonds


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze fundamental factors which form and profoundly shape security and defense policy of the Republic of Latvia. One can argue that historical background, geographical location, common institutional history within the former Soviet Union, the Russia factor, the relative smallness of the territory of state and the population, the ethnic composition of the population, the low density of the population and rather limited financial and manpower resources available for the defense of the Republic of Latvia are the key factors of influence on the state security and defense policy. The core principles of the security and defense policy of Latvia are the membership in powerful global military alliance of NATO and bilateral strategic partnership with the United States. However, security and defense cooperation among the three Baltic States as well as enhanced cooperation within the Baltic-Nordic framework is seen as an important supplementary factor for the increased security of the Republic of Latvia. Latvia has developed a sustainable legal and institutional framework in order to contribute to state security and defense; however, security challenges and significant changes within the global security environment of the twenty-first century will further challenge the ability of the Republic of Latvia to sustain its current legal framework, and more importantly, current institutional structure of Latvian security and defense architecture. Significant internal and external challenges will impact the fundamental pillars of Latvian security and defense policy, such as American strategic shift to the Pacific, and lack of political will to increase defense budgets in European part of NATO. It has to be clear that very independence, security and defense of the Republic of Latvia depend on the ability of NATO to remain an effective organization with timely and efficient decision-making, and the ability of the United States to remain

  18. Strong Inference in Mathematical Modeling: A Method for Robust Science in the Twenty-First Century (United States)

    Ganusov, Vitaly V.


    While there are many opinions on what mathematical modeling in biology is, in essence, modeling is a mathematical tool, like a microscope, which allows consequences to logically follow from a set of assumptions. Only when this tool is applied appropriately, as microscope is used to look at small items, it may allow to understand importance of specific mechanisms/assumptions in biological processes. Mathematical modeling can be less useful or even misleading if used inappropriately, for example, when a microscope is used to study stars. According to some philosophers (Oreskes et al., 1994), the best use of mathematical models is not when a model is used to confirm a hypothesis but rather when a model shows inconsistency of the model (defined by a specific set of assumptions) and data. Following the principle of strong inference for experimental sciences proposed by Platt (1964), I suggest “strong inference in mathematical modeling” as an effective and robust way of using mathematical modeling to understand mechanisms driving dynamics of biological systems. The major steps of strong inference in mathematical modeling are (1) to develop multiple alternative models for the phenomenon in question; (2) to compare the models with available experimental data and to determine which of the models are not consistent with the data; (3) to determine reasons why rejected models failed to explain the data, and (4) to suggest experiments which would allow to discriminate between remaining alternative models. The use of strong inference is likely to provide better robustness of predictions of mathematical models and it should be strongly encouraged in mathematical modeling-based publications in the Twenty-First century. PMID:27499750

  19. A Tale within a Tale: Mise en Abyme Adaptations of the Twenty-first Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željka Flegar


    Full Text Available In accord with the promise made by Henry Jenkins that “old and new media will interact in ever more complex ways” (Convergence Culture 6, this research observes metamodern fairy tale adaptations of the twenty-first century in light of Christina Bacchilega’s construct of the fairy-tale web and Henry Jenkins’ theory of convergence culture and transmedia storytelling. The research will address the growing trend of embedding “wonder tale” collections within the context of a larger narrative as an artefact of significance, power, and material value. Although original tales with known authorship, these fairy tale adaptations are appended to the mythology and culture of the fantastic secondary worlds. Such texts tend to be parodic, subversive, and even carnivalesque (Bakhtin; Stephens, providing a commentary on the culture of their origin, as well as our own. By blending cultures, styles, and formats, mise en abyme wonder tales also result in the empowerment of specifically marginalised groups. Generally defined as spin-offs that are otherwise a part of a complex inter- and hypertextual web, these fairy tale collections constitute a metafictional body of knowledge and wisdom. In the digital era much focus is placed on multimodal, hypertextual, and transmedia narratives with a significant influence of fandom on the production of such literary works. The study will focus on the popular examples of such practice, J.K. Rowling’s Tales of Beedle the Bard (2007/2008 and Ransom Riggs’ Tales of the Peculiar (2016, in order to define mise en abyme fairy tale adaptations, as well as to discuss their cultural significance and function.

  20. Assessing twenty-first century skills through a teacher created video game for high school biology students (United States)

    Annetta, Leonard A.; Cheng, Meng-Tzu; Holmes, Shawn


    As twenty-first century skills become a greater focus in K-12 education, an infusion of technology that meets the needs of today's students is paramount. This study looks at the design and creation of a Multiplayer Educational Gaming Application (MEGA) for high school biology students. The quasi-experimental, qualitative design assessed the twenty-first century skills of digital age literacy, inventive thinking, high productivity, and effective communication techniques of the students exposed to a MEGA. Three factors, as they pertained to these skills, emerged from classroom observations. Interaction with the teacher, discussion with peers, and engagement/time-on-task while playing the MEGA suggested that students playing an educational video game exhibited all of the projected twenty-first century skills while being engrossed in the embedded science content.

  1. Four Tools for Critical Inquiry in History, Social Studies, and Civic Education


    Bermudez, Angela


    The promotion of critical thinking is an important but elusive goal in history, social studies, and civic education. Teachers often struggle to translate general definitions of critical thinking into specific pedagogical tools to plan learning activities and to observe and interpret student work in these subjects. They also struggle to distinguish between "teaching critical content" and "teaching students to think critically." In this paper, I draw upon scholarship on critical thinking, histo...

  2. A Dialogue Worth Having: Vocational Competence, Career Identity and a Learning Environment for Twenty-First Century Success at Work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijers, Frans; Lengelle, Reinekke; Winters, Annemie; Kuijpers, Marinka


    The cultivation of intrinsic motivation is key in the twenty first century, but most students in Dutch vocational education lack this quality. To foster intrinsic motivation, a strong career-learning environment is needed that enables students to develop career competencies and a career identity.

  3. Greenland Surface Mass Balance as Simulated by the Community Earth System Model. Part II: Twenty-First-Century Changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vizcaino, M.; Lipscomb, W.H.; Sacks, W.J.; van den Broeke, M.R.


    This study presents the first twenty-first-century projections of surface mass balance (SMB) changes for the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) with the Community Earth System Model (CESM), which includes a new ice sheet component. For glaciated surfaces, CESM includes a sophisticated calculation of energy

  4. Science Teacher Education in the Twenty-First Century: a Pedagogical Framework for Technology-Integrated Social Constructivism (United States)

    Barak, Miri


    Changes in our global world have shifted the skill demands from acquisition of structured knowledge to mastery of skills, often referred to as twenty-first century competencies. Given these changes, a sequential explanatory mixed methods study was undertaken to (a) examine predominant instructional methods and technologies used by teacher educators, (b) identify attributes for learning and teaching in the twenty-first century, and (c) develop a pedagogical framework for promoting meaningful usage of advanced technologies. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected via an online survey, personal interviews, and written reflections with science teacher educators and student teachers. Findings indicated that teacher educators do not provide sufficient models for the promotion of reform-based practice via web 2.0 environments, such as Wikis, blogs, social networks, or other cloud technologies. Findings also indicated four attributes for teaching and learning in the twenty-first century: (a) adapting to frequent changes and uncertain situations, (b) collaborating and communicating in decentralized environments, (c) generating data and managing information, and (d) releasing control by encouraging exploration. Guided by social constructivist paradigms and twenty-first century teaching attributes, this study suggests a pedagogical framework for fostering meaningful usage of advanced technologies in science teacher education courses.

  5. Essential Soft Skills for Success in the Twenty-First Century Workforce as Perceived by Business Educators (United States)

    Mitchell, Geana W.; Skinner, Leane B.; White, Bonnie J.


    Background: Soft skills describe career attributes that individuals should possess, such as team skills, communication skills, ethics, time-management skills, and an appreciation for diversity. In the twenty-first century workforce, soft skills are important in every business sector. However, employers in business continuously report that new…

  6. Predicting climate change impacts on native and invasive tree species using radial growth and twenty-first century climate scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    González-Muñoz, N.; Linares, J.C.; Castro-Díez, P.; Sass-Klaassen, U.G.W.


    The climatic conditions predicted for the twenty-first century may aggravate the extent and impacts of plant invasions, by favouring those invaders more adapted to altered conditions or by hampering the native flora. We aim to predict the fate of native and invasive tree species in the oak forests

  7. Rethinking Teaching and Learning Pedagogy for Education in the Twenty-First Century: Blended Learning in Music Education (United States)

    Crawford, Renée


    In an increasingly technologically driven world, there is proliferate discussion among education and government authorities about the necessity to rethink education in the twenty-first century. The evolution of technology and its pervasive influence on the needs and requirements of society is central to this mindset. Innovations in online…

  8. Transformative Pedagogy, Leadership and School Organisation for the Twenty-First-Century Knowledge-Based Economy: The Case of Singapore (United States)

    Dimmock, Clive; Goh, Jonathan W. P.


    Singapore has a high performing school system; its students top international tests in maths and science. Yet while the Singapore government cherishes its world class "brand", it realises that in a globally competitive world, its schools need to prepare students for the twenty-first-century knowledge-based economy (KBE). Accordingly,…

  9. Index to the Twenty-first Semiannual Report of the Commission to the Congress. July 1956 - December 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, Lewis L.


    This volume contains a name and subject indext for the twenty-first semiannual report of the United States Atomic Energy Commission to Congress. The full semiannual report covers the major unclassified activities of the Commission from July 1956 through December 1956.

  10. Nonlinear Pedagogy and Its Role in Encouraging Twenty-First Century Competencies through Physical Education: A Singapore Experience (United States)

    Lee, Miriam Chang Yi; Chow, Jia Yi; Button, Chris; Tan, Clara Wee Keat


    Nonlinear Pedagogy is an exploratory approach to teaching and learning Physical Education that can be potentially effective to help children acquire relevant twenty-first century competencies. Underpinned by Ecological Dynamics, the focus of Nonlinear Pedagogy is on the learner and includes the provision of less prescriptive instructions and…

  11. Thinking Like Twenty-First Century Learners: An Exploration of Blog Use in a Skills-Based Counselor Education Course (United States)

    Buono, Lisa L.


    Twenty-first century learners and millennial generation students have integrated technology into their personal lives; there is a growing expectation for technology to be integrated into their classroom experiences as well. Incorporating technology, including the use of blogs, into teaching and learning is receiving attention in the literature.…

  12. A Commentary on "Updating the Duplex Design for Test-Based Accountability in the Twenty-First Century" (United States)

    Brandt, Steffen


    This article presents the author's commentary on "Updating the Duplex Design for Test-Based Accountability in the Twenty-First Century," in which Isaac I. Bejar and E. Aurora Graf propose the application of a test design--the duplex design (which was proposed in 1988 by Bock and Mislevy) for application in current accountability assessments.…

  13. From School to Cafe and Back Again: Responding to the Learning Demands of the Twenty-First Century (United States)

    McWilliam, Erica


    This paper traces the historical origins of formal and informal lifelong learning to argue that optimal twenty-first-century education can and should draw on the traditions of both the school and the coffee house or cafe. For some time now, educational policy documents and glossy school brochures have come wrapped in the mantle of lifelong…

  14. Computational Thinking and Media & Information Literacy: An Integrated Approach to Teaching Twenty-First Century Skills (United States)

    Gretter, Sarah; Yadav, Aman


    Developing students' 21st century skills, including creativity, critical thinking, and problem solving, has been a prevailing concern in our globalized and hyper-connected society. One of the key components for students to accomplish this is to take part in today's participatory culture, which involves becoming creators of knowledge rather than…

  15. National Models for Continuing Professional Development: The Challenges of Twenty-First-Century Knowledge Management (United States)

    Leask, Marilyn; Younie, Sarah


    If teacher quality is the most critical factor in improving educational outcomes, then why is so little attention drawn to the knowledge and evidence base available to support teachers in improving the quality of their professional knowledge? This paper draws together findings from a range of sources to propose national models for continuing…

  16. Risk, security and technology: governing football supporters in the twenty-first century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaaij, R.


    This paper critically examines the security and risk management technologies that are being used to conduct and pre-empt the behaviour of football supporters. It is shown how, in the Netherlands, pre-emptive risk management in the governing of football supporters involves a dispersed and fragmented

  17. Educational Psychology in the Twenty-First Century: Challenges for Our Community (United States)

    Anderman, Eric M.


    This is a critical time for the field of educational psychology. As the roles of colleges and schools of education are being examined, the specific relevance of our research also may be questioned. In this article, I argue that educational psychologists need to engage in specific types of outreach activities so that our research can truly impact…

  18. Educating for Critical Thinking: Thought-Encouraging Questions in a Community of Inquiry (United States)

    Golding, Clinton


    This paper presents one method for educating for critical thinking in Higher Education. It elaborates Richard Paul's method of Socratic questioning to show how students can learn to be critical thinkers. This method combines and uses the wider pedagogical and critical thinking literature in a new way: it emphasises a thinking-encouraging approach…

  19. A critical inquiry into the objection of Moeller to his energy-momentum complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, D.


    In the year 1958 Mueller derived an energy-momentum complex to attain the localizability of the energy in gravitational fields. However, three years later after extensive investigations he himself raised an objection to his expression showing that the corresponding energy-momentum vector of a closed physical system does not transform like a free 4-vector with respect to a Lorentz transformation. An inquiry into the objection of Mueller is carried through at full length. Surprisingly it turns out that the equation on which he based his objection originates from a misinterpretation. Moreover, the argument given by him to explain the alleged failure of his expression proves to be incomplete. Complementing the argument, the objection of Mueller is no longer tenable. (author)

  20. Stoichiometry in Context: Inquiry-Guided Problems of Chemistry for Encouraging Critical Thinking in Engineering Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Pinto


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on examples of educational tools concerning the learning of chemistry for engineering students through different daily life cases. These tools were developed during the past few years for enhancing the active role of students. They refer to cases about mineral water, medicaments, dentifrices and informative panels about solar power, where an adequate quantitative treatment through stoichiometry calculations allows the interpretation of data and values announced by manufacturers. These cases were developed in the context of an inquiry-guided instruction model. By bringing tangible chemistry examples into the classroom we provide an opportunity for engineering students to apply this science to familiar products in hopes that they will appreciate chemistry more, will be motivated to study concepts in greater detail, and will connect the relevance of chemistry to everyday life.

  1. The Freedom of Religion and the Freedom of Education in Twenty-First-Century Belgium: A Critical Approach (United States)

    Franken, Leni


    In spite of recent tendencies of secularisation and religious pluralism, most Belgian schools are Catholic schools, where Roman Catholic religious education is a compulsory subject. As we will argue, this can lead to a "de facto" undermining of the freedom of religion and education and a shift in the system is therefore required. In the…

  2. The Effects of an Argument-Based Inquiry Approach on Improving Critical Thinking and the Conceptual Understanding of Optics among Pre-Service Science Teachers (United States)

    Memis, Esra Kabatas


    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the university-level application of an Argument-Based Inquiry Approach, as compared to the traditional laboratory teaching method, on the ability of students to learn about optics and to demonstrate critical thinking. In this quasi-experimental study, pretest-posttest scores and CCDTI were…

  3. Influences of an Inquiry-based Ubiquitous Gaming Design on Students' Learning Achievements, Motivation, Behavioral Patterns, and Tendency towards Critical Thinking and Problem Solving (United States)

    Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Chen, Chih-Hung


    In this paper, an inquiry-based ubiquitous gaming approach was proposed. The objective of the study was to enhance students' performances in in-field learning activities. To show the advantages of the approach, an experiment was carried out to assess the effects of it on students' learning achievement, motivation, critical thinking, and problem…

  4. Proceedings: Twenty years of energy policy: Looking toward the twenty-first century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    In 1973, immediately following the Arab Oil Embargo, the Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago initiated an innovative annual public service program called the Illinois Energy Conference. The objective was to provide a public forum each year to address an energy or environmental issue critical to the state, region and nation. Twenty years have passed since that inaugural program, and during that period we have covered a broad spectrum of issues including energy conservation nuclear power, Illinois coal, energy policy options, natural gas, alternative fuels, new energy technologies, utility deregulation and the National Energy Strategy

  5. Proceedings: Twenty years of energy policy: Looking toward the twenty-first century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    In 1973, immediately following the Arab Oil Embargo, the Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago initiated an innovative annual public service program called the Illinois Energy Conference. The objective was to provide a public forum each year to address an energy or environmental issue critical to the state, region and nation. Twenty years have passed since that inaugural program, and during that period we have covered a broad spectrum of issues including energy conservation nuclear power, Illinois coal, energy policy options, natural gas, alternative fuels, new energy technologies, utility deregulation and the National Energy Strategy.

  6. Assuring nuclear safety education in the twenty-first century in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowenhielm, G.; Lefvert, T.


    One of the most critical challenges in the future for nuclear technology is to maintain nuclear competence. In this paper, the work to cope with this challenge in Sweden is described. The main measure has been the cooperation between the authorities and the nuclear power industry in the Swedish Centre for Nuclear Technology. In the year 2002, its activity only to support PhD students was expanded to also include support to three universities and institutes of technology for professorships and other posts. The conclusion is that this support has secured future undergraduate and postgraduate programmes at an adequate level up to the year 2010. (author)

  7. Proceedings of the twenty-first symposium of atomic energy research on WWER physics and reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidovszky, I.


    The present volume contains 61 papers, presented on the twenty-first symposium of atomic energy research, held in Dresden, Germany, 19-23 September 2011. The papers are presented in their original form, i. e. no corrections or modifications were carried out. The content of this volume is divided into thematic groups: Improvement, extension and validation of parameterized few-group libraries for WWER-440 and WWER-1000.

  8. The Return of "Patrimonial Capitalism": A Review of Thomas Piketty's Capital in the Twenty-First Century


    Branko Milanovic


    Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty provides a unified theory of the functioning of the capitalist economy by linking theories of economic growth and functional and personal income distributions. It argues, based on the long-run historical data series, that the forces of economic divergence (including rising income inequality) tend to dominate in capitalism. It regards the twentieth century as an exception to this rule and proposes policies that would make capitalism sustain...

  9. A Vision for ARES in the Twenty-First Century: The Virtual Community of Real Estate Thought Leaders


    Stephen E. Roulac


    In the twenty-first century the American Real Estate Society (ARES) is a virtual community of real estate thought leaders, electronically interconnected and linked through the International Real Estate Society to counterpart organizations on all major continents as well as numerous country-specific societies. ARES growth is attributable to its emphasis on rigorous applied microeconomic decisionmaking and an inclusive, open style. The initiatives of the Strategic Planning Task Force, whose rep...

  10. Integrating Direct and Inquiry-Based Instruction in the Teaching of Critical Thinking: An Intervention Study (United States)

    Ku, Kelly Y. L.; Ho, Irene T.; Hau, Kit-Tai; Lai, Eva C. M.


    Critical thinking is a unifying goal of modern education. While past research has mostly examined the efficacy of a single instructional approach to teaching critical thinking, recent literature has begun discussing mixed teaching approaches. The present study examines three modes of instruction, featuring the direct instruction approach and the…

  11. Analysis of the projected regional sea-ice changes in the Southern Ocean during the twenty-first century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefebvre, W.; Goosse, H. [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut d' Astronomie et de Geophysique Georges Lemaitre, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)


    Using the set of simulations performed with atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (AOGCMs) for the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR4), the projected regional distribution of sea ice for the twenty-first century has been investigated. Averaged over all those model simulations, the current climate is reasonably well reproduced. However, this averaging procedure hides the errors from individual models. Over the twentieth century, the multimodel average simulates a larger sea-ice concentration decrease around the Antarctic Peninsula compared to other regions, which is in qualitative agreement with observations. This is likely related to the positive trend in the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) index over the twentieth century, in both observations and in the multimodel average. Despite the simulated positive future trend in SAM, such a regional feature around the Antarctic Peninsula is absent in the projected sea-ice change for the end of the twenty-first century. The maximum decrease is indeed located over the central Weddell Sea and the Amundsen-Bellingshausen Seas. In most models, changes in the oceanic currents could play a role in the regional distribution of the sea ice, especially in the Ross Sea, where stronger southward currents could be responsible for a smaller sea-ice decrease during the twenty-first century. Finally, changes in the mixed layer depth can be found in some models, inducing locally strong changes in the sea-ice concentration. (orig.)

  12. Reorienting Esthetic Knowing as an Appropriate "Object" of Scientific Inquiry to Advance Understanding of a Critical Pattern of Nursing Knowledge in Practice. (United States)

    Bender, Miriam; Elias, Dina

    The esthetic pattern of knowing is critical for nursing practice, yet remains weakly defined and understood. This gap has arguably relegated esthetic knowing to an "ineffable" creativity that resists transparency and understanding, which is a barrier to articulating its value for nursing and its importance in producing beneficial health outcomes. Current philosophy of science developments are synthesized to argue that esthetic knowing is an appropriate "object" of scientific inquiry. Examples of empirical scholarship that can be conceived as scientific inquiry into manifestations of esthetic knowing are highlighted. A program of research is outlined to advance a science of esthetic knowing.

  13. Internet Revolutions, Democratic Globalization and Elections Outcome in the Twenty-First Century: Echoes from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi Muhammad Maigari


    Full Text Available This paper examines the social contexts of the development and innovation of the science of global communication technology. It shows the significant roles the internet has played in the democratic process, and in particular, how it has influenced the outcomes of elections across developed and developing societies in an increasingly globalised community. This paper argues that Facebook, Twitter, WhatsApp, blogs and LinkedIn etc. serve as the mediums through which civil rights and democratic activism are expressed. It also argues that during the 2011 and 2015 General Elections in Nigeria, many electronic devices and online programs were developed and used on social media. Revoda enabled a parallel vote count, access to polling unit results, transmission of collated results and information about the entire electoral process. The paper stresses that the use of social media networks by both political candidates and electorates has greatly promoted civic engagement, credible elections and democratic activism in pre-election and post-election periods. This paper concludes that internet technology may soon assume the position of an effective and critically vital para-human actor in most global election outcomes in the near future.

  14. A critical examination of the role of appreciative inquiry within an interprofessional education initiative. (United States)

    Dematteo, Dale; Reeves, Scott


    Appreciative inquiry (AI) is a relatively new approach to initiating or managing organizational change that is associated with the 'positiveness' movement in psychology and its offshoot positive organizational scholarship. Rather than dwelling upon problems related to change, AI encourages individuals to adopt a positive, constructive approach to managing change. In recent years, AI has been used to initiate change across a broad range of public and private sector organizations. In this article, we report findings from a subset of 50 interviews gathered in a wider study of interprofessional education (IPE) in which AI was employed as a change agent for implementing IPE in a number of health care institutions in a North American setting. A multiple case study approach. (Yin, 2002) was employed in the wider study and semi-structured interviews were undertaken with participants both before their IPE programs and directly afterwards to obtain a detailed understanding of their expectations and experiences of IPE. Interviews were analyzed in an inductive thematic manner in order to produce key emergent themes from each of the IPE programs. A process of re-analysis provided a set of themes which offered an understanding of the role of AI within this IPE initiative. Our findings identify a strong resonance and fit for AI both among the health and social care professionals who participated in this initiative. Numerous individuals commented on the enthusiasm and energy AI engendered, while praising its ability to enhance their working lives and interprofessional relationships. Yet a number of difficulties were also reported. These focused on problems with the translation of the AI process into achievable structural level (e.g. professional, cultural) changes. Based on these findings, the article goes on to argue that the use of AI can overlook a number of structural factors, which will ultimately limit its ability to actually secure meaningful and lasting change within

  15. The Observed State of the Water Cycle in the Early Twenty-First Century (United States)

    Rodell, M.; Beaudoing, H. K.; L'Ecuyer, T. S.; Olson, W. S.; Famiglietti, J. S.; Houser, P. R.; Adler, R.; Bosilovich, M. G.; Clayson, C. A.; Chambers, D.; hide


    This study quantifies mean annual and monthly fluxes of Earth's water cycle over continents and ocean basins during the first decade of the millennium. To the extent possible, the flux estimates are based on satellite measurements first and data-integrating models second. A careful accounting of uncertainty in the estimates is included. It is applied within a routine that enforces multiple water and energy budget constraints simultaneously in a variational framework in order to produce objectively determined optimized flux estimates. In the majority of cases, the observed annual surface and atmospheric water budgets over the continents and oceans close with much less than 10% residual. Observed residuals and optimized uncertainty estimates are considerably larger for monthly surface and atmospheric water budget closure, often nearing or exceeding 20% in North America, Eurasia, Australia and neighboring islands, and the Arctic and South Atlantic Oceans. The residuals in South America and Africa tend to be smaller, possibly because cold land processes are negligible. Fluxes were poorly observed over the Arctic Ocean, certain seas, Antarctica, and the Australasian and Indonesian islands, leading to reliance on atmospheric analysis estimates. Many of the satellite systems that contributed data have been or will soon be lost or replaced. Models that integrate ground-based and remote observations will be critical for ameliorating gaps and discontinuities in the data records caused by these transitions. Continued development of such models is essential for maximizing the value of the observations. Next-generation observing systems are the best hope for significantly improving global water budget accounting.

  16. Heroes and Cowards: Genealogy, Subjectivity and War in the Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Lee


    Full Text Available From the wars of Ancient Greece to the collapsing Islamic State in the present, the same, apparently timeless protagonists appear and their stories told and re-told: the heroes, cowards and other combatants. This article proposes a framework which combines a Foucauldian genealogical approach with his conception of the subject as both constituted in relation to code-oriented moralities, and creatively self-formed in relation to ethics-oriented moralities (Foucault 1992, pp. 5, 25, to understand how it is possible to speak meaningfully of heroes and cowards in the age of the drone and the jihadist. Section one will explore the applicability of Foucauldian genealogy as the methodological basis for understanding present combatants in the context of war. The second section will assess Foucault’s ‘modes of subjectivation’ and ‘practices of the self’ (Foucault 1992, p. 28, as a means of analyzing the emergence of the subject of war over millennia, with emphasis on the ethical dimension of subjectivity that can be applied to heroes and cowards. Then the third section will use insights from Homer and Augustine to begin to illustrate how Foucault’s genealogical approach and his conception of ethical subjectivity combine to enable heroes and cowards to be meaningfully spoken of and better understood in the domain of war today. The purpose of such a study is to set out the basis on which political genealogy after Foucault can provide a nuanced conceptualization of subjectivity in modern war, as those subjects are formed, claimed, valorized and criticized by competing entities in contemporary political discourse.

  17. School Uniforms: A Critical Review of the Literature. From Inquiry to Practice. (United States)

    Brunsma, David L.

    The debate surrounding the effectiveness of school-uniform policies, as well as discussions concerning when and how to implement them, is rooted in anecdote. This review summarizes anecdotal literature on which the current debate is based and critically reviews the empirical literature, including theoretical underpinnings, findings, and…

  18. Critical and Creative Reflective Inquiry: Surfacing Narratives to Enable Learning and Inform Action (United States)

    Cardiff, Shaun


    Narratives are being increasingly used in nursing and action research. In this participatory action research study, nurse leaders of an acute care of the older person unit collectively, critically and creatively reflected on lived experiences in order to explore the concept of person-centred leadership within their own practice. This paper…

  19. Supporting One Another as Beginning Teacher Educators: Forging an Online Community of Critical Inquiry into Practice (United States)

    Ramirez, Laurie A.; Allison-Roan, Valerie A.; Peterson, Sandra; Elliott-Johns, Susan E.


    Four novice teacher educators working at different universities in the USA and Canada used online journaling and dialoguing combined with feedback from their students to explore their practice and new roles as teacher educators in new contexts. Their priorities included modeling critical reflection and enacting democratic practices. They chronicle…

  20. A Critical Rationalist Inquiry of Managerial Epistemology. Toward the Confrontation of the Unawareness Problem.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faran, Doron; Faran, D.


    This study applies Critical Rationalism (CR), a stance associated with the philosophy of science, to solve a practical problem: management unawareness. Managers (as any other human being) hold a theory through which they explain the world and rationalize their decisions. Like any other theory, the

  1. The renaissance of word-of-mouth marketing: A new standard in twenty-first century marketing management?!


    Meiners, Norbert H.; Schwarting, Ulf; Seeberger, Bernd


    In this paper the importance of word of mouth for marketing management in the twenty-first century will be discussed. After a short introduction, there will be a focus on the demarcations and problems of traditional marketing. Then, in the third section, word of mouth (WOM) and word-of-mouth marketing (WOMM) as a 'new' standard in modern marketing are described. The fourth section broaches the importance of word of mouth and word-of-mouth marketing from the point of view of business and consu...

  2. The restructuring of the Argentina Navy between the end of the twentieth century and early twenty-first.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germán Soprano


    Full Text Available The definition of a policy of national defense and internal security in democracy, created conditions to advance in the process of restructuring of the Argentina Navy, introducing changes in its organization and functions. In this article we will focus this process analyzing, on the one hand, the relationship between the definitions of defense policy and the configuration of naval military instrument between the end of the twentieth century and early twenty-first century; and, on the other hand, understanding their development in the case of two components of the force: the marine corps and the division of maritime patrol.

  3. Public Heath in Colonial and Post-Colonial Ghana: Lesson-Drawing for The Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adu-Gyamfi, Samuel


    Full Text Available Public health in twenty-first century Ghana is mired with several issues ranging from the inadequacy of public health facilities, improper settlement planning, insanitary conditions, and the inadequacy of laws and their implementation. This situation compared to the colonial era is a direct contradiction. Development in the pre-colonial era to the colonial era sought to make the prevention of diseases a priority in the colonial administration. This was begun with the establishment of the health branch in 1909 as a response to the bubonic plague that was fast spreading in the colony. From here public health policies and strategies were enacted to help the diseases prevention cause. Various public health boards, the medical research institute or the laboratory branch, the waste management department, the use of preventive medicine and maintenance of good settlement planning and sanitation were public health measures in the colonial era. This research seeks to analyse the public health system in the colonial era so as to draw basic lessons for twenty-first century Ghana. Archival data and other secondary sources are reviewed and analysed to help draw these lessons. Richard Rose’s lesson-drawing approach was used to draw the lessons.

  4. A needs assessment for DOE's packaging and transportation activities - a look into the twenty-first century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pope, R.; Turi, G.; Brancato, R.; Blalock, L.; Merrill, O.


    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has performed a department-wide scoping of its packaging and transportation needs and has arrived at a projection of these needs for well into the twenty-first century. The assessment, known as the Transportation Needs Assessment (TNA) was initiated during August 1994 and completed in December 1994. The TNA will allow DOE to better prepare for changes in its transportation requirements in the future. The TNA focused on projected, quantified shipping needs based on forecasts of inventories of materials which will ultimately require transport by the DOE for storage, treatment and/or disposal. In addition, experts provided input on the growing needs throughout DOE resulting from changes in regulations, in DOE's mission, and in the sociopolitical structure of the United States. Through the assessment, DOE's transportation needs have been identified for a time period extending from the present through the first three decades of the twenty-first century. The needs assessment was accomplished in three phases: (1) defining current packaging, shipping, resource utilization, and methods of managing packaging and transportation activities; (2) establishing the inventory of materials which DOE will need to transport on into the next century and scenarios which project when, from where, and to where these materials will need to be transported; and (3) developing requirements and projected changes for DOE to accomplish the necessary transport safely and economically

  5. Narratives of Inquiry Learning in Middle-School Geographic Inquiry Class (United States)

    Kuisma, Merja


    This study aimed at modifying a teaching and learning model for a geographic inquiry to enhance both the subject-related skills of geography and so-called twenty-first century skills in middle-school students (14-15 years old). The purpose of this research is to extend our understanding of the user experiences concerning certain tools for learning…

  6. Preparing Teacher-Students for Twenty-First-Century Learning Practices (PREP 21): A Framework for Enhancing Collaborative Problem-Solving and Strategic Learning Skills (United States)

    Häkkinen, Päivi; Järvelä, Sanna; Mäkitalo-Siegl, Kati; Ahonen, Arto; Näykki, Piia; Valtonen, Teemu


    With regard to the growing interest in developing teacher education to match the twenty-first-century skills, while many assumptions have been made, there has been less theoretical elaboration and empirical research on this topic. The aim of this article is to present our pedagogical framework for the twenty-first-century learning practices in…

  7. 76 FR 4838 - Implementation of the Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act of 2010... (United States)


    ...., vocational rehabilitation programs, assistive technology programs, or schools for the deaf, blind or deaf... individual's disability. Such professionals would include, but not be limited to, a vocational rehabilitation... inquiries on the equipment needs and preferences of the deaf-blind community, the Commission does not...

  8. 77 FR 24632 - Implementing the Provisions of the Communications Act of 1934, as Enacted by the Twenty-First... (United States)


    ... of the Act requires web browsers included on mobile phones to be accessible to and usable by... Number, 3060-1167, in your correspondence. The Commission will also accept your comments via the Internet... Complaints and Inquiries.'' As required by the Privacy Act, 5 U.S.C. 552a, the Commission also published a...

