WorldWideScience

Sample records for critical infrastructure protection

  1. After the year 2000: Critical infrastructure protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, M.

    1999-01-01

    Presentation defines the critical infrastructure which includes: telecommunication, banking, transportation, electric energy, oil and gas supply, water supply, emergency services and government operations. The problem of protecting the critical infrastructure is is exposed in detail concerning physical protection and protection of information systems against cyberthreats

  2. Critical infrastructure protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, F. [Canadian Electricity Association, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2003-04-01

    The need to protect critical electrical infrastructure from terrorist attacks, or other physical damage, including weather related events, or the potential impact of computer viruses and other attacks on IT resources are discussed. Activities of the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) are highlighted which seek to safeguard the North American bulk electric power system principally through the Information Sharing and Analysis Sector (ES-ISAC). ES-ISAC serves the electricity sector by facilitating communication between electric sector participants, federal government and other critical infrastructure industries by disseminating threat indications, analyses and warnings, together with interpretations, to assist the industry in taking infrastructure protection actions. Attention is drawn to the numerous cyber incidents in recent years, which although resulted in no loss of service to electricity customers so far, in at least one instance (the January 25th SOL-Slammer worm incident) resulted in degradation of service in a number of sectors, including financial, transportation and telecommunication services. The increasing frequency of cyber-based attacks, coupled with the industry's growing dependence on e-commerce and electronic controls, are good reasons to believe that critical infrastructure protection (CIP) poses a serious challenge to the industry's risk management practices. The Canadian Electricity Association (CEA) is an active participant in ES-ISAC and works cooperatively with a range of partners, such as the Edison Electric Institute and the American Public Power Association to ensure coordination and effective protection program delivery for the electric power sector. The Early Warning System (EWS) developed by the CIP Working Group is one of the results of this cooperation. EWS uses the Internet, e-mail, web-enabled cell phones and Blackberry hand-held devices to deliver real-time threat information to members on a 24/7 basis. EWS

  3. 6 CFR 29.8 - Disclosure of Protected Critical Infrastructure Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure of Protected Critical Infrastructure... PROTECTED CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE INFORMATION § 29.8 Disclosure of Protected Critical Infrastructure... Infrastructure Protection, or either's designee may choose to provide or authorize access to PCII under one or...

  4. Critical infrastructure protection research results of the first critical infrastructure protection research project in Hungary

    CERN Document Server

    Padányi, József

    2016-01-01

    This book presents recent research in the recognition of vulnerabilities of national systems and assets which gained special attention for the Critical Infrastructures in the last two decades. The book concentrates on R&D activities in the relation of Critical Infrastructures focusing on enhancing the performance of services as well as the level of security. The objectives of the book are based on a project entitled "Critical Infrastructure Protection Researches" (TÁMOP-4.2.1.B-11/2/KMR-2011-0001) which concentrated on innovative UAV solutions, robotics, cybersecurity, surface engineering, and mechatrinics and technologies providing safe operations of essential assets. This report is summarizing the methodologies and efforts taken to fulfill the goals defined. The project has been performed by the consortium of the Óbuda University and the National University of Public Service.

  5. Critical Infrastructure Protection: Maintenance is National Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Hemme

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available U.S. critical infrastructure protection (CIP necessitates both the provision of security from internal and external threats and the repair of physically damaged critical infrastructure which may disrupt services. For years, the U.S. infrastructure has been deteriorating, triggering enough damage and loss of life to give cause for major concern. CIP is typically only addressed after a major disaster or catastrophe due to the extreme scrutiny that follows these events. In fact, CIP has been addressed repeatedly since Presidential Decision Directive Sixty-Three (PDD Sixty-Three signed by President Bill Clinton on May Twenty-Second, 1998.[1] This directive highlighted critical infrastructure as “a growing potential vulnerability” and recognized that the United States has to view the U.S. national infrastructure from a security perspective due to its importance to national and economic security. CIP must be addressed in a preventive, rather than reactive, manner.[2] As such, there are sixteen critical infrastructure sectors, each with its own protection plan and unique natural and man-made threats, deteriorations, and risks. A disaster or attack on any one of these critical infrastructures could cause serious damage to national security and possibly lead to the collapse of the entire infrastructure. [1] The White House, Presidential Decision Directive/NSC–63 (Washington D.C.: The White House, May 22, 1998: 1–18, available at: http://www.epa.gov/watersecurity/tools/trainingcd/Guidance/pdd-63.pdf. [2] Ibid, 1.

  6. Critical Infrastructure Protection- Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bofman, Ryan K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-24

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has been a key facet of Critical National Infrastructure since the nuclear bombing of Hiroshima exposed the nature of the Laboratory’s work in 1945. Common knowledge of the nature of sensitive information contained here presents a necessity to protect this critical infrastructure as a matter of national security. This protection occurs in multiple forms beginning with physical security, followed by cybersecurity, safeguarding of classified information, and concluded by the missions of the National Nuclear Security Administration.

  7. CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE PROTECTION WITHIN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile N. POPA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The new dynamics and intensity of the risks and threats posed to societal functioning and citizens’ security have acquired new meanings. Consequently, an integrated approach to the concept of ”critical infrastructure” is necessary. The critical nature of some of the basic characteristics of the critical infrastructures has made them acquire new meanings within the national/transnational strategic planning. Moreover, the complexity and importance of critical infrastructure protection for social stability have generated the correlaton of the strategies developed by states and organizations.

  8. Methodologies and applications for critical infrastructure protection: State-of-the-art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusta, Jose M.; Correa, Gabriel J.; Lacal-Arantegui, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    This work provides an update of the state-of-the-art on energy security relating to critical infrastructure protection. For this purpose, this survey is based upon the conceptual view of OECD countries, and specifically in accordance with EU Directive 114/08/EC on the identification and designation of European critical infrastructures, and on the 2009 US National Infrastructure Protection Plan. The review discusses the different definitions of energy security, critical infrastructure and key resources, and shows some of the experie'nces in countries considered as international reference on the subject, including some information-sharing issues. In addition, the paper carries out a complete review of current methodologies, software applications and modelling techniques around critical infrastructure protection in accordance with their functionality in a risk management framework. The study of threats and vulnerabilities in critical infrastructure systems shows two important trends in methodologies and modelling. A first trend relates to the identification of methods, techniques, tools and diagrams to describe the current state of infrastructure. The other trend accomplishes a dynamic behaviour of the infrastructure systems by means of simulation techniques including systems dynamics, Monte Carlo simulation, multi-agent systems, etc. - Highlights: → We examine critical infrastructure protection experiences, systems and applications. → Some international experiences are reviewed, including EU EPCIP Plan and the US NIPP programme. → We discuss current methodologies and applications on critical infrastructure protection, with emphasis in electric networks.

  9. A Comprehensive Assessment Model for Critical Infrastructure Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Häyhtiö Markus

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available International business demands seamless service and IT-infrastructure throughout the entire supply chain. However, dependencies between different parts of this vulnerable ecosystem form a fragile web. Assessment of the financial effects of any abnormalities in any part of the network is demanded in order to protect this network in a financially viable way. Contractual environment between the actors in a supply chain, different business domains and functions requires a management model, which enables a network wide protection for critical infrastructure. In this paper authors introduce such a model. It can be used to assess financial differences between centralized and decentralized protection of critical infrastructure. As an end result of this assessment business resilience to unknown threats can be improved across the entire supply chain.

  10. 75 FR 75611 - Critical Infrastructure Protection Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    ...; and the public--to identify and protect our infrastructure from hazards or attack. These critical... cyber infrastructure more resilient. Working together, we can raise awareness of the important role our...

  11. CHDS Sponsors Critical Infrastructure Protection Workshop

    OpenAIRE

    Center for Homeland Defense and Security

    2008-01-01

    Center for Homeland Defense and Security, PRESS RELEASES The NPS Center for Homeland Defense and Security in partnership with the U.S. Department of Homeland Security recently hosted its first Critical Infrastructure Protection Workshop. The workshop brought together practitioners and...

  12. What's My Lane? Identifying the State Government Role in Critical Infrastructure Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Donnelly, Timothy S.

    2012-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited What constitutes an effective Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources (CIKR) protection program for Massachusetts This study evaluates existing literature regarding CIKR to extrapolate an infrastructure protection role for Massachusetts. By reviewing historical events and government strategies regarding infrastructure protection, Chapters I and II will provide scope and context for issues surrounding critical infrastructure. Chapter ...

  13. The legal imperative to protect critical energy infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shore, J.J.M.

    2008-03-15

    Canada's critical infrastructure is comprised of energy facilities, communications centres, finance, health care, food, government and transportation sectors. All sectors face a range of physical or cyber threats from terrorism and natural phenomenon. Failures or disruptions in the sectors can cascade through other systems and disrupt essential services. The power outage in 2003 demonstrated gaps in North America's emergency preparedness. In 2006, al-Qaida called for terrorist attacks on North American oil fields and pipelines, specifically targeting Canada. Studies have confirmed that Canada is vulnerable to attacks on energy infrastructure. Government agencies and the private sector must work ensure the safety of Canada's energy infrastructure, as the primary responsibility of government is the protection of its citizenry. The fulfilment of the government's commitment to national security cannot be achieved without protecting Canada's critical energy infrastructure. However, Canada has not yet provided a framework linking federal government with critical infrastructures, despite the fact that a draft strategy has been under development for several years. It was concluded that governments and the private sector should work together to reduce risks, protect the public, and secure the economy. National security litigation against the government and legal imperatives for energy facility owners and operators were also reviewed. 98 refs., 20 figs.

  14. Risk Assessment Methodology for Protecting Our Critical Physical Infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BIRINGER,BETTY E.; DANNEELS,JEFFREY J.

    2000-12-13

    Critical infrastructures are central to our national defense and our economic well-being, but many are taken for granted. Presidential Decision Directive (PDD) 63 highlights the importance of eight of our critical infrastructures and outlines a plan for action. Greatly enhanced physical security systems will be required to protect these national assets from new and emerging threats. Sandia National Laboratories has been the lead laboratory for the Department of Energy (DOE) in developing and deploying physical security systems for the past twenty-five years. Many of the tools, processes, and systems employed in the protection of high consequence facilities can be adapted to the civilian infrastructure.

  15. Guarding America: Security Guards and U.S. Critical Infrastructure Protection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Parfomak, Paul W

    2004-01-01

    The Bush Administration's 2003 National Strategy for the Physical Protection of Critical Infrastructures and Key Assets indicates that security guards are an important source of protection for critical facilities...

  16. Critical infrastructure – content, structure and problems of its protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Hofreiter

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Security, economic and social stability of the country, its functionality but also protecting the lives and property of citizens are dependent on the proper functioning of many infrastructure systems of state. Disruptions, lack or destruction of such systems, institutions, facilities and other services could cause disruption of social stability and national security, provoke a crisis situation or seriously affect the operation of state and local governments in crisis situations. This is known as critical infrastructure. It is in the interest of the State to the critical infrastructure effectively protected.

  17. 78 FR 76986 - Version 5 Critical Infrastructure Protection Reliability Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-20

    ...; Order No. 791] Version 5 Critical Infrastructure Protection Reliability Standards AGENCY: Federal Energy... 72755). The regulations approved certain reliability standards proposed by the North American Electric... Infrastructure Protection Reliability Standards, 145 FERC ] 61,160 (2013). This errata notice serves to correct P...

  18. 78 FR 27113 - Version 5 Critical Infrastructure Protection Reliability Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... approve certain reliability standards proposed by the North American Electric Reliability Corporation... Infrastructure Protection Reliability Standards, 143 FERC ] 61,055 (2013). This errata notice serves to correct P... Commission 18 CFR Part 40 [Docket No. RM13-5-000] Version 5 Critical Infrastructure Protection Reliability...

  19. Critical Energy Infrastructure Protection in Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    department for the Energy sector, has been pro- active and innovative in enhancing protection for national critical energy infrastructure (NCI). While...prospérité (PSP), mais des relations transfrontalières plus informelles entre les propriétaires/opérateurs et leurs associations industrielles ...create innovative solutions for CIP. 9. International Cooperation: participate in international CIP initiatives and to strengthen information-sharing

  20. 76 FR 50487 - Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Stakeholder Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY [Docket No. DHS-2011-0018] Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Stakeholder Survey AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS. ACTION: 30... Department of Homeland Security (DHS), National Protection and Programs Directorate (NPPD), Office of...

  1. 76 FR 17935 - Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Stakeholder Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY [Docket No. DHS-2011-0018] Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Stakeholder Survey AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS. ACTION: 60... Department of Homeland Security (DHS), National Protection and Programs Directorate (NPPD), Office of...

  2. Critical Infrastructure Protection and Information Assurance (CIPIA) Fellow Program

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chen, Peter

    2003-01-01

    LSU was one of the universities chosen to participate in the project of training new researchers to work on the Critical Infrastructure Protection and Information Assurance (CIPIA) areas. Three Ph.D...

  3. Cybersecurity protecting critical infrastructures from cyber attack and cyber warfare

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    The World Economic Forum regards the threat of cyber attack as one of the top five global risks confronting nations of the world today. Cyber attacks are increasingly targeting the core functions of the economies in nations throughout the world. The threat to attack critical infrastructures, disrupt critical services, and induce a wide range of damage is becoming more difficult to defend against. Cybersecurity: Protecting Critical Infrastructures from Cyber Attack and Cyber Warfare examines the current cyber threat landscape and discusses the strategies being used by governments and corporatio

  4. 78 FR 6807 - Critical Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia and Kuwait...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... coordinating and sponsoring an executive-led Critical Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security mission to... on the cyber security, critical infrastructure protection, and emergency management, ports of entry... security, including border protection, civil defense capabilities, and coast guard and maritime...

  5. the GFCE-Meridian Good Practice Guide on Critical Information Infrastructure Protection for governmental policy-makers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.; Schie, T.C.C. van; Ruijven, T.W.J. van; Huistra, A.W.W.

    2016-01-01

    Critical Information Infrastructure Protection (CIIP) is a complex but important topic for nations. Nations at large critically depend on Critical Infrastructure (CI) services such as energy supply, telecommunications, financial systems, drinking water, and governmental services. Critical

  6. Government of Canada position paper on a national strategy for critical infrastructure protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-11-01

    The Government of Canada's position on the development of a comprehensive national approach to critical infrastructure protection (CIP) was presented along with a policy framework for developing a national cyber security strategy and a review of the Emergency Preparedness Act. Canada's national critical infrastructure (NCI) is defined as physical and information technology facilities, networks, services and assets, which if destroyed, would have a serious impact on health, safety, security and economics. The CIP strategy includes an NCI assurance program for various sectors of the economy, including the energy, transportation, finance, health care, food, communications, water, safety and manufacturing sectors. It also includes CIP for the government sector. This report described the key elements of an NCI protection strategy. These include guiding principles, risk management, information sharing, inventory of critical infrastructure assets, threats and warnings, critical infrastructure interdependencies, governance mechanisms, research and development, and international cooperation. refs., tabs., figs.

  7. Cyber Security Insider Threats :: Government’s Role in Protecting India’s Critical Infrastructure Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Vohra, Pulkit

    2014-01-01

    This research identifies the problem of insider threats in the critical infrastructure sectors of India. It is structured to answer the research question: "Why insider threats should be the primary concern for Indian government to protect its critical infrastructure sectors.” It defines the critical infrastructure sectors and portrays the cyber security scenario of India. Also, through the research study, it identifies the lack of awareness and non-seriousness of employees in the critical sec...

  8. Protecting America: Reorganizing the Nation's Security Forces to Ensure the Protection of Our Critical Infrastructure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams

    2004-01-01

    .... This national strategy amplified the significant responsibilities of states, localities, the private sector, and private citizens to protect and defend our communities and our critical infrastructure...

  9. A Good Practice Guide on Critical Infor-mation Infrastructure Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.; Schie, T.C.C. van

    2017-01-01

    Early 2016, the Meridian Process and the GFCE tasked the Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research TNO to develop a Good Practice Guide on Critical Information Infrastructure Protection (CIIP) for governmental policy-makers [1]. The guide primarily aims at governmental policy-makers,

  10. Critical infrastructure system security and resiliency

    CERN Document Server

    Biringer, Betty; Warren, Drake

    2013-01-01

    Security protections for critical infrastructure nodes are intended to minimize the risks resulting from an initiating event, whether it is an intentional malevolent act or a natural hazard. With an emphasis on protecting an infrastructure's ability to perform its mission or function, Critical Infrastructure System Security and Resiliency presents a practical methodology for developing an effective protection system that can either prevent undesired events or mitigate the consequences of such events.Developed at Sandia National Labs, the authors' analytical approach and

  11. Critical Foundations: Protecting America's Infrastructures. The Report of the President's Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1997-01-01

    There is no doubt that our critical infrastructures are the best in the world-largely the result of the tremendous efficiency and global reach made possible by incorporation of our rapidly advancing...

  12. Protection of critical infrastructure using fiber optic sensors embedded in technical textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebber, Katerina; Lenke, Philipp; Liehr, Sascha; Noether, Nils; Wendt, Mario; Wosniok, Aleksander

    2010-04-01

    Terrorists and criminals more and more attack and destroy important infrastructures like routes, railways, bridges, tunnels, dikes and dams, important buildings. Therefore, reliable on-line and long-term monitoring systems are required to protect such critical infrastructures. Fiber optic sensors are well-suited for that. They can be installed over many kilometers and are able to measure continuously distributed strain, pressure, temperature and further mechanical and physical quantities. The very tiny optical fibers can be integrated into structures and materials and can provide information about any significant changes or damages of the structures. These so-called smart materials and smart structures are able to monitor itself or its environment. Particularly smart technical textiles with embedded fiber optic sensors have become very attractive because of their high importance for the structural health monitoring of geotechnical and masonry infrastructures. Such textiles are usually used for reinforcement of the structures; the embedded fiber optic sensors provide information about the condition of the structures and detect the presence of any damages and destructions in real time. Thus, critical infrastructures can be preventively protected. The paper will introduce this innovative field and will present the results achieved within several German and European projects.

  13. TCIA Secure Cyber Critical Infrastructure Modernization.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keliiaa, Curtis M. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-02-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia Labs) tribal cyber infrastructure assurance initiative was developed in response to growing national cybersecurity concerns in the the sixteen Department of Homeland Security (DHS) defined critical infrastructure sectors1. Technical assistance is provided for the secure modernization of critical infrastructure and key resources from a cyber-ecosystem perspective with an emphasis on enhanced security, resilience, and protection. Our purpose is to address national critical infrastructure challenges as a shared responsibility.

  14. A reference model for model-based design of critical infrastructure protection systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Young Don; Park, Cheol Young; Lee, Jae-Chon

    2015-05-01

    Today's war field environment is getting versatile as the activities of unconventional wars such as terrorist attacks and cyber-attacks have noticeably increased lately. The damage caused by such unconventional wars has also turned out to be serious particularly if targets are critical infrastructures that are constructed in support of banking and finance, transportation, power, information and communication, government, and so on. The critical infrastructures are usually interconnected to each other and thus are very vulnerable to attack. As such, to ensure the security of critical infrastructures is very important and thus the concept of critical infrastructure protection (CIP) has come. The program to realize the CIP at national level becomes the form of statute in each country. On the other hand, it is also needed to protect each individual critical infrastructure. The objective of this paper is to study on an effort to do so, which can be called the CIP system (CIPS). There could be a variety of ways to design CIPS's. Instead of considering the design of each individual CIPS, a reference model-based approach is taken in this paper. The reference model represents the design of all the CIPS's that have many design elements in common. In addition, the development of the reference model is also carried out using a variety of model diagrams. The modeling language used therein is the systems modeling language (SysML), which was developed and is managed by Object Management Group (OMG) and a de facto standard. Using SysML, the structure and operational concept of the reference model are designed to fulfil the goal of CIPS's, resulting in the block definition and activity diagrams. As a case study, the operational scenario of the nuclear power plant while being attacked by terrorists is studied using the reference model. The effectiveness of the results is also analyzed using multiple analysis models. It is thus expected that the approach taken here has some merits

  15. Protective design of critical infrastructure with high performance concretes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedel, W.; Nöldgen, M.; Stolz, A.; Roller, C.

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: High performance concrete constructions will allow innovative design solutions for critical infrastructures. Validation of engineering methods can reside on large and model scale experiments conducted on conventional concrete structures. New consistent impact experiments show extreme protection potential for UHPC. Modern FEM with concrete models and explicit rebar can model HPC and UHPC penetration resistance. SDOF and TDOF approaches are valuable design tools on local and global level. Combination of at least 2 out of 3 design methods FEM – XDOF- EXP allow reliable prediction and efficient innovative designs

  16. Trust and Reputation Management for Critical Infrastructure Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Filipe; Monteiro, Edmundo; Simões, Paulo

    Today's Critical Infrastructures (CI) depend of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) to deliver their services with the required level of quality and availability. ICT security plays a major role in CI protection and risk prevention for single and also for interconnected CIs were cascading effects might occur because of the interdependencies that exist among different CIs. This paper addresses the problem of ICT security in interconnected CIs. Trust and reputation management using the Policy Based Management paradigm is the proposed solution to be applied at the CI interconnection points for information exchange. The proposed solution is being applied to the Security Mediation Gateway being developed in the European FP7 MICIE project, to allow for information exchange among interconnected CIs.

  17. Constructing vulnerabilty and protective measures indices for the enhanced critical infrastructure protection program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, R. E.; Buehring, W. A.; Whitfield, R. G.; Bassett, G. W.; Dickinson, D. C.; Haffenden, R. A.; Klett, M. S.; Lawlor, M. A.; Decision and Information Sciences; LANL

    2009-10-14

    The US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) has directed its Protective Security Advisors (PSAs) to form partnerships with the owners and operators of assets most essential to the Nation's well being - a subclass of critical infrastructure and key resources (CIKR) - and to conduct site visits for these and other high-risk assets as part of the Enhanced Critical Infrastructure Protection (ECIP) Program. During each such visit, the PSA documents information about the facility's current CIKR protection posture and overall security awareness. The primary goals for ECIP site visits (DHS 2009) are to: (1) inform facility owners and operators of the importance of their facilities as an identified high-priority CIKR and the need to be vigilant in light of the ever-present threat of terrorism; (2) identify protective measures currently in place at these facilities, provide comparisons of CIKR protection postures across like assets, and track the implementation of new protective measures; and (3) enhance existing relationships among facility owners and operators; DHS; and various Federal, State, local tribal, and territorial partners. PSAs conduct ECIP visits to assess overall site security; educate facility owners and operators about security; help owners and operators identify gaps and potential improvements; and promote communication and information sharing among facility owners and operators, DHS, State governments, and other security partners. Information collected during ECIP visits is used to develop metrics; conduct sector-by-sector and cross-sector vulnerability comparisons; identify security gaps and trends across CIKR sectors and subsectors; establish sector baseline security survey results; and track progress toward improving CIKR security through activities, programs, outreach, and training (Snyder 2009). The data being collected are used in a framework consistent with the National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP) risk criteria (DHS 2009). The

  18. 77 FR 35700 - Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Program Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    ... (NPPD), Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP), Infrastructure Information Collection Division (IICD... Information Collection Request should be forwarded to DHS/NPPD/IP/IICD, 245 Murray Lane, SW., Mailstop 0602, Arlington, VA 20598-0602. Email requests should go to Vickie Bovell, [email protected] . Written...

  19. Extensible threat taxonomy for critical infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.; Nieuwenhuijs, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    The European Union-sponsored project Vital Infrastructure Threats and Assurance (VITA) has the objective of exploring and showing new paths in Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) R&D. This paper describes one of VITA’s results: the idea and the development of a novel extensible and generic

  20. An Analysis of IT Governance Practices in the Federal Government: Protecting U.S. Critical Infrastructure from Cyber Terrorist Attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R. LeWayne

    2012-01-01

    Much of the governing process in the United States (U.S.) today depends on a reliable and well protected public information technology (IT) infrastructure. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is tasked with the responsibility of protecting the country's IT infrastructure. Critics contend that the DHS has failed to address planning and…

  1. Cyber resilience: a review of critical national infrastructure and cyber security protection measures applied in the UK and USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrop, Wayne; Matteson, Ashley

    This paper presents cyber resilience as key strand of national security. It establishes the importance of critical national infrastructure protection and the growing vicarious nature of remote, well-planned, and well executed cyber attacks on critical infrastructures. Examples of well-known historical cyber attacks are presented, and the emergence of 'internet of things' as a cyber vulnerability issue yet to be tackled is explored. The paper identifies key steps being undertaken by those responsible for detecting, deterring, and disrupting cyber attacks on critical national infrastructure in the United Kingdom and the USA.

  2. Critical energy infrastructure protection in Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gendron, Angela [Canadian Centre for Intelligence and Security Studies, Carleton University (Canada)

    2010-12-15

    In Canada government acknowledged the need to protect energy assets against attacks. However, so far no strategy has been developed. The aim of this report is to present the characteristics of the energy sector in Canada, the threats, and how the government is responding to those threats. The energy sector in Canada is concentrated and diverse and is under not only terrorism or cyber attacks threats but also environmental threats. This report shows that the Government of Canada is focusing on the protection and assurance of important energy infrastructures but that they are facing several challenges resulting in long delays in the adoption of a formal strategy.

  3. PROTECTING CRITICAL DATABASES – TOWARDS A RISK-BASED ASSESSMENT OF CRITICAL INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURES (CIIS IN SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mzukisi N Njotini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has made great strides towards protecting critical information infrastructures (CIIs. For example, South Africa recognises the significance of safeguarding places or areas that are essential to the national security of South Africa or the economic and social well-being of South African citizens. For this reason South Africa has established mechanisms to assist in preserving the integrity and security of CIIs. The measures provide inter alia for the identification of CIIs; the registration of the full names, address and contact details of the CII administrators (the persons who manage CIIs; the identification of the location(s of CIIs or their component parts; and the outlining of the general descriptions of information or data stored in CIIs.It is argued that the measures to protect CIIs in South Africa are inadequate. In particular, the measures rely on a one-size-fits-all approach to identify and classify CIIs. For this reason the South African measures are likely to lead to the adoption of a paradigm that considers every infrastructure, data or database, regardless of its significance or importance, to be key or critical.

  4. 78 FR 39712 - Critical Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia and Kuwait...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Critical Infrastructure Protection and Cyber Security Trade Mission to Saudi Arabia and Kuwait Clarification and Amendment AGENCY... cyber-security firms and trade organizations which have not already submitted an application are...

  5. 78 FR 11737 - Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-19

    ..., security, business confidentiality, privacy, and civil liberties. We can achieve these goals through a... security measures or controls on business confidentiality, and to protect individual privacy and civil... critical infrastructure demonstrate the need for improved cybersecurity. The cyber threat to critical...

  6. International Conference on Durability of Critical Infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Cherepetskaya, Elena; Pospichal, Vaclav

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the International Conference on Durability of Critical Infrastructure. Monitoring and Testing held in Satov, Czech Republic from 6 to 9 December 2016. It discusses the developments in the theoretical and practical aspects in the fields of Safety, Sustainability and Durability of the Critical Infrastructure. The contributions are dealing with monitoring and testing of structural and composite materials with a new methods for their using for protection and prevention of the selected objects.

  7. 75 FR 60771 - Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY [Docket No. DHS-2010-0080] Critical Infrastructure Partnership... that the meeting may adjourn early if the committee has completed its business. For additional..., Section Chief Partnership Programs, Partnership and Outreach Division, Office of Infrastructure Protection...

  8. Constructing a resilience index for the Enhanced Critical Infrastructure Protection Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, R. E.; Bassett, G. W.; Buehring, W. A.; Collins, M. J.; Dickinson, D. C.; Eaton, L. K.; Haffenden, R. A.; Hussar, N. E.; Klett, M. S.; Lawlor, M. A.; Millier, D. J.; Petit, F. D.; Peyton, S. M.; Wallace, K. E.; Whitfield, R. G.; Peerenboom, J P

    2010-10-14

    Following recommendations made in Homeland Security Presidential Directive 7, which established a national policy for the identification and increased protection of critical infrastructure and key resources (CIKR) by Federal departments and agencies, the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) in 2006 developed the Enhanced Critical Infrastructure Protection (ECIP) program. The ECIP program aimed to provide a closer partnership with state, regional, territorial, local, and tribal authorities in fulfilling the national objective to improve CIKR protection. The program was specifically designed to identify protective measures currently in place in CIKR and to inform facility owners/operators of the benefits of new protective measures. The ECIP program also sought to enhance existing relationships between DHS and owners/operators of CIKR and to build relationships where none existed (DHS 2008; DHS 2009). In 2009, DHS and its protective security advisors (PSAs) began assessing CIKR assets using the ECIP program and ultimately produced individual protective measure and vulnerability values through the protective measure and vulnerability indices (PMI/VI). The PMI/VI assess the protective measures posture of individual facilities at their 'weakest link,' allowing for a detailed analysis of the most vulnerable aspects of the facilities (Schneier 2003), while maintaining the ability to produce an overall protective measures picture. The PMI has six main components (physical security, security management, security force, information sharing, protective measures assessments, and dependencies) and focuses on actions taken by a facility to prevent or deter the occurrence of an incident (Argonne National Laboratory 2009). As CIKR continue to be assessed using the PMI/VI and owners/operators better understand how they can prevent or deter incidents, academic research, practitioner emphasis, and public policy formation have increasingly focused on resilience as a

  9. A threat analysis framework as applied to critical infrastructures in the Energy Sector.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalski, John T.; Duggan, David Patrick

    2007-09-01

    The need to protect national critical infrastructure has led to the development of a threat analysis framework. The threat analysis framework can be used to identify the elements required to quantify threats against critical infrastructure assets and provide a means of distributing actionable threat information to critical infrastructure entities for the protection of infrastructure assets. This document identifies and describes five key elements needed to perform a comprehensive analysis of threat: the identification of an adversary, the development of generic threat profiles, the identification of generic attack paths, the discovery of adversary intent, and the identification of mitigation strategies.

  10. Protecting Critical Infrastructure by Identifying Pathways of Exposure to Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip O’Neill

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, our critical infrastructure is managed and controlled by computers and the information networks that connect them. Cyber-terrorists and other malicious actors understand the economic and social impact that a successful attack on these systems could have. While it is imperative that we defend against such attacks, it is equally imperative that we realize how best to react to them. This article presents the strongest-path method of analyzing all potential pathways of exposure to risk – no matter how indirect or circuitous they may be – in a network model of infrastructure and operations. The method makes direct use of expert knowledge about entities and dependency relationships without the need for any simulation or any other models. By using path analysis in a directed graph model of critical infrastructure, planners can model and assess the effects of a potential attack and develop resilient responses.

  11. The European cooperative approach to securing critical information infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purser, Steve

    2011-10-01

    This paper provides an overview of the EU approach to securing critical information infrastructure, as defined in the Action Plan contained in the Commission Communication of March 2009, entitled 'Protecting Europe from large-scale cyber-attacks and disruptions: enhancing preparedness, security and resilience' and further elaborated by the Communication of May 2011 on critical Information infrastructure protection 'Achievements and next steps: towards global cyber-security'. After explaining the need for pan-European cooperation in this area, the CIIP Action Plan is explained in detail. Finally, the current state of progress is summarised together with the proposed next steps.

  12. Resilience? Insights into the role of Critical Infrastructures Disaster Mitigation Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Bouchon

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Critical infrastructures (CI systems provide essential services “for the maintenance of critical societal functions, including the supply chain, health, safety, security and economic or social well-being of the people” (European Commission, 2008. These systems are exposed to a great number of hazards and threats, which may result in severe consequences for the population, the socio-economic system, and the environment. The issue is particularly relevant at urban level, where the disruption of one CI system can propagate to the other systems and paralyze the entire area. It is therefore necessary, not only to protect CIs through Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP strategies, but also to enhance the resilience of these areas. This article aims thus at providing some insights related to the evolution of the critical infrastructures disaster mitigation strategies from the sole protection towards resilience: what kind of strategies based on resilience can be developed to address CIs disruption at local or regional level? To what extent do these strategies contribute to increase the resilience level of the entire urban or metropolitan area? The first section focuses on the urban critical infrastructures systems as well as on the way their disruption can impact urban areas. The second section provides with some examples of key measures to operationalize resilience in the field of critical infrastructure disaster mitigation strategies. The last section highlights how the key measures developed to enhance the resilience against CI disruptions can benefit also to broader urban resilience. 

  13. Critical Infrastructure Protection: EMP Impacts on the U.S. Electric Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boston, Edwin J., Jr.

    The purpose of this research is to identify the United States electric grid infrastructure systems vulnerabilities to electromagnetic pulse attacks and the cyber-based impacts of those vulnerabilities to the electric grid. Additionally, the research identifies multiple defensive strategies designed to harden the electric grid against electromagnetic pulse attack that include prevention, mitigation and recovery postures. Research results confirm the importance of the electric grid to the United States critical infrastructures system and that an electromagnetic pulse attack against the electric grid could result in electric grid degradation, critical infrastructure(s) damage and the potential for societal collapse. The conclusions of this research indicate that while an electromagnetic pulse attack against the United States electric grid could have catastrophic impacts on American society, there are currently many defensive strategies under consideration designed to prevent, mitigate and or recover from an electromagnetic pulse attack. However, additional research is essential to further identify future target hardening opportunities, efficient implementation strategies and funding resources.

  14. Systematic risk assessment methodology for critical infrastructure elements - Oil and Gas subsectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghiu, A.-D.; Ozunu, A.

    2012-04-01

    The concern for the protection of critical infrastructure has been rapidly growing in the last few years in Europe. The level of knowledge and preparedness in this field is beginning to develop in a lawfully organized manner, for the identification and designation of critical infrastructure elements of national and European interest. Oil and gas production, refining, treatment, storage and transmission by pipelines facilities, are considered European critical infrastructure sectors, as per Annex I of the Council Directive 2008/114/EC of 8 December 2008 on the identification and designation of European critical infrastructures and the assessment of the need to improve their protection. Besides identifying European and national critical infrastructure elements, member states also need to perform a risk analysis for these infrastructure items, as stated in Annex II of the above mentioned Directive. In the field of risk assessment, there are a series of acknowledged and successfully used methods in the world, but not all hazard identification and assessment methods and techniques are suitable for a given site, situation, or type of hazard. As Theoharidou, M. et al. noted (Theoharidou, M., P. Kotzanikolaou, and D. Gritzalis 2009. Risk-Based Criticality Analysis. In Critical Infrastructure Protection III. Proceedings. Third Annual IFIP WG 11.10 International Conference on Critical Infrastructure Protection. Hanover, New Hampshire, USA, March 23-25, 2009: revised selected papers, edited by C. Palmer and S. Shenoi, 35-49. Berlin: Springer.), despite the wealth of knowledge already created, there is a need for simple, feasible, and standardized criticality analyses. The proposed systematic risk assessment methodology includes three basic steps: the first step (preliminary analysis) includes the identification of hazards (including possible natural hazards) for each installation/section within a given site, followed by a criterial analysis and then a detailed analysis step

  15. Critical infrastructure security assessment, prevention, detection, response

    CERN Document Server

    FLAMMINI, F

    2012-01-01

    The most comprehensive handbook on critical infrastructures (CI), addressing both logical and physical security from an engineering point of view. The book surveys state-of-the-art methodologies and tools for CI analysis as well as strategies and technologies for CI protection.

  16. Challenges in the vulnerability and risk analysis of critical infrastructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zio, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a systematic view on the problem of vulnerability and risk analysis of critical infrastructures. Reflections are made on the inherent complexities of these systems, related challenges are identified and possible ways forward for their analysis and management are indicated. Specifically: the framework of vulnerability and risk analysis is examined in relation to its application for the protection and resilience of critical infrastructures; it is argued that the complexity of these systems is a challenging characteristic, which calls for the integration of different modeling perspectives and new approaches of analysis; examples of are given in relation to the Internet and, particularly, the electric power grid, as representative of critical infrastructures and the associated complexity; the integration of different types of analyses and methods of system modeling is put forward for capturing the inherent structural and dynamic complexities of critical infrastructures and eventually evaluating their vulnerability and risk characteristics, so that decisions on protections and resilience actions can be taken with the required confidence. - Highlights: • The problem of the protection and resilience of CIs is the focus of the work. • The vulnerability and risk analysis framework for this is critically examined. • The complexity of CIs is presented as a challenge for system modeling and analysis. • The integration of different modeling perspectives of analysis is put forward as a solution. • The extension of the analysis framework to new methods for dealing with surprises and black swans is advocated.

  17. Assessing Vulnerabilities, Risks, and Consequences of Damage to Critical Infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suski, N.; Wuest, C.

    2011-01-01

    Since the publication of 'Critical Foundations: Protecting America's Infrastructure,' there has been a keen understanding of the complexity, interdependencies, and shared responsibility required to protect the nation's most critical assets that are essential to our way of life. The original 5 sectors defined in 1997 have grown to 18 Critical Infrastructures and Key Resources (CIKR), which are discussed in the 2009 National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP) and its supporting sector-specific plans. The NIPP provides the structure for a national program dedicated to enhanced protection and resiliency of the nation's infrastructure. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) provides in-depth, multi-disciplinary assessments of threat, vulnerability, and consequence across all 18 sectors at scales ranging from specific facilities to infrastructures spanning multi-state regions, such as the Oil and Natural Gas (ONG) sector. Like many of the CIKR sectors, the ONG sector is comprised of production, processing, distribution, and storage of highly valuable and potentially dangerous commodities. Furthermore, there are significant interdependencies with other sectors, including transportation, communication, finance, and government. Understanding the potentially devastating consequences and collateral damage resulting from a terrorist attack or natural event is an important element of LLNL's infrastructure security programs. Our work began in the energy sector in the late 1990s and quickly expanded other critical infrastructure sectors. We have performed over 600 physical assessments with a particular emphasis on those sectors that utilize, store, or ship potentially hazardous materials and for whom cyber security is important. The success of our approach is based on building awareness of vulnerabilities and risks and working directly with industry partners to collectively advance infrastructure protection. This approach consists of three phases: The Pre

  18. LA PROTECTION DES INFRASTRUCTURES CRITIQUES – DEFIS ACTUELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Fifoiu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering that in the European Union's plan, it has not been identified a solution for surpassing the legal differences between states (derived from priorities and different interests, Romania continues the program of alignment towards increasing its own standards and interconnecting internal critical infrastructures with the European and regional ones. This process is a lasting one, fact revealed also by the distance, in terms of time, between the first approaches, at a European level, of the problems of critical infrastructures, at the implementation of Directive 114/2008 provisions. The steps taken by the authorities in Bucharest are intended to drive Romania towards a level of development compatible both with the integration in a single European space of critical infrastructures and the fulfillment of an important role in stating the future strategies of the European Union. Currently, Romania’s alignment to the European Union and international standards creates the optimum framework for developing and implementing some specific provisions which, at this time, are materialized as the steps of a single national plan for protecting critical infrastructures, on the way of being configured.

  19. Protecting and securing the energy infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillham, B. [Conoco Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) includes protection against physical and cyber attacks as well as potential interruptions and vulnerabilities such as natural disasters and human error. CIP makes it possible to deal with the consequences of infrastructure failures that can have regional, national and international impacts. The energy sector is challenged because there has been an irreversible move to automated control systems and electronic transactions. In addition, due to mergers and joint ventures, the line between traditional oil, natural gas companies and power companies is not perfectly clear. Energy industries can no longer be seen in isolation of each other because they depend on other critical infrastructures. Industry should lead CIP programs through risk management assessments, develop and implement global information technology standards, and enhance response and recovery planning. The National Petroleum Council (NPC) will continue to develop the capabilities of the newly formed Information Sharing and Assessment Centre (ISAC). The sector will also continue to develop common vulnerability assessment goals. It was noted that response and recovery plans must include the cyber dimension, because there has been an increasing number of scans and probes from the Internet since the events of September 11, 2001. It was noted that physical incidents can often turn into cyber incidents and vice versa.

  20. Infrastructure protection in the Dutch financial sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oers, M.H.M.; Strous, L.; Berndsen, R.J.; Butts, J.; Shenoi, S.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of critical infrastructure protection in the Dutch financial sector. The organizational structures are examined to discern the roles and functions that facilitate public-private cooperation. An assessment of the organizational structures is provided along with a

  1. Geographic Hotspots of Critical National Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Scott; Barr, Stuart; Pant, Raghav; Hall, Jim W; Alderson, David

    2017-12-01

    Failure of critical national infrastructures can result in major disruptions to society and the economy. Understanding the criticality of individual assets and the geographic areas in which they are located is essential for targeting investments to reduce risks and enhance system resilience. Within this study we provide new insights into the criticality of real-life critical infrastructure networks by integrating high-resolution data on infrastructure location, connectivity, interdependence, and usage. We propose a metric of infrastructure criticality in terms of the number of users who may be directly or indirectly disrupted by the failure of physically interdependent infrastructures. Kernel density estimation is used to integrate spatially discrete criticality values associated with individual infrastructure assets, producing a continuous surface from which statistically significant infrastructure criticality hotspots are identified. We develop a comprehensive and unique national-scale demonstration for England and Wales that utilizes previously unavailable data from the energy, transport, water, waste, and digital communications sectors. The testing of 200,000 failure scenarios identifies that hotspots are typically located around the periphery of urban areas where there are large facilities upon which many users depend or where several critical infrastructures are concentrated in one location. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. Counter terrorism functions to enhance critical infrastructure resilience against CBRNe terrorism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonsen, I.M.; Gaasbeek, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    Current approaches in critical infrastructure protection use long lists of items that fail to give its user a structured answer to the state of protection of its object. The functionality approach uses different terrorist functions to structure the threat (which are to have intent, to scout, to

  3. Cyber security deterrence and it protection for critical infrastructures

    CERN Document Server

    Martellini, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    The experts of the International Working Group-Landau Network Centro Volta (IWG-LNCV) discuss aspects of cyber security and present possible methods of deterrence, defense and resilience against cyber attacks. This SpringerBrief covers state-of-the-art documentation on the deterrence power of cyber attacks and argues that nations are entering a new cyber arms race. The brief also provides a technical analysis of possible cyber attacks towards critical infrastructures in the chemical industry and chemical safety industry. The authors also propose modern analyses and a holistic approach to resil

  4. New concept of critical infrastructure strengthening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gazizov, Talgat R.; Orlov, Pavel E.; Zabolotsky, Alexander M.; Kuksenko, Sergey P.

    2016-01-01

    Strengthening of critical infrastructure is considered. Modal reservation of electronics is proposed as a new concept of the strengthening. The concept combines a widely used cold backup and a recently proposed modal filtration. It makes electronics reliable as well as protected against electromagnetic interference, especially the ultra-wide band pulses. New printed circuit board structure is suggested for implementation of the proposed concept. Results of simulation in time and frequency domains are presented for the suggested structures. Considerable attenuation of dangerous excitations shows that the new concept and structure are promising.

  5. New concept of critical infrastructure strengthening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazizov, Talgat R.; Orlov, Pavel E.; Zabolotsky, Alexander M.; Kuksenko, Sergey P. [Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, 634050, Lenin Ave., Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-08

    Strengthening of critical infrastructure is considered. Modal reservation of electronics is proposed as a new concept of the strengthening. The concept combines a widely used cold backup and a recently proposed modal filtration. It makes electronics reliable as well as protected against electromagnetic interference, especially the ultra-wide band pulses. New printed circuit board structure is suggested for implementation of the proposed concept. Results of simulation in time and frequency domains are presented for the suggested structures. Considerable attenuation of dangerous excitations shows that the new concept and structure are promising.

  6. SPECIAL AND MILITARY COMMUNICATIONS AND INFORMATION SYSTEMS AS VITAL PART OF THE CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURES IN ROMANIA. SECURING THEIR PHYSICAL AND INFORMATIONAL PROTECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin MINCU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The article presents several arguments on the need to study the critical infrastructure in Romania including various systems (networks and special military communications. It emphasizes the role and place of such systems and networks to provide national defense and security and the risks and vulnerabilities faced by these infrastructures, and some necessary measures to be taken for the physical and informational protection in the case of hostile military actions, natural disasters or other negative phenomena. Finally some conclusions and proposals are formulated.

  7. 77 FR 37060 - Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources (CIKR) Asset Protection Technical Assistance Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    .../IP/IICD, 245 Murray Lane SW., Mailstop 0602, Arlington, VA 20598-0602. Email requests should go to...), National Protection and Programs Directorate (NPPD), Office of Infrastructure Protection (IP... the following methods: Federal eRulemaking Portal: http://www.regulations.gov . Email: Include the...

  8. Defense Industrial Base: Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources Sector-Specific Plan as Input to the National Infrastructure Protection Plan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2007-01-01

    This Defense Industrial Base (DIB) Sector-Specific Plan (SSP), developed in collaboration with industry and government security partners, provides sector-level critical infrastructure and key resources (CI/KR...

  9. Flood vulnerability of critical infrastructure in Cork, Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Bruijn Karin M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent flood events in Ireland and particularly in County Cork have caused significant disruption to health service provisions, interruption of water and power supplies, and damage to roads and other transportation infrastructure, affecting the lives of hundreds of thousands of people over a prolonged period of weeks. These events clearly reveal- the vulnerability of the critical infrastructure to flooding and the dependence of society on critical infrastructure. In order to reduce the flood vulnerability and increase the resilience of the critical infrastructure networks in the future, detailed evidence-based analysis and assessment is essential. To this end a case study has been carried out on Cork City which analyses this vulnerability as it was in 2009, and as it is currently, and identifies adaptation options to reduce the future vulnerability of critical infrastructure to flooding and to build a more resilient society. This paper describes the storyline approach and CIrcle tool and their application to Cork City which focused on the analysis of the flood vulnerability of critical infrastructure and the impacts of failure of the infrastructure for other critical functions and on society.

  10. CRITICAL INFORMATION INFRASTRUCTURE SECURITY - NETWORK INTRUSION DETECTION SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristea DUMITRU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Critical Information Infrastructure security will always be difficult to ensure, just because of the features that make it irreplaceable tor other critical infrastructures normal operation. It is decentralized, interconnected interdependent, controlled by multiple actors (mainly private and incorporating diverse types of technologies. It is almost axiomatic that the disruption of the Critical Information Infrastructure affects systems located much farther away, and the cyber problems have direct consequences on the real world. Indeed the Internet can be used as a multiplier in order to amplify the effects of an attack on some critical infrastructures. Security challenges increase with the technological progress. One of the last lines of defense which comes to complete the overall security scheme of the Critical Information Infrastructure is represented by the Network Intrusion Detection Systems.

  11. System Dynamics Approach for Critical Infrastructure and Decision Support. A Model for a Potable Water System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, D.; Witkowski, M.

    2005-12-01

    The Critical Infrastructure Protection / Decision Support System (CIP/DSS) project, supported by the Science and Technology Office, has been developing a risk-informed Decision Support System that provides insights for making critical infrastructure protection decisions. The system considers seventeen different Department of Homeland Security defined Critical Infrastructures (potable water system, telecommunications, public health, economics, etc.) and their primary interdependencies. These infrastructures have been modeling in one model called CIP/DSS Metropolitan Model. The modeling approach used is a system dynamics modeling approach. System dynamics modeling combines control theory and the nonlinear dynamics theory, which is defined by a set of coupled differential equations, which seeks to explain how the structure of a given system determines its behavior. In this poster we present a system dynamics model for one of the seventeen critical infrastructures, a generic metropolitan potable water system (MPWS). Three are the goals: 1) to gain a better understanding of the MPWS infrastructure; 2) to identify improvements that would help protect MPWS; and 3) to understand the consequences, interdependencies, and impacts, when perturbations occur to the system. The model represents raw water sources, the metropolitan water treatment process, storage of treated water, damage and repair to the MPWS, distribution of water, and end user demand, but does not explicitly represent the detailed network topology of an actual MPWS. The MPWS model is dependent upon inputs from the metropolitan population, energy, telecommunication, public health, and transportation models as well as the national water and transportation models. We present modeling results and sensitivity analysis indicating critical choke points, negative and positive feedback loops in the system. A general scenario is also analyzed where the potable water system responds to a generic disruption.

  12. DETERMINANTS OF RISK ASSESSMENT PROCESS IN CRITICAL ENERGY INFRASTRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Borkowski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Article deals with the problem of risk assessment in critical energy infrastructure. Firstly the critical infrastructure in energy sector is discussed than risk identification methodology for application to critical infrastructure is proposed. Specific conditions resulting from features of critical infrastructure are addressed in the context of risk assessment procedure. The limits of such a procedure are outlined and critical factors influencing different stages of risk assessment process are researched in view of specificity of the sector.

  13. Managing the complexity of critical infrastructures a modelling and simulation approach

    CERN Document Server

    Rosato, Vittorio; Kyriakides, Elias; Rome, Erich

    2016-01-01

    This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license. This book summarizes work being pursued in the context of the CIPRNet (Critical Infrastructure Preparedness and Resilience Research Network) research project, co-funded by the European Union under the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7). The project is intended to provide concrete and on-going support to the Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) research communities, enhancing their preparedness for CI-related emergencies, while also providing expertise and technologies for other stakeholders to promote their understanding and mitigation of the consequences of CI disruptions, leading to enhanced resilience. The book collects the tutorial material developed by the authors for several courses on the modelling, simulation and analysis of CIs, representing extensive and integrated CIP expertise. It will help CI stakeholders, CI operators and civil protection authorities understand the complex system of CIs, and help them adapt to these changes and threats in or...

  14. Ontario-U.S. power outages : impacts on critical infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This paper described the power outage and resulting blackout that occurred on August 14, 2003 and identified how critical infrastructure was directly and interdependently impacted in Canada. The aim of the paper was to assist critical infrastructure protection and emergency management professionals in assessing the potential impacts of large-scale critical infrastructure disruptions. Information for the study was acquired from Canadian and American media reports and cross-sectoral information sharing with provincial and federal governments and the private sector. The blackout impacted most of the sources and means of generating, transmitting and distributing power within the area, which in turn impacted all critical infrastructure sectors. Landline and cellular companies experienced operational difficulties, which meant that emergency responders were impacted. Newspapers and the electronic media struggled to release information to the public. The banking and finance industry experienced an immediate degradation of services. The power outage caused shipping and storage difficulties for commercial retailers and dairy producers. A number of incidents were reported where only partially treated waste water was released into neighbouring waterways. The timing of the blackout coincided with the closures of workplaces and created additional difficulties on transportation networks. Many gas station pumps were inoperable. Police, fire departments and ambulance services experienced a dramatic increase in the volume of calls received, and all branches of the emergency services sector encountered transportation delays and difficulties with communications equipment. Nuclear reactors were also impacted. An estimated 150,000 Government of Canada employees were unable to report to work. Estimates have indicated that the power outage cost Ontario's economy between $1 and $2 billion. The outage negatively impacted 82 per cent of small businesses in Ontario. 170 refs., 3 figs

  15. The quest for the oil and gas infrastructure protection in central Asia : time bombs and policy options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bi, J. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, ON (Canada). Norman Paterson School of International Affairs

    2006-03-15

    The growing economies of China and India have increased global anxieties over dwindling fossil fuel resources. Regional countries in central Asia have advocated for more extensive strategic partnerships within the oil and gas industry as insurance against the pressures of more powerful nations. However, non-traditional threats such as terrorism raise serious questions about critical oil and gas infrastructure protection in central Asia. This paper assessed the vulnerability and threats inherent in protecting the critical oil and gas infrastructure of Central Asia, with a specific focus on Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and the region of Xinjiang in China. An-depth analysis of the development strategies, terrorist threats, and water issues confronted by Central Asian powers was conducted to demonstrate their vulnerability. The analysis was then used to consider options available for managing oil and gas infrastructure in the regions. It was observed that different perceptions and technological difficulties have made cooperation on critical oil and gas infrastructure protection less important than national sovereignty and domestic stability. It was concluded that a low-key approach to homeland security and oil and gas infrastructure may be the best strategy for Central Asia and China. 44 refs.

  16. 75 FR 67989 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Office of Infrastructure Protection; Infrastructure...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY [Docket No. DHS-2010-0084] Agency Information Collection Activities: Office of Infrastructure Protection; Infrastructure Protection Stakeholder Input Project--Generic... comments; New Information Collection Request: 1670-NEW. SUMMARY: The Department of Homeland Security...

  17. The impact of natural hazard on critical infrastructure systems: definition of an ontology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimauro, Carmelo; Bouchon, Sara; Frattini, Paolo; Giusto, Claudia

    2013-04-01

    According to the Council of the European Union Directive (2008), 'critical infrastructure' means an asset, system or part thereof which is essential for the maintenance of vital societal functions, health, safety, security, economic or social well-being of people, and the disruption or destruction of which would have a significant impact as a result of the failure to maintain those functions. Critical infrastructure networks are exposed to natural events, such as floods, storms, landslides, earthquakes, etc. Recent natural disasters show that socio-economic consequences can be very much aggravated by the impact on these infrastructures. Though, there is still a lack of a recognized approach or methodology to assess the vulnerability of critical infrastructure assets against natural threats. The difficulty to define such an approach is increased by the need to consider a very high number of natural events, which differ in nature, magnitude and probability, as well as the need to assess the vulnerability of a high variety of infrastructure assets (e.g. bridges, roads, tunnels, pipelines, etc.) To meet this challenge, the objective of the THREVI2 EU-CIPS project is to create a database linking the relationships between natural hazards and critical infrastructure assets. The query of the database will allow the end-users (critical infrastructure protection authorities and operators) to identify the relevant scenarios according to the own priorities and criteria. The database builds on an ontology optimized for the assessment of the impact of threats on critical infrastructures. The ontology aims at capturing the existing knowledge on natural hazards, critical infrastructures assets and their related vulnerabilities. Natural phenomena that can threaten critical infrastructures are classified as "events", and organized in a genetic-oriented hierarchy. The main attributes associated to each event are the probability, the magnitude and the "modus". The modus refers to the

  18. The strategy for the development of information society in Serbia by 2020: Information security and critical infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela D. Protić

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of technology has changed the world economy and induced new political trends. The European Union (EU and many non-EU member states apply the strategies of information society development that raise the level of information security (IS. The Serbian Government (Government has adopted the Strategy for Information Society in Serbia by 2020 (Strategy, and pointed to the challenges for the development of a modern Serbian information society. This paper presents an overview of the open-ended questions about IS, critical infrastructures and protection of critical infrastructures. Based on publicly available data, some critical national infrastructures are listed. As a possible solution to the problem of IS, the Public Key Infrastructure (PKI-based Information security integrated information system (ISIIS is presented. The ISIIS provides modularity and interoperability of critical infrastructures both in Serbia and neighboring countries.

