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Sample records for critical flow general

  1. A general unified non-equilibrium model for predicting saturated and subcooled critical two-phase flow rates through short and long tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, D.W.H. [Univ. of British Columbia (Canada); Abdelmessih, A.H. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-09-01

    A general unified model is developed to predict one-component critical two-phase pipe flow. Modelling of the two-phase flow is accomplished by describing the evolution of the flow between the location of flashing inception and the exit (critical) plane. The model approximates the nonequilibrium phase change process via thermodynamic equilibrium paths. Included are the relative effects of varying the location of flashing inception, pipe geometry, fluid properties and length to diameter ratio. The model predicts that a range of critical mass fluxes exist and is bound by a maximum and minimum value for a given thermodynamic state. This range is more pronounced at lower subcooled stagnation states and can be attributed to the variation in the location of flashing inception. The model is based on the results of an experimental study of the critical two-phase flow of saturated and subcooled water through long tubes. In that study, the location of flashing inception was accurately controlled and adjusted through the use of a new device. The data obtained revealed that for fixed stagnation conditions, the maximum critical mass flux occurred with flashing inception located near the pipe exit; while minimum critical mass fluxes occurred with the flashing front located further upstream. Available data since 1970 for both short and long tubes over a wide range of conditions are compared with the model predictions. This includes test section L/D ratios from 25 to 300 and covers a temperature and pressure range of 110 to 280{degrees}C and 0.16 to 6.9 MPa. respectively. The predicted maximum and minimum critical mass fluxes show an excellent agreement with the range observed in the experimental data.

  2. A General Thermal Equilibrium Discharge Flow Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO; Min-fu; ZHANG; Dong-xu; LV; Yu-feng

    2015-01-01

    In isentropic and thermal equilibrium assumptions,a discharge flow model was derived,which unified the rules of normal temperature water discharge,high temperature and high pressure water discharge,two-phase critical flow,saturated steam and superheated steam critical

  3. Critical transport velocity in two-phase, horizontal pipe flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommerville, D. (U.S. Army Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center, Aberdeen Proving Grounds, MD (US))

    1991-02-01

    This paper reports on the suspension of solid particles or entrainment of liquid droplets in two- phase flow. Theoretical and empirical relationships have been derived for both instances without any consideration to the similarities between the two. However, a general relation for two-phase flow is desirable since there are systems that cannot be readily defined due to the dual (solid/liquid) nature of the transported material, such as colloids, pulp, slurries, and sludge. Using turbulence theory, one general equation can be derived to predict critical transport velocities for two-phase horizontal flow.

  4. Transition to turbulence for flows without linear criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Masato

    2010-12-01

    It is well known that plane Couette flow (PCF) and pipe flow (PF) are linearly stable against arbitrary three-dimensional perturbations at any finite Reynolds number, so that transitions from the basic laminar states, if they exist, must be abrupt. Due to this lack of linear criticality, weakly nonlinear analysis does not work in general and numerical approaches must be resorted to. It is only recently that non-trivial nonlinear states for these flows have been discovered numerically at finite Reynolds number as solutions bifurcating from infinity. The onset of turbulence in a subcritical transition is believed to be related to the appearance of steady/travelling wave states caused by disturbances of finite amplitude that take the flows out of the basin of attraction of the laminar state in phase space. In this paper, we introduce other flows that, in a similar way to PCF and PF, exhibit no linear critical point for the laminar states, namely flow in a square duct and sliding Couette flow in an annulus with a certain range of gap ratio. We shall show our recent numerical investigations on these flows where nonlinear travelling wave states are found for the first time by a homotopy approach. We believe that these states constitute the skeleton around which a time-dependent trajectory in the phase space is organized and help in understanding non-equilibrium turbulent processes.

  5. Numerical investigation of transition critical Reynolds number of channel flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongming

    2015-11-01

    Two critical Reynolds numbers are mentioned in investigation of laminar-turbulent transition. One is instability critical Reynolds number from linear stability theory (LST). The other is transition critical Reynolds number at which transition occurs in reality, which is significantly lower than the former in general. The determination of transition critical Reynolds number is of important practical significance in some engineering problems. Theoretical method has not been proposed for its determination, so it has to depend on experiments. However, for some flows with important practical significance, such as hypersonic boundary layer, transition critical Reynolds number cannot be determined by experiments in current situation. In this paper, transition critical Reynolds number of incompressible channel flow is determined by direct numerical simulations (DNS). It is found as Re =1114, which agrees with experimental data. In subsequent paper, transition critical Reynolds number of boundary layer will be investigation by the similar method. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11202147, 11332007, 11172203, and 91216111) and the Specialized Research Fund (New Teacher Class) for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education (No. 20120032120007).