  9. Us, them, and others: reflections on Canadian multiculturalism and national identity at the turn of the twenty-first century. (United States)

    Winter, Elke


    The John Porter Lecture at the annual meeting of the Canadian Sociological Association in Victoria 2013 draws upon my book Us, Them, and Others: Pluralism and National Identity in Diverse Societies. Incorporating the findings from an analysis of Canadian English-language newspaper discourses during the 1990s into a theoretical framework inspired by Weberian sociology, the book argues that pluralism is best understood as a dynamic set of triangular relations where the compromise between unequal groups--"us" and "others"--is rendered meaningful through the confrontation with real or imagined outsiders ("them"). The lecture summarizes the theoretical contribution and explains how multiculturalism became consolidated in dominant Canadian discourses in the late 1990s. The lecture then discusses changes to Canadian multicultural identity at the beginning of the twenty-first century.

  10. The horror of stigma: psychosis and mental health care environments in twenty-first-century horror film (part II). (United States)

    Goodwin, John


    This paper highlights the specific manner in which twenty-first-century horror films stigmatize psychosis and mental health care environments (MHCEs) A search on various film forums using the terms "mental/psychiatric patient," "psychosis/psychoses," and "mental/psychiatric hospital" (limited from 2000 to 2012) revealed 55 films. A literature review revealed criteria for a checklist. Subsequent to viewings, salient recurring criteria were added to the checklist. Films were systematically analyzed under these criteria. Homicidal maniacs are the most common stereotypes. Misinformation is often communicated. Familiar horror tropes are used to stigmatize MHCEs. Practitioners should be aware of the specific manner in which clients are being stigmatized by the media. This paper highlights specific ways in which psychosis and MHCEs are stigmatized, and encourages practitioners to challenge these depictions. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Internet Inquiry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This collection of dialogues is the only textbook of its kind. Internet Inquiry: Conversations About Method takes students into the minds of top internet researchers as they discuss how they have worked through critical challenges as they research online social environments. Editors Annette N....... Markham and Nancy K. Baym illustrate that good research choices are not random but are deliberate, studied, and internally consistent. Rather than providing single "how to" answers, this book presents distinctive and divergent viewpoints on how to think about and conduct qualitative internet studies....

  12. Maternal death inquiry and response in India - the impact of contextual factors on defining an optimal model to help meet critical maternal health policy objectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalter Henry D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal death reviews have been utilized in several countries as a means of identifying social and health care quality issues affecting maternal survival. From 2005 to 2009, a standardized community-based maternal death inquiry and response initiative was implemented in eight Indian states with the aim of addressing critical maternal health policy objectives. However, state-specific contextual factors strongly influenced the effort's success. This paper examines the impact and implications of the contextual factors. Methods We identified community, public health systems and governance related contextual factors thought to affect the implementation, utilization and up-scaling of the death inquiry process. Then, according to selected indicators, we documented the contextual factors' presence and their impact on the process' success in helping meet critical maternal health policy objectives in four districts of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal. Based on this assessment, we propose an optimal model for conducting community-based maternal death inquiries in India and similar settings. Results The death inquiry process led to increases in maternal death notification and investigation whether civil society or government took charge of these tasks, stimulated sharing of the findings in multiple settings and contributed to the development of numerous evidence-based local, district and statewide maternal health interventions. NGO inputs were essential where communities, public health systems and governance were weak and boosted effectiveness in stronger settings. Public health systems participation was enabled by responsive and accountable governance. Communities participated most successfully through India's established local governance Panchayat Raj Institutions. In one instance this led to the development of a multi-faceted intervention well-integrated at multiple levels. Conclusions The impact of several contextual

  13. The Windscale Inquiry: the public inquiry system on trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garry, A.M.


    This thesis is concerned with the Windscale Inquiry of 1977 and its effect on the public inquiry system. It focusses both on the major influences of the Windscale Inquiry process, and on the participants, their aims, motivations, expectations and achievements. It provides the most detailed examination of the Inquiry to date and, as a result, uncovers aspects of the process while have not been explored previously. The central questions of the thesis are: Was the outcome of the Windscale Inquiry inevitable or could it have reached different conclusions? and did the Windscale Inquiry demonstrate that the public inquiry system could be used by a government to reach a decision which it favoured? The thesis argues that the outcome of the Windscale Inquiry was almost inevitable. In fact it was found that the Inspector had made up his mind in favour of oxide reprocessing before the Inquiry opened. However, this finding does not express fully the Inquiry's impact, because, as the thesis shows, the Inquiry became a mechanism which forced the nuclear industry and the government to explain, and substantially alter, some parts of their policies. The process of bringing the government and industry to account, did not alter the THORP decision, but it demonstrated that any subsequent inquiries could subject nuclear developments to searching criticism and investigation. Indeed it is suggested that the Windscale Inquiry made it impossible for subsequent Governments to proceed with nuclear expansion without subjecting them to the public inquiry process. Part I of the thesis examines the history and structure of the public Inquiry system and the relevant aspects of planning law. Part II describes the history of reprocessing and the themes which led to the public inquiry being established. Part III forms the most detailed part of the thesis and examines the Windscale Inquiry process focussing on the participants and the issues involved. (author)

  14. Future projections of synoptic weather types over the Arabian Peninsula during the twenty-first century using an ensemble of CMIP5 models

    KAUST Repository

    El Kenawy, Ahmed M.; McCabe, Matthew


    An assessment of future change in synoptic conditions over the Arabian Peninsula throughout the twenty-first century was performed using 20 climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) database. We employed the mean

  15. Projected Changes on the Global Surface Wave Drift Climate towards the END of the Twenty-First Century (United States)

    Carrasco, Ana; Semedo, Alvaro; Behrens, Arno; Weisse, Ralf; Breivik, Øyvind; Saetra, Øyvind; Håkon Christensen, Kai


    The global wave-induced current (the Stokes Drift - SD) is an important feature of the ocean surface, with mean values close to 10 cm/s along the extra-tropical storm tracks in both hemispheres. Besides the horizontal displacement of large volumes of water the SD also plays an important role in the ocean mix-layer turbulence structure, particularly in stormy or high wind speed areas. The role of the wave-induced currents in the ocean mix-layer and in the sea surface temperature (SST) is currently a hot topic of air-sea interaction research, from forecast to climate ranges. The SD is mostly driven by wind sea waves and highly sensitive to changes in the overlaying wind speed and direction. The impact of climate change in the global wave-induced current climate will be presented. The wave model WAM has been forced by the global climate model (GCM) ECHAM5 wind speed (at 10 m height) and ice, for present-day and potential future climate conditions towards the end of the end of the twenty-first century, represented by the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) CMIP3 (Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project phase 3) A1B greenhouse gas emission scenario (usually referred to as a ''medium-high emissions'' scenario). Several wave parameters were stored as output in the WAM model simulations, including the wave spectra. The 6 hourly and 0.5°×0.5°, temporal and space resolution, wave spectra were used to compute the SD global climate of two 32-yr periods, representative of the end of the twentieth (1959-1990) and twenty-first (1969-2100) centuries. Comparisons of the present climate run with the ECMWF (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) ERA-40 reanalysis are used to assess the capability of the WAM-ECHAM5 runs to produce realistic SD results. This study is part of the WRCP-JCOMM COWCLIP (Coordinated Ocean Wave Climate Project) effort.

  16. Evolution and modulation of tropical heating from the last glacial maximum through the twenty-first century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyos, Carlos D.; Webster, Peter J. [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Atlanta, GA (United States)


    Twentieth century observations show that during the last 50 years the sea-surface temperature (SST) of the tropical oceans has increased by {proportional_to}0.5 C and the area of SST >26.5 and 28 C (arbitrarily referred to as the oceanic warm pool: OWP) by 15 and 50% respectively in association with an increase in green house gas concentrations, with non-understood natural variability or a combination of both. Based on CMIP3 projections the OWP is projected to double during twenty-first century in a moderate CO{sub 2} forcing scenario (IPCC A1B scenario). However, during the observational period the area of positive atmospheric heating (referred to as the dynamic warm pool, DWP), has remained constant. The threshold SST (T{sub H}), which demarks the region of net heating and cooling, has increased from 26.6 C in the 1950s to 27.1 C in the last decade and it is projected to increase to {proportional_to}28.5 C by 2100. Based on climate model simulations, the area of the DWP is projected to remain constant during the twenty-first century. Analysis of the paleoclimate model intercomparison project (PMIP I and II) simulations for the Last Glacial maximum and the Mid-Holocene periods show a very similar behaviour, with a larger OWP in periods of elevated tropical SST, and an almost constant DWP associated with a varying T{sub H}. The constancy of the DWP area, despite shifts in the background SST, is shown to be the result of a near exact matching between increases in the integrated convective heating within the DWP and the integrated radiative cooling outside the DWP as SST changes. Although the area of the DWP remains constant, the total tropical atmospheric heating is a strong function of the SST. For example the net heating has increased by about 10% from 1950 to 2000 and it is projected to increase by a further 20% by 2100. Such changes must be compensated by a more vigorous atmospheric circulation, with growth in convective heating within the warm pool, and an

  17. Open Educational Resources in Support of Science Learning: Tools for Inquiry and Observation (United States)

    Scanlon, Eileen


    This article focuses on the potential of free tools, particularly inquiry tools for influencing participation in twenty-first-century learning in science, as well as influencing the development of communities around tools. Two examples are presented: one on the development of an open source tool for structured inquiry learning that can bridge the…

  18. Building Interdisciplinary Leadership Skills among Health Practitioners in the Twenty-First Century: An Innovative Training Model. (United States)

    Negandhi, Preeti; Negandhi, Himanshu; Tiwari, Ritika; Sharma, Kavya; Zodpey, Sanjay P; Quazi, Zahiruddin; Gaidhane, Abhay; Jayalakshmi N; Gijare, Meenakshi; Yeravdekar, Rajiv


    Transformational learning is the focus of twenty-first century global educational reforms. In India, there is a need to amalgamate the skills and knowledge of medical, nursing, and public health practitioners and to develop robust leadership competencies among them. This initiative proposed to identify interdisciplinary leadership competencies among Indian health practitioners and to develop a training program for interdisciplinary leadership skills through an Innovation Collaborative. Medical, nursing, and public health institutions partnered in this endeavor. An exhaustive literature search was undertaken to identify leadership competencies in these three professions. Published evidence was utilized in searching for the need for interdisciplinary training of health practitioners, including current scenarios in interprofessional health education and the key competencies required. The interdisciplinary leadership competencies identified were self-awareness, vision, self-regulation, motivation, decisiveness, integrity, interpersonal communication skills, strategic planning, team building, innovation, and being an effective change agent. Subsequently, a training program was developed, and three training sessions were piloted with 66 participants. Each cohort comprised a mix of participants from different disciplines. The pilot training guided the development of a training model for building interdisciplinary leadership skills and organizing interdisciplinary leadership workshops. The need for interdisciplinary leadership competencies is recognized. The long-term objective of the training model is integration into the regular medical, nursing, and public health curricula, with the aim of developing interdisciplinary leadership skills among them. Although challenging, formal incorporation of leadership skills into health professional education is possible within the interdisciplinary classroom setting using principles of transformative learning.

  19. Shelter and indoor air in the twenty-first century--radon, smoking, and lung cancer risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.


    Recognition that radon and its daughter products may accumulate to high levels in homes and in the workplace has led to concern about the potential lung cancer risk resulting from indoor domestic exposure. While such risks can be estimated with current dosimetric and epidemiological models for excess relative risks, it must be recognized that these models are based on data from occupational exposure and from underground miners' mortality experience. Several assumptions are required to apply risk estimates from an occupational setting to the indoor domestic environment. Analyses of the relevant data do not lead to a conclusive description of the interaction between radon daughters and cigarette smoking for the induction of lung cancer. The evidence compels the conclusion that indoor radon daughter exposure in homes represents a potential life-threatening public health hazard, particularly in males, and in cigarette smokers. Resolution of complex societal interactions will require public policy decisions involving the governmental, scientific, financial, and industrial sectors. These decisions impact the home, the workplace, and the marketplace, and they extend beyond the constraints of science. Risk identification, assessment, and management require scientific and engineering approaches to guide policy decisions to protect the public health. Mitigation and control procedures are only beginning to receive attention. Full acceptance for protection against what could prove to be a significant public health hazard in the twenty-first century will certainly involve policy decisions, not by scientists, but rather by men and women of government and law

  20. Watershed-scale response to climate change through the twenty-first century for selected basins across the United States (United States)

    Hay, Lauren E.; Markstrom, Steven; Ward-Garrison, Christian D.


    The hydrologic response of different climate-change emission scenarios for the twenty-first century were evaluated in 14 basins from different hydroclimatic regions across the United States using the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS), a process-based, distributed-parameter watershed model. This study involves four major steps: 1) setup and calibration of the PRMS model in 14 basins across the United States by local U.S. Geological Survey personnel; 2) statistical downscaling of the World Climate Research Programme’s Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 climate-change emission scenarios to create PRMS input files that reflect these emission scenarios; 3) run PRMS for the climate-change emission scenarios for the 14 basins; and 4) evaluation of the PRMS output.This paper presents an overview of this project, details of the methodology, results from the 14 basin simulations, and interpretation of these results. A key finding is that the hydrological response of the different geographical regions of the United States to potential climate change may be very different, depending on the dominant physical processes of that particular region. Also considered is the tremendous amount of uncertainty present in the climate emission scenarios and how this uncertainty propagates through the hydrologic simulations. This paper concludes with a discussion of the lessons learned and potential for future work.

  1. The era of the wandering mind? Twenty-first century research on self-generated mental activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicity eCallard


    Full Text Available The first decade of the twenty-first century was characterized by renewed scientific interest in self-generated mental activity (activity largely generated by the individual, rather than in response to experimenters’ instructions or specific external sensory inputs. To understand this renewal of interest, we interrogated the peer-reviewed literature from 2003–2012 (i to explore recent changes in use of terms for self-generated mental activity; (ii to investigate changes in the topics on which mind wandering research, specifically, focuses; and (iii to visualize co-citation communities amongst researchers working on self-generated mental activity. Our analyses demonstrated that there has been a dramatic increase in the term mind wandering, and a significant crossing-over of psychological investigations of mind wandering, specifically, into cognitive neuroscience. If this is, indeed, the ‘era of the wandering mind’, our paper calls for more explicit reflection to be given by mind wandering researchers to the terms they use, the topics and brain regions they focused on, and the research literatures that they implicitly foreground or ignore as not relevant.

  2. Developing Students' Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Analysis Skills in an Inquiry-Based Synthetic Organic Laboratory Course (United States)

    Weaver, Marisa G.; Samoshin, Andrey V.; Lewis, Robert B.; Gainer, Morgan J.


    A course is described where students are engaged in an inquiry-based quarter-long research project to synthesize a known pharmaceutical target. Students use literature search engines, such as Reaxys and SciFinder, and the primary chemical literature as resources to plan and perform the synthesis of their pharmaceutical target. Through this…

  3. Processfolio: Uniting Academic Literacies and Critical Emancipatory Action Research for Practitioner-Led Inquiry into EAP Writing Assessment (United States)

    Pearson, Jayne


    This article reports on the design and implementation of an alternative form of writing assessment in a UK English for Academic Purposes (EAP) pre-sessional course. The assessment, termed processfolio, was a response to research inquiry into how writing assessment in a local context negated student agency and inculcated disempowering models of…

  4. Growth of Global Publishing Output of Health Economics in the Twenty-First Century: A Bibliographic Insight. (United States)

    Jakovljevic, Mihajlo Michael; Pejcic, Ana V


    Strong growth of interdisciplinary sciences might find exceptional example in academic health economics. We decided to observe the quantitative output in this science since the beginning of the twenty-first century. Electronic search of the published literature was conducted in four different databases: one medical database-MEDLINE/PubMed, two general databases-Scopus/Elsevier and Web of Science (WoS), and one specialized health economic database-NHS Economic Evaluation Database (EED). The applied combination of key words was carefully chosen to cover the most commonly used terms in titles of publications dealing with conceptual areas of health economics. All bibliographic units were taken into account. Within the time horizon from January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2016, without language or limitations on bibliographic unit types, we identified an output ranging approximately from 60,345 to 88,246 records with applied search strategy in MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus/Elsevier, and WoS. In NHS EED, we detected 14,761 records of economic evaluations of health interventions during the period in which database was maintained and regularly updated. With slightly more than one-third of the identified records, USA clearly dominates in this field. United Kingdom takes a strong second place with about 12% of identified records. Consistently, USA and UK universities are the most frequent among the top 15 affiliations/organizations of the authors of the identified records. Authors from Harvard University contributed to the largest number of the identified records. There is a clear evidence of both the upward stream of blossoming in health economics publications and its acceleration. Based on this bibliographic data set, it is difficult to distinguish the actual impact growth of this output provided dominantly by academia with modest contribution by pharmaceutical/medicinal device industry and diverse national government-based agencies. Further insight into the citation track record of

  5. Agriculture in West Africa in the Twenty-First Century: Climate Change and Impacts Scenarios, and Potential for Adaptation (United States)

    Sultan, Benjamin; Gaetani, Marco


    West Africa is known to be particularly vulnerable to climate change due to high climate variability, high reliance on rain-fed agriculture, and limited economic and institutional capacity to respond to climate variability and change. In this context, better knowledge of how climate will change in West Africa and how such changes will impact crop productivity is crucial to inform policies that may counteract the adverse effects. This review paper provides a comprehensive overview of climate change impacts on agriculture in West Africa based on the recent scientific literature. West Africa is nowadays experiencing a rapid climate change, characterized by a widespread warming, a recovery of the monsoonal precipitation, and an increase in the occurrence of climate extremes. The observed climate tendencies are also projected to continue in the twenty-first century under moderate and high emission scenarios, although large uncertainties still affect simulations of the future West African climate, especially regarding the summer precipitation. However, despite diverging future projections of the monsoonal rainfall, which is essential for rain-fed agriculture, a robust evidence of yield loss in West Africa emerges. This yield loss is mainly driven by increased mean temperature while potential wetter or drier conditions as well as elevated CO2 concentrations can modulate this effect. Potential for adaptation is illustrated for major crops in West Africa through a selection of studies based on process-based crop models to adjust cropping systems (change in varieties, sowing dates and density, irrigation, fertilizer management) to future climate. Results of the cited studies are crop and region specific and no clear conclusions can be made regarding the most effective adaptation options. Further efforts are needed to improve modeling of the monsoon system and to better quantify the uncertainty in its changes under a warmer climate, in the response of the crops to such

  6. The traditional commons of England and Wales in the twenty-first century: meeting new and old challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Short


    Full Text Available The commons literature makes much of the changes within the traditional land use sectors of developed countries. This largely focuses on the decline of the economic function of commons that threaten their existence, the emergence of multiple use patterns, and the resilience and policy adaptation needed to continue. The situation in England and Wales is used to illustrate that commons are increasingly important to a number of ‘new’ rural functions and that the associated policy developments may hold an important message for progress towards sustainable multifunctional land management more generally. This article reviews and updates what is meant by the term common land within England and Wales, while outlining its current importance and threats. The commons literature is investigated to see if the approach is useful in revealing the current issues associated with the incorporation of new stakeholders and functions within a traditional structure. Recent changes and developments surrounding the Commons Act 2006 are assessed to see if they are likely to assist in sustaining these commons through the twenty-first century. The article argues that any new approach requires long term planning and a commitment to support local participation among commoners and others who are involved in the governance and management of these areas of land. In order for these challenges to be met there needs to be an understanding of the functions and cultural traditions of common land as well as of the changes in society associated with the decline in traditional agrarian management in developed countries. Such challenges can rarely if ever be achieved through legislation and policy developments, requiring an investment in developing locally based solutions.

  7. Lights, camera, action research: The effects of didactic digital movie making on students' twenty-first century learning skills and science content in the middle school classroom (United States)

    Ochsner, Karl

    Students are moving away from content consumption to content production. Short movies are uploaded onto video social networking sites and shared around the world. Unfortunately they usually contain little to no educational value, lack a narrative and are rarely created in the science classroom. According to new Arizona Technology standards and ISTE NET*S, along with the framework from the Partnership for 21st Century Learning Standards, our society demands students not only to learn curriculum, but to think critically, problem solve effectively, and become adept at communicating and collaborating. Didactic digital movie making in the science classroom may be one way that these twenty-first century learning skills may be implemented. An action research study using a mixed-methods approach to collect data was used to investigate if didactic moviemaking can help eighth grade students learn physical science content while incorporating 21st century learning skills of collaboration, communication, problem solving and critical thinking skills through their group production. Over a five week period, students researched lessons, wrote scripts, acted, video recorded and edited a didactic movie that contained a narrative plot to teach a science strand from the Arizona State Standards in physical science. A pretest/posttest science content test and KWL chart was given before and after the innovation to measure content learned by the students. Students then took a 21st Century Learning Skills Student Survey to measure how much they perceived that communication, collaboration, problem solving and critical thinking were taking place during the production. An open ended survey and a focus group of four students were used for qualitative analysis. Three science teachers used a project evaluation rubric to measure science content and production values from the movies. Triangulating the science content test, KWL chart, open ended questions and the project evaluation rubric, it

  8. Traditional knowledge hiding in plain sight - twenty-first century ethnobotany of the Chácobo in Beni, Bolivia. (United States)

    Paniagua Zambrana, Narel Y; Bussmann, Rainer W; Hart, Robbie E; Moya Huanca, Araceli L; Ortiz Soria, Gere; Ortiz Vaca, Milton; Ortiz Álvarez, David; Soria Morán, Jorge; Soria Morán, María; Chávez, Saúl; Chávez Moreno, Bertha; Chávez Moreno, Gualberto; Roca, Oscar; Siripi, Erlin


    The Chácobo are a Panoan speaking tribe of about 1000 members (300+ adults) in Beni, Bolivia. Originally nomadic, the Chácabo were relocated to their current main location in the 1960s. Researchers have visited the Chácabo since 1911. A first more detailed anthropological report exists from the late 1960s, and ecological-ethnobotanical studies were conducted in the 1980s and 1990s. The presented work represents a complete ethnobotanical inventory of the entire adult Chácobo population, with interviews and plant collection conducted directly by Chácobo counterparts. Based on previous reports and our preliminary studies, we hypothesized that twenty-first century Chácobo plant use centered on income generation, and that traditional plant use related to household utensils, medicine and traditional crop varieties had almost disappeared. To test this hypothesis, we started the "Chácobo Ethnobotany Project," training 10 indigenous Chácobo participants in ethnobotanical interview and plant collection techniques, in order to more fully document Chácobo knowledge and avoid the influence of foreign interviewers. Our study found 331 useful plant species in 241genera of 95 plant families, with leaves, roots and bark being the most commonly used plant parts The comprehensive documentation that these methods enabled completely nullified our initial hypothesis of knowledge loss. Traditional crop varieties are still widely grown and traditional knowledge is alive. Moreover, it is being actively recuperated in certain domains by the younger generation. Most Chácobo know, and can name, traditional utensils and tools, although only the older generation has still the skills to manufacture them. While many Chácobo still know the names and uses of medicinal species, the younger generation is however often unsure how to identify them. In this paper we illustrate the complexity of perspectives on knowledge at different ages, and the persistence of knowledge over almost a century

  9. Thomas Piketty’s Book “Capital in the Twenty-First Century”, Karl Marx and the Political Economy of the Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs


    Full Text Available Thomas Piketty’s book Capital in the Twenty-First Century has resulted in a sustained political and academic debate about capitalism in the 21st century. This article discusses the relevance of the book in the context of Karl Marx’s works and the political economy of the Internet. It identifies 3 common reactions to Piketty’s book: 1 dignification; 2 denigration of the work’s integrity; 3 the denial of any parallel to Marx. I argue that all three reactions do not help the task of creating a New Left that is urgently needed in the situation of sustained capitalist crisis. Marxists will certainly view Piketty’s analysis of capitalism and political suggestions critically. I argue that they should however not dismiss them, but like Marx and Engels aim to radicalise reform suggestions. In relation to the Internet, this paper discusses especially how insights from Piketty’s book can inform the discussion of tax avoidance by transnational Internet companies such as Google, Facebook and Amazon. For establishing an alternative, non-commercial, non-capitalist Internet one can draw insights about institutional reforms and progressive capital taxation from Piketty that can be radicalised in order to ground radical-reformist Internet politics. “The daily struggle for reforms, for the amelioration of the condition of the workers within the framework of the existing social order, and for democratic institutions, offers to the social democracy the only means of engaging in the proletarian class war and working in the direction of the final goal-the conquest of political power and the suppression of wage labor. Between social reforms and revolution there exists for the social democracy an indissoluble tie. The struggle for reforms is its means; the social revolution, its aim” (Rosa Luxemburg 1899, 41.

  10. High Religiosity and Societal Dysfunction in the United States during the First Decade of the Twenty-First Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Georges Delamontagne


    Full Text Available This study provides independent empirical evidence that bears upon the truth or falsity of recently formulated hypotheses regarding reciprocal relationships between levels of religiosity and societal dysfunction. Gregory S. Paul's findings, published in the Journal of Religion and Society (2005, Free Inquiry (2008, and Evolutionary Psychology (2009, have demonstrated that high degrees of theism are associated with high degrees of societal dysfunction among the prosperous democracies. Whereas his research employs numerous scatter diagrams and bivariate correlations involving measures of religiosity and societal dysfunction pertaining to 17 nation states, the current study's units of analysis are the 50 states and the District of Columbia. Additionally, the utilization of multiple regression analysis allows the detection of the effects of other potentially relevant explanatory variables, such as educational attainment, income level, and race. The findings are only minimally supportive of Paul's hypotheses regarding the contributions of high religiosity to societal dysfunction and to the effects of societal dysfunction upon religiosity. Simultaneously, the results of correlational and regression analyses attest to the more substantial explanatory power of the social inequality variables of education, income, and race. Accordingly, it is argued that “American Exceptionalism,” when understood as referring to a society manifesting the coexistence of high levels of theism and high levels of societal dysfunction, is best explained by the United States' high degree of social inequality, compared with other modern industrialized democracies.

  11. Proliferation and Nonproliferation in the Early Twenty-First Century. The Permanent Five Hold the Key to Success

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoro, David


    are. Its core finding is that much of the success against proliferation will be determined by the role played by the permanent members of the Security Council, the so-called Permanent Five or P-5 (China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States). It is unclear, however, whether the Five will be able and willing to play this role adequately. The developments of the first decade of the twenty-first century have not been comforting for nonproliferation. Proliferation challenges have risen and grown more complex. In response, policy tools have been developed, but their effectiveness has suffered from divisions among the P-5 and between them and the NAM states. Half a century since Ikle's article and a decade since Roberts' review, the major powers have remained at a loss to address the threat of proliferation. Winning is still possible, but it will require more than wishful thinking. In the years ahead, the challenge will be to reconcile policy effectiveness with policy legitimacy, be it to restore compliance altogether or to prevent proliferation, counter it, detect and expose noncompliance, and manage nonproliferation failures. Meeting this challenge places the P-5 at the center-stage. Much of the success against proliferation will be determined by the role that the Five choose to play. But given current shifts in international power structures (what Joseph Nye calls 'the rise of the rest') the prospects appear uncertain.68 It is important, therefore, that further research focuses on how the P-5 role can be strengthened to address proliferation, and how this role can be better aligned with today's evolving international trends

  12. A Mind of Their Own: Using Inquiry-based Teaching to Build Critical Thinking Skills and Intellectual Engagement in an Undergraduate Neuroanatomy Course. (United States)

    Greenwald, Ralf R; Quitadamo, Ian J


    A changing undergraduate demographic and the need to help students develop advanced critical thinking skills in neuroanatomy courses has prompted many faculty to consider new teaching methods including clinical case studies. This study compared primarily conventional and inquiry-based clinical case (IBCC) teaching methods to determine which would produce greater gains in critical thinking and content knowledge. Results showed students in the conventional neuroanatomy course gained less than 3 national percentile ranks while IBCC students gained over 7.5 within one academic term using the valid and reliable California Critical Thinking Skills Test. In addition to 2.5 times greater gains in critical thinking, IBCC teaching methods also produced 12% greater final exam performance and 11% higher grades using common grade performance benchmarks. Classroom observations also indicated that IBCC students were more intellectually engaged and participated to a greater extent in classroom discussions. Through the results of this study, it is hoped that faculty who teach neuroanatomy and desire greater critical thinking and content student learning outcomes will consider using the IBCC method.

  13. Application of the Intervention Mapping Framework to Develop an Integrated Twenty-first Century Core Curriculum-Part Two: Translation of MPH Core Competencies into an Integrated Theory-Based Core Curriculum. (United States)

    Corvin, Jaime A; DeBate, Rita; Wolfe-Quintero, Kate; Petersen, Donna J


    In the twenty-first century, the dynamics of health and health care are changing, necessitating a commitment to revising traditional public health curricula to better meet present day challenges. This article describes how the College of Public Health at the University of South Florida utilized the Intervention Mapping framework to translate revised core competencies into an integrated, theory-driven core curriculum to meet the training needs of the twenty-first century public health scholar and practitioner. This process resulted in the development of four sequenced courses: History and Systems of Public Health and Population Assessment I delivered in the first semester and Population Assessment II and Translation to Practice delivered in the second semester. While the transformation process, moving from traditional public health core content to an integrated and innovative curriculum, is a challenging and daunting task, Intervention Mapping provides the ideal framework for guiding this process. Intervention mapping walks the curriculum developers from the broad goals and objectives to the finite details of a lesson plan. Throughout this process, critical lessons were learned, including the importance of being open to new ideologies and frameworks and the critical need to involve key-stakeholders in every step of the decision-making process to ensure the sustainability of the resulting integrated and theory-based curriculum. Ultimately, as a stronger curriculum emerged, the developers and instructors themselves were changed, fostering a stronger public health workforce from within.

  14. Solving the problems we face: the United States Environmental Protection Agency, sustainability, and the challenges of the twenty-first century (United States)

    Addressing the problems of the twenty-first century will require new initiatives that complement traditional regulatory activities. Existing regulations, such as the Clean Air Act and Clean Water Act are important safety nets in the United States for protecting human health and t...

  15. Sea-level rise and its possible impacts given a ‘beyond 4°C world’ in the twenty-first century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nicholls, R.; Marinova, N.A.; Lowe, J.; Brown, S.; Vellinga, P.


    The range of future climate-induced sea-level rise remains highly uncertain with continued concern that large increases in the twenty-first century cannot be ruled out. The biggest source of uncertainty is the response of the large ice sheets of Greenland and west Antarctica. Based on our analysis,

  16. Use of Comics to Enhance Students' Learning for the Development of the Twenty-First Century Competencies in the Mathematics Classroom (United States)

    Toh, Tin Lam; Cheng, Lu Pien; Ho, Siew Yin; Jiang, Heng; Lim, Kam Ming


    This paper discusses the use of comics in teaching mathematics in the secondary mathematics classroom. We explicate how the use of comics in teaching mathematics can prepare students for the twenty-first century competencies. We developed an alternative teaching package using comics for two lower secondary mathematics topics. This alternative…

  17. Teaching for Social Justice, Social Responsibility and Social Inclusion: A Respectful Pedagogy for Twenty-First Century Early Childhood Education (United States)

    Hawkins, Karen


    Drawing on a Participatory Action Research (PAR) study that was undertaken in two Australian preschool settings this article examines strategies that support the pedagogy of teaching for social justice and outlines how these strategies raised critical consciousness of both preschoolers (aged three to five years) and early childhood educators to…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Carlos dos Santos


    Full Text Available A crítica de muitos à globalização é conseqüência dos rumos que ela está tomando. Embora a globalização seja um processo dinâmico em andamento, o seu avanço tem ocorrido de forma desequilibrada, gerando instabilidade política, econômica e social em várias regiões do planeta. O presente trabalho procura, de forma teórica, mostrar a falta da globalização social como um dos fatores que tem provocado desequilíbrio na dinâmica do processo de globalização. Pelo lado econômico, observa-se que a globalização ocorre de forma acelerada e já alcança os mais distantes pontos da face da Terra, ao passo que, pelo lado social, observa-se que a globalização está ausente em algumas regiões e, em outro tanto, ela ocorre de forma lenta e sem muito interesse. De nada vale os benefícios da globalização econômica se não existir a globalização social. Esse e o desafio do século XXI.The criticism of many of globalization is a consequence of directions it is taking. While globalization is a dynamic process in progress, its progress has occurred so unbalanced, creating politicalinstability, economic and social development in various regions of the planet. This paper demand, so theoretically, show the lack of social globalisation as one of the factors that have causedimbalance in the dynamics of the globalization process. On the economic side there is that globalization occurs so rapidly and have reached the most distant points of the face of theEarth, while the social side, there is that globalisation is absent in some regions, and in another both, it happens so slowly and without much interest. It is not worth the benefits of economicglobalization if there is the social globalisation. That and the challenge of the twenty-first century.