  19. Critical Infrastructure Interdependency Modeling: A Survey of U.S. and International Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2006-08-01

    The Nation’s health, wealth, and security rely on the production and distribution of certain goods and services. The array of physical assets, processes, and organizations across which these goods and services move are called "critical infrastructures".1 This statement is as true in the U.S. as in any country in the world. Recent world events such as the 9-11 terrorist attacks, London bombings, and gulf coast hurricanes have highlighted the importance of stable electric, gas and oil, water, transportation, banking and finance, and control and communication infrastructure systems. Be it through direct connectivity, policies and procedures, or geospatial proximity, most critical infrastructure systems interact. These interactions often create complex relationships, dependencies, and interdependencies that cross infrastructure boundaries. The modeling and analysis of interdependencies between critical infrastructure elements is a relatively new and very important field of study. The U.S. Technical Support Working Group (TSWG) has sponsored this survey to identify and describe this current area of research including the current activities in this field being conducted both in the U.S. and internationally. The main objective of this study is to develop a single source reference of critical infrastructure interdependency modeling tools (CIIMT) that could be applied to allow users to objectively assess the capabilities of CIIMT. This information will provide guidance for directing research and development to address the gaps in development. The results will inform researchers of the TSWG Infrastructure Protection Subgroup of research and development efforts and allow a more focused approach to addressing the needs of CIIMT end-user needs. This report first presents the field of infrastructure interdependency analysis, describes the survey methodology, and presents the leading research efforts in both a cumulative table and through individual datasheets. Data was

  20. Collaborative Access Control For Critical Infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baina, Amine; El Kalam, Anas Abou; Deswarte, Yves; Kaaniche, Mohamed

    A critical infrastructure (CI) can fail with various degrees of severity due to physical and logical vulnerabilities. Since many interdependencies exist between CIs, failures can have dramatic consequences on the entire infrastructure. This paper focuses on threats that affect information and communication systems that constitute the critical information infrastructure (CII). A new collaborative access control framework called PolyOrBAC is proposed to address security problems that are specific to CIIs. The framework offers each organization participating in a CII the ability to collaborate with other organizations while maintaining control of its resources and internal security policy. The approach is demonstrated on a practical scenario involving the electrical power grid.

  1. Critical Infrastructure Awareness Required by Civil Emergency Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.; Klaver, M.H.A.

    2005-01-01

    Modern societies are increasingly dependent on a set of critical products and services which comprise the Critical Infrastructure (CI). This makes Critical infrastructures increasingly important as a planning factor in case of emergencies. For that reason, we studied a number of emergencies and a

  2. The radiation protection infrastructure in Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriambololona, R.; Ratovonjanahary, J.F.; Randriantseheno, H.F.; Ramanandraibe, M.J.

    2001-01-01

    Madagascar is participating in the Model Project RAF/9/024 on 'Upgrading Radiation Protection Infrastructure'. Its radiation protection legislation is based on the BSS. The efforts being made to upgrade the country's regulatory infrastructure and the problems encountered are described below, as is the national information and training programme for the authorities, the public, workers and students. (author)

  3. Critical infrastructure protection decision support system decision model : overview and quick-start user's guide.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samsa, M.; Van Kuiken, J.; Jusko, M.; Decision and Information Sciences

    2008-12-01

    The Critical Infrastructure Protection Decision Support System Decision Model (CIPDSS-DM) is a useful tool for comparing the effectiveness of alternative risk-mitigation strategies on the basis of CIPDSS consequence scenarios. The model is designed to assist analysts and policy makers in evaluating and selecting the most effective risk-mitigation strategies, as affected by the importance assigned to various impact measures and the likelihood of an incident. A typical CIPDSS-DM decision map plots the relative preference of alternative risk-mitigation options versus the annual probability of an undesired incident occurring once during the protective life of the investment, assumed to be 20 years. The model also enables other types of comparisons, including a decision map that isolates a selected impact variable and displays the relative preference for the options of interest--parameterized on the basis of the contribution of the isolated variable to total impact, as well as the likelihood of the incident. Satisfaction/regret analysis further assists the analyst or policy maker in evaluating the confidence with which one option can be selected over another.

  4. 76 FR 55693 - Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY [Docket No. DHS-2011-0055] Critical Infrastructure Partnership... Advisory Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC... meeting may adjourn early if the committee has completed its business. For additional information, please...

  5. People at risk - nexus critical infrastructure and society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiser, Micha; Thaler, Thomas; Fuchs, Sven

    2016-04-01

    Strategic infrastructure networks include the highly complex and interconnected systems that are so vital to a city or state that any sudden disruption can result in debilitating impacts on human life, the economy and the society as a whole. Recently, various studies have applied complex network-based models to study the performance and vulnerability of infrastructure systems under various types of attacks and hazards - a major part of them is, particularly after the 9/11 incident, related to terrorism attacks. Here, vulnerability is generally defined as the performance drop of an infrastructure system under a given disruptive event. The performance can be measured by different metrics, which correspond to various levels of resilience. In this paper, we will address vulnerability and exposure of critical infrastructure in the Eastern Alps. The Federal State Tyrol is an international transport route and an essential component of the north-south transport connectivity in Europe. Any interruption of the transport flow leads to incommensurable consequences in terms of indirect losses, since the system does not feature redundant elements at comparable economic efficiency. Natural hazard processes such as floods, debris flows, rock falls and avalanches, endanger this infrastructure line, such as large flood events in 2005 or 2012, rock falls 2014, which had strong impacts to the critical infrastructure, such as disruption of the railway lines (in 2005 and 2012), highways and motorways (in 2014). The aim of this paper is to present how critical infrastructures as well as communities and societies are vulnerable and can be resilient against natural hazard risks and the relative cascading effects to different compartments (industrial, infrastructural, societal, institutional, cultural, etc.), which is the dominant by the type of hazard (avalanches, torrential flooding, debris flow, rock falls). Specific themes will be addressed in various case studies to allow cross

  6. Trustworthy Critical Infrastructures via Physics-Aware Just-Ahead-Of-Time Verification

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Dr. Saman Zonouz, assistant professor at Rutgers University, NJ and the director of the 4N6 Cyber Security and Forensics Laboratory is visiting CERN for a collaboration meeting. His previous works and research interests include PLC program analysis, security of embedded systems, and malware analysis and reverse engineering. Before the collaboration meeting, Dr. Zonouz is giving a 30-minutes-long talk, titled 'Trustworthy Critical Infrastructures via Physics-Aware Just-Ahead-Of-Time Verification', followed by Q&A and discussions. You can find the abstract of the talk below. The presentation is open to anyone interested, but please register on Indico to know the size of the room needed. (Please note the new room: 31/3-004, IT Auditorium.) Abstract Critical cyber-physical infrastructures, such as the power grid, integrate networks of computational and physical processes to provide the people across the globe with essential functionalities and services. Protecting these critical infrastructu...

  7. 77 FR 59203 - Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council. [FR Doc. 2012-23666 Filed 9-25-12; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 9910-9P-P ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY [Docket No. DHS-2012-0051] Critical Infrastructure Partnership... meeting. SUMMARY: The Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC) Plenary Meeting will be...

  8. 31 CFR 800.208 - Critical infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Critical infrastructure. 800.208 Section 800.208 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE... infrastructure means, in the context of a particular covered transaction, a system or asset, whether physical or...

  9. 77 FR 72673 - Critical Infrastructure Protection and Resilience Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... why my Administration continues to make cybersecurity a national security priority. As we continue to... secure. This month, we rededicate ourselves to raising awareness of the importance of critical... of the United States to recognize the importance of protecting our Nation's resources and to observe...

  10. 76 FR 58730 - Version 4 Critical Infrastructure Protection Reliability Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... Critical Cyber Assets; (3) internal, management, approval of the risk-based assessment; (4) external review... consider applicable features of the NIST Risk Management Framework to ensure protection of all cyber... activities in the Risk Management Framework has an associated NIST security standard and/or guidance document...

  11. Risk and Interdependencies in Critical Infrastructures A Guideline for Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Utne, Ingrid; Vatn, Jørn

    2012-01-01

    Today’s society is completely dependent on critical networks such as  water supply, sewage, electricity, ICT and transportation. Risk and vulnerability analyses are needed to grasp the impact of threats and hazards. However, these become quite complex as there are strong interdependencies both within and between infrastructure systems. Risk and Interdependencies in Critical Infrastructures: A  guideline for analysis provides methods for analyzing risks and interdependencies of critical infrastructures.  A number of analysis approaches are described and are adapted to each of these infrastructures. Various approaches are also revised, and all are supported by several examples and illustrations. Particular emphasis is given to the analysis of various interdependencies that often exist between the infrastructures.  Risk and Interdependencies in Critical Infrastructures: A  guideline for analysis provides a good tool to identify the hazards that are threatening your infrastructures, and will enhance the un...

  12. Risk analysis tools for force protection and infrastructure/asset protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeger, C.D.; Duggan, R.A.; Paulus, W.K.

    1998-01-01

    The Security Systems and Technology Center at Sandia National Laboratories has for many years been involved in the development and use of vulnerability assessment and risk analysis tools. In particular, two of these tools, ASSESS and JTS, have been used extensively for Department of Energy facilities. Increasingly, Sandia has been called upon to evaluate critical assets and infrastructures, support DoD force protection activities and assist in the protection of facilities from terrorist attacks using weapons of mass destruction. Sandia is involved in many different activities related to security and force protection and is expanding its capabilities by developing new risk analysis tools to support a variety of users. One tool, in the very early stages of development, is EnSURE, Engineered Surety Using the Risk Equation. EnSURE addresses all of the risk equation and integrates the many components into a single, tool-supported process to help determine the most cost-effective ways to reduce risk. This paper will briefly discuss some of these risk analysis tools within the EnSURE framework

  13. How to Quantify Deterrence and Reduce Critical Infrastructure Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Taquechel, Eric F.; Lewis, Ted G.

    2012-01-01

    This article appeared in Homeland Security Affairs (August 2012), v.8, article 12 "We propose a definition of critical infrastructure deterrence and develop a methodology to explicitly quantify the deterrent effects of critical infrastructure security strategies. We leverage historical work on analyzing deterrence, game theory and utility theory. Our methodology quantifies deterrence as the extent to which an attacker's expected utility from an infrastructure attack changes after a defende...

  14. Situational Management Of Critical Infrastructure Resources Under Threat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krupa Tadeusz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a synthesis of knowledge about safety management procedures for critical infrastructure in the context of risk management theory and the provisions of the Polish law on emergency management launched on of April 26, 2007. In this paper, the inadequacy of the accepted procedures at present is highlighted, as well as their continuous improvement and adaptation to prevailing political, legal, social, and economic conditions. This paper proposes using the concept of situational management and knowledge management to develop a new method of predicting, preventing, and responding to emerging crises within critical infrastructure. The considerations presented in this paper lead to a proposed concept system supporting critical infrastructure safety management through the implementation of knowledge management methods.

  15. Regulação de Riscos e Proteção de Infraestruturas Críticas: os novos ventos do fenômeno regulatório / Risk Regulation and Critical Infrastructure Protection: The New Winds of the Regulatory Phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egon C. Guterres

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This article analyzes the origins of the Risk Regulation Theory and Critical Infrastructure Protection Programs, and shows their contribution to the Brazilian regulatory experience. Methodology/approach/design – Through several examples, this study presents regulatory policies that emerged as responses to events that caused a significant impact on society. Findings – The unique way that the Critical Infrastructure Protection Programs evolved within the Brazilian regulatory experience is greatly attributable to demands of major international sporting events.

  16. Radiation protection and safety infrastructures in Albania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paci, Rustem; Ylli, Fatos

    2008-01-01

    The paper intends to present the evolution and actual situation of radiation protection and safety infrastructure in Albania, focusing in its establishing and functioning in accordance with BBS and other important documents of specialized international organizations. There are described the legal framework of radiation safety, the regulatory authority, the services as well the practice of their functioning. The issue of the establishing and functioning of the radiation safety infrastructure in Albania was considered as a prerequisite for a good practices development in the peaceful uses of radiation sources . The existence of the adequate legislation and the regulatory authority, functioning based in the Basic Safety Standards (BSS), are the necessary condition providing the fulfilment of the most important issues in the mentioned field. The first document on radiation protection in Albania stated that 'for the safe use of radiation sources it is mandatory that the legal person should have a valid permission issued by Radiation Protection Commission'. A special organ was established in the Ministry of Health to supervise providing of the radiation protection measures. This organization of radiation protection showed many lacks as result of the low efficiency . The personnel monitoring, import, transport, waste management and training of workers were in charge of Institute of Nuclear Physics (INP). In 1992 an IAEA RAPAT mission visited Albania and proposed some recommendations for radiation protection improvements. The mission concluded that 'the legislation of the radiation protection should be developed'. In 1995 Albania was involved in the IAEA Model Project 'Upgrading of Radiation Protection Infrastructure'. This project, which is still in course, intended to establish the modern radiation safety infrastructures in the countries with low efficiency ones and to update and upgrade all aspects related with radiation safety: legislation and regulations, regulatory

  17. Development of the efficient emergency preparedness system for the nuclear critical infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinov, V.; Marn, J.; Petelin, S.

    2007-01-01

    The evaluation of the critical nuclear infrastructure vulnerability to threats like human occurrences, terrorist attacks and natural disasters and the preparation of emergency response plans with the estimation of optimized costs are of the vital importance for the assurance of a safe nuclear facilities operation and the national security. In the past national emergency systems did not include vulnerability assessments of the critical nuclear infrastructure as the important part of the comprehensive preparedness framework. The fundamental aims of the efficient emergency preparedness and response system are to provide a sustained emergency readiness and to prevent an emergency situation and accidents. But when an event happens the mission is to mitigate consequences and to protect the people and environment against the nuclear and radiological damage. The efficient emergency response system, which would be activated in the case of the nuclear and/or radiological emergency and release of the radioactivity to the environment, is an important element of a comprehensive system of the nuclear and radiation safety. In the article the new methodology for the critical nuclear infrastructure vulnerability assessment as a missing part of an efficient emergency preparedness system is presented. It can help the overall national energy sectors to identify and better understand the terrorist threats and vulnerabilities of their critical infrastructure. The presented methodology could also facilitate national agencies to develop and implement a vulnerability awareness and education programs for their critical assets to enhance the security, reliability and safe operation of the whole energy infrastructure. The vulnerability assessment methodology will also assist nuclear power plants to develop, validate, and disseminate the assessment and survey of new efficient countermeasures. The significant benefits of the new vulnerability assessment research are to increase nuclear power

  18. A Methodology and Toolkit for Deploying Reliable Security Policies in Critical Infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faouzi Jaïdi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Substantial advances in Information and Communication Technologies (ICT bring out novel concepts, solutions, trends, and challenges to integrate intelligent and autonomous systems in critical infrastructures. A new generation of ICT environments (such as smart cities, Internet of Things, edge-fog-social-cloud computing, and big data analytics is emerging; it has different applications to critical domains (such as transportation, communication, finance, commerce, and healthcare and different interconnections via multiple layers of public and private networks, forming a grid of critical cyberphysical infrastructures. Protecting sensitive and private data and services in critical infrastructures is, at the same time, a main objective and a great challenge for deploying secure systems. It essentially requires setting up trusted security policies. Unfortunately, security solutions should remain compliant and regularly updated to follow and track the evolution of security threats. To address this issue, we propose an advanced methodology for deploying and monitoring the compliance of trusted access control policies. Our proposal extends the traditional life cycle of access control policies with pertinent activities. It integrates formal and semiformal techniques allowing the specification, the verification, the implementation, the reverse-engineering, the validation, the risk assessment, and the optimization of access control policies. To automate and facilitate the practice of our methodology, we introduce our system SVIRVRO that allows managing the extended life cycle of access control policies. We refer to an illustrative example to highlight the relevance of our contributions.

  19. Handbook on Securing Cyber-Physical Critical Infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Sajal K; Zhang, Nan

    2012-01-01

    The worldwide reach of the Internet allows malicious cyber criminals to coordinate and launch attacks on both cyber and cyber-physical infrastructure from anywhere in the world. This purpose of this handbook is to introduce the theoretical foundations and practical solution techniques for securing critical cyber and physical infrastructures as well as their underlying computing and communication architectures and systems. Examples of such infrastructures include utility networks (e.g., electrical power grids), ground transportation systems (automotives, roads, bridges and tunnels), airports a

  20. Assessing the Vulnerability of Large Critical Infrastructure Using Fully-Coupled Blast Effects Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMichael, L D; Noble, C R; Margraf, J D; Glascoe, L G

    2009-03-26

    Structural failures, such as the MacArthur Maze I-880 overpass in Oakland, California and the I-35 bridge in Minneapolis, Minnesota, are recent examples of our national infrastructure's fragility and serve as an important reminder of such infrastructure in our everyday lives. These two failures, as well as the World Trade Center's collapse and the levee failures in New Orleans, highlight the national importance of protecting our infrastructure as much as possible against acts of terrorism and natural hazards. This paper describes a process for evaluating the vulnerability of critical infrastructure to large blast loads using a fully-coupled finite element approach. A description of the finite element software and modeling technique is discussed along with the experimental validation of the numerical tools. We discuss how such an approach can be used for specific problems such as modeling the progressive collapse of a building.

  1. 78 FR 57644 - Critical Infrastructure Partnership Advisory Council (CIPAC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-19

    ... committee has completed its business. To accommodate as many speakers as possible, oral presentations will... infrastructure resilience. Topics such as the Executive Order for Improving Critical Infrastructure Cybersecurity...

  2. Intelligent monitoring, control, and security of critical infrastructure systems

    CERN Document Server

    Polycarpou, Marios

    2015-01-01

    This book describes the challenges that critical infrastructure systems face, and presents state of the art solutions to address them. How can we design intelligent systems or intelligent agents that can make appropriate real-time decisions in the management of such large-scale, complex systems? What are the primary challenges for critical infrastructure systems? The book also provides readers with the relevant information to recognize how important infrastructures are, and their role in connection with a society’s economy, security and prosperity. It goes on to describe state-of-the-art solutions to address these points, including new methodologies and instrumentation tools (e.g. embedded software and intelligent algorithms) for transforming and optimizing target infrastructures. The book is the most comprehensive resource to date for professionals in both the private and public sectors, while also offering an essential guide for students and researchers in the areas of modeling and analysis of critical in...

  3. Cyber Attack on Critical Infrastructure and Its Influence on International Security

    OpenAIRE

    出口 雅史

    2017-01-01

     Since the internet appeared, with increasing cyber threats, the vulnerability of critical infrastructure has become a vital issue for international security. Although cyber attack was not lethal in the past, new type of cyber assaults such as stuxnet are able to damage not only computer system digitally, but also critical infrastructure physically. This article will investigate how the recent cyber attacks have threatened critical infrastructure and their influence on international security....

  4. Protecting National Critical Infrastructure against Radiological Threat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaar, I.; Halevy, I.; Berenstein, Z.; Sharon, A.

    2014-01-01

    National Critical Infrastructure (NCI) such as transportation, water, energy etc., are essential elements in a developed country's economy. As learned after the 9/11 attackxx, a terror attack on these complex system may cause thousands of casualties and significant economic damage. The attack can be a conventional one; like the train bombing in Spainxxi or the bus bombing in Londonxxii, or a non-conventional one; like the Sarin attack on the underground train in Tokyo, Japanxxiii. A radiological attack on a NCI is also feasiblexxiv. This type of attack must be taken into consideration due to the vulnerability of ani infrastructure to such an attack, and the severe economic outcome of itxxv. The radioactive materials that might be used by terrorists were recently identified and categorized in one of the IAEA Nuclear Security Series publicationxxvi,xxvii. The most common and therefore reachable radio nuclides are the gamma emitters 60Co, 137Cs and 192Ir, the beta emitter 90Sr and the alpha emitters 241Pu, 238Pu and 241Am. A radiological event can be any of two principle scenarios. In the first scenario, a radiological dispersion device (RDD) or ôdirtyö bomb is used. This device consists of a radiation source which is detonated using conventional or improvised explosivesxxviii. Most of the casualties in this event will be from the explosion blast wave. However, some people might become contaminated with different levels of radiationxxix, some might need to go through some type of medical screening process and the costs of the total actions might be significantxxx. The second scenario involves a silent dispersion of radioactive material in a public site. In this event, there are no immediate known casualties, and the fact that people were exposed to radioactive material will be discovered only in the uncommon event when symptoms of radiation sickness will be identified due to exposure to high radiation dosexxxi, or if the radioactive material is discovered by a first

  5. Advanced e-Infrastructures for Civil Protection applications: the CYCLOPS Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, P.; Nativi, S.; Verlato, M.; Ayral, P. A.; Fiorucci, P.; Pina, A.; Oliveira, J.; Sorani, R.

    2009-04-01

    During the full cycle of the emergency management, Civil Protection operative procedures involve many actors belonging to several institutions (civil protection agencies, public administrations, research centers, etc.) playing different roles (decision-makers, data and service providers, emergency squads, etc.). In this context the sharing of information is a vital requirement to make correct and effective decisions. Therefore a European-wide technological infrastructure providing a distributed and coordinated access to different kinds of resources (data, information, services, expertise, etc.) could enhance existing Civil Protection applications and even enable new ones. Such European Civil Protection e-Infrastructure should be designed taking into account the specific requirements of Civil Protection applications and the state-of-the-art in the scientific and technological disciplines which could make the emergency management more effective. In the recent years Grid technologies have reached a mature state providing a platform for secure and coordinated resource sharing between the participants collected in the so-called Virtual Organizations. Moreover the Earth and Space Sciences Informatics provide the conceptual tools for modeling the geospatial information shared in Civil Protection applications during its entire lifecycle. Therefore a European Civil Protection e-infrastructure might be based on a Grid platform enhanced with Earth Sciences services. In the context of the 6th Framework Programme the EU co-funded Project CYCLOPS (CYber-infrastructure for CiviL protection Operative ProcedureS), ended in December 2008, has addressed the problem of defining the requirements and identifying the research strategies and innovation guidelines towards an advanced e-Infrastructure for Civil Protection. Starting from the requirement analysis CYCLOPS has proposed an architectural framework for a European Civil Protection e-Infrastructure. This architectural framework has

  6. Securing energy assets and infrastructure 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    This report describes in detail the energy industry's challenges and solutions for protecting critical assets including oil and gas infrastructure, transmission grids, power plants, storage, pipelines, and all aspects of strategic industry assets. It includes a special section on cyber-terrorism and protecting control systems. Contents: Section I - Introduction; U.S Energy Trends; Vulnerabilities; Protection Measures. Section II - Sector-wise Vulnerabilities Assessments and Security Measures: Coal, Oil and Petroleum, Natural Gas, Electric Power, Cybersecurity and Control Systems, Key Recommendations; Section III - Critical Infrastructure Protection Efforts: Government Initiatives, Agencies, and Checklists.

  7. Critical Infrastructures: Background, Policy, and Implementation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moteff, John D

    2005-01-01

    .... electricity, the power plants that generate it, and the electric grid upon which it is distributed). The national security community has been concerned for sometime about the vulnerability of critical infrastructure to both physical and cyber attack...

  8. Geovisualization applications to examine and explore high-density and hierarchical critical infrastructure data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edsall, Robert; Hembree, Harvey

    2018-05-01

    The geospatial research and development team in the National and Homeland Security Division at Idaho National Laboratory was tasked with providing tools to derive insight from the substantial amount of data currently available - and continuously being produced - associated with the critical infrastructure of the US. This effort is in support of the Department of Homeland Security, whose mission includes the protection of this infrastructure and the enhancement of its resilience to hazards, both natural and human. We present geovisual-analytics-based approaches for analysis of vulnerabilities and resilience of critical infrastructure, designed so that decision makers, analysts, and infrastructure owners and managers can manage risk, prepare for hazards, and direct resources before and after an incident that might result in an interruption in service. Our designs are based on iterative discussions with DHS leadership and analysts, who in turn will use these tools to explore and communicate data in partnership with utility providers, law enforcement, and emergency response and recovery organizations, among others. In most cases these partners desire summaries of large amounts of data, but increasingly, our users seek the additional capability of focusing on, for example, a specific infrastructure sector, a particular geographic region, or time period, or of examining data in a variety of generalization or aggregation levels. These needs align well with tenets of in-formation-visualization design; in this paper, selected applications among those that we have designed are described and positioned within geovisualization, geovisual analytical, and information visualization frameworks.

  9. Durability of critical infrastructures

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca Pascu; Ramiro Sofronie

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with those infrastructures by which world society, under the pressure ofdemographic explosion, self-survives. The main threatening comes not from terrorist attacks, but fromthe great natural catastrophes and global climate change. It’s not for the first time in history when suchmeasures of self-protection are built up. First objective of this paper is to present the background fordurability analysis. Then, with the aid of these mathematical tools the absolute durability of thr...

  10. Critical infrastructure dependencies 1-0-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.; Nieuwenhuijs, A.H.; Klaver, M.H.A.

    2008-01-01

    Most of our critical infrastructures consist of complex systems-of-systems that provide services or products. The coupling mechanism between the chained systems in such complex systems of systems is dependencies. Dependencies may propagate cascading failures. Most studies on dependencies in

  11. Optimisation of Critical Infrastructure Protection: The SiVe Project on Airport Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breiing, Marcus; Cole, Mara; D'Avanzo, John; Geiger, Gebhard; Goldner, Sascha; Kuhlmann, Andreas; Lorenz, Claudia; Papproth, Alf; Petzel, Erhard; Schwetje, Oliver

    This paper outlines the scientific goals, ongoing work and first results of the SiVe research project on critical infrastructure security. The methodology is generic while pilot studies are chosen from airport security. The outline proceeds in three major steps, (1) building a threat scenario, (2) development of simulation models as scenario refinements, and (3) assessment of alternatives. Advanced techniques of systems analysis and simulation are employed to model relevant airport structures and processes as well as offences. Computer experiments are carried out to compare and optimise alternative solutions. The optimality analyses draw on approaches to quantitative risk assessment recently developed in the operational sciences. To exploit the advantages of the various techniques, an integrated simulation workbench is build up in the project.

  12. Water infrastructure protection against intentional attacks:An experience in Italy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cristiana Di Cristo; Angelo Leopardi; Giovanni de Marinis

    2011-01-01

    In the last years many interesting studies were devoted to the development of technologies and methodologies for the protection of water supply systems against intentional attacks.However the application to real systems is still limited for different economical and technical reasons.The Water Engineering Laboratory (L.I.A.) of University of Cassino (Italy) was involved in two research projects financed by the European Commission in the framework of the European Programme for Critical Infrastructure Protection (E.P.C.I.P.).Both projects,developed in partnership with a large Italian Water Company,have the common objective of providing guidelines for enhancing security in water supply systems respect to the intentional contamination risk.The fmal product is represented by the arrangement of a general procedure for protection systems design of water networks.In the paper the procedure is described through the application to two real water systems,characterized by different size and behavior.

  13. Network Randomization and Dynamic Defense for Critical Infrastructure Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, Adrian R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Martin, Mitchell Tyler [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hamlet, Jason [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stout, William M.S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lee, Erik [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-04-01

    Critical Infrastructure control systems continue to foster predictable communication paths, static configurations, and unpatched systems that allow easy access to our nation's most critical assets. This makes them attractive targets for cyber intrusion. We seek to address these attack vectors by automatically randomizing network settings, randomizing applications on the end devices themselves, and dynamically defending these systems against active attacks. Applying these protective measures will convert control systems into moving targets that proactively defend themselves against attack. Sandia National Laboratories has led this effort by gathering operational and technical requirements from Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) and performing research and development to create a proof-of-concept solution. Our proof-of-concept has been tested in a laboratory environment with over 300 nodes. The vision of this project is to enhance control system security by converting existing control systems into moving targets and building these security measures into future systems while meeting the unique constraints that control systems face.

  14. CRITICAL SUCCESS FACTORS FOR INFRASTRUCTURE EUROPEAN FUNDED PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian-Ion Ceptureanu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Absorption of European funds is on top of Romania’s public agenda for the last years although the first programming period has ended and the necessary lessons were learned so far. To have a high degree of absorption of funds provided by the EU must be of quality projects and their implementation to be successful. Through this work we aimed to investigate the success factors of infrastructure projects with European funding in Romania, Bulgaria, Moldova, Ukraine, Serbia and Kosovo, and identify critical success factors of these projects through a research surveying the teams of consultants and support personnel from the countries in an international consulting company. The research results are therefore constitute the empirical evidence of what constitutes critical success factors of infrastructure projects financed by the European Union and can be used as a starting point for scientific studies of the management of European projects or other actions that investigates measures that can be taken to improve the success rate of projects implemented in the area mentioned above.One of the contributions of this paper is to identify the critical success factors of success factors present in literature. With more so as they are critical success factors of infrastructure projects with European funding still required field studies and analysis performed in the present context. In addition, the critical factors were operationalized in a conceptual framework. Moreover, this framework includes leadership style of project manager as critical success factor has been identified in the research as the most important in the context in which it was conducted. As such, this paper demonstrates, with the necessary limitations, the importance of management style of project managers in the context of specific European funded infrastructure projects. And this is happening even though there are sophisticated project management tools availabe and relevant knowledge exists

  15. Critical Infrastructure Information Disclosure and Homeland Security

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moteff, John D; Stevens, Gina M

    2003-01-01

    Critical infrastructures have been defined as those systems and assets so vital to the United States that the incapacity of such systems and assets would have a debilitating impact on the United States...

  16. THE SECURITY OF CRITICAL ENERGY INFRASTRUCTURE IN THE AGE OF MULTIPLE ATTACK VECTORS: NATO’S MULTI-FACETED APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Dumitru Ducaru

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The current NATO threat landscape is characterized by a combination or “hybrid blend” of unconventional emerging challenges (like cyber and terrorist attacks and re-emerging conventional ones (like Russia’s recent military resurgence and assertiveness, that led to the illegal annexation of Crimea and destabilization in Eastern Ukraine. While the resurgence of the Russian military activity pushed the Alliance in the direction of re-discovering its deterrence and collective defence role, the new, not-traditional, trans-national and essentially non-military treats that generate effects below the threshold of an armed attack require a new paradigm shift with a focus on resilience although the protection of critical energy infrastructure is first and foremost a national responsibility, NATO can contribute to meeting the infrastructure protection challenge on many levels. Given the fact that its core deterrence and defence mandate relies in a great measure on the security of Allies’ energy infrastructure NATO’s role and actions in reducing the vulnerabilities and strengthening the resilience of such infrastructure can only increase. A multi-faceted, multi-stakeholder and networked approach is needed to be able to strengthen defences and resilience of critical infrastructure such as energy. Understanding and defending against cyber or terrorist threat vectors, increased situational awareness, education, training, exercises, trusted partnerships as well as increasing strategic security dialogue and cooperation are key for such a comprehensive/network approach to the challenge.

  17. Critical infrastructure systems of systems assessment methodology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sholander, Peter E.; Darby, John L.; Phelan, James M.; Smith, Bryan; Wyss, Gregory Dane; Walter, Andrew; Varnado, G. Bruce; Depoy, Jennifer Mae

    2006-10-01

    Assessing the risk of malevolent attacks against large-scale critical infrastructures requires modifications to existing methodologies that separately consider physical security and cyber security. This research has developed a risk assessment methodology that explicitly accounts for both physical and cyber security, while preserving the traditional security paradigm of detect, delay, and respond. This methodology also accounts for the condition that a facility may be able to recover from or mitigate the impact of a successful attack before serious consequences occur. The methodology uses evidence-based techniques (which are a generalization of probability theory) to evaluate the security posture of the cyber protection systems. Cyber threats are compared against cyber security posture using a category-based approach nested within a path-based analysis to determine the most vulnerable cyber attack path. The methodology summarizes the impact of a blended cyber/physical adversary attack in a conditional risk estimate where the consequence term is scaled by a ''willingness to pay'' avoidance approach.

  18. Optimal recovery sequencing for critical infrastructure resilience assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vugrin, Eric D.; Brown, Nathanael J. K.; Turnquist, Mark Alan (Cornell University, Ithaca, NY)

    2010-09-01

    Critical infrastructure resilience has become a national priority for the U. S. Department of Homeland Security. System resilience has been studied for several decades in many different disciplines, but no standards or unifying methods exist for critical infrastructure resilience analysis. This report documents the results of a late-start Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project that investigated the identification of optimal recovery strategies that maximize resilience. To this goal, we formulate a bi-level optimization problem for infrastructure network models. In the 'inner' problem, we solve for network flows, and we use the 'outer' problem to identify the optimal recovery modes and sequences. We draw from the literature of multi-mode project scheduling problems to create an effective solution strategy for the resilience optimization model. We demonstrate the application of this approach to a set of network models, including a national railroad model and a supply chain for Army munitions production.

  19. Onsite and Electric Backup Capabilities at Critical Infrastructure Facilities in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Julia A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Wallace, Kelly E. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kudo, Terence Y. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Eto, Joseph H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The following analysis, conducted by Argonne National Laboratory’s (Argonne’s) Risk and Infrastructure Science Center (RISC), details an analysis of electric power backup of national critical infrastructure as captured through the Department of Homeland Security’s (DHS’s) Enhanced Critical Infrastructure Program (ECIP) Initiative. Between January 1, 2011, and September 2014, 3,174 ECIP facility surveys have been conducted. This study focused first on backup capabilities by infrastructure type and then expanded to infrastructure type by census region.

  20. Fragility: The Next Wave in Critical Infrastructure Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Allan McDougall

    2009-01-01

    In North America today, we are about to embark on a significant effort to repair, or even upgrade, many aspects of our infrastructure. Many of these efforts are linked to economic recovery packages. Others are based on sheer need. The challenge for decision makers and planners involves ensuring that scarce economic resources are put to their best use. Understanding the concept of fragility plays a pivotal part in reaching that understanding.Fragility, like many other systems—particularly Info...

  1. A database of volcanic hazards and their physical impacts to critical infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Grant; Wilson, Thomas; Deligne, Natalia

    2013-04-01

    Approximately 10% of the world's population lives within 100 km of historically active volcanoes. Consequently, considerable critical infrastructure is at risk of being affected by volcanic eruptions, where critical infrastructure includes: electricity and wastewater networks; water supply systems; transport routes; communications; and buildings. Appropriate risk management strategies are required to minimise the risk to infrastructure, which necessitates detailed understanding of both volcanic hazards and infrastructure parameters and vulnerabilities. To address this, we are developing a database of the physical impacts and vulnerability of critical infrastructure observed during/following historic eruptions, placed in the context of event-specific volcanic hazard and infrastructure parameters. Our database considers: volcanic hazard parameters for each case study eruption (tephra thickness, dynamic pressure of PDCs, etc.); inventory of infrastructure elements present within the study area (geographical extent, age, etc.); the type and number of impacts and disruption caused to particular infrastructure sectors; and the quantified assessment of the vulnerability of built environments. Data have been compiled from a wide range of literature, focussing in particular on impact assessment studies which document in detail the damage sustained by critical infrastructure during a given eruption. We are creating a new vulnerability ranking to quantify the vulnerability of built environments affected by volcanic eruptions. The ranking is based upon a range of physical impacts and service disruption criteria, and is assigned to each case study. This ranking will permit comparison of vulnerabilities between case studies as well as indicate expected vulnerability during future eruptions. We are also developing hazard intensity thresholds indicating when specific damage states are expected for different critical infrastructure sectors. Finally, we have developed a data quality

  2. Using Gamification to Raise Awareness of Cyber Threats to Critical National Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Allan; Smith, Richard; Maglaras, Leandros; Janicke, Helge

    2016-01-01

    Linked to the SCIPS tabletop game Senior executives of critical national infrastructure facilities face competing requirements for investment budgets. Whilst the impact of a cyber attack upon such utilities is potentially catastrophic, the risks to continued operations from failing to upgrade ageing infrastructure, or not meeting mandated regulatory regimes, are considered higher given the demonstrable impact of such circumstances. As cyber attacks on critical national infrastructure remai...

  3. Dynamic Hazards In Critical Infrastructure Of State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostrowska Teresa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors are interested in some aspects of a development project entitled “The methodology of risk assessment for the purposes of crisis management system RP (ID 193751”. The project funded by the National Research and Development Centre under the Competition 3/2012 (security and defense. As part of the project the following items were reviewed and analyzed: materials related to the Government Security Centre, already completed and available products of the project ID 193751, and literature relating to, among other things, crisis management, critical infrastructure, business continuity, security, and threats. The basic emphasis of the article is focused on the resource-critical infrastructure interpretation of the state, whereby the state is perceived as a complex administrative structure in which, on the basis of external and internal interactions of resources, the risk of threats measurement is done.

  4. Risk analysis of critical infrastructures emphasizing electricity supply and interdependencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kjølle, G.H.; Utne, I.B.; Gjerde, O.

    2012-01-01

    Failures in critical infrastructures can cause major damage to society. Wide-area interruptions (blackouts) in the electricity supply system have severe impacts on societal critical functions and other critical infrastructures, but there is no agreed-upon framework on how to analyze and predict the reliability of electricity supply. Thus, there is a need for an approach to cross-sector risk analyses, which facilitates risk analysis of outages in the electricity supply system and enables investigation of cascading failures and consequences in other infrastructures. This paper presents such an approach, which includes contingency analysis (power flow) and reliability analysis of power systems, as well as use of a cascade diagram for investigating interdependencies. A case study was carried out together with the Emergency Preparedness Group in the city of Oslo, Norway and the network company Hafslund Nett. The case study results highlight the need for cross-sector analyses by showing that the total estimated societal costs are substantially higher when cascading effects and consequences to other infrastructures are taken into account compared to only considering the costs of electricity interruptions as seen by the network company. The approach is a promising starting point for cross-sector risk analysis of electricity supply interruptions and consequences for dependent infrastructures.

  5. Security Economics and Critical National Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ross; Fuloria, Shailendra

    There has been considerable effort and expenditure since 9/11 on the protection of ‘Critical National Infrastructure' against online attack. This is commonly interpreted to mean preventing online sabotage against utilities such as electricity,oil and gas, water, and sewage - including pipelines, refineries, generators, storage depots and transport facilities such as tankers and terminals. A consensus is emerging that the protection of such assets is more a matter of business models and regulation - in short, of security economics - than of technology. We describe the problems, and the state of play, in this paper. Industrial control systems operate in a different world from systems previously studied by security economists; we find the same issues (lock-in, externalities, asymmetric information and so on) but in different forms. Lock-in is physical, rather than based on network effects, while the most serious externalities result from correlated failure, whether from cascade failures, common-mode failures or simultaneous attacks. There is also an interesting natural experiment happening, in that the USA is regulating cyber security in the electric power industry, but not in oil and gas, while the UK is not regulating at all but rather encouraging industry's own efforts. Some European governments are intervening, while others are leaving cybersecurity entirely to plant owners to worry about. We already note some perverse effects of the U.S. regulation regime as companies game the system, to the detriment of overall dependability.

  6. Recovery from chemical, biological, and radiological incidents. Critical infrastructure and economic impact considerations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franco, David Oliver [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Yang, Lynn I. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Hammer, Ann E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2012-06-01

    To restore regional lifeline services and economic activity as quickly as possible after a chemical, biological or radiological incident, emergency planners and managers will need to prioritize critical infrastructure across many sectors for restoration. In parallel, state and local governments will need to identify and implement measures to promote reoccupation and economy recovery in the region. This document provides guidance on predisaster planning for two of the National Disaster Recovery Framework Recovery Support Functions: Infrastructure Systems and Economic Recovery. It identifies key considerations for infrastructure restoration, outlines a process for prioritizing critical infrastructure for restoration, and identifies critical considerations for promoting regional economic recovery following a widearea disaster. Its goal is to equip members of the emergency preparedness community to systematically prioritize critical infrastructure for restoration, and to develop effective economic recovery plans in preparation for a widearea CBR disaster.

  7. Cyberspace and Critical Information Infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan COLESNIUC

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Every economy of an advanced nation relies on information systems and interconnected networks, thus in order to ensure the prosperity of a nation, making cyberspace a secure place becomes as crucial as securing society. Cyber security means ensuring the safety of this cyberspace from threats which can take different forms, such as stealing secret information from national companies and government institutions, attacking infrastructure vital for the functioning of the nation or attacking the privacy of the single citizen. The critical information infrastructure (CII represents the indispensable "nervous system", that allow modern societies to work and live. Besides, without it, there would be no distribution of energy, no services like banking or finance, no air traffic control and so on. But at the same time, in the development process of CII, security was never considered a top priority and for this reason they are subject to a high risk in relation to the organized crime.

  8. Neural Network Based Intrusion Detection System for Critical Infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd Vollmer; Ondrej Linda; Milos Manic

    2009-07-01

    Resiliency and security in control systems such as SCADA and Nuclear plant’s in today’s world of hackers and malware are a relevant concern. Computer systems used within critical infrastructures to control physical functions are not immune to the threat of cyber attacks and may be potentially vulnerable. Tailoring an intrusion detection system to the specifics of critical infrastructures can significantly improve the security of such systems. The IDS-NNM – Intrusion Detection System using Neural Network based Modeling, is presented in this paper. The main contributions of this work are: 1) the use and analyses of real network data (data recorded from an existing critical infrastructure); 2) the development of a specific window based feature extraction technique; 3) the construction of training dataset using randomly generated intrusion vectors; 4) the use of a combination of two neural network learning algorithms – the Error-Back Propagation and Levenberg-Marquardt, for normal behavior modeling. The presented algorithm was evaluated on previously unseen network data. The IDS-NNM algorithm proved to be capable of capturing all intrusion attempts presented in the network communication while not generating any false alerts.

  9. Volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas M.; Stewart, Carol; Sword-Daniels, Victoria; Leonard, Graham S.; Johnston, David M.; Cole, Jim W.; Wardman, Johnny; Wilson, Grant; Barnard, Scott T.

    2012-01-01

    Volcanic eruptions can produce a wide range of hazards. Although phenomena such as pyroclastic flows and surges, sector collapses, lahars and ballistic blocks are the most destructive and dangerous, volcanic ash is by far the most widely distributed eruption product. Although ash falls rarely endanger human life directly, threats to public health and disruption to critical infrastructure services, aviation and primary production can lead to significant societal impacts. Even relatively small eruptions can cause widespread disruption, damage and economic loss. Volcanic eruptions are, in general, infrequent and somewhat exotic occurrences, and consequently in many parts of the world, the management of critical infrastructure during volcanic crises can be improved with greater knowledge of the likely impacts. This article presents an overview of volcanic ash impacts on critical infrastructure, other than aviation and fuel supply, illustrated by findings from impact assessment reconnaissance trips carried out to a wide range of locations worldwide by our international research group and local collaborators. ‘Critical infrastructure’ includes those assets, frequently taken for granted, which are essential for the functioning of a society and economy. Electricity networks are very vulnerable to disruption from volcanic ash falls. This is particularly the case when fine ash is erupted because it has a greater tendency to adhere to line and substation insulators, where it can cause flashover (unintended electrical discharge) which can in turn cause widespread and disruptive outages. Weather conditions are a major determinant of flashover risk. Dry ash is not conductive, and heavy rain will wash ash from insulators, but light rain/mist will mobilise readily-soluble salts on the surface of the ash grains and lower the ash layer’s resistivity. Wet ash is also heavier than dry ash, increasing the risk of line breakage or tower/pole collapse. Particular issues for water

  10. New infrastructures for training in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marco, M.; Rodriguez, M.; Van der Steen, J.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, an analysis of the new infrastructure used in the radiation protection training and professional education, which is developed nowadays, is carried out. CIEMAT has been making many efforts in the education and training of professionals at all levels, for years. At present CIEMAT is developing educational activities in radiation protection general courses and professionals updating courses. The newest strategies for the radiation protection learning are developing in collaboration with professional societies. These try to encourage the technology transference, the collaboration between the actors involved with the radiation protection and the new information technology implementation. (Author) 11 refs

  11. Critical Infrastructure References: Documented Literature Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    that the economy typically experiences following extreme events: (i) significant changes in consumption patterns due to lingering public fear and (ii...when making choices related to critical infrastructure and security. • The case studies are drawn from the Victorian Bushfires of 2009. o The first...case study covers the impact of the Victorian bushfires on environmental security, or more specifically, water supply. This case study highlights

  12. Critical location identification and vulnerability analysis of interdependent infrastructure systems under spatially localized attacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Min

    2016-01-01

    Infrastructure systems are usually spatially distributed in a wide area and are subject to many types of hazards. For each type of hazards, modeling their direct impact on infrastructure components and analyzing their induced system-level vulnerability are important for identifying mitigation strategies. This paper mainly studies spatially localized attacks that a set of infrastructure components located within or crossing a circle shaped spatially localized area is subject to damage while other components do not directly fail. For this type of attacks, taking interdependent power and gas systems in Harris County, Texas, USA as an example, this paper proposes an approach to exactly identify critical locations in interdependent infrastructure systems and make pertinent vulnerability analysis. Results show that (a) infrastructure interdependencies and attack radius largely affect the position of critical locations; (b) spatially localized attacks cause less vulnerability than equivalent random failures; (c) in most values of attack radius critical locations identified by considering only node failures do not change when considering both node and edge failures in the attack area; (d) for many values of attack radius critical locations identified by topology-based model are also critical from the flow-based perspective. - Highlights: • We propose a method to identify critical locations in interdependent infrastructures. • Geographical interdependencies and attack radius largely affect critical locations. • Localized attacks cause less vulnerability than equivalent random failures. • Whether considering both node and edge failures affects critical locations. • Topology-based critical locations are also critical from flow-based perspective.

  13. Critical success factors in infrastructure projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Siti Fairus; Zin, Rosli Mohamad; Mohamad, Ismail; Balubaid, Saeed; Mydin, Shaik Hussein; Mohd Rahim, E. M. Roodienyanto

    2017-11-01

    Construction of infrastructure project is different from buildings. The main difference is term of project site where infrastructure project need to command a long stretch while building mostly confine to a limited area. As such factors that are critical to infrastructure project may not be that significant to building project and vice versa. Flood mitigation can be classified under infrastructure projects under which their developments are planned by the government with the specific objective to reduce or avoid the negative effects of flood to the environment and livelihood. One of the indicators in project success is delay. The impact of project delay in construction industry is significant that it decelerates the projects implementation, specifically the government projects. This study attempted to identify and compare the success factors between infrastructure and building projects, as such comparison rarely found in the current literature. A model of flood mitigation projects' success factors was developed by merging the experts' views and reports from the existing literature. The experts' views were obtained from the responses to open-ended questions on the required fundamentals to achieve successful completion of flood mitigation projects. An affinity analysis was applied to these responses to develop the model. The developed model was then compared to the established success factors found in building project, extracted from the previous studies to identify the similarities and differences between the two models. This study would assist the government and construction players to become more effective in constructing successful flood mitigation projects for the future practice in a flood-prone country like Malaysia.

  14. Seismic Barrier Protection of Critical Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-14

    structures , earthquake mitigation I. Introduction Damage caused by earthquakes to critical structures such as nuclear power plants, regional hospitals...the seismic power drop in dB to magnitude drop using the seismic moment magnitude scale, Mw. In figures 5 and 6, the V-trench structure as modeled...representing geological media and V-shaped muffler borehole / trench component structures . Bottom: In this simple analysis, the power drop observed

  15. A fault diagnosis system for interdependent critical infrastructures based on HMMs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ntalampiras, Stavros; Soupionis, Yannis; Giannopoulos, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    Modern society depends on the smooth functioning of critical infrastructures which provide services of fundamental importance, e.g. telecommunications and water supply. These infrastructures may suffer from faults/malfunctions coming e.g. from aging effects or they may even comprise targets of terrorist attacks. Prompt detection and accommodation of these situations is of paramount significance. This paper proposes a probabilistic modeling scheme for analyzing malicious events appearing in interdependent critical infrastructures. The proposed scheme is based on modeling the relationship between datastreams coming from two network nodes by means of a hidden Markov model (HMM) trained on the parameters of linear time-invariant dynamic systems which estimate the relationships existing among the specific nodes over consecutive time windows. Our study includes an energy network (IEEE 30 model bus) operated via a telecommunications infrastructure. The relationships among the elements of the network of infrastructures are represented by an HMM and the novel data is categorized according to its distance (computed in the probabilistic space) from the training ones. We considered two types of cyber-attacks (denial of service and integrity/replay) and report encouraging results in terms of false positive rate, false negative rate and detection delay. - Highlights: • An HMM-based scheme is proposed for analyzing malicious events in critical infrastructures. • We use the IEEE 30 model bus operated via an emulated ICT infrastructure. • Novel data is categorized based on its probabilistic distance from the training one. • We considered two types of cyber-attacks and report results of extensive experiments

  16. Organizational Strategies for Critical Transportation Infrastructure: Characteristics of Urban Resilience. The Case of Montreal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauregard, Stéphane; Therrien, Marie-Christine; Normandin, Julie-Maude

    2010-05-01

    Organizational Strategies for Critical Transportation Infrastructure: Characteristics of Urban Resilience. The Case of Montreal. Stéphane Beauregard M.Sc. Candidate École nationale d'administration publique Julie-Maude Normandin Ph.D. Candidate École nationale d'administration publique Marie-Christine Therrien Professor École nationale d'administration publique The proposed paper presents preliminary results on the resilience of organizations managing critical infrastructure in the Metropolitan Montreal area (Canada). A resilient city is characterized by a network of infrastructures and individuals capable of maintaining their activities in spite of a disturbance (Godschalk, 2002). Critical infrastructures provide essential services for the functioning of society. In a crisis situation, the interruption or a decrease in performance of critical infrastructures could have important impacts on the population. They are also vulnerable to accidents and cascading effects because on their complexity and tight interdependence (Perrow, 1984). For these reasons, protection and security of the essential assets and networks are one of the objectives of organizations and governments. But prevention and recovery are two endpoints of a continuum which include also intermediate concerns: ensuring organizational robustness or failing with elegance rather than catastrophically. This continuum also includes organizational resilience (or system), or the ability to recover quickly after an interruption has occurred. Wildavsky (1988) proposes that anticipation strategies work better against known problems while resilience strategies focus on unknown problems. Anticipation policies can unnecessarily immobilize investments against risks, while resilience strategies include the potential for a certain sacrifice in the interests of a more long-term survival and adaptation to changing threats. In addition, a too large confidence in anticipation strategies can bring loss of capacity of an

  17. Design of a Mobile Agent-Based Adaptive Communication Middleware for Federations of Critical Infrastructure Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Görbil, Gökçe; Gelenbe, Erol

    The simulation of critical infrastructures (CI) can involve the use of diverse domain specific simulators that run on geographically distant sites. These diverse simulators must then be coordinated to run concurrently in order to evaluate the performance of critical infrastructures which influence each other, especially in emergency or resource-critical situations. We therefore describe the design of an adaptive communication middleware that provides reliable and real-time one-to-one and group communications for federations of CI simulators over a wide-area network (WAN). The proposed middleware is composed of mobile agent-based peer-to-peer (P2P) overlays, called virtual networks (VNets), to enable resilient, adaptive and real-time communications over unreliable and dynamic physical networks (PNets). The autonomous software agents comprising the communication middleware monitor their performance and the underlying PNet, and dynamically adapt the P2P overlay and migrate over the PNet in order to optimize communications according to the requirements of the federation and the current conditions of the PNet. Reliable communications is provided via redundancy within the communication middleware and intelligent migration of agents over the PNet. The proposed middleware integrates security methods in order to protect the communication infrastructure against attacks and provide privacy and anonymity to the participants of the federation. Experiments with an initial version of the communication middleware over a real-life networking testbed show that promising improvements can be obtained for unicast and group communications via the agent migration capability of our middleware.

  18. Assessing dependability and resilience in critical infrastructures: challenges and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avritzer, Alberto; Di Giandomenico, Felicita; Remke, Anne Katharina Ingrid; Riedl, Martin; Wolter, Katinka; Avritzer, Alberto; Vieira, Marco; van Moorsel, Aad

    2012-01-01

    Critical infrastructures (CI) are very complex and highly interdependent systems, networks and assets that provide essential services in our daily life. Most CI are either built upon or monitored and controlled by vulnerable information and communication technology (ICT) systems. Critical

  19. 6 CFR 29.7 - Safeguarding of Protected Critical Infrastructure Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Infrastructure Information. 29.7 Section 29.7 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE..., and consistent with the Act, for Automated Information Systems that contain PCII. Such security requirements will be in conformance with the information technology security requirements in the Federal...

  20. Practical example of the infrastructure protection against rock fall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jirásko, Daniel; Vaníček, Ivan

    2017-09-01

    The protection of transport infrastructures against rock falls represents for the Czech Republic one of the sensitive questions. Rock falls, similarly as other typical geo-hazards for the Czech Republic, as landslides and floods, can have negative impact on safety and security of these infrastructures. One practical example how to reduce risk of rock fall is described in the paper. Great care is devoted to the visual inspection enabling to indicate places with high potential to failure. With the help of numerical modelling the range of rock fall negative impact is estimated. Protection measures are dealing with two basic ways. The first one utilize the results of numerical modelling for the optimal design of protection measures and the second one is focused on the monitoring of the rock blocks with high potential of instability together with wire-less transfer of measured results. After quick evaluation, e.g. comparison with warning values, some protection measures, mostly connected with closure of the potential sector, can be recommended.

  1. Radiation Protection Infrastructure In Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriambololona, R.; Ratovonjanahary, J.F.; Zafimanjato, J.L.R.; Randriantseheno, H.F.; Ramanandraibe, M.J.; Randriantsizafy, D.R.

    2008-01-01

    Radiation sources are widely used in medicine, industry, research and education in Madagascar. Safety and security of these sources are the main statutory functions of the Regulatory Authority as defined by the regulations in Radiation Protection in Madagascar. These functions are carried out through the system of notification, authorization and inspection, inventory of radiation source and emergency preparedness. The law no 97-041 on radiation protection and radioactive waste management in Madagascar was promulgated on 2nd January 1998. It governs all activities related to the peaceful use of nuclear energy in Madagascar in order to protect the public, the environment and for the safety of radiation sources. This law complies with the International Basic Safety Standards for protection against ionising Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS, IAEA Safety Series no 115). Following the promulgation of the law, four decrees have been enacted by the Malagasy Government. With an effective implementation of these decrees, the ANPSR will be the Highest Administrative Authority in the Field of Radiation Protection and Waste Management in Madagascar. This Regulatory Authority is supported by an Executive Secretariat, assisted by the OTR for Radiation Protection and the OCGDR for Managing Radioactive Waste.The paper includes an overview of the regulatory infrastructure and the organizations of radiation protection in Madagascar

  2. 75 FR 39266 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; National Infrastructure Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... Infrastructure Disruptions VII. New Business VIII. Closing Remarks IX. Adjournment Procedural While this meeting... Directorate; National Infrastructure Advisory Council AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate... Infrastructure Advisory Council (NIAC) will meet on Tuesday, July 13, 2010, at the National Press Club's Ballroom...