  6. Unsteady near-critical flows in microgravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polezhaev, V I; Gorbunov, A A; Soboleva, E B

    2004-11-01

    This paper presents analysis of the different time scales associated with unsteady fluid flow phenomena near the thermodynamical critical point and that are typical for experiments carried out in microgravity. A focus of the paper is modeling the initial stage of convection under low and zero gravity on the basis of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations for a compressible gas with the Van der Waals state equation. We also consider a thermoacoustic problem on the basis of three-dimensional linearized equations for an isentropic inviscid gas near the critical point in zero gravity. We compare the heat transfer due to unsteady convection and the piston effect in an enclosure with side heating in zero and low gravity with pure conductivity.

  7. Critical behavior in porous media flow

    CERN Document Server

    Moura, Marcel; Toussaint, Renaud

    2016-01-01

    The intermittent burst dynamics during the slow drainage of a porous medium is studied experimentally. We have verified a theoretically predicted scaling for the burst size distribution which was previously accessible only via numerical simulations. We show that this system satisfies a set of conditions known to be true for critical systems, such as intermittent activity with bursts extending over several time and length scales, self-similar macroscopic fractal structure and $1/f^\\alpha$ power spectrum. The observation of $1/f^\\alpha$ power spectra is new for porous media flows and, for specific boundary conditions, we notice the occurrence of a transition from $1/f$ to $1/f^2$ scaling. An analytically integrable mathematical framework was employed to explain this behavior.

  8. Symmetry constraints on generalizations of Bjorken flow

    CERN Document Server

    Gubser, Steven S

    2010-01-01

    I explain a generalization of Bjorken flow where the medium has finite transverse size and expands both radially and along the beam axis. If one assumes that the equations of viscous hydrodynamics can be used, with p=epsilon/3 and zero bulk viscosity, then the flow I describe can be developed into an exact solution of the relativistic Navier-Stokes equations. The local four-velocity in the flow is entirely determined by the assumption of symmetry under a subgroup of the conformal group.

  9. A state-of-the-art report on two-phase critical flow modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jae Joon; Jang, Won Pyo; Kim, Dong Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-09-01

    This report reviews and analyses two-phase, critical flow models. The purposes of the report are (1) to make a knowledge base for the full understanding and best-estimate of two-phase, critical flow, (2) to analyse the model development trend and to derive the direction of further studies. A wide range of critical flow models are reviewed. Each model, in general, predicts critical flow well only within specified conditions. The critical flow models of best-estimate codes are special process model included in the hydrodynamic model. The results of calculations depend on the nodalization, discharge coefficient, and other user`s options. The following topics are recommended for continuing studies: improvement of two-fluid model, development of multidimensional model, data base setup and model error evaluation, and generalization of discharge coefficients. 24 figs., 5 tabs., 80 refs. (Author).

  10. Self-organization criticality of debris flow rheology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yuyi; JAN Chyandeng; CHEN Xiaoqing; HAN Wenliang

    2003-01-01

    Based on the viewpoint of stress and strain self-organization criticality of debris flow mass, this paper probes into inter-nonlinear action between different factors in the thixotropic liquefaction system of loose clastic soil onslope to make clastic soil in slope develop naturally towards critical stress status, and slope debris flow finally occurs under trigging by rainstorm. Also according to observation and analysis of self-organization criticality of sedimentrunoff system of viscous debris flow surges in ravines and power relation between magnitude and frequency of debris flows, this paper expounds similarity of the self-organized structure of debris flow mass. The self-organized critical system is a weak chaotic system. Debris flow occurrences can be predicted accordingly by means of observation at certain time scale and analysis of self-organization criticality of magnitude, frequency and time interval of debris flows.

  11. To what does perceived criticism refer? Constructive, destructive, and general criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Kristina M; Smith, David A

    2010-02-01

    General spousal perceived criticism (PC) robustly predicts psychological symptoms and is associated with marital discord (e.g., Hooley & Teasdale, 1989); however, it is unclear what types of criticism PC encompasses (Renshaw, 2008). One hundred eighteen couples rated general PC and both constructive and destructive criticism from their own videotaped spousal discussions. Independent judges also coded criticism from the discussions. Results suggest that destructive rather than constructive criticism is related to PC. That PC primarily reflects destructive criticism may explain its utility in predicting relapse. Future studies will benefit from separate application of constructive and destructive criticism measures.

  12. General purpose flow solver applied to flow over hills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soerensen, N.N.