  19. Managing Method: A Critical Inquiry into Language Policy in a Tertiary Institution in the United Arab Emirates (United States)

    Hunt, Neil D.


    The development of critical sensibilities in English Language Teaching (ELT) in recent years has seen challenges to assumptions and methodologies in the field, placing an explicit focus on the manifestation of structures and relations of power. The critical stance affords a growing acceptance of English Language Teaching as a complex situated…

  20. Race and Ability Talk in Early Childhood: Critical Inquiry into Shared Book Reading Practices with Pre-Service Teachers (United States)

    Beneke, Margaret Rose


    In early childhood contexts, reading literature to engage children in critical discussions about ability and race--and how it impacts their daily lives--is a promising practice. Indeed, critical literacy scholars see the use of language, text, and discourse structures as powerful ways to address inequity in educational settings (Gainer, 2013;…

  1. Labor productivity losses over western Turkey in the twenty-first century as a result of alteration in WBGT. (United States)

    Altinsoy, Hamza; Yildirim, Haci Ahmet


    Occupational fatalities and work-related injuries are more common in Turkey than in most developing and developed countries. Several precautions have been taken concerning the matter, and The Occupational Health and Safety Act (OHSL 2012) has been passed. These efforts, however, have failed to incorporate in their framework the role of global warming. New legislation is underway for the prevention of occupational diseases, injuries, and fatalities. This is particularly worrisome given that Turkey is in the forefront of countries projected to be affected seriously by climate change. Consequently, a study on the direct and indirect impact of climate change on workers' health and labour productivity is paramount. The main purpose of this research is to present diminishing labour productivity as a consequence of decreased working hours via an estimate of rest hours of workers in manual labour. The climatic outputs of Regional Climate Model (RegCM3) obtained from the ENSEMBLES Project are used to calculate the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) over western Turkey. The study covers the span of years between 1971 and 2100. Moreover, spatial distributions of observed domain are estimated by means of a seasonal analysis, preliminary to a more detailed research. Critical regions, more adversely influenced than others, are identified. The total number of loss days for these critical regions are presented for various time periods. As a result, labour productivity particularly in agriculture and construction is expected to diminish seriously over Central Anatolia, Cyprus, and parts of the Aegean and eastern Mediterranean coastal areas. Between 2071 and 2100, deficiency in labour productivity may reach up to 52% during the summer across some of these critical regions. Though it will be seen that the present study has focused primarily on manual labour and outdoor work in particular, it foreshadows nevertheless the dangerous impact of climate change on occupational health and

  2. Labor productivity losses over western Turkey in the twenty-first century as a result of alteration in WBGT (United States)

    Altinsoy, Hamza; Yildirim, Haci Ahmet


    Occupational fatalities and work-related injuries are more common in Turkey than in most developing and developed countries. Several precautions have been taken concerning the matter, and The Occupational Health and Safety Act (OHSL 2012) has been passed. These efforts, however, have failed to incorporate in their framework the role of global warming. New legislation is underway for the prevention of occupational diseases, injuries, and fatalities. This is particularly worrisome given that Turkey is in the forefront of countries projected to be affected seriously by climate change. Consequently, a study on the direct and indirect impact of climate change on workers' health and labour productivity is paramount. The main purpose of this research is to present diminishing labour productivity as a consequence of decreased working hours via an estimate of rest hours of workers in manual labour. The climatic outputs of Regional Climate Model (RegCM3) obtained from the ENSEMBLES Project are used to calculate the wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT) over western Turkey. The study covers the span of years between 1971 and 2100. Moreover, spatial distributions of observed domain are estimated by means of a seasonal analysis, preliminary to a more detailed research. Critical regions, more adversely influenced than others, are identified. The total number of loss days for these critical regions are presented for various time periods. As a result, labour productivity particularly in agriculture and construction is expected to diminish seriously over Central Anatolia, Cyprus, and parts of the Aegean and eastern Mediterranean coastal areas. Between 2071 and 2100, deficiency in labour productivity may reach up to 52 % during the summer across some of these critical regions. Though it will be seen that the present study has focused primarily on manual labour and outdoor work in particular, it foreshadows nevertheless the dangerous impact of climate change on occupational health and

  3. Changing ideas in forestry: A comparison of concepts in Swedish and American forestry journals during the early twentieth and twenty-first centuries. (United States)

    Mårald, Erland; Langston, Nancy; Sténs, Anna; Moen, Jon


    By combining digital humanities text-mining tools and a qualitative approach, we examine changing concepts in forestry journals in Sweden and the United States (US) in the early twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. Our first hypothesis is that foresters at the beginning of the twentieth century were more concerned with production and less concerned with ecology than foresters at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Our second hypothesis is that US foresters in the early twentieth century were less concerned with local site conditions than Swedish foresters. We find that early foresters in both countries had broader-and often ecologically focused-concerns than hypothesized. Ecological concerns in the forestry literature have increased, but in the Nordic countries, production concerns have increased as well. In both regions and both time periods, timber management is closely connected to concerns about governance and state power, but the forms that governance takes have changed.

  4. Historical Approach to the Role of Women in the Legislation of Iran: A Case Study on the Twenty-First Parliament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Sheibani


    Full Text Available One hundred and ten years ago, men and women took constitutionalism to achieve justice in Iran. National Council was the result of the Iranian people's struggle for justice, both women and men. Men policies from the beginning of legislation put women as minors and lunatics and bankrupted and banned them from vote. However, the Constitutional Revolution as a turning point and a national revolution played a key role in changing attitudes to women and structural context of their participation provided. In this paper, with the use of descriptive-analytical as well as quantitative methods, we sought to answer the question that what was the position of women in the twenty-first Parliament. The results of this study suggest that when Iranian women were allowed to participate politics, they have achieved to show their ability in politics as we saw examples in the twenty-first Parliament in which women had twenty-two percent participation.

  5. Proceedings of the Fifth Seminar of High Temperature Reactor: The Role and Challenge with HTR Opportunity in the Twenty-first Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As-Natio-Lasman; Zaki-Su'ud; Bambang-Sugiono


    The Seminar in HTR Reactor has become routine activities held in BATAN since 1994. This Seminar is a continuation of the Seminar on Technology and HTR Application held by Centre for Development of Advanced Reactor System. The theme of the seminar is Role, Challenge, Opportunity of HTR in the Twenty-first Century. Thirteen papers presented in the seminar were collected into proceedings. The aims of the proceedings is to provide information and references on nuclear technology, mainly on HTR technology. (DII)

  6. Change and Continuity in Librarianship: Approaching the Twenty-First Century. Proceedings of the 40th Military Librarians Workshop, 20-22 November 1996, Annapolis, Maryland, (United States)


    Novembecr 1996 Arinarolis, Maryland1 rDIO QUALMTY DZEOTN I VIBYKUTON UrtAIK=yg A Change and Continuity in Librarianship : Approaching the Twenty-first...speakers Walt Crawford (Keynote), speaking on "Millennial Librarianship ;" Dr. Keith Swigger, Dean of the Graduate School of Library and Information...1 --Richard Hume Werking Millennial Librarianship : Maintaining the Mix and Avoiding the Hype .................. 2 --Walt Crawford

  7. Lessons from the Sizewell B inquiry: how to make major public inquiries into energy projects fair and efficient. Address to the parliamentary group for energy studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Riordan, T.; Purdue, M.; Kemp, R.


    The paper is an address to the Parliamentary Group for Energy Studies, and concerns an appraisal of the Sizewell B Inquiry. The unique nature of the Inquiry is described, and an assessment of the Inquiry is given. Based on the main criticisms of the Inquiry, proposals for the reform of future major public inquiries are put forward.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Balga Rodrigues


    Full Text Available This paper aims to reflect on the current training of foreign language teachers and their ability to face the pressures and challenges that teaching practice imposes today. Since globalization has been present in the quotidian life at the end of the twentieth century, we see increasing mobilities, exchanges and interactions between peoples and cultures. The learning of a foreign language has become a growing demand and the “linguistic marketplace”, according to Bourdieu (1982 and Calvet (2002, exposes its characteristics and rules. Language courses, proficiency certification tests and didactic material proliferate all the time; new approaches in language teaching are discussed; new specific objectives emerge. How to prepare the students of Letters to face the pressures of the market and the new challenges of the teaching practice? It is up to the faculties of Letters to rethink the professional and intellectual education of the future foreign language teachers, not forgetting the demands of the market, but being mainly concerned with the development of their autonomy and the critical reflection on their practices.

  9. Pragmatic inquiry and creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimmler, Antje

    ’Don’t block the road of inquiry” was the motto of Peirce and also Dewey situated inquiry in its ideal version in a democratic and cooperative community. Abduction became the key concept for the pragmatic and creative research process where the lonely engineer is substituted with intelligent...... collaborations of the many. Thus, inquiry is from a pragmatic understanding rather a social than a purely cognitive task. The paper will firstly give a sketch of this understanding of inquiry and creativity on the background of the theories of Peirce and Dewey and will draw some parallels to recent...... of Thevenot’s critical pragmatism this understanding might be naïve – not because this is an idealistic rather than a real-life scenario but because the idea of collaborative creativity and self-realization has actually become the driving force in a marked dominated organization of science and production...

  10. Twenty-first century wave climate projections for Ireland and surface winds in the North Atlantic Ocean (United States)

    Gallagher, Sarah; Gleeson, Emily; Tiron, Roxana; McGrath, Ray; Dias, Frédéric


    Ireland has a highly energetic wave and wind climate, and is therefore uniquely placed in terms of its ocean renewable energy resource. The socio-economic importance of the marine resource to Ireland makes it critical to quantify how the wave and wind climate may change in the future due to global climate change. Projected changes in winds, ocean waves and the frequency and severity of extreme weather events should be carefully assessed for long-term marine and coastal planning. We derived an ensemble of future wave climate projections for Ireland using the EC-Earth global climate model and the WAVEWATCH III® wave model, by comparing the future 30-year period 2070-2099 to the period 1980-2009 for the RCP4.5 and the RCP8.5 forcing scenarios. This dataset is currently the highest resolution wave projection dataset available for Ireland. The EC-Earth ensemble predicts decreases in mean (up to 2 % for RCP4.5 and up to 3.5 % for RCP8.5) 10 m wind speeds over the North Atlantic Ocean (5-75° N, 0-80° W) by the end of the century, which will consequently affect swell generation for the Irish wave climate. The WAVEWATCH III® model predicts an overall decrease in annual and seasonal mean significant wave heights around Ireland, with the largest decreases in summer (up to 15 %) and winter (up to 10 %) for RCP8.5. Projected decreases in mean significant wave heights for spring and autumn were found to be small for both forcing scenarios (less than 5 %), with no significant decrease found for RCP4.5 off the west coast in those seasons.

  11. Critical Inquiry for the Social Good: Methodological Work as a Means for Truth-Telling in Education (United States)

    Kuntz, Aaron M.; Pickup, Austin


    This article questions the ubiquity of the term "critical" in methodological scholarship, calling for a renewed association of the term with projects concerned with social justice, truth-telling, and overt articulations of the social good. Drawing on Michel Foucault's work with parrhesia (or truth-telling) and Aristotle's articulation of…

  12. Deweyan Darwinism for the Twenty-First Century: Toward an Educational Method for Critical Democratic Engagement in the Era of the Institute of Education Sciences (United States)

    Seltzer-Kelly, Deborah


    Our society's preoccupation with making educational policy and practice "scientific" is attested to by the stated mission of the Institute of Education Sciences: "to provide rigorous evidence on which to ground education practice and policy." Early in the twentieth century, John Dewey also advocated for a vision of education guided by science, and…

  13. Will a Twenty-First Century Logistics Management System Improve Federal Emergency Management Agency's Capability to Deliver Supplies to Critical Areas, during Future Catastrophic Disaster Relief Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gill, Glenda A


    The United States Homeland Security's Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) must be prepared at all times to supplement state and local emergency personnel, or to provide logistics support during disaster relief operations...

  14. Inquiry-Based Science Education Competencies of Primary School Teachers: A Literature Study and Critical Review of the American National Science Education Standards (United States)

    Alake-Tuenter, Ester; Biemans, Harm J. A.; Tobi, Hilde; Wals, Arjen E. J.; Oosterheert, Ida; Mulder, Martin


    Inquiry-based science education is an important innovation. Researchers and teachers consider it to be stimulating for pupils' application of research skills, construction of meaning and acquiring scientific knowledge. However, there is ambiguity as to what competencies are required to teach inquiry-based science. Our purpose is to develop a…

  15. Twenty-First-Century Kids, Twenty-First-Century Librarians (United States)

    Walter, Virginia A.


    Inspired by a new generation of librarians and children, Walter reconsiders the legacy passed on by the matriarchs of children's services and examines more recent trends and challenges growing out of changes in educational philosophy and information technology. This thoroughly researched book includes the current issues and trends of: (1)…

  16. Book review of Capital in the Twenty-First Century, by Thomas Piketty. Cambridge, Massachusetts, London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard Press, 2014, 605 pages


    Paul Dobrescu; Mălina Ciocea


    “Every now and then, the field of economics produces an important book; this is one of them” (Cowen, 2014). These are the opening words of Tyler Cowen’s presentation of Thomas Piketty’s work, “Capital in the Twenty-First Century” (Piketty, 2014), in Foreign Affairs. This is a book that is visibly placed in all important bookstores around the world, widely debated, acclaimed, sold (over 1 million copies have been sold so far). It has been favorably reviewed or quoted in all major journals. The...

  17. Causes and impacts of changes in the Arctic freshwater budget during the twentieth and twenty-first centuries in an AOGCM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arzel, Olivier [University of New South Wales, Climate and Environmental Dynamics Laboratory, School of Mathematics and Statistics, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Fichefet, Thierry; Goosse, Hugues [Universite Catholique de Louvain, Institut d' Astronomie et de Geophysique G. Lemaitre, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Dufresne, Jean-Louis [Institut Pierre Simon Laplace UPMC/CNRS, Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique, Paris (France)


    The fourth version of the atmosphere-ocean general circulation (AOGCM) model developed at the Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace (IPSL-CM4) is used to investigate the mechanisms influencing the Arctic freshwater balance in response to anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing. The freshwater influence on the interannual variability of deep winter oceanic convection in the Nordic Seas is also studied on the basis of correlation and regression analyses of detrended variables. The model shows that the Fram Strait outflow, which is an important source of freshwater for the northern North Atlantic, experiences a rapid and strong transition from a weak state toward a relatively strong state during 1990-2010. The authors propose that this climate shift is triggered by the retreat of sea ice in the Barents Sea during the late twentieth century. This sea ice reduction initiates a positive feedback in the atmosphere-sea ice-ocean system that alters both the atmospheric and oceanic circulations in the Greenland-Iceland-Norwegian (GIN)-Barents Seas sector. Around year 2080, the model predicts a second transition threshold beyond which the Fram Strait outflow is restored toward its original weak value. The long-term freshening of the GIN Seas is invoked to explain this rapid transition. It is further found that the mechanism of interannual changes in deep mixing differ fundamentally between the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. This difference is caused by the dominant influence of freshwater over the twenty-first century. In the GIN Seas, the interannual changes in the liquid freshwater export out of the Arctic Ocean through Fram Strait combined with the interannual changes in the liquid freshwater import from the North Atlantic are shown to have a major influence in driving the interannual variability of the deep convection during the twenty-first century. South of Iceland, the other region of deep water renewal in the model, changes in freshwater import from the North Atlantic

  18. Does the Common Agricultural Policy still make sense in the twenty-first century? CAP after 2013 from the perspective of Poland and Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Daszkowska


    Full Text Available The EU CAP has developed immensely since the 1960’s. However, its current determinants are completely different from those which formed the CAP foundations. This results mainly from the fact that the UE CAP must meet present-day challenges and threats. Moreover, further EU enlargements also significantly influenced performance of this sector of economy. It is important to determine whether the existence of the CAP in the twenty-first century still makes sense and to specify in more detail the CAP reform directions after 2013 from the perspective of Poland and Hungary.

  19. Big inquiry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wynne, B [Lancaster Univ. (UK)


    The recently published report entitled 'The Big Public Inquiry' from the Council for Science and Society and the Outer Circle Policy Unit is considered, with especial reference to any future enquiry which may take place into the first commercial fast breeder reactor. Proposals embodied in the report include stronger rights for objectors and an attempt is made to tackle the problem that participation in a public inquiry is far too late to be objective. It is felt by the author that the CSS/OCPU report is a constructive contribution to the debate about big technology inquiries but that it fails to understand the deeper currents in the economic and political structure of technology which so influence the consequences of whatever formal procedures are evolved.

  20. Changing Curriculum: A Critical Inquiry into the Revision of the British Columbia Science Curriculum For Grades K-9 (United States)

    Searchfield, Mary A.

    In 2010 British Columbia's Ministry of Education started the process of redesigning the provincial school curriculum, Kindergarten to Grade 12. Mandatory implementation of the new curriculum was set for the 2016/17 school year for Grades K-9, and 2017/18 for Grades 10-12. With a concerted emphasis on personalized learning and through the frame of a Know-Do-Understand curriculum model, the new curriculum aims to meet the needs of today's learners, described as living in a technology-rich, fast-paced and ever-changing world, through a concept-based and competency-driven emphasis. This thesis is a critical analysis of the BC K-9 Science curriculum as written and published, looking specifically at how science is treated as a form of knowledge, its claimed presentation as a story, and on whether the intentions claimed by the designers are matched in the curriculum's final form.

  1. A Conservation Ethic and the Collecting of Animals by Institutions of Natural Heritage in the Twenty-First Century: Case Study of the Australian Museum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Ikin


    Full Text Available Collecting of animals from their habitats for preservation by museums and related bodies is a core operation of such institutions. Conservation of biodiversity in the current era is a priority in the scientific agendas of museums of natural heritage in Australia and the world. Intuitively, to take animals from the wild, while engaged in scientific or other practices that are supposed to promote their ongoing survival, may appear be incompatible. The Australian Museum presents an interesting ground to consider zoological collecting by museums in the twenty-first century. Anderson and Reeves in 1994 argued that a milieu existed that undervalued native species, and that the role of natural history museums, up to as late as the mid-twentieth century, was only to make a record the faunal diversity of Australia, which would inevitably be extinct. Despite the latter, conservation of Australia’s faunal diversity is a key aspect of research programmes in Australia’s institutions of natural heritage in the current era. This paper analyses collecting of animals, a core task for institutions of natural heritage, and how this interacts with a professed “conservation ethic” in a twenty-first century Australian setting.

  2. Book review of Capital in the Twenty-First Century, by Thomas Piketty. Cambridge, Massachusetts, London, England: The Belknap Press of Harvard Press, 2014, 605 pages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Dobrescu


    Full Text Available “Every now and then, the field of economics produces an important book; this is one of them” (Cowen, 2014. These are the opening words of Tyler Cowen’s presentation of Thomas Piketty’s work, “Capital in the Twenty-First Century” (Piketty, 2014, in Foreign Affairs. This is a book that is visibly placed in all important bookstores around the world, widely debated, acclaimed, sold (over 1 million copies have been sold so far. It has been favorably reviewed or quoted in all major journals. The assessment of “Capital in the Twenty-First Century” by Paul Krugman, Nobel Economics Prize Laureate as a “magnificent, sweeping meditation on inequality”, is highly relevant: “This is a book that will change both the way we think about society and the way we do economics” (Krugman, 2014. Finally, Piketty’s book is included in the list of the year’s best books by prestigious journals, such as The Economist, Financial Times, The Washington Post, Observer, The Independent, Daily Telegraph; Financial Times and McKinsey have hailed it as the best book of 2014.

  3. High School Students' Perceptions of the Effects of International Science Olympiad on Their STEM Career Aspirations and Twenty-First Century Skill Development (United States)

    Sahin, Alpaslan; Gulacar, Ozcan; Stuessy, Carol


    Social cognitive theory guided the design of a survey to investigate high school students' perceptions of factors affecting their career contemplations and beliefs regarding the influence of their participation in the international Science Olympiad on their subject interests and twenty-first century skills. In addition, gender differences in students' choice of competition category were studied. Mixed methods analysis of survey returns from 172 Olympiad participants from 31 countries showed that students' career aspirations were affected most by their teachers, personal interests, and parents, respectively. Students also indicated that they believed that their participation in the Olympiad reinforced their plan to choose a science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) major at college and assisted them in developing and improving their twenty-first century skills. Furthermore, female students' responses indicated that their project choices were less likely to be in the engineering category and more likely to be in the environment or energy categories. Findings are discussed in the light of increasing the awareness of the role and importance of Science Olympiads in STEM career choice and finding ways to attract more female students into engineering careers.

  4. How Has Elderly Migration Changed in the Twenty-First Century? What the Data Can-and Cannot-Tell Us. (United States)

    Conway, Karen Smith; Rork, Jonathan C


    Interstate elderly migration has strong implications for state tax policies and health care systems, yet little is known about how it has changed in the twenty-first century. Its relative rarity requires a large data set with which to construct reliable measures, and the replacement of the U.S. Census long form (CLF) with the American Community Survey (ACS) has made such updates difficult. Two commonly used alternative migration data sources-the Current Population Survey (CPS) and the Statistics of Income (SOI) program of the Internal Revenue Service (IRS)-suffer serious limitations in studying the migration of any subpopulation, including the elderly. Our study informs migration research in the post-2000 era by identifying methodological differences between data sources and devising strategies for reconciling the CLF and ACS. Our investigation focusing on the elderly suggests that the ACS can generate comparable migration data that reveal a continuation of previously identified geographic patterns as well as changes unique to the 2000s. However, its changed definition of residence and survey timing leaves us unable to construct a comparable national migration rate, suggesting that one must use national trends in the smaller CPS to investigate whether elderly migration has increased or decreased in the twenty-first century.

  5. Wicked Female Characters in Roddy Doyle’s “The Pram”: Revisiting Celtic and Polish Myths in the Context of Twenty-First Century Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Gülüm Tekin


    Full Text Available “The Pram” is the only horror story in Roddy Doyle’s collection The Deportees and Other Stories (2007. It is also unique in terms of its approach to Ireland’s multicultural scene in the twenty-first century. Doyle turns the other side of the coin and introduces a migrant caretaker (Alina, who loses her mind due to her employees’ (the O’Reilly family ill-treatment. As a reaction to their scornful attitude, Alina becomes a murderer. Set in the context of twenty-first century Dublin, “The Pram” contains various references to Celtic and Polish mythological female figures (in particular, the Old Hag of Beara and Boginka, which strengthen the thrilling, mythical elements in the plot. This paper aims to examine the characters’ negative attitude towards migrants in Ireland in the light of the racist discourse present in the story. Also, I will focus on the story’s female characters and discuss the handicaps of being a female migrant in Ireland. The parallels between the mythical female figures and the protagonist Alina will be another point to be analyzed. The argument of this paper is that Doyle does not always portray the positive outcomes of a multicultural society. On the contrary, he conveys the perspective of the incoming migrant. “The Pram” stages the obstacles that a female outsider may experience in Ireland and her subsequent transformation as a result of the racism she encounters there.

  6. Windscale inquiry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, C.M.


    The nuclear debate, far from being concluded by the Windscale decision, was in fact opened up and its scope widened to take into account the political, international, environmental and social issues involved. This debate continues and the selection of literature presented here aims to illustrate all aspects of the Inquiry and its implications. The material is presented in two main sections. Section A is concerned with the Inquiry itself: the proceedings, the report and the government's decision. Section B presents a selection of the literature and debate that resulted. (author)

  7. The uses of emotion maps in research and clinical practice with families and couples: methodological innovation and critical inquiry. (United States)

    Gabb, Jacqui; Singh, Reenee


    We explore how "emotion maps" can be productively used in clinical assessment and clinical practice with families and couples. This graphic participatory method was developed in sociological studies to examine everyday family relationships. Emotion maps enable us to effectively "see" the dynamic experience and emotional repertoires of family life. Through the use of a case example, in this article we illustrate how emotion maps can add to the systemic clinicians' repertoire of visual methods. For clinicians working with families, couples, and young people, the importance of gaining insight into how lives are lived, at home, cannot be understated. Producing emotion maps can encourage critical personal reflection and expedite change in family practice. Hot spots in the household become visualized, facilitating dialogue on prevailing issues and how these events may be perceived differently by different family members. As emotion maps are not reliant on literacy or language skills they can be equally completed by parents and children alike, enabling children's perspective to be heard. Emotion maps can be used as assessment tools, to demonstrate the process of change within families. Furthermore, emotion maps can be extended to use through technology and hence are well suited particularly to working with young people. We end the article with a wider discussion of the place of emotions and emotion maps within systemic psychotherapy. © 2014 The Authors. Family Process published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of Family Process Institute.

  8. Consideration of land-use and land-cover changes in the projection of climate extremes over North America by the end of the twenty-first century (United States)

    Alexandru, Adelina


    Changes in the essential climate extremes indices and surface variables for the end of the twenty-first century are assessed in this study based on two transient climate change simulations, with and without land-use and land-cover changes (LULCC), but identical atmospheric forcing. The two simulations are performed with the 5th generation of the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM5) driven by the Canadian Earth System Model for the (2006-2100)-Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5 (RCP4.5) scenario. For the simulation with LULCC, land-cover data sets are taken from the global change assessment model (GCAM) representing the RCP4.5 scenario for the period 2006-2100. LULCC in RCP4.5 scenario suggest significant reduction in cultivated land (e.g. Canadian Prairies and Mississippi basin) due to afforestation. CRCM5 climate projections imply a general warming by the end of the twenty-first century, especially over the northern regions in winter. CRCM5 projects more warm spell-days per year over most areas of the continent, and implicitly more summer days and tropical nights at the expense of cold-spell, frost and ice days whose number is projected to decrease by up to 40% by the end of the twenty-first century with respect to the baseline period 1971-2000. Most land areas north of 45°N, in all seasons, as well as the southeastern United States in summer, exhibit increases in mean precipitation under the RCP4.5 scenario. In contrast, central parts of the continent in summer and much of Mexico in all seasons show reduced precipitation. In addition, large areas of North America exhibit changes of 10 to 40% (depending on the season and geographical location) in the number of heavy precipitation days. Results also suggest that the biogeophysical effects of LULCC on climate, assessed through differences between the two simulations, lead to warmer regional climates, especially in winter. The investigation of processes leading to this response shows high sensitivity of the

  9. Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting. Volume 3, Primary system integrity; Aging research, products and applications; Structural and seismic engineering; Seismology and geology: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteleone, S. [comp.] [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)


    This three-volume report contains 90 papers out of the 102 that were presented at the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 25-27, 1993. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Germany, Japan, Russia, Switzerland, Taiwan, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. Selected papers were indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  10. Projected impact of climate change in the hydroclimatology of Senegal with a focus over the Lake of Guiers for the twenty-first century (United States)

    Tall, Moustapha; Sylla, Mouhamadou Bamba; Diallo, Ismaïla; Pal, Jeremy S.; Faye, Aïssatou; Mbaye, Mamadou Lamine; Gaye, Amadou Thierno


    This study analyzes the impact of anthropogenic climate change in the hydroclimatology of Senegal with a focus over the lake of Guiers basin for the middle (2041-2060) and late twenty-first century (2080-2099). To this end, high-resolution multimodel ensemble based on regional climate model experiments considering two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) is used. The results indicate that an elevated warming, leading to substantial increase of atmospheric water demand, is projected over the whole of Senegal. In the Lake basin, these increases in potential evapotranspiration (PE) range between 10 and 25 % in the near future and for RCP4.5 while for the far future and RCP8.5, they exceed 50 %. In addition, mean precipitation unveils contrasting changes with wetter (10 to 25 % more) conditions by the middle of the century and drier conditions (more than 50 %) during the late twenty-first century. Such changes cause more/less evapotranspiration and soil moisture respectively during the two future periods. Furthermore, surface runoff shows a tendency to increase in most areas amid few locations including the Lake basin with substantial reduction. Finally, it is found that while semi-arid climates develop in the RCP4.5 scenario, generalized arid conditions prevail over the whole Senegal for RCP8.5. It is thus evident that these future climate conditions substantially threaten freshwater availability for the country and irrigated cropping over the Lake basin. Therefore, strong governmental politics are needed to help design response options to cope with the challenges posed by the projected climate change for the country.

  11. Comparing Two Inquiry Professional Development Interventions in Science on Primary Students' Questioning and Other Inquiry Behaviours (United States)

    Nichols, Kim; Burgh, Gilbert; Kennedy, Callie


    Developing students' skills to pose and respond to questions and actively engage in inquiry behaviours enables students to problem solve and critically engage with learning and society. The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of providing teachers with an intervention in inquiry pedagogy alongside inquiry science curriculum in comparison to an intervention in non-inquiry pedagogy alongside inquiry science curriculum on student questioning and other inquiry behaviours. Teacher participants in the comparison condition received training in four inquiry-based science units and in collaborative strategic reading. The experimental group, the community of inquiry (COI) condition, received training in facilitating a COI in addition to training in the same four inquiry-based science units. This study involved 227 students and 18 teachers in 9 primary schools across Brisbane, Australia. The teachers were randomly allocated by school to one of the two conditions. The study followed the students across years 6 and 7 and students' discourse during small group activities was recorded, transcribed and coded for verbal inquiry behaviours. In the second year of the study, students in the COI condition demonstrated a significantly higher frequency of procedural and substantive higher-order thinking questions and other inquiry behaviours than those in the comparison condition. Implementing a COI within an inquiry science curriculum develops students' questioning and science inquiry behaviours and allows teachers to foster inquiry skills predicated by the Australian Science Curriculum. Provision of inquiry science curriculum resources alone is not sufficient to promote the questioning and other verbal inquiry behaviours predicated by the Australian Science Curriculum.

  12. Fictional Inquiry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dindler, Christian; Iversen, Ole Sejer

    At designe i en fortællemæssig ramme giver brugere og designere mulighed for i fællesskab at udforske fremtidens it-anvendelser. Metoden hedder Fictional Inquiry, og den motiverer brugerne til at tænke ud over dagligdagens begrænsninger og sætte ord på ting i hverdagen, som ellers er svære...

  13. Connecting Mathematics in Primary Science Inquiry Projects (United States)

    So, Winnie Wing-mui


    Science as inquiry and mathematics as problem solving are conjoined fraternal twins attached by their similarities but with distinct differences. Inquiry and problem solving are promoted in contemporary science and mathematics education reforms as a critical attribute of the nature of disciplines, teaching methods, and learning outcomes involving…

  14. Global Cropland Area Database (GCAD) derived from Remote Sensing in Support of Food Security in the Twenty-first Century: Current Achievements and Future Possibilities (United States)

    Teluguntla, Pardhasaradhi G.; Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Xiong, Jun N.; Gumma, Murali Krishna; Giri, Chandra; Milesi, Cristina; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Congalton, Russ; Tilton, James; Sankey, Temuulen Tsagaan; Massey, Richard; Phalke, Aparna; Yadav, Kamini


    to biofuels (Bindraban et al., 2009), limited water resources for irrigation expansion (Turral et al., 2009), limits on agricultural intensifications, loss of croplands to urbanization (Khan and Hanjra, 2008), increasing meat consumption (and associated demands on land and water) (Vinnari and Tapio, 2009), environmental infeasibility for cropland expansion (Gordon et al., 2009), and changing climate have all put pressure on our continued ability to sustain global food security in the twenty-first century. So, how does the World continue to meet its food and nutrition needs?. Solutions may come from bio-technology and precision farming, however developments in these fields are not currently moving at rates that will ensure global food security over next few decades. Further, there is a need for careful consideration of possible harmful effects of bio-technology. We should not be looking back 30– 50 years from now, like we have been looking back now at many mistakes made during the green revolution. During the green revolution the focus was only on getting more yield per unit area. Little thought was put about serious damage done to our natural environments, water resources, and human health as a result of detrimental factors such as uncontrolled use of herbicides-pesticides-nutrients, drastic groundwater mining, and salinization of fertile soils due to over irrigation. Currently, there is talk of a “second green revolution” or even an “ever green revolution”, but clear ideas on what these terms actually mean are still debated and are evolving. One of the biggest issues that are not given adequate focus is the use of large quantities of water for food production. Indeed, an overwhelming proportion (60-90%) of all human water use in India goes for producing their food (Falkenmark, M., & Rockström, 2006). But such intensive water use for food production is no longer tenable due to increasing pressure for water use alternatives such as increasing urbanization

  15. Inquiry-Based Science Education Competencies of Primary School Teachers: A literature study and critical review of the American National Science Education Standards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alake - Tuenter, E.; Biemans, H.J.A.; Tobi, H.; Wals, A.E.J.; Oosterheert, I.; Mulder, M.