  3. 'System-of-systems' approach for interdependent critical infrastructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eusgeld, Irene; Nan, Cen; Dietz, Sven

    2011-01-01

    The study of the interdependencies within critical infrastructures (CI) is a growing field of research as the importance of potential failure propagation among infrastructures may lead to cascades affecting all supply networks. New powerful methods are required to model and describe such 'systems-of-systems' (SoS) as a whole. An overall model is required to provide security and reliability assessment taking into account various kinds of threats and failures. A significant challenge associated with this model may be to create 'what-if' scenarios for the analysis of interdependencies. In this paper the interdependencies between industrial control systems (ICS), in particular SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition), and the underlying critical infrastructures to address the vulnerabilities related to the coupling of these systems are analyzed. The modeling alternatives for system-of-systems, integrated versus coupled models, are discussed. An integrated model contains detailed low level models of (sub)systems as well as a high level model, covering all hierarchical levels. On the other hand, a coupled model aggregates different simulated outputs of the low level models as inputs at a higher level. Strengths and weaknesses of both approaches are analyzed and a model architecture for SCADA and the 'system under control' are proposed. Furthermore, the HLA simulation standard is introduced and discussed in this paper as a promising approach to represent interdependencies between infrastructures. To demonstrate the capabilities of the HLA standard for the interdependencies study, an exemplary application and some first results are also briefly presented in this paper.

  4. Insurance and critical infrastructure protection : is there a connection in an environment of terrorism?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowlands, D.; Devlin, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigated the potential role of the insurance industry in enhancing the protection of critical energy infrastructure (CEI). This analysis was conducted in the context of increased concerns about deliberate acts of sabotage related to terrorist activities. A theoretical insurance market analysis was applied to a CEI scenario in order to examine the effects that insurance might have on the vulnerability of the system and subsequent remediation activities. Classical insurance market structures were examined, and problems associated with adverse selection, moral hazards and the role of government were identified. Issues concerning incentive effects induced by insurance were reviewed, as well as issues concerning the interdependence between different operators of the CEI system. An updated literature review was also provided. Results of the study suggested that corporate losses to CEI owners may be far less than the social cost of energy disruption, which in turn provides a reasonable rationale for government as opposed to private intervention. In terms of remediation, the immediate impact of a crippled CEI would overwhelm any private organization, and response would need to be coordinated through public structures. Terrorism insurance, while available, provides relatively large deductibles, as insurance companies are unwilling to accept the risks of moderate damage that may arise. There does not appear to be any evidence that private insurers will be able to provide significant relief from terrorist attacks, and it is unlikely that a private insurance market for terrorism will emerge. An absence of information regarding terrorist activities constrains both insurance purchasers from choosing the best mix of risk management tools, as well as insurance companies seeking to establish the appropriate pricing and conditions for different contracts. It was concluded that governments should support CEI firms in their own efforts to understand the threats; aid in

  5. Assessing the dynamic material criticality of infrastructure transitions: A case of low carbon electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roelich, Katy; Dawson, David A.; Purnell, Phil; Knoeri, Christof; Revell, Ruairi; Busch, Jonathan; Steinberger, Julia K.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We present a method to analyse material criticality of infrastructure transitions. • Criticality is defined as the potential for, and exposure to, supply disruption. • Our method is dynamic reducing the probability of lock-in to at-risk technologies. • We show that supply disruption potential is reducing but exposure is increasing. - Abstract: Decarbonisation of existing infrastructure systems requires a dynamic roll-out of technology at an unprecedented scale. The potential disruption in supply of critical materials could endanger such a transition to low-carbon infrastructure and, by extension, compromise energy security more broadly because low carbon technologies are reliant on these materials in a way that fossil-fuelled energy infrastructure is not. Criticality is currently defined as the combination of the potential for supply disruption and the exposure of a system of interest to that disruption. We build on this definition and develop a dynamic approach to quantifying criticality, which monitors the change in criticality during the transition towards a low-carbon infrastructure goal. This allows us to assess the relative risk of different technology pathways to reach a particular goal and reduce the probability of being ‘locked in’ to currently attractive but potentially future-critical technologies. To demonstrate, we apply our method to criticality of the proposed UK electricity system transition, with a focus on neodymium. We anticipate that the supply disruption potential of neodymium will decrease by almost 30% by 2050; however, our results show the criticality of low carbon electricity production increases ninefold over this period, as a result of increasing exposure to neodymium-reliant technologies

  6. relevance of information warfare models to critical infrastructure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ismith

    Critical infrastructure models, strategies and policies should take information ... gain an advantage over a competitor or adversary through the use of one's own .... digital communications system, where the vehicles are analogous to bits or packets, ..... performance degraded, causing an increase in traffic finding a new route.

  7. Interdependency control : compensation strategies for the inherent vulnerability of critical infrastructure networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, D.; Sotoodeh, M.; Monu, K.; Marti, J.R.; Srivastava, K.D.

    2009-01-01

    Today's increasingly interacting national critical infrastructures (NCIs) can tolerate most stochastic local disturbances. However, they are extremely fragile under global disturbances, as the latter may either push the whole system into a critical state or reveal many unexpected hidden interdependencies, inducing or triggering cascading failures among all possible layers. This robust yet fragile duality is an inherent vulnerability of modern infrastructures. It is therefore expected that weather-related disasters will be more frequent under a changing climate. This paper proposed an interdependency control strategy (ICS) that would maintain the survival of the most critical services, and compensate for this inherent vulnerability during emergency states. The paper also proposed a generalized adjacency matrix (GAM) to represent the physical interdependencies intra/inter of various infrastructure networks. The vulnerable section in the network can be identified, based on computed results of GAM, number of islands in the network, and influence domain(s) of each component. These features render ICS more effective and convincing. Last, the paper proposed a survivability index for isolated sub-networks and described relevant measures for improving this index during the four phases of emergency management. It was concluded that the proposed strategy is an effective means to reduce the inherent vulnerability and increase the resiliency of these critical infrastructures networks. 20 refs., 5 figs

  8. 75 FR 14454 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; National Infrastructure Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ..., National Infrastructure Advisory Council. [FR Doc. 2010-6633 Filed 3-24-10; 8:45 am] BILLING CODE 9110-9P-P ... Directorate; National Infrastructure Advisory Council AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate... Infrastructure Advisory Council (NIAC) will meet on Tuesday, April 13, 2010, at the National Press Club's...

  9. Cyber Security Threats to Safety-Critical, Space-Based Infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. W.; Atencia Yepez, A.

    2012-01-01

    Space-based systems play an important role within national critical infrastructures. They are being integrated into advanced air-traffic management applications, rail signalling systems, energy distribution software etc. Unfortunately, the end users of communications, location sensing and timing applications often fail to understand that these infrastructures are vulnerable to a wide range of security threats. The following pages focus on concerns associated with potential cyber-attacks. These are important because future attacks may invalidate many of the safety assumptions that support the provision of critical space-based services. These safety assumptions are based on standard forms of hazard analysis that ignore cyber-security considerations This is a significant limitation when, for instance, security attacks can simultaneously exploit multiple vulnerabilities in a manner that would never occur without a deliberate enemy seeking to damage space based systems and ground infrastructures. We address this concern through the development of a combined safety and security risk assessment methodology. The aim is to identify attack scenarios that justify the allocation of additional design resources so that safety barriers can be strengthened to increase our resilience against security threats.

  10. Safety impacts of bicycle infrastructure: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGioia, Jonathan; Watkins, Kari Edison; Xu, Yanzhi; Rodgers, Michael; Guensler, Randall

    2017-06-01

    This paper takes a critical look at the present state of bicycle infrastructure treatment safety research, highlighting data needs. Safety literature relating to 22 bicycle treatments is examined, including findings, study methodologies, and data sources used in the studies. Some preliminary conclusions related to research efficacy are drawn from the available data and findings in the research. While the current body of bicycle safety literature points toward some defensible conclusions regarding the safety and effectiveness of certain bicycle treatments, such as bike lanes and removal of on-street parking, the vast majority treatments are still in need of rigorous research. Fundamental questions arise regarding appropriate exposure measures, crash measures, and crash data sources. This research will aid transportation departments with regard to decisions about bicycle infrastructure and guide future research efforts toward understanding safety impacts of bicycle infrastructure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  11. System for critical infrastructure security based on multispectral observation-detection module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzaskawka, Piotr; Kastek, Mariusz; Życzkowski, Marek; Dulski, Rafał; Szustakowski, Mieczysław; Ciurapiński, Wiesław; Bareła, Jarosław

    2013-10-01

    Recent terrorist attacks and possibilities of such actions in future have forced to develop security systems for critical infrastructures that embrace sensors technologies and technical organization of systems. The used till now perimeter protection of stationary objects, based on construction of a ring with two-zone fencing, visual cameras with illumination are efficiently displaced by the systems of the multisensor technology that consists of: visible technology - day/night cameras registering optical contrast of a scene, thermal technology - cheap bolometric cameras recording thermal contrast of a scene and active ground radars - microwave and millimetre wavelengths that record and detect reflected radiation. Merging of these three different technologies into one system requires methodology for selection of technical conditions of installation and parameters of sensors. This procedure enables us to construct a system with correlated range, resolution, field of view and object identification. Important technical problem connected with the multispectral system is its software, which helps couple the radar with the cameras. This software can be used for automatic focusing of cameras, automatic guiding cameras to an object detected by the radar, tracking of the object and localization of the object on the digital map as well as target identification and alerting. Based on "plug and play" architecture, this system provides unmatched flexibility and simplistic integration of sensors and devices in TCP/IP networks. Using a graphical user interface it is possible to control sensors and monitor streaming video and other data over the network, visualize the results of data fusion process and obtain detailed information about detected intruders over a digital map. System provide high-level applications and operator workload reduction with features such as sensor to sensor cueing from detection devices, automatic e-mail notification and alarm triggering. The paper presents

  12. Reliability issues related to the usage of Cloud Computing in Critical Infrastructures

    OpenAIRE

    Diez Gonzalez, Oscar Manuel; Silva Vazquez, Andrés

    2011-01-01

    The use of cloud computing is extending to all kind of systems, including the ones that are part of Critical Infrastructures, and measuring the reliability is becoming more difficult. Computing is becoming the 5th utility, in part thanks to the use of cloud services. Cloud computing is used now by all types of systems and organizations, including critical infrastructure, creating hidden inter-dependencies on both public and private cloud models. This paper investigates the use of cloud co...

  13. Safeguarding information intensive critical infrastructures against novel types of emerging failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balducelli, C.; Bologna, S.; Lavalle, L.; Vicoli, G.

    2007-01-01

    The complexity of information intensive critical infrastructures, like electricity networks, telecommunication networks and public transportation networks is today augmented much more than in the past: such complexity augments the number of possible failures and anomalous working conditions and consequently decreases the survivability of the infrastructures. In this paper, the possibility is investigated to detect early anomalies and failures inside information intensive critical infrastructures by the introduction of anomaly detectors being 'self-aware' about the normal working conditions of the infrastructure itself. This approach has the objective to improve the performance of the most popular signature-based algorithms for intrusion detection, and makes use of different classes of time-oriented algorithms based on artificial intelligence paradigm. It has the advantage to work also in presence of unknown and unexpected types of attacks or failures. The tests, to evaluate the performance of the utilised detectors, are executed inside an emulated supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system of an electrical power transmission grid, and a proposal for the future integration inside real SCADA systems is also reported

  14. Safeguarding information intensive critical infrastructures against novel types of emerging failures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balducelli, C. [ENEA-Italian National Agency for new Technology, Energy and the Environment Via Anguillasere 301, 00060 Rome (Italy)]. E-mail: claudio.balducelli@casaccia.enea.it; Bologna, S. [ENEA-Italian National Agency for new Technology, Energy and the Environment Via Anguillasere 301, 00060 Rome (Italy); Lavalle, L. [ENEA-Italian National Agency for new Technology, Energy and the Environment Via Anguillasere 301, 00060 Rome (Italy); Vicoli, G. [ENEA-Italian National Agency for new Technology, Energy and the Environment Via Anguillasere 301, 00060 Rome (Italy)

    2007-09-15

    The complexity of information intensive critical infrastructures, like electricity networks, telecommunication networks and public transportation networks is today augmented much more than in the past: such complexity augments the number of possible failures and anomalous working conditions and consequently decreases the survivability of the infrastructures. In this paper, the possibility is investigated to detect early anomalies and failures inside information intensive critical infrastructures by the introduction of anomaly detectors being 'self-aware' about the normal working conditions of the infrastructure itself. This approach has the objective to improve the performance of the most popular signature-based algorithms for intrusion detection, and makes use of different classes of time-oriented algorithms based on artificial intelligence paradigm. It has the advantage to work also in presence of unknown and unexpected types of attacks or failures. The tests, to evaluate the performance of the utilised detectors, are executed inside an emulated supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system of an electrical power transmission grid, and a proposal for the future integration inside real SCADA systems is also reported.

  15. Fragility: The Next Wave in Critical Infrastructure Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allan McDougall

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In North America today, we are about to embark on a significant effort to repair, or even upgrade, many aspects of our infrastructure. Many of these efforts are linked to economic recovery packages. Others are based on sheer need. The challenge for decision makers and planners involves ensuring that scarce economic resources are put to their best use. Understanding the concept of fragility plays a pivotal part in reaching that understanding.Fragility, like many other systems—particularly Information Technology (IT systems—works on the concept of subjects and objects. Subjects are those entities that seek to exploit the services (or capacity offered by the object. Objects, on the other hand, are those entities that deliver some good or service to the overall system. Of course, something may act as the object in one pairing and the subject in another pairing—they are not exclusive in nature.

  16. Defending Critical Infrastructure as Cyber Key Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    to Secure Cyberspace (NSSC) is as it lists three strategic objectives:4 1) Prevent cyber attacks against America’s critical infrastructures; 2...House, “National Strategy to Secure Cyberspace,” (Washington, DC: The White House, 2003) Trey Herr, "PrEP: A framework for malware & cyber weapons...David Kuipers and Mark Fabro. “Control Systems Cyber Security : Defense in Depth Strategies,” [United States: Department of Energy, 2006]: 4

  17. 2008 Defense Industrial Base Critical Infrastructure Protection Conference (DIB-CBIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-09

    a cloak -and- dagger thing. It’s about computer architecture and the soundness of electronic systems." Joel Brenner, ODNI Counterintelligence Office...to support advanced network exploitation and launch attacks on the informational and physical elements of our cyber infrastructure. In order to...entities and is vulnerable to attacks and manipulation. Operations in the cyber domain have the ability to impact operations in other war-fighting

  18. Resilience framework for critical infrastructures: An empirical study in a nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labaka, Leire; Hernantes, Josune; Sarriegi, Jose M.

    2015-01-01

    The safety and proper functioning of Critical Infrastructures (CIs) are essential for ensuring the welfare of society, which puts the issue of improving their resilience level at the forefront of the field of crisis management. Most of the resilience-building principles defined in the literature do not cover all the dimensions that make up resilience and most of them only focus within the boundaries of the CI, neglecting the role of the external agents that also have an influence on enhancing resilience. Furthermore, most of the principles that are present in the literature are theoretical and difficult to implement in practice. In light of this situation, the aim of this research is to present a holistic resilience framework for critical infrastructures in order to improve their resilience level by taking into account internal and external agents and covering all the resilience dimensions. Furthermore, this framework has been defined in close collaboration with the general management of CIs to facilitate its implementation in practice. Finally, in order to illustrate the value added of this framework it was implemented in a nuclear plant. - Highlights: • Resilience protects against foreseen and unpredicted events. • There are two types of resilience: internal resilience and external resilience. • Sixteen policies and thirty sub-policies assist on building resilience. • Power nuclear plant focused on risk management approach rather than resilience. • The plant’s event driven risk management was enhanced with an all hazard approach

  19. 77 FR 21989 - Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... Advisors email the form to the individual who then emails back the completed form, minus their date and... official who nominated the applicant and by the Assistant Secretary for Infrastructure Protection. Upon...

  20. DNS as critical infrastructure, the energy system case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casalicchio, E.; Gheorghe, A.V.; Caselli, M.; Coletta, A.; Nai Fovino, I.

    2013-01-01

    Modern critical infrastructures (e.g., power plants, energy grids, oil pipelines, etc.), make nowadays extensive use of information and communication technologies (ICT). As a direct consequence their exposure to cyber-attacks is becoming a matter of public security. In this paper, we analyse a

  1. Methodology for prioritizing cyber-vulnerable critical infrastructure equipment and mitigation strategies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson, Lon Andrew; Stinebaugh, Jennifer A.

    2010-04-01

    The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), National Cyber Security Division (NSCD), Control Systems Security Program (CSSP), contracted Sandia National Laboratories to develop a generic methodology for prioritizing cyber-vulnerable, critical infrastructure assets and the development of mitigation strategies for their loss or compromise. The initial project has been divided into three discrete deliverables: (1) A generic methodology report suitable to all Critical Infrastructure and Key Resource (CIKR) Sectors (this report); (2) a sector-specific report for Electrical Power Distribution; and (3) a sector-specific report for the water sector, including generation, water treatment, and wastewater systems. Specific reports for the water and electric sectors are available from Sandia National Laboratories.

  2. 78 FR 73202 - Review and Revision of the National Critical Infrastructure Security and Resilience (NCISR...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ... critical physical and cyber infrastructure. IV. NCISR R&D Plan Outline Below is the list of the topic areas... research and development topics are welcomed. V. Specific Questions Answers to the below specific questions... Critical Infrastructure Security and Resilience (NCISR) Research and Development (R&D) Plan Outline and...

  3. The Influence of State Policies on Critical Infrastructure Resilience: An Approach for Analyzing Transportation and Capital Investment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Thomas [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Trail, Jessica [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Gevondyan, Erna [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Phillips, Julia [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Ford, Janet [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Marks, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-09-01

    During times of crisis, communities and regions rely heavily on critical infrastructure systems to support their emergency management response and recovery activities. Therefore, the resilience of critical infrastructure systems to crises is a pivotal factor to a community’s overall resilience. Critical infrastructure resilience can be influenced by many factors, including State policies – which are not always uniform in their structure or application across the United States – were identified by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security as an area of particular interest with respect to their the influence on the resilience of critical infrastructure systems. This study focuses on developing an analytical methodology to assess links between policy and resilience, and applies that methodology to critical infrastructure in the Transportation Systems Sector. Specifically, this study seeks to identify potentially influential linkages between State transportation capital funding policies and the resilience of bridges located on roadways that are under the management of public agencies. This study yielded notable methodological outcomes, including the general capability of the analytical methodology to yield – in the case of some States – significant results connecting State policies with critical infrastructure resilience, with the suggestion that further refinement of the methodology may be beneficial.

  4. Critical Foundations: Protecting America’s Infrastructures. The Report of the President’s Commission on Critical Infrastructure Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-10-13

    in Tokyo and bombings of the subway system in Paris, mass transit remains open and vulnerable to terrorist acts. Millions of miles of pipelines carry...Outside of "" C Risk Management Plan . Creates a Competitive Advantage , Not Considered Industry’s "• Protects Brand/ Franchise Responsibility- I ssue of...the out- set, the Commission considered expanding the scope of this sector to include food , health care and the nation’s work force as additional

  5. A novel critical infrastructure resilience assessment approach using dynamic Bayesian networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Baoping; Xie, Min; Liu, Yonghong; Liu, Yiliu; Ji, Renjie; Feng, Qiang

    2017-10-01

    The word resilience originally originates from the Latin word "resiliere", which means to "bounce back". The concept has been used in various fields, such as ecology, economics, psychology, and society, with different definitions. In the field of critical infrastructure, although some resilience metrics are proposed, they are totally different from each other, which are determined by the performances of the objects of evaluation. Here we bridge the gap by developing a universal critical infrastructure resilience metric from the perspective of reliability engineering. A dynamic Bayesian networks-based assessment approach is proposed to calculate the resilience value. A series, parallel and voting system is used to demonstrate the application of the developed resilience metric and assessment approach.

  6. Reliability and vulnerability analyses of critical infrastructures: Comparing two approaches in the context of power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, Jonas; Hassel, Henrik; Zio, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Society depends on services provided by critical infrastructures, and hence it is important that they are reliable and robust. Two main approaches for gaining knowledge required for designing and improving critical infrastructures are reliability analysis and vulnerability analysis. The former analyses the ability of the system to perform its intended function; the latter analyses its inability to withstand strains and the effects of the consequent failures. The two approaches have similarities but also some differences with respect to what type of information they generate about the system. In this view, the main purpose of this paper is to discuss and contrast these approaches. To strengthen the discussion and exemplify its findings, a Monte Carlo-based reliability analysis and a vulnerability analysis are considered in their application to a relatively simple, but representative, system the IEEE RTS96 electric power test system. The exemplification reveals that reliability analysis provides a good picture of the system likely behaviour, but fails to capture a large portion of the high consequence scenarios, which are instead captured in the vulnerability analysis. Although these scenarios might be estimated to have small probabilities of occurrence, they should be identified, considered and treated cautiously, as probabilistic analyses should not be the only input to decision-making for the design and protection of critical infrastructures. The general conclusion that can be drawn from the findings of the example is that vulnerability analysis should be used to complement reliability studies, as well as other forms of probabilistic risk analysis. Measures should be sought for reducing both the vulnerability, i.e. improving the system ability to withstand strains and stresses, and the reliability, i.e. improving the likely behaviour

  7. The role of minimum supply and social vulnerability assessment for governing critical infrastructure failure: current gaps and future agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Garschagen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Increased attention has lately been given to the resilience of critical infrastructure in the context of natural hazards and disasters. The major focus therein is on the sensitivity of critical infrastructure technologies and their management contingencies. However, strikingly little attention has been given to assessing and mitigating social vulnerabilities towards the failure of critical infrastructure and to the development, design and implementation of minimum supply standards in situations of major infrastructure failure. Addressing this gap and contributing to a more integrative perspective on critical infrastructure resilience is the objective of this paper. It asks which role social vulnerability assessments and minimum supply considerations can, should and do – or do not – play for the management and governance of critical infrastructure failure. In its first part, the paper provides a structured review on achievements and remaining gaps in the management of critical infrastructure and the understanding of social vulnerabilities towards disaster-related infrastructure failures. Special attention is given to the current state of minimum supply concepts with a regional focus on policies in Germany and the EU. In its second part, the paper then responds to the identified gaps by developing a heuristic model on the linkages of critical infrastructure management, social vulnerability and minimum supply. This framework helps to inform a vision of a future research agenda, which is presented in the paper's third part. Overall, the analysis suggests that the assessment of socially differentiated vulnerabilities towards critical infrastructure failure needs to be undertaken more stringently to inform the scientifically and politically difficult debate about minimum supply standards and the shared responsibilities for securing them.

  8. The role of minimum supply and social vulnerability assessment for governing critical infrastructure failure: current gaps and future agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garschagen, Matthias; Sandholz, Simone

    2018-04-01

    Increased attention has lately been given to the resilience of critical infrastructure in the context of natural hazards and disasters. The major focus therein is on the sensitivity of critical infrastructure technologies and their management contingencies. However, strikingly little attention has been given to assessing and mitigating social vulnerabilities towards the failure of critical infrastructure and to the development, design and implementation of minimum supply standards in situations of major infrastructure failure. Addressing this gap and contributing to a more integrative perspective on critical infrastructure resilience is the objective of this paper. It asks which role social vulnerability assessments and minimum supply considerations can, should and do - or do not - play for the management and governance of critical infrastructure failure. In its first part, the paper provides a structured review on achievements and remaining gaps in the management of critical infrastructure and the understanding of social vulnerabilities towards disaster-related infrastructure failures. Special attention is given to the current state of minimum supply concepts with a regional focus on policies in Germany and the EU. In its second part, the paper then responds to the identified gaps by developing a heuristic model on the linkages of critical infrastructure management, social vulnerability and minimum supply. This framework helps to inform a vision of a future research agenda, which is presented in the paper's third part. Overall, the analysis suggests that the assessment of socially differentiated vulnerabilities towards critical infrastructure failure needs to be undertaken more stringently to inform the scientifically and politically difficult debate about minimum supply standards and the shared responsibilities for securing them.

  9. Increasing impacts of climate extremes on critical infrastructures in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forzieri, Giovanni; Bianchi, Alessandra; Feyen, Luc; Silva, Filipe Batista e.; Marin, Mario; Lavalle, Carlo; Leblois, Antoine

    2016-04-01

    The projected increases in exposure to multiple climate hazards in many regions of Europe, emphasize the relevance of a multi-hazard risk assessment to comprehensively quantify potential impacts of climate change and develop suitable adaptation strategies. In this context, quantifying the future impacts of climatic extremes on critical infrastructures is crucial due to their key role for human wellbeing and their effects on the overall economy. Critical infrastructures describe the existing assets and systems that are essential for the maintenance of vital societal functions, health, safety, security, economic or social well-being of people, and the disruption or destruction of which would have a significant impact as a result of the failure to maintain those functions. We assess the direct damages of heat and cold waves, river and coastal flooding, droughts, wildfires and windstorms to energy, transport, industry and social infrastructures in Europe along the 21st century. The methodology integrates in a coherent framework climate hazard, exposure and vulnerability components. Overall damage is expected to rise up to 38 billion €/yr, ten time-folds the current climate damage, with drastic variations in risk scenarios. Exemplificative are drought and heat-related damages that could represent 70% of the overall climate damage in 2080s versus the current 12%. Many regions, prominently Southern Europe, will likely suffer multiple stresses and systematic infrastructure failures due to climate extremes if no suitable adaptation measures will be taken.

  10. Communications and information infrastructure security

    CERN Document Server

    Voeller, John G

    2014-01-01

    Communication and Information Systems Security features articles from the Wiley Handbook of Science and Technology for Homeland Security covering strategies for protecting the telecommunications sector, wireless security, advanced web based technology for emergency situations. Science and technology for critical infrastructure consequence mitigation are also discussed.

  11. 75 FR 68370 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Office of Infrastructure Protection; Chemical Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY National Protection and Programs Directorate [Docket No. DHS-2010-0071] Agency Information Collection Activities: Office of Infrastructure Protection; Chemical Security...: The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), National Protection and Programs Directorate (NPPD), Office...

  12. NEW ASPECTS REGARDING THE EVALUATION OF INVESTMENTS IN CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lupan Mariana

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The additional risks associated to the actual global and contagious crisis put a severe pressure on the investments in critical infrastructure and there is a real need for new valuations especially those regarding the synergic financing strategies in crit

  13. DIESIS : An Interoperable European Federated Simulation Network for Critical Infrastructures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rome, E.; Bologna, S.; Gelenbe, E.; Luiijf, H.A.M.; Masucci, V.

    2009-01-01

    Critical Infrastructures (CI) that are vital for a society and an economy, such as telecommunication systems, energy supply systems, transport systems and others, are getting more and more complex. Dependencies emerge in various ways, due to the use of information and communication technologies,

  14. Emergent Risks In Critical Infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dynes, Scott

    Firms cannot function successfully without managing a host of internal and external organizational and process interdependencies. Part of this involves business continuity planning, which directly aects how resilient arm and its business sector are in the face of disruptions. This paper presents the results of eld studies related to information risk management practices in the health care and retail sectors. The studies explore information risk management coordinating signals within and across rms in these sectors as well as the potential eects of cyber disruptions on the rms as stand-alone entities and as part of a critical infrastructure. The health care case study investigates the impact of the Zotob worm on the ability to deliver medical care and treatment. The retail study examines the resilience of certain elements of the food supply chain to cyber disruptions.

  15. Planning virtual infrastructures for time critical applications with multiple deadline constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; Taal, A.; Martin, P.; Hu, Y.; Zhou, H.; Pang, J.; de Laat, C.; Zhao, Z.

    2017-01-01

    Executing time critical applications within cloud environments while satisfying execution deadlines and response time requirements is challenging due to the difficulty of securing guaranteed performance from the underlying virtual infrastructure. Cost-effective solutions for hosting such

  16. Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Systems and Cyber-Security: Best Practices to Secure Critical Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsey, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    In the critical infrastructure world, many critical infrastructure sectors use a Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system. The sectors that use SCADA systems are the electric power, nuclear power and water. These systems are used to control, monitor and extract data from the systems that give us all the ability to light our homes…

  17. A policy study in strengthening the national infrastructure for radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chan Il [Korean Association for Radiation Protection, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jai Ki; Chang, Jaik Won; Lee, Choon Sik [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Whang, Joo Ho; Kim, Ki Ho [Kyunghee Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-03-15

    Public attitude declined further toward against the nuclear technology and eventually caused undue societal costs. Since the general public are aware of, or even afraid of, effects of radiation, it is hard to expect successful nuclear program without making them ease about radiation. In order to make the public feel easy and think that they get adequate protection, the infrastructure for radiation protection should be strengthened to the level corresponding to the utilization of nuclear/radiation technologies in the country. Public confidence in the role of the regulatory body is utmost important. The objectives of this study are to figure out a good model of regulatory body for radiation protection in Korea and to promulgate a draft legislations including provisions on the competent authority, the national policy and programs for upgraded infrastructure for radiation protection. As an appropriate form for the regulatory body in Korea, 'board of nuclear and radiation regulation', an independent and specialized organization under the direction of the prime minister, was proposed. It is expected that disadvantages dominate if the organization for radiation protection is separated from one for nuclear regulation. The proposed draft radiation protection acts consist of 8 chapters and 55 articles and some supplementary provisions. Copious footnotes provide explanations of the articles including the basis, considerations. justification.

  18. Visualizing common operating picture of critical infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummukainen, Lauri; Oksama, Lauri; Timonen, Jussi; Vankka, Jouko

    2014-05-01

    This paper presents a solution for visualizing the common operating picture (COP) of the critical infrastructure (CI). The purpose is to improve the situational awareness (SA) of the strategic-level actor and the source system operator in order to support decision making. The information is obtained through the Situational Awareness of Critical Infrastructure and Networks (SACIN) framework. The system consists of an agent-based solution for gathering, storing, and analyzing the information, and a user interface (UI) is presented in this paper. The UI consists of multiple views visualizing information from the CI in different ways. Different CI actors are categorized in 11 separate sectors, and events are used to present meaningful incidents. Past and current states, together with geographical distribution and logical dependencies, are presented to the user. The current states are visualized as segmented circles to represent event categories. Geographical distribution of assets is displayed with a well-known map tool. Logical dependencies are presented in a simple directed graph, and users also have a timeline to review past events. The objective of the UI is to provide an easily understandable overview of the CI status. Therefore, testing methods, such as a walkthrough, an informal walkthrough, and the Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT), were used in the evaluation of the UI. Results showed that users were able to obtain an understanding of the current state of CI, and the usability of the UI was rated as good. In particular, the designated display for the CI overview and the timeline were found to be efficient.

  19. The ISTIMES project: a new integrated system for monitoring critical transport infrastructures interested by natural hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proto, Monica; Massimo, Bavusi; Francesco, Soldovieri

    2010-05-01

    The research project "Integrated System for Transport Infrastructure surveillance and Monitoring by Electromagnetic Sensing" (ISTIMES), was approved in the 7th Framework Programme, in the Joint Call ICT and Security and started on 1st July 2009. The purpose of ISTIMES project is to design, assess and promote an ICT-based system, exploiting distributed and local sensors, for non-destructive electromagnetic monitoring in order to achieve the critical transport infrastructures more reliable and safe. The transportation sector's components are susceptible to the consequences of natural disasters and can also be attractive as terrorist targets. The sector's size, its physically dispersed and decentralized nature, the many public and private entities involved in its operations, the critical importance of cost considerations, and the inherent requirement of convenient accessibility to its services by all users - make the transportation particularly vulnerable to security and safety threats. As well known, the surface transportation system consists of interconnected infrastructures including highways, transit systems, railroads, airports, waterways, pipelines and ports, and the vehicles, aircraft, and vessels that operate along these networks. Thus, interdependencies exist between transportation and nearly every other sector of the economy and the effective operation of this system is essential to the European economic productivity; therefore, transportation sector protection is of paramount importance since threats to it may impact other industries that rely on it. The system exploits an open network architecture that can accommodate a wide range of sensors, static and mobile, and can be easily scaled up to allow the integration of additional sensors and interfacing with other networks. It relies on heterogeneous state-of-the-art electromagnetic sensors, enabling a self-organizing, self-healing, ad-hoc networking of terrestrial sensors, supported by specific satellite

  20. Enabling software defined networking experiments in networked critical infrastructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Béla Genge

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the fact that Networked Critical Infrastructures (NCI, e.g., power plants, water plants, oil and gas distribution infrastructures, and electricity grids, are targeted by significant cyber threats is well known. Nevertheless, recent research has shown that specific characteristics of NCI can be exploited in the enabling of more efficient mitigation techniques, while novel techniques from the field of IP networks can bring significant advantages. In this paper we explore the interconnection of NCI communication infrastructures with Software Defined Networking (SDN-enabled network topologies. SDN provides the means to create virtual networking services and to implement global networking decisions. It relies on OpenFlow to enable communication with remote devices and has been recently categorized as the “Next Big Technology”, which will revolutionize the way decisions are implemented in switches and routers. Therefore, the paper documents the first steps towards enabling an SDN-NCI and presents the impact of a Denial of Service experiment over traffic resulting from an XBee sensor network which is routed across an emulated SDN network.

  1. Homeland Security -- Reducing the Vulnerability of Public and Private Information Infrastructures to Terrorism: An Overview

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seifert, Jeffrey W

    2002-01-01

    This report assesses the impact of the September 11, 2001 attacks on public and private information infrastructures in the context of critical infrastructure protection, continuity of operations (COOP...

  2. RISK ANALYSIS AND EVALUATION FOR CRITICAL LOGISTICAL INFRASTRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Düerkop

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Logistical infrastructure builds the backbone of an economy. Without an effective logistical infrastructure in place, the supply for both enterprises and consumers might not be met. But even a high-quality logistical infrastructure can be threatened by risks. Thus, it is important to identify, analyse, and evaluate risks for logistical infrastructure that might threaten logistical processes. Only if those risks are known and their impact estimated, decision makers can implement counteractive measures to reduce risks. In this article, we develop a network-based approach that allows for the evaluation of risks and their consequences onto the logistical network. We will demonstrate the relevance of this approach by applying it to the logistics network of the central German state of Hesse. Even though transport data is extensively tracked and recorded nowadays, typical daily risks, like accidents on a motorway, and extraordinary risks, like a bridge at risk to collapse, terrorist attacks or climate-related catastrophes, are not systematically anticipated. Several studies unveiled recently that the overall impact for an economy of possible failures of single nodes and/or edges in a network are not calculated, and particularly critical edges are not identified in advance. We address this information gap by a method that helps to identify and quantify risks in a given network. To reach this objective, we define a mathematical optimization model that quantifies the current “risk-related costs” of the overall network and quantify the risk by investigating the change of the overall costs in the case a risk is realized.

  3. Seismic Barrier Protection of Critical Infrastructure from Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    We observe that such barrier structures reduce seismic wave powers by 10 – 40 dB that would otherwise reach the foundation location. Moreover, the... structure composed of opposing boreholes or trenches to mitigate seismic waves from diffracting and traveling in the vertical plane. Computational...seismic wave propagation models suggest that air or fluid filled subsurface V- shaped muffler structures are critical to the redirection and self

  4. Methods of securing and controlling critical infrastructure assets allocated in information and communications technology sector companies in leading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Sieńko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Critical Infrastructure (CI plays a significant role in maintaining public order and national security. The state may use many different methods to protect and control CI allocated to commercial companies. This article describes the three most important ones: legislation, ownership and government institutions and agencies. The data presented in this paper is the result of research done on the most developed countries in the EU (United Kingdom, France, Germany and Italy and their strategic enterprises in the ICT sector, one of the most important sectors in any national security system.

  5. Applying the Msharpp Method in Risk Assessment for the Water Supply Critical Infrastructure Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badea Dorel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper highlights a manner to assess risks for an important sector of critical infrastructure, that of water supply, frequently regulated in international legal systems. We took into consideration the fact that risk is a problem related to the processes of decision making under conditions of uncertainty in most cases, so that by this approach we bring to the attention of critical infrastructure managers, drawing on their experience, a simple method that can be considered in a preliminary stage of risk assessment specific to water supply.

  6. Local food protection and safety infrastructure and capacity: a Maryland case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kufel, Joanna Zablotsky; Resnick, Beth A; Fox, Mary; Frattaroli, Shannon; Gielen, Andrea; Burke, Thomas A

    2011-01-01

    In Maryland, county Food Protection Programs (FPP), housed within Environmental Public Health (EPH) Divisions, maintain responsibility for regular inspection of all food service facilities (FSF). With growing concerns about how our food supply is protected, it is important to determine the state and effectiveness of our food safety systems. This research elucidates the roles, responsibilities, strengths, and weaknesses of Food Safety and Protection Programs in Maryland. A 16-question survey tool, which addressed facets of the local food protection infrastructure, including FSF inspections, staffing, budget, and foodborne illness surveillance, was distributed to all 24 county FPP. The number of FSF in Maryland increased 97% from 2001 to 2006 and counties had an average inspection completion rate of 73%, with a 4% increase over the time period. Statewide, there were 4.1 EPH full-time employees (FTE) per 10 000 population and 1.6 FPP FTE per 10 000 population. EPH Division budgets increased 63% statewide, from $19.5 million in 2000 to $31.9 million in 2007. FPP budgets also increased 59% over the period, from $6.2 million in 2000 to $9.8 million in 2007. This study offers new quantitative measures of the demands, capacities, and performance of Food Protection and Safety Programs in Maryland. This assessment of local EPH and FPP capacity also offers insight into the strengths and weaknesses of the local food protection and safety infrastructure. Importantly, it reveals an infrastructure and dedicated food protection workforce that inspects the food supply and responds to foodborne illness outbreaks. Yet, resources vary substantially from county to county, impacting which services can be provided and how well they can be performed. This can, in turn, impact the potential risk of foodborne illness and the public's overall health.

  7. On the Effectiveness of Security Countermeasures for Critical Infrastructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausken, Kjell; He, Fei

    2016-04-01

    A game-theoretic model is developed where an infrastructure of N targets is protected against terrorism threats. An original threat score is determined by the terrorist's threat against each target and the government's inherent protection level and original protection. The final threat score is impacted by the government's additional protection. We investigate and verify the effectiveness of countermeasures using empirical data and two methods. The first is to estimate the model's parameter values to minimize the sum of the squared differences between the government's additional resource investment predicted by the model and the empirical data. The second is to develop a multivariate regression model where the final threat score varies approximately linearly relative to the original threat score, sectors, and threat scenarios, and depends nonlinearly on the additional resource investment. The model and method are offered as tools, and as a way of thinking, to determine optimal resource investments across vulnerable targets subject to terrorism threats. © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  8. Multi-stage crypto ransomware attacks: A new emerging cyber threat to critical infrastructure and industrial control systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Zimba

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The inevitable integration of critical infrastructure to public networks has exposed the underlying industrial control systems to various attack vectors. In this paper, we model multi-stage crypto ransomware attacks, which are today an emerging cyber threat to critical infrastructure. We evaluate our modeling approach using multi-stage attacks by the infamous WannaCry ransomware. The static malware analysis results uncover the techniques employed by the ransomware to discover vulnerable nodes in different SCADA and production subnets, and for the subsequent network propagation. Based on the uncovered artifacts, we recommend a cascaded network segmentation approach, which prioritizes the security of production network devices. Keywords: Critical infrastructure, Cyber-attack, Industrial control system, Crypto ransomware, Vulnerability

  9. Railway infrastructure security

    CERN Document Server

    Sforza, Antonio; Vittorini, Valeria; Pragliola, Concetta

    2015-01-01

    This comprehensive monograph addresses crucial issues in the protection of railway systems, with the objective of enhancing the understanding of railway infrastructure security. Based on analyses by academics, technology providers, and railway operators, it explains how to assess terrorist and criminal threats, design countermeasures, and implement effective security strategies. In so doing, it draws upon a range of experiences from different countries in Europe and beyond. The book is the first to be devoted entirely to this subject. It will serve as a timely reminder of the attractiveness of the railway infrastructure system as a target for criminals and terrorists and, more importantly, as a valuable resource for stakeholders and professionals in the railway security field aiming to develop effective security based on a mix of methodological, technological, and organizational tools. Besides researchers and decision makers in the field, the book will appeal to students interested in critical infrastructur...

  10. Modelling a critical infrastructure-driven spatial database for proactive disaster management: A developing country context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David O. Baloye

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The understanding and institutionalisation of the seamless link between urban critical infrastructure and disaster management has greatly helped the developed world to establish effective disaster management processes. However, this link is conspicuously missing in developing countries, where disaster management has been more reactive than proactive. The consequence of this is typified in poor response time and uncoordinated ways in which disasters and emergency situations are handled. As is the case with many Nigerian cities, the challenges of urban development in the city of Abeokuta have limited the effectiveness of disaster and emergency first responders and managers. Using geospatial techniques, the study attempted to design and deploy a spatial database running a web-based information system to track the characteristics and distribution of critical infrastructure for effective use during disaster and emergencies, with the purpose of proactively improving disaster and emergency management processes in Abeokuta. Keywords: Disaster Management; Emergency; Critical Infrastructure; Geospatial Database; Developing Countries; Nigeria

  11. Flood Risk Assessment on Selected Critical Infrastructure in Kota Marudu Town, Sabah, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayog Janice Lynn

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the risk of flood on selected critical infrastructure in a flood-prone catchment in Sabah, Malaysia. Kota Marudu, located in the Bandau floodplain, one of the Sabah’s northern water catchments, was selected as the study site due to its frequent flood occurrence and large floodplain coverage. Two of its largest rivers, namely Sungai Bongon and Sungai Bandau, tends to flood during rainy season and cause temporary displacements of thousands of people living in the floodplain. A total of 362 respondents participated in the questionnaire survey in order to gather information on historical flood occurrence. Three flood depth groups were determined, which are 1 less than 0.3 meter, 2 0.3 – 0.6 meter and 3 more than 0.6 meter, while three categories of critical infrastructure were defined, namely transportation system, communication system and buildings. It is found that the transportation system encounters the most severe impact as flood inundation increases, where 92% of the respondents believe that the transportation access should be abandoned when flood depth is more than 0.6m. The findings of this study will be used for detailed risk assessment, specifically on the vulnerability of the critical infrastructures to flood in this floodplain.

  12. Identification of critical locations across multiple infrastructures for terrorist actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, S.A.; Apostolakis, G.E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a possible approach to ranking geographic regions that can influence multiple infrastructures. Once ranked, decision makers can determine whether these regions are critical locations based on their susceptibility to terrorist acts. We identify these locations by calculating a value for a geographic region that represents the combined values to the decision makers of all the infrastructures crossing through that region. These values, as well as the size of the geographic region, are conditional on an assumed destructive threat of a given size. In our case study, the threat is assumed to be minor, e.g., a bomb that can affect objects within 7 m of it. This approach first requires an assessment of the users of the system. During this assessment, each user is assigned a performance index (PI) based on the disutility of the loss of each infrastructure's resource via multi-attribute utility theory (MAUT). A Monte Carlo network analysis is then performed to develop importance measures (IM) for the elements of each infrastructure for their ability to service each user. We combine the IMs with the user PIs to a value that we call valued worth (VW) for each infrastructure's elements independently. Then we use spatial analysis techniques within a geographic information system (GIS) to combine the VWs of each infrastructure's elements in a geographic area, conditional on the threat, into a total value we call geographic valued worth (GVW). The GVW is displayed graphically in the GIS system in a color scheme that shows the numerical ranking of these geographic areas. The map and rankings are then submitted to the decision makers to better allocate anti-terrorism resources. A case study of this methodology is performed on the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) campus. The results of the study show how the methodology can bring attention to areas that are important when several infrastructures are considered, but may be ignored when infrastructures

  13. Monitoring and Control of Urban Critical Infrastructures: A Novel Approach to System Design and Data Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario La Manna

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring and control of urban critical infrastructures consists of the protection of assets such as houses, offices, government and private buildings, with low cost, high quality and high dependability. In order to satisfy all these requirements at the same time, the control of a number of assets has to be performed by means of automated systems based on networks of heterogeneous sensors. This new concept idea is based on the use of unmanned operations at each of the many remote assets (each asset is monitored through a network of sensors and a man-in-the-loop automated control in a central site (Operational Center, which performs alarm detection and system management.

  14. U.S. National Cyberstrategy and Critical Infrastructure: The Protection Mandate and Its Execution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    revising this thesis, and balancing the coordination needed for: (1) Piano; (2) Soccer /Baseball; (3) Cubmaster Cub Scout Pack-135; (4) Hospitality...disease and pest response; and provides nutritional assistance. Provides the financial infrastructure of the nation. This sector consists of commercial

  15. Optimizing the Long-Term Capacity Expansion and Protection of Iraqi Oil Infrastructure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brown, Patrick S

    2005-01-01

    This thesis introduces a tri-level defender-attacker-defender optimization model that prescribes how Iraq's oil infrastructure can, over time, be expanded, protected, and operated, even in the face of insurgent attacks...

  16. Advanced methodology for risk and vulnerability assessment of interdependency of critical infrastructure in respect to urban floods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serre Damien

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The behaviour of the urban network infrastructures, and their interactions during flood events, will have direct and indirect consequences on the flood risk level in the built environment. By urban network infrastructures we include all the urban technical networks like transportation, energy, water supply, waste water, telecommunication…able to spread the flood risk in cities, qualified as critical infrastructures due to their major roles for modern living standards. From history, most of cities in the world have been built close to coast lines or to river to beneficiate this means of communication and trade. Step by step, to avoid being flooded, defences like levees have been built. The capacity of the levees to retain the floods depends on their conditions, their performance level and the capacity of the authorities to well maintain these infrastructures. But recent history shows the limits of a flood risk management strategy focused on protection, leading to levee breaks these last decades. Then, in case of levee break, cities will be flooded. The urban technical networks, due to the way they have been designed, their conditions and their locations in the city, will play a major role in the diffusion of the flood extent. Also, the flood risk will have consequences in some not flooded neighbourhoods due to networks collapses and complex interdependencies. This article describes some methods to design spatial decision support systems in that context.

  17. Multi-stage crypto ransomware attacks: A new emerging cyber threat to critical infrastructure and industrial control systems

    OpenAIRE

    Aaron Zimba; Zhaoshun Wang; Hongsong Chen

    2018-01-01

    The inevitable integration of critical infrastructure to public networks has exposed the underlying industrial control systems to various attack vectors. In this paper, we model multi-stage crypto ransomware attacks, which are today an emerging cyber threat to critical infrastructure. We evaluate our modeling approach using multi-stage attacks by the infamous WannaCry ransomware. The static malware analysis results uncover the techniques employed by the ransomware to discover vulnerable nodes...

  18. Integration of resilience capabilities for Critical Infrastructures into the Emergency Management set-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozine, Igor; Andersen, Henning Boje

    2015-01-01

    We suggest an approach for maintaining and enhancing resilience that integrates the resilience capabilities of Critical Infrastructures (CIs) into the emergency management cycle (prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery). This allows emergency services to explicitly address resilience...

  19. Radiation protection education and training infrastructure. Open and distance learning tools for training in radiation protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marco, M.; Rodriguez, M.; Gonzalez Giralda, C.G.; Bailador Ferreras, A.B. [CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Coeck, M.C. [Studiecentrum voor Kernenergie - Centre d' Etude de l' Energie Nucleaire, Mol (Belgium); Etard, C.E. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France). INSTN, Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires; Moebius, S.M. [FZK -FTU, Munich (Germany); Schmitt-Hanning, A.S. [BfS, Karlsruhe (Germany); Luciani, A.I. [ENEA, Bologna (Italy); Van Der Steen, J.V. [NRG, Petten (Netherlands)

    2006-07-01

    Full text: A sustainable Education and Training (E.T.) infrastructure for Radiation Protection is an essential component to combat the decline in expertise and to ensure the continuation of the high level of radiation protection knowledge in the future. Such infrastructure has to be built in such a way that both the initial training (Education) and the unceasing maintenance of the level of competencies (referred to as 'Training') are available. The E.N.E.T.R.A.P. project intends to develop the E.T. infrastructure mentioned. To achieve the aims of the different tasks and activities, the work programme for the E.N.E.T.R.A.P. Network is divided in eight work packages developed by 11 partners: Each partner will assume responsibility for the W.P.s. C.I.E.M.A.T. is involved in the W.P.-5 'New concepts and new tools for an E.R.P.C.'. The tasks of the W.P.-5 are focussed in the investigation of the electronic tools used in R.P. training and education. This paper presents the first results of this working group. The first task is an approach to the development and usage of learning resources. A review on the e-learning methodologies, the present state of art and its evolution, are being carried out. Results will be used to select the best way to host learning activities in the framework of the E.N.E.T.R.A.P. project. Another important task is to identify, analyse and evaluate the Open and Distance learning tools and material existing for train ing in Radiation Protection. A review on the evolutions, approaches and methodologies aiming to provide education and training in radiation protection, will be carried out. The results of this task will be a summary of links referred to the most interesting R.P. e-learning. Finally, taking in account the previous results a pilot R.P. module of E.R.P.C. should be prepared. (authors)

  20. Radiation protection education and training infrastructure. Open and distance learning tools for training in radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marco, M.; Rodriguez, M.; Gonzalez Giralda, C.G.; Bailador Ferreras, A.B.; Coeck, M.C.; Etard, C.E.; Schmitt-Hanning, A.S.; Luciani, A.I.; Van Der Steen, J.V.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: A sustainable Education and Training (E.T.) infrastructure for Radiation Protection is an essential component to combat the decline in expertise and to ensure the continuation of the high level of radiation protection knowledge in the future. Such infrastructure has to be built in such a way that both the initial training (Education) and the unceasing maintenance of the level of competencies (referred to as 'Training') are available. The E.N.E.T.R.A.P. project intends to develop the E.T. infrastructure mentioned. To achieve the aims of the different tasks and activities, the work programme for the E.N.E.T.R.A.P. Network is divided in eight work packages developed by 11 partners: Each partner will assume responsibility for the W.P.s. C.I.E.M.A.T. is involved in the W.P.-5 'New concepts and new tools for an E.R.P.C.'. The tasks of the W.P.-5 are focussed in the investigation of the electronic tools used in R.P. training and education. This paper presents the first results of this working group. The first task is an approach to the development and usage of learning resources. A review on the e-learning methodologies, the present state of art and its evolution, are being carried out. Results will be used to select the best way to host learning activities in the framework of the E.N.E.T.R.A.P. project. Another important task is to identify, analyse and evaluate the Open and Distance learning tools and material existing for train ing in Radiation Protection. A review on the evolutions, approaches and methodologies aiming to provide education and training in radiation protection, will be carried out. The results of this task will be a summary of links referred to the most interesting R.P. e-learning. Finally, taking in account the previous results a pilot R.P. module of E.R.P.C. should be prepared. (authors)

  1. Review on modeling and simulation of interdependent critical infrastructure systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Min

    2014-01-01

    Modern societies are becoming increasingly dependent on critical infrastructure systems (CISs) to provide essential services that support economic prosperity, governance, and quality of life. These systems are not alone but interdependent at multiple levels to enhance their overall performance. However, recent worldwide events such as the 9/11 terrorist attack, Gulf Coast hurricanes, the Chile and Japanese earthquakes, and even heat waves have highlighted that interdependencies among CISs increase the potential for cascading failures and amplify the impact of both large and small scale initial failures into events of catastrophic proportions. To better understand CISs to support planning, maintenance and emergency decision making, modeling and simulation of interdependencies across CISs has recently become a key field of study. This paper reviews the studies in the field and broadly groups the existing modeling and simulation approaches into six types: empirical approaches, agent based approaches, system dynamics based approaches, economic theory based approaches, network based approaches, and others. Different studies for each type of the approaches are categorized and reviewed in terms of fundamental principles, such as research focus, modeling rationale, and the analysis method, while different types of approaches are further compared according to several criteria, such as the notion of resilience. Finally, this paper offers future research directions and identifies critical challenges in the field. - Highlights: • Modeling approaches on interdependent critical infrastructure systems are reviewed. • I mainly review empirical, agent-based, system-dynamics, economic, network approaches. • Studies by each approach are sorted out in terms of fundamental principles. • Different approaches are further compared with resilience as the main criterion

  2. Organization and implementation of a national regulatory infrastructure governing protection against ionizing radiation and the safety of radiation sources. Interim report for comment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-02-01

    A number of IAEA Member States are undertaking to strengthen their radiation protection and safety infrastructures in order to facilitate the adoption of the requirements established in the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (the Standards). In this connection, the IAEA has developed a technical co-operation programme (Model Project on Upgrading Radiation Protection Infrastructure) to improve radiation protection and safety infrastructures in 51 Member States, taking into account national profiles and needs of the individual participating, countries. The present report deals with the elements of a regulatory infrastructure for radiation protection and safety and intends to facilitate the, implementation of the Basic Safety Standards in practice. It takes into account the proposals in an earlier report, IAEA-TECDOC-663, but it has been expanded to include enabling legislation and modified to be more attuned to infrastructure issues related to implementation of the Standards. The orientation is toward infrastructures concerned with protection and safety for radiation sources used in medicine, agriculture, research, industry and education rather than infrastructures for protection and safety for complex nuclear facilities. It also discusses options for enhancing the effectiveness and efficiency of the infrastructure in accordance with the size and scope of radiation practices and available regulatory resources within a country

  3. Building up the radiation protection infrastructure in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lust, Merle; Muru, Karin

    2008-01-01

    This paper will provide a timeline overview of the of radiation protection infrastructure following the 1999 declaration of independence. In Estonia, an independent competent authority was inaugurated in 1996 and the first Radiation Act was approved by Parliament the following year, in 1997. This paper will address several important factors and the means which promoted development. International cooperation was and remains an essential factor worthy of discussion. For example participation in International Atomic Energy Agency technical co-operation programme and co-operation with neighbouring countries greatly facilitated greatly the development. Political choices and the long term goal of accession to the European Union had great importance to the process also. Today, the Republic of Estonia is member of European Union and has built up a well functioning radiation protection system according the international standards and requirements. This paper is intended to share the experience and to facilitate the learning process. (author)

  4. Organisation et mise en oeuvre d'une infrastructure reglementaire nationale chargee de la protection contre les rayonnements ionisants et de la surete des sources de rayonnements. Rapport interimaire pour observations; Organization and implementation of a national regulatory infrastructure governing protection against ionizing radiation and the safety of radiation sources. Interim report for comment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-11-01

    A number of IAEA Member States are undertaking to strengthen their radiation protection and safety infrastructures in order to facilitate the adoption of the requirements established in the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (the Standards). In this connection, the IAEA has developed a technical co-operation programme (Model Project on Upgrading Radiation Protection Infrastructure) to improve radiation protection and safety infrastructures in 51 Member States, taking into account national profiles and needs of the individual participating, countries. The present report deals with the elements of a regulatory infrastructure for radiation protection and safety and intends to facilitate the, implementation of the Basic Safety Standards in practice. It takes into account the proposals in an earlier report, IAEA-TECDOC-663, but it has been expanded to include enabling legislation and modified to be more attuned to infrastructure issues related to implementation of the Standards. The orientation is toward infrastructures concerned with protection and safety for radiation sources used in medicine, agriculture, research, industry and education rather than infrastructures for protection and safety for complex nuclear facilities. It also discusses options for enhancing the effectiveness and efficiency of the infrastructure in accordance with the size and scope of radiation practices and available regulatory resources within a country.