    1995-09-01

    The present report describes the development a 2D and 3D finite-volume code in general curvilinear coordinates using the Basis 2D/3D platform by Michelsen. The codes are based on the Reynolds averaged incompressible isothermal Navier-Stokes equations and use primitive variables (U, V, W and P). The turbulence is modelled by the high Reynolds number {kappa} - {epsilon} model. Cartesian velocity components are used in a non-staggered arrangement following the methodology of Rhie. The equation system is solved using the SIMPLE method of Patankar and Spalding. Solution of the transport equations is obtained by a successive application of a TDMA solver in alternating direction. The solution of the pressure correction equation is accelerated using the multigrid tools from the Basis 2D/3D platform. Additionally a three-level grid sequence is implemented in order to minimize the overall solution time. Higher-order schemes (SUDS and QUICK) are implemented as explicit corrections to a first-order upwind difference scheme. In both the 2D and the 3D code it is possible to handle multiblock configurations. This feature is added in order to obtain a greater geometric flexibility. To mesh natural terrain in connection with atmospheric flow over complex terrain, a two- and a three-dimensional hyperbolic mesh generator are constructed. Additionally, a two- and a three-dimensional mesh generator based on a simple version of the transfinite interpolation technique are implemented. Several two-dimensional test cases are calculated e.g. laminar flow over a circular cylinder, turbulent channel flow, and turbulent flow over a backward facing step, all with satisfying results. In order to illustrate the application of the codes to atmospheric flow two cases are calculated, flow over a cube in a thick turbulent boundary-layer, and the atmospheric flow over the Askervein hill. (au) 13 tabs., 75 ills., 66 refs.

  13. Load flow analysis using decoupled fuzzy load flow under critical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    of power system, reliable fuzzy load flow is developed to overcome the limitations of the ... of power mismatches are taken as two inputs for fuzzy logic controller. ..... Programming Based Load Flow Algorithm For Systems Containing Unified ...

  14. Critical flow and pressure ratio data for LOX flowing through nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Simoneau, R. J.; Barrows, R. F.

    1975-01-01

    LOX and LN2 data for two-phase critical flow through nozzles have been acquired with precision control. The principal measured parameters were inlet conditions, critical flow rate and critical flow pressure ratio. The data conclusively demonstrate that the principle of corresponding states can be applied to two-phase choked flow through nozzles. These data also demonstrate that the proper normalizing parameters have been developed and current theories can provide an adequate means for extrapolating to other fluids.

  15. Optimal convection cooling flows in general geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Alben, Silas

    2016-01-01

    We generalize a recent method for computing optimal 2D convection cooling flows in a horizontal layer to a wide range of geometries, including those relevant for technological applications. We write the problem in a conformal pair of coordinates which are the pure conduction temperature and its harmonic conjugate. We find optimal flows for cooling a cylinder in an annular domain, a hot plate embedded in a cold surface, and a channel with hot interior and cold exterior. With a constraint of fixed kinetic energy, the optimal flows are all essentially the same in the conformal coordinates. In the physical coordinates, they consist of vortices ranging in size from the length of the hot surface to a small cutoff length at the interface of the hot and cold surfaces. With the constraint of fixed enstrophy (or fixed rate of viscous dissipation), a geometry-dependent metric factor appears in the equations. The conformal coordinates are useful here because they map the problems to a rectangular domain, facilitating num...

  16. Modelling debris flows down general channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Pudasaini

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an extension of the single-phase cohesionless dry granular avalanche model over curved and twisted channels proposed by Pudasaini and Hutter (2003. It is a generalisation of the Savage and Hutter (1989, 1991 equations based on simple channel topography to a two-phase fluid-solid mixture of debris material. Important terms emerging from the correct treatment of the kinematic and dynamic boundary condition, and the variable basal topography are systematically taken into account. For vanishing fluid contribution and torsion-free channel topography our new model equations exactly degenerate to the previous Savage-Hutter model equations while such a degeneration was not possible by the Iverson and Denlinger (2001 model, which, in fact, also aimed to extend the Savage and Hutter model. The model equations of this paper have been rigorously derived; they include the effects of the curvature and torsion of the topography, generally for arbitrarily curved and twisted channels of variable channel width. The equations are put into a standard conservative form of partial differential equations. From these one can easily infer the importance and influence of the pore-fluid-pressure distribution in debris flow dynamics. The solid-phase is modelled by applying a Coulomb dry friction law whereas the fluid phase is assumed to be an incompressible Newtonian fluid. Input parameters of the equations are the internal and bed friction angles of the solid particles, the viscosity and volume fraction of the fluid, the total mixture density and the pore pressure distribution of the fluid at the bed. Given the bed topography and initial geometry and the initial velocity profile of the debris mixture, the model equations are able to describe the dynamics of the depth profile and bed parallel depth-averaged velocity distribution from the initial position to the final deposit. A shock capturing, total variation diminishing numerical scheme is implemented to