    Inquiry-based science education is an important innovation. Researchers and teachers consider it to be stimulating for pupils’ application of research skills, construction of meaning and acquiring scientific knowledge. However, there is ambiguity as to what competencies are required to teach

  16. Retos de la bioética en la medicina del siglo XXI Challenges of bioethics in twenty-first century medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Álvarez-Díaz


    Full Text Available Para plantear posibles retos de la bioética en la medicina del siglo XXI es necesario considerar que existieron algunos retos en el pasado (en el origen de esa nueva disciplina llamada bioética; que los retos se han ido modificando con el avance científico, biomédico y humanístico; considerando que los retos que pueden plantearse para el futuro serán, de diferentes maneras, resultado de este devenir histórico. Se plantean como grandes retos: los problemas no resueltos de justicia, equidad y pobreza; los retos que plantea la introducción de nuevas tecnologías con el paradigma de la nanomedicina y los retos que plantea el avance de las neurociencias con el paradigma de la neuroética.In order to propose possible challenges of bioethics in the twenty-first century medicine, it is necessary to consider that there were some past challenges (at the origin of this new discipline called bioethics, that the challenges have been modified with scientific, biomedical and humanistic breakthroughs, considering at the same time that challenges that may arise in the future will be, in different ways, a result of this historical evolution. The major challenges would be in the future: the unsolved problems of justice, equity and poverty; the challenges posed by the introduction of new technologies with the nanomedicine paradigm; and finally, the challenges driven by breakthroughs in neurosciences with the neuroethics paradigm.

  17. Thomas Piketty: Capital in the Twenty-First Century (Le Capital au XXIe siècle. (Ensk þýðing: Arthur Goldhammer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gylfi Magnússon


    Full Text Available Í umsögn gagnrýnanda kemur meðal annars eftirfarandi fram: Ritinu er ekki ætlað að vera lokaorðin um viðfangsefnið heldur miklu frekar grunnur að frekari umræðu og rannsóknum. Það hefur tekist. Capital in the Twenty-First Century er verk sem hefur þegar vakið mikla umræðu og verður vafalaust rætt áfram árum saman. Það er raunar nánast skyldulesning fyrir þá sem ætla sér að fjalla um þjóðhagfræði og hlutverk hins opinbera, hversu sammála eða ósammála sem þeir eru höfundinum.

  18. Addressing the main challenges of energy security in the twenty-first century – Contributions of the conferences on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markovska, Natasa; Duić, Neven; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Guzović, Zvonimir; Piacentino, Antonio; Schlör, Holger; Lund, Henrik


    Climate change and fossil fuel reserve depletion both pose challenges for energy security and for wellbeing in general. The top ten among them include: Decarbonising the world economy; Enhancing the energy efficiency and energy savings in buildings; Advancing the energy technologies; Moving towards energy systems based on variable renewables; Electrifying the transport and some industrial processes; Liberalizing and extending the energy markets; Integrating energy sectors to Smart Energy Systems; Making the cities and communities smart; Diversifying the energy sources; and Building more biorefineries. Presenting the contributions of selected conference papers published in the special issues of leading scientific journals (including all the papers from the current Energy special issue), this review demonstrates the capacity of the Conferences on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems for generation of knowledge which could serve as the centrepiece of a pertinent response to those challenges. - Highlights: • Top ten challenges of energy security in the twenty-first century identified. • Selected SDEWES contributions analysed against the identified challenges. • The role of SDEWES as knowledge generator towards addressing the identified challenges credibly demonstrated.

  19. Changes of climate regimes during the last millennium and the twenty-first century simulated by the Community Earth System Model (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Feng, Song; Liu, Chang; Chen, Jie; Chen, Jianhui; Chen, Fahu


    This study examines the shifts in terrestrial climate regimes using the Köppen-Trewartha (K-T) climate classification by analyzing the Community Earth System Model Last Millennium Ensemble (CESM-LME) simulations for the period 850-2005 and CESM Medium Ensemble (CESM-ME), CESM Large Ensemble (CESM-LE) and CESM with fixed aerosols Medium Ensemble (CESM-LE_FixA) simulations for the period 1920-2080. We compare K-T climate types from the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) (950-1250) with the Little Ice Age (LIA) (1550-1850), from present day (PD) (1971-2000) with the last millennium (LM) (850-1850), and from the future (2050-2080) with the LM in order to place anthropogenic changes in the context of changes due to natural forcings occurring during the last millennium. For CESM-LME, we focused on the simulations with all forcings, though the impacts of individual forcings (e.g., solar activities, volcanic eruptions, greenhouse gases, aerosols and land use changes) were also analyzed. We found that the climate types changed slightly between the MCA and the LIA due to weak changes in temperature and precipitation. The climate type changes in PD relative to the last millennium have been largely driven by greenhouse gas-induced warming, but anthropogenic aerosols have also played an important role on regional scales. At the end of the twenty-first century, the anthropogenic forcing has a much greater effect on climate types than the PD. Following the reduction of aerosol emissions, the impact of greenhouse gases will further promote global warming in the future. Compared to precipitation, changes in climate types are dominated by greenhouse gas-induced warming. The large shift in climate types by the end of this century suggests possible wide-spread redistribution of surface vegetation and a significant change in species distributions.

  20. Future projections of synoptic weather types over the Arabian Peninsula during the twenty-first century using an ensemble of CMIP5 models

    KAUST Repository

    El Kenawy, Ahmed M.


    An assessment of future change in synoptic conditions over the Arabian Peninsula throughout the twenty-first century was performed using 20 climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) database. We employed the mean sea level pressure (SLP) data from model output together with NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and compared the relevant circulation types produced by the Lamb classification scheme for the base period 1975–2000. Overall, model results illustrated good agreement with the reanalysis, albeit with a tendency to underestimate cyclonic (C) and southeasterly (SE) patterns and to overestimate anticyclones and directional flows. We also investigated future projections for each circulation-type during the rainy season (December–May) using three Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), comprising RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5. Overall, two scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP 8.5) revealed a statistically significant increase in weather types favoring above normal rainfall in the region (e.g., C and E-types). In contrast, weather types associated with lower amounts of rainfall (e.g., anticyclones) are projected to decrease in winter but increase in spring. For all scenarios, there was consistent agreement on the sign of change (i.e., positive/negative) for the most frequent patterns (e.g., C, SE, E and A-types), whereas the sign was uncertain for less recurrent types (e.g., N, NW, SE, and W). The projected changes in weather type frequencies in the region can be viewed not only as indicators of change in rainfall response but may also be used to inform impact studies pertinent to water resource planning and management, extreme weather analysis, and agricultural production.

  1. Future projections of synoptic weather types over the Arabian Peninsula during the twenty-first century using an ensemble of CMIP5 models (United States)

    El Kenawy, Ahmed M.; McCabe, Matthew F.


    An assessment of future change in synoptic conditions over the Arabian Peninsula throughout the twenty-first century was performed using 20 climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) database. We employed the mean sea level pressure (SLP) data from model output together with NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and compared the relevant circulation types produced by the Lamb classification scheme for the base period 1975-2000. Overall, model results illustrated good agreement with the reanalysis, albeit with a tendency to underestimate cyclonic (C) and southeasterly (SE) patterns and to overestimate anticyclones and directional flows. We also investigated future projections for each circulation-type during the rainy season (December-May) using three Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs), comprising RCP2.6, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5. Overall, two scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP 8.5) revealed a statistically significant increase in weather types favoring above normal rainfall in the region (e.g., C and E-types). In contrast, weather types associated with lower amounts of rainfall (e.g., anticyclones) are projected to decrease in winter but increase in spring. For all scenarios, there was consistent agreement on the sign of change (i.e., positive/negative) for the most frequent patterns (e.g., C, SE, E and A-types), whereas the sign was uncertain for less recurrent types (e.g., N, NW, SE, and W). The projected changes in weather type frequencies in the region can be viewed not only as indicators of change in rainfall response but may also be used to inform impact studies pertinent to water resource planning and management, extreme weather analysis, and agricultural production.

  2. Application of the Intervention Mapping Framework to Develop an Integrated Twenty-first Century Core Curriculum—Part Three: Curriculum Implementation and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. Corvin


    Full Text Available Public health professionals have been challenged to radically reform public health training to meet evolving demands of twenty-first century public health. Such a transformation requires a systems thinking approach with an interdisciplinary focus on problem solving, leadership, management and teamwork, technology and information, budgeting and finance, and communication. This article presents processes for implementing and evaluating a revised public health curriculum and outlines lessons learned from this initiative. To date, more than 200 students have participated in the initial pilot testing of this program. A rigorous process and outcome evaluation plan was developed and employed. Results from the evaluation were used to enhance the resulting curriculum. Specifically, all instructional materials were evaluated by both the students who received the materials and the faculty who presented the materials. As each successive pilot is delivered, both enrollment and faculty involvement has increased. Through this process, the value of committed faculty, the importance of engaging learners in the evaluation of an education program, and the need to implement curriculum that has been carefully evaluated and evidence-informed in nature has emerged. We credit our successful transformation of the Masters in Public Health core to the challenge provided by the Framing the Future task force, the commitment of our College of Public Health leadership, the engagement of our faculty, and the time we allowed for the process to unfold. Ultimately, we believe this transformed curriculum will result in better trained public health professionals, interdisciplinary practitioners who can see public health challenges in new and different ways.

  3. Sub-Saharan Northern African climate at the end of the twenty-first century: forcing factors and climate change processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patricola, C.M. [Cornell University, Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Ithaca, NY (United States); Texas A and M University, Department of Atmospheric Sciences, College Station, TX (United States); Cook, K.H. [The University of Texas at Austin, Department of Geological Sciences, Jackson School of Geosciences, Austin, TX (United States)


    A regional climate model, the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model, is forced with increased atmospheric CO{sub 2} and anomalous SSTs and lateral boundary conditions derived from nine coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models to produce an ensemble set of nine future climate simulations for northern Africa at the end of the twenty-first century. A well validated control simulation, agreement among ensemble members, and a physical understanding of the future climate change enhance confidence in the predictions. The regional model ensembles produce consistent precipitation projections over much of northern tropical Africa. A moisture budget analysis is used to identify the circulation changes that support future precipitation anomalies. The projected midsummer drought over the Guinean Coast region is related partly to weakened monsoon flow. Since the rainfall maximum demonstrates a southward bias in the control simulation in July-August, this may be indicative of future summer drying over the Sahel. Wetter conditions in late summer over the Sahel are associated with enhanced moisture transport by the West African westerly jet, a strengthening of the jet itself, and moisture transport from the Mediterranean. Severe drought in East Africa during August and September is accompanied by a weakened Indian monsoon and Somali jet. Simulations with projected and idealized SST forcing suggest that overall SST warming in part supports this regional model ensemble agreement, although changes in SST gradients are important over West Africa in spring and fall. Simulations which isolate the role of individual climate forcings suggest that the spatial distribution of the rainfall predictions is controlled by the anomalous SST and lateral boundary conditions, while CO{sub 2} forcing within the regional model domain plays an important secondary role and generally produces wetter conditions. (orig.)

  4. Why 'class' is too soft a category to capture the explosiveness of social inequality at the beginning of the twenty-first century. (United States)

    Beck, Ulrich


    We can distinguish four positions on the continuing, or maybe even increasing, relevance of the category of class at the beginning of the twenty-first century depending on the extent to which they accord central importance to (1) the reproduction or (2) the transformation of social classes with regard to (3) the distribution of goods without bads or (4) the distribution of goods and bads. One could say that Dean Curran introduces the concept of 'risk-class' to radicalize the class distribution of risk and charts who will able to occupy areas less exposed to risk and who will have little choice but to occupy areas that are exposed to the brunt of the fact of the risk society. As he mentioned it is important to note that this social structuring of the distribution of bads will be affected not only by class, but also by other forms of social structuration of disadvantage, such as gender and race. In order to demonstrate that the distribution of bads is currently exacerbating class differences in life chances, however, Curran concentrates exclusively on phenomena of individual risks. In the process, he overlooks the problem of systemic risks in relation of the state, science, new corporate roles, management the mass media, law, mobile capital and social movements; at the same time, his conceptual frame of reference does not really thematize the interdependence between individual and systemic risks. Those who reduce the problematic of risk to that of the life chances of individuals are unable to grasp the conflicting social and political logics of risk and class conflicts. Or, to put it pointedly: 'class' is too soft a category to capture the explosiveness of social inequality in world risk society. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2013.

  5. Inquiry-Based Science Education Competencies of Primary School Teachers: A literature study and critical review of the American National Science Education Standards (United States)

    Alake-Tuenter, Ester; Biemans, Harm J. A.; Tobi, Hilde; Wals, Arjen E. J.; Oosterheert, Ida; Mulder, Martin


    Inquiry-based science education is an important innovation. Researchers and teachers consider it to be stimulating for pupils' application of research skills, construction of meaning and acquiring scientific knowledge. However, there is ambiguity as to what competencies are required to teach inquiry-based science. Our purpose is to develop a profile of professional competence, required for effective inquiry-based science teaching in primary schools in the Netherlands. This article reviews literature and compares the outcomes to the American National Science Education Standards (NSES). In so doing, it seeks to answer the following research questions: What elements of competencies required by primary school teachers who teach inquiry-based science are mentioned, discussed and researched in recent literature? To what extent are the American NSES (introduced 15 years ago) consistent with elements of competencies found in recent literature? A comprehensive literature review was conducted using Educational Resources Information Centre and Google Scholar databases. Fifty-seven peer-reviewed scientific journal articles from 2004 to 2011 were found using keyword combinations. Analysis of these articles resulted in the identification and classification of 22 elements of competencies. This outcome was compared to the American NSES, revealing gaps in the standards with respect to a lack of focus on how teachers view science teaching and themselves as teachers. We also found that elements of competencies are connected and poor mastery of one may affect a teacher's mastery of another. Therefore, we propose that standards for the Netherlands should be presented in a non-linear, holistic, competence-based model.

  6. Future change of climate in South America in the late twenty-first century: intercomparison of scenarios from three regional climate models (United States)

    Marengo, Jose A.; Ambrizzi, Tercio; Da Rocha, Rosmeri P.; Alves, Lincoln M.; Cuadra, Santiago V.; Valverde, Maria C.; Torres, Roger R.; Santos, Daniel C.; Ferraz, Simone E. T.


    Regional climate change projections for the last half of the twenty-first century have been produced for South America, as part of the CREAS (Cenarios REgionalizados de Clima Futuro da America do Sul) regional project. Three regional climate models RCMs (Eta CCS, RegCM3 and HadRM3P) were nested within the HadAM3P global model. The simulations cover a 30-year period representing present climate (1961-1990) and projections for the IPCC A2 high emission scenario for 2071-2100. The focus was on the changes in the mean circulation and surface variables, in particular, surface air temperature and precipitation. There is a consistent pattern of changes in circulation, rainfall and temperatures as depicted by the three models. The HadRM3P shows intensification and a more southward position of the subtropical Pacific high, while a pattern of intensification/weakening during summer/winter is projected by the Eta CCS/RegCM3. There is a tendency for a weakening of the subtropical westerly jet from the Eta CCS and HadRM3P, consistent with other studies. There are indications that regions such of Northeast Brazil and central-eastern and southern Amazonia may experience rainfall deficiency in the future, while the Northwest coast of Peru-Ecuador and northern Argentina may experience rainfall excesses in a warmer future, and these changes may vary with the seasons. The three models show warming in the A2 scenario stronger in the tropical region, especially in the 5°N-15°S band, both in summer and especially in winter, reaching up to 6-8°C warmer than in the present. In southern South America, the warming in summer varies between 2 and 4°C and in winter between 3 and 5°C in the same region from the 3 models. These changes are consistent with changes in low level circulation from the models, and they are comparable with changes in rainfall and temperature extremes reported elsewhere. In summary, some aspects of projected future climate change are quite robust across this set of

  7. Bridging the climate-induced water gap in the twenty-first century: adaptation support based on water supply, demand, adaptation and financing. (United States)

    Straatsma, Menno; Droogers, Peter; Brandsma, Jaïrus; Buytaert, Wouter; Karssenberg, Derek; Van Beek, Rens; Wada, Yoshihide; Sutanudjaja, Edwin; Vitolo, Claudia; Schmitz, Oliver; Meijer, Karen; Van Aalst, Maaike; Bierkens, Marc


    Water scarcity affects large parts of the world. Over the course of the twenty-first century, water demand is likely to increase due to population growth and associated food production, and increased economic activity, while water supply is projected to decrease in many regions due to climate change. Despite recent studies that analyze the effect of climate change on water scarcity, e.g. using climate projections under representative concentration pathways (RCP) of the fifth assessment report of the IPCC (AR5), decision support for closing the water gap between now and 2100 does not exist at a meaningful scale and with a global coverage. In this study, we aimed (i) to assess the joint impact of climatic and socio-economic change on water scarcity, (ii) to integrate impact and potential adaptation in one workflow, (iii) to prioritize adaptation options to counteract water scarcity based on their financial, regional socio-economic and environmental implications, and (iv) to deliver all this information in an integrated user-friendly web-based service. To enable the combination of global coverage with local relevance, we aggregated all results for 1604 water provinces (food producing units) delineated in this study, which is five times smaller than previous food producing units. Water supply was computed using the PCR-GLOBWB hydrological and water resources model, parameterized at 5 arcminutes for the whole globe, excluding Antarctica and Greenland. We ran PCR-GLOBWB with a daily forcing derived from five different GCM models from the CMIP5 (GFDL-ESM2M, Hadgem2-ES, IPSL-CMA5-LR, MIROC-ESM-CHEM, NorESM1-M) that were bias corrected using observation-based WATCH data between 1960-1999. For each of the models all four RCPs (RCP 2.6, 4.5, 6.0, and 8.5) were run, producing the ensemble of 20 future projections. The blue water supply was aggregated per month and per water province. Industrial, domestic and irrigation water demands were computed for a limited number of

  8. Scientific Inquiry in Health Sciences Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Musaeus, Peter

    inquiry or critical thinking. Discussion: The value of this study is that it might enable educational developers to give junior faculty better guidance on teaching and specific feedback on their teaching portfolio in particular in regards to the design of learning activities that might use scientific...... in terms of a more systematic approach to higher-level thinking. Thus although participants cited one or more constructivist educational theorists, they did not express a well-articulated notion of inquiry and they provided limited concrete examples on how to design a conducive learning environment around...... inquiry as means and end in higher education....

  9. Mobile Inquiry Based Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Specht, Marcus


    Specht, M. (2012, 8 November). Mobile Inquiry Based Learning. Presentation given at the Workshop "Mobile inquiry-based learning" at the Mobile Learning Day 2012 at the Fernuniversität Hagen, Hagen, Germany.

  10. TSA Public Inquiry Data (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — All non-media public inquiries and complaints and responses to inquiries received by telephone, e-mail and fax, and handles contacts in English and Spanish. The data...

  11. Twenty-First Century Educational Theory and the Challenges of Modern Education: Appealing to the Heritage of the General Teaching Theory of the Secondary Educational Curriculum and the Learning Process (United States)

    Klarin, Mikhail V.


    The article presents an analysis of educational theory in light of the challenges confronting education in the twenty-first century. The author examines how our ideas about the methods for managing the transmission of culture, the subject of education, and the consequences of these changes for the theory of education have changed. The author…

  12. Teaching Science through Inquiry (United States)

    Wilcox, Jesse; Kruse, Jerrid W.; Clough, Michael P.


    Science education efforts have long emphasized inquiry, and inquiry and scientific practices are prominent in contemporary science education reform documents (NRC 1996; NGSS Lead States 2013). However, inquiry has not become commonplace in science teaching, in part because of misunderstandings regarding what it means and entails (Demir and Abell…

  13. Personal Inquiry Manager

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suarez, Angel; Ternier, Stefaan; Specht, Marcus


    The Personal Inquiry Manager (PIM) is an integration approach based on a mobile application, based on Android, to support the IBL process and gives users mobile access to their inquiries. Moreover it facilitates a more self-directed approach as it enables to set up their own personal inquiries. The

  14. Twenty-First Century Creativity: An Investigation of How the Partnership for 21st Century Instructional Framework Reflects the Principles of Creativity (United States)

    Guo, Jiajun; Woulfin, Sarah


    The purpose of this study is to consider how the 21st-century learning framework reflects principles of creativity. This article provides a qualitative analysis of the Partnership for 21st Century's (P21) policy documents, with a specific focus on how the principles of creativity, one of the 4Cs (creativity, critical thinking, collaboration, and…

  15. Inquiries and technological assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    The authors examine six Canadian inquiries to determine their values as scientific assessments, their ability to combine scientific data with policy considerations, and their effectiveness in extending public debate on scientific issues. Among the inquiries examined are the environmental assessment hearings into the Point Lepreau nuclear generating station, the Bayda inquiry into the Cluff Lake uranium mine, and the Porter commission on electric power planning in Ontario

  16. The Role of Critical Inquiry in (Re)constructing the Public Agenda for Higher Education: Confronting the Conservative Modernization of the Academy (United States)

    Gildersleeve, Ryan Evely; Kuntz, Aaron M.; Pasque, Penny A.; Carducci, Rozana


    As higher education seeks to become more socially responsive, the public agenda is one form that has taken root in explicating the relation of higher education to society. In this paper, we critically analyze two different instantiations of the public agenda for higher education, placing them against the backdrop of what Michael Apple (2006a)…

  17. The Trombe Wall during the 1970s: technological device or architectural space? Critical inquiry on the Trombe Wall in Europe and the role of architectural magazines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piero Medici


    Full Text Available During the 1970s, before and after the international oil crisis of 1973, some European architectural periodicals were critical of standard construction methods and the architecture of the time. They described how architects and engineers reacted to the crisis, proposing new techniques and projects in order to intervene innovatively in the built environment, using energy and natural resources more efficiently. This article will provide a critical analysis of the role of architectural magazines of the time, describing the technological innovation of the Trombe Wall in Europe. It will treat when, how, and what specific aspects were described. It will also carry out a critical analysis of the Trombe Wall itself: about its performances, its evolution throughout the 1970s, its integration in different houses, and its influence on inhabitants’ behaviour. Using three houses as case studies, an analysis of the architects’ efforts to integrate the technology of the Trombe Wall with architectural elements such as shape, aesthetic, materiality, and natural light will be carried out. Though this article is historical in character, it aims to inform the contemporary debate, especially concerning issues of the built environment meeting the Paris agreement on climate change (AA, 2015.

  18. Inquiry in Limnology Lessons (United States)

    Variano, Evan; Taylor, Karen


    Inquiry can be implemented in various ways, ranging from simple classroom discussions to longterm research projects. In this article, the authors developed a project in which high school students were introduced to the nature and process of scientific discovery through a two-week guided inquiry unit on "limnology"--the study of fresh water, which…

  19. Orchestrating Inquiry Learning (United States)

    Littleton, Karen, Ed.; Scanlon, Eileen, Ed.; Sharples, Mike, Ed.


    There is currently a rapidly growing interest in inquiry learning and an emerging consensus among researchers that, particularly when supported by technology, it can be a significant vehicle for developing higher order thinking skills. Inquiry learning methods also offer learners meaningful and productive approaches to the development of their…

  20. Developing Web literacy in collaborative inquiry activities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, E.; Volman, M.L.L.; Terwel, J.


    Although many children are technically skilled in using the Web, their competences to use it in a critical and meaningful way are usually less well developed. In this article, we report on a multiple case study focusing on the possibilities and limitations of collaborative inquiry activities as an

  1. Performing the comic side of bodily abjection: A study of twenty-first century female stand-up comedy in a multi-cultural and multi-racial Britain


    Blunden, Pamela


    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. This thesis is a socio-cultural study of the development of female stand-up comedy in the first decade of the twenty-first century within a multi-racial and multi-cultural Britain. It also engages with the theory and practice of performance and asks the question: ‘In what ways can it be said that female stand-up comics perform the comic side of bodily abjection?’ This question is applied to t...

  2. Twenty-First-Century Aerial Mining (United States)


    blockade (fig. 3).19 It has two parallel inbound and outbound shipping channels, each 1,200 feet wide with a dredged depth averaging 40 feet. East...Sicily is a large island, Operation Husky required a stagger- ing logistical effort. Even had substantial losses occurred, Allied forces possessed...partially dependent on maritime logistics for trade and support to military operations, the renewed capability to deploy mines while maintaining

  3. Twenty-First Century Pathologists' Advocacy. (United States)

    Allen, Timothy Craig


    Pathologists' advocacy plays a central role in the establishment of continuously improving patient care quality and patient safety, and in the maintenance and progress of pathology as a profession. Pathology advocacy's primary goal is the betterment of patient safety and quality medical care; however, payment is a necessary and appropriate component to both, and has a central role in advocacy. Now is the time to become involved in pathology advocacy; the Medicare Access and Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) Reauthorization Act of 2015 (MACRA) and the Protecting Access to Medicare Act of 2014 (PAMA) are 2 of the most consequential pieces of legislation impacting the pathology and laboratory industry in the last 20 years. Another current issue of far-reaching impact for pathologists is balance billing, and yet many pathologists have little or no understanding of balance billing. Pathologists at all stages of their careers, and in every professional setting, need to participate. Academic pathologists have a special obligation to, if not become directly involved in advocacy, at least have a broad and current understanding of those issues, as well as the need and responsibility of pathologists to actively engage in advocacy efforts to address them, in order to teach residents the place of advocacy, and its value, as an inseparable and indispensable component of their professional responsibilities.

  4. Departmentalization and Twenty-First Century Skills (United States)

    Watts, Toy Coles


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between school organizational style and student outcomes. The research questions that guided this study were, "Is there a difference in mathematical performance of fourth graders who receive departmentalized instruction as compared to fourth grade students who receive…

  5. Educating for the Twenty-First Century (United States)

    Ramaley, Judith A.


    In his first inaugural speech, President Obama declared that "our schools fail too many" and an essential component of laying "a new foundation for growth" will be "to transform our schools and colleges and universities to meet the demands of a new age." Concerns about our nation's position in the global education race have led to a focus on…

  6. Application of the Intervention Mapping Framework to Develop an Integrated Twenty-First Century Core Curriculum-Part 1: Mobilizing the Community to Revise the Masters of Public Health Core Competencies. (United States)

    DeBate, Rita; Corvin, Jaime A; Wolfe-Quintero, Kate; Petersen, Donna J


    Twenty-first century health challenges have significantly altered the expanding role and functions of public health professionals. Guided by a call from the Association of Schools and Programs of Public Health's (ASPPH) and the Framing the Future: The Second 100 Years of Education for Public Health report to adopt new and innovative approaches to prepare public health leaders, the University of South Florida College of Public Health aimed to self-assess the current Masters of Public Health (MPH) core curriculum with regard to preparing students to meet twenty-first century public health challenges. This paper describes how Intervention Mapping was employed as a framework to increase readiness and mobilize the COPH community for curricular change. Intervention Mapping provides an ideal framework, allowing organizations to access capacity, specify goals, and guide the change process from curriculum development to implementation and evaluation of competency-driven programs. The steps outlined in this paper resulted in a final set of revised MPH core competencies that are interdisciplinary in nature and fulfill the emergent needs to address changing trends in both public health education and challenges in population health approaches. Ultimately, the competencies developed through this process were agreed upon by the entire College of Public Health faculty, signaling one college's readiness for change, while providing the impetus to revolutionize the delivery of public health education at the University of South Florida.

  7. Is adolescence a critical period for learning formal thinking skills? A case study investigating the development of formal thinking skills in a short-term inquiry-based intervention program (United States)

    Towne, Forrest S.

    Current domestic and international comparative studies of student achievement in science are demonstrating that the U.S. needs to improve science education if it wants to remain competitive in the global economy. One of the causes of the poor performance of U.S. science education is the lack of students who have developed the formal thinking skills that are necessary to obtain scientific literacy. Previous studies have demonstrated that formal thinking skills can be taught to adolescents, however only 25% of incoming college freshman have these necessary skills. There is some evidence that adolescence (girls aged 11-13, boys aged 12-14) is a critical period where students must learn formal thinking skills, similar to the critical period that exists for young children learning languages. It is not known whether it is more difficult for students to learn formal thinking skills either prior to or following adolescence. The purpose of this quantitative case study is to determine whether adolescence is a critical period for students to learn formal thinking skills. The study also investigates whether a formal thinking skills focused program can improve students' intelligence. In this study 32 students who had not developed any formal thinking skills, ranging in age from 10-16, underwent an intensive four-week, inquiry-based, formal thinking skill intervention program that focused on two formal thinking skills: (1) the ability to control and exclude variables; and (2) the ability to manipulate ratios and proportionalities. The students undergoing the training were matched with control students by age, gender, formal thinking skill ability, and intelligence. The control group attended their traditional science course during the intervention periods. The results of the study showed that the intervention program was successful in developing students' formal thinking skills. The pre-adolescents (males, age 10-11, females, age 10) were unable to learn formal thinking skills


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duvander, Mille Themsen


    I blogindlægget gives en lille indblik i hvordan Appreciative Inquiry kan anvendes i undervisningen af pædagogstuderende på en Professionshøjskole i Danmark......I blogindlægget gives en lille indblik i hvordan Appreciative Inquiry kan anvendes i undervisningen af pædagogstuderende på en Professionshøjskole i Danmark...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian MANOLACHE


    Full Text Available Upon the dawn of postmodernity, in the twenty-first century, we witness the emergence of a new way of thinking and of new forms of culture and life, under the ideology of globalism, whose dominance is given by the practicality and utility related to civilization, and under globality, which is the cultural aspect of globalization, pertaining to the field of culture. The two dimensions of globalization and globality, civilizational and cultural, will (requestion the principle relationship between Christianity and the new postmodern globalizing utopia, requiring to (reconsider the sense and presence of Christianity within the world, and the appropriate sociological figure of the Church, within the new reality of global and globalized humanity, in the postmodern public space. This paper deals with this ideology - globalism and the cultural manifestation of globality, and with the Orthodox answer to the new challenge of individualism and postmodern globalizing (neocollectivism.

  10. Changes in seasonal and diurnal precipitation types during summer over South Korea in the late twenty-first century (2081-2100) projected by the RegCM4.0 based on four RCP scenarios (United States)

    Oh, Seok-Geun; Suh, Myoung-Seok


    Changes in seasonal and diurnal precipitation types over South Korea during summer in the late twenty-first century (2081-2100) were projected under four RCP scenarios using the Regional Climate Model (RegCM4.0) with a horizontal resolution of 12.5 km. Two boundary conditions, ERA-Interim and HadGEM2-AO, were used to drive the RegCM4.0 (jointly named RG4_ERA and RG4_HG2, respectively). In general, the RegCM4.0 reproduces the spatial distribution of summer precipitation over Northeast Asia for the current climate (1989-2008) reasonably well. The RG4_HG2 shows larger dry biases over South Korea, when compared with observations, than does the RG4_ERA. These strong dry biases result from the underestimation of convective precipitation (CPR) and are particularly noticeable in late afternoons during July and August. It is related to the performance of HadGEM2-AO which simulated southwesterly winds weakly in that time. However, interestingly, the RG4_HG2 simulates similar increases in the contribution of CPR to total precipitation after mid-July, resulting in comparable performance in the reproduction of heavy precipitation. In the late twenty-first century, a significant increase (decrease) in CPR (NCPR) is generally projected over South Korea, and particularly under the RCP8.5. During June, the total precipitation is affected primarily by changes in NCPR under RCP2.6 and RCP6.0. After mid-July, increasing total precipitation is primarily caused by the distinct increases in CPR in the late afternoons; this pattern is particularly noticeable under RCP8.5, which is associated with more destabilized atmospheric conditions during July and August. Light and heavy precipitation are projected to decrease and increase, respectively, under RCP8.5.

  11. Analyzing students' attitudes towards science during inquiry-based lessons (United States)

    Kostenbader, Tracy C.

    Due to the logistics of guided-inquiry lesson, students learn to problem solve and develop critical thinking skills. This mixed-methods study analyzed the students' attitudes towards science during inquiry lessons. My quantitative results from a repeated measures survey showed no significant difference between student attitudes when taught with either structured-inquiry or guided-inquiry lessons. The qualitative results analyzed through a constant-comparative method did show that students generate positive interest, critical thinking and low level stress during guided-inquiry lessons. The qualitative research also gave insight into a teacher's transition to guided-inquiry. This study showed that with my students, their attitudes did not change during this transition according to the qualitative data however, the qualitative data did how high levels of excitement. The results imply that students like guided-inquiry laboratories, even though they require more work, just as much as they like traditional laboratories with less work and less opportunity for creativity.