  5. Cyber Vulnerabilities Within Critical Infrastructure: The Flaws of Industrial Control Systems in the Oil and Gas Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpi, Danielle Marie

    The 16 sectors of critical infrastructure in the US are susceptible to cyber-attacks. Potential attacks come from internal and external threats. These attacks target the industrial control systems (ICS) of companies within critical infrastructure. Weakness in the energy sector's ICS, specifically the oil and gas industry, can result in economic and ecological disaster. The purpose of this study was to establish means for oil companies to identify and stop cyber-attacks specifically APT threats. This research reviewed current cyber vulnerabilities and ways in which a cyber-attack may be deterred. This research found that there are insecure devices within ICS that are not regularly updated. Therefore, security issues have amassed. Safety procedures and training thereof are often neglected. Jurisdiction is unclear in regard to critical infrastructure. The recommendations this research offers are further examination of information sharing methods, development of analytic platforms, and better methods for the implementation of defense-in-depth security measures.

  6. Protecting Critical Rail Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    Gulliver.Trb.Org/Publications/Sr/Sr270.Pdf. 38. Allan J. DeBlasio, Terrance J. Regan, Margaret E . Zirker, Katherine S. Fichter, Kristin Lovejoy ...getrpt?GAO-04-598T. 4. Ibid. 5. Thomas H. Kean, Lee H. Hamilton, Richard Ben-Veniste, Fred F. Fielding, Jamie S. Gorelick, Slade Gorton, Bob Kerrey...Committee, Current and Projected National Security Threats to the United States, Vice Admiral Lowell E . Jacoby, United States Navy, Director, Defense

  7. Spotted hyaena space use in relation to human infrastructure inside a protected area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belton, Lydia E; Cameron, Elissa Z; Dalerum, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    Increasing human population growth has led to elevated levels of human-carnivore conflict. However, some carnivore populations have adapted to urban environments and the resources they supply. Such associations may influence carnivore ecology, behaviour and life-history. Pockets of urbanisation sometimes occur within protected areas, so that anthropogenic influences on carnivore biology are not necessarily confined to unprotected areas. In this study we evaluated associations between human infrastructure and related activity and space use of spotted hyaenas within one of the largest protected areas in South Africa, the Kruger National Park. Home range size was smaller for the dominant female of a clan living in close proximity to humans than that of the dominant female of a clan without direct access to human infrastructure. The home range including human infrastructure was also used less evenly during the night, presumably when the animals were active. Within this home range, a village area was preferred during the night, when the least modified areas within the village were preferred and administration and highly modified areas were avoided. During the day, however, there were no preference or avoidance of the village area, but all habitats except unmodified habitats within the village area were avoided. We suggest that human infrastructure and associated activity influenced hyaena space use, primarily through alterations in the spatial distribution of food. However, these effects may have been indirectly caused by habitat modification that generated favourable hunting habitat rather than a direct effect caused by access to human food such as garbage. Because of the often pivotal effects of apex predators in terrestrial ecosystems, we encourage further work aimed to quantify how human presence influences large carnivores and associated ecosystem processes within protected areas.

  8. 78 FR 24107 - Version 5 Critical Infrastructure Protection Reliability Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ...-Power System.\\6\\ In Order No. 706, the Commission approved eight CIP Reliability Standards (CIP-002-1... documentation requirements to allow entities to focus on the reliability and security of the Bulk Power System... reliability of the bulk electric system. Requirement R1 includes controls to protect data that would be useful...

  9. RISK DISCLOSURE AGAINST ATTACK ON CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Mamoru; Kobayashi, Kiyoshi

    This paper analyzes the government's defensive and disclosure strategies to reduce the damage caused by terrorists that attack critical infrastructures using subjective game theory. The government recognizes a terrorist as a hidden opponent and the government's decision making about the policies against terror attacks depends on the belief about the existence of terrorist. In addition, it is not necessarily true that the government and the terrorist play the common game and make their decisions. Considering these points, the paper formulates the model in which the government and the terrorist formulate the subjective games respectively, and they induce the strategies using the equilibriums of their subjective games. The paper concluded that the government's disclosure about the implementation of the countermeasure, rather than the disclosure of warning level related with the belief about the existence of terrorist, brings about the higher increment of the subjective payoffs of the government.

  10. Investing in Natural and Nature-Based Infrastructure: Building Better Along Our Coasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana E. Sutton-Grier

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Much of the United States’ critical infrastructure is either aging or requires significant repair, leaving U.S. communities and the economy vulnerable. Outdated and dilapidated infrastructure places coastal communities, in particular, at risk from the increasingly frequent and intense coastal storm events and rising sea levels. Therefore, investments in coastal infrastructure are urgently needed to ensure community safety and prosperity; however, these investments should not jeopardize the ecosystems and natural resources that underlie economic wealth and human well-being. Over the past 50 years, efforts have been made to integrate built infrastructure with natural landscape features, often termed “green” infrastructure, in order to sustain and restore valuable ecosystem functions and services. For example, significant advances have been made in implementing green infrastructure approaches for stormwater management, wastewater treatment, and drinking water conservation and delivery. However, the implementation of natural and nature-based infrastructure (NNBI aimed at flood prevention and coastal erosion protection is lagging. There is an opportunity now, as the U.S. government reacts to the recent, unprecedented flooding and hurricane damage and considers greater infrastructure investments, to incorporate NNBI into coastal infrastructure projects. Doing so will increase resilience and provide critical services to local communities in a cost-effective manner and thereby help to sustain a growing economy.

  11. The role of network theory and object-oriented modeling within a framework for the vulnerability analysis of critical infrastructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eusgeld, Irene; Kroeger, Wolfgang; Sansavini, Giovanni; Schlaepfer, Markus; Zio, Enrico

    2009-01-01

    A framework for the analysis of the vulnerability of critical infrastructures has been proposed by some of the authors. The framework basically consists of two successive stages: (i) a screening analysis for identifying the parts of the critical infrastructure most relevant with respect to its vulnerability and (ii) a detailed modeling of the operational dynamics of the identified parts for gaining insights on the causes and mechanisms responsible for the vulnerability. In this paper, a critical presentation is offered of the results of a set of investigations aimed at evaluating the potentials of (i) using network analysis based on measures of topological interconnection and reliability efficiency, for the screening task; (ii) using object-oriented modeling as the simulation framework to capture the detailed dynamics of the operational scenarios involving the most vulnerable parts of the critical infrastructure as identified by the preceding network analysis. A case study based on the Swiss high-voltage transmission system is considered. The results are cross-compared and evaluated; the needs of further research are defined

  12. Critical infrastructure monitoring using UAV imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltezos, Evangelos; Skitsas, Michael; Charalambous, Elisavet; Koutras, Nikolaos; Bliziotis, Dimitris; Themistocleous, Kyriacos

    2016-08-01

    The constant technological evolution in Computer Vision enabled the development of new techniques which in conjunction with the use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) may extract high quality photogrammetric products for several applications. Dense Image Matching (DIM) is a Computer Vision technique that can generate a dense 3D point cloud of an area or object. The use of UAV systems and DIM techniques is not only a flexible and attractive solution to produce accurate and high qualitative photogrammetric results but also is a major contribution to cost effectiveness. In this context, this study aims to highlight the benefits of the use of the UAVs in critical infrastructure monitoring applying DIM. A Multi-View Stereo (MVS) approach using multiple images (RGB digital aerial and oblique images), to fully cover the area of interest, is implemented. The application area is an Olympic venue in Attica, Greece, at an area of 400 acres. The results of our study indicate that the UAV+DIM approach respond very well to the increasingly greater demands for accurate and cost effective applications when provided with, a 3D point cloud and orthomosaic.

  13. Concepts to Analyze the Vulnerability of Critical Infrastructures - Taking into account Cybernetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Petit

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Critical Infrastructures (CIs are complex systems. For their operations, these infrastructures are increasingly using Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA systems. Management practices are therefore highly dependent on the cyber tools, but also on the data needed to make these tools work. Therefore, CIs are greatly vulnerable to degradation of data. In this context, this paper aims at presenting the fundamentals of a method for analyzing the vulnerabilities of CIs towards the use of cyber data. By characterizing cyber vulnerability of CIs, it will be possible to improve the resilience of these networks and to foster a proactive approach to risk management not only by considering cybernetics from a cyber-attack point of view but also by considering the consequences of the use of corrupted data.

  14. Modeling cascading failures in interdependent infrastructures under terrorist attacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Baichao; Tang, Aiping; Wu, Jie

    2016-01-01

    An attack strength degradation model has been introduced to further capture the interdependencies among infrastructures and model cascading failures across infrastructures when terrorist attacks occur. A medium-sized energy system including oil network and power network is selected for exploring the vulnerabilities from independent networks to interdependent networks, considering the structural vulnerability and the functional vulnerability. Two types of interdependencies among critical infrastructures are involved in this paper: physical interdependencies and geographical interdependencies, shown by tunable parameters based on the probabilities of failures of nodes in the networks. In this paper, a tolerance parameter α is used to evaluation of the overloads of the substations based on power flow redistribution in power transmission systems under the attack. The results of simulation show that the independent networks or interdependent networks will be collapsed when only a small fraction of nodes are attacked under the attack strength degradation model, especially for the interdependent networks. The methodology introduced in this paper with physical interdependencies and geographical interdependencies involved in can be applied to analyze the vulnerability of the interdependent infrastructures further, and provides the insights of vulnerability of interdependent infrastructures to mitigation actions for critical infrastructure protections. - Highlights: • An attack strength degradation model based on the specified locations has been introduced. • Interdependencies considering both physical and geographical have been analyzed. • The structural vulnerability and the functional vulnerability have been considered.

  15. Cyber and physical infrastructure interdependencies.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Laurence R.; Kelic, Andjelka; Warren, Drake E.

    2008-09-01

    The goal of the work discussed in this document is to understand the risk to the nation of cyber attacks on critical infrastructures. The large body of research results on cyber attacks against physical infrastructure vulnerabilities has not resulted in clear understanding of the cascading effects a cyber-caused disruption can have on critical national infrastructures and the ability of these affected infrastructures to deliver services. This document discusses current research and methodologies aimed at assessing the translation of a cyber-based effect into a physical disruption of infrastructure and thence into quantification of the economic consequences of the resultant disruption and damage. The document discusses the deficiencies of the existing methods in correlating cyber attacks with physical consequences. The document then outlines a research plan to correct those deficiencies. When completed, the research plan will result in a fully supported methodology to quantify the economic consequences of events that begin with cyber effects, cascade into other physical infrastructure impacts, and result in degradation of the critical infrastructure's ability to deliver services and products. This methodology enables quantification of the risks to national critical infrastructure of cyber threats. The work addresses the electric power sector as an example of how the methodology can be applied.

  16. Effects of a significant New Madrid Seismic Zone event on oil and natural gas pipelines and their cascading effects to critical infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Damon E.

    Critical Infrastructure Protection (CIP) is a construct that relates preparedness and responsiveness to natural or man-made disasters that involve vulnerable assets deemed essential for the functioning of our economy and society. Infrastructure systems (power grids, bridges, airports, etc.) are vulnerable to disastrous types of events--natural or man-made. Failures of these systems can have devastating effects on communities and entire regions. CIP relates our willingness, ability, and capability to defend, mitigate, and re-constitute those assets that succumb to disasters affecting one or more infrastructure sectors. This qualitative research utilized ethnography and employed interviews with subject matter experts (SMEs) from various fields of study regarding CIP with respect to oil and natural gas pipelines in the New Madrid Seismic Zone. The study focused on the research question: What can be done to mitigate vulnerabilities in the oil and natural gas infrastructures, along with the potential cascading effects to interdependent systems, associated with a New Madrid fault event? The researcher also analyzed National Level Exercises (NLE) and real world events, and associated After Action Reports (AAR) and Lessons Learned (LL) in order to place a holistic lens across all infrastructures and their dependencies and interdependencies. Three main themes related to the research question emerged: (a) preparedness, (b) mitigation, and (c) impacts. These themes comprised several dimensions: (a) redundancy, (b) node hardening, (c) education, (d) infrastructure damage, (e) cascading effects, (f) interdependencies, (g) exercises, and (h) earthquake readiness. As themes and dimensions are analyzed, they are considered against findings in AARs and LL from previous real world events and large scale exercise events for validation or rejection.

  17. Critical Infrastructure for Ocean Research and Societal Needs in 2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Research Council

    2011-04-22

    The United States has jurisdiction over 3.4 million square miles of ocean expanse greater than the land area of all fifty states combined. This vast marine area offers researchers opportunities to investigate the ocean's role in an integrated Earth system, but also presents challenges to society, including damaging tsunamis and hurricanes, industrial accidents, and outbreaks of waterborne diseases. The 2010 Gulf of Mexico Deepwater Horizon oil spill and 2011 Japanese earthquake and tsunami are vivid reminders that a broad range of infrastructure is needed to advance our still-incomplete understanding of the ocean. The National Research Council (NRC)'s Ocean Studies Board was asked by the National Science and Technology Council's Subcommittee on Ocean Science and Technology, comprised of 25 U.S. government agencies, to examine infrastructure needs for ocean research in the year 2030. This request reflects concern, among a myriad of marine issues, over the present state of aging and obsolete infrastructure, insufficient capacity, growing technological gaps, and declining national leadership in marine technological development; issues brought to the nation's attention in 2004 by the U.S. Commission on Ocean Policy. A 15-member committee of experts identified four themes that encompass 32 future ocean research questions enabling stewardship of the environment, protecting life and property, promoting economic vitality, and increasing fundamental scientific understanding. Many of the questions in the report (e.g., sea level rise, sustainable fisheries, the global water cycle) reflect challenging, multidisciplinary science questions that are clearly relevant today, and are likely to take decades of effort to solve. As such, U.S. ocean research will require a growing suite of ocean infrastructure for a range of activities, such as high quality, sustained time series observations or autonomous monitoring at a broad range of spatial and temporal scales

  18. Multi-Level Data-Security and Data-Protection in a Distributed Search Infrastructure for Digital Medical Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Michael; Krefting, Dagmar

    2016-01-01

    Human sample data is stored in biobanks with software managing digital derived sample data. When these stand-alone components are connected and a search infrastructure is employed users become able to collect required research data from different data sources. Data protection, patient rights, data heterogeneity and access control are major challenges for such an infrastructure. This dissertation will investigate concepts for a multi-level security architecture to comply with these requirements.

  19. Development of a structural health monitoring system for the life assessment of critical transportation infrastructure.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roach, Dennis Patrick; Jauregui, David Villegas (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM); Daumueller, Andrew Nicholas (New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM)

    2012-02-01

    Recent structural failures such as the I-35W Mississippi River Bridge in Minnesota have underscored the urgent need for improved methods and procedures for evaluating our aging transportation infrastructure. This research seeks to develop a basis for a Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) system to provide quantitative information related to the structural integrity of metallic structures to make appropriate management decisions and ensuring public safety. This research employs advanced structural analysis and nondestructive testing (NDT) methods for an accurate fatigue analysis. Metal railroad bridges in New Mexico will be the focus since many of these structures are over 100 years old and classified as fracture-critical. The term fracture-critical indicates that failure of a single component may result in complete collapse of the structure such as the one experienced by the I-35W Bridge. Failure may originate from sources such as loss of section due to corrosion or cracking caused by fatigue loading. Because standard inspection practice is primarily visual, these types of defects can go undetected due to oversight, lack of access to critical areas, or, in riveted members, hidden defects that are beneath fasteners or connection angles. Another issue is that it is difficult to determine the fatigue damage that a structure has experienced and the rate at which damage is accumulating due to uncertain history and load distribution in supporting members. A SHM system has several advantages that can overcome these limitations. SHM allows critical areas of the structure to be monitored more quantitatively under actual loading. The research needed to apply SHM to metallic structures was performed and a case study was carried out to show the potential of SHM-driven fatigue evaluation to assess the condition of critical transportation infrastructure and to guide inspectors to potential problem areas. This project combines the expertise in transportation infrastructure at New

  20. Protection of Urban Water body Infrastructure - Policy Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelakantan, T. R.; Ramakrishnan, K.

    2017-07-01

    Water body is an important infrastructure of urban landscape. Water bodies like tanks and ponds are constructed to harvest rainwater for local use. Such water bodies serve many environmental functions including flood and soil erosion control and are useful for irrigation, drinking water supply and groundwater recharge. A large number of water bodies recently have been lost due to anthropogenic activities and the remaining water bodies are under stress due to risk of degradation. There are many phases to solve or control the problem; starting from stopping the abuse, to restoration to monitoring and maintenance. In this situation, the existing urban and peri-urban water bodies are to be preserved and rehabilitated. In this study, policy requirements for the protection (preservation and rehabilitation) of water bodies are analyzed with special reference to Thanjavur city. Thanjavur city has many water bodies and moat around the Big-Temple and the palace, and stands as an evidence for water management in ancient days. These water bodies are to be protected and used properly for sustainable growth of the city. This paper envisages the following three: (a) need for evaluation of hydraulic and hydrologic properties of the water bodies for conserving rainwater and controlling flood water in the existing urban water bodies; (b) need for evaluation of potential of socio-environmental services by the water bodies, and (c) need for developing a relative importance index for protection of water bodies to prioritize the remedial actions.

  1. Green Infrastructure, Groundwater and the Sustainable City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Band, L. E.

    2014-12-01

    The management of water is among the most important attributes of urbanization. Provision of sufficient quantities and quality of freshwater, treatment and disposal of wastewater and flood protection are critical for urban sustainability. Over the last century, two major shifts in water management paradigms have occurred, the first to improve public health with the provision of infrastructure for centralized sanitary effluent collection and treatment, and the rapid drainage and routing of stormwater. A current shift in paradigm is now occurring in response to the unintended consequences of sanitary and stormwater management, which have degraded downstream water bodies and shifted flood hazard downstream. Current infrastructure is being designed and implemented to retain, rather than rapidly drain, stormwater, with a focus on infiltration based methods. In urban areas, this amounts to a shift in hydrologic behavior to depression focused recharge. While stormwater is defined as surface flow resulting from developed areas, an integrated hydrologic systems approach to urban water management requires treatment of the full critical zone. In urban areas this extends from the top of the vegetation and building canopy, to a subsurface depth including natural soils, fill, saprolite and bedrock. In addition to matric and network flow in fracture systems, an urban "karst" includes multiple generations of current and past infrastructure, which has developed extensive subsurface pipe networks for supply and drainage, enhancing surface/groundwater flows and exchange. In this presentation, Band will discuss the need to focus on the urban critical zone, and the development and adaptation of new modeling and analytical approaches to understand and plan green infrastructure based on surface/groundwater/ecosystem interactions, and implications for the restoration and new design of cities.

  2. Will climate change increase the risk for critical infrastructure failures in Europe due to extreme precipitation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Katrin; Ulbrich, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    An event based detection algorithm for extreme precipitation is applied to a multi-model ensemble of regional climate model simulations. The algorithm determines extent, location, duration and severity of extreme precipitation events. We assume that precipitation in excess of the local present-day 10-year return value will potentially exceed the capacity of the drainage systems that protect critical infrastructure elements. This assumption is based on legislation for the design of drainage systems which is in place in many European countries. Thus, events exceeding the local 10-year return value are detected. In this study we distinguish between sub-daily events (3 hourly) with high precipitation intensities and long-duration events (1-3 days) with high precipitation amounts. The climate change simulations investigated here were conducted within the EURO-CORDEX framework and exhibit a horizontal resolution of approximately 12.5 km. The period between 1971-2100 forced with observed and scenario (RCP 8.5 and RCP 4.5) greenhouse gas concentrations was analysed. Examined are changes in event frequency, event duration and size. The simulations show an increase in the number of extreme precipitation events for the future climate period over most of the area, which is strongest in Northern Europe. Strength and statistical significance of the signal increase with increasing greenhouse gas concentrations. This work has been conducted within the EU project RAIN (Risk Analysis of Infrastructure Networks in response to extreme weather).

  3. The Resource Hazards Model for the Critical Infrastructure of the State Emergency Management Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostrowska Teresa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation of the relevant factors related to the construction of a resource model which is designed to be useful in the management processes of the operation of critical infrastructure (CI for state emergencies. The genesis of the research lay in the perceived need for effective protection of multidimensional CI methodologies, and it was influenced by the nature of the physical characteristics of the available resources. It was necessary to establish a clear structure and well defined objectives and to assess the functional and structural resources required, as well as the potential relational susceptibilities deriving from a number of possible threats and the possible seriousness of a specific range of incidents and their possible consequences. The interdependence of CI stocks is shown by the use of tables of resource classes. The dynamics of the interaction of CI resources are modeled by examining how using clusters of potential risks can at any given time create a class of compounds related to susceptibilities and threats to the resources. As a result, the model can be used to conduct multi-dimensional risk calculations for crisis management CI resource configurations.

  4. Primer to Design Safe School Projects in Case of Terrorist Attacks and School Shootings. Buildings and Infrastructure Protection Series. FEMA-428/BIPS-07/January 2012. Edition 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipley, Michael; Lyon, Wesley; Smilowitz, Robert; Williams, Pax; Arnold, Christopher; Blewett, William; Hazen, Lee; Krimgold, Fred

    2012-01-01

    This publication, part of the new Building and Infrastructure Protection Series (BIPS) published by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Science and Technology Directorate (S&T) Infrastructure Protection and Disaster Management Division (IDD), serves to advance high performance and integrated design for buildings and infrastructure. This…

  5. Complexity and Vulnerability Analysis of Critical Infrastructures: A Methodological Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongliang Deng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vulnerability analysis of network models has been widely adopted to explore the potential impacts of random disturbances, deliberate attacks, and natural disasters. However, almost all these models are based on a fixed topological structure, in which the physical properties of infrastructure components and their interrelationships are not well captured. In this paper, a new research framework is put forward to quantitatively explore and assess the complexity and vulnerability of critical infrastructure systems. Then, a case study is presented to prove the feasibility and validity of the proposed framework. After constructing metro physical network (MPN, Pajek is employed to analyze its corresponding topological properties, including degree, betweenness, average path length, network diameter, and clustering coefficient. With a comprehensive understanding of the complexity of MPN, it would be beneficial for metro system to restrain original near-miss or accidents and support decision-making in emergency situations. Moreover, through the analysis of two simulation protocols for system component failure, it is found that the MPN turned to be vulnerable under the condition that the high-degree nodes or high-betweenness edges are attacked. These findings will be conductive to offer recommendations and proposals for robust design, risk-based decision-making, and prioritization of risk reduction investment.

  6. Integrating Critical Disability Studies into the Historiography of Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galis, Vasilis; Tympas, Aristotle; Tzokas, Spyros

    Infrastructures are habitually associated with enabling, with facilitating mobility. Attention to accidents and related failures of infrastructures, due to accidental or endemic reasons, has substantially enriched the historiography of infrastructures while, at the same time, pointing to limits...... infrastructures became sites for regulating and controlling certain groups. Seen like this, transport technologies, at remote national borders and in the heart of a national metropolis, were a key field for sociotechnical battles that produced dis/abled-displaced bodies, that is, a new corporeal subject. Dis...... idea of the human being “(Shildrick, 2010)....

  7. The provision of Technical Co-operation: The model project for upgrading radiation protection infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barretto, P.M.C.

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes the IAEA's systematic effort to address the inadequate situation in many of its Member States with regard to radiation protection and safety. For this effort a special project was created and implemented in the past five years to create or strengthen existing radiation protection infrastructure in 52 countries where such infrastructure was non-existent or not appropriate for the type of practice involved. The implementation of this project focused on the development of qualified human resources, assistance for introduction of appropriate legislation and equipment for inspection and analysis. Workplans were tailored to the individual needs of each participating country and the elements of these workplans were grouped into five milestones -- regulatory framework, occupational exposure control, medical exposure control, public exposure control, and emergency preparedness and response capabilities. By the end of 2000 more than 70% of the participating countries had radiation protection laws promulgated and a regulatory authority established; 46% had regulations adopted and 42% had a system of notification, authorization and control of radiation sources operational. During the five years of implementation, 555 fellows received individual training, another 2278 participated in training courses, over 1000 expert missions were fielded and equipment worth about US $6 million was provided. The total cost was over US $17 million. (author)

  8. Advanced simulation for analysis of critical infrastructure : abstract cascades, the electric power grid, and Fedwire.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, Robert John, Jr.; Stamber, Kevin Louis; Beyeler, Walter Eugene

    2004-08-01

    Critical Infrastructures are formed by a large number of components that interact within complex networks. As a rule, infrastructures contain strong feedbacks either explicitly through the action of hardware/software control, or implicitly through the action/reaction of people. Individual infrastructures influence others and grow, adapt, and thus evolve in response to their multifaceted physical, economic, cultural, and political environments. Simply put, critical infrastructures are complex adaptive systems. In the Advanced Modeling and Techniques Investigations (AMTI) subgroup of the National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC), we are studying infrastructures as complex adaptive systems. In one of AMTI's efforts, we are focusing on cascading failure as can occur with devastating results within and between infrastructures. Over the past year we have synthesized and extended the large variety of abstract cascade models developed in the field of complexity science and have started to apply them to specific infrastructures that might experience cascading failure. In this report we introduce our comprehensive model, Polynet, which simulates cascading failure over a wide range of network topologies, interaction rules, and adaptive responses as well as multiple interacting and growing networks. We first demonstrate Polynet for the classical Bac, Tang, and Wiesenfeld or BTW sand-pile in several network topologies. We then apply Polynet to two very different critical infrastructures: the high voltage electric power transmission system which relays electricity from generators to groups of distribution-level consumers, and Fedwire which is a Federal Reserve service for sending large-value payments between banks and other large financial institutions. For these two applications, we tailor interaction rules to represent appropriate unit behavior and consider the influence of random transactions within two stylized networks: a regular homogeneous array

  9. Strengthening Radiation Protection Infrastructures in Africa: Towards Establishing Effective and Sustainable Co-operations and Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-09-01

    The third African IRPA 2010 conference on Strengthening Radiation Protection Infrastructures in Africa: Towards Establishing Effective and Sustainable Co-operations and Networks. IAEA's role in radiation protection with focus in Africa. The controlling of exposure to indoor Radon. And Measure of activities and calculation of effective dose of indoor 222 Rn in some dwelling and enclosed areas in Africa - capacity building for radiation protection. It had also address Patient Radiation Protection in Radiotherapy, challenges for advancing medical physic globally, Heath effects and medical applications of non-ionizing radiation, nuclear safety and radiation protection consideration in the design of research and development. The International radiation protection association (IRPA) 2010-2011 strategic plan that address among other issues educations and training activities (2000-2020) and the current UNSCLEAR activities

  10. Cyber Attacks and Energy Infrastructures: Anticipating Risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desarnaud, Gabrielle

    2017-01-01

    This study analyses the likelihood of cyber-attacks against European energy infrastructures and their potential consequences, particularly on the electricity grid. It also delivers a comparative analysis of measures taken by different European countries to protect their industries and collaborate within the European Union. The energy sector experiences an unprecedented digital transformation upsetting its activities and business models. Our energy infrastructures, sometimes more than a decade old and designed to remain functional for many years to come, now constantly interact with light digital components. The convergence of the global industrial system with the power of advanced computing and analytics reveals untapped opportunities at every step of the energy value chain. However, the introduction of digital elements in old and unprotected industrial equipment also exposes the energy industry to the cyber risk. One of the most compelling example of the type of threat the industry is facing, is the 2015 cyber-attack on the Ukraine power grid, which deprived about 200 000 people of electricity in the middle of the winter. The number and the level of technical expertise of cyber-attacks rose significantly after the discovery of the Stuxnet worm in the network of Natanz uranium enrichment site in 2010. Energy transition policies and the growing integration of renewable sources of energy will intensify this tendency, if cyber security measures are not part of the design of our future energy infrastructures. Regulators try to catch up and adapt, like in France where the authorities collaborate closely with the energy industry to set up a strict and efficient regulatory framework, and protect critical operators. This approach is adopted elsewhere in Europe, but common measures applicable to the whole European Union are essential to protect strongly interconnected energy infrastructures against a multiform threat that defies frontiers

  11. Organisation et mise en oeuvre d'une infrastructure reglementaire nationale chargee de la protection contre les rayonnements ionisants et de la surete des sources de rayonnements. Rapport interimaire pour observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-11-01

    A number of IAEA Member States are undertaking to strengthen their radiation protection and safety infrastructures in order to facilitate the adoption of the requirements established in the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (the Standards). In this connection, the IAEA has developed a technical co-operation programme (Model Project on Upgrading Radiation Protection Infrastructure) to improve radiation protection and safety infrastructures in 51 Member States, taking into account national profiles and needs of the individual participating, countries. The present report deals with the elements of a regulatory infrastructure for radiation protection and safety and intends to facilitate the, implementation of the Basic Safety Standards in practice. It takes into account the proposals in an earlier report, IAEA-TECDOC-663, but it has been expanded to include enabling legislation and modified to be more attuned to infrastructure issues related to implementation of the Standards. The orientation is toward infrastructures concerned with protection and safety for radiation sources used in medicine, agriculture, research, industry and education rather than infrastructures for protection and safety for complex nuclear facilities. It also discusses options for enhancing the effectiveness and efficiency of the infrastructure in accordance with the size and scope of radiation practices and available regulatory resources within a country

  12. Effectively protecting cyber infrastructure and assessing security needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robbins, J.; Starman, R. [EWA Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    This presentation addressed some of the requirements for effectively protecting cyber infrastructure and assessing security needs. The paper discussed the hype regarding cyber attacks, and presented the Canadian reality (as viewed by CanCERT). An assessment of security concerns was also presented. Recent cyber attacks on computer networks have raised fears of unsafe energy networks. Some experts claim the attacks are linked to terrorism, others blame industrial spying and mischief. Others dismiss the notion that somebody could bring down a power grid with a laptop as being far-fetched. It was noted that the cyber security threat is real, and that attacks are becoming more sophisticated as we live in a target rich environment. The issue of assessing vulnerabilities was discussed along with the selection of safeguards such as improving SCADA systems and the latest encryption methods to prevent hackers from bringing down computer networks. 3 tabs., 23 figs.

  13. European dimension of the implementation of the IAEA TC model project 'Upgrading radiation protection infrastructure'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabol, J.

    2001-01-01

    A comprehensive evaluation carried out by the IAEA during the period 1984-1995 showed that eleven countries in Europe -- Albania, Armenia, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Cyprus, Estonia, Georgia, Latvia, Lithuania, the Republic of Moldova, The Former Yugoslav Republic (TFYR) of Macedonia -- did not have a satisfactory system for radiation protection and the safety of radiation sources in accordance with the recommended international requirements. During the past four years, these countries have been participating in a Model Project aimed at upgrading radiation protection infrastructure in the Europe region with special emphasis on the establishment of an effective legal framework for adequate regulatory control of radiation sources and facilities. This paper analyses the results accomplished in the implementation of this project. It presents the main objectives, based on the present achievements for a follow-up programme to be carried out in participating and also in some other Member States with insufficient national infrastructures for assuring adequate safety in nuclear and radiation technologies. (author)

  14. Economics in Criticality and Restoration of Energy Infrastructures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Gale A.; Flaim, Silvio J.; Folga, Stephen M.; Gotham, Douglas J.; McLamore, Michael R.; Novak, Mary H.; Roop, Joe M.; Rossmann, Charles G.; Shamsuddin, Shabbir A.; Zeichner, Lee M.; Stamber, Kevin L.

    2005-03-01

    Economists, systems analysts, engineers, regulatory specialists, and other experts were assembled from academia, the national laboratories, and the energy industry to discuss present restoration practices (many have already been defined to the level of operational protocols) in the sectors of the energy infrastructure as well as other infrastructures, to identify whether economics, a discipline concerned with the allocation of scarce resources, is explicitly or implicitly a part of restoration strategies, and if there are novel economic techniques and solution methods that could be used help encourage the restoration of energy services more quickly than present practices or to restore service more efficiently from an economic perspective. AcknowledgementsDevelopment of this work into a coherent product with a useful message has occurred thanks to the thoughtful support of several individuals:Kenneth Friedman, Department of Energy, Office of Energy Assurance, provided the impetus for the work, as well as several suggestions and reminders of direction along the way. Funding from DOE/OEA was critical to the completion of this effort.Arnold Baker, Chief Economist, Sandia National Laboratories, and James Peerenboom, Director, Infrastructure Assurance Center, Argonne National Laboratory, provided valuable contacts that helped to populate the authoring team with the proper mix of economists, engineers, and systems and regulatory specialists to meet the objectives of the work.Several individuals provided valuable review of the document at various stages of completion, and provided suggestions that were valuable to the editing process. This list of reviewers includes Jeffrey Roark, Economist, Tennessee Valley Authority; James R. Dalrymple, Manager of Transmission System Services and Transmission/Power Supply, Tennessee Valley Authority; William Mampre, Vice President, EN Engineering; Kevin Degenstein, EN Engineering; and Patrick Wilgang, Department of Energy, Office of

  15. Cyberwarfare on the Electricity Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murarka, N.; Ramesh, V.C.

    2000-03-20

    The report analyzes the possibility of cyberwarfare on the electricity infrastructure. The ongoing deregulation of the electricity industry makes the power grid all the more vulnerable to cyber attacks. The report models the power system information system components, models potential threats and protective measures. It therefore offers a framework for infrastructure protection.

  16. 78 FR 29375 - Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Office Self-Assessment Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... Information (PCII) Office Self- Assessment Questionnaire AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate... comments concerning New Information Collection Request, PCII Officer Questionnaire. DHS previously... without alteration at http://www.regulations.gov , including any personal information provided. OMB is...

  17. Using VELMA to Quantify and Visualize the Effectiveness of Green Infrastructure Options for Protecting Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    This webinar describes the use of VELMA, a spatially-distributed ecohydrological model, to identify green infrastructure (GI) best management practices for protecting water quality in intensively managed watersheds. The seminar will include a brief description of VELMA and an ex...

  18. Addressing Criticisms of Large-Scale Marine Protected Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Natalie C; Fernandez, Miriam; Friedlander, Alan M; García-Borboroglu, Pablo; Golbuu, Yimnang; Guidetti, Paolo; Harris, Jean M; Hawkins, Julie P; Langlois, Tim; McCauley, Douglas J; Pikitch, Ellen K; Richmond, Robert H; Roberts, Callum M

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Designated large-scale marine protected areas (LSMPAs, 100,000 or more square kilometers) constitute over two-thirds of the approximately 6.6% of the ocean and approximately 14.5% of the exclusive economic zones within marine protected areas. Although LSMPAs have received support among scientists and conservation bodies for wilderness protection, regional ecological connectivity, and improving resilience to climate change, there are also concerns. We identified 10 common criticisms of LSMPAs along three themes: (1) placement, governance, and management; (2) political expediency; and (3) social–ecological value and cost. Through critical evaluation of scientific evidence, we discuss the value, achievements, challenges, and potential of LSMPAs in these arenas. We conclude that although some criticisms are valid and need addressing, none pertain exclusively to LSMPAs, and many involve challenges ubiquitous in management. We argue that LSMPAs are an important component of a diversified management portfolio that tempers potential losses, hedges against uncertainty, and enhances the probability of achieving sustainably managed oceans. PMID:29731514

  19. 77 FR 68795 - Protected Critical Infrastructure Information (PCII) Office Self-Assessment Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-16

    ... Information (PCII) Office Self- Assessment Questionnaire AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate... received will be posted without alteration at http://www.regulations.gov , including any personal...). This questionnaire is designed to gather information from PCII Officers that will be used by the NPPD...

  20. Influence of safeguards and fire protection on criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    There are several positive influences of safeguards and fire protection on criticality safety. Experts in each discipline must be aware of regulations and requirements of the others and work together to ensure a fault-tree design. EG and G Idaho, Inc., routinely uses an Occupancy-Use Readiness Manual to consider all aspects of criticality safety, fire protection, and safeguards. The use of the analytical tree is described

  1. A Conceptual Framework for Vulnerability Assessment of Climate Change Impact on Critical Oil and Gas Infrastructure in the Niger Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Udie

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of climate change on the Niger Delta is severe, as extreme weather events have inflicted various degrees of stress on critical oil/gas infrastructure. Typically, assets managers and government agencies lack a clear framework for evaluating the vulnerability of these systems. This paper presents a participatory framework for the vulnerability assessment of critical oil/gas infrastructure to climate change impacts in the Niger Delta context. Through a critical review of relevant literature and triangulating observational and exploratory data from the field, this paper has developed a conceptual framework with three elements: (1 a preliminary scoping activity; (2 the vulnerability assessment; and (3 mainstreaming the results into institutional asset management codes. Scoping involves the definition of research aims and objectives, review of prevailing climate burdens and impacts, exploratory investigation, screening for new (planned assets and selection of relevant infrastructure. The emphasis on screening for planned infrastructure is to facilitate the incorporation of sustainable adaptive capacities into the original design of identified systems. A conceptual framework for vulnerability assessment is presented as a robust systematic iterative model for the evaluation of selected assets using an appropriate methodology. In this study, analytic hierarchy process (AHP is applied while mainstreaming as part of the research framework is emphasised to aid commercial implementation from an expert-based perspective. The study recommends the use of other suitable methodologies and systematic approaches to test the flexibility of the framework.

  2. Examining Cybersecurity of Cyberphysical Systems for Critical Infrastructures Through Work Domain Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Lau, Nathan; Gerdes, Ryan M

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to apply work domain analysis for cybersecurity assessment and design of supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems. Adoption of information and communication technology in cyberphysical systems (CPSs) for critical infrastructures enables automated and distributed control but introduces cybersecurity risk. Many CPSs employ SCADA industrial control systems that have become the target of cyberattacks, which inflict physical damage without use of force. Given that absolute security is not feasible for complex systems, cyberintrusions that introduce unanticipated events will occur; a proper response will in turn require human adaptive ability. Therefore, analysis techniques that can support security assessment and human factors engineering are invaluable for defending CPSs. We conducted work domain analysis using the abstraction hierarchy (AH) to model a generic SCADA implementation to identify the functional structures and means-ends relations. We then adopted a case study approach examining the Stuxnet cyberattack by developing and integrating AHs for the uranium enrichment process, SCADA implementation, and malware to investigate the interactions between the three aspects of cybersecurity in CPSs. The AHs for modeling a generic SCADA implementation and studying the Stuxnet cyberattack are useful for mapping attack vectors, identifying deficiencies in security processes and features, and evaluating proposed security solutions with respect to system objectives. Work domain analysis is an effective analytical method for studying cybersecurity of CPSs for critical infrastructures in a psychologically relevant manner. Work domain analysis should be applied to assess cybersecurity risk and inform engineering and user interface design.

  3. Securing the United States' power infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Happenny, Sean F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The United States’ power infrastructure is aging, underfunded, and vulnerable to cyber attack. Emerging smart grid technologies may take some of the burden off of existing systems and make the grid as a whole more efficient, reliable, and secure. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is funding research into several aspects of smart grid technology and grid security, creating a software simulation tool that will allow researchers to test power distribution networks utilizing different smart grid technologies to determine how the grid and these technologies react under different circumstances. Demonstrating security in embedded systems is another research area PNNL is tackling. Many of the systems controlling the U.S. critical infrastructure, such as the power grid, lack integrated security and the networks protecting them are becoming easier to breach. Providing a virtual power substation network to each student team at the National Collegiate Cyber Defense Competition, thereby supporting the education of future cyber security professionals, is another way PNNL is helping to strengthen the security of the nation’s power infrastructure.

  4. A risk-based approach to setting priorities in protecting bridges against terrorist attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Maria; Lambert, James H; Mosenthal, Alexander

    2004-08-01

    This article presents an approach to the problem of terrorism risk assessment and management by adapting the framework of the risk filtering, ranking, and management method. The assessment is conducted at two levels: (1) the system level, and (2) the asset-specific level. The system-level risk assessment attempts to identify and prioritize critical infrastructures from an inventory of system assets. The definition of critical infrastructures offered by Presidential Decision Directive 63 was used to determine the set of attributes to identify critical assets--categorized according to national, regional, and local impact. An example application is demonstrated using information from the Federal Highway Administration National Bridge Inventory for the State of Virginia. Conversely, the asset-specific risk assessment performs an in-depth analysis of the threats and vulnerabilities of a specific critical infrastructure. An illustration is presented to offer some insights in risk scenario identification and prioritization, multiobjective evaluation of management options, and extreme-event analysis for critical infrastructure protection.

  5. Development of an anti-flood board to protect the interiors and exteriors of the infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petru, Michal; Srb, Pavel; Sevcik, Ladislav; Martinec, Tomas; Kulhavy, Petr

    2018-06-01

    This article deals with the development of an anti-flood board to protect the interior and exterior of various infrastructures, such a houses, cottages or industrial buildings. It was designed prototypes and assembled numerical simulations. In Central Europe and in particular in the Czech Republic, floods are an integral part of the natural water cycle and cause great loss of life and great property damage. The development of new types of mobile anti-flood boards is very important as the design solution is developed for flood protection with regard to minimizing weight, cost of production, easy manipulation, simplicity and speed of installation.

  6. Report of the Commission to Assess the Threat to the United States from Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) Attack: Critical National Infrastructures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Foster, Jr., John S; Gjelde, Earl; Graham, William R; Hermann, Robert J; Kluepfel, Henry M; Lawson, Richard L; Soper, Gordon K; Wood, Lowell L; Woodard, Joan B

    2008-01-01

    ...) attack on our critical national infrastructures. An earlier report, Report of the Commission to Assess the Threat to the United States from Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP), Volume 1: Executive Report (2004...

  7. Cyber Threats to Nuclear Infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert S. Anderson; Paul Moskowitz; Mark Schanfein; Trond Bjornard; Curtis St. Michel

    2010-07-01

    Nuclear facility personnel expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against both natural and man-made threats. Historically, most attention has been placed on physical security. Recently however, the threat of cyber-related attacks has become a recognized and growing world-wide concern. Much attention has focused on the vulnerability of the electric grid and chemical industries to cyber attacks, in part, because of their use of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. Lessons learned from work in these sectors indicate that the cyber threat may extend to other critical infrastructures including sites where nuclear and radiological materials are now stored. In this context, this white paper presents a hypothetical scenario by which a determined adversary launches a cyber attack that compromises the physical protection system and results in a reduced security posture at such a site. The compromised security posture might then be malevolently exploited in a variety of ways. The authors conclude that the cyber threat should be carefully considered for all nuclear infrastructures.

  8. Cyber Threats to Nuclear Infrastructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Robert S.; Moskowitz, Paul; Schanfein, Mark; Bjornard, Trond; St. Michel, Curtis

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear facility personnel expend considerable efforts to ensure that their facilities can maintain continuity of operations against both natural and man-made threats. Historically, most attention has been placed on physical security. Recently however, the threat of cyber-related attacks has become a recognized and growing world-wide concern. Much attention has focused on the vulnerability of the electric grid and chemical industries to cyber attacks, in part, because of their use of Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) systems. Lessons learned from work in these sectors indicate that the cyber threat may extend to other critical infrastructures including sites where nuclear and radiological materials are now stored. In this context, this white paper presents a hypothetical scenario by which a determined adversary launches a cyber attack that compromises the physical protection system and results in a reduced security posture at such a site. The compromised security posture might then be malevolently exploited in a variety of ways. The authors conclude that the cyber threat should be carefully considered for all nuclear infrastructures.

  9. METHODS OF MANAGING TRAFFIC DISTRIBUTION IN INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION NETWORKS OF CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Kosenko, Viktor; Persiyanova, Elena; Belotskyy, Oleksiy; Malyeyeva, Olga

    2017-01-01

    The subject matter of the article is information and communication networks (ICN) of critical infrastructure systems (CIS). The goal of the work is to create methods for managing the data flows and resources of the ICN of CIS to improve the efficiency of information processing. The following tasks were solved in the article: the data flow model of multi-level ICN structure was developed, the method of adaptive distribution of data flows was developed, the method of network resource assignment...

  10. Critical health infrastructure for refugee resettlement in rural Australia: case study of four rural towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sypek, Scott; Clugston, Gregory; Phillips, Christine

    2008-12-01

    To explore the reported impact of regional resettlement of refugees on rural health services, and identify critical health infrastructure for refugee resettlement. Comparative case study, using interviews and situational analysis. Four rural communities in New South Wales, which had been the focus of regional resettlement of refugees since 1999. Refugees, general practitioners, practice managers and volunteer support workers in each town (n = 24). The capacity of health care workers to provide comprehensive care is threatened by low numbers of practitioners, and high levels of turnover of health care staff, which results in attrition of specialised knowledge among health care workers treating refugees. Critical health infrastructure includes general practices with interest and surge capacity, subsidised dental services, mental health support services; clinical support services for rural practitioners; care coordination in the early settlement period; and a supported volunteer network. The need for intensive medical support is greatest in the early resettlement period for 'catch-up' primary health care. The difficulties experienced by rural Australia in securing equitable access to health services are amplified for refugees. While there are economic arguments about resettlement of refugees in regional Australia, the fragility of health services in regional Australia should also be factored into considerations about which towns are best suited to regional resettlement.

  11. Increasing the resilience and security of the United States' power infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Happenny, Sean F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The United States' power infrastructure is aging, underfunded, and vulnerable to cyber attack. Emerging smart grid technologies may take some of the burden off of existing systems and make the grid as a whole more efficient, reliable, and secure. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is funding research into several aspects of smart grid technology and grid security, creating a software simulation tool that will allow researchers to test power infrastructure control and distribution paradigms by utilizing different smart grid technologies to determine how the grid and these technologies react under different circumstances. Understanding how these systems behave in real-world conditions will lead to new ways to make our power infrastructure more resilient and secure. Demonstrating security in embedded systems is another research area PNNL is tackling. Many of the systems controlling the U.S. critical infrastructure, such as the power grid, lack integrated security and the aging networks protecting them are becoming easier to attack.

  12. A GIS Inventory of Critical Coastal Infrastructure Land Use in Caribbean Island Small Island Developing States: Classification and Criteria Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'aversa, N.; Becker, A.; Bove, G.

    2017-12-01

    Caribbean Small Island Developing States (SIDS) face significant natural hazard risks, as demonstrated by recent Hurricanes Jose, Irma, and Maria. Scientists project storms to become more intense and sea level rise to increase over the next century. As a result, the Inter-American Development Bank projections suggest that Caribbean nations could face climate-related losses in excess of $22 billion annually by 2050. Critical infrastructure that supports island economies, such as airports, seaports, cruise ports, and energy facilities, are typically located in the coastal zone with high exposure to natural hazards. Despite the increasing danger from climate driven natural hazards in coastal zones in the region, there is very little data available to identify how much land and associated infrastructure is at risk. This work focuses on the criteria and data standards developed for this new region-wide GIS database, which will then be used to formulate a risk assessment. Results will be integrated into a single, comprehensive source for data of lands identified as critical coastal infrastructure and used to address such questions as: How much of the Caribbean SIDS infrastructure lands are at risk from sea level rise? How might demand for such lands change in the future, based on historical trends? Answers to these questions will help decision makers understand how to prioritize resilience investment decisions in the coming decades.

  13. Cybersecurity Protection: Design Science Research toward an Intercloud Transparent Bridge Architecture (ITCOBRA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Joe M.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation uses design science research and engineering to develop a cloud-based simulator for modeling next-generation cybersecurity protection frameworks in the United States. The claim is made that an agile and neutral framework extending throughout the cyber-threat plane is needed for critical infrastructure protection (CIP). This…

  14. Critical infrastructures at risk: A need for a new conceptual approach and extended analytical tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroeger, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Recent decades have witnessed on the one hand a much greater and tighter integration of goods or services supply systems and growing interconnectedness as well as changing organizational and operational factors, and on the other hand an increased social vulnerability in the face of accidental or intentional disruption. The work of the International Risk Governance Council (IRGC) in the field of critical infrastructures has focused on both the risks associated with five individual infrastructures and the issues associated with the increasing interdependence between them. This paper presents a selection of system weaknesses and a number of policy options that have been identified and highlights issues for further investigation and dialogue with stakeholders. Furthermore, the need to extend current modeling and simulation techniques in order to cope with the increasing system complexity is elaborated. An object-oriented, hybrid modeling approach promising to overcome some of the shortcomings of traditional methods is presented

  15. STOCHASTIC COLOURED PETRINET BASED HEALTHCARE INFRASTRUCTURE INTERDEPENDENCY MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Nukavarapu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Healthcare Critical Infrastructure (HCI protects all sectors of the society from hazards such as terrorism, infectious disease outbreaks, and natural disasters. HCI plays a significant role in response and recovery across all other sectors in the event of a natural or manmade disaster. However, for its continuity of operations and service delivery HCI is dependent on other interdependent Critical Infrastructures (CI such as Communications, Electric Supply, Emergency Services, Transportation Systems, and Water Supply System. During a mass casualty due to disasters such as floods, a major challenge that arises for the HCI is to respond to the crisis in a timely manner in an uncertain and variable environment. To address this issue the HCI should be disaster prepared, by fully understanding the complexities and interdependencies that exist in a hospital, emergency department or emergency response event. Modelling and simulation of a disaster scenario with these complexities would help in training and providing an opportunity for all the stakeholders to work together in a coordinated response to a disaster. The paper would present interdependencies related to HCI based on Stochastic Coloured Petri Nets (SCPN modelling and simulation approach, given a flood scenario as the disaster which would disrupt the infrastructure nodes. The entire model would be integrated with Geographic information based decision support system to visualize the dynamic behaviour of the interdependency of the Healthcare and related CI network in a geographically based environment.

  16. Stochastic Coloured Petrinet Based Healthcare Infrastructure Interdependency Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nukavarapu, Nivedita; Durbha, Surya

    2016-06-01

    The Healthcare Critical Infrastructure (HCI) protects all sectors of the society from hazards such as terrorism, infectious disease outbreaks, and natural disasters. HCI plays a significant role in response and recovery across all other sectors in the event of a natural or manmade disaster. However, for its continuity of operations and service delivery HCI is dependent on other interdependent Critical Infrastructures (CI) such as Communications, Electric Supply, Emergency Services, Transportation Systems, and Water Supply System. During a mass casualty due to disasters such as floods, a major challenge that arises for the HCI is to respond to the crisis in a timely manner in an uncertain and variable environment. To address this issue the HCI should be disaster prepared, by fully understanding the complexities and interdependencies that exist in a hospital, emergency department or emergency response event. Modelling and simulation of a disaster scenario with these complexities would help in training and providing an opportunity for all the stakeholders to work together in a coordinated response to a disaster. The paper would present interdependencies related to HCI based on Stochastic Coloured Petri Nets (SCPN) modelling and simulation approach, given a flood scenario as the disaster which would disrupt the infrastructure nodes. The entire model would be integrated with Geographic information based decision support system to visualize the dynamic behaviour of the interdependency of the Healthcare and related CI network in a geographically based environment.

  17. The national radiation protection infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastauskas, A.

    1999-01-01

    The state system of radiation protection is still being created after Lithuania regained its independancy and in connection with recommendations laid in the ICRP-60 publication and requirements of legislation of European Community. A new regulation institutions was established and a number of laws and regulations related to radiation protection was prepared. The Radiation Protection Centre of Ministry of Health is the regulatory authority responsible for radiation protection of public and of workers using sources of ionizing radiation in Lithuania. A new Radiation Protection Law, Nuclear Energy Law, Radioactive Waste Management Law and different regulations was approved. Preparation of legislation, creation of state system of radiation protection and its upgrading allow to presume that the necessary level of radiation protection is to be achieved. (au)

  18. Transportation Systems: Critical Infrastructure and Key Resources Sector-Specific Plan as Input to the National Infrastructure Protection Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-05-01

    partners will be encouraged to use the assessment methodologies referenced above, or ISO 27001 and ISO 17799, which are intended to be used together...the Information Systems Audit and Control Association (ISACA), the International Organization for Standardization ( ISO ), and a number of other...programs are aligned with NCSD’s goals for the IT sector and follow best practices developed by NIST and the ISO . The cyber protective programs

  19. Informing Food Protection Education: A Project to Define and Classify Resources for a Cross-Disciplinary Expert Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenck-Hamlin, Donna; Pierquet, Jennifer; McClellan, Chuck

    2011-01-01

    In the wake of the September 2001 attacks, the U.S. government founded the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) with responsibility to develop a National Infrastructure Protection Plan for securing critical infrastructures and key resources. DHS established interdisciplinary networks of academic expertise administered through Centers of…

  20. Vulnerability assessment as a missing part of efficient regulatory emergency preparedness system for nuclear critical infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinov, V.

    2007-01-01

    One introduces a new model to assess the vulnerability of the nuclear infrastructure critical facilities. The new procedure of the vulnerability assessment (the VA) aims to reevaluate the efficiency of the present-day safeguards. On the basis of deeper insight into the VA new strategy and of the elaborated procedure to analyze the hazards for the nuclear power facilities one recommends the key safeguards affecting the damage magnitude [ru

  1. A Trusted Autonomic Architecture to Safeguard Cyber-Physical Control Leaf Nodes and Protect Process Integrity

    OpenAIRE

    Chiluvuri, Nayana Teja

    2015-01-01

    Cyber-physical systems are networked through IT infrastructure and susceptible to malware. Threats targeting process control are much more safety-critical than traditional computing systems since they jeopardize the integrity of physical infrastructure. Existing defence mechanisms address security at the network nodes but do not protect the physical infrastructure if network integrity is compromised. An interface guardian architecture is implemented on cyber-physical control leaf nodes to mai...

  2. The German radiation protection infrastructure with emphasis on the safety of radiation sources and radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czarwinski, R.; Weimer, G.