  17. General purpose fast decoupled power flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nanda, J.; Bijwe, P.R.; Henry, J.; Bapi Raju, V. (Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (IN). Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1992-03-01

    A general purpose fast decoupled power flow model (GFDPF) is presented that exhibits more or less best convergence properties for both well-behaved and ill-conditioned systems. In the proposed model, all network shunts such as line charging, external shunts at buses, shunts formed due to {pi} representation of off-nominal in-phase transformers etc. are treated as constant impedance loads. The effect of line resistances is considered while forming the (B') matrix and are ignored in forming the (B'') matrix. This model is tested on several systems for both well-behaved and ill-conditioned situations. A simple, efficient compensation technique is proposed to deal with Q-limit enforcements associated with bus-type switchings at voltage-controlled buses. The results demonstrate that the proposed GFDPF model exhibits more or less stable convergence behaviour for both well-behaved and ill-conditioned situations. (author).

  18. Critical heat flux in flow boiling in microchannels

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Sujoy Kumar

    2015-01-01

    This Brief concerns the important problem of critical heat flux in flow boiling in microchannels. A companion edition in the SpringerBrief Subseries on Thermal Engineering and Applied Science to “Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop in Flow Boiling in Microchannels,” by the same author team, this volume is idea for professionals, researchers, and graduate students concerned with electronic cooling.

  19. Predictions of the marviken subcooled critical mass flux using the critical flow scaling parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Choon Kyung; Chun, Se Young; Cho, Seok; Yang, Sun Ku; Chung, Moon Ki [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    A total of 386 critical flow data points from 19 runs of 27 runs in the Marviken Test were selected and compared with the predictions by the correlations based on the critical flow scaling parameters. The results show that the critical mass flux in the very large diameter pipe can be also characterized by two scaling parameters such as discharge coefficient and dimensionless subcooling (C{sub d,ref} and {Delta}{Tau}{sup *} {sub sub}). The agreement between the measured data and the predictions are excellent. 8 refs., 8 figs. 1 tab. (Author)

  20. Characterization of non equilibrium effects on high quality critical flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camelo, E.; Lemonnier, H.; Ochterbeck, J. [Commissariat a l Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    The appropriate design of various pieces of safety equipment such as relief systems, relies on the accurate description of critical flow phenomena. Most of the systems of industrial interest are willing to be described by one-dimensional area-averaged models and a large fraction of them involves multi-component high gas quality flows. Within these circumstances, the flow is very likely to be of an annular dispersed nature and its description by two-fluid models requires various closure relations. Among the most sensitive closures, there is the interfacial area and the liquid entrained fraction. The critical flowrate depends tremendously on the accurate description of the non equilibrium which results from the correctness of the closure equations. In this study, two-component flows are emphasized and non equilibrium results mainly form the differences in the phase velocities. It is therefore of the utmost importance to have reliable data to characterize non equilibrium phenomena and to assess the validity of the closure models. A comprehensive description of air-water nozzle flows, with emphasis on the effect of the nozzle geometry, has been undertaken and some of the results are presented here which helps understanding the overall flow dynamics. Besides the critical flowrate, the presented material includes pressure profiles, droplet size and velocity, liquid film flowrate and liquid film thickness.

  1. Temperature of critical clusters in nucleation theory: generalized Gibbs' approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzer, Jürn W P; Boltachev, Grey Sh; Abyzov, Alexander S

    2013-07-21

    According to the classical Gibbs' approach to the description of thermodynamically heterogeneous systems, the temperature of the critical clusters in nucleation is the same as the temperature of the ambient phase, i.e., with respect to temperature the conventional macroscopic equilibrium conditions are assumed to be fulfilled. In contrast, the generalized Gibbs' approach [J. W. P. Schmelzer, G. Sh. Boltachev, and V. G. Baidakov, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 6166 (2003); and ibid. 124, 194503 (2006)] predicts that critical clusters (having commonly spatial dimensions in the nanometer range) have, as a rule, a different temperature as compared with the ambient phase. The existence of a curved interface may lead, consequently, to an equilibrium coexistence of different phases with different temperatures similar to differences in pressure as expressed by the well-known Laplace equation. Employing the generalized Gibbs' approach, it is demonstrated that, for the case of formation of droplets in a one-component vapor, the temperature of the critical droplets can be shown to be higher as compared to the vapor. In this way, temperature differences between critically sized droplets and ambient vapor phase, observed in recent molecular dynamics simulations of argon condensation by Wedekind et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 127, 064501 (2007)], can be given a straightforward theoretical interpretation. It is shown as well that - employing the same model assumptions concerning bulk and interfacial properties of the system under consideration - the temperature of critical bubbles in boiling is lower as compared to the bulk liquid.