  12. Nuclear energy inquiries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, J.A.L.


    Our choice of energy sources has important consequences for the economy and the environment. Nuclear energy is a controversial energy source, subject to much public debate. Most individuals find it difficult to decide between conflicting claims and allegations in a variety of technical subjects. Under these circumstances, knowledge of various relevant inquiries can be helpful. This publication summarizes the composition and major findings of more than thirty nuclear energy inquiries. Most of the these are Canadian, but others are included where they have relevance. The survey shows that, contrary to some claims, virtually every aspect of nuclear energy has been subject to detailed scrutiny. The inquiries' reports include many recommendations on how nuclear energy can be exploited safely, but none rejects it as an acceptable energy source when needed. (Author) 38 refs

  13. Critiquing the Critical: The Casualties and Paradoxes of Critical Pedagogy in Music Education (United States)

    Hess, Juliet


    In the twenty-first century, many music education scholars seek to reconceptualize music education toward social justice. Critical pedagogy is at the forefront of this shift. However, as teachers aim toward equity through employing critical pedagogy, some undesired effects of using this teaching approach may arise. In this paper, I consider the…

  14. Primary Sources and Inquiry Learning (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.


    In this article, the author discusses inquiry learning and primary sources. Inquiry learning puts students in the active role of investigators. Questioning, authentic and active learning, and interactivity are a few of the characteristics of inquiry learning that put the teacher and library media specialist in the role of coaches while students…

  15. Exploring the inquiry experience: A focus on Kentucky teachers (United States)

    Nolte, Beth


    Inquiry-based instruction is driven by active participation by the learner. Through the learning process, critical thinking skills are practiced. While inquiry methods are often discussed in the realm of science education, the methods are not subject specific. In fact, the Kentucky Program of Studies calls for the incorporation of inquiry strategies into all areas of the curriculum. This call for more inquiry-based education occurs in the midst of a national testing debate in which accountability is tied to student test scores. This study takes a narrative approach to explore teachers' experiences with using inquiry methods. Interviews were conducted with teachers who, at least 1 year prior to participating in this study, had attended a weeklong intensive professional development workshop on using inquiry methods for instruction. A method is described for analyzing interview data direct in its digital audio form---without transcription. Eight teachers' experiences are presented here in the narrative form and their narratives are compared for an overall analysis. Themes of conflict previously reported in the literature are explored in participants' stories. This research concludes with a discussion of the results, a reflection on the method, and suggestions for the future based on teachers' experiences with using inquiry-based learning strategies.

  16. Meta-Analysis of Inquiry-Based Instruction Research (United States)

    Hasanah, N.; Prasetyo, A. P. B.; Rudyatmi, E.


    Inquiry-based instruction in biology has been the focus of educational research conducted by Unnes biology department students in collaboration with their university supervisors. This study aimed to describe the methodological aspects, inquiry teaching methods critically, and to analyse the results claims, of the selected four student research reports, grounded in inquiry, based on the database of Unnes biology department 2014. Four experimental quantitative research of 16 were selected as research objects by purposive sampling technique. Data collected through documentation study was qualitatively analysed regarding methods used, quality of inquiry syntax, and finding claims. Findings showed that the student research was still the lack of relevant aspects of research methodology, namely in appropriate sampling procedures, limited validity tests of all research instruments, and the limited parametric statistic (t-test) not supported previously by data normality tests. Their consistent inquiry syntax supported the four mini-thesis claims that inquiry-based teaching influenced their dependent variables significantly. In other words, the findings indicated that positive claims of the research results were not fully supported by good research methods, and well-defined inquiry procedures implementation.

  17. The (non)making/becoming of inquiry practicing science teachers (United States)

    Sharma, Ajay; Muzaffar, Irfan


    Teacher education programs have adopted preparing science teachers that teach science through inquiry as an important pedagogic agenda. However, their efforts have not met with much success. While traditional explanations for this failure focus largely on preservice science teachers' knowledge, beliefs and conceptions regarding science and science teaching, this conceptual paper seeks to direct attention toward discursive practices surrounding inquiry science teaching in teacher education programs for understanding why most science teachers do not teach science through inquiry. The paper offers a theoretical framework centered on critical notions of subjection and performativity as a much needed perspective on making/becoming of science teachers through participation in discursive practices of science teacher education programs. It argues that research based on such perspectives have much potential to offer a deeper understanding of the difficult challenges teacher education programs face in preparing inquiry practicing science teachers.

  18. On comparative inquiry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moutsios, Stavros

    of self‐reflexivity and self-questioning in the Greek polis gave also rise to the genuine interest in the institutions of the cultural ‘other’. Impartiality in the study of the others’ institutions started in Greece and it was closely associated with the signification that physis (nature) should......The paper explores the origins of comparative studies, which as it argues are located in Ancient Greece. Greece is not only the place where the school was born, but it is also there where the interest in and inquiry of the institutions of other societies, including education, emerged. The rise...... to know better their own society through comparison. Cross-cultural examination in this regard informed further the Greeks’ self-reflexivity. By going through a set of historical sources and contemporary literature, the paper will elaborate on the emergence of cross-cultural and comparative inquiry...

  19. Introducing citizen inquiry


    Herodotou, Christothea; Sharples, Mike; Scanlon, Eileen


    The term ‘citizen inquiry’ was coined to describe ways that members of the public can learn by initiating or joining shared inquiry-led scientific investigations (Sharples et al., 2013). It merges learning through scientific investigation with mass collaborative participation exemplified in citizen science activities, altering the relationship most people have with research from being passive recipients to becoming actively engaged, and the relationship between scholarship and public understa...

  20. Representational Inquiry competences in Science Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, Rikke


    to support work with genuine scientific inquiry and to meet the seventh- to tenth grade curriculum objectives for science and Danish education in Danish schools. This paper comprises a presentation of the results of a long-term empirical study done of four school classes who have played the game. The chapter......This chapter concerns the enactment of competences in a particular science learning game Homicide, which is played in lower secondary schools. Homicide is a forensic investigation game in which pupils play police experts solving criminal cases in the space of one week. The game is designed......, transform and criticize visual representations as an integrated part of conducting an inquiry in the science game...

  1. Inquiry Based Teaching in Turkey: A Content Analysis of Research Reports (United States)

    Kizilaslan, Aydin; Sozbilir, Mustafa; Yasar, M. Diyaddin


    Inquiry-based learning [IBL] enhances students' critical thinking abilities and help students to act as a scientist through using scientific method while learning. Specifically, inquiry as a teaching approach has been defined in many ways, the most important one is referred to nature of constructing knowledge while the individuals possess a…

  2. Computational Inquiry in Introductory Statistics (United States)

    Toews, Carl


    Inquiry-based pedagogies have a strong presence in proof-based undergraduate mathematics courses, but can be difficult to implement in courses that are large, procedural, or highly computational. An introductory course in statistics would thus seem an unlikely candidate for an inquiry-based approach, as these courses typically steer well clear of…

  3. Inquiry and Digital Learning Centers (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.


    "Inquiry is an investigative process that engages students in answering questions, solving real world problems, confronting issues, or exploring personal interests" (Pappas and Tepe 2002, 27). Students who engage in inquiry learning need tools and resources that enable them to independently gather and use information. Scaffolding is important for…

  4. The nuclear inquiry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clement, K.J.


    Opposition to nuclear energy facilities has increased considerably in Scotland and Germany within the past two decades. The statutory institutions which exist in each country to consider formal objections to such developments have important differences, as do the licensing or planning processes of which they form an integral part. In Britain, the initiation of judicial review following public inquiries is very rare, due to the limited grounds within which this would be possible. By contrast, there has been a very high referral of nuclear power station decisions to the administrative courts in Germany, but the number is now declining as cases are invariably found in favour of the developers. The comparative examination of case studies reveals that objectors' interests may best be served, in terms of achieving policy influence, by acting outside the restrictions of the statutory planning and legal systems. The Scottish public inquiry is revealed as the more flexible institution and one which allows a much greater degree of public participation. (author)

  5. Structured Ethical Reflection in Practitioner Inquiry: Theory, Pedagogy, and Practice (United States)

    Stevens, Douglas M.; Brydon-Miller, Mary; Raider-Roth, Miriam


    Practitioner inquiry provides a powerful tool for improving practice and addressing critical issues in classrooms, schools, and broader communities. However, it also raises unique ethical challenges that often go unrecognized and unresolved. Structured Ethical Reflection (SER) provides teacher researchers with a process for identifying core values…

  6. Sizewell B: the anatomy of an inquiry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Riordan, T.; Kemp, R.; Purdue, M.


    The Economic and Social Research Council has studied four major environmental public inquiries, including Sizewell-B. This report summarizes some of the observations of the Sizewell Inquiry Review Project which has been analyzing the context, content and conduct of the Sizewell-B Inquiry. Although public inquiries in Britain have an important function in building public trust in planning decisions where opinions are divided and independent advice is needed, one outcome of the Sizewell-B Inquiry may be a streamlining of the inquiry process, eg by prior examination of policy matters, leaving the Inquiry to consider specifically site-related matters only. (UK)

  7. Writing as collaborative inquiry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth; Pedersen, Christina Hee; Novak, Martin


    involved in collaborative knowledge production across difference (including age, professional position, life situation, nation). We tell about our experiences with how collaboration can lead toward re-invention of our research practices and methods, as well as our own subjectivities, through involvement......In our presentation we strive to disturb and unravel the romantic discourses of collaboration, dialogue and empowerment in relation to qualitative inquiry. For more than two years we (five Danish and Czech researchers) have been exploring the complex obstructions, difficulties and potentials...... in the not-yet-known. Over the years, we have shared and analyzed personal stories about our collaborative experiences in an on-going reflective learning process. We draw on writing methodologies, including memory-work (Haug, Davies) and collaborative writing such as by Wyatt, Gale, Gannon & Davies. Our...

  8. Design processes of a citizen inquiry community


    Aristeidou, Maria; Scanlon, Eileen; Sharples, Mike


    As with other online communities, it is important to design elements of citizen inquiry projects that will attract and engage members. This chapter describes the process of designing an online community for citizen inquiry. It builds on design principles of inquiry learning, citizen inquiry and other online communities. The ‘Weather-it’ citizen inquiry community is intended to engage and support people in initiating and joining sustainable citizen-led investigations. The findings indicate som...

  9. Argumentation in the Chemistry Laboratory: Inquiry and Confirmatory Experiments (United States)

    Katchevich, Dvora; Hofstein, Avi; Mamlok-Naaman, Rachel


    One of the goals of science education is to provide students with the ability to construct arguments—reasoning and thinking critically in a scientific context. Over the years, many studies have been conducted on constructing arguments in science teaching, but only few of them have dealt with studying argumentation in the laboratory. Our research focuses on the process in which students construct arguments in the chemistry laboratory while conducting various types of experiments. It was found that inquiry experiments have the potential to serve as an effective platform for formulating arguments, owing to the features of this learning environment. The discourse during inquiry-type experiments was found to be rich in arguments, whereas that during confirmatory-type experiments was found to be sparse in arguments. The arguments, which were developed during the discourse of an open inquiry experiment, focus on the hypothesis-building stage, analysis of the results, and drawing appropriate conclusions.

  10. Inquiry Teaching in Clinical Periodontics. (United States)

    Heins, Paul J.; Mackenzie, Richard S.


    An adaptation of the inquiry method of teaching, which develops skills of information retrieval and reasoning through systematic questioning by the teacher, is proposed for instruction in clinical periodontics. (MSE)

  11. Narrative inquiry: Locating Aboriginal epistemology in a relational methodology. (United States)

    Barton, Sylvia S


    This methodology utilizes narrative analysis and the elicitation of life stories as understood through dimensions of interaction, continuity, and situation. It is congruent with Aboriginal epistemology formulated by oral narratives through representation, connection, storytelling and art. Needed for culturally competent scholarship is an experience of research whereby inquiry into epiphanies, ritual, routines, metaphors and everyday experience creates a process of reflexive thinking for multiple ways of knowing. Based on the sharing of perspectives, narrative inquiry allows for experimentation into creating new forms of knowledge by contextualizing diabetes from the experience of a researcher overlapped with experiences of participants--a reflective practice in itself. The aim of this paper is to present narrative inquiry as a relational methodology and to analyse critically its appropriateness as an innovative research approach for exploring Aboriginal people's experience living with diabetes. Narrative inquiry represents an alternative culture of research for nursing science to generate understanding and explanation of Aboriginal people's 'diabetic self' stories, and to coax open a window for co-constructing a narrative about diabetes as a chronic illness. The ability to adapt a methodology for use in a cultural context, preserve the perspectives of Aboriginal peoples, maintain the holistic nature of social problems, and value co-participation in respectful ways are strengths of an inquiry partial to a responsive and embodied scholarship.

  12. Infusing Authentic Inquiry into Biotechnology (United States)

    Hanegan, Nikki L.; Bigler, Amber


    Societal benefit depends on the general public's understandings of biotechnology (Betsch in World J Microbiol Biotechnol 12:439-443, 1996; Dawson and Cowan in Int J Sci Educ 25(1):57-69, 2003; Schiller in Business Review: Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia (Fourth Quarter), 2002; Smith and Emmeluth in Am Biol Teach 64(2):93-99, 2002). A National Science Foundation funded survey of high school biology teachers reported that hands-on biotechnology education exists in advanced high school biology in the United States, but is non-existent in mainstream biology coursework (Micklos et al. in Biotechnology labs in American high schools, 1998). The majority of pre-service teacher content preparation courses do not teach students appropriate content knowledge through the process of inquiry. A broad continuum exists when discussing inquiry-oriented student investigations (Hanegan et al. in School Sci Math J 109(2):110-134, 2009). Depending on the amount of structure in teacher lessons, inquiries can often be categorized as guided or open. The lesson can be further categorized as simple or authentic (Chinn and Malhotra in Sci Educ 86(2):175-218, 2002). Although authentic inquiries provide the best opportunities for cognitive development and scientific reasoning, guided and simple inquiries are more often employed in the classroom (Crawford in J Res Sci Teach 37(9):916-937, 2000; NRC in Inquiry and the national science education standards: a guide for teaching and learning, 2000). For the purposes of this study we defined inquiry as "authentic" if original research problems were resolved (Hanegan et al. in School Sci Math J 109(2):110-134, 2009; Chinn and Malhotra in Sci Educ 86(2):175-218, 2002; Roth in Authentic school science: knowing and learning in open-inquiry science laboratories, 1995). The research question to guide this study through naturalistic inquiry research methods was: How will participants express whether or not an authentic inquiry experience enhanced

  13. Summary of twelfth session of the AER Working Group F - 'Spent Fuel Transmutations' and third meeting of INPRO Project RMI - 'Meeting energy needs in the period of raw materials insufficiency during the twenty first century'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lelek, V.


    Information about the development in the problems spent fuel transmutation and future nuclear reactors development during the last years 2009-2010. Some critical views on the coming works tendencies are given by the coordinator of works within AER cooperation. (Author)

  14. College science teachers' views of classroom inquiry (United States)

    Brown, Patrick L.; Abell, Sandra K.; Demir, Abdulkadir; Schmidt, Francis J.


    The purposes of this study were to (a) gain an understanding of the views of inquiry held by faculty members involved in undergraduate science teaching and (b) describe the challenges, constraints, and opportunities that they perceived in designing and teaching inquiry-based laboratories. Participants included 19 college professors, representing both life and physical science disciplines, from (a) 2-year community college, (b) small, private nonprofit liberal arts college, (c) public master's granting university, and (d) public doctoral/research extensive university. We collected data through semistructured interviews and applied an iterative data analysis process. College science faculty members held a full and open inquiry view, seeing classroom inquiry as time consuming, unstructured, and student directed. They believed that inquiry was more appropriate for upper level science majors than for introductory or nonscience majors. Although faculty members valued inquiry, they perceived limitations of time, class size, student motivation, and student ability. These limitations, coupled with their view of inquiry, constrained them from implementing inquiry-based laboratories. Our proposed inquiry continuum represents a broader view of inquiry that recognizes the interaction between two dimensions of inquiry: (a) the degree of inquiry and (b) the level of student directedness, and provides for a range of inquiry-based classroom activities.

  15. Theoretical perspectives on narrative inquiry. (United States)

    Emden, C


    Narrative inquiry is gaining momentum in the field of nursing. As a research approach it does not have any single heritage of methodology and its practitioners draw upon diverse sources of influence. Central to all narrative inquiry however, is attention to the potential of stories to give meaning to people's lives, and the treatment of data as stories. This is the first of two papers on the topic and addresses the theoretical influences upon a particular narrative inquiry into nursing scholars and scholarship. The second paper, Conducting a narrative analysis, describes the actual narrative analysis as it was conducted in this same study. Together, the papers provide sufficient detail for others wishing to pursue a similar approach to do so, or to develop the ideas and procedures according to their own way of thinking. Within this first theoretical paper, perspectives from Jerome Bruner (1987) and Wade Roof (1993) are outlined. These relate especially to the notion of stories as 'imaginative constructions' and as 'cultural narratives' and as such, highlight the profound importance of stories as being individually and culturally meaningful. As well, perspectives on narrative inquiry from nursing literature are highlighted. Narrative inquiry in this instance lies within the broader context of phenomenology.

  16. Successful implementation of inquiry-based physiology laboratories in undergraduate major and nonmajor courses. (United States)

    Casotti, G; Rieser-Danner, L; Knabb, M T


    Recent evidence has demonstrated that inquiry-based physiology laboratories improve students' critical- and analytical-thinking skills. We implemented inquiry-based learning into three physiology courses: Comparative Vertebrate Physiology (majors), Human Physiology (majors), and Human Anatomy and Physiology (nonmajors). The aims of our curricular modifications were to improve the teaching of physiological concepts, teach students the scientific approach, and promote creative and critical thinking. We assessed our modifications using formative (laboratory exams, oral presentations, and laboratory reports) and summative evaluations (surveys, laboratory notebook, and an end of semester project). Students appreciated the freedom offered by the new curriculum and the opportunity to engage in the inquiry process. Results from both forms of evaluation showed a marked improvement due to the curricular revisions. Our analyses indicate an increased confidence in students' ability to formulate questions and hypotheses, design experiments, collect and analyze data, and make conclusions. Thus, we have successfully incorporated inquiry-based laboratories in both major and nonmajor courses.

  17. Philosophy: A Key To Open the Door to Critical Thinking. (United States)

    Clarke, David J.; Holt, Janet


    A learning module for nursing attempts to prepare nurses to understand philosophical inquiry and develop critical thinking skills. Teaching strategies used included exercises involving verbal disagreement and ambiguity and critical examination of publications. (Contains 42 references.) (SK)

  18. Procedural status of prosecutor during the conduction of short inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikanorov S.A.


    Full Text Available The issues of conducting short inquiry from the position of prosecutor’s procedural status are considered. Low rate of applying short inquiry is caused by ignorance about this procedural form among the participants in criminal procedure. The initiators of conducting short inquiry were not suspects (accused, but their lawyers who followed by their own ambitions, not by the interests of defendants. The insufficiency of total time of short inquiry is noted. The author proposes to minimize prosecutors’ paperwork, notably to concentrate their attention on collecting crime data by conducting secret investigation operations, receiving explanations and other documentation. Obtained data should be processed according to police regulations. Confession of guilt, recognition of damage and consent with legal assessment of criminal act allow to collect only the evidence, indicating crime event and complicacy of a person (expertise should be established on court’s initiative. The favourable conditions of adequacy of collected evidence for establishing crime event, character and amount of damage, as well as guilt of committing crime are confirmed. The right of investigators not to examine evidences if they were not contradicted by suspect, victim or his/her representative (predetermined strength of evidence is criticized. There is no short effective procedure of trying criminal cases with rational division of powers among the authorities, conducting criminal proceeding. The author proves the necessity of reasonable approach to prosecutor’s supervision of conducting short inquiry. Main tendency of further improvement of short inquiry procedure is redivision of powers among agencies in charge of preliminary investigation and prosecutor’s office.

  19. Student Inquiry in the Research Process: Part I: Inquiry Research Basics. (United States)

    Preddy, Leslie B.


    Discusses the appropriate use of inquiry among students, teachers, and library media specialists. Topics include planning for an inquiry research project; collaboration between the library media specialist and classroom teacher; national goals, standards, and best practices; teacher roles for inquiry; and evaluating inquiry research. (LRW)

  20. Inquiry-based science education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars Domino; Sillasen, Martin Krabbe; Hagelskjær, Jens


    Inquiry-based science education (IBSE) er en internationalt afprøvet naturfagsdidaktisk metode der har til formål at øge elevernes interesse for og udbytte af naturfag. I artiklen redegøres der for metoden, der kan betegnes som en elevstyret problem- og undersøgelsesbaseret naturfagsundervisnings......Inquiry-based science education (IBSE) er en internationalt afprøvet naturfagsdidaktisk metode der har til formål at øge elevernes interesse for og udbytte af naturfag. I artiklen redegøres der for metoden, der kan betegnes som en elevstyret problem- og undersøgelsesbaseret...

  1. Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry. Third Edition (United States)

    Denzin, Norman K., Ed.; Lincoln, Yvonna S., Ed.


    "Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry, Third Edition," the second volume in the paperback version of "The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research, 3rd Edition," consists of Part III of the handbook ("Strategies of Inquiry"). "Strategies of Qualitative Inquiry, Third Edition" presents the major tactics--historically, the research methods--that…

  2. Questions, Curiosity and the Inquiry Cycle (United States)

    Casey, Leo


    This article discusses the conceptual relationship between questions, curiosity and learning as inquiry elaborated in the work of Chip Bruce and others as the Inquiry Cycle. The Inquiry Cycle describes learning in terms of a continuous dynamic of ask, investigate, create, discuss and reflect. Of these elements "ask" has a privileged…

  3. Multiple Modes of Inquiry in Earth Science (United States)

    Kastens, Kim A.; Rivet, Ann


    To help teachers enrich their students' understanding of inquiry in Earth science, this article describes six modes of inquiry used by practicing geoscientists (Earth scientists). Each mode of inquiry is illustrated by using examples of seminal or pioneering research and provides pointers to investigations that enable students to experience these…

  4. Talking Science: Developing a Discourse of Inquiry (United States)

    Hackling, Mark; Smith, Pru; Murcia, Karen


    A key principle of inquiry-based science education is that the process of inquiry must include opportunities for the exploration of questions and ideas, as well as reasoning with ideas and evidence. Teaching and learning Science therefore involves teachers managing a discourse that supports inquiry and students engaging in talk that facilitates…

  5. 10 CFR 1022.6 - Public inquiries. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public inquiries. 1022.6 Section 1022.6 Energy DEPARTMENT... REQUIREMENTS General § 1022.6 Public inquiries. Inquiries regarding DOE's floodplain and wetland environmental... at 1-800-472-2756, toll free. ...

  6. Dealing with the Ambiguities of Science Inquiry (United States)

    Tan, Yuen Sze Michelle; Caleon, Imelda Santos


    The current vision of science education in myriad educational contexts encourages students to learn through the process of science inquiry. Science inquiry has been used to promote conceptual learning and engage learners in an active process of meaning-making and investigation to understand the world around them. The science inquiry process…

  7. Kindergarten Teachers' Understanding of the Elements of Implementing Inquiry-Based Science Instruction (United States)

    Blevins, Kathryn

    The purpose of this basic qualitative research study was to identify the extent to which kindergarten teachers understand and implement inquiry-based instruction in their science classrooms. This study was conducted in response to the indication that traditional didactic teaching methods were not enough to adequately prepare American students to compete in the global economy. Inquiry is a teaching method that could prepare students for the critical thinking skills needed to enter society in the 21st century. It is vital that teachers be sufficiently trained in teaching using the necessary components of inquiry-based instruction. This study could be used to inform leaders in educational administration of the gaps in teachers' understanding as it pertains to inquiry, thus allowing for the delivery of professional development that will address teachers' needs. Existing literature on inquiry-based instruction provides minimal information on kindergarten teachers' understanding and usage of inquiry to teach science content, and this information would be necessary to inform administrators in their response to supporting teachers in the implementation of inquiry. The primary research question for this study was "To what extent do kindergarten teachers understand the elements of implementing inquiry-based lessons in science instruction?" The 10 participants in this study were all kindergarten teachers in a midsized school district in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Data were collected using face-to-face semistructured interviews, observations of the teachers implementing what they perceived to be inquiry-based instruction, and the analysis of lesson plans to indicate the components used to plan for inquiry-instruction. The findings of this study indicated that while teachers believed inquiry to be a beneficial method for teaching science, they did not understand the components of inquiry and tended to implement lesson plans created at the district level. By

  8. The pharmaceutical sector inquiry: 'Hamlet' in a nutshell. (United States)

    den Exter, André


    In July 2009, the European Commission (DG Competition) published a Communication on the pharmaceutical sector. This inquiry was launched because there were some indications that competition in the pharmaceutical market in the European Union might not be working well. The report examines the reasons for the observed delay. This article analyses the outcomes from a critical standpoint, arguing in favour of enhanced 'soft law' accountability mechanisms in the pharmaceutical sector, defending conditional patenting and the introduction of a Community patent.

  9. Portfolios: A Vehicle for Inquiry. (United States)

    McMackin, Mary C.

    By blending elements of inquiry with the components of portfolios, learning and thinking in teacher preparation courses can be extended and possible tensions between "covering content" and allowing "open-ended investigation" can be mitigated. Over the years, the author mused about how she might nudge graduate students in her…

  10. Taking on Inquiry in Iowa (United States)

    Carruthers, Cheryl; Lampe, Karen


    Over the last year, "School Library Monthly" ("SLM") has challenged school librarians to "nudge toward inquiry" through the "SLM" blog-driven submissions compiled by Kristin Fontichiaro. Iowa took up the challenge! This article describes how teacher librarians across Iowa teamed with classroom teachers to…

  11. Collaborative Inquiry-based Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suarez, Angel


    This thesis presents the results of the conducted research and development of applications to support collaborative inquiry-based learning, with a special focus on leveraging learners’ agency. The reported results are structured into three parts: the theoretical foundations, the design and

  12. Remote file inquiry (RFI) system (United States)


    System interrogates and maintains user-definable data files from remote terminals, using English-like, free-form query language easily learned by persons not proficient in computer programming. System operates in asynchronous mode, allowing any number of inquiries within limitation of available core to be active concurrently.

  13. The Structure of Historical Inquiry (United States)

    Retz, Tyson


    History educators find themselves in the peculiar situation of wishing to introduce students to the history discipline while lacking a clear conception of the features intrinsic to historical inquiry across its various specialisations and subject matters. In affirming that no one methodological charter hangs in the corridors of academic history…

  14. Remaking collective knowledge: An analysis of the complex and multiple effects of inquiries into historical institutional child abuse. (United States)

    Wright, Katie


    This article provides an overview and critical analysis of inquiries into historical institutional child abuse and examines their multiple functions and complex effects. The article takes a broadly international view but focuses primarily on Australia, the UK and Ireland, jurisdictions in which there have been major national inquiries. Drawing on sociological and other social science literature, it begins by considering the forms, functions, and purposes of inquiries. An overview of emergent concerns with institutional abuse in the 1980s and 1990s is then provided, followed by an examination of the response of many governments since that time in establishing inquiries. Key findings and recommendations are considered. The final sections of the article explore the evaluation of inquiries, both during their operation and in their aftermath. Policy change and legislative reform are discussed but the focus is on aspects often underplayed or overlooked, including an inquiry's credibility, its role in processes of knowledge production, and the part it plays in producing social and cultural shifts. In the context of growing numbers of inquiries across Western democracies, including the Australian Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse, it is argued that grasping the complexity of the inquiry mechanism, with its inherent tensions and its multiple effects, is crucial to evaluating inquiry outcomes. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Approaches to Inquiry Teaching: Elementary teacher's perspectives (United States)

    Ireland, Joseph; Watters, James J.; Lunn Brownlee, J.; Lupton, Mandy


    Learning science through the process of inquiry is advocated in curriculum documents across many jurisdictions. However, a number of studies suggest that teachers struggle to help students engage in inquiry practices. This is not surprising as many teachers of science have not engaged in scientific inquiry and possibly hold naïve ideas about what constitutes scientific inquiry. This study investigates teachers' self-reported approaches to teaching science through inquiry. Phenomenographic interviews undertaken with 20 elementary teachers revealed teachers identified six approaches to teaching for inquiry, clustered within three categories. These approaches were categorized as Free and Illustrated Inquiries as part of an Experience-centered category, Solution and Method Inquiries as part of a Problem-centered category, and Topic and Chaperoned Inquiries as part of a Question-centered category. This study contributes to our theoretical understanding of how teachers approach Inquiry Teaching and suggests fertile areas of future research into this valued and influential phenomenon broadly known as 'Inquiry Teaching'.

  16. GeoInquiries: Addressing a Grand Challenge for Teaching with GIS in Schools (United States)

    DiBiase, D.; Baker, T.


    According to the National Research Council (2006), geographic information systems (GIS) is a powerful tool for expanding students' abilities to think spatially, a critical skill for future STEM professionals. However, educators in mainstream subjects in U.S. education have struggled for decades to use GIS effectively in classrooms. GeoInquiries are no cost, standards-based (NGSS or AP), Creative Commons-licensed instructional activities that guide inquiry around map-based concepts found in key subjects like Earth and environmental science. Web maps developed for GeoInquiries expand upon printed maps in leading textbooks by taking advantage of 21st GIS capabilities. GeoInquiry collections consist of 15 activities, each chosen to offer a map-based activity every few weeks throughout the school year. GeoInquiries use a common inquiry instructional framework, learned by many educators during their teacher preparation coursework. GeoInquiries are instructionally flexible - acting as much like building blocks for crafting custom activities as finished instructional materials. Over a half million geoinquiries will be accessed in the next twelve months - serving an anticipated 15 million students. After a generation of outreach to the educators, GIS is finally finding its way the mainstream.

  17. Science Faculty Belief Systems in a Professional Development Program: Inquiry in College Laboratories (United States)

    Hutchins, Kristen L.; Friedrichsen, Patricia J.


    The purpose of this study was to investigate how science faculty members' belief systems about inquiry-based teaching changed through their experience in a professional development program. The program was designed to support early career science faculty in learning about inquiry and incorporating an inquiry-based approach to teaching laboratories. Data sources for this qualitative study included three semi-structured interviews, observations during the program and during faculty members' implementation in their courses, and a researcher's journal. In the first phase of data analysis, we created profiles for each of the four participants. Next, we developed assertions, and tested for confirming and disconfirming evidence across the profiles. The assertions indicated that, through the professional development program, participants' knowledge and beliefs about inquiry-based teaching shifted, placing more value on student-directed learning and classroom inquiry. Participants who were internally motivated to participate and held incoming positive attitudes toward the mini-journal inquiry-based approach were more likely to incorporate the approach in their future practice. Students' responses played a critical role in participants' belief systems and their decision to continue using the inquiry-based format. The findings from this study have implications for professional development design.

  18. Preservice teachers working with narrative inquiry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Peer

    Application of inquiry in teacher education is gaining momentum. Inquiry is used to build connections with the local community (Nicholas, Baker-Sennett, McClanahan, & Harwood, 2012), student-centered inquiry is used as a curricular model (Oliver et al., 2015), inquiry is used to accentuate......’-module is a 6 week full-time study including a 2 weeks stay at a youth folk high school, where the teacher students are to focus on a self-determined element of the praxis. The students are to study this focus through narrative inquiry based on the North-American tradition within narrative inquiry (Clandinin....... Aarhus; Kbh.: Klim; i samarbejde med Folkehøjskolernes Forening. Salerno, A. S., & Kibler, A. K. (2015). Questions they ask: Considering teacher-inquiry questions posed by pre-service english teachers. Educational Action Research, 23(3), 399-415....

  19. Supporting Collective Inquiry: A Technology Framework for Distributed Learning (United States)

    Tissenbaum, Michael

    This design-based study describes the implementation and evaluation of a technology framework to support smart classrooms and Distributed Technology Enhanced Learning (DTEL) called SAIL Smart Space (S3). S3 is an open-source technology framework designed to support students engaged in inquiry investigations as a knowledge community. To evaluate the effectiveness of S3 as a generalizable technology framework, a curriculum named PLACE (Physics Learning Across Contexts and Environments) was developed to support two grade-11 physics classes (n = 22; n = 23) engaged in a multi-context inquiry curriculum based on the Knowledge Community and Inquiry (KCI) pedagogical model. This dissertation outlines three initial design studies that established a set of design principles for DTEL curricula, and related technology infrastructures. These principles guided the development of PLACE, a twelve-week inquiry curriculum in which students drew upon their community-generated knowledge base as a source of evidence for solving ill-structured physics problems based on the physics of Hollywood movies. During the culminating smart classroom activity, the S3 framework played a central role in orchestrating student activities, including managing the flow of materials and students using real-time data mining and intelligent agents that responded to emergent class patterns. S3 supported students' construction of knowledge through the use individual, collective and collaborative scripts and technologies, including tablets and interactive large-format displays. Aggregate and real-time ambient visualizations helped the teacher act as a wondering facilitator, supporting students in their inquiry where needed. A teacher orchestration tablet gave the teacher some control over the flow of the scripted activities, and alerted him to critical moments for intervention. Analysis focuses on S3's effectiveness in supporting students' inquiry across multiple learning contexts and scales of time, and in

  20. Narrative Inquiry With Activity Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa C. Yamagata-Lynch


    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to introduce activity systems as a methodological tool in narrative inquiry to gain a holistic understanding of socially shared experiences from an examination of documents. The research question was how can qualitative researchers use activity systems as a tool for engaging in narrative inquiry of socially shared experiences to uncover new meanings by constructing a story? In this article, we share a sample analysis of our experience relying on documents and media as a form of narrative to begin to understand the socially shared human activity associated with net neutrality and its potential impact on U.S. residents. We end this article with reflections of lessons learned from our activity systems guided story construction process.