    2001-01-01

    Through federalism, Germany has a complicated but well functioning regulatory infrastructure for the safety and security of radiation sources based on a clear legal system. The main features of this infrastructure include the legal framework, the authorization and control systems and the responsibilities of different regulatory authorities, which this paper will describe. In connection with the legal framework, the provisions to control the import/export of radiation sources are briefly discussed and some information is given about the registries of sources. Protection and response measures related to unusual events concerning radiation sources, including orphan sources, will be cited. Also, the education and training of different target groups and punitive actions are touched upon in the paper. Conclusions will be drawn for future national and international actions. (author)

  3. Steps to implement the legal and regulatory infrastructure for physical protection of nuclear material in Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez Quijada, R.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The signature of Peru to become part of the Convention of Physical Protection of Nuclear Material in 1995 has implied an obligation to formalize the legal and regulatory infrastructure for this purpose. As first step, physical protection measures were formalized on the two nuclear facilities: one critical assembly of zero power (RP0) and another research reactor of 10 Mw thermal power (RP10). Both of the installations use low enriched uranium nuclear fuel (Material and Testing Material - MTR type). On the other side, even thorium was put in perspective to control; currently it is being used for non-nuclear purposes and has not been included inside the physical protection measures. Its physical and chemical form and its small quantity do not warrant for applying the Convention. The physical protection measures implemented in the research reactor are well depicted and it is concluded that the physical protection system meets the recommendations of INFCIRC/225/Rev.3. The critical facility (RP0), as having nuclear material categorized III, has implemented a less restrictive system but enough to meet the requirements. In 1999 an evaluation of all physical protection systems was performed for these two nuclear installations. This evaluation took into account the recommendations of INFCIRC/225/Rev.4. The general conclusion was that the performance of physical protection system was suitable to the categories of nuclear material - II and III - and that the installations where nuclear material is used were suitably protected against non-authorized or illegal removal of nuclear material and sabotage. However, some of components of the system were not appropriately working and could make all of the system weak. Another of the identified problems was the lack of a rule on physical protection and also the lack of the Design Basis Threat, although this fact was well known due the social conditions in the country. The second undertaking has been to prepare the rule on

  4. Development of an Automated Security Risk Assessment Methodology Tool for Critical Infrastructures.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, Calvin Dell; Roehrig, Nathaniel S.; Torres, Teresa M.

    2008-12-01

    This document presents the security automated Risk Assessment Methodology (RAM) prototype tool developed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). This work leverages SNL's capabilities and skills in security risk analysis and the development of vulnerability assessment/risk assessment methodologies to develop an automated prototype security RAM tool for critical infrastructures (RAM-CITM). The prototype automated RAM tool provides a user-friendly, systematic, and comprehensive risk-based tool to assist CI sector and security professionals in assessing and managing security risk from malevolent threats. The current tool is structured on the basic RAM framework developed by SNL. It is envisioned that this prototype tool will be adapted to meet the requirements of different CI sectors and thereby provide additional capabilities.

  5. Critical Infrastructure: Control Systems and the Terrorist Threat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shea, Dana A

    2003-01-01

    .... Industrial control computer systems involved in this infrastructure are specific points of vulnerability, as cyber-security for these systems has not been previously perceived as a high priority...

  6. Critical Infrastructure: Control Systems and the Terrorist Threat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shea, Dana A

    2004-01-01

    .... Industrial control computer systems involved in this infrastructure are specific points of vulnerability, as cyber-security for these systems has not been previously perceived as a high priority...

  7. Defense strategies for cloud computing multi-site server infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Nageswara S. [ORNL; Ma, Chris Y. T. [Hang Seng Management College, Hon Kong; He, Fei [Texas A& M University, Kingsville, TX, USA

    2018-01-01

    We consider cloud computing server infrastructures for big data applications, which consist of multiple server sites connected over a wide-area network. The sites house a number of servers, network elements and local-area connections, and the wide-area network plays a critical, asymmetric role of providing vital connectivity between them. We model this infrastructure as a system of systems, wherein the sites and wide-area network are represented by their cyber and physical components. These components can be disabled by cyber and physical attacks, and also can be protected against them using component reinforcements. The effects of attacks propagate within the systems, and also beyond them via the wide-area network.We characterize these effects using correlations at two levels using: (a) aggregate failure correlation function that specifies the infrastructure failure probability given the failure of an individual site or network, and (b) first-order differential conditions on system survival probabilities that characterize the component-level correlations within individual systems. We formulate a game between an attacker and a provider using utility functions composed of survival probability and cost terms. At Nash Equilibrium, we derive expressions for the expected capacity of the infrastructure given by the number of operational servers connected to the network for sum-form, product-form and composite utility functions.

  8. Cost estimates for flood resilience and protection strategies in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Jeroen C J H; Botzen, W J Wouter; de Moel, Hans; Bowman, Malcolm

    2013-08-01

    In the aftermaths of Hurricanes Irene, in 2011, and Sandy, in 2012, New York City has come to recognize the critical need to better prepare for future storm surges and to anticipate future trends, such as climate change and socio-economic developments. The research presented in this report assesses the costs of six different flood management strategies to anticipate long-term challenges the City will face. The proposed strategies vary from increasing resilience by upgrading building codes and introducing small scale protection measures, to creating green infrastructure as buffer zones and large protective engineering works such as storm surge barriers. The initial investment costs of alternative strategies vary between $11.6 and $23.8 bn, maximally. We show that a hybrid solution, combining protection of critical infrastructure and resilience measures that can be upgraded over time, is less expensive. However, with increasing risk in the future, storm surge barriers may become cost-effective, as they can provide protection to the largest areas in both New York and New Jersey. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  9. A Tool for Rating the Resilience of Critical Infrastructures in Extreme Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Rapid Rise Fire Tests of Protection Materials for Structural Steel - Efectis Nederland Report – 2008-Efectis-R0695, Fire Testing Procedure for Concrete...extreme fire conditions such as ASTM E1529 [5], NFPA 502 [8], UL 1709 [4] and Efectis Nederland BV report [9]. One of the critical features of a

  10. Monitoring of levees, bridges, pipelines, and other critical infrastructure during the 2011 flooding in the Mississippi River Basin: Chapter J in 2011 floods of the central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, Brenda K.; Burton, Bethany L.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Cannia, James C.; Huizinga, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    During the 2011 Mississippi River Basin flood, the U.S. Geological Survey evaluated aspects of critical river infrastructure at the request of and in support of local, State, and Federal Agencies. Geotechnical and hydrographic data collected by the U.S. Geological Survey at numerous locations were able to provide needed information about 2011 flood effects to those managing the critical infrastructure. These data were collected and processed in a short time frame to provide managers the ability to make a timely evaluation of the safety of the infrastructure and, when needed, to take action to secure and protect critical infrastructure. Critical infrastructure surveyed by the U.S. Geological Survey included levees, bridges, pipeline crossings, power plant intakes and outlets, and an electrical transmission tower. Capacitively coupled resistivity data collected along the flood-protection levees surrounding the Omaha Public Power District Nebraska City power plant (Missouri River Levee Unit R573), mapped the near-subsurface electrical properties of the levee and the materials immediately below it. The near-subsurface maps provided a better understanding of the levee construction and the nature of the lithology beneath the levee. Comparison of the capacitively coupled resistivity surveys and soil borings indicated that low-resistivity value material composing the levee generally is associated with lean clay and silt to about 2 to 4 meters below the surface, overlying a more resistive layer associated with sand deposits. In general, the resistivity structure becomes more resistive to the south and the southern survey sections correlate well with the borehole data that indicate thinner clay and silt at the surface and thicker sand sequences at depth in these sections. With the resistivity data Omaha Public Power District could focus monitoring efforts on areas with higher resistivity values (coarser-grained deposits or more loosely compacted section), which typically are

  11. Quantifying causal mechanisms to determine how protected areas affect poverty through changes in ecosystem services and infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Paul J.; Hanauer, Merlin M.

    2014-01-01

    To develop effective environmental policies, we must understand the mechanisms through which the policies affect social and environmental outcomes. Unfortunately, empirical evidence about these mechanisms is limited, and little guidance for quantifying them exists. We develop an approach to quantifying the mechanisms through which protected areas affect poverty. We focus on three mechanisms: changes in tourism and recreational services; changes in infrastructure in the form of road networks, health clinics, and schools; and changes in regulating and provisioning ecosystem services and foregone production activities that arise from land-use restrictions. The contributions of ecotourism and other ecosystem services to poverty alleviation in the context of a real environmental program have not yet been empirically estimated. Nearly two-thirds of the poverty reduction associated with the establishment of Costa Rican protected areas is causally attributable to opportunities afforded by tourism. Although protected areas reduced deforestation and increased regrowth, these land cover changes neither reduced nor exacerbated poverty, on average. Protected areas did not, on average, affect our measures of infrastructure and thus did not contribute to poverty reduction through this mechanism. We attribute the remaining poverty reduction to unobserved dimensions of our mechanisms or to other mechanisms. Our study empirically estimates previously unidentified contributions of ecotourism and other ecosystem services to poverty alleviation in the context of a real environmental program. We demonstrate that, with existing data and appropriate empirical methods, conservation scientists and policymakers can begin to elucidate the mechanisms through which ecosystem conservation programs affect human welfare. PMID:24567397

  12. Assessing urban strategies for reducing the impacts of extreme weather on infrastructure networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pregnolato, Maria; Ford, Alistair; Robson, Craig; Glenis, Vassilis; Barr, Stuart; Dawson, Richard

    2016-05-01

    Critical infrastructure networks, including transport, are crucial to the social and economic function of urban areas but are at increasing risk from natural hazards. Minimizing disruption to these networks should form part of a strategy to increase urban resilience. A framework for assessing the disruption from flood events to transport systems is presented that couples a high-resolution urban flood model with transport modelling and network analytics to assess the impacts of extreme rainfall events, and to quantify the resilience value of different adaptation options. A case study in Newcastle upon Tyne in the UK shows that both green roof infrastructure and traditional engineering interventions such as culverts or flood walls can reduce transport disruption from flooding. The magnitude of these benefits depends on the flood event and adaptation strategy, but for the scenarios considered here 3-22% improvements in city-wide travel times are achieved. The network metric of betweenness centrality, weighted by travel time, is shown to provide a rapid approach to identify and prioritize the most critical locations for flood risk management intervention. Protecting just the top ranked critical location from flooding provides an 11% reduction in person delays. A city-wide deployment of green roofs achieves a 26% reduction, and although key routes still flood, the benefits of this strategy are more evenly distributed across the transport network as flood depths are reduced across the model domain. Both options should form part of an urban flood risk management strategy, but this method can be used to optimize investment and target limited resources at critical locations, enabling green infrastructure strategies to be gradually implemented over the longer term to provide city-wide benefits. This framework provides a means of prioritizing limited financial resources to improve resilience. This is particularly important as flood management investments must typically exceed

  13. Center for Strategic Leadership. Issue Paper, August 2003, Volume 06-03. The National Infrastructure Simulation and Analysis Center (NISAC): A New Contributor to Strategic Leader Education and Formulation of Critical Infrastructure Policies and Decisions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wimbish, William

    2003-01-01

    ...) community in educating future strategic leaders about the realities of the Nation's infrastructure system and in researching the effects that new government security policies and actions would have on the nation's critical assets and public and private sector services.

  14. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Document Server

    A.Gaddi

    2011-01-01

    Between the end of March to June 2011, there has been no detector downtime during proton fills due to CMS Infrastructures failures. This exceptional performance is a clear sign of the high quality work done by the CMS Infrastructures unit and its supporting teams. Powering infrastructure At the end of March, the EN/EL group observed a problem with the CMS 48 V system. The problem was a lack of isolation between the negative (return) terminal and earth. Although at that moment we were not seeing any loss of functionality, in the long term it would have led to severe disruption to the CMS power system. The 48 V system is critical to the operation of CMS: in addition to feeding the anti-panic lights, essential for the safety of the underground areas, it powers all the PLCs (Twidos) that control AC power to the racks and front-end electronics of CMS. A failure of the 48 V system would bring down the whole detector and lead to evacuation of the cavern. EN/EL technicians have made an accurate search of the fault, ...

  15. Building safeguards infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClelland-Kerr, J.; Stevens, J.

    2010-01-01

    Much has been written in recent years about the nuclear renaissance - the rebirth of nuclear power as a clean and safe source of electricity around the world. Those who question the nuclear renaissance often cite the risk of proliferation, accidents or an attack on a facility as concerns, all of which merit serious consideration. The integration of three areas - sometimes referred to as 3S, for safety, security and safeguards - is essential to supporting the clean and safe growth of nuclear power, and the infrastructure that supports these three areas should be robust. The focus of this paper will be on the development of the infrastructure necessary to support safeguards, and the integration of safeguards infrastructure with other elements critical to ensuring nuclear energy security

  16. What’s My Lane? Identifying the State Government Role in Critical Infrastructure Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Marsh Commission. The GMU research program was developed with Congressional funding, the results of which have produced numerous research papers ...acknowledging that not all attacks or accidents can be prevented, turn to criticality as a crutch —pouring more and more resources into all

  17. MFC Communications Infrastructure Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Cannon; Terry Barney; Gary Cook; George Danklefsen, Jr.; Paul Fairbourn; Susan Gihring; Lisa Stearns

    2012-01-01

    Unprecedented growth of required telecommunications services and telecommunications applications change the way the INL does business today. High speed connectivity compiled with a high demand for telephony and network services requires a robust communications infrastructure.   The current state of the MFC communication infrastructure limits growth opportunities of current and future communication infrastructure services. This limitation is largely due to equipment capacity issues, aging cabling infrastructure (external/internal fiber and copper cable) and inadequate space for telecommunication equipment. While some communication infrastructure improvements have been implemented over time projects, it has been completed without a clear overall plan and technology standard.   This document identifies critical deficiencies with the current state of the communication infrastructure in operation at the MFC facilities and provides an analysis to identify needs and deficiencies to be addressed in order to achieve target architectural standards as defined in STD-170. The intent of STD-170 is to provide a robust, flexible, long-term solution to make communications capabilities align with the INL mission and fit the various programmatic growth and expansion needs.

  18. Enhancing infrastructure resilience through business continuity planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Ronald; Norman, Michael; Klett, Mary

    2017-01-01

    Critical infrastructure is crucial to the functionality and wellbeing of the world around us. It is a complex network that works together to create an efficient society. The core components of critical infrastructure are dependent on one another to function at their full potential. Organisations face unprecedented environmental risks such as increased reliance on information technology and telecommunications, increased infrastructure interdependencies and globalisation. Successful organisations should integrate the components of cyber-physical and infrastructure interdependencies into a holistic risk framework. Physical security plans, cyber security plans and business continuity plans can help mitigate environmental risks. Cyber security plans are becoming the most crucial to have, yet are the least commonly found in organisations. As the reliance on cyber continues to grow, it is imperative that organisations update their business continuity and emergency preparedness activities to include this.

  19. Towards the application of stress-in-motion (SIM) results in pavement design and infrastructure protection

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Beer, Morris

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info De Beer_2005_3.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 53150 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name De Beer_2005_3.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 Proceedings 8th International...: Conference Planners TOWARDS THE APPLICATION OF STRESS-IN-MOTION (SIM) RESULTS IN PAVEMENT DESIGN AND INFRASTRUCTURE PROTECTION Morris De Beer1, Colin Fisher1 and Louw Kannemeyer2 1CSIR Transportek Pretoria, 0001. Tel: +27-(0)-(012) 841-2953. Fax: +27...

  20. Freight railway transport: Critical variables to improve the transport applied to infrastructure costs and its associated traffic flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakowska, L.; Pulawska-Obiedowska, S.

    2016-07-01

    The developed societies have as challenge, among others, to achieve a mobility development based on economic models of low carbon and energy efficient, making it accessible to the entire population. In this context, the sustainable mobility seems to meet the economic, social and environmental needs, minimizing their negative impact. There are three factors that are relevant: (1) infrastructures; (2) modes of transport more ecological and safe, and (3) operations and services for passengers and freights.The objective of this research is to provide guidance to investment in sustainable transport infrastructures that are truly useful and effective. In particular we have studied the case of the railway, using the following information: details of the infrastructure; cost of construction (per kilometre); maintenance cost, and life cycle. This information may be relevant to consider their possible business models.The methodology of this research was focused in the detailed analysis of the infrastructure use and maintenance criteria, the market opportunities for freight development and the available data to validate the obtained results from the software tool reached in this work. Our research includes the different following aspects:• Evaluation of the supported traffic by the rail line.• Relevant items to be considered in the rail infrastructure. Defining the track, we can group items in two sets: civil and rail installations.• Rolling stock available. Locomotives and wagons are modelled to introduce the data as convenience for the user.Besides our research includes the development of software, Decision System Tool (DST), for studying the construction and maintenance cost of railway infrastructure. It is developed in a common and open source program, providing the user the interaction with the critical variable of the line. It has been adjusted using the following references: MOM PlanCargorail; EcoTransIT, and Projects funded by Framework Program of EU (New

  1. Representing nature : Late twentieth century green infrastructures in Paris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velde, J.R.T.; De Wit, S.I.

    2015-01-01

    The appreciation of green infrastructures as ‘nature’ by urban communities presents a critical challenge for the green infrastructure concept. While many green infrastructures focus on functional considerations, their refinement as places where concepts of nature are represented and where nature can

  2. EURATOM achievements and challenges in facilitating Pan-European infrastructure collaborative efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbil, Roger

    2017-01-01

    The European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) Research and Training framework programmes are benefiting from a consistent success in pursuing excellence in research and facilitating Pan European collaborative efforts across a broad range of nuclear science and technologies, nuclear fission and radiation protection. To fulfil Euratom R and D programmes keys objectives of maintaining high levels of nuclear knowledge and building a more dynamic and competitive European industry, promotion of Pan-European mobility of researchers are implemented by co-financing transnational access to research infrastructures (RIs) and joint research activities. 'Euratom Achievements and Challenges' show the benefits of research efforts in key fields, of building an effective 'critical mass', of promoting the creation of 'centres of excellence' with an increased support for 'open access to key research infrastructures', exploitation of research results, management of knowledge, dissemination and sharing of learning outcomes.

  3. Kenya's Integrated Nuclear Infrastructure Review Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayacko, Ochilo G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Lessons learnt for INIR preparation: → A detailed Self Evaluation report is critical to proper evaluation of each infrastructure; → Involvement of all relevant organizations in preparation of self evaluation report and the main mission; → Meetings on individual infrastructure issues to consolidate the country position; → Openness during interviews and provision of adequate information

  4. Genetic Algorithms for Agent-Based Infrastructure Interdependency Modeling and Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May Permann

    2007-03-01

    Today’s society relies greatly upon an array of complex national and international infrastructure networks such as transportation, electric power, telecommunication, and financial networks. This paper describes initial research combining agent-based infrastructure modeling software and genetic algorithms (GAs) to help optimize infrastructure protection and restoration decisions. This research proposes to apply GAs to the problem of infrastructure modeling and analysis in order to determine the optimum assets to restore or protect from attack or other disaster. This research is just commencing and therefore the focus of this paper is the integration of a GA optimization method with a simulation through the simulation’s agents.

  5. Arid Green Infrastructure for Water Control and Conservation ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green infrastructure is an approach to managing wet weather flows using systems and practices that mimic natural processes. It is designed to manage stormwater as close to its source as possible and protect the quality of receiving waters. Although most green infrastructure practices were first developed in temperate climates, green infrastructure also can be a cost-effective approach to stormwater management and water conservation in arid and semi-arid regions, such as those found in the western and southwestern United States. Green infrastructure practices can be applied at the site, neighborhood and watershed scales. In addition to water management and conservation, implementing green infrastructure confers many social and economic benefits and can address issues of environmental justice. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) commissioned a literature review to identify the state-of-the science practices dealing with water control and conservation in arid and semi-arid regions, with emphasis on these regions in the United States. The search focused on stormwater control measures or practices that slow, capture, treat, infiltrate and/or store runoff at its source (i.e., green infrastructure). The material in Chapters 1 through 3 provides background to EPA’s current activities related to the application of green infrastructure practices in arid and semi-arid regions. An introduction to the topic of green infrastructure in arid and semi-arid regions i

  6. EURATOM achievements and challenges in facilitating Pan-European infrastructure collaborative efforts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbil, Roger [European Commission, Brussels (Belgium). DG Research and Innovation, Euratom Fission

    2017-10-15

    The European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) Research and Training framework programmes are benefiting from a consistent success in pursuing excellence in research and facilitating Pan European collaborative efforts across a broad range of nuclear science and technologies, nuclear fission and radiation protection. To fulfil Euratom R and D programmes keys objectives of maintaining high levels of nuclear knowledge and building a more dynamic and competitive European industry, promotion of Pan-European mobility of researchers are implemented by co-financing transnational access to research infrastructures (RIs) and joint research activities. 'Euratom Achievements and Challenges' show the benefits of research efforts in key fields, of building an effective 'critical mass', of promoting the creation of 'centres of excellence' with an increased support for 'open access to key research infrastructures', exploitation of research results, management of knowledge, dissemination and sharing of learning outcomes.

  7. Establishment of a national radiation protection infrastructure. The Philippine experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdezco, E.M. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Department of Science and Technology (Philippines)

    2000-05-01

    Radiation and radioactive materials have been used widely in the Philippines for the last four decades and have made substantial contributions to the improvement of the life and welfare of the Filipino people. In spite of the unsuccessful attempt to operate a nuclear power, plant, the country, through the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute has consistently pursued an active small nuclear applications program to promote the peaceful applications of nuclear energy while also mandated to ensure radiation safety through nuclear regulations and radioactive materials licensing. Another government agency, the Radiation Health Services (RHS) of the Department of Health was created much later to address the growing concern on radiation hazards from electrically generated radiation devices and machines. The RHS has been strengthened later to include non-ionizing radiation health hazards and has expanded to include a biomedical engineering and non-radiation related medical equipment. The paper will describe the historical perspective highlighting the basis of the national regulatory framework to ensure that only qualified individuals are authorized to use radioactive materials and radiation emitting machines/devices. The development of national training programs in radiation protection and experiences in implementing these programs will be presented. National efforts to strengthen the radiation protection infrastructure through the establishment, improvement and upgrading of a number of facilities and capabilities in radiation protection related work activities will be discussed including participation in national, regional and international intercomparison programs to ensure accuracy, reliability, reproducibility and comparability of dose measurements. Lastly, data on the status of small nuclear applications and related activities in the country will be presented including a number of current issues related to the adoption of the new international basic safety standards

  8. Establishment of a national radiation protection infrastructure. The Philippine experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdezco, E.M.

    2000-01-01

    Radiation and radioactive materials have been used widely in the Philippines for the last four decades and have made substantial contributions to the improvement of the life and welfare of the Filipino people. In spite of the unsuccessful attempt to operate a nuclear power, plant, the country, through the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute has consistently pursued an active small nuclear applications program to promote the peaceful applications of nuclear energy while also mandated to ensure radiation safety through nuclear regulations and radioactive materials licensing. Another government agency, the Radiation Health Services (RHS) of the Department of Health was created much later to address the growing concern on radiation hazards from electrically generated radiation devices and machines. The RHS has been strengthened later to include non-ionizing radiation health hazards and has expanded to include a biomedical engineering and non-radiation related medical equipment. The paper will describe the historical perspective highlighting the basis of the national regulatory framework to ensure that only qualified individuals are authorized to use radioactive materials and radiation emitting machines/devices. The development of national training programs in radiation protection and experiences in implementing these programs will be presented. National efforts to strengthen the radiation protection infrastructure through the establishment, improvement and upgrading of a number of facilities and capabilities in radiation protection related work activities will be discussed including participation in national, regional and international intercomparison programs to ensure accuracy, reliability, reproducibility and comparability of dose measurements. Lastly, data on the status of small nuclear applications and related activities in the country will be presented including a number of current issues related to the adoption of the new international basic safety standards

  9. LANL: Weapons Infrastructure Briefing to Naval Reactors, July 18, 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadwick, Frances [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-07-18

    Presentation slides address: The Laboratory infrastructure supports hundreds of high hazard, complex operations daily; LANL’s unique science and engineering infrastructure is critical to delivering on our mission; LANL FY17 Budget & Workforce; Direct-Funded Infrastructure Accounts; LANL Org Chart; Weapons Infrastructure Program Office; The Laboratory’s infrastructure relies on both Direct and Indirect funding; NA-50’s Operating, Maintenance & Recapitalization funding is critical to the execution of the mission; Los Alamos is currently executing several concurrent Line Item projects; Maintenance @ LANL; NA-50 is helping us to address D&D needs; We are executing a CHAMP Pilot Project at LANL; G2 = Main Tool for Program Management; MDI: Future Investments are centered on facilities with a high Mission Dependency Index; Los Alamos hosted first “Deep Dive” in November 2016; Safety, Infrastructure & Operations is one of the most important programs at LANL, and is foundational for our mission success.

  10. Infrastructure monitoring with spaceborne SAR sensors

    CERN Document Server

    ANGHEL, ANDREI; CACOVEANU, REMUS

    2017-01-01

    This book presents a novel non-intrusive infrastructure monitoring technique based on the detection and tracking of scattering centers in spaceborne SAR images. The methodology essentially consists of refocusing each available SAR image on an imposed 3D point cloud associated to the envisaged infrastructure element and identifying the reliable scatterers to be monitored by means of four dimensional (4D) tomography. The methodology described in this book provides a new perspective on infrastructure monitoring with spaceborne SAR images, is based on a standalone processing chain, and brings innovative technical aspects relative to conventional approaches. The book is intended primarily for professionals and researchers working in the area of critical infrastructure monitoring by radar remote sensing.

  11. Spatial planning, infrastructure and implementation: Implications for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Infrastructure plays key roles in shaping the spatial form of the city at a macro- and a more local scale, and it influences the sustainability, efficiency and inclusiveness of cities and local areas. Linking infrastructure and spatial planning is therefore critical. Wide-ranging sets of knowledge and skills are required to enable ...

  12. Public private partnerships - risk management in engineering infrastructure projects

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Phil. Economic growth and the provision of adequate infrastructure are highly interrelated. Infrastructure- plays a critical role in promoting economic growth through enhancing productivity, improving competitiveness, reducing poverty, linking people and organisations together through telecommunications and contributing to environmental sustainability. Population growth and rapid urbanisation have placed enormous pressure on existing infrastructure, thus presenting a daunting challenge t...

  13. Reduce operational cost and extend the life of pipeline infrastructure by automating remote cathodic protection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosado, Elroy [Freewave Technologies, Inc., Boulder, CO (United States). Latin America

    2009-07-01

    Energy and Pipeline Companies wrestle to control operating costs largely affected by new government regulations, ageing buried metal assets, rising steel prices, expanding pipeline operations, new interference points, HCA encroachment, restrictive land use policies, heightened network security, and an ageing soon-to-retire work force. With operating costs on the rise, seemingly out of control, many CP and Operations Professionals look to past best practices in cost containment through automation. Many companies achieve solid business results through deployment of telemetry and SCADA automation of remote assets and now hope to expand this success to further optimize operations by automating remote cathodic protection systems. This presentation will provide examples of how new remote cathodic protection systems are helping energy and pipeline companies address the growing issue of the aging pipeline infrastructure and reduce their costs while optimizing their operations. (author)

  14. Assessing the risk posed by natural hazards to infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidsvig, Unni Marie K.; Kristensen, Krister; Vidar Vangelsten, Bjørn

    2017-03-01

    This paper proposes a model for assessing the risk posed by natural hazards to infrastructures, with a focus on the indirect losses and loss of stability for the population relying on the infrastructure. The model prescribes a three-level analysis with increasing level of detail, moving from qualitative to quantitative analysis. The focus is on a methodology for semi-quantitative analyses to be performed at the second level. The purpose of this type of analysis is to perform a screening of the scenarios of natural hazards threatening the infrastructures, identifying the most critical scenarios and investigating the need for further analyses (third level). The proposed semi-quantitative methodology considers the frequency of the natural hazard, different aspects of vulnerability, including the physical vulnerability of the infrastructure itself, and the societal dependency on the infrastructure. An indicator-based approach is applied, ranking the indicators on a relative scale according to pre-defined ranking criteria. The proposed indicators, which characterise conditions that influence the probability of an infrastructure malfunctioning caused by a natural event, are defined as (1) robustness and buffer capacity, (2) level of protection, (3) quality/level of maintenance and renewal, (4) adaptability and quality of operational procedures and (5) transparency/complexity/degree of coupling. Further indicators describe conditions influencing the socio-economic consequences of the infrastructure malfunctioning, such as (1) redundancy and/or substitution, (2) cascading effects and dependencies, (3) preparedness and (4) early warning, emergency response and measures. The aggregated risk estimate is a combination of the semi-quantitative vulnerability indicators, as well as quantitative estimates of the frequency of the natural hazard, the potential duration of the infrastructure malfunctioning (e.g. depending on the required restoration effort) and the number of users of

  15. The regulatory infrastructure for radiation protection, the safety of radiation sources and security of radioactive materials in Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebeyehu Wolde, G.

    2003-01-01

    The application of Nuclear Techniques in Ethiopia started in the early sixties in the medical field and through time has gradually expanded to other areas. Following this growth the practice of Radiation Protection in Ethiopia dates back over 15 years. Radiation Protection Legislation 79/1993 was promulgated in December 1993, which has established an Autonomous Regulatory Authority to control and supervise the introduction and conduct of any practice involving ionizing radiation. Since 1998 the National Radiation Protection Authority has made a remarkable progress in terms of building a National Radiation Protection Infrastructure and is in a full swing transformation process towards a dynamic credible and competent regulatory Authority. The regulatory activities are designed in line with the main regulatory instruments, Notification, Authorization, Inspection and Enforcement. NRPA has a national inventory system and fully implemented the Regulatory Authority Information System (RAIS), which provides a systemic integration and will be instrumental to enhance the effectiveness of the regulatory system. A substantial progress has been made in the development and provision of support and technical services in the areas of Metrology and Calibration Services, Instrument Maintenance Service, Individual Monitoring of Personnel, Environmental and Food Monitoring and Interim Storage Facility for spent sources. Development of a national system for emergency preparedness and response is the current top agenda of NRPA. Towards ensuring an effective radiation protection and regulatory programme, NRPA is also making a proactive involvement in, expanding its outreach, information dissemination, awareness promotion and development of key human resources. In the last four years Ethiopia has been actively co-operating with IAEA in the framework of the Regional Model Projects RAF/9/024, RAF/9/028 and RAF/9/029. The inputs received through the project framework coupled with the

  16. Is there a need for government interventions to adapt energy infrastructures to climate change? A German case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Markus; Cortekar, Jörg

    2015-04-01

    The option of adapting to climate change is becoming more and more important in climate change policy. Hence, responding to climate change now involves both mitigation to address the cause and adaptation as a response to already ongoing and expected changes. These changes also have relevance for the current and future energy sector in Germany. An energy sector that in the course of the German Energiewende also has to deal with a fundamental shift in energy supply from fossil fuel to renewable energies in the next decades. Thereby it needs to be considered that the energy sector is one critical infrastructure in the European Union that needs to be protected. Critical infrastructures can be defined as organisations or facilities of special importance for the country and its people where failure or functional impairment would lead to severe supply bottlenecks, significant disturbance of public order or other dramatic consequences. Regarding the adaptation to climate change, the main question is, whether adaptation options will be implemented voluntarily by companies or not. This will be the case, when the measure is considered a private good and is economically beneficial. If, on the contrary, the measure is considered a public good, additional incentives are needed. Based on a synthesis of the current knowledge regarding the possible impacts of climate change on the German energy sector along its value-added chain, the paper points out, that the power distribution and the grid infrastructure is consistently attributed the highest vulnerability. Direct physical impacts and damages to the transmission and distribution grids, utility poles, power transformers, and relay stations are expected due to more intense extreme weather events like storms, floods or thunderstorms. Furthermore fundaments of utility poles can be eroded and relay stations or power transformers can be flooded, which might cause short circuits etc. Besides these impacts causing damage to the physical

  17. Development of a public health nursing data infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsen, Karen A; Bekemeier, Betty; P Newhouse, Robin; Scutchfield, F Douglas

    2012-01-01

    An invited group of national public health nursing (PHN) scholars, practitioners, policymakers, and other stakeholders met in October 2010 identifying a critical need for a national PHN data infrastructure to support PHN research. This article summarizes the strengths, limitations, and gaps specific to PHN data and proposes a research agenda for development of a PHN data infrastructure. Future implications are suggested, such as issues related to the development of the proposed PHN data infrastructure and future research possibilities enabled by the infrastructure. Such a data infrastructure has potential to improve accountability and measurement, to demonstrate the value of PHN services, and to improve population health. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Summary report on transportation of nuclear fuel materials in Japan : transportation infrastructure, threats identified in open literature, and physical protection regulations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, John Russell; Ouchi, Yuichiro (Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Japan); Furaus, James Phillip; Marincel, Michelle K.

    2008-03-01

    This report summarizes the results of three detailed studies of the physical protection systems for the protection of nuclear materials transport in Japan, with an emphasis on the transportation of mixed oxide fuel materials1. The Japanese infrastructure for transporting nuclear fuel materials is addressed in the first section. The second section of this report presents a summary of baseline data from the open literature on the threats of sabotage and theft during the transport of nuclear fuel materials in Japan. The third section summarizes a review of current International Atomic Energy Agency, Japanese and United States guidelines and regulations concerning the physical protection for the transportation of nuclear fuel materials.

  19. Unraveling Structural Infrasound: understanding the science for persistent remote monitoring of critical infrastructure (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, S. M.; Diaz-Alvarez, H.; McComas, S.; Costley, D.; Whitlow, R. D.; Jordan, A. M.; Taylor, O.

    2013-12-01

    In 2006, the Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) began a program designed to meet the capability gap associated with remote assessment of critical infrastructure. This program addresses issues arising from the use of geophysical techniques to solve engineering problems through persistent monitoring of critical infrastructure using infrasound. In the original 2006-2009 study of a railroad bridge in Ft. Leonard Wood, MO, the fundamental modes of motion of the structure were detected at up to 30 km away, with atmospheric excitation deemed to be the source driver. Follow-on research focused on the mechanically driven modes excited by traffic, with directional acoustic emanations. The success of the Ft. Wood ambient excitation study resulted in several subsequent programs to push the boundaries of this new technique for standoff assessment, discussed herein. Detection of scour and river system health monitoring are serious problems for monitoring civil infrastructure, from both civilian and military perspectives. Knowledge of overall system behavior over time is crucial for assessment of bridge foundations and barge navigation. This research focuses on the same steel-truss bridge from the Ft. Wood study, and analyzes 3D and 2D substructure models coupled with the superstructure reaction loads to assess the modal deformations within the infrasound bandwidth and the correlation to scour of embedment material. The Urban infrasound program is infrasound modeling, data analysis, and sensor research leading to the detection, classification and localization of threat activities in complex propagation environments. Three seismo-acoustic arrays were deployed on rooftops across the Southern Methodist University campus in Dallas, Texas, to characterize the urban infrasound environment. Structural sources within 15 km of the arrays have been identified through signal processing and confirmed through acoustical models. Infrasound is also being studied as a means of

  20. Corrosion Protection of Launch Infrastructure and Hardware Through the Space Shuttle Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, L. M.

    2011-01-01

    Corrosion, the environmentally induced degradation of materials, has been a challenging and costly problem that has affected NASA's launch operations since the inception of the Space Program. Corrosion studies began at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in 1966 during the Gemini/Apollo Programs with the evaluation of long-term protective coatings for the atmospheric protection of carbon steel. NASA's KSC Beachside Corrosion Test Site, which has been documented by the American Society of Materials (ASM) as one of the most corrosive, naturally occurring environments in the world, was established at that time. With the introduction of the Space Shuttle in 1981, the already highly corrosive natural conditions at the launch pad were rendered even more severe by the acidic exhaust from the solid rocket boosters. In the years that followed, numerous efforts at KSC identified materials, coatings, and maintenance procedures for launch hardware and equipment exposed to the highly corrosiye environment at the launch pads. Knowledge on materials degradation, obtained by facing the highly corrosive conditions of the Space Shuttle launch environment, as well as limitations imposed by the environmental impact of corrosion control, have led researchers at NASA's Corrosion Technology Laboratory to establish a new technology development capability in the area of corrosion prevention, detection, and mitigation at KSC that is included as one of the "highest priority" technologies identified by NASA's integrated technology roadmap. A historical perspective highlighting the challenges encountered in protecting launch infrastructure and hardware from corrosion during the life of the Space Shuttle program and the new technological advances that have resulted from facing the unique and highly corrosive conditions of the Space Shuttle launch environment will be presented.

  1. Towards an advanced e-Infrastructure for Civil Protection applications: Research Strategies and Innovation Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzetti, P.; Nativi, S.; Verlato, M.; Angelini, V.

    2009-04-01

    In the context of the EU co-funded project CYCLOPS (http://www.cyclops-project.eu) the problem of designing an advanced e-Infrastructure for Civil Protection (CP) applications has been addressed. As a preliminary step, some studies about European CP systems and operational applications were performed in order to define their specific system requirements. At a higher level it was verified that CP applications are usually conceived to map CP Business Processes involving different levels of processing including data access, data processing, and output visualization. At their core they usually run one or more Earth Science models for information extraction. The traditional approach based on the development of monolithic applications presents some limitations related to flexibility (e.g. the possibility of running the same models with different input data sources, or different models with the same data sources) and scalability (e.g. launching several runs for different scenarios, or implementing more accurate and computing-demanding models). Flexibility can be addressed adopting a modular design based on a SOA and standard services and models, such as OWS and ISO for geospatial services. Distributed computing and storage solutions could improve scalability. Basing on such considerations an architectural framework has been defined. It is made of a Web Service layer providing advanced services for CP applications (e.g. standard geospatial data sharing and processing services) working on the underlying Grid platform. This framework has been tested through the development of prototypes as proof-of-concept. These theoretical studies and proof-of-concept demonstrated that although Grid and geospatial technologies would be able to provide significant benefits to CP applications in terms of scalability and flexibility, current platforms are designed taking into account requirements different from CP. In particular CP applications have strict requirements in terms of: a) Real

  2. An experience of knowledge co-production for setting up landslide risk management processes in a critical infrastructure: the case of Campania Region (Southern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rianna, Guido; Roca Collell, Marta; Uzielli, Marco; Van Ruiten, Kees; Mercogliano, Paola; Ciervo, Fabio; Reder, Alfredo

    2017-04-01

    In Campania Region (Southern Italy), expected increases in heavy rainfall events under the effect of climate changes and demographic pressure could entail a growth of occurrence of weather induced landslides and associated damages. Indeed, already in recent years, pyroclastic covers mantling the slopes of a large part of the Region have been affected by numerous events often causing victims and damages to infrastructures serving the urban centers. Due to the strategic relevance of the area, landslide events affecting volcanic layers in Campania Region are one of the five case studies investigated in the FP7 European Project INTACT about the impacts of extreme weather on critical infrastructure. The main aim of INTACT project is to increase the resilience of critical infrastructures (CI) facing extreme weather events improving the awareness of stakeholders and asset managers about such phenomena and their potential variations due to Climate Changes and providing tools to support risk management strategies. A WIKI has been designed as a remote support for all stages of the risk process through brief theoretical explanations (in Wiki style) about tools and methods proposed and reports on the findings and hints returned by case studies investigations. In order to have a product tailored to the needs and background of CI owners, managers and policy makers, an intense effort of knowledge co-production between researchers and stakeholders have been carried out in different case studies through questionnaires, meetings, workshops and/or 1-to-1 interviews. This work presents the different tools and approaches adopted to facilitate the exchange with stakeholders in the Campanian case study such as the "Storytelling approach", aiming to stress the need for a comprehensive and overall approach to the issue between the different disaster management phases (mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery) and actors; the CIRCLE approach developed by Deltares, partner in INTACT

  3. CDP - Adaptive Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Technology for Infrastructure Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marco Carvalho; Richard Ford

    2012-05-14

    Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) Systems are a type of Industrial Control System characterized by the centralized (or hierarchical) monitoring and control of geographically dispersed assets. SCADA systems combine acquisition and network components to provide data gathering, transmission, and visualization for centralized monitoring and control. However these integrated capabilities, especially when built over legacy systems and protocols, generally result in vulnerabilities that can be exploited by attackers, with potentially disastrous consequences. Our research project proposal was to investigate new approaches for secure and survivable SCADA systems. In particular, we were interested in the resilience and adaptability of large-scale mission-critical monitoring and control infrastructures. Our research proposal was divided in two main tasks. The first task was centered on the design and investigation of algorithms for survivable SCADA systems and a prototype framework demonstration. The second task was centered on the characterization and demonstration of the proposed approach in illustrative scenarios (simulated or emulated).

  4. ENEA infrastructures toward the LFR development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarantino, M.; Agostini, P.; Del Nevo, A.; Di Piazza, I.; Rozzia, D.

    2013-01-01

    ENEA has one of the most relevant EU R&D infrastructures for HLM technological development, and it is strongly involved in the main research programs worldwide supporting the development of sub-critical (MYRRHA) and critical lead cooled reactors (ALFRED). In these frames a large experimental program ranging from HLM thermal-hydraulic to large scale experiment has been implemented

  5. Critical Data Source; Tool or Even Infrastructure? Challenges of Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing for Disaster Risk Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Fekete

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Disaster risk information is spatial in nature and Geographic Information Systems (GIS and Remote Sensing (RS play an important key role by the services they provide to society. In this context, to risk management and governance, in general, and to civil protection, specifically (termed differently in many countries, and includes, for instance: civil contingencies in the UK, homeland security in the USA, disaster risk reduction at the UN level. The main impetus of this article is to summarize key contributions and challenges in utilizing and accepting GIS and RS methods and data for disaster risk governance, which includes public bodies, but also risk managers in industry and practitioners in search and rescue organizations. The article analyzes certain method developments, such as vulnerability indicators, crowdsourcing, and emerging concepts, such as Volunteered Geographic Information, but also investigates the potential of the topic Critical Infrastructure as it could be applied on spatial assets and GIS and RS itself. Intended to stimulate research on new and emerging fields, this article’s main contribution is to move spatial research toward a more reflective stance where opportunities and challenges are equally and transparently addressed in order to gain more scientific quality. As a conclusion, GIS and RS can play a pivotal role not just in delivering data but also in connecting and analyzing data in a more integrative, holistic way.

  6. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi

    2012-01-01

    The CMS Infrastructures teams are constantly ensuring the smooth operation of the different services during this critical period when the detector is taking data at full speed. A single failure would spoil hours of high luminosity beam and everything is put in place to avoid such an eventuality. In the meantime however, the fast approaching LS1 requires that we take a look at the various activities to take place from the end of the year onwards. The list of infrastructures consolidation and upgrade tasks is already long and will touch all the services (cooling, gas, inertion, powering, etc.). The definitive list will be available just before the LS1 start. One activity performed by the CMS cooling team that is worth mentioning is the maintenance of the cooling circuits at the CMS Electronics Integration Centre (EIC) at building 904. The old chiller has been replaced by a three-units cooling plant that also serves the HVAC system for the new CSC and RPC factories. The commissioning of this new plant has tak...

  7. Making green infrastructure healthier infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lõhmus, Mare; Balbus, John

    2015-01-01

    Increasing urban green and blue structure is often pointed out to be critical for sustainable development and climate change adaptation, which has led to the rapid expansion of greening activities in cities throughout the world. This process is likely to have a direct impact on the citizens' quality of life and public health. However, alongside numerous benefits, green and blue infrastructure also has the potential to create unexpected, undesirable, side-effects for health. This paper considers several potential harmful public health effects that might result from increased urban biodiversity, urban bodies of water, and urban tree cover projects. It does so with the intent of improving awareness and motivating preventive measures when designing and initiating such projects. Although biodiversity has been found to be associated with physiological benefits for humans in several studies, efforts to increase the biodiversity of urban environments may also promote the introduction and survival of vector or host organisms for infectious pathogens with resulting spread of a variety of diseases. In addition, more green connectivity in urban areas may potentiate the role of rats and ticks in the spread of infectious diseases. Bodies of water and wetlands play a crucial role in the urban climate adaptation and mitigation process. However, they also provide habitats for mosquitoes and toxic algal blooms. Finally, increasing urban green space may also adversely affect citizens allergic to pollen. Increased awareness of the potential hazards of urban green and blue infrastructure should not be a reason to stop or scale back projects. Instead, incorporating public health awareness and interventions into urban planning at the earliest stages can help insure that green and blue infrastructure achieves full potential for health promotion.

  8. Sustainable infrastructure system modeling under uncertainties and dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yongxi

    Infrastructure systems support human activities in transportation, communication, water use, and energy supply. The dissertation research focuses on critical transportation infrastructure and renewable energy infrastructure systems. The goal of the research efforts is to improve the sustainability of the infrastructure systems, with an emphasis on economic viability, system reliability and robustness, and environmental impacts. The research efforts in critical transportation infrastructure concern the development of strategic robust resource allocation strategies in an uncertain decision-making environment, considering both uncertain service availability and accessibility. The study explores the performances of different modeling approaches (i.e., deterministic, stochastic programming, and robust optimization) to reflect various risk preferences. The models are evaluated in a case study of Singapore and results demonstrate that stochastic modeling methods in general offers more robust allocation strategies compared to deterministic approaches in achieving high coverage to critical infrastructures under risks. This general modeling framework can be applied to other emergency service applications, such as, locating medical emergency services. The development of renewable energy infrastructure system development aims to answer the following key research questions: (1) is the renewable energy an economically viable solution? (2) what are the energy distribution and infrastructure system requirements to support such energy supply systems in hedging against potential risks? (3) how does the energy system adapt the dynamics from evolving technology and societal needs in the transition into a renewable energy based society? The study of Renewable Energy System Planning with Risk Management incorporates risk management into its strategic planning of the supply chains. The physical design and operational management are integrated as a whole in seeking mitigations against the

  9. A Guanxi Shibboleth based security infrastructure for e-social science

    OpenAIRE

    Jie, Wei; Young, Alistair; Arshad, Junaid; Finch, June; Procter, Rob; Turner, Andy

    2008-01-01

    An e-Social Science infrastructure generally has security requirements to protect their restricted resources or services. As a widely accepted authentication and authorization technology, Shibboleth supports the sharing of resources on interinstitutional federation. Guanxi is an open source implementation of the Shibboleth protocol and architecture. In this paper, we propose a security infrastructure for e-social science based on the Guanxi Shibboleth. This security infrastructure presents tw...

  10. Settlement characteristics of major infrastructures in Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Jiao

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Critical infrastructures in Shanghai have undergone uneven settlement since their operation, which plays an important role in affecting the security of Shanghai. This paper, taking rail transportation as example, investigates settlement characteristics and influencing factors of this linear engineering, based on long-term settlement monitoring data. Results show that rail settlement is related to geological conditions, regional ground subsidence, surrounding construction activities and structural differences in the rail systems. In order to effectively decrease the impact of regional ground subsidence, a monitoring and early-warning mechanism for critical infrastructure is established by the administrative department and engineering operators, including monitoring network construction, settlement monitoring, information sharing, settlement warning, and so on.

  11. Infrastructure for China’s Ecologically Balanced Civilization†

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Kennedy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available China’s green investment needs up to 2020 are ¥1.7 trillion–2.9 trillion CNY ($274 billion–468 billion USD per year. Estimates of financing requirements are provided for multiple sectors, including sustainable energy, infrastructure (including for environmental protection, environmental remediation, industrial pollution control, energy and water efficiency, and green products. The context to China’s green financing is discussed, covering urbanization, climate change, interactions between infrastructure sectors, and the transformation of industry. Much of the infrastructure financing will occur in cities, with a focus on equity, environmental protection, and quality of life under the National New-Type Urbanization Plan (2014–2020. China has implemented many successful policies in the building sector, but there is still considerable scope for improvement in the energy efficiency of Chinese buildings. China is currently pursuing low-carbon growth strategies that are consistent with its overall environmental and quality-of-life objectives. Beyond 2020, China’s future as an ecologically balanced civilization will rest on the implementation of a central infrastructure policy: China 2050 High Renewable Energy Penetration Scenario and Roadmap Study. As exemplified by the Circular Economy Development Strategy and Near-Term Action Plan, an essential part of China’s green industrial transformation involves engineering systems that conserve materials, thereby reducing or even eliminating wastes. To better understand changes to China’s economy under its green transformation and to unlock large potential sources of finance, it is necessary to undertake a fuller examination of all of China’s infrastructure sectors, particularly freight rail infrastructure and ports. Large investments are required to clean up a legacy of environmental contamination of soil and groundwater and to reduce industrial pollution. Transformation of the power sector

  12. Towards a Risk Based Assessment of Critical Information ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For this reason the South African measures are likely to lead to the adoption of a paradigm that considers every infrastructure, data or database, regardless of its significance or importance, to be key or critical. KEYWORDS: Critical databases; critical information infrastructures; national security; social and economic well- ...

  13. Resilience of Infrastructure Systems to Sea-Level Rise in Coastal Areas: Impacts, Adaptation Measures, and Implementation Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Azevedo de Almeida

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Expansive areas of low elevation in many densely populated coastal areas are at elevated risk of storm surges and flooding due to torrential precipitation, as a result of sea level rise. These phenomena could have catastrophic impacts on coastal communities and result in the destruction of critical infrastructure, disruption of economic activities and salt water contamination of the water supply. The objective of the study presented in this paper was to identify various impacts of sea level rise on civil infrastructures in coastal areas and examine the adaptation measures suggested in the existing literature. To this end, a systemic review of the existing literature was conducted in order to identify a repository of studies addressing sea level rise impacts and adaptation measures in the context of infrastructure systems. The study focused on three infrastructure sectors: water and wastewater, energy, and road transportation. The collected information was then analyzed in order to identify different categories of sea level rise impacts and corresponding adaptation measures. The findings of the study are threefold: (1 the major categories of sea level rise impacts on different infrastructure systems; (2 measures for protection, accommodation, and retreat in response to sea level rise impacts; and (3 challenges related to implementing adaptation measures.

  14. Modeling and Simulation Environment for Critical Infrastructure Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-20

    address at the triennial International Symposium on Mathematical Programming, held in Copenhagen, Denmark in August 2003. Finally, in very recent work... Teleworking - The human and organizational issues of computer and information security. Paper presented at the 11th Annual Conference on Human

  15. 76 FR 76021 - Critical Infrastructure Protection Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ..., we must also address the growing threat cyber attacks present to our transportation networks... action against cyber threats. To ensure the safety of our most vital operations, we are working to give.... These efforts will bolster our ability to withstand any attack, whether virtual or physical. During...

  16. Public-Private-Defense Partnering in Critical Infrastructure Protection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jaksec, Gregory M

    2006-01-01

    .... The challenge for the DHS is in motivating partnerships across the public, private, and DoD domains, each with different organizational and cultural objectives governed under a federalist system...

  17. 76 FR 48807 - Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) Certificate Action Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-09

    ... Infrastructure (PKI) technology to support electronic commerce between the USPTO and its customers. PKI is a set... security for its electronic commerce systems, the USPTO uses PKI technology to protect the integrity and... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE United States Patent and Trademark Office Public Key Infrastructure (PKI...

  18. Making green infrastructure healthier infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mare Lõhmus

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasing urban green and blue structure is often pointed out to be critical for sustainable development and climate change adaptation, which has led to the rapid expansion of greening activities in cities throughout the world. This process is likely to have a direct impact on the citizens’ quality of life and public health. However, alongside numerous benefits, green and blue infrastructure also has the potential to create unexpected, undesirable, side-effects for health. This paper considers several potential harmful public health effects that might result from increased urban biodiversity, urban bodies of water, and urban tree cover projects. It does so with the intent of improving awareness and motivating preventive measures when designing and initiating such projects. Although biodiversity has been found to be associated with physiological benefits for humans in several studies, efforts to increase the biodiversity of urban environments may also promote the introduction and survival of vector or host organisms for infectious pathogens with resulting spread of a variety of diseases. In addition, more green connectivity in urban areas may potentiate the role of rats and ticks in the spread of infectious diseases. Bodies of water and wetlands play a crucial role in the urban climate adaptation and mitigation process. However, they also provide habitats for mosquitoes and toxic algal blooms. Finally, increasing urban green space may also adversely affect citizens allergic to pollen. Increased awareness of the potential hazards of urban green and blue infrastructure should not be a reason to stop or scale back projects. Instead, incorporating public health awareness and interventions into urban planning at the earliest stages can help insure that green and blue infrastructure achieves full potential for health promotion.

  19. Chain-computerisation for better privacy protection : a new approach to developing non-intrusive information infrastructures that improve privacy protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grijpink, J.H.A.M.

    1999-01-01

    This is the second of a series of two articles in which the author presents some key elements from his recently completed thesis about functional, non-intrusive information infrastructures for interorganisational public policy implementation. The development of these information infrastructures

  20. Nuclear knowledge management: a very fundament of a national radiation protection infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, Slobodan

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Knowledge is fundament of any progress, and so is the case with nuclear knowledge (NK) for radiation protection. However, this axiomatic and notorious fact is sometimes interpreted/understood in a sense that knowledge is there for granted. If persistent, this dangerously wrong attitude may silently lead to prevailing of ignorance vs. knowledge/ competence and to RP degradation in much respect, with far reaching consequences. Having behind many decades of experience with research, development and utilization of radiation sources for various purposes (including both electric power generation and non-power applications) and with renewed expectations from nuclear sector in solving global energy crisis in front, nuclear knowledge management (NKM) is getting a growing attention lately. This comes due to accentuation, in many counties, of issues with NK creation, dissemination, transfer, preservation and maintenance, or its proper verification/ employing, positioning versus other knowledge, even valorization and public acceptance. Therein, RP is among the areas much sensitive and depending on the effects mentioned. RP infrastructure in a country comprising regulatory elements (institutional and legal framework), technical support organizations (service providers), educational institutions (universities, training centers), RP associations, source manufacturers, traders and users themselves is, as a matter of fact, a complex system of multidisciplinary nature. Physicists, chemists, biologists, environmentalists, medical physicists and practitioners, engineers, managers, lawyers, technicians have their place within the system. It is a common denominator for them all to need a particular NK pertinent to their duties. This very knowledge cannot be missed. Also, it cannot be improvised or substituted by some other knowledge from their respective specialties, neither by that of other people with different backgrounds, who might come in replacement. Unfortunately, it

  1. Simulating economic effects of disruptions in the telecommunications infrastructure.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Roger Gary; Barton, Dianne Catherine; Reinert, Rhonda K.; Eidson, Eric D.; Schoenwald, David Alan

    2004-01-01

    CommAspen is a new agent-based model for simulating the interdependent effects of market decisions and disruptions in the telecommunications infrastructure on other critical infrastructures in the U.S. economy such as banking and finance, and electric power. CommAspen extends and modifies the capabilities of Aspen-EE, an agent-based model previously developed by Sandia National Laboratories to analyze the interdependencies between the electric power system and other critical infrastructures. CommAspen has been tested on a series of scenarios in which the communications network has been disrupted, due to congestion and outages. Analysis of the scenario results indicates that communications networks simulated by the model behave as their counterparts do in the real world. Results also show that the model could be used to analyze the economic impact of communications congestion and outages.

  2. Protecting Commercial Space Systems: A Critical National Security Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-04-01

    systems. Part two will describe, at the operational level , this author’s theory for space protection and recommend a course of action to work...minimal loss of life. These factors force us to conclude this is a critical national security issue just as many in high- level government positions...Command and Staff College Operational Forces Coursebook (Academic Year 1999), 35. 3 The USCG is not a Title 10 Service, thus Posse Comitatus is not a

  3. Radiation Protection and Safety infrastructure in Albania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ylli, F.; Dollani, K.; Paci, R.