  1. Sun Tzu: Theorist for the Twenty-First Century (United States)


    instructing its Senior Leaders in the productiveness of this Strategic Thinking Model and ensure that future leaders are given the appropriate...the following suggestion: (1) Continue to intergrate Sun Tzu’s noteworthy strategic theories in today’s campaign plans to win the conflicts against

  2. Moral Psychology for the Twenty-First Century (United States)

    Haidt, Jonathan


    Lawrence Kohlberg slayed the two dragons of twentieth-century psychology--behaviorism and psychoanalysis. His victory was a part of the larger cognitive revolution that shaped the world in which all of us study psychology and education today. But the cognitive revolution itself was modified by later waves of change, particularly an "affective…

  3. Redesigning the World Trade Organization for the Twenty-First ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    15 déc. 2009 ... Two high-level commissions — the Sutherland report in 2004 and the Warwick Commission report in 2007 — addressed the future of the World Trade Organization (WTO) and made proposals for incremental reform. This book goes further. It explains why institutional reform of the WTO is needed at this ...

  4. Rethinking the humanities in twenty-first century Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Using Bergson's theory of history and Foucault's concept of knowledge as power, and others, Msiska argues that the field of humanities in Africa should be reconceptualised into African Humanities in order to effect what Deleuze and Guattari have defined as conceptual self-semiotisation. Msiska also identifies the main ...

  5. Twenty-first century metadata operations challenges, opportunities, directions

    CERN Document Server

    Lee Eden, Bradford


    It has long been apparent to academic library administrators that the current technical services operations within libraries need to be redirected and refocused in terms of both format priorities and human resources. A number of developments and directions have made this reorganization imperative, many of which have been accelerated by the current economic crisis. All of the chapters detail some aspect of technical services reorganization due to downsizing and/or reallocation of human resources, retooling professional and support staff in higher level duties and/or non-MARC metadata, ""value-a

  6. The twenty-first century commercial space imperative

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Anthony


    Young addresses the impressive expansion across existing and developing commercial space business markets, with multiple private companies competing in the payload launch services sector. The author pinpoints the new markets, technologies, and players in the industry, as well as highlighting the overall reasons why it is important for us to develop space. NASA now relies on commercial partners to supply cargo and crew spacecraft and services to and from the International Space Station. The sizes of satellites are diminishing and their capabilities expanding, while costs to orbit are decreasing. Suborbital space tourism holds the potential of new industries and jobs. Commercial space exploration of the Moon and the planets also holds promise. All this activity is a catalyst for anyone interested in joining the developing space industry, from students and researchers to engineers and entrepreneurs. As more and more satellites and rockets are launched and the business of space is expanding at a signifi...

  7. Preparing for China in the Twenty-First Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simmons, Brian


    With China's emergence in the next century as a world economic and military power, it is imperative that the United States continue an engagement approach to assist with China's continued development...

  8. Cosmopolitan cities: the frontier in the twenty-first century? (United States)

    Sevincer, A Timur; Kitayama, Shinobu; Varnum, Michael E W


    People with independent (vs. interdependent) social orientation place greater priority on personal success, autonomy, and novel experiences over maintaining ties to their communities of origin. Accordingly, an independent orientation should be linked to a motivational proclivity to move to places that offer economic opportunities, freedom, and diversity. Such places are cities that can be called "cosmopolitan." In support of this hypothesis, Study 1 found that independently oriented young adults showed a preference to move to cosmopolitan rather than noncosmopolitan cities. Study 2 used a priming manipulation and demonstrated a causal impact of independence on residential preferences for cosmopolitan cities. Study 3 established ecological validity by showing that students who actually moved to a cosmopolitan city were more independent than those who either moved to a noncosmopolitan city or never moved. Taken together, the findings illuminate the role of cosmopolitan settlement in the contemporary cultural change toward independence and have implications for urban development and economic growth.

  9. Cosmopolitan cities: the frontier in the twenty-first century?


    Sevincer, A. Timur; Kitayama, Shinobu; Varnum, Michael E. W.


    People with independent (vs. interdependent) social orientation place greater priority on personal success, autonomy, and novel experiences over maintaining ties to their communities of origin. Accordingly, an independent orientation should be linked to a motivational proclivity to move to places that offer economic opportunities, freedom, and diversity. Such places are cities that can be called “cosmopolitan.” In support of this hypothesis, Study 1 found that independently oriented young adu...

  10. Engagement and the Twenty-First Century University. (United States)

    McGrath, C. Peter


    Argues for redefining the mission of the 21st-century university in order to focus on one overriding objective serving the public. Effective, expanding engagement with communities provides expertise and service to communities in ways in which universities are co-equal partners with other organizations and interests; it also provides rich…

  11. Capital in the twenty-first century: a critique. (United States)

    Soskice, David


    I set out and explain Piketty's model of the dynamics of capitalism based on two equations and the r > g inequality (his central contradiction of capitalism). I then take issue with Piketty's analysis of the rebuilding of inequality from the 1970s to the present on three grounds: First, his model is based on the (neo-classical) assumption that companies are essentially passive actors who invest the amount savers choose to accumulate at equilibrium output - leading to the counterintuitive result that companies respond to the secular fall in growth (and hence their product markets) from the 1970s on by increasing their investment relative to output; this does indeed imply increased inequality on Piketty's β measure, the ratio of capital to output. I suggest a more realistic model in which businesses determine investment growth based on their expectations of output growth, with monetary policy bringing savings into line with business-determined investment; the implication of this model is that β does not change at all. And in fact as other recent empirical work which I reference has noted, β has not changed significantly over these recent decades. Hence Piketty's central analysis of the growth of contemporary inequality requires rethinking. Second, despite many references to the need for political economic analysis, Piketty's analysis of the growth of inequality in the period from the 1970s to the present is almost devoid of it, his explanatory framework being purely mathematical. I sketch what a political economic framework might look like during a period when politics was central to inequality. Third, inequality in fact rose on a variety of dimensions apart from β (including poverty which Piketty virtually makes no reference to in this period), but it is unclear what might explain why inequality rose in these other dimensions. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.

  12. Twenty-First Century Diseases: Commonly Rare and Rarely Common? (United States)

    Daunert, Sylvia; Sittampalam, Gurusingham Sitta; Goldschmidt-Clermont, Pascal J


    Alzheimer's drugs are failing at a rate of 99.6%, and success rate for drugs designed to help patients with this form of dementia is 47 times less than for drugs designed to help patients with cancers ( ). How can it be so difficult to produce a valuable drug for Alzheimer's disease? Each human has a unique genetic and epigenetic makeup, thus endowing individuals with a highly unique complement of genes, polymorphisms, mutations, RNAs, proteins, lipids, and complex sugars, resulting in distinct genome, proteome, metabolome, and also microbiome identity. This editorial is taking into account the uniqueness of each individual and surrounding environment, and stresses the point that a more accurate definition of a "common" disorder could be simply the amalgamation of a myriad of "rare" diseases. These rare diseases are being grouped together because they share a rather constant complement of common features and, indeed, generally respond to empirically developed treatments, leading to a positive outcome consistently. We make the case that it is highly unlikely that such treatments, despite their statistical success measured with large cohorts using standardized clinical research, will be effective on all patients until we increase the depth and fidelity of our understanding of the individual "rare" diseases that are grouped together in the "buckets" of common illnesses. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 27, 511-516.

  13. United States Military Space: Into the Twenty-First Century (United States)


    famous and articulate spokesmen for planetary science; Pale Blue Dot : A Vision of the Human Future in Space (New York: Random House, 1994) was one...and defining human characteristic. Carl Sagan is a primary spokesman for those who view spaceflight in scientific and ecological terms and see it as...Spacefaring Civilization (New York: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam, 1999). Carl Sagan cofounded the Planetary Society in 1980 and was one of the most

  14. American marriage in the early twenty-first century. (United States)

    Cherlin, Andrew J


    During the past century the U.S. family system has seen vast changes--in marriage and divorce rates, cohabitation, childbearing, sexual behavior, and women's work outside the home. Andrew Cherlin reviews these historic changes, noting that marriage remains the most common living arrangement for raising children, but that children, especially poor and minority children, are increasingly likely to grow up in single-parent families and to experience family instability. Cherlin describes the economic and cultural forces that have transformed family life. Job market changes have drawn married women into the work force and deprived less-educated men of the blue-collar jobs by which they traditionally supported their families. And effective contraception and legalized abortion have eroded the norm of marriage before childbearing. Cherlin notes that sentiment in favor of marriage appears to be stronger in the United States than in other developed countries. The share of U.S. adults who are likely to marry is higher, but so is the share likely to divorce. U.S. children are also more likely to live in single-parent families at some time in their childhood. Although nearly all Americans, whether poor or well-to-do, hold to marriage as an ideal, today marriage is increasingly optional. To a greater extent than ever before, individuals can choose whether to form a family on their own, in a cohabiting relationship, or in a marriage. Given U.S. patterns of swift transitions into and out of marriage and high rates of single parenthood, American policymakers eager to promote marriage are unlikely to be able to raise U.S. family stability to levels typical of other developed countries. Consequently, a family policy that relies too heavily on marriage will not help the many children destined to live in single-parent and cohabiting families--many of them poor--during their formative years. Assistance must be directed to needy families, regardless of their household structure. Policymakers must craft a careful balance of marriage-based and marriage-neutral programs to provide adequate support to American children.

  15. Renewal: Remaking America's Schools for the Twenty-First Century (United States)

    Kwalwasser, Harold


    Harold Kwalwasser has put together a call to action for education reform that makes a clear case for what has to be done in order to educate all children to their full potential. He visited forty high-performing and transforming school districts, charters, parochial, and private schools to understand why they have succeeded where others have…

  16. What constitutes cerebral palsy in the twenty-first century?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smithers-Sheedy, Hayley; Badawi, Nadia; Blair, Eve


    AIM: Determining inclusion/exclusion criteria for cerebral palsy (CP) surveillance is challenging. The aims of this paper were to (1) define inclusion/exclusion criteria that have been adopted uniformly by surveillance programmes and identify where consensus is still elusive, and (2) provide...... (SCPE; 1976-1998). An expert panel used a consensus building technique, which utilized the SCPE 'decision tree' and the original 'What constitutes cerebral palsy?' paper as frameworks. RESULTS: CP surveillance programmes agree on key clinical criteria pertaining to the type, severity, and origin...

  17. Strategic nutrition: a vision for the twenty-first century. (United States)

    Temple, Norman J


    It is now widely accepted that poor nutrition plays a major role in the epidemic of various diseases, including obesity, type 2 diabetes and CVD. There has also been much research regarding the role of related factors such as advertising and food prices. Many intervention studies have been carried out where attempts have been made to persuade people to modify their behaviour, such as by making dietary changes, in order to enhance health (health promotion). There has also been much debate on the potential of government policy as a tool for achieving these goals. Various proposals have been made, such as a tax on sugary drinks, the redirection of food subsidies and how the salt content of food can be reduced. However, the great majority of previous papers have considered only single aspects of the topics discussed here. The present paper reviews strategies for improving public health, both health promotion interventions and the use of government policy approaches. Topics discussed include providing advice for the general population and the design of food guides and food labels. This leads to the conclusion that we need an overall strategy that integrates this diverse body of information and formulates a comprehensive action plan. I propose the term 'strategic nutrition'. The implementation of this plan opens up a path to a major advance in public health.

  18. The twenty first century informatization and artificial intelligence system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noh, Jung Ho


    The contents of this book are competition of mental weakness and visually handicapped people, barbarian about the knowledge of commodity, we are living in notion of time of the agricultural age, parade of informatization of fool. Is there a successful case of informatization when it is done as others do?, what is technology of informatization?, there is mistake in traditional information technology from a system of thought, information system, and analysis of improvement of industrial structure case of development for program case of system installation, and a thief free society.

  19. Water and Food in the Twenty-First Century (United States)

    de Marsily, Ghislain; Abarca-del-Rio, Rodrigo


    In 2000, the World population was 6.2 billion people; it reached 7 billion in 2012 and is expected to reach 9.5 billion (±0.4) in 2050 and 11 billion (±1.5) in 2100, according to the 2012 UN projections (Gerland et al. in Science 346:234-237, 2014). The trend after 2100 is still one of the global demographic growths, but after 2060, Africa is the only continent where the population would still increase. The amount of water consumed annually to produce the food necessary to meet the needs of the populations varies greatly between countries, from about 600 to 2500 m3/year per capita (Zimmer in L'empreinte eau. Les faces cachées d'une ressource vitale. Charles Léopold Meyer, Paris, 2013), depending on their wealth, their food habits, and the percentage of food waste they generate (on average, 30 % of the food produced is wasted). In 2000, the total food production was on the order of 3300 million tons (in cereal equivalents). In 2014, it is estimated that about 0.8 billion inhabitants of the planet suffer from hunger (FAO in World agriculture: towards 2030-2050. FAO, Rome, 2014. and do not get the nutrition they need to be in good health or, in the case of children, to grow properly (both physically and intellectually). This food deficit was on the order of 40 million tons of cereal equivalents in 2014. The number of inhabitants with a food deficit was about 0.85 billion before the 2008 crisis and was decreasing annually, but it increased abruptly after 2008 up to 1 billion inhabitants and is slowly decreasing now. Assuming a World average water consumption for food of 1300 m3/year per capita in 2000, 1400 m3/year in 2050, and 1500 m3/year in 2100, a volume of water of around 8200 km3/year was needed in 2000, 13,000 km3/year will be needed in 2050, and 16,500 km3/year in 2100 (Marsily in L'eau, un trésor en partage. Dunod, Paris, 2009). Can bioenergy be added to food production? Will that much water be available on Earth, and where will it come from? Is climate change going to modify the answers to these questions? Can severe droughts occur? Can there be conflicts related to a food deficit? Some preliminary answers and scenarios for food production will be given in this paper from a hydrologist's viewpoint.

  20. NATO: Maintaining Relevance in the Twenty-First Century (United States)


    proportionality.129 NATO displays Kantian respect toward the peoples of sovereign nation-states that provide legitimate governance for their citizens. The...qualities of Kantian respect. Most recently, NATO deems this function its “responsibility to protect.” Dr. Robert Jackson, professor of international...Relational Sovereignty,” 398. 35 The Kantian ethics of duty illustrate the moral imperative for the Alliance, given contemporary context, the perceived

  1. Teaching Privacy in the Twenty-First Century (United States)

    Edbrooke, Odette; Ambrose, Meg Leta


    What would Benjamin Franklin's Facebook page look like? Would he be "friends" with William Pierce, James Madison, or Alexander Hamilton? Would there have been a separate Facebook group for the framers of the Constitution, where they would have posted comments on the wall regarding the different stipulations that needed inclusion in the…

  2. War and Urban Terrain in the Twenty-First Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Murray, Williamson


    .... The spread of urban sprawl throughout the world is only part of the cause; the motivation of adversaries and friends alike to seek refuge in these environments offers a more compelling reason for the U.S...

  3. Italian Foreign Policy: Trends for the Twenty-First Century (United States)


    without the love and support of my wife, Dr. Lucia Mariani. While my time at NPS marks only another episode in the unfailing support she has always... della Sinistra). In this transformation, however, the PDS lost support from the hard line Marxists that had supported the PCI. “The split between...Milan, FrancoAngeli, 1998), 95-113. 107 Lucio Caracciolo, Terra Incognita: Le radici geopolitiche della crisi italiana, (Rome, Gius. Laterza and

  4. Rheumatic Heart Disease in the Twenty-First Century. (United States)

    Woldu, Bethel; Bloomfield, Gerald S


    Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is a chronic valvular disease resulting after severe or repetitive episodes of acute rheumatic fever (ARF), an autoimmune response to group A Streptococcus infection. RHD has been almost eliminated with improved social and health infrastructure in affluent countries while it remains a neglected disease with major cause of morbidity and mortality in many low- and middle-income countries, and resource-limited regions of high-income countries. Despite our evolving understanding of the pathogenesis of RHD, there have not been any significant advances to prevent or halt progression of disease in recent history. Long-term penicillin-based treatment and surgery remain the backbone of a RHD control program in the absence of an effective vaccine. The advent of echocardiographic screening algorithms has improved the accuracy of diagnosing RHD and has shed light on the enormous burden of disease. Encouragingly, this has led to a rekindled commitment from researchers in the most affected countries to advocate and take bold actions to end this disease of social inequality.

  5. Redesigning the World Trade Organization for the Twenty-First ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    15 déc. 2009 ... Debra P. Steger enseigne le commerce international, le règlement des différends internationaux et le droit international des investissements ... Foundation ont conclu un accord de coopération scientifique et technologique en ...

  6. A Review of Twenty-First Century Higher Education (United States)

    Chan, Shirley


    This article is predominantly concerned with the global challenges associated with managing an academic workforce in an era characterised by increased demand for higher education. In scrutinising global trends in higher education and academic workforce management, the article will address two research questions. First, what are the global trends…

  7. Gravity's ghost scientific discovery in the twenty-first century

    CERN Document Server

    Collins, Harry


    In theory, at least, gravitational waves do exist. We are constantly bathed in gravitational radiation, which is generated when stars explode or collide and a portion of their mass becomes energy that ripples out like a disturbance on the surface of a serene pond. But unfortunately no gravitational wave has ever been directly detected even though the search has lasted more than forty years. As the leading chronicler of the search for gravitational waves, Harry Collins has been right there with the scientists since the start. The result of his unprecedented access to the front lines of physical

  8. Sun Tzu's War Theory in the Twenty First Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuo, Li-sheng A


    .... In accordance with "winning without fighting a battle" scenario, I will argue that the battle-prevention theory school is the most suitable, and Sun Tzu's classic The Art of War is the best choice of approach...

  9. Projecting twenty-first century regional sea-level changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slangen, A.B.A.; Carson, M.; Katsman, C.A.; van de Wal, R.S.W.; Köhl, A.; Vermeersen, L.L.A.; Stammer, D.


    We present regional sea-level projections and associated uncertainty estimates for the end of the 21 (st) century. We show regional projections of sea-level change resulting from changing ocean circulation, increased heat uptake and atmospheric pressure in CMIP5 climate models. These are combined

  10. Redesigning the World Trade Organization for the Twenty-First ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)


    Dec 15, 2009 ... Rather than simply analyzing the current functioning of the WTO, its problems and challenges, this volume is also a call to action. It lays out proposals that are likely to become a blueprint for reform of the WTO as an institution. Its contents are abundantly worthy of reflection and subsequent action.

  11. Virtual Reality: Teaching Tool of the Twenty-First Century? (United States)

    Hoffman, Helene; Vu, Dzung


    Virtual reality-based procedural and surgical simulations promise to revolutionize medical training. A wide range of simulations representing diverse content areas and varied implementation strategies are under development or in early use. The new systems will make broad-based training experiences available for students at all levels without risks…

  12. Strategic Leader Competencies for the Twenty-First Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Becker, Bradley A


    ...: interpersonal skills, conceptual skills, and technical skills. From these three primary strategic leadership skills, there is a list of twenty-one competencies that a strategic leader should posses...

  13. The pediatrician's role in the twenty-first century. (United States)

    Gracey, M


    The world's children comprise: (i) those in wealthy, industrialized countries; (ii) those from rapidly industrializing countries; (iii) minority groups including recently arrived immigrants in otherwise affluent and healthy societies; (iv) previously traditional people in rapid transition to urbanized, Western lifestyles; and (v) many millions living in grinding poverty in overcrowded, unhygienic conditions where child mortality is high and often due to malnutrition and infections. Industrialization, affluence, better housing, hygiene and nutrition, better clinical care and disease prevention have helped enhance child health in many countries over the past century. However, this is being offset by obesity, smoking, alcohol and drug abuse and social disruption, mental disease and high rates of violence including homicide and suicide. These 'new morbidities' are worse among minorities and in populations undergoing rapid social change. Social pressures including unemployment, depression and family dysfunction are important. Pediatricians must become active in decisions about the use of public resources in disease prevention, health education and more rational and equitable use of high technology. They should also be active advocates for children and their rights and advise governments about all issues that affect child health, protection and well-being. This is particularly so in the poorest and developing countries. There is a need for better international collaboration, training and exchange programs involving the International Pediatric Association, United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund, World Health Organization and other local, national and regional organizations to help overcome these problems as the next century draws near.

  14. A Multicultural Library: Strategies for the Twenty-First Century. (United States)

    Nance-Mitchell, Veronica E.


    Library schools and institutions of higher education must be prepared to meet the demands of an increasingly multicultural population. They must be committed to affirmative action initiatives and the recruitment and retention of minority library students, and to motivating, networking, and providing job opportunities. (AEF)

  15. A Library Communication Audit for the Twenty-First Century (United States)

    Chalmers, Mardi; Liedtka, Theresa; Bednar, Carol


    This article describes a case study relating to an internal communication audit conducted in a large academic library that assessed existing information channels during a period of organizational change in order to recommend improvements. A communications task force developed and administered a survey instrument and then analyzed data and reported…

  16. Is Dance a Sport?: A Twenty-First-Century Debate (United States)

    Guarino, Lindsay


    This article discusses a new debate which has emerged for dancers. For many years dancers debated dance as art versus entertainment. This age-old debate still exists without a consensus, yet there is suddenly a new generation of dancers with a fresh debate. Legions of young performers are fervently proclaiming that their dance is actually a sport.…

  17. The twenty first century informatization and artificial intelligence system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Jung Ho


    The contents of this book are competition of mental weakness and visually handicapped people, barbarian about the knowledge of commodity, we are living in notion of time of the agricultural age, parade of informatization of fool. Is there a successful case of informatization when it is done as others do?, what is technology of informatization?, there is mistake in traditional information technology from a system of thought, information system, and analysis of improvement of industrial structure case of development for program case of system installation, and a thief free society.

  18. Drone Warfare: Twenty-First Century Empire and Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Howley


    Full Text Available This paper, part of a larger project that examines drones from a social-construction of technology perspective, considers drone warfare in light of Harold Innis’s seminal work on empire and communication. Leveraging leading-edge aeronautics with advanced optics, data processing, and networked communication, drones represent an archetypal “space-biased” technology. Indeed, by allowing remote operators and others to monitor, select, and strike targets from half a world away, and in real-time, these weapon systems epitomize the “pernicious neglect of time” Innis sought to identify and remedy in his later writing. With Innis’s time-space dialectic as a starting point, then, the paper considers drones in light of a longstanding paradox of American culture: the impulse to collapse the geographical distance between the United States and other parts of the globe, while simultaneously magnifying the cultural difference between Americans and other peoples and societies. In the midst of the worldwide proliferation of drones, this quintessentially sublime technology embodies this (disconnect in important, profound, and ominous ways.

  19. Clinical Skills Assessment in the Twenty-First Century. (United States)

    Elder, Andrew


    Clinical skills remain fundamental to the practice of medicine and form a core component of the professional identity of the physician. However, evidence exists to suggest that the practice of some clinical skills is declining, particularly in the United States. A decline in practice of any skill can lead to a decline in its teaching and assessment, with further decline in practice as a result. Consequently, assessment not only drives learning of clinical skills, but their practice. This article summarizes contemporary approaches to clinical skills assessment that, if more widely adopted, could support the maintenance and reinvigoration of bedside clinical skills. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A New Moon for the Twenty-First Century (United States)

    Taylor, G. J.


    Thirty years of lunar sample studies supplemented by spotty remote sensing and geophysical data gave us the broad outline of the nature and geologic history of the Moon. Many cherished beliefs are now being questioned on the basis of global data returned by two bargain-basement missions sent to the Moon in the 1990s, Clementine and Lunar Prospector. These data are being integrated with new and old lunar sample data, to give us new, though still controversial, ideas about the nature of the Moon. Two articles in a special section of the Journal of Geophysical Research (Planets) illustrate the point. Brad Jolliff and his colleagues at Washington University in St. Louis, Jeff Gillis, Larry Haskin, Randy Korotev, and Mark Wieczorek (now at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology) divide the Moon's crust into distinct geochemical provinces quite different from the traditional highlands (or terra) and maria. In a separate paper, Randy Korotev presents a detailed analysis of a common rock type among the samples returned by the Apollo missions. This rock type, nicknamed enigmatically "LKFM," was thought by many of us to represent the composition of the lower crust everywhere on the Moon. Korotev argues that it is confined to only one of Jolliff's provinces. If correct, this changes our estimates of the composition of the lunar crust, hence of the entire Moon. Although other lunar scientists will scrutinize these new views of the Moon, it is clear that some long-held ideas about the Moon might be modified significantly, if not tossed out completely.

  1. Twenty-First Century Learning: Communities, Interaction and Ubiquitous Computing (United States)

    Leh, Amy S.C.; Kouba, Barbara; Davis, Dirk


    Advanced technology makes 21st century learning, communities and interactions unique and leads people to an era of ubiquitous computing. The purpose of this article is to contribute to the discussion of learning in the 21st century. The paper will review literature on learning community, community learning, interaction, 21st century learning and…

  2. Virtual reality: teaching tool of the twenty-first century? (United States)

    Hoffman, H; Vu, D


    Virtual reality (VR) is gaining recognition for its enormous educational potential. While not yet in the mainstream of academic medical training, many prototype and first-generation VR applications are emerging, with target audiences ranging from first- and second-year medical students to residents in advanced clinical training. Visualization tools that take advantage of VR technologies are being designed to provide engaging and intuitive environments for learning visually and spatially complex topics such as human anatomy, biochemistry, and molecular biology. These applications present dynamic, three-dimensional views of structures and their spatial relationships, enabling users to move beyond "real-world" experiences by interacting with or altering virtual objects in ways that would otherwise be difficult or impossible. VR-based procedural and surgical simulations, often compared with flight simulators in aviation, hold significant promise for revolutionizing medical training. Already a wide range of simulations, representing diverse content areas and utilizing a variety of implementation strategies, are either under development or in their early implementation stages. These new systems promise to make broad-based training experiences available for students at all levels, without the risks and ethical concerns typically associated with using animal and human subjects. Medical students could acquire proficiency and gain confidence in the ability to perform a wide variety of techniques long before they need to use them clinically. Surgical residents could rehearse and refine operative procedures, using an unlimited pool of virtual patients manifesting a wide range of anatomic variations, traumatic wounds, and disease states. Those simulated encounters, in combination with existing opportunities to work with real patients, could increase the depth and breadth of learners' exposure to medical problems, ensure uniformity of training experiences, and enhance the acquisition of clinical skills.

  3. Cyber Attacks and Terrorism: A Twenty-First Century Conundrum. (United States)

    Albahar, Marwan


    In the recent years, an alarming rise in the incidence of cyber attacks has made cyber security a major concern for nations across the globe. Given the current volatile socio-political environment and the massive increase in the incidence of terrorism, it is imperative that government agencies rapidly realize the possibility of cyber space exploitation by terrorist organizations and state players to disrupt the normal way of life. The threat level of cyber terrorism has never been as high as it is today, and this has created a lot of insecurity and fear. This study has focused on different aspects of cyber attacks and explored the reasons behind their increasing popularity among the terrorist organizations and state players. This study proposes an empirical model that can be used to estimate the risk levels associated with different types of cyber attacks and thereby provide a road map to conceptualize and formulate highly effective counter measures and cyber security policies.

  4. Atomic Energy Board, twenty first annual report, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    Progress is reported on the following: nuclear materials, nuclear power, application of radioisotopes and radiation, health and safety, and fundamental studies undertaken in the fields of physics, chemistry, metallurgy, medicine and geology during 1977. The supporting activities of the computer services, engineering sevices, waste disposal plant, instrumentation section, research reactor and analytical services are given for 1977. The report contains a bibliography of publications published by staff members and bursars of the Atomic Energy Board during 1977

  5. Strategic Leader Competencies for the Twenty-First Century

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Becker, Bradley A


    .... While all these skills and competencies play a role in successful strategic leadership, this paper will advocate that visioning, leading change, and interpersonal skills have the greatest impact on successful strategic leadership in this rapidly changing global environment.

  6. Tailings management for the twenty-first century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frost, S.E.


    The evolution of tailings management at Saskatchewan uranium mines is traced from the fifties to the nineties. Some of the problems with past systems are discussed. The new tailings systems now being proposed for the new operations currently undergoing environmental assessment in Saskatchewan are examined in detail. These new systems represent a change in tailings management philosophy, from keeping tailings high and dry on the surface, to placement of tailings in a low-energy regime within the water table. There they are removed from the active surface environment, avoiding future erosion problems, with a reduced likelihood of suffering intrusion from future human or animal activities. (author). 16 refs., 5 figs

  7. Accelerators for the twenty-first century - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, E.J.N.


    Modern synchrotrons and storage rings are based upon the electrical technology of the 1900s boosted by the microwave radar techniques of World War II. This method of acceleration now seems to be approaching its practical limit. It is high time that we seek a new physical acceleration mechanism to provide the higher energies and luminosities needed to continue particle physics beyond the machines now on the stocks. Twenty years is a short time in which to invent, develop, and construct such a device. Without it, high-energy physics may well come to an end. Particle physicists and astrophysicists are invited to join accelerator specialists in the hunt for this new principle. This report analyses the present limitations of colliders and explores some of the directions in which one might look to find a new principle. Chapters cover proton colliders, electron-positron colliders, linear colliders, and two-beam accelerators; transverse fields, wake-field and beat-wave accelerators, ferroelectric crystals, and acceleration in astrophysics. (orig.)

  8. The global nitrogen cycle in the twenty-first century. (United States)

    Fowler, David; Coyle, Mhairi; Skiba, Ute; Sutton, Mark A; Cape, J Neil; Reis, Stefan; Sheppard, Lucy J; Jenkins, Alan; Grizzetti, Bruna; Galloway, James N; Vitousek, Peter; Leach, Allison; Bouwman, Alexander F; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus; Dentener, Frank; Stevenson, David; Amann, Marcus; Voss, Maren


    Global nitrogen fixation contributes 413 Tg of reactive nitrogen (Nr) to terrestrial and marine ecosystems annually of which anthropogenic activities are responsible for half, 210 Tg N. The majority of the transformations of anthropogenic Nr are on land (240 Tg N yr(-1)) within soils and vegetation where reduced Nr contributes most of the input through the use of fertilizer nitrogen in agriculture. Leakages from the use of fertilizer Nr contribute to nitrate (NO3(-)) in drainage waters from agricultural land and emissions of trace Nr compounds to the atmosphere. Emissions, mainly of ammonia (NH3) from land together with combustion related emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), contribute 100 Tg N yr(-1) to the atmosphere, which are transported between countries and processed within the atmosphere, generating secondary pollutants, including ozone and other photochemical oxidants and aerosols, especially ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) and ammonium sulfate (NH4)2SO4. Leaching and riverine transport of NO3 contribute 40-70 Tg N yr(-1) to coastal waters and the open ocean, which together with the 30 Tg input to oceans from atmospheric deposition combine with marine biological nitrogen fixation (140 Tg N yr(-1)) to double the ocean processing of Nr. Some of the marine Nr is buried in sediments, the remainder being denitrified back to the atmosphere as N2 or N2O. The marine processing is of a similar magnitude to that in terrestrial soils and vegetation, but has a larger fraction of natural origin. The lifetime of Nr in the atmosphere, with the exception of N2O, is only a few weeks, while in terrestrial ecosystems, with the exception of peatlands (where it can be 10(2)-10(3) years), the lifetime is a few decades. In the ocean, the lifetime of Nr is less well known but seems to be longer than in terrestrial ecosystems and may represent an important long-term source of N2O that will respond very slowly to control measures on the sources of Nr from which it is produced.