    2005-01-01

    On 1995 Albania Parliament approved the Radiation Protection Act, which established the Radiation Protection Commission as Regulatory Body and Radiation Protection Office as an executive office. The licensing of private and public companies is a duty of RPC and the inspections, enforcement, import - export control, safety and security of radioactive materials, are tasks of RPO. Regulations on licence and inspection, safe handling of radioactive sources, radioactive waste management and transport of radioactive materials have been approved. The Codes of practice in diagnostic radiology, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine have been prepared. Institute of Nuclear Physics carry out monitoring of personal dosimetry, response to the radiological emergencies, calibration of dosimetric equipment's, management of radioactive waste, etc. Based in the IAEA documents, a new Radiation Protection Act is under preparation

  4. Analysis of Critical Infrastructure Dependencies and Interdependencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petit, Frederic [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Verner, Duane [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Brannegan, David [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Buehring, William [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dickinson, David [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Guziel, Karen [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Haffenden, Rebecca [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Phillips, Julia [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Peerenboom, James [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The report begins by defining dependencies and interdependencies and exploring basic concepts of dependencies in order to facilitate a common understanding and consistent analytical approaches. Key concepts covered include; Characteristics of dependencies: upstream dependencies, internal dependencies, and downstream dependencies; Classes of dependencies: physical, cyber, geographic, and logical; and Dimensions of dependencies: operating environment, coupling and response behavior, type of failure, infrastructure characteristics, and state of operations From there, the report proposes a multi-phase roadmap to support dependency and interdependency assessment activities nationwide, identifying a range of data inputs, analysis activities, and potential products for each phase, as well as key steps needed to progress from one phase to the next. The report concludes by outlining a comprehensive, iterative, and scalable framework for analyzing dependencies and interdependencies that stakeholders can integrate into existing risk and resilience assessment efforts.

  5. Cyber security in nuclear power plants and its portability to other industrial infrastructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champigny, Sebastien; Gupta, Deeksha; Watson, Venesa; Waedt, Karl

    2017-01-01

    Power generation increasingly relies on decentralised and interconnected computerised systems. Concepts like ''Industrial Internet of Things'' of the Industrial Internet Consortium (IIC), and ''Industry 4.0'' find their way in this strategic industry. Risk of targeted exploits of errors and vulnerabilities increases with complexity, interconnectivity and decentralization. Inherently stringent security requirements and features make nuclear computerised applications and systems a benchmark for industrial counterparts seeking to hedge against those risks. Consequently, this contribution presents usual cyber security regulations and practices for nuclear power plants. It shows how nuclear cyber security can be ported and used in an industrial context to protect critical infrastructures against cyber-attacks and industrial espionage.

  6. The Department of Energy nuclear criticality safety program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felty, J.R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper broadly covers key events and activities from which the Department of Energy Nuclear Criticality Safety Program (NCSP) evolved. The NCSP maintains fundamental infrastructure that supports operational criticality safety programs. This infrastructure includes continued development and maintenance of key calculational tools, differential and integral data measurements, benchmark compilation, development of training resources, hands-on training, and web-based systems to enhance information preservation and dissemination. The NCSP was initiated in response to Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 97-2, Criticality Safety, and evolved from a predecessor program, the Nuclear Criticality Predictability Program, that was initiated in response to Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 93-2, The Need for Critical Experiment Capability. This paper also discusses the role Dr. Sol Pearlstein played in helping the Department of Energy lay the foundation for a robust and enduring criticality safety infrastructure.

  7. A Virtual Environment for Resilient Infrastructure Modeling and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Security CI Critical Infrastructure CID Center for Infrastructure Defense CSV Comma Separated Value DAD Defender-Attacker-Defender DHS Department...responses to disruptive events (e.g., cascading failure behavior) in a context- rich , controlled environment for exercises, education, and training...The general attacker-defender (AD) and defender-attacker-defender ( DAD ) models for CI are defined in Brown et al. (2006). These models help

  8. A modeling framework for investment planning in interdependent infrastructures in multi-hazard environments.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Nathanael J. K.; Gearhart, Jared Lee; Jones, Dean A.; Nozick, Linda Karen; Prince, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Currently, much of protection planning is conducted separately for each infrastructure and hazard. Limited funding requires a balance of expenditures between terrorism and natural hazards based on potential impacts. This report documents the results of a Laboratory Directed Research & Development (LDRD) project that created a modeling framework for investment planning in interdependent infrastructures focused on multiple hazards, including terrorism. To develop this framework, three modeling elements were integrated: natural hazards, terrorism, and interdependent infrastructures. For natural hazards, a methodology was created for specifying events consistent with regional hazards. For terrorism, we modeled the terrorists actions based on assumptions regarding their knowledge, goals, and target identification strategy. For infrastructures, we focused on predicting post-event performance due to specific terrorist attacks and natural hazard events, tempered by appropriate infrastructure investments. We demonstrate the utility of this framework with various examples, including protection of electric power, roadway, and hospital networks.

  9. Assessing the vulnerability of infrastructure to climate change on the Islands of Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhruddin, S. H. M.; Babel, M. S.; Kawasaki, A.

    2015-06-01

    Pacific Islanders have been exposed to risks associated with climate change. Samoa, as one of the Pacific Islands, is prone to climatic hazards that will likely increase in the coming decades, affecting coastal communities and infrastructure around the islands. Climate models do not predict a reduction of such disaster events in the future in Samoa; indeed, most predict an increase. This paper identifies key infrastructure and their functions and status in order to provide an overall picture of relative vulnerability to climate-related stresses of such infrastructure on the island. By reviewing existing reports as well as holding a series of consultation meetings, a list of critical infrastructure was developed and shared with stakeholders for their consideration. An indicator-based vulnerability model (SIVM) was developed in collaboration with stakeholders to assess the vulnerability of selected infrastructure systems on the Samoan Islands. Damage costs were extracted from the Cyclone Evan recovery needs document. Additionally, data on criticality and capacity to repair damage were collected from stakeholders. Having stakeholder perspectives on these two issues was important because (a) criticality of a given infrastructure could be viewed differently among different stakeholders, and (b) stakeholders were the best available source (in this study) to estimate the capacity to repair non-physical damage to such infrastructure. Analysis of the results suggested a ranking of sectors from the most vulnerable to least vulnerable are: the transportation sector, the power sector, the water supply sector and the sewerage system.

  10. Vulnerability analysis and critical areas identification of the power systems under terrorist attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuliang; Zhang, Jianhua; Zhao, Mingwei; Min, Xu

    2017-05-01

    This paper takes central China power grid (CCPG) as an example, and analyzes the vulnerability of the power systems under terrorist attacks. To simulate the intelligence of terrorist attacks, a method of critical attack area identification according to community structures is introduced. Meanwhile, three types of vulnerability models and the corresponding vulnerability metrics are given for comparative analysis. On this basis, influence of terrorist attacks on different critical areas is studied. Identifying the vulnerability of different critical areas will be conducted. At the same time, vulnerabilities of critical areas under different tolerance parameters and different vulnerability models are acquired and compared. Results show that only a few number of vertex disruptions may cause some critical areas collapse completely, they can generate great performance losses the whole systems. Further more, the variation of vulnerability values under different scenarios is very large. Critical areas which can cause greater damage under terrorist attacks should be given priority of protection to reduce vulnerability. The proposed method can be applied to analyze the vulnerability of other infrastructure systems, they can help decision makers search mitigation action and optimum protection strategy.

  11. Radiation safety infrastructure in developing countries: a proactive approach for integrated and continuous improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrabit, Khammar

    2008-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (the Agency) is authorized, by its statute, to establish or adopt safety standards for the protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property, and to provide for their application to its own operations as well as to operations under its control or supervision. The Agency has been assisting, since the mid 1960 's, its Member States through mainly its Technical Cooperation Programme (TCP) to improve their national radiation safety infrastructures. However up to the early nineties, assistance was specific and mostly ad hoc and did not systematically utilize an integrated and harmonized approach to achieving effective and sustainable national radiation safety infrastructures in Member States. An unprecedented and integrated international cooperative effort was launched by the Agency in 1994 to establish and/or upgrade the national radiation safety infrastructure in more than 90 countries within the framework of its TCP through the so-called Model project on upgrading radiation protection infrastructure. In this project proactive co-operation with Member States was used in striving towards achieving an effective and sustainable radiation safety infrastructure, compatible with the International basic safety standards for protection against ionizing radiation and for the safety of radiation sources (the BSS) and related standards. Extension to include compatibility with the guidance of the Code of Conduct on the Safety and Security of Radioactive Sources occurred towards the end of the Model Project in December 2004, and with the more recent ensuing follow up projects that started in 2005. The Model Project started with 5 countries in 1994 and finished with 91 countries in 2004. Up to the end of 2007 more than one hundred Member States had been participating in follow up projects covering six themes - namely: legislative and regulatory infrastructure; occupational radiation protection; radiation protection in

  12. Risk analysis of underground infrastructures in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cagno, Enrico; De Ambroggi, Massimiliano; Grande, Ottavio; Trucco, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents an integrated approach for vulnerability and resilience analysis for underground infrastructures, i.e. a societal risk analysis of the failures of underground services for an urban area. The approach is based on the detailed study of (1) domino-effects for the components of a single infrastructure and for a given set of infrastructures interoperated and/or belonging to the same area; (2) risk and vulnerability analysis of a given area; (3) identification of a set of intervention guidelines, in order to improve the overall system resilience. The use of an integrated (interoperability and area) approach, breaking down the analysis area extent into sub-areas and assessing the dependencies among sub-areas both in terms of interoperability and damage propagation of critical infrastructures, demonstrates a useful advantage in terms of resilience analysis, more consistent with the 'zoned' nature of failures of the underground infrastructures. An applied case, describing the interoperability and damage propagation analysis with the evaluation of time-dependency for the infrastructures and targets and of different kinds of interventions of the underground infrastructures of a town, is presented for this purpose.

  13. Low carbon technology performance vs infrastructure vulnerability: analysis through the local and global properties space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, David A; Purnell, Phil; Roelich, Katy; Busch, Jonathan; Steinberger, Julia K

    2014-11-04

    Renewable energy technologies, necessary for low-carbon infrastructure networks, are being adopted to help reduce fossil fuel dependence and meet carbon mitigation targets. The evolution of these technologies has progressed based on the enhancement of technology-specific performance criteria, without explicitly considering the wider system (global) impacts. This paper presents a methodology for simultaneously assessing local (technology) and global (infrastructure) performance, allowing key technological interventions to be evaluated with respect to their effect on the vulnerability of wider infrastructure systems. We use exposure of low carbon infrastructure to critical material supply disruption (criticality) to demonstrate the methodology. A series of local performance changes are analyzed; and by extension of this approach, a method for assessing the combined criticality of multiple materials for one specific technology is proposed. Via a case study of wind turbines at both the material (magnets) and technology (turbine generators) levels, we demonstrate that analysis of a given intervention at different levels can lead to differing conclusions regarding the effect on vulnerability. Infrastructure design decisions should take a systemic approach; without these multilevel considerations, strategic goals aimed to help meet low-carbon targets, that is, through long-term infrastructure transitions, could be significantly jeopardized.

  14. Funding models for financing water infrastructure in South Africa: framework and critical analysis of alternatives

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ruiters, C

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available by putting in place new institutional structures and funding models for effective strategies leading to prompt water infrastructure provision. The research identified several funding models for financing water infrastructure development projects. The existing...

  15. Explorations Around "Graceful Failure" in Transportation Infrastructure: Lessons Learned By the Infrastructure and Climate Network (ICNet)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, J. M.; Thomas, N.; Mo, W.; Kirshen, P. H.; Douglas, E. M.; Daniel, J.; Bell, E.; Friess, L.; Mallick, R.; Kartez, J.; Hayhoe, K.; Croope, S.

    2014-12-01

    Recent events have demonstrated that the United States' transportation infrastructure is highly vulnerable to extreme weather events which will likely increase in the future. In light of the 60% shortfall of the $900 billion investment needed over the next five years to maintain this aging infrastructure, hardening of all infrastructures is unlikely. Alternative strategies are needed to ensure that critical aspects of the transportation network are maintained during climate extremes. Preliminary concepts around multi-tier service expectations of bridges and roads with reference to network capacity will be presented. Drawing from recent flooding events across the U.S., specific examples for roads/pavement will be used to illustrate impacts, disruptions, and trade-offs between performance during events and subsequent damage. This talk will also address policy and cultural norms within the civil engineering practice that will likely challenge the application of graceful failure pathways during extreme events.

  16. Layered virus protection for the operations and administrative messaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortez, R. H.

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) is critical in supporting the wide variety of operating and plannedunmanned flight projects. For day-to-day operations it relies on email communication between the three Deep Space Communication Complexes (Canberra, Goldstone, Madrid) and NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The Operations & Administrative Messaging system, based on the Microsoft Windows NTand Exchange platform, provides the infrastructure that is required for reliable, mission-critical messaging. The reliability of this system, however, is threatened by the proliferation of email viruses that continue to spread at alarming rates. A layered approach to email security has been implemented across the DSN to protect against this threat.

  17. 76 FR 36137 - National Infrastructure Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-21

    ... has completed its business. For additional information, please consult the NIAC Web site, http://www... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY [Docket No. DHS-2011-0034] National Infrastructure Advisory Council AGENCY: National Protection and Programs Directorate, DHS. ACTION: Committee Management; Notice of...

  18. Vulnerability analysis of the wireless infrastructures to intentional electromagnetic interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Beek, G.S.

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary society is greatly dependent upon a set of critical infrastructures (CIs) providing security and quality of life. Electronic systems control the safety-critical functioning of most CIs, and these electronic systems are susceptible to electromagnetic interference (EMI). A threat to the

  19. Critical considerations on the environmental protection. On the technical regulatory guide of air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasch, R

    1978-11-01

    The author critically examines the problem of environmental protection maintaining living conditions even with further development of technology. He deals in detail with the success-promising slogans put forth plastics and hydrochloric acid, nuclear energy, as well as keeping the air clean, sulfur dioxide as main topic from the viewpoint of environmental protection. Furthermore, the technical regulatory guides in maintaining clean air and flue gas purification are treated.

  20. European legislation impedes critical care research and fails to protect patients' rights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Ronan M G; Møller, Kirsten; Rossel, Peter Johannes Hancke

    2011-01-01

    in which a waiver of consent is deemed necessary, the Ethical Review Board should ensure that non-therapeutic risks are minimal, that the research is specifically designed to benefit critically ill patients, and that it cannot be conducted under circumstances where an informed consent can be obtained....... If the European Directive is changed accordingly, this permits clinical trials in critical care settings, while adequate protection from risky non-therapeutic procedures is ensured and exploitation of the patient as an easily accessible research subject is prevented....

  1. Cyber security in nuclear power plants and its portability to other industrial infrastructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champigny, Sebastien; Gupta, Deeksha; Watson, Venesa; Waedt, Karl [AREVA GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2017-06-15

    Power generation increasingly relies on decentralised and interconnected computerised systems. Concepts like ''Industrial Internet of Things'' of the Industrial Internet Consortium (IIC), and ''Industry 4.0'' find their way in this strategic industry. Risk of targeted exploits of errors and vulnerabilities increases with complexity, interconnectivity and decentralization. Inherently stringent security requirements and features make nuclear computerised applications and systems a benchmark for industrial counterparts seeking to hedge against those risks. Consequently, this contribution presents usual cyber security regulations and practices for nuclear power plants. It shows how nuclear cyber security can be ported and used in an industrial context to protect critical infrastructures against cyber-attacks and industrial espionage.

  2. Advanced methods for the risk, vulnerability and resilience assessment of safety-critical engineering components, systems and infrastructures, in the presence of uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedroni, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Safety-critical industrial installations (e.g., nuclear plants) and infrastructures (e.g., power transmission networks) are complex systems composed by a multitude and variety of heterogeneous 'elements', which are highly interconnected and mutually dependent. In addition, such systems are affected by large uncertainties in the characterization of the failure and recovery behavior of their components, interconnections and interactions. Such characteristics raise concerns with respect to the system risk, vulnerability and resilience properties, which have to be accurately and precisely assessed for decision making purposes. In general, this entails the following main steps: (1) representation of the system to capture its main features; (2) construction of a mathematical model of the system; (3) simulation of the behavior of the system under various uncertain conditions to evaluate the relevant risk, vulnerability and resilience metrics by propagating the uncertainties through the mathematical model; (4) decision making to (optimally) determine the set of protective actions to effectively reduce (resp., increase) the system risk and vulnerability (resp., resilience). New methods to address these issues have been developed in this dissertation. Specifically, the research works have been carried out along two main axes: (1) the study of approaches for uncertainty modeling and quantification; (2) the development of advanced computational methods for the efficient system modeling, simulation and analysis in the presence of uncertainties. (author)

  3. Radiation Protection in Slovenia Over the Past Fifty Years (1963-2013) and the Slovenian Society of Radiation Protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omahen, G.; Krizman, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The use of the ionizing radiation sources in Slovenia started as early as 1900 when X-ray device was put in operation; the first radioactive source was used two years later. Artificial radioactive sources were introduced from 1954 onwards. The use of radioactive sources in industry started in the middle of the 1950's when industrial radiography was introduced due to strong metal industry in Slovenia. Four nuclear facilities were built in Slovenia: the research reactor TRIGA (1966), the Krško nuclear power plant (1983), the mining and milling uranium complex at Žirovski Vrh (1984) and the low and intermediate level radioactive waste storage (1986). The infrastructure of radiation protection (RP) in the former Yugoslavia was established as late as the first Law on RP was adopted in 1959, the competent authorities were defined and technical support organisations for RP were designated. But the whole infrastructure could not follow the rapid development of nuclear industry and the extent uses of sources. After joining EU, the changes in legislation made a significant shift ahead in radiation protection, as regards the quality of the implementation of radiation protection measures as the intensity of administrative and inspection controls. Slovenian Radiation Protection Society was established in 1981 during the 11th symposium of the Yugoslav Radiation Protection Society. The role of the Slovenian Society for Radiation Protection has never been significant, mostly due to a small critical mass of membership. This is sometimes advantageous since everyone knows each other and can easily come with the problem to be solved. This feature reduces the need for the Society to be active as a formal association. The main role of the Society is the distribution of actual information on RP and related important events.(author)

  4. Private Sector Investment in Pakistani Agriculture: The Role of Infrastructural Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    private sector will be expected to play the major role in providing capital to the agricultural sector, with the government’s remaining involvement being largely one of furnishing basic infrastructure. The critical question of course is how willing is the private sector to commit capital to agricultural activities in this new policy environment? Has the private sector responded in the past to the increases in profitability provided by an expansion in infrastructure? If so, what types of infrastructure are most conducive in

  5. Linear infrastructure impacts on landscape hydrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiter, Keren G; Prober, Suzanne M; Possingham, Hugh P; Westcott, Fiona; Hobbs, Richard J

    2018-01-15

    , leading to soil loss and degradation. Where linear infrastructure densities are high, their impacts on ecological processes are likely to be considerable. Linear infrastructure is widespread across much of this relatively intact region, but there remain areas with very low infrastructure densities that need to be protected from further impacts. There is substantial scope for mitigating the impacts of existing and planned infrastructure developments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Eco-logical : an ecosystem approach to developing transportation infrastructure projects in a changing environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-13

    The development of infrastructure facilities can negatively impact critical habitat and essential ecosystems. There are a variety of techniques available to avoid, minimize, and mitigate negative impacts of existing infrastructure as well as future i...

  7. Participation of financial institutions in project financing of infrastructure projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benković Slađana

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Infrastructure investing makes up a significant part of the financial institutions portfolio, and contributes to creating long-term assets cash flows. In addition, infrastructure assets are relatively inelastic in demand and price, and as such the asset has a good performance during the economic downturn. Properly structured infrastructure investments contribute to the diversification of the portfolio, due to the lack of correlation with the yield on bonds, stocks and real estate, and offer good protection against inflation. Applying the concept of project financing involves the application of the most advanced financial techniques and products that are able to ensure only credible international financial institutions and companies. Paper attempts to indicate the presence of financial institutions in project financing of infrastructure, as well as the benefits of this concept in expected to finance infrastructure in Serbia.

  8. Cloud Application Architectures Building Applications and Infrastructure in the Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Reese, George

    2009-01-01

    If you're involved in planning IT infrastructure as a network or system architect, system administrator, or developer, this book will help you adapt your skills to work with these highly scalable, highly redundant infrastructure services. Cloud Application Architectures will help you determine whether and how to put your applications into these virtualized services, with critical guidance on issues of cost, availability, performance, scaling, privacy, and security.

  9. Green infrastructure: a natural systems approach to stormwater in the city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathaniel S. Cormier

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents diverse typologies of urban open space designed as green infrastructure in the american cities of Seattle and Portland. In these cities of the Pacific Northwest, landscape design is viewed as much more than mere beautification of the urban environment, but as pieces of a high-performance infrastructure that protects and even improves urban hydrology, climate, and ecology. Green infrastructure is a landscape approach that creates a distinctive local landscape identity and a more sustainable urban environment.

  10. Understanding the infrastructure of European Research Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindstrøm, Maria Duclos; Kropp, Kristoffer

    2017-01-01

    European Research Infrastructure Consortia (ERIC) are a new form of legal and financial framework for the establishment and operation of research infrastructures in Europe. Despite their scope, ambition, and novelty, the topic has received limited scholarly attention. This article analyses one ER....... It is also a promising theoretical framework for addressing the relationship between the ERIC construct and the large diversity of European Research Infrastructures.......European Research Infrastructure Consortia (ERIC) are a new form of legal and financial framework for the establishment and operation of research infrastructures in Europe. Despite their scope, ambition, and novelty, the topic has received limited scholarly attention. This article analyses one ERIC...... became an ERIC using the Bowker and Star’s sociology of infrastructures. We conclude that focusing on ERICs as a European standard for organising and funding research collaboration gives new insights into the problems of membership, durability, and standardisation faced by research infrastructures...

  11. Anti-social networking: crowdsourcing and the cyber defence of national critical infrastructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Chris W

    2014-01-01

    We identify four roles that social networking plays in the 'attribution problem', which obscures whether or not cyber-attacks were state-sponsored. First, social networks motivate individuals to participate in Distributed Denial of Service attacks by providing malware and identifying potential targets. Second, attackers use an individual's social network to focus attacks, through spear phishing. Recipients are more likely to open infected attachments when they come from a trusted source. Third, social networking infrastructures create disposable architectures to coordinate attacks through command and control servers. The ubiquitous nature of these architectures makes it difficult to determine who owns and operates the servers. Finally, governments recruit anti-social criminal networks to launch attacks on third-party infrastructures using botnets. The closing sections identify a roadmap to increase resilience against the 'dark side' of social networking.

  12. Green Infrastructure, Ecosystem Services, and Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Christopher; Hahn, Micah

    2015-08-18

    Contemporary ecological models of health prominently feature the natural environment as fundamental to the ecosystem services that support human life, health, and well-being. The natural environment encompasses and permeates all other spheres of influence on health. Reviews of the natural environment and health literature have tended, at times intentionally, to focus on a limited subset of ecosystem services as well as health benefits stemming from the presence, and access and exposure to, green infrastructure. The sweeping influence of green infrastructure on the myriad ecosystem services essential to health has therefore often been underrepresented. This survey of the literature aims to provide a more comprehensive picture-in the form of a primer-of the many simultaneously acting health co-benefits of green infrastructure. It is hoped that a more accurately exhaustive list of benefits will not only instigate further research into the health co-benefits of green infrastructure but also promote consilience in the many fields, including public health, that must be involved in the landscape conservation necessary to protect and improve health and well-being.

  13. Green Infrastructure, Ecosystem Services, and Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Christopher; Hahn, Micah

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary ecological models of health prominently feature the natural environment as fundamental to the ecosystem services that support human life, health, and well-being. The natural environment encompasses and permeates all other spheres of influence on health. Reviews of the natural environment and health literature have tended, at times intentionally, to focus on a limited subset of ecosystem services as well as health benefits stemming from the presence, and access and exposure to, green infrastructure. The sweeping influence of green infrastructure on the myriad ecosystem services essential to health has therefore often been underrepresented. This survey of the literature aims to provide a more comprehensive picture—in the form of a primer—of the many simultaneously acting health co-benefits of green infrastructure. It is hoped that a more accurately exhaustive list of benefits will not only instigate further research into the health co-benefits of green infrastructure but also promote consilience in the many fields, including public health, that must be involved in the landscape conservation necessary to protect and improve health and well-being. PMID:26295249

  14. Implementing Compstat Principles Into Critical Infrastructure Protection And Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    city agencies’ lack of communication and accountability. These events are collected from seminars presented by local elected officials, local media ...was not disseminated to local media sources, elected officials, and community members. The disconnect between the city and state agencies, the...250 H. W. Love, “ Communication , Accountability and Professional Discourse: The Interaction of Language Values and Ethical Values,” Journal of

  15. Information Sharing: Practices That Can Benefit Critical Infrastructure Protection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    .... Information sharing and coordination are key elements in developing comprehensive and practical approaches to defending against computer-based, or cyber, attacks, which could threaten the national welfare...

  16. Cybersecurity Workforce Development and the Protection of Critical Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-31

    of cyberspace operations and the importance of cyber security for both the DoD and industry, UHWO developed the Bachelor of Applied Science degree...Distribution 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. A.BSTRACT This Cyber Security Workforce Development Project directly supports workforce development needs for the...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98) Presclibed by .a.NSI Std. Z39.18 UNIVERSITY of HAWAI 𔃻 · WEST O’AHU Final Project Technical Report: Cyber Security

  17. Critical infrastructure cyber-security risk management

    OpenAIRE

    Spyridopoulos, T.; Maraslis, K.; Tryfonas, T.; Oikonomou, G.

    2017-01-01

    Traditional IT cyber-security risk management methods are based on the evaluation of risks calculated as the likelihood of cyber-security incidents occurring. However, these probabilities are usually estimations or guesses based on past experience and incomplete data. Incorrect estimations can lead to errors in the evaluation of risks that can ultimately affect the protection of the system. This issue is also transferred to methods used in Industrial Control Systems (ICSs), as they are mainly...

  18. Electromagnetic computation methods for lightning surge protection studies

    CERN Document Server

    Baba, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    This book is the first to consolidate current research and to examine the theories of electromagnetic computation methods in relation to lightning surge protection. The authors introduce and compare existing electromagnetic computation methods such as the method of moments (MOM), the partial element equivalent circuit (PEEC), the finite element method (FEM), the transmission-line modeling (TLM) method, and the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The application of FDTD method to lightning protection studies is a topic that has matured through many practical applications in the past decade, and the authors explain the derivation of Maxwell's equations required by the FDTD, and modeling of various electrical components needed in computing lightning electromagnetic fields and surges with the FDTD method. The book describes the application of FDTD method to current and emerging problems of lightning surge protection of continuously more complex installations, particularly in critical infrastructures of e...

  19. New York Solar Smart DG Hub-Resilient Solar Project: Economic and Resiliency Impact of PV and Storage on New York Critical Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Kate; Burman, Kari; Simpkins, Travis; Helson, Erica; Lisell, Lars, Case, Tria

    2016-06-01

    Resilient PV, which is solar paired with storage ('solar-plus-storage'), provides value both during normal grid operation and power outages as opposed to traditional solar PV, which functions only when the electric grid is operating. During normal grid operations, resilient PV systems help host sites generate revenue and/or reduce electricity bill charges. During grid outages, resilient PV provides critical emergency power that can help people in need and ease demand on emergency fuel supplies. The combination of grid interruptions during recent storms, the proliferation of solar PV, and the growing deployment of battery storage technologies has generated significant interest in using these assets for both economic and resiliency benefits. This report analyzes the technical and economic viability for resilient PV on three critical infrastructure sites in New York City (NYC): a school that is part of a coastal storm shelter system, a fire station, and a NYCHA senior center that serves as a cooling center during heat emergencies. This analysis differs from previous solar-plus-storage studies by placing a monetary value on resiliency and thus, in essence, modeling a new revenue stream for the avoided cost of a power outage. Analysis results show that resilient PV is economically viable for NYC's critical infrastructure and that it may be similarly beneficial to other commercial buildings across the city. This report will help city building owners, managers, and policymakers better understand the economic and resiliency benefits of resilient PV. As NYC fortifies its building stock against future storms of increasing severity, resilient PV can play an important role in disaster response and recovery while also supporting city greenhouse gas emission reduction targets and relieving stress to the electric grid from growing power demands.

  20. Environmental impacts of dispersed development from federal infrastructure projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southerland, Mark T

    2004-06-01

    Dispersed development, also referred to as urban growth or sprawl, is a pattern of low-density development spread over previously rural landscapes. Such growth can result in adverse impacts to air quality, water quality, human health, aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, agricultural land, military training areas, water supply and wastewater treatment, recreational resources, viewscapes, and cultural resources. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) is charged with protecting public health and the environment, which includes consideration of impacts from dispersed development. Specifically, because federal infrastructure projects can affect the progress of dispersed development, the secondary impacts resulting from it must be assessed in documents prepared under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). The Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) has oversight for NEPA and Section 309 of the Clean Air Act requires that U.S. EPA review and comment on federal agency NEPA documents. The adverse effects of dispersed development can be induced by federal infrastructure projects including transportation, built infrastructure, modifications in natural infrastructure, public land conversion and redevelopment of properties, construction of federal facilities, and large traffic or major growth generation developments requiring federal permits. This paper presents an approach that U.S. EPA reviewers and NEPA practitioners can use to provide accurate, realistic, and consistent analysis of secondary impacts of dispersed development resulting from federal infrastructure projects. It also presents 24 measures that can be used to mitigate adverse impacts from dispersed development by modifying project location and design, participating in preservation or restoration activities, or informing and supporting local communities in planning.

  1. Resource-poor settings: infrastructure and capacity building: care of the critically ill and injured during pandemics and disasters: CHEST consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiling, James; Burkle, Frederick M; Amundson, Dennis; Dominguez-Cherit, Guillermo; Gomersall, Charles D; Lim, Matthew L; Luyckx, Valerie; Sarani, Babak; Uyeki, Timothy M; West, T Eoin; Christian, Michael D; Devereaux, Asha V; Dichter, Jeffrey R; Kissoon, Niranjan

    2014-10-01

    Planning for mass critical care (MCC) in resource-poor or constrained settings has been largely ignored, despite their large populations that are prone to suffer disproportionately from natural disasters. Addressing MCC in these settings has the potential to help vast numbers of people and also to inform planning for better-resourced areas. The Resource-Poor Settings panel developed five key question domains; defining the term resource poor and using the traditional phases of disaster (mitigation/preparedness/response/recovery), literature searches were conducted to identify evidence on which to answer the key questions in these areas. Given a lack of data upon which to develop evidence-based recommendations, expert-opinion suggestions were developed, and consensus was achieved using a modified Delphi process. The five key questions were then separated as follows: definition, infrastructure and capacity building, resources, response, and reconstitution/recovery of host nation critical care capabilities and research. Addressing these questions led the panel to offer 33 suggestions. Because of the large number of suggestions, the results have been separated into two sections: part 1, Infrastructure/Capacity in this article, and part 2, Response/Recovery/Research in the accompanying article. Lack of, or presence of, rudimentary ICU resources and limited capacity to enhance services further challenge resource-poor and constrained settings. Hence, capacity building entails preventative strategies and strengthening of primary health services. Assistance from other countries and organizations is needed to mount a surge response. Moreover, planning should include when to disengage and how the host nation can provide capacity beyond the mass casualty care event.

  2. Assessment of municipal infrastructure development and its critical influencing factors in urban China: A FA and STIRPAT approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Li

    Full Text Available Municipal infrastructure is a fundamental facility for the normal operation and development of an urban city and is of significance for the stable progress of sustainable urbanization around the world, especially in developing countries. Based on the municipal infrastructure data of the prefecture-level cities in China, municipal infrastructure development is assessed comprehensively using a FA (factor analysis model, and then the stochastic model STIRPAT (stochastic impacts by regression on population, affluence and technology is examined to investigate key factors that influence municipal infrastructure of cities in various stages of urbanization and economy. This study indicates that the municipal infrastructure development in urban China demonstrates typical characteristics of regional differentiation, in line with the economic development pattern. Municipal infrastructure development in cities is primarily influenced by income, industrialization and investment. For China and similar developing countries under transformation, national public investment remains the primary driving force of economy as well as the key influencing factor of municipal infrastructure. Contribution from urbanization and the relative consumption level, and the tertiary industry is still scanty, which is a crux issue for many developing countries under transformation. With economic growth and the transformation requirements, the influence of the conventional factors such as public investment and industrialization on municipal infrastructure development would be expected to decline, meanwhile, other factors like the consumption and tertiary industry driven model and the innovation society can become key contributors to municipal infrastructure sustainability.

  3. Assessment of municipal infrastructure development and its critical influencing factors in urban China: A FA and STIRPAT approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu; Zheng, Ji; Li, Fei; Jin, Xueting; Xu, Chen

    2017-01-01

    Municipal infrastructure is a fundamental facility for the normal operation and development of an urban city and is of significance for the stable progress of sustainable urbanization around the world, especially in developing countries. Based on the municipal infrastructure data of the prefecture-level cities in China, municipal infrastructure development is assessed comprehensively using a FA (factor analysis) model, and then the stochastic model STIRPAT (stochastic impacts by regression on population, affluence and technology) is examined to investigate key factors that influence municipal infrastructure of cities in various stages of urbanization and economy. This study indicates that the municipal infrastructure development in urban China demonstrates typical characteristics of regional differentiation, in line with the economic development pattern. Municipal infrastructure development in cities is primarily influenced by income, industrialization and investment. For China and similar developing countries under transformation, national public investment remains the primary driving force of economy as well as the key influencing factor of municipal infrastructure. Contribution from urbanization and the relative consumption level, and the tertiary industry is still scanty, which is a crux issue for many developing countries under transformation. With economic growth and the transformation requirements, the influence of the conventional factors such as public investment and industrialization on municipal infrastructure development would be expected to decline, meanwhile, other factors like the consumption and tertiary industry driven model and the innovation society can become key contributors to municipal infrastructure sustainability.

  4. Identification of the heart as the critical site of adenosine mediated embryo protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greene Robert W

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our understanding of the mechanisms that protect the developing embryo from intrauterine stress is limited. Recently, adenosine has been demonstrated to play a critical role in protecting the embryo against hypoxia via adenosine A1 receptors (A1ARs, which are expressed in the heart, nervous system, and other sites during development. However, the sites of A1AR action that mediate embryo protection are not known. To determine if the heart is a key site of adenosine-mediated embryo protection, A1ARs were selectively deleted in the embryonic heart using a Cre-LoxP system in which the alpha-myosin heavy chain promoter drives Cre-recombinase expression and excision of the A1AR gene from cardiomyocytes. Results With increasing exposure of maternal hypoxia (10% O2 from 48-96 hours beginning at embryonic day (E 8.5, embryo viability decreased in the cardiac-A1AR deleted embryos. 48 hours of hypoxia reduced embryonic viability by 49% in embryos exposed from E10.5-12.5 but no effect on viability was observed in younger embryos exposed to hypoxia from E8.5-10.5. After 72 hours of hypoxia, 57.8% of the cardiac-A1AR deleted embryos were either dead or re-absorbed compared to 13.7% of control littermates and after 96 hours 81.6% of cardiac-A1AR deleted embryos were dead or re-absorbed. After 72 hours of hypoxia, cardiac size was reduced significantly more in the cardiac-A1AR deleted hearts compared to controls. Gene expression analysis revealed clusters of genes that are regulated by both hypoxia and A1AR expression. Conclusions These data identify the embryonic heart as the critical site where adenosine acts to protect the embryo against hypoxia. As such these studies identify a previously unrecognized mechanism of embryo protection.

  5. Study for Action Plan proposal on some issues of the national nuclear infrastructure for the new research reactor project in phase 1&2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Hong Lan; Bui Dang Hanh; Nguyen Nhi Dien

    2017-01-01

    The Project on construction for a new research reactor in Vietnam is under preparation. At the same time, it is necessary to prepare a firm and comprehensive national nuclear infrastructure which is aimed to implement smoothly and ensure safety and security for the project. How is the status of the nuclear infrastructure for research reactor project in Vietnam, how can it be assessed, what is the assessment used for and what are we going to do with that? So, all of these things are the goals set out to address in this Task. However, due to time constraints and conformity with requirement of project progress, this Task assessed only 8 critical issues in infrastructure in phase 1&2, including National position; Management; Legislative framework; Regulatory framework; Human resource development; Radioactive waste; Site survey, site selection and evaluation; and Environmental protection. Conditions and criteria in the documents on milestones and assessment of the national nuclear infrastructure to support a new research reactor project of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) were used as bases for assessing the Vietnam's infrastructure status. The results of the Task are assessment and identification for gaps which need to be addressed and proposing for a plan on completing the national nuclear infrastructure for the research reactor project on 8 issues in stages 1&2. (author)

  6. National software infrastructure for lattice gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brower, Richard C

    2005-01-01

    The current status of the SciDAC software infrastructure project for lattice gauge theory is summarized. This includes the the design of a QCD application programmers interface (API) that allows existing and future codes to be run efficiently on Terascale hardware facilities and to be rapidly ported to new dedicated or commercial platforms. The critical components of the API have been implemented and are in use on the US QCDOC hardware at BNL and on both the switched and mesh architecture Pentium 4 clusters at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) and Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab). Future software infrastructure requirements and research directions are also discussed

  7. Collaborative Engagement Approaches For Delivering Sustainable Infrastructure Projects In The AEC Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adetola, Alaba

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The public sector has traditionally financed and operated infrastructure projects using resources from taxes and various levies (e.g. fuel taxes, road user charges. However, the rapid increase in human population growth coupled with extended globalisation complexities and associated social/political/economic challenges have placed new demands on the purveyors and operators of infrastructure projects. The importance of delivering quality infrastructure has been underlined by the United Nations declaration of the Millennium Development Goals; as has the provision of ‘adequate’ basic structures and facilities necessary for the well-being of urban populations in developing countries. Thus, in an effort to finance developing countries’ infrastructure needs, most countries have adopted some form of public-private collaboration strategy. This paper critically reviews these collaborative engagement approaches, identifies and highlights 10 critical themes that need to be appropriately captured and aligned to existing business models in order to successfully deliver sustainable infrastructure projects. Research findings show that infrastructure services can be delivered in many ways, and through various routes. For example, a purely public approach can cause problems such as slow and ineffective decision-making, inefficient organisational and institutional augmentation, and lack of competition and inefficiency (collectively known as government failure. On the other hand, adopting a purely private approach can cause problems such as inequalities in the distribution of infrastructure services (known as market failure. Thus, to overcome both government and market failures, a collaborative approach is advocated which incorporates the strengths of both of these polarised positions.

  8. Running a reliable messaging infrastructure for CERN's control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehm, F.

    2012-01-01

    The current middle-ware for CERN's Control System is based on 2 implementations: CORBA-based Controls Middle-Ware (CMW) and Java Messaging Service (JMS). The JMS service is realized using the open source messaging product ActiveMQ and had became an increasing vital part of beam operations as data need to be transported reliably for various areas such as the beam protection system, post mortem analysis, beam commissioning or the alarm system. The current JMS service is made of 18 brokers running either in clusters or as single nodes. The main service is deployed as a 2 node cluster providing fail-over and load balancing capabilities for high availability. Non-critical applications running on virtual machines or desktop machines read data via a third broker to decouple the load from the operational main cluster. This scenario has been introduced last year and the statistics showed an up-time of 99.998% and an average data serving rate of 1.6 G-Byte per minute represented by around 150 messages per second. Deploying, running, maintaining and protecting such messaging infrastructure is not trivial and includes setting up of careful monitoring and failure pre-recognition. Naturally, lessons have been learnt and their outcome is very important for the current and future operation of such service. (author)

  9. Protecting infrastructure networks from cost-based attacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xingang; Guan Shuguang; Lai, Choy Heng

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that heterogeneous networks are vulnerable to the intentional removal of a small fraction of highly connected or loaded nodes, implying that to protect the network effectively, the important nodes should be allocated more defense resource than the others. However, if too much resource is allocated to the few important nodes, the numerous less-important nodes will be less protected, which if attacked together can still lead to devastating damage. A natural question is therefore how to efficiently distribute the limited defense resource among the network nodes such that the network damage is minimized against any attack strategy. In this paper, taking into account the factor of attack cost, the problem of network security is reconsidered in terms of efficient network defense against cost-based attacks. The results show that, for a general complex network, there exists an optimal distribution of the defense resource with which the network is best protected from cost-based attacks. Furthermore, it is found that the configuration of the optimal defense is dependent on the network parameters. Specifically, networks of larger size, sparser connection and more heterogeneous structure will more likely benefit from the defense optimization.

  10. Governing Critical ICT: Elements that Require Attention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiijf, H.A.M.; Klaver, M.H.A.

    2015-01-01

    With respect to critical information and communication technologies (ICT), nations most often declare their national critical infrastructure to include telecommunication services and in some cases critical services offered by key Internet Service Providers (ISP). This paper debates whether nations,

  11. Criticality analysis of the EU gas infrastructure: heightened security requirements for gas control and management centres; Kritikalitaetsanalyse der EU-Gasinfrastruktur: Erhoehte Sicherheitsanforderungen an Gasleit- und -kontrollzentren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nerlich, Uwe; Umbach, Frank [Centre for European Security Strategies (CESS), Muenchen/Berlin (Germany)

    2009-11-15

    Since the terror attacks of 2001 critical infrastructure objects have gained substantially in strategic importance in the eyes of the German government and EU authorities as well as the European industry. This has not only been due to the worldwide increase in terrorist attacks on energy infrastructure objects but also to the attacks of Madrid on 11 March 2004 and London on 7 July 2005, which have shown that Europe is no longer being spared from terrorism. Strategies for the abatement of these hazards and their repercussions are therefore more urgently needed than ever before. This requires a differentiated assessment of the situation, as has been carried out, for example, in raising the security requirements and investigating the vulnerability of the gas management and control centres of the EU's Octavio project.

  12. 75 FR 61160 - National Protection and Programs Directorate; National Infrastructure Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... Infrastructure Advisory Council (NIAC) will meet on Tuesday, October 19, 2010, at the Hilton Washington Embassy... . ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Hilton Washington Embassy Row, 2015 Massachusetts Ave., NW...

  13. The critical success factor approach to strategic alignment: seeking a trail from a health organization's goals to its management information infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, J K

    1999-11-01

    The critical success factor (CSF) approach is a technique that will aid health administrators, planners and managers to identify, specify and sort among the most relevant and critical factors determining an organization's survival and success. Following a top-down management perspective, this paper discusses the CSF methodology as a strategic information management process comprising several important phases: (i) understanding the external factors such as the organization's industry, market and environment; (ii) achieving strong support and championship from top management; (iii) encouraging the proactive involvement of management and staff in generic CSF identification; (iv) educating and directing the participation of staff members in CSF verification and further refinement of generic CSFs into specific CSFs; and (v) aggregating, prioritizing and translating activity-related CSFs into organizational information requirements for the design of the organization's management information infrastructure. The implementation of this CSF approach is illustrated in the context of a British Columbia community hospital, with insights provided into key issues for future health researchers and practitioners.

  14. Regional radiation protection initiatives by Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grey, J.

    1993-01-01

    Australia both through the auspices of the IAEA and from Government Aid Grants has contributed to the improvement of radiation protection throughout the Asia/Pacific region. The assistance has been in the form of training and improvement to radiation protection infrastructures. The presentation describes the objectives, scope and diversity of the radiation protection infrastructure program and the benefits to the large number of persons included in the program. An outline of the current IAEA program is also discussed together with an explanation of how the program will assist national regulators in the education of radiation workers, in hazardous operations such as industrial radiography

  15. Decontamination of B. globigii spores from drinking water infrastructure using disinfectants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Decontamination of Bacillus spores adhered to common drinking water infrastructure surfaces was evaluated using a variety of disinfectants. Corroded iron and...

  16. Sovereign cat bonds and infrastructure project financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croson, David; Richter, Andreas

    2003-06-01

    We examine the opportunities for using catastrophe-linked securities (or equivalent forms of nondebt contingent capital) to reduce the total costs of funding infrastructure projects in emerging economies. Our objective is to elaborate on methods to reduce the necessity for unanticipated (emergency) project funding immediately after a natural disaster. We also place the existing explanations of sovereign-level contingent capital into a catastrophic risk management framework. In doing so, we address the following questions. (1) Why might catastrophe-linked securities be useful to a sovereign nation, over and above their usefulness for insurers and reinsurers? (2) Why are such financial instruments ideally suited for protecting infrastructure projects in emerging economies, under third-party sponsorship, from low-probability, high-consequence events that occur as a result of natural disasters? (3) How can the willingness to pay of a sovereign government in an emerging economy (or its external project sponsor), who values timely completion of infrastructure projects, for such instruments be calculated? To supplement our treatment of these questions, we use a multilayer spreadsheet-based model (in Microsoft Excel format) to calculate the overall cost reductions possible through the judicious use of catastrophe-based financial tools. We also report on numerical comparative statics on the value of contingent-capital financing to avoid project disruption based on varying costs of capital, probability and consequences of disasters, the feasibility of strategies for mid-stage project abandonment, and the timing of capital commitments to the infrastructure investment. We use these results to identify high-priority applications of catastrophe-linked securities so that maximal protection can be realized if the total number of catastrophe instruments is initially limited. The article concludes with potential extensions to our model and opportunities for future research.

  17. Engineering economics and finance for transportation infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Prassas, Elena S

    2013-01-01

    Transportation infrastructure is often referred to as society’s bloodstream.  It allows for the movement of people and goods to provide the ability to optimize the production and distribution of goods in an effective and efficient manner, and to provide personal opportunities for employment, recreation, education, health care, and other vital activities.   At the same time, the costs to provide, maintain, and operate this complex infrastructure are enormous.  Because so much of the economic resources to be invested come from public funds, it is critical that expenditures are made in a manner that provides society with the best possible return on the investment.  Further, it is important that sufficient investment is made available, and the costs of the investment are equitably borne by taxpayers.   This textbook provides a fundamental overview of the application of engineering economic principles to transportation infrastructure investments.  Basic theory is presented and illustrated with examples spe...

  18. Permafrost Hazards and Linear Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanilovskaya, Julia; Sergeev, Dmitry

    2014-05-01

    The international experience of linear infrastructure planning, construction and exploitation in permafrost zone is being directly tied to the permafrost hazard assessment. That procedure should also consider the factors of climate impact and infrastructure protection. The current global climate change hotspots are currently polar and mountain areas. Temperature rise, precipitation and land ice conditions change, early springs occur more often. The big linear infrastructure objects cross the territories with different permafrost conditions which are sensitive to the changes in air temperature, hydrology, and snow accumulation which are connected to climatic dynamics. One of the most extensive linear structures built on permafrost worldwide are Trans Alaskan Pipeline (USA), Alaska Highway (Canada), Qinghai-Xizang Railway (China) and Eastern Siberia - Pacific Ocean Oil Pipeline (Russia). Those are currently being influenced by the regional climate change and permafrost impact which may act differently from place to place. Thermokarst is deemed to be the most dangerous process for linear engineering structures. Its formation and development depend on the linear structure type: road or pipeline, elevated or buried one. Zonal climate and geocryological conditions are also of the determining importance here. All the projects are of the different age and some of them were implemented under different climatic conditions. The effects of permafrost thawing have been recorded every year since then. The exploration and transportation companies from different countries maintain the linear infrastructure from permafrost degradation in different ways. The highways in Alaska are in a good condition due to governmental expenses on annual reconstructions. The Chara-China Railroad in Russia is under non-standard condition due to intensive permafrost response. Standards for engineering and construction should be reviewed and updated to account for permafrost hazards caused by the

  19. Social Infrastructure to Integrate Science and Practice: the Experience of the Long Tom Watershed Council

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L. Flitcroft

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Ecological problem solving requires a flexible social infrastructure that can incorporate scientific insights and adapt to changing conditions. As applied to watershed management, social infrastructure includes mechanisms to design, carry out, evaluate, and modify plans for resource protection or restoration. Efforts to apply the best science will not bring anticipated results without the appropriate social infrastructure. For the Long Tom Watershed Council, social infrastructure includes a management structure, membership, vision, priorities, partners, resources, and the acquisition of scientific knowledge, as well as the communication with and education of people associated with and affected by actions to protect and restore the watershed. Key to integrating science and practice is keeping science in the loop, using data collection as an outreach tool, and the Long Tom Watershed Council's subwatershed enhancement program approach. Resulting from these methods are ecological leadership, restoration projects, and partnerships that catalyze landscape-level change.

  20. Security infrastructure for dynamically provisioned cloud infrastructure services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demchenko, Y.; Ngo, C.; de Laat, C.; Lopez, D.R.; Morales, A.; García-Espín, J.A.; Pearson, S.; Yee, G.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter discusses conceptual issues, basic requirements and practical suggestions for designing dynamically configured security infrastructure provisioned on demand as part of the cloud-based infrastructure. This chapter describes general use cases for provisioning cloud infrastructure services

  1. Computational Model for Impact-Resisting Critical Thickness of High-Speed Machine Outer Protective Plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huaying; Wang, Li Zhong; Wang, Yantao; Yuan, Xiaolei

    2018-05-01

    The blade or surface grinding blade of the hypervelocity grinding wheel may be damaged due to too high rotation rate of the spindle of the machine and then fly out. Its speed as a projectile may severely endanger the field persons. Critical thickness model of the protective plate of the high-speed machine is studied in this paper. For easy analysis, the shapes of the possible impact objects flying from the high-speed machine are simplified as sharp-nose model, ball-nose model and flat-nose model. Whose front ending shape to represent point, line and surface contacting. Impact analysis based on J-C model is performed for the low-carbon steel plate with different thicknesses in this paper. One critical thickness computational model for the protective plate of high-speed machine is established according to the damage characteristics of the thin plate to get relation among plate thickness and mass, shape and size and impact speed of impact object. The air cannon is used for impact test. The model accuracy is validated. This model can guide identification of the thickness of single-layer outer protective plate of a high-speed machine.

  2. Real Option Cost Vulnerability Analysis of Electrical Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prime, Thomas; Knight, Phil

    2015-04-01

    Critical infrastructure such as electricity substations are vulnerable to various geo-hazards that arise from climate change. These geo-hazards range from increased vegetation growth to increased temperatures and flood inundation. Of all the identified geo-hazards, coastal flooding has the greatest impact, but to date has had a low probability of occurring. However, in the face of climate change, coastal flooding is likely to occur more often due to extreme water levels being experienced more frequently due to sea-level rise (SLR). Knowing what impact coastal flooding will have now and in the future on critical infrastructure such as electrical substations is important for long-term management. Using a flood inundation model, present day and future flood events have been simulated, from 1 in 1 year events up to 1 in 10,000 year events. The modelling makes an integrated assessment of impact by using sea-level and surge to simulate a storm tide. The geographical area the model covers is part of the Northwest UK coastline with a range of urban and rural areas. The ensemble of flood maps generated allows the identification of critical infrastructure exposed to coastal flooding. Vulnerability has be assessed using an Estimated Annual Damage (EAD) value. Sampling SLR annual probability distributions produces a projected "pathway" for SLR up to 2100. EAD is then calculated using a relationship derived from the flood model. Repeating the sampling process allows a distribution of EAD up to 2100 to be produced. These values are discounted to present day values using an appropriate discount rate. If the cost of building and maintain defences is also removed from this a Net Present Value (NPV) of building the defences can be calculated. This distribution of NPV can be used as part of a cost modelling process involving Real Options, A real option is the right but not obligation to undertake investment decisions. In terms of investment in critical infrastructure resilience this

  3. Climate change risks to United States infrastructure: impacts on coastal development, roads, bridges, and urban drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changes in temperature, precipitation, sea level, and coastal storms will likely increase the vulnerability of infrastructure across the United States. Using four models of vulnerability, impacts, and adaptation of infrastructure, its deployment, and its role in protecting econom...

  4. Data Protection and the Prevention of Cybercrime: The EU as an area of security?

    OpenAIRE

    PORCEDDA, Maria Grazia

    2012-01-01

    (This working paper is a revised version of Ms. Porcedda's EUI LL.M. thesis, 2012.) Cybercrime and cyber-security are attracting increasing attention, both for the relevance of Critical Information Infrastructure to the national economy and security, and the interplay of the policies tackling them with ‘ICT sensitive’ liberties, such as privacy and data protection. This study addresses the subject in two ways. On the one hand, it aims to cast light on the (legal substantive) nature of, ...

  5. Radiation. Protection. Health. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajek, Michael; Maringer, Franz Josef; Steurer, Andreas; Schwaiger, Martina; Timal, Guenter

    2015-01-01

    The topics of the meeting are the diagnostic and therapeutic application of ionizing radiations, the application of radiation in research, industry and engineering and radiation protection. The volume includes the following chapters: Radiation protection and society, radiation protection infrastructure, population and environment, metrology and measuring techniques, 1. Workshop on population and environment, NORM and radon, 2. Update: dose - extent of damage - limiting value definition, radiation protection for personnel (except medicine), radiation protection in medicine.

  6. Sequential planning of flood protection infrastructure under limited historic flood record and climate change uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittes, Beatrice; Špačková, Olga; Straub, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Flood protection is often designed to safeguard people and property following regulations and standards, which specify a target design flood protection level, such as the 100-year flood level prescribed in Germany (DWA, 2011). In practice, the magnitude of such an event is only known within a range of uncertainty, which is caused by limited historic records and uncertain climate change impacts, among other factors (Hall & Solomatine, 2008). As more observations and improved climate projections become available in the future, the design flood estimate changes and the capacity of the flood protection may be deemed insufficient at a future point in time. This problem can be mitigated by the implementation of flexible flood protection systems (that can easily be adjusted in the future) and/or by adding an additional reserve to the flood protection, i.e. by applying a safety factor to the design. But how high should such a safety factor be? And how much should the decision maker be willing to pay to make the system flexible, i.e. what is the Value of Flexibility (Špačková & Straub, 2017)? We propose a decision model that identifies cost-optimal decisions on flood protection capacity in the face of uncertainty (Dittes et al. 2017). It considers sequential adjustments of the protection system during its lifetime, taking into account its flexibility. The proposed framework is based on pre-posterior Bayesian decision analysis, using Decision Trees and Markov Decision Processes, and is fully quantitative. It can include a wide range of uncertainty components such as uncertainty associated with limited historic record or uncertain climate or socio-economic change. It is shown that since flexible systems are less costly to adjust when flood estimates are changing, they justify initially lower safety factors. Investigation on the Value of Flexibility (VoF) demonstrates that VoF depends on the type and degree of uncertainty, on the learning effect (i.e. kind and quality of

  7. Commercial Consolidation Model Applied to Transport Infrastructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilherme de Aragão, J.J.; Santos Fontes Pereira, L. dos; Yamashita, Y.