  9. Twenty-first century pathology sign-out. (United States)

    Tomlins, Scott; Robinson, Daniel; Penny, Robert J; Hess, Jay L


    It is difficult to imagine a field that is changing as rapidly as pathology. A convergence of factors including not only scientific and technological advances but also changes in business models is transforming the field, particularly in the area of cancer diagnostics. The authors examine 8 themes, or "forces of change," in pathology and speculate on how these will affect pathology sign-out and the future role of pathologists in patient care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Schooling for Twenty-First-Century Socialism: Venezuela's Bolivarian Project (United States)

    Griffiths, Tom G.


    The global dominance of neoliberal policy prescriptions in recent decades has been well documented, with particular implications for educational systems. These include reduced public expenditure and provision, the promotion of individual (parental) choice, competition, increased user-pays and the privatisation of education. Against this…

  11. Marketing of science in the twenty-first century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivelpiece, A.


    The author gives a brief review of marketing of science from the 1930's to the present. He discusses the fact that at the present the scientific community is doing a lousy job of marketing and the fact that it is very important that this be reversed because science and technology have become absolutely essential to our future economic health and development. The four steps which he proposes will help with this problem are: (1) government, universities and industry working together to try and insure that there's an adequate basis of curiosity-driven research; (2) scientist making an effort to insure that they have enough political power to be taken seriously; (3) an adjustment to scientist thinking to reflect the fiscal realities of what the next generation of scientific facilities will cost; and (4) a need for public support

  12. Global Mental Health for Twenty First Century Education (United States)

    Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid; Rajeswari, K.


    Delivering mental health programs and services in education is not a new idea but it is time to bring mental health into focus. Momentum is gaining in terms of raising awareness, increasing understanding, and articulating strategies for advancing and integrating mental health. We need to know that all over the world everything is unique and…

  13. Deep Ecology: Educational Possibilities for the Twenty-First Century (United States)

    Capra, Fritjof


    Fritjof Capra's two-part lecture presents the fundamentals of systems thinking and sustainability along with the power of an ecologically comprehensive theory to shape education to fit the needs of human development in relation to the environment. Dr. Capra aims for the big picture emphasizing that effective learning is a system embedded in the…

  14. Land, ecology, and democracy. A twenty-first century view. (United States)

    Newton, Julianne Lutz; Freyfogle, Eric T; Sullivan, William C


    Land is necessary for human flourishing, and its use remains a compelling concern for every society, even those wherein industrialization has sharply diminished people's awareness of land. Here, we consider land's influence on political thinking, particularly thinking about democratic governance, and ask if this influence might be made more beneficial by the application of lessons drawn from ecological research. We identify five such lessons and apply them in six ways to the institution of private-property rights in nature--the main legal institution that allocates and perpetuates power over land--and to modern assumptions about liberal individualism and rights to health. We conclude that people can live well on land, promoting both human and land health, only in governmental forms engaging more citizens more deliberatively than now typical even in democracies. Implications for political institutions and human welfare are discussed under conditions of globalizing interdependence.

  15. Biomolecular electronics in the twenty-first century. (United States)

    Phadke, R S


    A relentless decrease in the size of silicon-based microelectronics devices is posing problems. The most important among these are limitations imposed by quantum-size effects and instabilities introduced by the effects of thermal fluctuations. These inherent envisaged problems of present-day systems have prompted scientists to look for alternative options. Advancement in the understanding of natural systems such as photosynthetic apparatuses and genetic engineering has enabled attention to be focused on the use of biomolecules. Biomolecules have the advantages of functionality and specificity. The invention of scanning tunneling microscopy and atomic force microscopy has opened up the possibility of addressing and manipulating individual atoms and molecules. Realization of the power of self-assembly principles has opened a novel approach for designing and assembling molecular structures with desired intricate architecture. The utility of molecules such as DNA as a three-dimensional, high-density memory element and its capability for molecular computing have been fully recognized but not yet realized. More time and effort are necessary before devices that can transcend existing ones will become easily available. An overview of the current trends that are envisaged to give rich dividends in the next millennium are discussed.

  16. Empowerment of Women through Education in Twenty First Century (United States)

    Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid; Rajeswari, K.; Jabari, Kamran


    This article explores theoretical and practical issues related to the impact of women's education in their empowerment. The development of women's education is discussed in this study. As women's education has become one of the key development objectives in the recent decades, the concept of empowerment has been tied to the range of activities…

  17. Talent management for the twenty-first century. (United States)

    Cappelli, Peter


    Most firms have no formal programs for anticipating and fulfilling talent needs, relying on an increasingly expensive pool of outside candidates that has been shrinking since it was created from the white-collar layoffs of the 1980s. But the advice these companies are getting to solve the problem--institute large-scale internal development programs--is equally ineffective. Internal development was the norm back in the 1950s, and every management-development practice that seems novel today was routine in those years--from executive coaching to 360-degree feedback to job rotation to high-potential programs. However, the stable business environment and captive talent pipelines in which such practices were born no longer exist. It's time for a fundamentally new approach to talent management. Fortunately, companies already have such a model, one that has been well honed over decades to anticipate and meet demand in uncertain environments: supply chain management. Cappelli, a professor at the Wharton School, focuses on four practices in particular. First, companies should balance make-versus-buy decisions by using internal development programs to produce most--but not all--of the needed talent, filling in with outside hiring. Second, firms can reduce the risks in forecasting the demand for talent by sending smaller batches of candidates through more modularized training systems in much the same way manufacturers now employ components in just-in-time production lines. Third, companies can improve their returns on investment in development efforts by adopting novel cost-sharing programs. Fourth, they should seek to protect their investments by generating internal opportunities to encourage newly trained managers to stick with the firm. Taken together, these principles form the foundation for a new paradigm in talent management: a talent-on-demand system.

  18. Democracy and the Sizewell inquiry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, J.


    In this paper the brief summary of selected procedural aspects of the Sizewell Inquiry indicates that the way in which major and controversial planning proposals are subject to public debate is in need of urgent review. The Sizewell Inquiry fell short of public expectation, and indeed of Government promises, on two major counts; it did not provide a forum for the debate of certain questions which are clearly of utmost importance and concern to the nuclear issue, while its semi-judicial format and unbalanced funding effectively discouraged and often prevented the level of participation which many objecting parties sought. The Government's assurance of a 'full and fair' debate proved to be hollow and in some quarters this has served to increase scepticism of the stated desire for public involvement in nuclear decision-making. Of the major controversies which have been in the subject of public inquiries in recent years, nuclear power is clearly one of the most challenging. It brings together an extremely varied band of objectors which, in the light of recent radioactive leakages from Windscale, future plans for waste storage facilities and the proposed plutonium reprocessing plant at Dounreay, promises only to grow

  19. Understanding students' concepts through guided inquiry learning and free modified inquiry on static fluid material


    Sularso Sularso; Widha Sunarno; Sarwanto Sarwanto


    This study provides information on understanding students' concepts in guided inquiry learning groups and in free modified inquiry learning groups. Understanding of student concept is reviewed on the concept of static fluid case. The number of samples tested were 67 students. The sample is divided into 2 groups of students: the group is given guided inquiry learning and the group given the modified free inquiry learning. Understanding the concept of students is measured through 23 tests of it...

  20. Inquiry Practices in Malaysian Secondary Classroom and Model of Inquiry Teaching Based on Verbal Interaction (United States)

    Li, Winnie Sim Siew; Arshad, Mohammad Yusof


    Purpose: Inquiry teaching has been suggested as one of the important approaches in teaching chemistry. This study investigates the inquiry practices among chemistry teachers. Method: A combination of quantitative and qualitative study was applied in this study to provide detailed information about inquiry teaching practices. Questionnaires,…

  1. Primary teachers conducting inquiry projects : effects on attitudes towards teaching science and conducting inquiry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aalderen-Smeets, Sandra; Walma van der Molen, Julie Henriëtte; van Hest, Erna G.W.C.M.; Poortman, Cindy Louise


    This study used an experimental, pretest-posttest control group design to investigate whether participation in a large-scale inquiry project would improve primary teachers’ attitudes towards teaching science and towards conducting inquiry. The inquiry project positively affected several elements of

  2. Primary Teachers Conducting Inquiry Projects: Effects on Attitudes towards Teaching Science and Conducting Inquiry (United States)

    van Aalderen-Smeets, Sandra I.; Walma van der Molen, Juliette H.; van Hest, Erna G. W. C. M.; Poortman, Cindy


    This study used an experimental, pretest-posttest control group design to investigate whether participation in a large-scale inquiry project would improve primary teachers' attitudes towards teaching science and towards conducting inquiry. The inquiry project positively affected several elements of teachers' attitudes. Teachers felt less anxious…

  3. Impactful Practitioner Inquiry: The Ripple Effect on Classrooms, Schools, and Teacher Professionalism. Practitioner Inquiry Series (United States)

    Nichols, Sue; Cormack, Phil


    How does practitioner inquiry impact education? Examining the experiences of practitioners who have participated in inquiry projects, the authors present ways in which this work has enabled educators to be positive change agents. They reveal the difference that practitioner inquiry has made in their professional practice, their understanding of…

  4. Using technology to support science inquiry learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P John Williams


    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study of a teacher’s experience in implementing an inquiry approach to his teaching over a period of two years with two different classes. His focus was on using a range of information technologies to support student inquiry learning. The study demonstrates the need to consider the characteristics of students when implementing an inquiry approach, and also the influence of the teachers level of understanding and related confidence in such an approach. The case also indicated that a range of technologies can be effective in supporting student inquiry learning.

  5. Contextual inquiry for medical device design

    CERN Document Server

    Privitera, Mary Beth


    Contextual Inquiry for Medical Device Design helps users understand the everyday use of medical devices and the way their usage supports the development of better products and increased market acceptance. The text explains the concept of contextual inquiry using real-life examples to illustrate its application. Case studies provide a frame of reference on how contextual inquiry is successfully used during product design, ultimately producing safer, improved medical devices. Presents the ways contextual inquiry can be used to inform the evaluation and business case of technologyHelps users

  6. Improving Junior High Schools' Critical Thinking Skills Based on Test Three Different Models of Learning (United States)

    Fuad, Nur Miftahul; Zubaidah, Siti; Mahanal, Susriyati; Suarsini, Endang


    The aims of this study were (1) to find out the differences in critical thinking skills among students who were given three different learning models: differentiated science inquiry combined with mind map, differentiated science inquiry model, and conventional model, (2) to find out the differences of critical thinking skills among male and female…

  7. Minding the Gap: Comics as Scaffolding for Critical Literacy Skills in the Classroom (United States)

    Vie, Stephanie; Dieterle, Brandy


    Comics--both digital and print--increasingly make their way to the classroom. Scholars in the field have illustrated the pedagogical value of comics, but there remains little discussion as of yet about how comics can inform critical literacy, a necessary skill for twenty-first-century communication. Here the authors discuss an approach to…

  8. 4-H Science Inquiry Video Series (United States)

    Green, Jeremy W.; Black, Lynette; Willis, Patrick


    Studies support science inquiry as a positive method and approach for 4-H professionals and volunteers to use for teaching science-based practices to youth. The development of a science inquiry video series has yielded positive results as it relates to youth development education and science. The video series highlights how to conduct science-rich…

  9. The Inquiry Approach in Dental Hygiene Education. (United States)

    Scott, Ruth Lois; And Others


    A study to assess the impact of an inquiry-oriented curriculum in a dental hygiene program is described. Two instruments, designed to measure student perception of personal and faculty inquiry and disinquiry behavior, were administered. The implications of the findings are discussed. (Author/MLW)

  10. An Inquiry-Based Linear Algebra Class (United States)

    Wang, Haohao; Posey, Lisa


    Linear algebra is a standard undergraduate mathematics course. This paper presents an overview of the design and implementation of an inquiry-based teaching material for the linear algebra course which emphasizes discovery learning, analytical thinking and individual creativity. The inquiry-based teaching material is designed to fit the needs of a…

  11. Eliciting User Requirements Using Appreciative Inquiry (United States)

    Gonzales, Carol Kernitzki


    Many software development projects fail because they do not meet the needs of users, are over-budget, and abandoned. To address this problem, the user requirements elicitation process was modified based on principles of Appreciative Inquiry. Appreciative Inquiry, commonly used in organizational development, aims to build organizations, processes,…

  12. Intelligent Tutoring Systems for Scientific Inquiry Skills. (United States)

    Shute, Valerie; Bonar, Jeffrey

    Described are the initial prototypes of several intelligent tutoring systems designed to build students' scientific inquiry skills. These inquiry skills are taught in the context of acquiring knowledge of principles from a microworld that models a specific domain. This paper discusses microworlds that have been implemented for microeconomics,…

  13. Promoting Shared Decision Making through Descriptive Inquiry (United States)

    Seher, Rachel; Traugh, Cecelia; Cheng, Alan


    This article shows how City-As-School, a progressive public school in New York City, used descriptive inquiry to deepen shared decision making, which is a central value of the school and part of a democratic way of life. Descriptive inquiry is a democratic knowledge-making process that was developed at the Prospect School in North Bennington,…

  14. Inquiry-based Learning in Mathematics Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyøe, Jonas; Larsen, Dorte Moeskær; Hjelmborg, Mette Dreier

    From a grading list of 28 of the highest ranked mathematics education journals, the six highest ranked journals were chosen, and a systematic search for inquiry-based mathematics education and related keywords was conducted. This led to five important theme/issues for inquiry-based learning...

  15. 48 CFR 32.909 - Contractor inquiries. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contractor inquiries. 32.909 Section 32.909 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Prompt Payment 32.909 Contractor inquiries. (a) Direct questions...

  16. Learning Analytics for Communities of Inquiry (United States)

    Kovanovic, Vitomir; Gaševic, Dragan; Hatala, Marek


    This paper describes doctoral research that focuses on the development of a learning analytics framework for inquiry-based digital learning. Building on the Community of Inquiry model (CoI)--a foundation commonly used in the research and practice of digital learning and teaching--this research builds on the existing body of knowledge in two…

  17. 22 CFR 217.14 - Preemployment inquiries. (United States)


    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preemployment inquiries. 217.14 Section 217.14 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN... inquiries. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section, a recipient may not conduct a...

  18. Genuine Inquiry: Widely Espoused Yet Rarely Enacted (United States)

    Le Fevre, Deidre M.; Robinson, Viviane M. J.; Sinnema, Claire E. L.


    The concept of inquiry is central to contemporary discussions of teacher and leader professional learning and problem solving in interpersonal contexts. However, while few would debate its value, there has been little discussion of the significant challenges inherent in engaging in genuine inquiry. In this article, we distinguish between genuine…

  19. Naturalistic Inquiry in E-Learning Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirley Agostinho


    Full Text Available In this article, the author explains how and why one particular qualitative research approach, the naturalistic inquiry paradigm, was implemented in an e-learning research study that investigated the use of the World Wide Web technology in higher education. A framework is presented that situates the research study within the qualitative research literature. The author then justifies how the study was compliant with naturalistic inquiry and concludes by presenting a model for judging the quality of such research. The purpose of this article is to provide an example of how naturalistic inquiry can be implemented in e-learning research that can serve as a guide for researchers undertaking this form of qualitative inquiry. As such, the focus of the article is to illustrate how methodological issues pertaining to naturalistic inquiry were addressed and justified to represent a rigorous research approach rather than presenting the results of the research study.

  20. Teacher students' dilemmas when teaching science through inquiry (United States)

    Krämer, Philipp; Nessler, Stefan H.; Schlüter, Kirsten


    Background: Inquiry-based science education (IBSE) is suitable to teach scientific contents as well as to foster scientific skills. Similar conclusions are drawn by studies with respect to scientific literacy, motivational aspects, vocabulary knowledge, conceptual understandings, critical thinking, and attitudes toward science. Nevertheless, IBSE is rarely adopted in schools. Often barriers for teachers account for this lack, with the result that even good teachers struggle to teach science as inquiry. More importantly, studies indicate that several barriers and constraints could be ascribed to problems teacher students have at the university stage. Purpose: The purpose of this explorative investigation is to examine the problems teacher students have when teaching science through inquiry. In order to draw a holistic picture of these problems, we identified problems from three different points of view leading to the research question: What problems regarding IBSE do teacher students have from an objective, a subjective, and a self-reflective perspective? Design & method: Using video analysis and observation tools as well as qualitative content analysis and open questionnaires we identified problems from each perspective. Results: The objectively stated problems comprise the lack of essential features of IBSE especially concerning 'Supporting pupils' own investigations' and 'Guiding analysis and conclusions.' The subjectively perceived problems comprise concerns about 'Teachers' abilities' and 'Pupils' abilities,' 'Differentiated instruction' and institutional frame 'Conditions' while the self-reflectively noticed problems mainly comprise concerns about 'Allowing inquiry,' 'Instructional Aspects,' and 'Pupils' behavior.' Conclusions: Each of the three different perspectives provides plenty of problems, partially overlapping, partially complementing one another, and partially revealing completely new problems. Consequently, teacher educators have to consider these

  1. Interdisciplinary Critical Inquiry: Teaching about the Social Construction of Madness (United States)

    Connor-Greene, Patricia A.


    Theories and treatments of mental illness reflect the social, philosophical, and historical context in which they developed. This article describes ways to invite students to grapple with complex questions about "madness" from an interdisciplinary perspective. Looking at the construct of madness through multiple lenses (e.g., literature,…

  2. Land grabbing and formalization in Africa : a critical inquiry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stein, H.; Cunningham, S.


    Two developments in Africa have generated an extensive literature. The first focuses on investment and land grabbing and the second on the formalization of rural property rights. Less has been written on the impact of formalization on land grabbing and of land grabbing on formalization. Recently,

  3. Engendering Peace in Africa: A Critical Inquiry Into Some Current ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and capacities which make them non-violent in orientation and which render them particularly .... Even if pregnancy and birth are taken as part of mothering, the biological fact of birthgiving is, both ..... Sexual Politics at the End of the Cold War.

  4. [Physicians in traumatology. Critically endangered? Results of an inquiry]. (United States)

    Matthes, G; Rixen, D; Tempka, A; Schmidmaier, G; Wölfl, C; Ottersbach, C; Schmucker, U


    The aim of this investigation was to describe the current situation and atmosphere among residents and consultants in traumatology, using the results of a questionnaire. Wishes and needs concerning training programs in traumatology were addressed. A questionnaire consisting of 25 items was distributed among members of the German Society of Traumatology (DGU) to document basic data concerning the state of residency and physicians' current workload. The participants were also asked about their personal interests and aims within traumatology. Finally, questions concerning educational programs, compensation, and work-life balance were addressed. The results were analysed descriptively. The final analysis included 549 questionnaires. The mean age of the participants was 36 years (SD +/-7.5). Sixty percent (329) were residents, and 16% (88) served as consultants. The mean workload per week was 61 h (SD +/-10.8 h), and participants were on call seven times (SD +/-5.6) a month. The work-life balance was rated a mean of only 5 ("mediocre"). The majority of participants rejected working longer in order to reduce the duration of their educational program. On the other hand, most of the participants would also reject a reduction in working time accompanied by a reduced salary. Nevertheless, 78% (428) of the participants would, in retrospect, choose the same profession, and 85% (466) would even choose the same specialty. The study reports on the atmosphere among residents and consultants in traumatology. Despite European regulations, the individual workload is exceptionally high. It is a clear task of hospital administrators to increase the attractiveness of hospital jobs in order to ensure qualified personnel in the future.

  5. Negotiating Competing Goals in the Development of an Urban Ecology Practitioner Inquiry Community (United States)

    Piazza, Peter; McNeill, Katherine L.


    Teacher learning communities are hailed by many as vehicles for reforming and elevating the professional status of teaching. While much research explores teacher community as a venue for measurable gains, our research examines the orientation of practitioner inquiry toward critical debate about effective instruction. Specifically, our study…

  6. Challenging Inquiry and Building Community: Analyzing ESL and Bilingual Teachers' Narratives (United States)

    Musanti, Sandra I.


    The study explores English as a second language (ESL) and bilingual teachers' narratives within a learning community as they collectively engage in reflecting on practices to more effectively support English learners. This longitudinal qualitative study integrates narrative inquiry approach and critical incident methodology. Participants were…

  7. The Texture of Educational Inquiry: An Exploration of George Herbert Mead's Concept of the Scientific. (United States)

    Franzosa, Susan Douglas


    Explores the implications of Mead's philosophic social psychology for current disputes concerning the nature of the scientific in educational studies. Mead's contextualization of the knower and the known are found to be compatible with a contemporary critique of positivist paradigms and a critical reconceptualization of educational inquiry.…

  8. The Hope for American School Reform: The Cold War Pursuit of Inquiry Learning in Social Studies (United States)

    Evans, Ronald W.


    As the issue of school reform grows ever more intense, it is imperative that we learn what we can from previous efforts. The new social studies was a 1960's attempt to transform the teaching of history and the social sciences in schools. With origins in the Cold War, the movement sought to develop critical thinkers through "inquiry" and…

  9. A review of the types of mobile activities in mobile inquiry-based learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suarez, Angel; Specht, Marcus; Prinsen, Fleur; Kalz, Marco; Ternier, Stefaan


    Inquiry-based Learning is increasingly suggested as an efficient approach for fostering learners’ curiosity and motivation. It helps learners to develop their ability to work in complex and unpredictable environments making them more critical thinkers and agentic learners. Although mobile technology

  10. Using Inquiry-Based Instructional Strategies to Increase Student Achievement in 3rd Grade Social Studies (United States)

    McRae-Jones, Wanda Joycelyn


    21st Century skills such as critical-thinking and problem-solving skills are very important when it comes to Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics or STEM. But those same skills should be integrated in social studies. The impact of students' learning in social studies as a result of implementing inquiry-based instructional strategies was…

  11. Guided Resource Inquiries: Integrating Archives into Course Learning and Information Literacy Objectives (United States)

    Jarosz, Ellen E.; Kutay, Stephen


    At California State University, Northridge (CSUN), many students lack the skills needed to locate, analyze, and apply essential contexts associated with primary sources. Using these sources requires critical inquiry, which is a fundamental theme in pedagogy, the California State University system's Core Competencies, and the Association of College…

  12. Research Paradigms and Their Use and Importance in Theological Inquiry and Education (United States)

    Mittwede, Steven K.


    A survey and analysis of four major research paradigms--positivism, postpositivism, critical theory and constructivism--reveal that all have been applied effectively in recent theological inquiry. Although these paradigms might resemble worldviews to some extent, they are not so all-encompassing. Rather, they are essentially matrices of deeply…

  13. Mathematics for What? High School Students Reflect on Mathematics as a Tool for Social Inquiry (United States)

    Brelias, Anastasia


    This study examines high school students' views of mathematics as a tool for social inquiry in light of their classroom experiences using mathematics to explore social issues. A critical theoretical perspective on mathematics literacy is used to ascertain the ways in which their views challenge or affirm the dominant image of mathematics in…

  14. Influence of teacher-directed scientific inquiry on students' primal inquiries in two science classrooms (United States)

    Stone, Brian Andrew

    Scientific inquiry is widely used but pervasively misunderstood in elementary classrooms. The use of inquiry is often attached to direct instruction models of teaching, or is even passed as textbook readings or worksheets. Previous literature on scientific inquiry suggests a range or continuum beginning with teacher-directed inquiry on one extreme, which involves a question, process, and outcome that are predetermined by the teacher. On the other end of the continuum is an element of inquiry that is extremely personal and derived from innate curiosity without external constraints. This authentic inquiry is defined by the study as primal inquiry. If inquiry instruction is used in the elementary classroom, it is often manifested as teacher-directed inquiry, but previous research suggests the most interesting, motivating, and lasting content is owned by the individual and exists within the individual's own curiosity, questioning and processes. Therefore, the study examined the impact of teacher-directed inquiry in two elementary fourth grade classrooms on climate-related factors including interest, motivation, engagement, and student-generated inquiry involvement. The study took place at two elementary classrooms in Arizona. Both were observed for ten weeks during science instruction over the course of one semester. Field notes were written with regard for the inquiry process and ownership, along with climate indicators. Student journals were examined for evidence of primal inquiry, and twenty-two students were interviewed between the two classrooms for evidence of low climate-related factors and low inquiry involvement. Data from the three sources were triangulated. The results of this qualitative study include evidence for three propositions, which were derived from previous literature. Strong evidence was provided in support of all three propositions, which suggest an overall negative impact on climate-related factors of interest, motivation, and engagement for

  15. Inquiry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrø, Helle; Johnsen-Høines, Marit


    in inquiring questions, and what other ways of communicating may have an inquiring function in learning conversations? The intention is to develop and frame the concept of ’inquiry’ in learning conversations, and this is the focus of analysis of an authentic classroom situation, where teacher and pupils...

  16. Dynamic Open Inquiry Performances of High-School Biology Students (United States)

    Zion, Michal; Sadeh, Irit


    In examining open inquiry projects among high-school biology students, we found dynamic inquiry performances expressed in two criteria: "changes occurring during inquiry" and "procedural understanding". Characterizing performances in a dynamic open inquiry project can shed light on both the procedural and epistemological…

  17. Collaborative Inquiry Learning: Models, tools, and challenges (United States)

    Bell, Thorsten; Urhahne, Detlef; Schanze, Sascha; Ploetzner, Rolf


    Collaborative inquiry learning is one of the most challenging and exciting ventures for today's schools. It aims at bringing a new and promising culture of teaching and learning into the classroom where students in groups engage in self-regulated learning activities supported by the teacher. It is expected that this way of learning fosters students' motivation and interest in science, that they learn to perform steps of inquiry similar to scientists and that they gain knowledge on scientific processes. Starting from general pedagogical reflections and science standards, the article reviews some prominent models of inquiry learning. This comparison results in a set of inquiry processes being the basis for cooperation in the scientific network NetCoIL. Inquiry learning is conceived in several ways with emphasis on different processes. For an illustration of the spectrum, some main conceptions of inquiry and their focuses are described. In the next step, the article describes exemplary computer tools and environments from within and outside the NetCoIL network that were designed to support processes of collaborative inquiry learning. These tools are analysed by describing their functionalities as well as effects on student learning known from the literature. The article closes with challenges for further developments elaborated by the NetCoIL network.

  18. Narrative journalism as complementary inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jørgen Jeppesen


    Full Text Available Narrative journalism is a method to craft stories worth reading about real people. In this article, we explore the ability of that communicative power to produce insights complementary to those obtainable through traditional qualitative and quantitative research methods. With examples from a study of journalistic narrative as patient involvement in professional rehabilitation, interview data transcribed as stories are analyzed for qualities of heterogeneity, sensibility, transparency, and reflexivity. Building on sociological theories of thinking with stories, writing as inquiry, and public journalism as ethnography, we suggest that narrative journalism as a common practice might unfold dimensions of subjective otherness of the self. Aspiring to unite writing in both transparently confrontational and empathetically dialogic ways, the narrative journalistic method holds a potential to expose dynamics of power within the interview.

  19. Qualitative Inquiry in Everyday Life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    This book is a 'survival guide' for students and researchers who would like to conduct a qualitative study with limited resources. Brinkmann shows how everyday life materials such as books, television, the internet, the media and everyday conversations and interactions can help us to understand...... larger social issues. As living human beings in cultural worlds, we are constantly surrounded by 'data' that call for analysis, and as we cope with the different situations and episodes of our lives, we are engaged in understanding and interpreting the world as a form of qualitative inquiry. The book...... helps its reader develop a disciplined and analytic awareness informed by theory, and shows how less can be more in qualitative research. Each chapter introduces theoretical tools to think with, and demonstrates how they can be put to use in working concretely with everyday life materials....

  20. "Naturalist Inquiry" and Grounded Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barney G. Glaser


    Full Text Available The world of Qualitative Data Analysis (QDA methodology became quite taken with LINCOLN and GUBA's book "Naturalist Inquiry" (1985. I have no issue with it with respect to its application to QDA; it helped clarify and advance so many QDA issues. However, its application to Grounded Theory (GT has been a major block on GT, as originated, by its cooptation and corruption hence remodeling of GT by default. LINCOLN and GUBA have simply assumed GT is just another QDA method, which it is not. In "The Grounded Theory Perspective II" (GLASER 2002a, Chapter 9 on credibility, I have discussed "Naturalist In­quiry" (NI thought regarding how LINCOLN and GUBA's notion of "trustworthy" data (or worrisome data orientation and how their view of constant comparison can and has remodeled and eroded GT. In this paper I will consider other aspects of NI that remodel GT. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs040170

  1. Conceptualising inquiry based education in mathematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blomhøj, Morten; Artigue, Michéle


    of inquiry as a pedagogical concept in the work of Dewey (e.g. 1916, 1938) to analyse and discuss its migration to science and mathematics education. For conceptualizing inquiry-based mathematics education (IBME) it is important to analyse how this concept resonates with already well-established theoretical...... frameworks in mathematics education. Six such frameworks are analysed from the perspective of inquiry: the problem-solving tradition, the Theory of Didactical Situations, the Realistic Mathematics Education programme, the mathematical modelling perspective, the Anthropological Theory of Didactics...

  2. Learning from the Nimrod Inquiry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddon-Cave, Charles


    Mr. Charles Haddon-Cave presented learning from the inquiry into the loss of the Nimrod aircraft and its crew of 13 in 2006. Mr. Haddon-Cave is the author of The Nimrod Review - an independent review into the broader issues surrounding the loss of an RAF Nimrod aircraft in Afghanistan in 2006. The full report can be accessed at: http://www.officialdocuments. Mr. Haddon-Cave opened the presentation with general remarks on the responsibilities of the regulator, and the environment within which they operate. He emphasised the need for regulators to exercise personal responsibility, accountability, integrity, and to maintain a balanced approach to regulation. The following organisational and cultural issues leading to the Nimrod accident were summarised: - Organisational complexity within the Ministry of Defence. - Management by committee and consensus. - Dilution of accountability and responsibility. - Lack of challenge, which provides a barrier to wrong decision-making. - Migration of responsibility from operators to government departments. - 'Triumph' of generalists over technical specialists. - Weak signals overlooked (small voices drowned out). - Distraction due to large numbers of organisational changes and initiatives. - Longstanding acceptance of problems. 'Can do will do' became 'Make do and muddle through'. The Nimrod inquiry identified 12 parallels between the organisational causes of the Nimrod and the Columbia accident, reinforcing the message from the first plenary presentation on common underlying themes. Mr. Haddon-Cave delivered a number of key messages for regulatory managers and leaders such as the importance of: - Recognising and reinforcing the pivotal role of the operating organisation in ensuring safety. - Questioning and challenging assumptions. - Ensuring that roles and responsibilities are clearly defined. - Exercising caution when out-sourcing to avoid 'out-sourcing your thinking'. - Focusing on

  3. Issues regarding transient analysis examined by the Sizewell B Public Inquiry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farmer, P.R.; Dunnicliffe, C.J.


    Issues on PWR safety transient analysis that were discussed at the Sizewell B Public Inquiry are presented. The Public Inquiry was set up by the UK Government under an Inspector, Sir Frank Layfield, to examine all aspects of the construction, safety and operation of a 1200 MW(e) PWR on the Sizewell site. The terms of reference were broad ranging, and the constitution of the Inquiry was to make a recommendation under three Acts of Parliament which apply to the construction and operation of nuclear electrical plant. The Inquiry also covered local planning aspects, which are the responsibility of the Local Authority - in this case the Suffolk County Council. The Inspector examined and made recommendations on the safety of the Station, but consideration by Public Inquiry is outside the formal safety and licensing process, which is the business of the Utility (the CEGB) and the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate (the NII). The paper therefore takes a broader look at the question of safety, dealing with the licensing process, the requirements of the safety case and the forward strategies adopted by the CEGB in terms of research and development. This is considered for transient analysis, and the aim is to set the discussions and conclusions of the Public Inquiry into their proper context with regard to nuclear safety in the UK. The Inquiry went into some depth on the topic of LOCA, as an example of safety analysis. In the summary of the evidence and cross-examination the Inspector accepted the adequacy of the LOCA safety case without major reservations, and was satisfied further work in progress would resolve any residual criticisms. In particular support was given for the CEGB commitment to the development and use of more physically realistic calculational methods

  4. A design-based study of Citizen Inquiry for geology


    Aristeidou, Maria; Scanlon, Eileen; Sharples, Mike


    Citizen Inquiry forms a new method of informal science learning and aims to enable the engagement of citizens in online scientific investigations. Citizen Inquiry combines aspects from Citizen Science and Inquiry-based learning and is implemented through a community of practice where people having a shared interest interact and exchange knowledge and methods supported and guided by online systems and tools within a web-based inquiry environment. To explore the potential of Citizen Inquiry, a ...

  5. Enhancing Scientific Inquiry Literacy of Prospective Biology Teachers through Inquiry Lab Project in Microbiology (United States)

    Kusnadi, K.; Rustaman, N. Y.; Redjeki, S.; Aryantha, I. N. P.