    2016-07-01

    Since the 1990s, transport concessions, including public-private partnerships (PPPs), have been increasingly adopted by governments as an alternative for financing and operations in public investments, especially in transport infrastructure. The advantage pointed out by proponents of these models lies in merging the expertise and capital of the private sector to the public interest. Several arrangements are possible and have been employed in different cases. After the duration of the first PPP contracts in transportation, many authors have analyzed the success and failure factors of partnerships. The occurrence of failures in some stages of the process can greatly encumber the public administration, incurring losses to the fiscal responsibility of the competent bodies. This article aims to propose a new commercial consolidation model applied to transport infrastructure to ensure fiscal sustainability and overcome the weaknesses of current models. Initially, a systematic review of the literature covering studies on transport concessions between 1990 and 2015 is offered, where the different approaches between various countries are compared and the critical success factors indicated in the studies are identified. In the subsequent part of the paper, an approach for the commercial consolidation of the infrastructure concessions is presented, where the concessionary is paid following a finalistic performance model, which includes the overall fiscal balance of regional growth. Finally, the papers analyses the usefulness of the model in coping with the critical success factors explained before. (Author)

  8. Public Tourism Infrastructure: Challenges in the Development and Maintenance Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Shardy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, the tourism sector is a major contributor to the nation’s development and is spearheaded by the government’s efforts in investing heavily towards providing sufficient and well-functioning public tourism infrastructure. This infrastructure should be ideally developed with a clear and systematic maintenance plan in hand. The challenge herein is not merely providing the necessary infrastructure to sustain tourism activities but rather a pro-active approach towards establishing and subsequently maintaining this infrastructure at its optimal level. The aim of this paper therefore is to identify critical aspects that need to be in place to further enhance the Malaysian tourism industry. The paper discusses the issues and challenges that need to be addressed as a precursor towards an effectively developed and maintained tourism infrastructure system. Development issues that have been identified revolve around the dimensions of quality, quantity and ability of the public agencies involved, particularly issues of inadequate infrastructure, quality of infrastructure and the capability of the agencies in undertaking efficient maintenance activities. These issues were found to lead towards challenges of working with resource constraints, lack of an effective maintenance culture and system as well as the need for clear and effective policies and strategies.

  9. Triage: care of the critically ill and injured during pandemics and disasters: CHEST consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Michael D; Sprung, Charles L; King, Mary A; Dichter, Jeffrey R; Kissoon, Niranjan; Devereaux, Asha V; Gomersall, Charles D

    2014-10-01

    Pandemics and disasters can result in large numbers of critically ill or injured patients who may overwhelm available resources despite implementing surge-response strategies. If this occurs, critical care triage, which includes both prioritizing patients for care and rationing scarce resources, will be required. The suggestions in this chapter are important for all who are involved in large-scale pandemics or disasters with multiple critically ill or injured patients, including front-line clinicians, hospital administrators, and public health or government officials. The Triage topic panel reviewed previous task force suggestions and the literature to identify 17 key questions for which specific literature searches were then conducted to identify studies upon which evidence-based recommendations could be made. No studies of sufficient quality were identified. Therefore, the panel developed expert opinion-based suggestions using a modified Delphi process. Suggestions from the previous task force that were not being updated were also included for validation by the expert panel. The suggestions from the task force outline the key principles upon which critical care triage should be based as well as a path for the development of the plans, processes, and infrastructure required. This article provides 11 suggestions regarding the principles upon which critical care triage should be based and policies to guide critical care triage. Ethical and efficient critical care triage is a complex process that requires significant planning and preparation. At present, the prognostic tools required to produce an effective decision support system (triage protocol) as well as the infrastructure, processes, legal protections, and training are largely lacking in most jurisdictions. Therefore, critical care triage should be a last resort after mass critical care surge strategies.

  10. Airborne biological hazards and urban transport infrastructure: current challenges and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Zaheer Ahmad; Campos, Luiza Cintra; Christie, Nicola; Colbeck, Ian

    2016-08-01

    Exposure to airborne biological hazards in an ever expanding urban transport infrastructure and highly diverse mobile population is of growing concern, in terms of both public health and biosecurity. The existing policies and practices on design, construction and operation of these infrastructures may have severe implications for airborne disease transmission, particularly, in the event of a pandemic or intentional release of biological of agents. This paper reviews existing knowledge on airborne disease transmission in different modes of transport, highlights the factors enhancing the vulnerability of transport infrastructures to airborne disease transmission, discusses the potential protection measures and identifies the research gaps in order to build a bioresilient transport infrastructure. The unification of security and public health research, inclusion of public health security concepts at the design and planning phase, and a holistic system approach involving all the stakeholders over the life cycle of transport infrastructure hold the key to mitigate the challenges posed by biological hazards in the twenty-first century transport infrastructure.

  11. The Application of Biometrics in Critical Infrastructures Operations: Guidance for Security Managers. ERNCIP Thematic Group Applied Biometrics for CIP. Deliverable: Guidance for Security Managers - Task 2

    OpenAIRE

    REJMAN-GREENE Marek; BRZOZOWSKI Krzysztof; MANSFIELD Tony; SANCHEZ-REILLO Raul; WAGGETT Peter; WHITAKER Geoff

    2015-01-01

    Biometric technologies have advanced considerably over the past decade, and have paved the way for more widespread use by governments, commercial enterprises and, more recently, by the consumer through the introduction of sensors and apps on mobile phones. This report provides introductory information about the application of these technologies to achieve secure recognition of individuals by organisations which form part of critical infrastructures in the EU. As a specific example, it offers ...

  12. Web-GIS platform for green infrastructure in Bucharest, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sercaianu, Mihai; Petrescu, Florian; Aldea, Mihaela; Oana, Luca; Rotaru, George

    2015-06-01

    In the last decade, reducing urban pollution and improving quality of public spaces became a more and more important issue for public administration authorities in Romania. The paper describes the development of a web-GIS solution dedicated to monitoring of the green infrastructure in Bucharest, Romania. Thus, the system allows the urban residents (citizens) to collect themselves and directly report relevant information regarding the current status of the green infrastructure of the city. Consequently, the citizens become an active component of the decision-support process within the public administration. Besides the usual technical characteristics of such geo-information processing systems, due to the complex legal and organizational problems that arise in collecting information directly from the citizens, additional analysis was required concerning, for example, local government involvement, environmental protection agencies regulations or public entities requirements. Designing and implementing the whole information exchange process, based on the active interaction between the citizens and public administration bodies, required the use of the "citizen-sensor" concept deployed with GIS tools. The information collected and reported from the field is related to a lot of factors, which are not always limited to the city level, providing the possibility to consider the green infrastructure as a whole. The "citizen-request" web-GIS for green infrastructure monitoring solution is characterized by a very diverse urban information, due to the fact that the green infrastructure itself is conditioned by a lot of urban elements, such as urban infrastructures, urban infrastructure works and construction density.

  13. Cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control in a smart grid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Aditya; Hahn, Adam; Govindarasu, Manimaran

    2014-07-01

    Smart grid initiatives will produce a grid that is increasingly dependent on its cyber infrastructure in order to support the numerous power applications necessary to provide improved grid monitoring and control capabilities. However, recent findings documented in government reports and other literature, indicate the growing threat of cyber-based attacks in numbers and sophistication targeting the nation's electric grid and other critical infrastructures. Specifically, this paper discusses cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control (WAMPAC) from a coordinated cyber attack perspective and introduces a game-theoretic approach to address the issue. Finally, the paper briefly describes how cyber-physical testbeds can be used to evaluate the security research and perform realistic attack-defense studies for smart grid type environments.

  14. Cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control in a smart grid environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Aditya; Hahn, Adam; Govindarasu, Manimaran

    2013-01-01

    Smart grid initiatives will produce a grid that is increasingly dependent on its cyber infrastructure in order to support the numerous power applications necessary to provide improved grid monitoring and control capabilities. However, recent findings documented in government reports and other literature, indicate the growing threat of cyber-based attacks in numbers and sophistication targeting the nation’s electric grid and other critical infrastructures. Specifically, this paper discusses cyber-physical security of Wide-Area Monitoring, Protection and Control (WAMPAC) from a coordinated cyber attack perspective and introduces a game-theoretic approach to address the issue. Finally, the paper briefly describes how cyber-physical testbeds can be used to evaluate the security research and perform realistic attack-defense studies for smart grid type environments. PMID:25685516

  15. Quantitative physical models of volcanic phenomena for hazards assessment of critical infrastructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic hazards may have destructive effects on economy, transport, and natural environments at both local and regional scale. Hazardous phenomena include pyroclastic density currents, tephra fall, gas emissions, lava flows, debris flows and avalanches, and lahars. Volcanic hazards assessment is based on available information to characterize potential volcanic sources in the region of interest and to determine whether specific volcanic phenomena might reach a given site. Volcanic hazards assessment is focussed on estimating the distances that volcanic phenomena could travel from potential sources and their intensity at the considered site. Epistemic and aleatory uncertainties strongly affect the resulting hazards assessment. Within the context of critical infrastructures, volcanic eruptions are rare natural events that can create severe hazards. In addition to being rare events, evidence of many past volcanic eruptions is poorly preserved in the geologic record. The models used for describing the impact of volcanic phenomena generally represent a range of model complexities, from simplified physics based conceptual models to highly coupled thermo fluid dynamical approaches. Modelling approaches represent a hierarchy of complexity, which reflects increasing requirements for well characterized data in order to produce a broader range of output information. In selecting models for the hazard analysis related to a specific phenomenon, questions that need to be answered by the models must be carefully considered. Independently of the model, the final hazards assessment strongly depends on input derived from detailed volcanological investigations, such as mapping and stratigraphic correlations. For each phenomenon, an overview of currently available approaches for the evaluation of future hazards will be presented with the aim to provide a foundation for future work in developing an international consensus on volcanic hazards assessment methods.

  16. Touristic infrastructure of municipalities in the border section of Bug valley's Dołhobyczów-Włodawa in the context of existing protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kałamucka, Wioletta; Kałamucki, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    This article presents results of research concerning tourist infrastructure in some districts located in the Bug river valley, in the context of protected areas. The territory examined includes 9 rural districts and 2 towns in the immediate neighborhood of the river. These administrative units are characterized by great natural value. Their total area is 687,7 km2 that makes 6,7% of the whole Lublin voivodship. On the other hand, the share of protected areas (without Natura 2000) is twice as high - 11,1%. Protected areas makes 37,6% of the territory under study. In some units, share of protected areas is very high: Dubienka - 72%, Horodło - 69,5%. In 2009 in the region examined there were 48 objects of collective accommodation - 16,8% of total number in the voivodship. 83,6% of all objects were situated in Włodawa. Characteristic feature of accommodation is seasonality. There are only 7 objects that functions the whole year and year-round lodging places (280) makes barely 9,3% of the totality. Comparing tourist management with presence of areas of the highest natural values, one can see strong correlation between these two indexes only in rural unit - Włodawa, located within the borders of Biosphere Reserves "Polesie Zachodnie" (West Polesie) In case of other units such a interdependance does not exist. On the contrary, there is opposite relation. In Dołhobyczów, Mircze, Horodło, where apart from areas of Natura 2000, in the Bug river valley landscapes protected areas and landscapes parks were created, tourist infrastructure is insignificant or even does not exist. The existence of large protected areas and natural value make it possible to develop various forms of environmentally friendly tourism - tourism qualified, especially fishing and canoeing, hiking, biking, nature education tourism. Tourist service centers should be located outside the valley. Due to the high natural values, caution is advisable to adapt the area for tourism. Such decisions should

  17. Regional seminar on approaches and practices in strengthening radiation protection and waste management infrastructure in countries of Eastern Europe and the former USSR. Programme, book of extended synopses, list of participants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This publication contains 30 extended synopses of presentations given by the participants of the seminar. The scope of the presentations included development of radiation protection laws, radioactive waste management technologies, radiation protection infrastructure and constitution of national regulatory bodies. Recent developments in these areas in a number of Eastern Europe and former USSR countries were presented. The role of international co-operation in development of safe radioactive waste management technologies and in establishing legislative and regulatory frameworks was shown

  18. Social infrastructure to integrate science and practice: the experience of the Long Tom Watershed Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca L. Flitcroft; Dana C. Dedrick; Courtland L. Smith; Cynthia A. Thieman; John P. Bolte

    2009-01-01

    Ecological problem solving requires a flexible social infrastructure that can incorporate scientific insights and adapt to changing conditions. As applied to watershed management, social infrastructure includes mechanisms to design, carry out, evaluate, and modify plans for resource protection or restoration. Efforts to apply the best science will not bring anticipated...

  19. Policies to Avoid Cost Overruns in Infrastructure Projects: Critical Evaluation and Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Lind

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Many infrastructure projects have cost overruns and there has been a lot of research both on why these cost overruns occur and what can be done to reduce hem. Bent Flyvbjerg is the leading researcher in the area and in this article his proposals are used as the starting point. Besides a literature review, a questionnaire was sent out to experienced Swedish project managers to find out what they thought could reduce cost overruns. The literature review and the questionnaire were the foundation for the proposals formulated in this article. Proposals concerned three areas: (1. Organisational macro-structure, e.g. using more PPP projects but also decentralisation of budgets where cost overruns in one project in a region lead to less alternative projects in the specific region. (2. Organisational quality: It should be easy to see when and where cost overruns occur and who was responsible. There should be a well-developed knowledge management system in the organisation and an organisation culture of openness with a focus on improvements. (3. Organisational processes, e.g. a systematic use of external reviewers in different stages of a project.   Keywords: Cost overruns, Infrastructure projects, Policy measures

  20. Security infrastructure for on-demand provisioned Cloud infrastructure services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demchenko, Y.; Ngo, C.; de Laat, C.; Wlodarczyk, T.W.; Rong, C.; Ziegler, W.

    2011-01-01

    Providing consistent security services in on-demand provisioned Cloud infrastructure services is of primary importance due to multi-tenant and potentially multi-provider nature of Clouds Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) environment. Cloud security infrastructure should address two aspects of the

  1. 78 FR 34112 - Review and Revision of the National Infrastructure Protection Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    ... physical and cyber infrastructure. Some of the known changes that will be addressed in the successor to the... threats from terrorism. Updates to Information-Sharing Tools and Mechanisms PPD-21 sets forth the... better alignment with the Quadrennial Homeland Security Review. This change took effect in July 2011...

  2. HIGHWAY INFRASTRUCTURE FOCUS AREA NEXT-GENERATION INFRASTRUCTURE MATERIALS VOLUME I - TECHNICAL PROPOSAL & MANAGEMENTENHANCEMENT OF TRANSPORTATION INFRASTRUCTURE WITH IRON-BASED AMORPHOUS-METAL AND CERAMIC COATINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J C

    2007-12-04

    . The high boron content of this particular amorphous metal made it an effective neutron absorber, and suitable for criticality control applications. These amorphous alloys appear to maintain their corrosion resistance up to the glass transition temperature. Visionary research is proposed to extend the application of corrosion-resistant iron-based amorphous metal coatings, and variants of these coatings, to protection of the Nation's transportation infrastructure. Specific objectives of the proposed work are: (1) fabrication of appropriate test samples for evaluation of concept; (2) collection of production and test data for coated steel reinforcement bars, enabling systematic comparison of various coating options, based upon performance and economic considerations; and (3) construction and testing of concrete structures with coated steel reinforcement bars, thereby demonstrating the value of amorphous-metal coatings. The benefits of ceramic coatings as thermal barriers will also be addressed.

  3. Infrastructure procurement skills gap amongst procurement personnel in Nigeria’s public sector

    OpenAIRE

    Mahamadu, A.-M. ed; Manu, P.; Booth, C.; Olomolaiye, P.; Coker, A.; Ibrahim, A. ed; Lamond, J.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose - Procurement of public infrastructure that is fit for purpose partly depends on the competencies of procurement personnel. In many developing countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, including Nigeria, there is a deficit in the quantity and quality of infrastructure and their procurement is further riddled with deficiencies in the capacity of public procuring entities. It is, however, unclear from the extant literature, what are the critical skills development needs of public personnel invol...

  4. Critical Review of Technical Questions Facing Low Impact Development and Green Infrastructure: A Perspective from the Great Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Jason R; Moore, Trisha L; Coffman, Reid R; Rodie, Steven N; Hutchinson, Stacy L; McDonough, Kelsey R; McLemore, Alex J; McMaine, John T

    2015-09-01

    Since its inception, Low Impact Development (LID) has become part of urban stormwater management across the United States, marking progress in the gradual transition from centralized to distributed runoff management infrastructure. The ultimate goal of LID is full, cost-effective implementation to maximize watershed-scale ecosystem services and enhance resilience. To reach that goal in the Great Plains, the multi-disciplinary author team presents this critical review based on thirteen technical questions within the context of regional climate and socioeconomics across increasing complexities in scale and function. Although some progress has been made, much remains to be done including continued basic and applied research, development of local LID design specifications, local demonstrations, and identifying funding mechanisms for these solutions. Within the Great Plains and beyond, by addressing these technical questions within a local context, the goal of widespread acceptance of LID can be achieved, resulting in more effective and resilient stormwater management.

  5. Critical Infrastructure Protection and Resilience Literature Survey: Modeling and Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Strategy A literature search was conducted in the Scopus , IE Compendex, Inspec and National Technical Information Service (NTIS) databases. The basic...scores should also be accompanied by a review of actual values over time wherever possible. 7.4 Sources Consulted Licensed databases: Scopus EI

  6. 78 FR 72755 - Version 5 Critical Infrastructure Protection Reliability Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... impact on Bulk-Power System reliability. However, the Commission is concerned that the proposed language... focus on the reliability and security of the Bulk Power System.'' \\26\\ Accordingly, NERC requests that...-002-5 through CIP-011-1, submitted by the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC), the...

  7. Method or Madness: Federal Oversight Structures for Critical Infrastructure Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    daughters, Amber and Lauren, who always say just the right things to keep this all in perspective. Bike rides and soccer games helped to provide just...security perspective, is shared by the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Department of Health and Human Services. The USDA monitors the meat ... poultry , and egg sectors, while HHS oversees production of all other food products.90 HHS implements a two-prong strategy to achieve a safe and

  8. Maritime Protection of Critical Infrastructure Assets in the Campeche Sound

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tiburcio, Felix M

    2005-01-01

    Following the 9/11 terrorist events in the United States the Mexican Navy developed strategies designed to prevent similar attacks on the strategic facilities located in the Campeche Sound in the Gulf of Mexico...

  9. 77 FR 24594 - Version 4 Critical Infrastructure Protection Reliability Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-25

    ... 4,\\20\\ while the G&T Cooperatives support Version 4 for ``guidance purposes'' only pending...; NV Energy Comments at 2. \\21\\ G&T Cooperatives Comments at 3. 18. Hydro-Qu[eacute]bec opposes the... towards full compliance with Order No. 706.\\27\\ For the same reason, we reject the G&T Cooperatives...

  10. The 3D Elevation Program and America's infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Vicki; Carswell, Jr., William J.

    2016-11-07

    Infrastructure—the physical framework of transportation, energy, communications, water supply, and other systems—and construction management—the overall planning, coordination, and control of a project from beginning to end—are critical to the Nation’s prosperity. The American Society of Civil Engineers has warned that, despite the importance of the Nation’s infrastructure, it is in fair to poor condition and needs sizable and urgent investments to maintain and modernize it, and to ensure that it is sustainable and resilient. Three-dimensional (3D) light detection and ranging (lidar) elevation data provide valuable productivity, safety, and cost-saving benefits to infrastructure improvement projects and associated construction management. By providing data to users, the 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) of the U.S. Geological Survey reduces users’ costs and risks and allows them to concentrate on their mission objectives. 3DEP includes (1) data acquisition partnerships that leverage funding, (2) contracts with experienced private mapping firms, (3) technical expertise, lidar data standards, and specifications, and (4) most important, public access to high-quality 3D elevation data. The size and breadth of improvements for the Nation’s infrastructure and construction management needs call for an efficient, systematic approach to acquiring foundational 3D elevation data. The 3DEP approach to national data coverage will yield large cost savings over individual project-by-project acquisitions and will ensure that data are accessible for other critical applications.

  11. Telecommunications, power supply, computer systems: the infrastructures of the soccer world cup; Telecommunications, electricite, informatique: les infrastructures de la Coupe du Monde

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1998-06-01

    The 1998 edition of the soccer world cup took place in ten different stadiums in France and several related sites. This short paper gives a general overview of the infrastructures developed for this occasion in the domains of telecommunications, power supply (substations, protection systems, computerized control systems..), and computer systems. (J.S.)

  12. Mathematical modelling of tsunami impacts on critical infrastructures: exposure and severity associated with debris transport at Sines port, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Daniel; Baptista, Maria Ana; Sousa Oliveira, Carlos; Ferreira, Rui M. L.

    2015-04-01

    Global energy production is still significantly dependant on the coal supply chain, justifying huge investments on building infrastructures, capable of stocking very large quantities of this natural resource. Most of these infrastructures are located at deep-sea ports and are therefore exposed to extreme coastal hazards, such as tsunami impacts. The 2011 Tohoku tsunami is reported to have inflicted severe damage to Japan's coal-fired power stations and related infrastructure. Sines, located in the Portuguese coast, hosts a major commercial port featuring an exposed coal stockpile area extending over more than 24 ha and a container terminal currently under expansion up to 100ha. It is protected against storm surges but tsunamis have not been considered in the design criteria. The dominant wind-generated wave direction is N to NW, while the main tsunamigenic faults are located S to SW of the port. This configuration potentially exposes sensitive facilities, such as the new terminal container and the coal stockpile area. According to a recent revision of the national tsunami catalogue (Baptista, 2009), Portugal has been affected by numerous major tsunamis over the last two millennia, with the most notorious event being the Great Lisbon Earthquake and Tsunami occurred on the 1st November 1755. The aim of this work is to simulate the open ocean propagation and overland impact of a tsunami on the Sines port, similar to the historical event of 1755, based on the different tsunamigenic faults and magnitudes proposed in the current literature. Open ocean propagation was modelled with standard simulation tools like TUNAMI and GeoClaw. Near-shore and overland propagation was carried out using a recent 2DH mathematical model for solid-fluid flows, STAV-2D from CERIS-IST (Ferreira et al., 2009; Canelas, 2013). STAV-2D is particularly suited for tsunami propagation over complex and morphodynamic geometries, featuring a discretization scheme based on a finite-volume method using

  13. Operating in Uncertainty; Growing Resilient Critical Infrastructure Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    management. Institutional arrangements and enviromental knowledge are tested and revised in a dynamic, ongoing self-organized process of “learning by...February 17, 2010, from U.S. Enviromental Protection Agency: http://cfpub.epa.gov/safewater/watersecurity/features.cfm#f1 Walker, B., Gunderson, L

  14. Bike Infrastructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Victor; Harder, Henrik; Jensen, Ole B.

    Bike Infrastructures aims to identify bicycle infrastructure typologies and design elements that can help promote cycling significantly. It is structured as a case study based research where three cycling infrastructures with distinct typologies were analyzed and compared. The three cases......, the findings of this research project can also support bike friendly design and planning, and cyclist advocacy....

  15. User and Machine Authentication and Authorization Infrastructure for Distributed Wireless Sensor Network Testbeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Wagenknecht

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The intention of an authentication and authorization infrastructure (AAI is to simplify and unify access to different web resources. With a single login, a user can access web applications at multiple organizations. The Shibboleth authentication and authorization infrastructure is a standards-based, open source software package for web single sign-on (SSO across or within organizational boundaries. It allows service providers to make fine-grained authorization decisions for individual access of protected online resources. The Shibboleth system is a widely used AAI, but only supports protection of browser-based web resources. We have implemented a Shibboleth AAI extension to protect web services using Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP. Besides user authentication for browser-based web resources, this extension also provides user and machine authentication for web service-based resources. Although implemented for a Shibboleth AAI, the architecture can be easily adapted to other AAIs.

  16. Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness: Opportunities and Potential for Near-term Cost Reductions; Proceedings of the Hydrogen Infrastructure Market Readiness Workshop and Summary of Feedback Provided through the Hydrogen Station Cost Calculator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. W.; Steward, D.; Penev, M.; McQueen, S.; Jaffe, S.; Talon, C.

    2012-08-01

    Recent progress with fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) has focused attention on hydrogen infrastructure as a critical commercialization barrier. With major automakers focused on 2015 as a target timeframe for global FCEV commercialization, the window of opportunity is short for establishing a sufficient network of hydrogen stations to support large-volume vehicle deployments. This report describes expert feedback on the market readiness of hydrogen infrastructure technology from two activities.

  17. The Framework for Simulation of Bioinspired Security Mechanisms against Network Infrastructure Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Shorov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper outlines a bioinspired approach named “network nervous system" and methods of simulation of infrastructure attacks and protection mechanisms based on this approach. The protection mechanisms based on this approach consist of distributed prosedures of information collection and processing, which coordinate the activities of the main devices of a computer network, identify attacks, and determine nessesary countermeasures. Attacks and protection mechanisms are specified as structural models using a set-theoretic approach. An environment for simulation of protection mechanisms based on the biological metaphor is considered; the experiments demonstrating the effectiveness of the protection mechanisms are described.

  18. The framework for simulation of bioinspired security mechanisms against network infrastructure attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorov, Andrey; Kotenko, Igor

    2014-01-01

    The paper outlines a bioinspired approach named "network nervous system" and methods of simulation of infrastructure attacks and protection mechanisms based on this approach. The protection mechanisms based on this approach consist of distributed procedures of information collection and processing, which coordinate the activities of the main devices of a computer network, identify attacks, and determine necessary countermeasures. Attacks and protection mechanisms are specified as structural models using a set-theoretic approach. An environment for simulation of protection mechanisms based on the biological metaphor is considered; the experiments demonstrating the effectiveness of the protection mechanisms are described.

  19. The Pedagogy of Complex Work Support Systems: Infrastructuring Practices and the Production of Critical Awareness in Risk Auditing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathisen, Arve; Nerland, Monika

    2012-01-01

    This paper employs a socio-technical perspective to explore the role of complex work support systems in organising knowledge and providing opportunities for learning in professional work. Drawing on concepts from infrastructure studies, such systems are seen as work infrastructures which connect information, knowledge, standards and work…

  20. Public key infrastructure for DOE security research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aiken, R.; Foster, I.; Johnston, W.E. [and others

    1997-06-01

    This document summarizes the Department of Energy`s Second Joint Energy Research/Defence Programs Security Research Workshop. The workshop, built on the results of the first Joint Workshop which reviewed security requirements represented in a range of mission-critical ER and DP applications, discussed commonalties and differences in ER/DP requirements and approaches, and identified an integrated common set of security research priorities. One significant conclusion of the first workshop was that progress in a broad spectrum of DOE-relevant security problems and applications could best be addressed through public-key cryptography based systems, and therefore depended upon the existence of a robust, broadly deployed public-key infrastructure. Hence, public-key infrastructure ({open_quotes}PKI{close_quotes}) was adopted as a primary focus for the second workshop. The Second Joint Workshop covered a range of DOE security research and deployment efforts, as well as summaries of the state of the art in various areas relating to public-key technologies. Key findings were that a broad range of DOE applications can benefit from security architectures and technologies built on a robust, flexible, widely deployed public-key infrastructure; that there exists a collection of specific requirements for missing or undeveloped PKI functionality, together with a preliminary assessment of how these requirements can be met; that, while commercial developments can be expected to provide many relevant security technologies, there are important capabilities that commercial developments will not address, due to the unique scale, performance, diversity, distributed nature, and sensitivity of DOE applications; that DOE should encourage and support research activities intended to increase understanding of security technology requirements, and to develop critical components not forthcoming from other sources in a timely manner.

  1. Urban underground infrastructure mapping and assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Dryver; Xia, Tian; Zhang, Yu; Fan, Taian; Orfeo, Dan; Razinger, Jonathan

    2017-04-01

    This paper outlines and discusses a few associated details of a smart cities approach to the mapping and condition assessment of urban underground infrastructure. Underground utilities are critical infrastructure for all modern cities. They carry drinking water, storm water, sewage, natural gas, electric power, telecommunications, steam, etc. In most cities, the underground infrastructure reflects the growth and history of the city. Many components are aging, in unknown locations with congested configurations, and in unknown condition. The technique uses sensing and information technology to determine the state of infrastructure and provide it in an appropriate, timely and secure format for managers, planners and users. The sensors include ground penetrating radar and buried sensors for persistent sensing of localized conditions. Signal processing and pattern recognition techniques convert the data in information-laden databases for use in analytics, graphical presentations, metering and planning. The presented data are from construction of the St. Paul St. CCTA Bus Station Project in Burlington, VT; utility replacement sites in Winooski, VT; and laboratory tests of smart phone position registration and magnetic signaling. The soil conditions encountered are favorable for GPR sensing and make it possible to locate buried pipes and soil layers. The present state of the art is that the data collection and processing procedures are manual and somewhat tedious, but that solutions for automating these procedures appear to be viable. Magnetic signaling with moving permanent magnets has the potential for sending lowfrequency telemetry signals through soils that are largely impenetrable by other electromagnetic waves.

  2. SEE-GRID eInfrastructure for Regional eScience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prnjat, Ognjen; Balaz, Antun; Vudragovic, Dusan; Liabotis, Ioannis; Sener, Cevat; Marovic, Branko; Kozlovszky, Miklos; Neagu, Gabriel

    In the past 6 years, a number of targeted initiatives, funded by the European Commission via its information society and RTD programmes and Greek infrastructure development actions, have articulated a successful regional development actions in South East Europe that can be used as a role model for other international developments. The SEEREN (South-East European Research and Education Networking initiative) project, through its two phases, established the SEE segment of the pan-European G ´EANT network and successfully connected the research and scientific communities in the region. Currently, the SEE-LIGHT project is working towards establishing a dark-fiber backbone that will interconnect most national Research and Education networks in the region. On the distributed computing and storage provisioning i.e. Grid plane, the SEE-GRID (South-East European GRID e-Infrastructure Development) project, similarly through its two phases, has established a strong human network in the area of scientific computing and has set up a powerful regional Grid infrastructure, and attracted a number of applications from different fields from countries throughout the South-East Europe. The current SEEGRID-SCI project, ending in April 2010, empowers the regional user communities from fields of meteorology, seismology and environmental protection in common use and sharing of the regional e-Infrastructure. Current technical initiatives in formulation are focusing on a set of coordinated actions in the area of HPC and application fields making use of HPC initiatives. Finally, the current SEERA-EI project brings together policy makers - programme managers from 10 countries in the region. The project aims to establish a communication platform between programme managers, pave the way towards common e-Infrastructure strategy and vision, and implement concrete actions for common funding of electronic infrastructures on the regional level. The regional vision on establishing an e-Infrastructure

  3. Development and Demonstration of Sustainable Surface Infrastructure for Moon/Mars Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gerald B.; Larson, William E.; Picard, Martin

    2011-01-01

    For long-term human exploration of the Moon and Mars to be practical, affordable, and sustainable, future missions must be able to identify and utilize resources at the site of exploration. The ability to characterize, extract, processes, and separate products from local material, known as In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), can provide significant reductions in launch mass, logistics, and development costs while reducing risk through increased mission flexibility and protection as well as increased mission capabilities in the areas of power and transportation. Making mission critical consumables like propellants, fuel cell reagents and life support gases, as well as in-situ crew/hardware protection and energy storage capabilities can significantly enhance robotic and human science and exploration missions, however other mission systems need to be designed to interface with and utilize these in-situ developed products and services from the start or the benefits will be minimized or eliminated. This requires a level of surface and transportation system development coordination not typically utilized during early technology and system development activities. An approach being utilized by the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the Canadian Space Agency has been to utilize joint analogue field demonstrations to focus technology development activities to demonstrate and integrate new and potentially game changing. mission critical capabilities that would enable an affordable and sustainable surface infrastructure for lunar and Mars robotic and human exploration. Two analogue field tests performed in November 2008 and February 2010 demonstrated first generation capabilities for lunar resource prospecting, exploration site preparation, and oxygen extraction from regolith while initiating integration with mobility, science, fuel cell power, and propulsion disciplines. A third analogue field test currently planned for June 2012 will continue and expand

  4. Challenges in Spatial Data Infrastructure research: a role for transdisciplinarity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bregt, A.K.; Crompvoets, J.W.H.C.; Man, de E.; Grus, L.

    2009-01-01

    The field of Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) is developing and approaches rapidly a critical masss of more or less operational SDIs. The purpose of the paper is to anticipate the possible impact of the maturing SDI field on its research agenda. Initial initiatives were predominantly techno centred

  5. GEMSS: grid-infrastructure for medical service provision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkner, S; Berti, G; Engelbrecht, G; Fingberg, J; Kohring, G; Middleton, S E; Schmidt, R

    2005-01-01

    The European GEMSS Project is concerned with the creation of medical Grid service prototypes and their evaluation in a secure service-oriented infrastructure for distributed on demand/supercomputing. Key aspects of the GEMSS Grid middleware include negotiable QoS support for time-critical service provision, flexible support for business models, and security at all levels in order to ensure privacy of patient data as well as compliance to EU law. The GEMSS Grid infrastructure is based on a service-oriented architecture and is being built on top of existing standard Grid and Web technologies. The GEMSS infrastructure offers a generic Grid service provision framework that hides the complexity of transforming existing applications into Grid services. For the development of client-side applications or portals, a pluggable component framework has been developed, providing developers with full control over business processes, service discovery, QoS negotiation, and workflow, while keeping their underlying implementation hidden from view. A first version of the GEMSS Grid infrastructure is operational and has been used for the set-up of a Grid test-bed deploying six medical Grid service prototypes including maxillo-facial surgery simulation, neuro-surgery support, radio-surgery planning, inhaled drug-delivery simulation, cardiovascular simulation and advanced image reconstruction. The GEMSS Grid infrastructure is based on standard Web Services technology with an anticipated future transition path towards the OGSA standard proposed by the Global Grid Forum. GEMSS demonstrates that the Grid can be used to provide medical practitioners and researchers with access to advanced simulation and image processing services for improved preoperative planning and near real-time surgical support.

  6. Elements for a Geopolitics of Infrastructure Megaprojects in Latin America and Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Vladimir Sánchez Calderón

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper develops a critical approach to projects and initiatives of supranational physical connection through infrastructure improvement for transport and energy, regarding specifically their socio-spatial implications at the national and local levels. With this purpose, we examined how infrastructure projects in Colombia are linked to two sub-continental initiatives that seek to build a physical platform for the region: the Plan Puebla Panama (PPP for Central America (including Colombia, and the Initiative for Regional Integration of South America (IIRSA.

  7. National waste management infrastructure in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darko, E.O.; Fletcher, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    Radioactive materials have been used in Ghana for more than four decades. Radioactive waste generated from their applications in various fields has been managed without adequate infrastructure and any legal framework to control and regulate them. The expanded use of nuclear facilities and radiation sources in Ghana with the concomitant exposure to human population necessitates effective infrastructure to deal with the increasing problems of waste. The Ghana Atomic Energy Act 204 (1963) and the Radiation Protection Instrument LI 1559 (1993) made inadequate provision for the management of waste. With the amendment of the Atomic Energy Act, PNDCL 308, a radioactive waste management centre has been established to take care of all waste in the country. To achieve the set objectives for an effective waste management regime, a waste management regulation has been drafted and relevant codes of practice are being developed to guide generators of waste, operators of waste management facilities and the regulatory authority. (author)

  8. Natural disaster risk analysis for critical infrastructure systems: An approach based on statistical learning theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guikema, Seth D.

    2009-01-01

    Probabilistic risk analysis has historically been developed for situations in which measured data about the overall reliability of a system are limited and expert knowledge is the best source of information available. There continue to be a number of important problem areas characterized by a lack of hard data. However, in other important problem areas the emergence of information technology has transformed the situation from one characterized by little data to one characterized by data overabundance. Natural disaster risk assessments for events impacting large-scale, critical infrastructure systems such as electric power distribution systems, transportation systems, water supply systems, and natural gas supply systems are important examples of problems characterized by data overabundance. There are often substantial amounts of information collected and archived about the behavior of these systems over time. Yet it can be difficult to effectively utilize these large data sets for risk assessment. Using this information for estimating the probability or consequences of system failure requires a different approach and analysis paradigm than risk analysis for data-poor systems does. Statistical learning theory, a diverse set of methods designed to draw inferences from large, complex data sets, can provide a basis for risk analysis for data-rich systems. This paper provides an overview of statistical learning theory methods and discusses their potential for greater use in risk analysis

  9. Infrastructure system restoration planning using evolutionary algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corns, Steven; Long, Suzanna K.; Shoberg, Thomas G.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an evolutionary algorithm to address restoration issues for supply chain interdependent critical infrastructure. Rapid restoration of infrastructure after a large-scale disaster is necessary to sustaining a nation's economy and security, but such long-term restoration has not been investigated as thoroughly as initial rescue and recovery efforts. A model of the Greater Saint Louis Missouri area was created and a disaster scenario simulated. An evolutionary algorithm is used to determine the order in which the bridges should be repaired based on indirect costs. Solutions were evaluated based on the reduction of indirect costs and the restoration of transportation capacity. When compared to a greedy algorithm, the evolutionary algorithm solution reduced indirect costs by approximately 12.4% by restoring automotive travel routes for workers and re-establishing the flow of commodities across the three rivers in the Saint Louis area.

  10. Investing in soils as an infrastructure to maintain and enhance food water and carbon services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Jessica

    2017-04-01

    Soils are a life support system for global society and our planet. In addition to providing the vast majority of our food; soils regulate water quality and quantity reducing the risk of floods, droughts and pollution; and as the largest store of carbon in the earth system they are critical to climate change. By providing these multiple essential services, soils act a natural form of infrastructure that is critical to supporting both rural and urban communities and economies. Can natural infrastructure and natural capital concepts be used to motivate and enable investment and regulation of soils for purposes such as soil carbon sequestration? What scientific knowledge and tools would we need to support soil infrastructure decision making - in policy arenas and elsewhere? This poster will present progress from a new research project supported by the UK research council (EP/N030532/1) that addresses these questions.

  11. Translation invariance, topology, and protection of criticality in chains of interacting anyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Robert N. C.; Buerschaper, Oliver; Trebst, Simon; Ludwig, Andreas W. W.; Troyer, Matthias; Vidal, Guifre

    2012-10-01

    Using finite-size scaling arguments, the critical properties of a chain of interacting anyons can be extracted from the low-energy spectrum of a finite system. Feiguin [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.98.160409 98, 160409 (2007)] showed that an antiferromagnetic chain of Fibonacci anyons on a torus is in the same universality class as the tricritical Ising model and that criticality is protected by a topological symmetry. In the present paper we first review the graphical formalism for the study of anyons on the disk and demonstrate how this formalism may be consistently extended to the study of systems on surfaces of higher genus. We then employ this graphical formalism to study finite rings of interacting anyons on both the disk and the torus and show that analysis on the disk necessarily yields an energy spectrum which is a subset of that which is obtained on the torus. For a critical Hamiltonian, one may extract from this subset the scaling dimensions of the local scaling operators which respect the topological symmetry of the system. Related considerations are also shown to apply for open chains.

  12. Education and training: Key to sustainable infrastructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Standards, legislation, regulations, policies and procedures may comprise the infrastructure of a radiation protection programme. But even the most carefully designed building remains a hollow shell until people take up residence and begin to marry form and function. Similarly, it takes people to put words into action. The availability of qualified personnel is vital to developing and sustaining a radiation protection infrastructure. For this reason, the IAEA makes it a top priority to develop the skills, knowledge and expertise of individuals across many disciplines: scientists, legislators and regulators, politicians and administrators, employees in facilities that use radioactive sources and materials, emergency response personnel, etc. Over the course of the Model Project, the IAEA applied various approaches to help strengthen personal capabilities - and thereby enable national capacities. Building on a long-standing programme developed in Argentina (and delivered in Spanish), the IAEA now offers post-graduate education courses (PGEC) on Radiation Protection and the Safety of Radiation Sources on a regular basis. This PGEC is available in Arabic (Syrian Arab Republic), English (South Africa and Greece), French (Morocco) and Russian (Belarus). Between 1999 and 2004, more than 370 individuals participated in post-graduate courses. In addition, some 7000 national specialists received radiation protection training through regional and interregional specialized training courses, fellowships, on-the-job training, and scientific visits. By adopting a 'train-the-trainer' approach, the IAEA helps to ensure that Member States become self-sufficient in this area as well. Many individuals who participate in training opportunities provided by the technical cooperation programme subsequently pass their new knowledge and expertise on to co-workers and other peers at the national level. One of the most practical ways the IAEA supports training and education is

  13. Helix Nebula: Enabling federation of existing data infrastructures and data services to an overarching cross-domain e-infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengert, Wolfgang; Farres, Jordi; Lanari, Riccardo; Casu, Francesco; Manunta, Michele; Lassalle-Balier, Gerard

    2014-05-01

    Helix Nebula has established a growing public private partnership of more than 30 commercial cloud providers, SMEs, and publicly funded research organisations and e-infrastructures. The Helix Nebula strategy is to establish a federated cloud service across Europe. Three high-profile flagships, sponsored by CERN (high energy physics), EMBL (life sciences) and ESA/DLR/CNES/CNR (earth science), have been deployed and extensively tested within this federated environment. The commitments behind these initial flagships have created a critical mass that attracts suppliers and users to the initiative, to work together towards an "Information as a Service" market place. Significant progress in implementing the following 4 programmatic goals (as outlined in the strategic Plan Ref.1) has been achieved: × Goal #1 Establish a Cloud Computing Infrastructure for the European Research Area (ERA) serving as a platform for innovation and evolution of the overall infrastructure. × Goal #2 Identify and adopt suitable policies for trust, security and privacy on a European-level can be provided by the European Cloud Computing framework and infrastructure. × Goal #3 Create a light-weight governance structure for the future European Cloud Computing Infrastructure that involves all the stakeholders and can evolve over time as the infrastructure, services and user-base grows. × Goal #4 Define a funding scheme involving the three stake-holder groups (service suppliers, users, EC and national funding agencies) into a Public-Private-Partnership model to implement a Cloud Computing Infrastructure that delivers a sustainable business environment adhering to European level policies. Now in 2014 a first version of this generic cross-domain e-infrastructure is ready to go into operations building on federation of European industry and contributors (data, tools, knowledge, ...). This presentation describes how Helix Nebula is being used in the domain of earth science focusing on geohazards. The

  14. Public-Private Partnerships for the Provision of Port Infrastructure: An Explorative Multi-Actor Perspective on Critical Success Factors1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Aerts

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Public-private cooperation on the level of project finance, and provision of large-scale infrastructure projects, is increasing on the global level. This paper uses a multi-actor analysis, in order to explore the critical success factors (CSFs for sound implementation of public-private partnerships (PPPs in the port context, and to determine the diverging opinions of stakeholders with regard to the importance of these CSFs. The results indicate that eight CSFs are of superior importance in port PPPs: the concreteness and preciseness of the concession agreement, the ability to appropriately allocate and share risk, the technical feasibility of the project, the commitment made by partners, the attractiveness of the financial package, a clear definition of responsibilities, the presence of a strong private consortium and a realistic cost/benefit assessment. The reason for their importance is their deal-breaking character, which can lead to a total failure of PPP projects during the early stages of project conception.

  15. Chapter 2. Surge capacity and infrastructure considerations for mass critical care. Recommendations and standard operating procedures for intensive care unit and hospital preparations for an influenza epidemic or mass disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hick, John L; Christian, Michael D; Sprung, Charles L

    2010-04-01

    To provide recommendations and standard operating procedures for intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital preparations for a mass disaster or influenza epidemic with a specific focus on surge capacity and infrastructure considerations. Based on a literature review and expert opinion, a Delphi process was used to define the essential topics including surge capacity and infrastructure considerations. Key recommendations include: (1) hospitals should increase their ICU beds to the maximal extent by expanding ICU capacity and expanding ICUs into other areas; (2) hospitals should have appropriate beds and monitors for these expansion areas; hospitals should develop contingency plans at the facility and government (local, state, provincial, national) levels to provide additional ventilators; (3) hospitals should develop a phased staffing plan (nursing and physician) for ICUs that provides sufficient patient care supervision during contingency and crisis situations; (4) hospitals should provide expert input to the emergency management personnel at the hospital both during planning for surge capacity as well as during response; (5) hospitals should assure that adequate infrastructure support is present to support critical care activities; (6) hospitals should prioritize locations for expansion by expanding existing ICUs, using postanesthesia care units and emergency departments to capacity, then step-down units, large procedure suites, telemetry units and finally hospital wards. Judicious planning and adoption of protocols for surge capacity and infrastructure considerations are necessary to optimize outcomes during a pandemic.

  16. One-sided muon tomography - A portable method for imaging critical infrastructure with a single muon detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boniface, K., E-mail: bonifak@mcmaster.ca [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Jonkmans, G. [Defence R& D Canada, Centre for Security Science, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Anghel, V.; Erlandson, A.; Thompson, M.; Livingstone, S. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    High-energy muons generated from cosmic-ray particle showers have been shown to exhibit properties ideal for imaging the interior of large structures. This paper explores the possibility of using a single portable muon detector in conjunction with image reconstruction methods used in nuclear medicine to reconstruct a 3D image of the interior of man-made large structures such as the Zero Energy Deuterium (ZED-2) research reactor at Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd (AECL) Chalk River Laboratories (CRL). The ZED-2 reactor core and muon detector arrangement are modeled in GEANT4 and measurements of the resultant muon throughput and angular distribution at several angles of rotation around the reactor are generated. Statistical analysis is then performed on these measurements based on the well-defined flux and angular distribution of muons expected near the surface of the earth. The results of this analysis are shown to produce reconstructed images of the spatial distribution of nuclear fuel within the core for multiple fuel configurations. This “one-sided tomography” concept is a possible candidate for examining the internal structure of larger critical facilities, for example the Fukushima Daiichi power plant where the integrity of the containment infrastructure and the location of the reactor fuel is unknown. (author)

  17. Critical Analysis of Compositions and Protective Efficacies of Oral Killed Cholera Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Two cholera vaccines, sold as Shanchol and Dukoral, are currently available. This review presents a critical analysis of the protective efficacies of these vaccines. Children under 5 years of age are very vulnerable to cholera and account for the highest incidence of cholera cases and more than half of the resulting deaths. Both Shanchol and Dukoral are two-spaced-dose oral vaccines comprising large numbers of killed cholera bacteria. The former contains Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 cells, and the latter contains V. cholerae O1 cells with the recombinant B subunit of cholera toxin. In a field trial in Kolkata (India), Shanchol, the preferred vaccine, protected 45% of the test subjects in all of the age groups and only 17% of the children under 5 years of age during the first year of surveillance. In a field trial in Peru, two spaced doses of Dukoral offered negative protection in children under 5 years of age and little protection (15%) in vaccinees over 6 years of age during the first year of surveillance. Little is known about Dukoral's long-term protective efficacy. Both of these vaccines have questionable compositions, using V. cholerae O1 strains isolated in 1947 that have been inactivated by heat and formalin treatments that may denature protein. Immunological studies revealed Dukoral's reduced and short-lived efficacy, as measured by several immunological endpoints. Various factors, such as the necessity for multiple doses, poor protection of children under 5 years of age, the requirement of a cold supply chain, production costs, and complex logistics of vaccine delivery, greatly reduce the suitability of either of these vaccines for endemic or epidemic cholera control in resource-poor settings. PMID:25056361

  18. Building climate change into infrastructure codes and standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auld, H.; Klaasen, J.; Morris, R.; Fernandez, S.; MacIver, D.; Bernstein, D.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text:' Building codes and standards and the climatic design values embedded within these legal to semi-legal documents have profound safety, health and economic implications for Canada's infrastructure systems. The climatic design values that have been used for the design of almost all of today's more than $5.5 Trillion in infrastructure are based on historical climate data and assume that the extremes of the past will represent future conditions. Since new infrastructure based on codes and standards will be built to survive for decades to come, it is critically important that existing climatic design information be as accurate and up-to-date as possible, that the changing climate be monitored to detect and highlight vulnerabilities of existing infrastructure, that forensic studies of climate-related failures be undertaken and that codes and standards processes incorporate future climates and extremes as much as possible. Uncertainties in the current climate change models and their scenarios currently challenge our ability to project future extremes regionally and locally. Improvements to the spatial and temporal resolution of these climate change scenarios, along with improved methodologies to treat model biases and localize results, will allow future codes and standards to better reflect the extremes and weathering conditions expected over the lifespan of structures. In the meantime, other information and code processes can be used to incorporate changing climate conditions into upcoming infrastructure codes and standards, to “bridge” the model uncertainty gap and to complement the state of existing projections. This presentation will outline some of the varied information and processes that will be used to incorporate climate change adaptation into the next development cycle of the National Building Code of Canada and numerous other national CSA infrastructure standards. (author)

  19. Control System Applicable Use Assessment of the Secure Computing Corporation - Secure Firewall (Sidewinder)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, Mark D.; Clements, Samuel L.

    2009-01-01

    Battelle’s National Security & Defense objective is, “applying unmatched expertise and unique facilities to deliver homeland security solutions. From detection and protection against weapons of mass destruction to emergency preparedness/response and protection of critical infrastructure, we are working with industry and government to integrate policy, operational, technological, and logistical parameters that will secure a safe future”. In an ongoing effort to meet this mission, engagements with industry that are intended to improve operational and technical attributes of commercial solutions that are related to national security initiatives are necessary. This necessity will ensure that capabilities for protecting critical infrastructure assets are considered by commercial entities in their development, design, and deployment lifecycles thus addressing the alignment of identified deficiencies and improvements needed to support national cyber security initiatives. The Secure Firewall (Sidewinder) appliance by Secure Computing was assessed for applicable use in critical infrastructure control system environments, such as electric power, nuclear and other facilities containing critical systems that require augmented protection from cyber threat. The testing was performed in the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s (PNNL) Electric Infrastructure Operations Center (EIOC). The Secure Firewall was tested in a network configuration that emulates a typical control center network and then evaluated. A number of observations and recommendations are included in this report relating to features currently included in the Secure Firewall that support critical infrastructure security needs.

  20. Green(ing) infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available the generation of electricity from renewable sources such as wind, water and solar. Grey infrastructure – In the context of storm water management, grey infrastructure can be thought of as the hard, engineered systems to capture and convey runoff..., pumps, and treatment plants.  Green infrastructure reduces energy demand by reducing the need to collect and transport storm water to a suitable discharge location. In addition, green infrastructure such as green roofs, street trees and increased...

  1. Enhancing radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    When a new radiotherapy center in Gezira, Sudan, delivers its first therapeutic dose to a cancer patient, two things happen: A young man begins to regain his health and looks forward to being better able to support his family and contribute to his community; and a developing nation realizes an important step toward deriving the social and economic benefits of nuclear science. The strategic application of nuclear technology in particular fields- human health, industry, food and agriculture, energy, water resources and environmental protection - has enormous potential to help shape the future of developing countries. But past radiological incidents, several of which involved high levels of exposure or death (Bolivia, Brazil, Cost Rica, Georgia, Ghana, Morocco, Panama and Thailand), underscore the inherent and very serious risks. For this reason, the IAEA's Departments of Technical Cooperation and Nuclear Safety and Security partner closely, particularly in the area of radiation protection. They strive to consider every minute detail in the equation that brings together radiation sources, modern technologies, people and the environment. Launched in 1996, the Model Project on Upgrading Radiation Protection Infrastructure (the Model Project) aimed to help Member States: achieve capacities that underpin the safe and secure application of nuclear technologies; establish a legislative framework and regulatory infrastructure; develop exposure control mechanisms to protect workers, medical patients, the public and the environment; and achieve preparedness and planned response to radiological emergencies. In fact, the hospital scenario above typically marks several years of intense collaboration amongst scientists, legislators, regulators, politicians and administrators from both Member States and the IAEA, orchestrated and aided by regional managers and technical experts from the IAEA. As radiation protection team members can attest, every application of nuclear technology

  2. Intelligent Learning Infrastructure for Knowledge Intensive Organizations: A Semantic Web Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lytras, Miltiadis, Ed.; Naeve, Ambjorn, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    In the context of Knowledge Society, the convergence of knowledge and learning management is a critical milestone. "Intelligent Learning Infrastructure for Knowledge Intensive Organizations: A Semantic Web Perspective" provides state-of-the art knowledge through a balanced theoretical and technological discussion. The semantic web perspective…

  3. Identification of protective actions to reduce the vulnerability of safety-critical systems to malevolent acts: A sensitivity-based decision-making approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Tai-Ran; Pedroni, Nicola; Zio, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    A classification model based on the Majority Rule Sorting method has been previously proposed by the authors to evaluate the vulnerability of safety-critical systems (e.g., nuclear power plants) with respect to malevolent intentional acts. In this paper, we consider a classification model previously proposed by the authors based on the Majority Rule Sorting method to evaluate the vulnerability of safety-critical systems (e.g., nuclear power plants) with respect to malevolent intentional acts. The model is here used as the basis for solving an inverse classification problem aimed at determining a set of protective actions to reduce the level of vulnerability of the safety-critical system under consideration. To guide the choice of the set of protective actions, sensitivity indicators are originally introduced as measures of the variation in the vulnerability class that a safety-critical system is expected to undergo after the application of a given set of protective actions. These indicators form the basis of an algorithm to rank different combinations of actions according to their effectiveness in reducing the safety-critical systems vulnerability. Results obtained using these indicators are presented with regard to the application of: (i) one identified action at a time, (ii) all identified actions at the same time or (iii) a random combination of identified actions. The results are presented with reference to a fictitious example considering nuclear power plants as the safety-critical systems object of the analysis. - Highlights: • We use a hierarchical framework to represent the vulnerability. • We use an empirical classification model to evaluate vulnerability. • Sensitivity indicators are introduced to rank protective actions. • Constraints (e.g., budget limitations) are accounted for. • Method is applied to fictitious Nuclear Power Plants.