    The implementation of the inquiry laboratory based project to enhance scientific inquiry literacy of prospective biology teachers in Microbiology course has been done. The inquiry lab based project was designed by three stages were debriefing of basic microbiology lab skills, guided inquiry and free inquiry respectively. The Study was quasi experimental with control group pretest-posttest design. The subjects were prospective biology teachers consists of 80 students. The scientific inquiry literacy instrument refers to ScInqLiT by Wenning. The results showed that there was significant difference of scientific inquiry literacy posttest scores between experiment and control (α 0,05) and was obtained N-gain score was 0.49 (medium) to experiment and 0.24 (low) to control. Based on formative assessment showed that development of student’s scientific attitude, research and microbiology lab skills during conducting project were increased. Student’s research skills especially in identification of variables, constructing a hypothesis, communicating and concluding were increased. During implementation of inquiry project also showed that they carried out mind and hands-on and so collaborative group investigation lab activities. Our findings may aid in reforming higher-education, particularly in microbiology laboratory activities to better promote scientific inquiry literacy, scientific attitude, research and laboratory skills.

  6. Teaching neuroscience to science teachers: facilitating the translation of inquiry-based teaching instruction to the classroom. (United States)

    Roehrig, G H; Michlin, M; Schmitt, L; MacNabb, C; Dubinsky, J M


    In science education, inquiry-based approaches to teaching and learning provide a framework for students to building critical-thinking and problem-solving skills. Teacher professional development has been an ongoing focus for promoting such educational reforms. However, despite a strong consensus regarding best practices for professional development, relatively little systematic research has documented classroom changes consequent to these experiences. This paper reports on the impact of sustained, multiyear professional development in a program that combined neuroscience content and knowledge of the neurobiology of learning with inquiry-based pedagogy on teachers' inquiry-based practices. Classroom observations demonstrated the value of multiyear professional development in solidifying adoption of inquiry-based practices and cultivating progressive yearly growth in the cognitive environment of impacted classrooms.

  7. Emergent Paradigm: Critical Realism and Transformative Research in Educational Administration (United States)

    Egbo, Benedicta


    This paper explores the prospects of using critical realism as a guiding philosophy for critical inquiry in the field of educational administration. A relatively recent philosophy in the social sciences, critical realism offers an alternative framework for researchers engaged in empirical work that is aimed at transforming undesirable social…

  8. Artful inquiry as a leadership skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darsø, Lotte

    Artful Inquiry as a Leadership Skill Lotte Darsø Abstract for 8th AMO 2016: Open Stream How do leaders develop their own leadership? How do leaders get inspiration and energy for leading and how do they make decisions in complex situations with scarce information? In this paper I will argue...... that artful inquiry is an important leadership skill, both in relation for leaders to rekindle themselves and their employees. I’ll define Artful Inquiry as the skill of inquiring into something of importance through body, mind, heart and spirit. Artful Inquiry taps into the leader’s tacit knowledge...... of materials such as paper, clay, LEGO pieces, photos, cloth, materials from nature, or a combinations of these); embodying (e.g. exploring positions, developing empathy, or focused sensing into what the body knows); listening (e.g. to different music pieces or live music); or presencing (e.g. through...

  9. Bringing Inquiry Science to K-5 Classrooms (United States)

    Schachtel, Paula L.; Messina, D. L.; McDermott, L. C.


    As a science coach in the Seattle School District, I am responsible for helping other elementary teachers teach science. For several years, I have been participating in a program that consists of intensive NSF Summer Institutes and an ongoing academic-year Continuation Course. Teachers in this program work through modules in Physics by Inquiry, a research-based curriculum developed by the Physics Education Group at the University of Washington.1 I will discuss how this type of professional development has deepened my understanding of topics in physical science, helped me to teach science by inquiry to my own students, and enabled me to assist my colleagues in implementing inquiry science in their K-5 classrooms. Sponsored by Lillian C. McDermott. 1. A research-based curriculum developed by L.C. McDermott and the Physics Education Group at the University of Washington, Physics by Inquiry, New York, NY, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (1996.)

  10. Flipped Science Inquiry@Crescent Girls' School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peishi Goh


    Full Text Available This study shares the findings of a school-based Action Research project to explore how inquiry-based science practical lessons designed using the Flipped Science Inquiry@CGS classroom pedagogical model influence the way students learn scientific knowledge and also students' development of 21st century competencies, in particular, in the area of Knowledge Construction. Taking on a broader definition of the flipped classroom pedagogical model, the Flipped Science Inquiry@CGS framework adopts a structure that inverted the traditional science learning experience. Scientific knowledge is constructed through discussions with their peers, making use of their prior knowledge and their experiences while engaging in hands-on activities. Through the study, it is found that with the use of the Flipped Science Inquiry@CGS framework, learning experiences that are better aligned to the epistemology of science while developing 21st century competencies in students are created.

  11. Observing, recording, and reviewing: Using mobile phones in support of science inquiry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoo, Elaine; Williams, John; Otrel-Cass, Kathrin


    Teaching science can be challenging, particularly if it involves the incorporation of inquiry approaches. Collaboration and co-construction of ideas and understandings requires changing teaching and learning practices to allow students to learn how to collaborate ‘inquiry style’. There is increas......Teaching science can be challenging, particularly if it involves the incorporation of inquiry approaches. Collaboration and co-construction of ideas and understandings requires changing teaching and learning practices to allow students to learn how to collaborate ‘inquiry style...... will be presented. The findings illustrate how student use of mobile phones to video record practical group investigations was valuable in providing multimodal opportunities to expand their critical observational skills to reflect on and talk about science. Student reviewed recordings prompted the pursuit of new......’. There is increasing evidence that the use of mobile learning devices can support inquiry learning by increasing the opportunities for student participation and collaboration in the learning process. This paper reports on the preliminary findings from a New Zealand Teaching and Learning Initiative funded project...

  12. Proceedings of the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting: Volume 1, Plenary session; Advanced reactor research; advanced control system technology; advanced instrumentation and control hardware; human factors research; probabilistic risk assessment topics; thermal hydraulics; thermal hydraulic research for advanced passive LWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monteleone, S.


    This three-volume report contains 90 papers out of the 102 that were presented at the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 25--27, 1993. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Germany, Japan, Russia, Switzerland, Taiwan, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. Individual papers have been cataloged separately. This document, Volume 1 covers the following topics: Advanced Reactor Research; Advanced Instrumentation and Control Hardware; Advanced Control System Technology; Human Factors Research; Probabilistic Risk Assessment Topics; Thermal Hydraulics; and Thermal Hydraulic Research for Advanced Passive Light Water Reactors

  13. Proceedings of the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting: Volume 1, Plenary session; Advanced reactor research; advanced control system technology; advanced instrumentation and control hardware; human factors research; probabilistic risk assessment topics; thermal hydraulics; thermal hydraulic research for advanced passive LWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteleone, S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [comp.


    This three-volume report contains 90 papers out of the 102 that were presented at the Twenty-First Water Reactor Safety Information Meeting held at the Bethesda Marriott Hotel, Bethesda, Maryland, during the week of October 25--27, 1993. The papers are printed in the order of their presentation in each session and describe progress and results of programs in nuclear safety research conducted in this country and abroad. Foreign participation in the meeting included papers presented by researchers from France, Germany, Japan, Russia, Switzerland, Taiwan, and United Kingdom. The titles of the papers and the names of the authors have been updated and may differ from those that appeared in the final program of the meeting. Individual papers have been cataloged separately. This document, Volume 1 covers the following topics: Advanced Reactor Research; Advanced Instrumentation and Control Hardware; Advanced Control System Technology; Human Factors Research; Probabilistic Risk Assessment Topics; Thermal Hydraulics; and Thermal Hydraulic Research for Advanced Passive Light Water Reactors.

  14. Inquiry-based leading and learning : Inquiry-based working by school boards, school leaders and teachers and students’ inquiry habit of mind

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijk, E.


    Inquiry-based working is assumed to contribute to improving educational quality and to stimulate professional learning. It involves having an inquiry habit of mind, being data literate and creating a culture of inquiry in schools (based on Earl & Katz, 2006). The general aim of this study was to

  15. Collaboration Modality, Cognitive Load, and Science Inquiry Learning in Virtual Inquiry Environments (United States)

    Erlandson, Benjamin E.; Nelson, Brian C.; Savenye, Wilhelmina C.


    Educational multi-user virtual environments (MUVEs) have been shown to be effective platforms for situated science inquiry curricula. While researchers find MUVEs to be supportive of collaborative scientific inquiry processes, the complex mix of multi-modal messages present in MUVEs can lead to cognitive overload, with learners unable to…

  16. Refining Inquiry with Multi-Form Assessment: Formative and Summative Assessment Functions for Flexible Inquiry (United States)

    Zuiker, Steven; Whitaker, J. Reid


    This paper describes the 5E+I/A inquiry model and reports a case study of one curricular enactment by a US fifth-grade classroom. A literature review establishes the model's conceptual adequacy with respect to longstanding research related to both the 5E inquiry model and multiple, incremental innovations of it. As a collective line of research,…

  17. Target Inquiry: Changing Chemistry High School Teachers' Classroom Practices and Knowledge and Beliefs about Inquiry Instruction (United States)

    Herrington, Deborah G.; Yezierski, Ellen J.; Luxford, Karen M.; Luxford, Cynthia J.


    Inquiry-based instruction requires a deep, conceptual understanding of the process of science combined with a sophisticated knowledge of teaching and learning. This study examines the changes in classroom instructional practices and corresponding changes to knowledge and beliefs about inquiry instruction for eight high school chemistry teachers.…

  18. The Wisdom of Sages: Nuclear Physics Education, Knowledge-Inquiry, and Wisdom-Inquiry (United States)

    Cottey, Alan


    This article addresses the difference between knowledge-inquiry and wisdom-inquiry in nuclear physics education. In the spirit of an earlier study of 57 senior-level textbooks for first-degree physics students, this work focuses here on a remarkable use of literary quotations in one such book. "Particles and Nuclei: an introduction to the physical…

  19. Ark of Inquiry: Responsible Research and Innovation through Computer-Based Inquiry Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Margus Pedaste; Leo Siiman; Bregje de Vries; Mirjam Burget; Tomi Jaakkola; Emanuele Bardone; Meelis Brikker; Mario Mäeots; Marianne Lind; Koen Veermans


    Ark of Inquiry is a learning platform that uses a computer-based inquiry learning approach to raise youth awareness to Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI). It is developed in the context of a large-scale European project ( and provides young European citizens

  20. Introducing the Cycle of Inquiry System: A Reflective Inquiry Practice for Early Childhood Teacher Development (United States)

    Broderick, Jane Tingle; Hong, Seong Bock


    The Cycle of Inquiry (COI) is a tool for emergent curriculum planning and for professional development of early childhood teachers and teacher education students. The COI includes a sequence of five organizational forms connecting analysis of documentation data with intentional planning for long-term emergent inquiry inspired by the Reggio Emilia…

  1. The Inquiry Matrix: A Tool for Assessing and Planning Inquiry in Biology and Beyond (United States)

    Grady, Julie


    One way to advance inquiry in the classroom is to establish a systematic strategy for reflecting on our practice and our students' readiness to engage in increasingly complex scientific reasoning. The Matrix for Assessing and Planning Scientific Inquiry (MAPSI) is a tool that promotes this valuable reflection so that we, as teachers, are better…

  2. A collaborative narrative inquiry: Two teacher educators learning about narrative inquiry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barkhuizen, Gary


    Full Text Available With its capacity to unharness the power of narrative to promote meaning-making of lived experience, narrative inquiry is developing as a credible approach to research in several areas in the field of language teaching (Johnson, 2006. This article tells the story of two narrative researchers working in language teacher education who engaged in a collaborative narrative inquiry as both participants and inquirers, in order to learn more about narrative inquiry. The ‘bounded’ nature of their inquiry design provided a feasible way for them to explore their focus of research (i.e. their learning about narrative inquiry, and led them, through an iterative and reflexive process of analysing their narrative data, to formulate what they believe are essential ingredients of principled narrative inquiry work. Four narrative inquiry variables became the scaffolding which enabled them to answer their research questions, and are offered here as a heuristic for teaching practitioners, whether they be teachers, teacher educators or researchers, to guide them in narrative inquiries into their own work.

  3. Phases of inquiry-based learning: Definitions and the inquiry cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pedaste, Margus; Mäeots, Mario; Siiman, Leo A.; de Jong, Anthonius J.M.; van Riesen, Siswa; Kamp, E.T.; Kamp, E.T.; Manoli, Constantinos C.; Zacharia, Zacharias C.; Tsourlidaki, Eleftheria


    Inquiry-based learning is gaining popularity in science curricula, international research and development projects as well as teaching. One of the underlying reasons is that its success can be significantly improved due to the recent technical developments that allow the inquiry process to be

  4. Appreciative inquiry in medical education. (United States)

    Sandars, John; Murdoch-Eaton, Deborah


    The practice of medicine, and also medical education, typically adopts a problem-solving approach to identify "what is going wrong" with a situation. However, an alternative is Appreciative Inquiry (AI), which adopts a positive and strengths-based approach to identify "what is going well" with a situation. The AI approach can be used for the development and enhancement of the potential of both individuals and organizations. An essential aspect of the AI approach is the generative process, in which a new situation is envisioned and both individual and collective strengths are mobilized to make changes to achieve the valued future situation. The AI approach has been widely used in the world of business and general education, but is has an exciting potential for medical education, including curriculum development, faculty development, supporting learners through academic advising and mentoring, but also for enhancing the teaching and learning of both individuals and groups. This AMEE Guide describes the core principles of AI and their practical application in medical education.

  5. Epistemologic inquiries in evidence-based medicine. (United States)

    Djulbegovic, Benjamin; Guyatt, Gordon H; Ashcroft, Richard E


    Since the term "evidence-based medicine" (EBM) first appeared in the scientific literature in 1991, the concept has had considerable influence in many parts of the world. Most professional societies, the public,and funding agencies have accepted EBM with remarkable enthusiasm. The concept of evidence-based practice is now applied in management, education, criminology, and social work. Yet, EBM has attracted controversy: its critics allege that EBM uses a narrow concept of evidence and a naive conception of the relationships between evidence, theory, and practice. They also contend that EBM presents itself as a radical restructuring of medical knowledge that discredits more traditional ways of knowing in medicine, largely in the interests of people with a particular investment in the enterprise of large-scale clinical trials. Because EBM proposes aspecific relationship between theory, evidence, and knowledge, its theoretical basis can be understood as an epistemological system. Undertaking epistemological inquiry is important because the adoption of a particular epistemological view defines how science is conducted. In this paper, we challenge this critical view of EBM by examining how EBM fits into broad epistemological debates within the philosophy of science. We consider how EBM relates to some classical debates regarding the nature of science and knowledge. We investigate EBM from the perspective of major epistemological theories (logical-positivism/inductivism, deductivism/falsificationism/theory-ladeness of observations, explanationism/holism, instrumentalism, underdetermination theory by evidence). We first explore the relationship between evidence and knowledge and discuss philosophical support for the main way that evidence is used in medicine: (1) in the philosophical tradition that "rational thinkers respect their evidence," we show that EBM refers to making medical decisions that are consistent with evidence, (2) as a reliable sign, symptom, or mark to

  6. Minimizing student’s faults in determining the design of experiment through inquiry-based learning (United States)

    Nilakusmawati, D. P. E.; Susilawati, M.


    The purpose of this study were to describe the used of inquiry method in an effort to minimize student’s fault in designing an experiment and to determine the effectiveness of the implementation of the inquiry method in minimizing student’s faults in designing experiments on subjects experimental design. This type of research is action research participants, with a model of action research design. The data source were students of the fifth semester who took a subject of experimental design at Mathematics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Udayana University. Data was collected through tests, interviews, and observations. The hypothesis was tested by t-test. The result showed that the implementation of inquiry methods to minimize of students fault in designing experiments, analyzing experimental data, and interpret them in cycle 1 students can reduce fault by an average of 10.5%. While implementation in Cycle 2, students managed to reduce fault by an average of 8.78%. Based on t-test results can be concluded that the inquiry method effectively used to minimize of student’s fault in designing experiments, analyzing experimental data, and interpreting them. The nature of the teaching materials on subject of Experimental Design that demand the ability of students to think in a systematic, logical, and critical in analyzing the data and interpret the test cases makes the implementation of this inquiry become the proper method. In addition, utilization learning tool, in this case the teaching materials and the students worksheet is one of the factors that makes this inquiry method effectively minimizes of student’s fault when designing experiments.

  7. Impact of Including Authentic Inquiry Experiences in Methods Courses for Pre-Service Secondary Teachers (United States)

    Slater, T. F.; Elfring, L.; Novodvorsky, I.; Talanquer, V.; Quintenz, J.


    Science education reform documents universally call for students to have authentic and meaningful experiences using real data in the context of their science education. The underlying philosophical position is that students analyzing data can have experiences that mimic actual research. In short, research experiences that reflect the scientific spirit of inquiry potentially can: prepare students to address real world complex problems; develop students' ability to use scientific methods; prepare students to critically evaluate the validity of data or evidence and of the consequent interpretations or conclusions; teach quantitative skills, technical methods, and scientific concepts; increase verbal, written, and graphical communication skills; and train students in the values and ethics of working with scientific data. However, it is unclear what the broader pre-service teacher preparation community is doing in preparing future teachers to promote, manage, and successful facilitate their own students in conducting authentic scientific inquiry. Surveys of undergraduates in secondary science education programs suggests that students have had almost no experiences themselves in conducting open scientific inquiry where they develop researchable questions, design strategies to pursue evidence, and communicate data-based conclusions. In response, the College of Science Teacher Preparation Program at the University of Arizona requires all students enrolled in its various science teaching methods courses to complete an open inquiry research project and defend their findings at a specially designed inquiry science mini-conference at the end of the term. End-of-term surveys show that students enjoy their research experience and believe that this experience enhances their ability to facilitate their own future students in conducting open inquiry.

  8. Systems thinking, critical realism and philosophy a confluence of ideas

    CERN Document Server

    Mingers, John


    Systems Thinking, Critical Realism and Philosophy: A Confluence of Ideas seeks to re-address the whole question of philosophy and systems thinking for the twenty first century and provide a new work that would be of value to both systems and philosophy. This is a highly opportune time when different fields - critical realism, philosophy of science and systems thinking - are all developing around the same set of concepts and yet not realizing it. This book will be of interest to the academic systems community worldwide and due to it's interdisciplinary coverage, it will also


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wawan Bunawan


    Full Text Available The objective in this research to explore the relationship between ability of the knowledge essential features inquiry science and their reasons underlying sense of scientific inquiry for physics teacher candidates on content geometrical optics. The essential features of inquiry science are components that should arise during the learning process subject matter of geometrical optics reflectance of light on a flat mirror, the reflection of light on curved mirrors and refraction of light at the lens. Five of essential features inquiry science adopted from assessment system developed by the National Research Council. Content geometrical optics developed from an analysis of a college syllabus material. Based on the study of the essential features of inquiry and content develop the multiple choice diagnostic test three tier. Data were taken from the students who are taking courses in optics and wave from one the LPTK in North Sumatra totaled 38 students. Instruments showed Cronbach alpha reliability of 0.67 to test the essential features of inquiry science and 0.61 to there as on geometrical optics science inquiry.

  10. Teachers' Language on Scientific Inquiry: Methods of teaching or methods of inquiry? (United States)

    Gyllenpalm, Jakob; Wickman, Per-Olof; Holmgren, Sven-Olof


    With a focus on the use of language related to scientific inquiry, this paper explores how 12 secondary school science teachers describe instances of students' practical work in their science classes. The purpose of the study was to shed light on the culture and traditions of secondary school science teaching related to inquiry as expressed in the use of language. Data consisted of semi-structured interviews about actual inquiry units used by the teachers. These were used to situate the discussion of their teaching in a real context. The theoretical background is socio-cultural and pragmatist views on the role of language in science learning. The analysis focuses on two concepts of scientific inquiry: hypothesis and experiment. It is shown that the teachers tend to use these terms with a pedagogical function thus conflating methods of teaching with methods of inquiry as part of an emphasis on teaching the children the correct explanation. The teachers did not prioritise an understanding of scientific inquiry as a knowledge goal. It discusses how learners' possibilities to learn about the characteristics of scientific inquiry and the nature of science are affected by an unreflective use of everyday discourse.

  11. Inquiry based learning in physical education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars Domino


    The present project is a case study founded on the decreasing motivation and engagement in physical education. The project suggests inquiry based learning (IBL) as an educational methodology. This may help to turn the trend as IBL has shown to engage and motivate students at different educational...... levels and within different subjects. In this pilot research project performed at a physical education teacher education program, qualitative methods were chosen to investigate students’ motivation and engagement within an IBL-unit in physical education and to accentuate challenges, advantages...... and disadvantages within the IBL-methodology in relation to students’ motivation. Instructed in guided inquiry, 32 students of physical education in a teacher training college worked with inquiry based learning in physical education over a four week period. During the IBL-unit, qualitative data such as the students...

  12. Inquiry and the normative aspect in learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiberg, Merete

    as the interplay between intentions and life-story of the individual and culture and community. The theory of inquiry in the philosophy of Dewey offers an understanding of processes of learning as transformation from an indeterminate to a determinate situation. Furthermore, the normative aspect of learning......“Inquiry and the normative aspect of learning” In the paper it will be argued that the normative aspect of learning is to be found in the interplay between individual and world when the individual in an inquiring process tries to come to terms with the world. Normativity in learning is seen...

  13. A Return to Methodological Commitment: Reflections on Narrative Inquiry (United States)

    Caine, Vera; Estefan, Andrew; Clandinin, D. Jean


    In the 25 years since narrative inquiry emerged as a social science research methodology, it has been rapidly taken up in the social sciences. In what is sometimes called a "narrative revolution," researchers with diverse understandings have co-opted the concept of narrative inquiry and used narrative inquiry or narrative research to…

  14. 49 CFR 211.61 - Informal safety inquiries. (United States)


    ... information on selected topics relating to railroad safety. A notice of each such inquiry will be published in... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Informal safety inquiries. 211.61 Section 211.61..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE Miscellaneous Safety-Related Proceedings and Inquiries § 211...

  15. Experimental Comparison of Inquiry and Direct Instruction in Science (United States)

    Cobern, William W.; Schuster, David; Adams, Betty; Applegate, Brooks; Skjold, Brandy; Undreiu, Adriana; Loving, Cathleen C.; Gobert, Janice D.


    There are continuing educational and political debates about "inquiry" versus "direct" teaching of science. Traditional science instruction has been largely direct but in the US, recent national and state science education standards advocate inquiry throughout K-12 education. While inquiry-based instruction has the advantage of modelling aspects…

  16. The Benefits of Using Authentic Inquiry within Biotechnology Education (United States)

    Hanegan, Nikki; Bigler, Amber


    A broad continuum exists to describe the structure of inquiry lessons (Hanegan, Friden, & Nelson, 2009). Most teachers have heard inquiry described from a range of simple questioning to completely student-designed scientific studies (Chinn & Malhotra, 2002). Biotechnology education often uses a variety of inquiries from cookbook laboratory…

  17. Pedagogical Practices to Support Classroom Cultures of Scientific Inquiry (United States)

    Herrenkohl, Leslie Rupert; Tasker, Tammy; White, Barbara


    This article examines the pedagogical practices of two science inquiry teachers and their students using a Web-based system called Web of Inquiry (WOI). There is a need to build a collective repertoire of pedagogical practices that can assist elementary and middle school teachers as they support students to develop a complex model of inquiry based…

  18. Evaluation Inquiry in Donor Funded Programmes in Northern Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An evaluation inquiry has been noted to have a significant influence on whether the evaluation outcomes are used or not. However, only limited studies have examined evaluation inquiry and its implication on the use of evaluation in Ghana. This study therefore seeks to contribute to knowledge on evaluation inquiry and the ...

  19. Economics through Inquiry: Creating Social Businesses in Fifth Grade (United States)

    Whitlock, Annie McMahon


    The College, Career, and Civic Life (C3) Framework from the National Council for Social Studies (NCSS) features an inquiry approach to teaching K-12 social studies in which social studies standards are organized into an "inquiry arc." Inquiry in elementary economics is often underused in practice (Laney 2001). This study describes how a…

  20. CriticalEd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellberg, Caspar Mølholt; Meredith, David


    . Since the comments are not input sequentially, with regard to position, but in arbitrary order, this list must be sorted by copy/pasting the rows into place—an error-prone and time-consuming process. Scholars who produce critical editions typically use off-the-shelf music notation software......The best text method is commonly applied among music scholars engaged in producing critical editions. In this method, a comment list is compiled, consisting of variant readings and editorial emendations. This list is maintained by inserting the comments into a document as the changes are made......, consisting of a Sibelius plug-in, a cross-platform application, called CriticalEd, and a REST-based solution, which handles data storage/retrieval. A prototype has been tested at the Danish Centre for Music Publication, and the results suggest that the system could greatly improve the efficiency...

  1. Using Appreciative Inquiry to Explore the Professional Practice of a Lecturer in Higher Education: Moving towards Life-Centric Practice (United States)

    Giles, David; Kung, Susie


    This paper reports on a strategy for exploring the life-centric practice of a lecturer in Higher Education. The initiative for this inquiry arose out of the realisation that there did not appear to be positive, heart-lifting stories in a lecturer's current teaching experiences. Using an appreciative eye and supported by a critical friend,…

  2. Including Critical Thinking and Problem Solving in Physical Education (United States)

    Pill, Shane; SueSee, Brendan


    Many physical education curriculum frameworks include statements about the inclusion of critical inquiry processes and the development of creativity and problem-solving skills. The learning environment created by physical education can encourage or limit the application and development of the learners' cognitive resources for critical and creative…

  3. The Impact of a Practice-Teaching Professional Development Model on Teachers' Inquiry Instruction and Inquiry Efficacy Beliefs (United States)

    Lotter, Christine R.; Thompson, Stephen; Dickenson, Tammiee S.; Smiley, Whitney F.; Blue, Genine; Rea, Mary


    This study examined changes in middle school teachers' beliefs about inquiry, implementation of inquiry practices, and self-efficacy to teach science through inquiry after participating in a year-long professional development program. The professional development model design was based on Bandura's (1986) social cognitive theory of learning and…

  4. Public Inquiry Data - Report on Incoming, Pending, and Completed Inquiries - FY 2015 Onward (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This dataset provides data on the number of new incoming, pending, and completed inquiries by quarter. The data source is the Electronic Management of Assignments...

  5. University-Level Teaching of Anthropogenic Global Climate Change (AGCC) via Student Inquiry (United States)

    Bush, Drew; Sieber, Renee; Seiler, Gale; Chandler, Mark


    This paper reviews university-level efforts to improve understanding of anthropogenic global climate change (AGCC) through curricula that enable student scientific inquiry. We examined 152 refereed publications and proceedings from academic conferences and selected 26 cases of inquiry learning that overcome specific challenges to AGCC teaching. This review identifies both the strengths and weaknesses of each of these case studies. It is the first to go beyond examining the impact of specific inquiry instructional approaches to offer a synthesis of cases. We find that inquiry teaching can succeed by concretising scientific processes, providing access to global data and evidence, imparting critical and higher order thinking about AGCC science policy and contextualising learning with places and scientific facts. We recommend educational researchers and scientists collaborate to create and refine curricula that utilise geospatial technologies, climate models and communication technologies to bring students into contact with scientists, climate data and authentic AGCC research processes. Many available science education technologies and curricula also require further research to maximise trade-offs between implementation and training costs and their educational value.

  6. A Learning Cycle Inquiry into Plant Nutrition. (United States)

    Lee, Cherin A.


    Describes an investigation on plant nutrition that was developed in the form of a guided inquiry learning cycle and can be implemented in a wide range of grade levels from middle school through college. Investigates the needs of plants to live. (Contains 17 references.) (YDS)

  7. Trust and the Community of Inquiry (United States)

    Haynes, Felicity


    This article investigates the place of trust in learning relations in the classroom, not only between teacher and student, but also between student and student. To do this, it will first examine a pedagogy called community of inquiry, espoused by John Dewey and used in most Philosophy for Children courses in Australia. It will then consider what…

  8. Teaching Inquiry with a Lens toward Curiosity (United States)

    von Renesse, Christine; Ecke, Volker


    This paper links educational psychology research about curiosity to teacher moves that are effective in an inquiry-based mathematics classroom. Three vignettes will show explicit teacher moves (staging disagreement, intriguing anecdotes, and creating a safe space) for different audiences (math majors, mathematics for liberal arts students, and…

  9. Group Inquiry Techniques for Teaching Writing. (United States)

    Hawkins, Thom

    The small size of college composition classes encourages exciting and meaningful interaction, especially when students are divided into smaller, autonomous groups for all or part of the hour. This booklet discusses the advantages of combining the inquiry method (sometimes called the discovery method) with a group approach and describes specific…

  10. Troubling Methods in Qualitative Inquiry and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanggaard, Lene


    This present paper troubles and literally ‘shakes’ the idea of methods as the founding ground of qualitative inquiry. It does so by addressing the real-time messiness of research and the retrospective character of research reports. While the paper is not as such opposed to methods, it does suggest...

  11. 5 CFR 1315.18 - Inquiries. (United States)


    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET OMB DIRECTIVES PROMPT PAYMENT § 1315.18 Inquiries. (a..., Financial Management Service (FMS), Cash Management Policy and Planning Division, 401 14th Street, SW... Management Service (FMS) at 1-800-266-9667. This information is also available at the FMS Prompt Payment Web...

  12. Standing Waves and Inquiry Using Water Droplets (United States)

    Sinclair, Dina; Vondracek, Mark


    Most high school and introductory college physics classes study simple harmonic motion and various wave phenomena. With the majority of states adopting the Next Generation Science Standards and pushing students to explore the scientific process for themselves, there is a growing demand for hands-on inquiry activities that involve and develop more…

  13. Situating Teacher Inquiry: A Micropolitical Perspective (United States)

    LeChasseur, Kimberly; Mayer, Anysia; Welton, Anjale; Donaldson, Morgaen


    Professional learning communities (PLCs) have become a popular strategy in various forms (e.g., data teams, grade-level teams) and with various champions (e.g., district leaders, university researchers, teacher advocates). Although well-implemented PLCs have been shown to distribute leadership, the tension between democratic inquiry processes and…

  14. Student Leadership in Small Group Science Inquiry (United States)

    Oliveira, Alandeom W.; Boz, Umit; Broadwell, George A.; Sadler, Troy D.


    Background: Science educators have sought to structure collaborative inquiry learning through the assignment of static group roles. This structural approach to student grouping oversimplifies the complexities of peer collaboration and overlooks the highly dynamic nature of group activity. Purpose: This study addresses this issue of…

  15. Evaluating Appreciative Inquiry: a relational constructionist perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haar, D. van der; Hosking, D.M.


    Appreciative Inquiry (AI) has become increasingly popular as a social constructionist approach to organizational change and development. Many claims are made about its status and value but there are few published evaluation studies. We discuss these matters by setting out our own version of

  16. Appreciative Inquiry - anerkendende udforskning skaber mulighedsrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejlvig, Kirsten


    Anerkendende udforskning, den danske danske betegnelse for aktionsforskningstilgangen Appreciative Inquiry, fokuserer på at udforske og forandre forhold i det organisatoriske liv, gennem understregningen af, at det er muligt at skabe og vedligeholde en organisation, på grundlag af dens styrker- d...... og Destiny - Skæbne) i en forskningscase....

  17. Narrative experiments and imaginative inquiry | Gough | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I share a number of experiences of writing as a mode of educational inquiry, with particular reference to narrative experiments inspired by Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari's figuration of the rhizome — a process characterised as rhizosemiotic play — and demonstrate the generativity of intertextual readings of selected ...

  18. Artistic Expressions as Primary Modes of Inquiry (United States)

    McNiff, Shaun


    "Art-Based Research" (McNiff, 1998a) introduced the idea of using artistic expressions by researchers as ways of knowing and methods of inquiry as distinguished from approaching art made by subjects as data which are interpreted by discursive methods, a practice that has been widely used in various disciplines studying human behaviour.…

  19. Commentary: Toward Convergence in Creativity Inquiry (United States)

    Tan, Ai-Girl; Wong, Meng-Ee


    This commentary is about reflection in the new language of creativity and the meanings of inquiry into creative life. The authors of the commentary adopt the cultural paradigm of psychology of creativity. They praise effortful creativity of the authors who submitted the articles to this special issue. Their studies employed diverse methods of…

  20. Using Games to Engage Students in Inquiry (United States)

    Byrne, Martha


    This paper discusses the author's experiences of getting advanced undergraduate math students to engage in mathematical inquiry by using games as a vehicle for exploration. The students explored the mathematics behind SET®1, Spot it!®2, Blokus®3, and Six®4. Specifically, we present the experience of the instructor and students and how the games…