  4. Interconnectedness and interdependencies of critical infrastructures in the US economy: Implications for resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Shauhrat S.; Khanna, Vikas

    2015-10-01

    Natural disasters in 2011 yielded close to 55 billion in economic damages alone in the United States (US), which highlights the need to reduce impacts of such disasters or other deliberate attacks. The US Department of Homeland Security (DHS) identifies a list of 16 Critical Infrastructure Sectors (CIS) whose incapacity due to disruptions would have a debilitating impact on the nation's economy. The goal of this work is to understand the implications of interdependencies among CIS on the resilience of the US economic system as a whole. We develop a framework that combines the empirical economic input-output (EIO) model with graph theory based techniques for understanding interdependencies, interconnectedness and resilience in the US economic system. By representing the US economy as a network, we are able to analyze its topology by separately looking at its unweighted and weighted forms. Topological analysis of the US EIO network suggests that it exhibits small world properties for the unweighted case, and in the weighted case, the throughput of industry sectors follows a power-law with an exponential cutoff. Implications of these topological properties are discussed in the paper. We also simulate hypothetical disruptions on CIS in order to identify industrial sectors that experience the largest economic impacts, and to quantify systemic vulnerability in economic terms. In addition, insights from community detection and hypothetical disruption scenarios help assess vulnerability of individual industrial communities to disruptions on individual CIS. These methodologies also provide insights regarding the extent of coupling between each CIS in the US EIO network. Based on our analysis, we observe that excessive interconnectedness and interdependencies of CIS results in high systemic vulnerability. This information can guide policymakers to design policies that improve resilience of economic networks, and evaluate policies that might indirectly increase coupling

  5. Transactional Infrastructure of the Economy: the Evolution of Concepts and Synthesis of Definitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maruschak Irina Valeryevna

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The overview of evolution of market infrastructure concepts is provided, the first concepts of institutional infrastructure are revealed in the paper. Evolutionarily developed narrowing of essence of infrastructure in connection with the priority analysis of its physical (material and technological components is proved. It ignores the fact that transactional resources, being drivers (driving forces of economic systems evolution, in turn evolve, becoming harder and harder, combining increase in efficiency of the elements and strengthening of heterogeneity and discrepancy of their structure. Transactional evolution of economy in general and evolution of separate transactional resources of production are the perspective directions of the special analysis. Transactional infrastructure is considered as the integrated complex of institutional, organizational (relational and information infrastructures. The problems of the first concepts of transactional infrastructure connected with difficulties of differentiation of its subsystems always operating jointly are revealed. Prospect of transition from the isolated analysis of separate resources of transactional type (institutes, organizations, information, social capital, trust, etc. to studying corresponding specific software infrastructures and to the system analysis of integrated transactional infrastructure of economy are argued. The transactional sector (as set of the specialized industries and the appropriate collective and individual subjects providing with resources market transaction is offered to be considered as transactional structure of economy. Transactional infrastructure is treated as critically significant factor of economic evolution which in the conditions of post-industrial type of economy gradually purchases transactional nature.

  6. Greening infrastructure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The development and maintenance of infrastructure is crucial to improving economic growth and quality of life (WEF 2013). Urban infrastructure typically includes bulk services such as water, sanitation and energy (typically electricity and gas...

  7. Sustainability considerations for health research and analytic data infrastructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Adam; Randhawa, Gurvaneet; Embi, Peter; Cao, Hui; Kuperman, Gilad J

    2014-01-01

    The United States has made recent large investments in creating data infrastructures to support the important goals of patient-centered outcomes research (PCOR) and comparative effectiveness research (CER), with still more investment planned. These initial investments, while critical to the creation of the infrastructures, are not expected to sustain them much beyond the initial development. To provide the maximum benefit, the infrastructures need to be sustained through innovative financing models while providing value to PCOR and CER researchers. Based on our experience with creating flexible sustainability strategies (i.e., strategies that are adaptive to the different characteristics and opportunities of a resource or infrastructure), we define specific factors that are important considerations in developing a sustainability strategy. These factors include assets, expansion, complexity, and stakeholders. Each factor is described, with examples of how it is applied. These factors are dimensions of variation in different resources, to which a sustainability strategy should adapt. We also identify specific important considerations for maintaining an infrastructure, so that the long-term intended benefits can be realized. These observations are presented as lessons learned, to be applied to other sustainability efforts. We define the lessons learned, relating them to the defined sustainability factors as interactions between factors. Using perspectives and experiences from a diverse group of experts, we define broad characteristics of sustainability strategies and important observations, which can vary for different projects. Other descriptions of adaptive, flexible, and successful models of collaboration between stakeholders and data infrastructures can expand this framework by identifying other factors for sustainability, and give more concrete directions on how sustainability can be best achieved.

  8. Transportation Infrastructure and the Asia-Pacific Food System

    OpenAIRE

    Armbruster, Walter J.; Coyle, William T.

    2005-01-01

    Adequate, well maintained transportation infrastructure is a critical element of the Pacific food system in addressing challenges of rapid urbanization. Policymakers must invest either in streamlining domestic supply chains and/or in facilitating food imports through market opening measures. Economic incentives, competitive transportation and logistic services, and policy reforms, both within the borders of individual economies as well as across the Asia-Pacific region, are also necessary. Im...

  9. Flowscapes : Infrastructure as landscape, landscape as infrastructure. Graduation Lab Landscape Architecture 2012/2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, S.; Jauslin, D.; De Vries, C.

    2012-01-01

    Flowscapes explores infrastructure as a type of landscape and landscape as a type of infrastructure, and is focused on landscape architectonic design of transportation-, green- and water infrastructures. These landscape infrastructures are considered armatures for urban and rural development. With

  10. Synthesis centers as critical research infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Jill S.; Specht, Alison; Garnier, Eric; Bishop, Pamela; Campbell, C. Andrew; Davis, Frank W.; Fady, Bruno; Field, Dawn; Gross, Louis J.; Guru, Siddeswara M.; Halpern, Benjamin S; Hampton, Stephanie E.; Leavitt, Peter R.; Meagher, Thomas R.; Ometto, Jean; Parker, John N.; Price, Richard; Rawson, Casey H.; Rodrigo, Allen; Sheble, Laura A.; Winter, Marten

    2017-01-01

    investment to maximize benefits to science and society is justified. In particular, we argue that synthesis centers represent community infrastructure more akin to research vessels than to term-funded centers of science and technology (e.g., NSF Science and Technology Centers). Through our experience running synthesis centers and, in some cases, developing postfederal funding models, we offer our perspective on the purpose and value of synthesis centers. We present case studies of different outcomes of transition plans and argue for a fundamental shift in the conception of synthesis science and the strategic funding of these centers by government funding agencies.

  11. Government Services Information Infrastructure Management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavallini, J.S.; Aiken, R.J.

    1995-04-01

    The Government Services Information Infrastructure (GSII) is that portion of the NII used to link Government and its services, enables virtual agency concepts, protects privacy, and supports emergency preparedness needs. The GSII is comprised of the supporting telecommunications technologies, network and information services infrastructure and the applications that use these. The GSII is an enlightened attempt by the Clinton/Gore Administration to form a virtual government crossing agency boundaries to interoperate more closely with industry and with the public to greatly improve the delivery of government services. The GSII and other private sector efforts, will have a significant impact on the design, development, and deployment of the NII, even if only through the procurement of such services. The Federal Government must adopt new mechanisms and new paradigms for the management of the GSII, including improved acquisition and operation of GSII components in order to maximize benefits. Government requirements and applications will continue to evolv. The requirements from government services and users of form affinity groups that more accurately and effectively define these common requirements, that drive the adoption and use of industry standards, and that provide a significant technology marketplace.

  12. Coastal Vulnerability and risk assessment of infrastructures, natural and cultural heritage sites in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrakis, George; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2016-04-01

    The majority of human activities are concentrated around coastal areas, making coastline retreat, a significant threat to coastal infrastructure, thus increasing protection cost and investment revenue losses. In this study the management of coastal areas in terms of protecting coastal infrastructures, cultural and environmental heritage sites, through risk assessment analysis is been made. The scope is to provide data for spatial planning for future developments in the coastal zone and the protection of existing ones. Also to determine the impact of coastal changes related to the loss of natural resources, agricultural land and beaches. The analysis is based on a multidisciplinary approach, combining environmental, spatial and economic data. This can be implemented by integrating the assessment of vulnerability of coasts, the spatial distribution and structural elements of coastal infrastructure (transport, tourism, and energy) and financial data by region, in a spatial database. The approach is based on coastal vulnerability estimations, considering sea level rise, land loss, extreme events, safety, adaptability and resilience of infrastructure and natural sites. It is based on coupling of environmental indicators and econometric models to determine the socio-economic impact in coastal infrastructure, cultural and environmental heritage sites. The indicators include variables like the coastal geomorphology; coastal slope; relative sea-level rise rate; shoreline erosion/accretion rate; mean tidal range and mean wave height. The anthropogenic factors include variables like settlements, sites of cultural heritage, transport networks, land uses, significance of infrastructure (e.g. military, power plans) and economic activities. The analysis in performed by a GIS application. The forcing variables are determined with the use of sub-indices related to coastal geomorphology, climate and wave variables and the socioeconomics of the coastal zone. The Greek coastline in

  13. Arid Green Infrastructure for Water Control and Conservation State of the Science and Research Needs for Arid/Semi-Arid Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green infrastructure is an approach to managing wet weather flows using systems and practices that mimic natural processes. It is designed to manage stormwater as close to its source as possible and protect the quality of receiving waters. Although most green infrastructure pract...

  14. Organizational factors and reoccurrence protection on the JCO nuclear critical accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Kenichi

    2000-01-01

    A nuclear critical accident formed at a nuclear fuel conversion factory in Tokai-mura on September, 1999 became gradually clear not to be a simple human error formed at a level of workmen but to be an organizational error or accident relating to various organizational factors. As a nuclear power facility adopts a depth protection system fundamentally, a large accident with serious danger would not form only by a single trouble and a human error and unless some factors overlaps. By reviewing recent serious accidents and troubles, all of them seem to have a keyword of 'organizational factor'. In the JCO accident, there are some organizational factors such as a climate deviating from a manual, insufficient and loose check against change of procedure, reduction of operators from a reason of profit priority, attitude on priority of working efficiency, and so forth, which are partially common to the Chernobyl accident. Recently, accidents and troubles impossible to make them a cause of simple human error by a person but to have to say an organizational error, have increased. This trend seems to depend upon not only complication and scale-up of technology system but also graduate change of social and management systems operating them. Therefore, it seems to be necessary to introduce a concept of depth protection (multiple protection) in order to keep its reliability and safety when complicating and scaling-up of system. (G.K.)

  15. Regulatory authority infrastructure for Namibia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shangula, K.

    2001-01-01

    The Republic of Namibia is participating in the International Atomic Energy Agency's Model Project for the Improvement of National Regulatory Authority Infrastructures in Member States. The paper illustrates our experience in solving problems and difficulties confronted in establishing an effective regulatory authority operating within the existing national infrastructure that should be supported by the Government. An effective regulatory authority is seen as part of the wider administrative scope of our Government through ministerial mandates given by the State from time to time, guaranteeing its independence when implementing legal provisions under statutes. Sections of the report illustrate our experience in the following areas: 1. National radiation protection policy 2. Structure of our national regulatory authority 3. Laws and regulations 4. Provisions for notification, authorization and registration 5. In-depth security measures for radiation sources and radioactive material 6. Systems for the inspection of radiation sources, radioactive materials, enforcement of legal provisions 7. Extent of the applications of radiation sources and radioactive materials in the country. The paper provides information regarding existing Government policy on radiation protection; structure and legal aspects of the national regulatory, including statutes and regulations; the extent of application and uses of radiation sources and security of radioactive materials; human resources: strengths and constraints; management practices and financing of regulatory authority; and plans for emergency recovery of orphan sources. National plans for management of disused sources, recovery of orphan sources, abnormal emergencies, communication of information to affected persons on exposure effects, and the safety training of persons using these applications are discussed. the paper provides a summary and some suggestions of the way forward for Namibia. (author)

  16. Surety of the nation`s critical infrastructures: The challenge restructuring poses to the telecommunications sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, R.; Drennen, T.E.; Gilliom, L.; Harris, D.L.; Kunsman, D.M.; Skroch, M.J.

    1998-04-01

    The telecommunications sector plays a pivotal role in the system of increasingly connected and interdependent networks that make up national infrastructure. An assessment of the probable structure and function of the bit-moving industry in the twenty-first century must include issues associated with the surety of telecommunications. The term surety, as used here, means confidence in the acceptable behavior of a system in both intended and unintended circumstances. This paper outlines various engineering approaches to surety in systems, generally, and in the telecommunications infrastructure, specifically. It uses the experience and expectations of the telecommunications system of the US as an example of the global challenges. The paper examines the principal factors underlying the change to more distributed systems in this sector, assesses surety issues associated with these changes, and suggests several possible strategies for mitigation. It also studies the ramifications of what could happen if this sector became a target for those seeking to compromise a nation`s security and economic well being. Experts in this area generally agree that the U. S. telecommunications sector will eventually respond in a way that meets market demands for surety. Questions remain open, however, about confidence in the telecommunications sector and the nation`s infrastructure during unintended circumstances--such as those posed by information warfare or by cascading software failures. Resolution of these questions is complicated by the lack of clear accountability of the private and the public sectors for the surety of telecommunications.

  17. Applying a Space-Based Security Recovery Scheme for Critical Homeland Security Cyberinfrastructure Utilizing the NASA Tracking and Data Relay (TDRS) Based Space Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Harry C.; McLaughlin, Brian; Stocklin, Frank; Fortin, Andre; Israel, David; Dissanayake, Asoka; Gilliand, Denise; LaFontaine, Richard; Broomandan, Richard; Hyunh, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Protection of the national infrastructure is a high priority for cybersecurity of the homeland. Critical infrastructure such as the national power grid, commercial financial networks, and communications networks have been successfully invaded and re-invaded from foreign and domestic attackers. The ability to re-establish authentication and confidentiality of the network participants via secure channels that have not been compromised would be an important countermeasure to compromise of our critical network infrastructure. This paper describes a concept of operations by which the NASA Tracking and Data Relay (TDRS) constellation of spacecraft in conjunction with the White Sands Complex (WSC) Ground Station host a security recovery system for re-establishing secure network communications in the event of a national or regional cyberattack. Users would perform security and network restoral functions via a Broadcast Satellite Service (BSS) from the TDRS constellation. The BSS enrollment only requires that each network location have a receive antenna and satellite receiver. This would be no more complex than setting up a DIRECTTV-like receiver at each network location with separate network connectivity. A GEO BSS would allow a mass re-enrollment of network nodes (up to nationwide) simultaneously depending upon downlink characteristics. This paper details the spectrum requirements, link budget, notional assets and communications requirements for the scheme. It describes the architecture of such a system and the manner in which it leverages off of the existing secure infrastructure which is already in place and managed by the NASAGSFC Space Network Project.

  18. Landslides affecting critical infrastructures: the use of a GB-InSAR based warning system in Calatabiano (Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolesini, Teresa; Frodella, William; Bardi, Federica; Intrieri, Emanuele; Carlà, Tommaso; Solari, Lorenzo; Dotta, Giulia; Ferrigno, Federica; Casagli, Nicola

    2017-04-01

    Landslides represent one of the most frequent geo-hazard, not only causing a serious threat to human lives, but also determining socio-economic losses, countable in billions of Euros and expressed in terms of damage to property, infrastructures and environmental degradation. Recent events show a significant increase in the number of disasters with natural and/or technological causes, which could have potentially serious consequences for Critical Infrastructures (CI). Where these infrastructures tend to fail or to be destroyed, the resulting cascade effect (chain of accidents) could lead to catastrophic damage and affect people, the environment and the economy. In the field of landslide detection, mapping, monitoring and management, the availability of advanced remote sensing technologies, which allow systematic and easily updatable acquisitions of data, may enhance the implementation of near real time monitoring activity and the production of landslide maps, optimizing field work. This work aims at presenting an example of the advantages given by the combined use of advanced remote sensing techniques, such as Ground-Based Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (GB-InSAR), Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) and Infrared Thermography (IRT), in order to monitor and map the Calatabiano landslide, located in the Catania Province (Sicily Island, Southern Italy). The landslide occurred on October 24th 2015, after a period of heavy rainfall, causing the rupture of a water pipeline transect of the aqueduct supplying water to the city of Messina. As a consequence of this event a considerable lack in water resources occurred for a large number of the city inhabitants. A provisional by-pass, consisting of three 350 m long pipes passing through the landslide area, was implemented in order to restore the city water supplies during the emergency management phase. In this framework an integrated monitoring network was implemented, in order to assess the residual risk by analyzing

  19. Radiation protection infrastructure in the Republic of Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grgic, S.

    2001-01-01

    According to present legislation the organization structure of radiation protection in the Republic of Croatia is similar to the organizational structure in many countries of the world. Regulatory (competent) authority for the safe, traffic, purchase, import and transport of the radioactive sources is the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Croatia. The Ministry of Health of the Republic of Croatia is also responsible for the health of workers who work with the radioactive sources in medicine and in industry, as well for the health of patients and members of public. Furthermore, The Ministry of Health is also responsible for the follow-up of radioactivity in the human environment (air, soil, water - sea, lakes, rivers) and radioactive waste management. To be able to accomplish those tasks, The Ministry of Health developed two institutes, Croatian Institute for Radiation Protection and Croatian Institute for Occupational Medicine. For technical assistance and support The Ministry of Health authorized three expert institutions. (author)

  20. A scalable infrastructure model for carbon capture and storage: SimCCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Middleton, Richard S.; Bielicki, Jeffrey M.

    2009-01-01

    In the carbon capture and storage (CCS) process, CO 2 sources and geologic reservoirs may be widely spatially dispersed and need to be connected through a dedicated CO 2 pipeline network. We introduce a scalable infrastructure model for CCS (simCCS) that generates a fully integrated, cost-minimizing CCS system. SimCCS determines where and how much CO 2 to capture and store, and where to build and connect pipelines of different sizes, in order to minimize the combined annualized costs of sequestering a given amount of CO 2 . SimCCS is able to aggregate CO 2 flows between sources and reservoirs into trunk pipelines that take advantage of economies of scale. Pipeline construction costs take into account factors including topography and social impacts. SimCCS can be used to calculate the scale of CCS deployment (local, regional, national). SimCCS' deployment of a realistic, capacitated pipeline network is a major advancement for planning CCS infrastructure. We demonstrate simCCS using a set of 37 CO 2 sources and 14 reservoirs for California. The results highlight the importance of systematic planning for CCS infrastructure by examining the sensitivity of CCS infrastructure, as optimized by simCCS, to varying CO 2 targets. We finish by identifying critical future research areas for CCS infrastructure

  1. Geriatric infrastructure, BRAC, and ecosystem service markets? End-of-life decisions for dams, roads, and offshore platforms (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, M. W.

    2010-12-01

    US infrastructure expanded dramatically in the mid-20th century, and now includes more than 79,000 dams, 15,000 miles of levees, 3.7 million miles of roads, 600,000 miles of sewer pipe, 500,000 onshore oil wells, and over 4,000 offshore oil platforms. Many structures have been in place for 50 years or more, and an increasing portion of national infrastructure is approaching or exceeding its originally intended design life. Bringing national infrastructure to acceptable levels would cost nearly 10% of the US annual GDP. Decommissioning infrastructure can decrease public spending and increase public safety while facilitating economic expansion and ecological restoration. While most infrastructure remains critical to the national economy, a substantial amount is obsolete or declining in importance. Over 11,000 dams are abandoned, and of nearly 400,000 miles of road on its lands, the U.S. Forest Service considers one-fourth non-essential and often non-functional. Removing obsolete infrastructure allows greater focus and funding on maintaining or improving infrastructure most critical to society. Moreover, a concerted program of infrastructure decommissioning promises significant long-term cost savings, and is a necessary step before more substantial, systematic changes are possible, like those needed to address the new energy sources and shifting climate. One key challenge for infrastructure reform is how to prioritize and implement such a widespread and politically-charged series of decisions. Two approaches are proposed for different scales. For small, private infrastructure, emerging state and federal ecosystem service markets can provide an economic impetus to push infrastructure removal. Ecosystem market mechanisms may also be most effective at identifying those projects with the greatest ecological bang for the buck. Examples where this approach has proved successful include dam removal for stream mitigation under the Clean Water Act, and levee decommissioning on

  2. Development and problems of radioactive waste management infrastructure in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putnik, H.; Realo, E.

    2001-01-01

    Estonia is one of a few countries where the establishment of radiation protection and radioactive waste management infrastructure started only recently, soon after regaining independence in the beginning of 1990's. Both legislative and regulatory infrastructure had to be built from scratch, in parallel with the beginning of urgent activities and practices to manage waste streams inherited from the past. Despite significant deficiency of local expertise and specialists in the field, the main objectives of the establishment were set up: to enforce national legislation basing on contemporary international principles, criteria, requirements and to implement structures and procedures for an efficient regulation of radiation safety issues, including practices involving radioactive waste management and decommissioning

  3. Foundations for radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Full text; In 1996, the IAEA published the latest edition of the International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (Basic Safety Standards or BSS) comprising basic requirements to be filled in all activities involving radiation exposure. The standards define internationally harmonized requirements and provide practical guidance for public authorities and services, employers and workers, specialized radiation protection bodies, enterprises and health and safety communities. In the same year, the IAEA, through the technical cooperation programme, launched the Model Project on Upgrading Radiation Protection Infrastructure, a global initiative designed to help Member States establish the infrastructure needed to adhere to the BSS. To address the complexity of this task, the radiation protection team identified key elements, known as Thematic Safety Areas. These are: 1. Legislative Framework and Regulatory Infrastructure, Draft and put into effect radiation protection laws and regulations and establish and empower a national regulatory authority. 2. Occupational Exposure Control Protect the health and safety of each individual who faces the risk of radiation exposure in the workplace through individual and workplace monitoring programmes, including dose assessment, record keeping of doses and quality management. 3. Medical Exposure Control: Develop procedures and activities to control the exposure of patients undergoing diagnosis and/or treatment via diagnostic and interventional radiology, nuclear medicine or radiotherapy through staff training, provision of basic quality control equipment, and the establishment of quality assurance programmes. 4. Public and Environmental Exposure Control: Develop means to protect both the public and the environment including: a) programmes to register, inventory and provide safe storage of unused radioactive sources and material; b) procedures to control and safely

  4. Integrated design as an opportunity to develop green infrastructures within complex spatial questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartelse, G.; Kost, S.

    2012-01-01

    Landscape is a complex system of competitive spatial functions. This competition is especially readable in high dense urban areas between housing, industry, leisure facilities, transport and infrastructure, energy supply, flood protection, natural resources. Nevertheless, those conflicts are seldom

  5. Assessing Storm Vulnerabilities and Resilience Strategies: A Scenario-Method for Engaging Stakeholders of Public/Private Maritime Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, A.; Burroughs, R.

    2014-12-01

    This presentation discusses a new method to assess vulnerability and resilience strategies for stakeholders of coastal-dependent transportation infrastructure, such as seaports. Much coastal infrastructure faces increasing risk to extreme events resulting from sea level rise and tropical storms. As seen after Hurricane Sandy, natural disasters result in economic costs, damages to the environment, and negative consequences on resident's quality of life. In the coming decades, tough decisions will need to be made about investment measures to protect critical infrastructure. Coastal communities will need to weigh the costs and benefits of a new storm barrier, for example, against those of retrofitting, elevating or simply doing nothing. These decisions require understanding the priorities and concerns of stakeholders. For ports, these include shippers, insurers, tenants, and ultimate consumers of the port cargo on a local and global scale, all of whom have a stake in addressing port vulnerabilities.Decision-makers in exposed coastal areas need tools to understand stakeholders concerns and perceptions of potential resilience strategies. For ports, they need answers to: 1) How will stakeholders be affected? 2) What strategies could be implemented to build resilience? 3) How effectively would the strategies mitigate stakeholder concerns? 4) What level of time and investment would strategies require? 5) Which stakeholders could/should take responsibility? Our stakeholder-based method provides answers to questions 1-3 and forms the basis for further work to address 4 and 5.Together with an expert group, we developed a pilot study for stakeholders of Rhode Island's critical energy port, the Port of Providence. Our method uses a plausible extreme storm scenario with localized visualizations and a portfolio of potential resilience strategies. We tailor a multi-criteria decision analysis tool and, through a series of workshops, we use the storm scenario, resilience strategies

  6. Safety issues in cultural heritage management and critical infrastructures management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldovieri, Francesco; Masini, Nicola; Alvarez de Buergo, Monica; Dumoulin, Jean

    2013-12-01

    This special issue is the fourth of its kind in Journal of Geophysics and Engineering , containing studies and applications of geophysical methodologies and sensing technologies for the knowledge, conservation and security of products of human activity ranging from civil infrastructures to built and cultural heritage. The first discussed the application of novel instrumentation, surface and airborne remote sensing techniques, as well as data processing oriented to both detection and characterization of archaeological buried remains and conservation of cultural heritage (Eppelbaum et al 2010). The second stressed the importance of an integrated and multiscale approach for the study and conservation of architectural, archaeological and artistic heritage, from SAR to GPR to imaging based diagnostic techniques (Masini and Soldovieri 2011). The third enlarged the field of analysis to civil engineering structures and infrastructures, providing an overview of the effectiveness and the limitations of single diagnostic techniques, which can be overcome through the integration of different methods and technologies and/or the use of robust and novel data processing techniques (Masini et al 2012). As a whole, the special issue put in evidence the factors that affect the choice of diagnostic strategy, such as the material, the spatial characteristics of the objects or sites, the value of the objects to be investigated (cultural or not), the aim of the investigation (knowledge, conservation, restoration) and the issues to be addressed (monitoring, decay assessment). In order to complete the overview of the application fields of sensing technologies this issue has been dedicated to monitoring of cultural heritage and critical infrastructures to address safety and security issues. Particular attention has been paid to the data processing methods of different sensing techniques, from infrared thermography through GPR to SAR. Cascini et al (2013) present the effectiveness of a

  7. Principles for urban stormwater management to protect stream ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Christopher J.; Booth, Derek B.; Burns, Matthew J.; Fletcher, Tim D.; Hale, Rebecca L.; Hoang, Lan N.; Livingston, Grant; Rippy, Megan A.; Roy, Allison; Scoggins, Mateo; Wallace, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Urban stormwater runoff is a critical source of degradation to stream ecosystems globally. Despite broad appreciation by stream ecologists of negative effects of stormwater runoff, stormwater management objectives still typically center on flood and pollution mitigation without an explicit focus on altered hydrology. Resulting management approaches are unlikely to protect the ecological structure and function of streams adequately. We present critical elements of stormwater management necessary for protecting stream ecosystems through 5 principles intended to be broadly applicable to all urban landscapes that drain to a receiving stream: 1) the ecosystems to be protected and a target ecological state should be explicitly identified; 2) the postdevelopment balance of evapotranspiration, stream flow, and infiltration should mimic the predevelopment balance, which typically requires keeping significant runoff volume from reaching the stream; 3) stormwater control measures (SCMs) should deliver flow regimes that mimic the predevelopment regime in quality and quantity; 4) SCMs should have capacity to store rain events for all storms that would not have produced widespread surface runoff in a predevelopment state, thereby avoiding increased frequency of disturbance to biota; and 5) SCMs should be applied to all impervious surfaces in the catchment of the target stream. These principles present a range of technical and social challenges. Existing infrastructural, institutional, or governance contexts often prevent application of the principles to the degree necessary to achieve effective protection or restoration, but significant potential exists for multiple co-benefits from SCM technologies (e.g., water supply and climate-change adaptation) that may remove barriers to implementation. Our set of ideal principles for stream protection is intended as a guide for innovators who seek to develop new approaches to stormwater management rather than accept seemingly

  8. Handling Worldwide LHC Computing Grid Critical Service Incidents : The infrastructure and experience behind nearly 5 years of GGUS ALARMs

    CERN Multimedia

    Dimou, M; Dulov, O; Grein, G

    2013-01-01

    In the Wordwide LHC Computing Grid (WLCG) project the Tier centres are of paramount importance for storing and accessing experiment data and for running the batch jobs necessary for experiment production activities. Although Tier2 sites provide a significant fraction of the resources a non-availability of resources at the Tier0 or the Tier1s can seriously harm not only WLCG Operations but also the experiments' workflow and the storage of LHC data which are very expensive to reproduce. This is why availability requirements for these sites are high and committed in the WLCG Memorandum of Understanding (MoU). In this talk we describe the workflow of GGUS ALARMs, the only 24/7 mechanism available to LHC experiment experts for reporting to the Tier0 or the Tier1s problems with their Critical Services. Conclusions and experience gained from the detailed drills performed in each such ALARM for the last 4 years are explained and the shift with time of Type of Problems met. The physical infrastructure put in place to ...

  9. Post-Disaster Supply Chain Interdependent Critical Infrastructure System Restoration: A Review of Data Necessary and Available for Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun Ramachandran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of restoration strategies in the wake of large-scale disasters have focused on short-term emergency response solutions. Few consider medium- to long-term restoration strategies to reconnect urban areas to national 'supply chain interdependent critical infrastructure systems' (SCICI. These SCICI promote the effective flow of goods, services, and information vital to the economic vitality of an urban environment. To re-establish the connectivity that has been broken during a disaster between the different SCICI, relationships between these systems must be identified, formulated, and added to a common framework to form a system-level restoration plan. To accomplish this goal, a considerable collection of SCICI data is necessary. The aim of this paper is to review what data are required for model construction, the accessibility of these data, and their integration with each other. While a review of publically available data reveals a dearth of real-time data to assist modeling long-term recovery following an extreme event, a significant amount of static data does exist and these data can be used to model the complex interdependencies needed. For the sake of illustration, a particular SCICI (transportation is used to highlight the challenges of determining the interdependencies and creating models capable of describing the complexity of an urban environment with the data publically available. Integration of such data as is derived from public domain sources is readily achieved in a geospatial environment, after all geospatial infrastructure data are the most abundant data source and while significant quantities of data can be acquired through public sources, a significant effort is still required to gather, develop, and integrate these data from multiple sources to build a complete model. Therefore, while continued availability of high quality, public information is essential for modeling efforts in academic as well as government

  10. Post-disaster supply chain interdependent critical infrastructure system restoration: A review of data necessary and available for modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Varun; Long, Suzanna K.; Shoberg, Thomas G.; Corns, Steven; Carlo, Hector J.

    2016-01-01

    The majority of restoration strategies in the wake of large-scale disasters have focused on short-term emergency response solutions. Few consider medium- to long-term restoration strategies to reconnect urban areas to national supply chain interdependent critical infrastructure systems (SCICI). These SCICI promote the effective flow of goods, services, and information vital to the economic vitality of an urban environment. To re-establish the connectivity that has been broken during a disaster between the different SCICI, relationships between these systems must be identified, formulated, and added to a common framework to form a system-level restoration plan. To accomplish this goal, a considerable collection of SCICI data is necessary. The aim of this paper is to review what data are required for model construction, the accessibility of these data, and their integration with each other. While a review of publically available data reveals a dearth of real-time data to assist modeling long-term recovery following an extreme event, a significant amount of static data does exist and these data can be used to model the complex interdependencies needed. For the sake of illustration, a particular SCICI (transportation) is used to highlight the challenges of determining the interdependencies and creating models capable of describing the complexity of an urban environment with the data publically available. Integration of such data as is derived from public domain sources is readily achieved in a geospatial environment, after all geospatial infrastructure data are the most abundant data source and while significant quantities of data can be acquired through public sources, a significant effort is still required to gather, develop, and integrate these data from multiple sources to build a complete model. Therefore, while continued availability of high quality, public information is essential for modeling efforts in academic as well as government communities, a more

  11. AWARE: Adaptive Software Monitoring and Dynamic Reconfiguration for Critical Infrastructure Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-29

    in which we applied these adaptation patterns to an adaptive news web server intended to tolerate extremely heavy, unexpected loads. To address...collection of existing models used as benchmarks for OO-based refactoring and an existing web -based repository called REMODD to provide users with model...invariant properties. Specifically, we developed Avida- MDE (based on the Avida digital evolution platform) to support the automatic generation of software

  12. Port resilience: overcoming threats to maritime infrastructure and operations from climate change : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    In the coastal zone, seaports and their intermodal connectors are key types of infrastructure that support the global : supply chain, provide regional economic activity, local transportation system services, and community jobs. The : protection of co...

  13. Research on Methods for Discovering and Selecting Cloud Infrastructure Services Based on Feature Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huamin Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays more and more cloud infrastructure service providers are providing large numbers of service instances which are a combination of diversified resources, such as computing, storage, and network. However, for cloud infrastructure services, the lack of a description standard and the inadequate research of systematic discovery and selection methods have exposed difficulties in discovering and choosing services for users. First, considering the highly configurable properties of a cloud infrastructure service, the feature model method is used to describe such a service. Second, based on the description of the cloud infrastructure service, a systematic discovery and selection method for cloud infrastructure services are proposed. The automatic analysis techniques of the feature model are introduced to verify the model’s validity and to perform the matching of the service and demand models. Finally, we determine the critical decision metrics and their corresponding measurement methods for cloud infrastructure services, where the subjective and objective weighting results are combined to determine the weights of the decision metrics. The best matching instances from various providers are then ranked by their comprehensive evaluations. Experimental results show that the proposed methods can effectively improve the accuracy and efficiency of cloud infrastructure service discovery and selection.

  14. TRANSVAC research infrastructure - Results and lessons learned from the European network of vaccine research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geels, Mark J; Thøgersen, Regitze L; Guzman, Carlos A; Ho, Mei Mei; Verreck, Frank; Collin, Nicolas; Robertson, James S; McConkey, Samuel J; Kaufmann, Stefan H E; Leroy, Odile

    2015-10-05

    TRANSVAC was a collaborative infrastructure project aimed at enhancing European translational vaccine research and training. The objective of this four year project (2009-2013), funded under the European Commission's (EC) seventh framework programme (FP7), was to support European collaboration in the vaccine field, principally through the provision of transnational access (TNA) to critical vaccine research and development (R&D) infrastructures, as well as by improving and harmonising the services provided by these infrastructures through joint research activities (JRA). The project successfully provided all available services to advance 29 projects and, through engaging all vaccine stakeholders, successfully laid down the blueprint for the implementation of a permanent research infrastructure for early vaccine R&D in Europe. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Towards data protection compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zannone, N.; Petkovic, M.; Etalle, S.

    2010-01-01

    Privacy and data protection are fundamental issues nowadays for every organization. This paper calls for the development of methods, techniques and infrastructure to allow the deployment of privacy-aware IT systems, in which humans are integral part of the organizational processes and accountable

  16. Towards Data Protection Compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zannone, Nicola; Petkovic, M.; Etalle, Sandro

    2010-01-01

    Privacy and data protection are fundamental issues nowadays for every organization. This paper calls for the development of methods, techniques and infrastructure to allow the deployment of privacy-aware IT systems, in which humans are integral part of the organizational processes and accountable

  17. Autonomic Management of Application Workflows on Hybrid Computing Infrastructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunjoo Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a programming and runtime framework that enables the autonomic management of complex application workflows on hybrid computing infrastructures. The framework is designed to address system and application heterogeneity and dynamics to ensure that application objectives and constraints are satisfied. The need for such autonomic system and application management is becoming critical as computing infrastructures become increasingly heterogeneous, integrating different classes of resources from high-end HPC systems to commodity clusters and clouds. For example, the framework presented in this paper can be used to provision the appropriate mix of resources based on application requirements and constraints. The framework also monitors the system/application state and adapts the application and/or resources to respond to changing requirements or environment. To demonstrate the operation of the framework and to evaluate its ability, we employ a workflow used to characterize an oil reservoir executing on a hybrid infrastructure composed of TeraGrid nodes and Amazon EC2 instances of various types. Specifically, we show how different applications objectives such as acceleration, conservation and resilience can be effectively achieved while satisfying deadline and budget constraints, using an appropriate mix of dynamically provisioned resources. Our evaluations also demonstrate that public clouds can be used to complement and reinforce the scheduling and usage of traditional high performance computing infrastructure.

  18. Selection of important ecological source patches base on Green Infrastructure theory: A case study of Wuhan city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Yuanyuan; Yu, Yan; Tong, Yan

    2018-01-01

    Selecting urban ecological patches is of great significance for constructing urban green infrastructure network, protecting urban biodiversity and ecological environment. With the support of GIS technology, a criterion for selecting sources of patches was developed according to existing planning. Then ecological source patches of terrestrial organism, aquatic and amphibious organism were selected in Wuhan city. To increase the connectivity of the ecological patches and achieve greater ecological protection benefits, the green infrastructure networks in Wuhan city were constructed with the minimum path analysis method. Finally, the characteristics of ecological source patches were analyzed with landscape metrics, and ecological protection importance degree of ecological source patches were evaluated comprehensively. The results showed that there were 23 important ecological source patches in Wuhan city, among which Sushan Temple Forest Patch, Lu Lake and Shangshe Lake Wetland Patch were the most important in all kinds of patches for ecological protection. This study can provide a scientific basis for the preservation of urban ecological space, the delineation of natural conservation areas and the protection of biological diversity.

  19. A new vision of the post-NIST civil infrastructure program: the challenges of next-generation construction materials and processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, H. Felix; Wan, Yan

    2014-03-01

    Our nation's infrastructural systems are crumbling. The deteriorating process grows over time. The physical aging of these vital facilities and the remediation of their current critical state pose a key societal challenge to the United States. Current sensing technologies, while well developed in controlled laboratory environments, have not yet yielded tools for producing real-time, in-situ data that are adequately comprehensible for infrastructure decision-makers. The need for advanced sensing technologies is national because every municipality and state in the nation faces infrastructure management challenges. The need is critical because portions of infrastructure are reaching the end of their life-spans and there are few cost-effective means to monitor infrastructure integrity and to prioritize the renovation and replacement of infrastructure elements. New advanced sensing technologies that produce cost-effective inspection and real-time monitoring data, and that can also help or aid in meaningful interpretation of the acquired data, therefore will enhance the safety in regard to the public on structural integrity by issuing timely and accurate alert data for effective maintenance to avoid disasters happening. New advanced sensing technologies also allow more informed management of infrastructural investments by avoiding premature replacement of infrastructure and identifying those structures in need of immediate action to prevent from catastrophic failure. Infrastructure management requires that once a structural defect is detected, an economical and efficient repair be made. Advancing the technologies of repairing infrastructure elements in contact with water, road salt, and subjected to thermal changes requires innovative research to significantly extend the service life of repairs, lower the costs of repairs, and provide repair technologies that are suitable for a wide range of conditions. All these new technologies will provide increased lifetimes

  20. Modulation of macrophage activation state protects tissue from necrosis during critical limb ischemia in thrombospondin-1-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Bréchot

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Macrophages, key regulators of healing/regeneration processes, strongly infiltrate ischemic tissues from patients suffering from critical limb ischemia (CLI. However pro-inflammatory markers correlate with disease progression and risk of amputation, suggesting that modulating macrophage activation state might be beneficial. We previously reported that thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1 is highly expressed in ischemic tissues during CLI in humans. TSP-1 is a matricellular protein that displays well-known angiostatic properties in cancer, and regulates inflammation in vivo and macrophages properties in vitro. We therefore sought to investigate its function in a mouse model of CLI. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using a genetic model of tsp-1(-/- mice subjected to femoral artery excision, we report that tsp-1(-/- mice were clinically and histologically protected from necrosis compared to controls. Tissue protection was associated with increased postischemic angiogenesis and muscle regeneration. We next showed that macrophages present in ischemic tissues exhibited distinct phenotypes in tsp-1(-/- and wt mice. A strong reduction of necrotic myofibers phagocytosis was observed in tsp-1(-/- mice. We next demonstrated that phagocytosis of muscle cell debris is a potent pro-inflammatory signal for macrophages in vitro. Consistently with these findings, macrophages that infiltrated ischemic tissues exhibited a reduced postischemic pro-inflammatory activation state in tsp-1(-/- mice, characterized by a reduced Ly-6C expression and a less pro-inflammatory cytokine expression profile. Finally, we showed that monocyte depletion reversed clinical and histological protection from necrosis observed in tsp-1(-/- mice, thereby demonstrating that macrophages mediated tissue protection in these mice. CONCLUSION: This study defines targeting postischemic macrophage activation state as a new potential therapeutic approach to protect tissues from necrosis and promote tissue

  1. Armenia - Irrigation Infrastructure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This study evaluates irrigation infrastructure rehabilitation in Armenia. The study separately examines the impacts of tertiary canals and other large infrastructure...

  2. ECONOMIC AND LEGAL GROUNDS FOR INVESTMENT IN DEVELOPMENT OF TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Zhelezniak

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In Ukraine, as in many countries of the world, transport is one of the most fundamental sectors of the national economy, important part of the industrial and social spheres. But in the conditions of industry reforming there are problems of investing in development of rail transport. So the work is devoted to the grounds of potentially available sources of investment in infrastructure of railway transport of Ukraine. The work stresses the importance of the problem of attracting foreign investment in the economy, highlights the proposals to solve this problem. Methodology. To solve the problems of this class the work presents the proposed methods of analysis, synthesis and comparison, deduction, induction, logic and abstraction. It becomes necessary to search for and study of new conceptual approaches to organization of investment processes at railway transport enterprises, appropriate management and financial decisions and schemes of railway infrastructure development. Findings. The paper shows ways to optimize investment for modernization and technical re-equipment of the transport complex of Ukraine. It proposes the ways of attracting capital of investors for development of transport infrastructure: compliance with European laws and regulations; reforming of the tax system of Ukraine; combating corruption in the country; implementation of public-private partnership tools into the mechanism of state regulation of investment processes; creating a favourable investment climate for implementation of rail transport infrastructure projects; creating a system of compensation to investors; guarantees of transport infrastructure investment protection. Originality. The work offers the sources of investment for development of railway infrastructure in Ukraine, which should include: state budget funds, use of targeted loans and leasing. The main direction of the state policy concerning infrastructure should be a gradual transition of activity in

  3. INNOVATION AND RESEARCH FOR WATER INFRASTRUCTURE FOR THE 21ST CENTURY RESEARCH PLAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    This plan has been developed to provide the Office of Research and Development (ORD) with a guide for implementing a research program that addresses high priority needs of the Nation relating to its drinking water and wastewater infrastructure. By identifying these critical need...

  4. Transport Infrastructure Surveillance and Monitoring by Electromagnetic Sensing: The ISTIMES Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Bost

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The ISTIMES project, funded by the European Commission in the frame of a joint Call “ICT and Security” of the Seventh Framework Programme, is presented and preliminary research results are discussed. The main objective of the ISTIMES project is to design, assess and promote an Information and Communication Technologies (ICT-based system, exploiting distributed and local sensors, for non-destructive electromagnetic monitoring of critical transport infrastructures. The integration of electromagnetic technologies with new ICT information and telecommunications systems enables remotely controlled monitoring and surveillance and real time data imaging of the critical transport infrastructures. The project exploits different non-invasive imaging technologies based on electromagnetic sensing (optic fiber sensors, Synthetic Aperture Radar satellite platform based, hyperspectral spectroscopy, Infrared thermography, Ground Penetrating Radar-, low-frequency geophysical techniques, Ground based systems for displacement monitoring. In this paper, we show the preliminary results arising from the GPR and infrared thermographic measurements carried out on the Musmeci bridge in Potenza, located in a highly seismic area of the Apennine chain (Southern Italy and representing one of the test beds of the project.

  5. Access control infrastructure for on-demand provisioned virtualised infrastructure services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demchenko, Y.; Ngo, C.; de Laat, C.; Smari, W.W.; Fox, G.C.

    2011-01-01

    Cloud technologies are emerging as a new way of provisioning virtualised computing and infrastructure services on-demand for collaborative projects and groups. Security in provisioning virtual infrastructure services should address two general aspects: supporting secure operation of the provisioning

  6. Sustainable Water Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resources for state and local environmental and public health officials, and water, infrastructure and utility professionals to learn about sustainable water infrastructure, sustainable water and energy practices, and their role.

  7. Bike Infrastructures and Design Qualities: Enhancing Cycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Victor; Jensen, Ole B.; Harder, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    as well as to describe what specific design element primarily motivated them to travel by bike. The findings highlight the critical role of fast connectivity and fast bike lanes in motivating cyclists to ride their bikes more often. It also indicates that it is challenging to ensure the perception...... infrastructures. This article aims to present findings of the research project titled Bikeability – funded by the Danish Research Council. The overall purpose of the Bikeability project is to investigate and document relations between cycling motivation from different socio- demographic groups and distinct design...

  8. Radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamalaksh Shenoy, K.

    2013-01-01

    Three main pillars underpin the IAEA's mission: Safety and Security - The IAEA helps countries to upgrade their infrastructure for nuclear and radiation safety and security, and to prepare for and respond to emergencies. Work is keyed to international conventions, the development of international standards and the application of these standards. The aim is to protect people and the environment from the harmful effects of exposure to ionizing radiation. Science and Technology - The IAEA is the world's focal point for mobilizing peaceful applications of nuclear science and technology for critical needs in developing countries. The work contributes to alleviating poverty, combating disease and pollution of the environment and to other goals of sustainable development. Safeguards and Verification - The IAEA is the nuclear inspectorate, with more than four decades of verification experience. Inspectors work to verify that nuclear material and activities are not diverted towards military purposes. Quantities and Units: Dose equivalent is the product of absorbed dose of radiation and quality factor (Q). For absorbed dose in rads, dose equivalent is in rems. If absorbed dose is in gray, the dose equivalent is in sievert. Quality factor is defined without reference to any particular biological end point. Quality factors are recommended by committees such as the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) or the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP), based on experimental RBE values but with some judgment exercised. Effective Dose Equivalent: It is the sum of the weighted dose equivalents for all irradiated tissues, in which the weighting factors represent the different risks of each tissue to mortality from cancer and hereditary effects. Committed dose equivalent: It is the integral over 50 years of dose equivalent following the intake of a radionuclide. Collective effective dose equivalent: It is a quantity for a population and is

  9. The public and economic aspects of the functioning of protected areas within a commune

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaros Henryk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Between 2009 and 2013, research was conducted in the commune offices for the Podlaskie voivodeship which have large areas of protected Natura 2000 sites. The research is repeated every few years and widened to include new communes. The aim of the research was to determine the influence of the protected areas on the economic conditions of the communes. It is widely assumed that protected areas generate income for communes, however the communes claim that they incur large additional costs. The surveyed communes were critical of obligatory legal requirements in relation to the protected areas. It was argued that there are problems with obtaining natural resources and with the establishment of new summer resorts, residential and farm buildings and infrastructure; as well as the use and management of the site. The communes’ benefits incidental to the ownership of the protected area are not clear. As part of the benefits, the protected areas offer an opportunity for tourism development. According to the communes, protected areas generate losses in which the estimated losses are several times higher than the potential income. Studies indicate that the conservation cost factor should be considered in terms of financing the communes from the state budget.

  10. Growing the Blockchain information infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbar, Karim; Bjørn, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present ethnographic data that unpacks the everyday work of some of the many infrastructuring agents who contribute to creating, sustaining and growing the Blockchain information infrastructure. We argue that this infrastructuring work takes the form of entrepreneurial actions......, which are self-initiated and primarily directed at sustaining or increasing the initiator’s stake in the emerging information infrastructure. These entrepreneurial actions wrestle against the affordances of the installed base of the Blockchain infrastructure, and take the shape of engaging...... or circumventing activities. These activities purposefully aim at either influencing or working around the enablers and constraints afforded by the Blockchain information infrastructure, as its installed base is gaining inertia. This study contributes to our understanding of the purpose of infrastructuring, seen...

  11. Critical supply network protection against intentional attacks: A game-theoretical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bricha, Naji; Nourelfath, Mustapha

    2013-01-01

    A crucial issue in today's critical supply chains is how to protect facilities against intentional attacks, since it has become unacceptable to ignore the high impact of low probability disruptions caused by these attacks. This article develops a game-theoretical model to deal with the protection of facilities, in the context of the uncapacitated fixed-charge location problem. Given a set of investment alternatives for protecting the facilities against identified threats, the objective is to select the optimal defence strategy. The attacker is considered as a player who tries to maximise the expected damage while weighing against the attacks expenditures. The conflict on facilities vulnerability is modelled using the concept of contest. The vulnerability of a facility is defined by its destruction probability. Contest success functions determine the vulnerability of each facility dependent on the relative investments of the defender and the attacker on each facility, and on the characteristics of the contest. A method is developed to evaluate the utilities of the players (i.e., the defender and the attacker). This method evaluates many expected costs, including the cost needed to restore disabled facilities, the backorder cost, and the cost incurred because of the increase in transportation costs after attacks. In fact, when one or several facilities are unavailable, transportation costs will increase since reassigned customers may receive shipments from facilities which are farther away. The model considers a non-cooperative two-period game between the players, and an algorithm is presented to determine the equilibrium solution and the optimal defence strategy. An illustrative example is presented. The approach is compared to other suggested strategies, and some managerial insights are provided in the context of facility location

  12. Nuclear right and South Market Common : health citizen protection and environment: comparative study Mercosur situation:critical analysis Uruguay situation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puig, D

    1998-01-01

    The present work presents to general study on: the applications of nuclear techniques, technical fundamental for stablishment of to program of radiation protection, to comparative study legislation in radiation protection in the South Market Common (MERCOSUR)Argentina,Brazil,Paraguay,Uruguay as well as Treaties and Agreements. The author carries out a critical analysis from the situation to Institutional level in the Uruguay and it outlines some alternatives to improve the situation [es

  13. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi and P. Tropea

    2011-01-01

    Most of the work relating to Infrastructure has been concentrated in the new CSC and RPC manufactory at building 904, on the Prevessin site. Brand new gas distribution, powering and HVAC infrastructures are being deployed and the production of the first CSC chambers has started. Other activities at the CMS site concern the installation of a new small crane bridge in the Cooling technical room in USC55, in order to facilitate the intervention of the maintenance team in case of major failures of the chilled water pumping units. The laser barrack in USC55 has been also the object of a study, requested by the ECAL community, for the new laser system that shall be delivered in few months. In addition, ordinary maintenance works have been performed during the short machine stops on all the main infrastructures at Point 5 and in preparation to the Year-End Technical Stop (YETS), when most of the systems will be carefully inspected in order to ensure a smooth running through the crucial year 2012. After the incide...

  14. INFRASTRUCTURE

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Gaddi and P. Tropea

    2012-01-01

    The CMS Infrastructures teams are preparing for the LS1 activities. A long list of maintenance, consolidation and upgrade projects for CMS Infrastructures is on the table and is being discussed among Technical Coordination and sub-detector representatives. Apart from the activities concerning the cooling infrastructures (see below), two main projects have started: the refurbishment of the SX5 building, from storage area to RP storage and Muon stations laboratory; and the procurement of a new dry-gas (nitrogen and dry air) plant for inner detector flushing. We briefly present here the work done on the first item, leaving the second one for the next CMS Bulletin issue. The SX5 building is entering its third era, from main assembly building for CMS from 2000 to 2007, to storage building from 2008 to 2012, to RP storage and Muon laboratory during LS1 and beyond. A wall of concrete blocks has been erected to limit the RP zone, while the rest of the surface has been split between the ME1/1 and the CSC/DT laborat...

  15. 77 FR 44641 - Critical Infrastructure Private Sector Clearance Program Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-30

    .... DHS Sector Specialists or Protective Security Advisors email the form to the individual who then... clearance request form is signed by both the Federal official who nominated the applicant and the Assistant...

  16. On the application of a new principle and new class of materials for protection of the IC systems against high power electromagnetic pulses (HPEMP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuchkov, L.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to make a survey of a new principle and the possibilities for scientific investigations, testing and industrial incorporation of a new shielding material and technology for protection of the IC systems against high energy electromagnetic pulses and ion irradiation. The main result of the implementation of the new- principle, material and technology is to increase the safety of the critical military and civilian infrastructures, land-based and space techniques, apparatuses, devices and their components against high energy electromagnetic pulses and ion irradiation, including electromagnetic weapon arsenal of the international terrorist groups. Key words: electromagnetic pulses, ion irradiation, IC electronic equipment degradation, shielding protection

  17. On the application of a new principle and new class of materials for protection of the IC systems against high power electromagnetic pulses (HPEMP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuchkov, L. [Institute of Electrochemistry and Energy Systems, Bulgarian Academy of Scinces, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2008-07-01

    The aim of the present work is to make a survey of a new principle and the possibilities for scientific investigations, testing and industrial incorporation of a new shielding material and technology for protection of the IC systems against high energy electromagnetic pulses and ion irradiation. The main result of the implementation of the new- principle, material and technology is to increase the safety of the critical military and civilian infrastructures, land-based and space techniques, apparatuses, devices and their components against high energy electromagnetic pulses and ion irradiation, including electromagnetic weapon arsenal of the international terrorist groups. Key words: electromagnetic pulses, ion irradiation, IC electronic equipment degradation, shielding protection.

  18. Building green infrastructure via citizen participation - a six-year study in the Shepherd Creek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green infrastructure at the parcel scale provides critical ecosystem goods and services when these services (such as flood mitigation) must be provided locally. Here we report on an approach that encourages suburban landowners to mitigate impervious surfaces on their properties t...

  19. Failure to adapt infrastructure: is legal liability lurking for infrastructure stakeholders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gherbaz, S.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text:' Very little attention has been paid to potential legal liability for failing to adapt infrastructure to climate change-related risk. Amendments to laws, building codes and standards to take into account the potential impact of climate change on infrastructure assets are still at least some time away. Notwithstanding that amendments are still some time away, there is a real risk to infrastructure stakeholders for failing to adapt. The legal framework in Canada currently permits a court, in the right circumstances, to find certain infrastructure stakeholders legally liable for personal injury and property damage suffered by third parties as a result of climate change effects. This presentation will focus on legal liability of owners (governmental and private sector), engineers, architects and contractors for failing to adapt infrastructure assets to climate change risk. It will answer commonly asked questions such as: Can I avoid liability by complying with existing laws, codes and standards? Do engineers and architects have a duty to warn owners that existing laws, codes and standards do not, in certain circumstances, adequately take into account the impact of climate change-related risks on an infrastructure asset? And do professional liability insurance policies commonly maintained by architects, engineers and other design professionals provide coverage for a design professional's failure to take into account climate change-related risks?. (author)

  20. Human initiated cascading failures in societal infrastructures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Barrett

    Full Text Available In this paper, we conduct a systematic study of human-initiated cascading failures in three critical inter-dependent societal infrastructures due to behavioral adaptations in response to a crisis. We focus on three closely coupled socio-technical networks here: (i cellular and mesh networks, (ii transportation networks and (iii mobile call networks. In crises, changes in individual behaviors lead to altered travel, activity and calling patterns, which influence the transport network and the loads on wireless networks. The interaction between these systems and their co-evolution poses significant technical challenges for representing and reasoning about these systems. In contrast to system dynamics models for studying these interacting infrastructures, we develop interaction-based models in which individuals and infrastructure elements are represented in detail and are placed in a common geographic coordinate system. Using the detailed representation, we study the impact of a chemical plume that has been released in a densely populated urban region. Authorities order evacuation of the affected area, and this leads to individual behavioral adaptation wherein individuals drop their scheduled activities and drive to home or pre-specified evacuation shelters as appropriate. They also revise their calling behavior to communicate and coordinate among family members. These two behavioral adaptations cause flash-congestion in the urban transport network and the wireless network. The problem is exacerbated with a few, already occurring, road closures. We analyze how extended periods of unanticipated road congestion can result in failure of infrastructures, starting with the servicing base stations in the congested area. A sensitivity analysis on the compliance rate of evacuees shows non-intuitive effect on the spatial distribution of people and on the loading of the base stations. For example, an evacuation compliance rate of 70% results in higher number