  2. Roaming form factors for the tricritical to critical Ising flow

    CERN Document Server

    Horvath, D X; Takacs, G

    2016-01-01

    We study the massless flows described by the staircase model introduced by Al.B. Zamolodchikov through the analytic continuation of the sinh-Gordon S-matrix, focusing on the renormalisation group flow from the tricritical to the critical Ising model. We show that the properly defined roaming limits of certain sinh-Gordon form factors are identical to the form factors of the order and disorder operators for the massless flow. As a by-product, we also construct form factors for a semi-local field in the sinh-Gordon model, which can be associated with the twist field in the ultraviolet limiting free massless bosonic theory.

  3. General Critical Properties of the Dynamics of Scientific Discovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettencourt, L. M. A. (LANL); Kaiser, D. I. (MIT)

    2011-05-31

    Scientific fields are difficult to define and compare, yet there is a general sense that they undergo similar stages of development. From this point of view it becomes important to determine if these superficial similarities can be translated into a general framework that would quantify the general advent and subsequent dynamics of scientific ideas. Such a framework would have important practical applications of allowing us to compare fields that superficially may appear different, in terms of their subject matter, research techniques, typical collaboration size, etc. Particularh' important in a field's history is the moment at which conceptual and technical unification allows widespread exchange of ideas and collaboration, at which point networks of collaboration show the analog of a percolation phenomenon, developing a giant connected component containing most authors. Here we investigate the generality of this topological transition in the collaboration structure of scientific fields as they grow and become denser. We develop a general theoretical framework in which each scientific field is an instantiation of the same large-scale topological critical phenomenon. We consider whether the evidence from a variety of specific fields is consistent with this picture, and estimate critical exponents associated with the transition. We then discuss the generality of the phenomenon and to what extent we may expect other scientific fields — including very large ones — to follow the same dynamics.

  4. Near critical swirling flow of a viscoelastic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Nguyen; Rusak, Zvi; Tichy, John; Wang, Shixiao

    2016-11-01

    The interaction between flow inertia and elasticity in high Re, axisymmetric, and near-critical swirling flows of a viscoelastic fluid in a finite-length straight circular pipe is studied. The viscous stresses are described by the Giesekus constitutive model. The application of this model to columnar streamwise vortices is first investigated. Then, a nonlinear small-disturbance analysis is developed from the governing equations of motion. It explores the complicated interactions between flow inertia, swirl, and fluid viscosity and elasticity. An effective Re that links between steady states of swirling flows of a viscoelastic fluid and those of a Newtonian fluid is revealed. The effects of the fluid viscosity, relaxation time, retardation time and mobility parameter on the flow development and on the critical swirl for the appearance of vortex breakdown are explored. Decreasing the ratio of the viscoelastic characteristic times from one increases the critical swirl for breakdown. Increasing the Weissenberg number from zero or increasing the fluid mobility parameter from zero cause a similar effect. Results may explain changes in the appearance of breakdown zones as a function of swirl level that were observed in Stokes et al. (2001) experiments, where Boger fluids were used.

  5. Critical conditions of bed sediment entrainment due to debris flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Papa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes entrainment characteristics of bed material into debris flow, based on flume tests, numerical and dimensional analyses. Flume tests are conducted to investigate influences of bed sediment size on erosion rate by supplying debris flows having unsaturated sediment concentration over erodible beds. Experimental results show that the erosion rate decreases monotonically with increase of sediment size, although erosion rate changes with sediment concentration of debris flow body. In order to evaluate critical condition of bed sediment entrainment, a length scale which measures an effective bed shear stress is introduced. The effective bed shear stress is defined as total shear stress minus yield stress on the bed surface. The results show that critical entrainment conditions can be evaluated well in terms of Shields curve using the effective bed shear stress instead of a usual bed shear stress.

  6. Universal Quantification for Self-Organized Criticality in Atmospheric Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Selvam, A M

    1997-01-01

    Atmospheric flows exhibit selfsimilar fluctuations on all scales(space-time) ranging from climate(kilometers/years) to turbulence(millimeters/seconds) manifested as fractal geometry to the global cloud cover pattern concomitant with inverse power law form for power spectra of temporal fluctuations. Selfsimilar fluctuations implying long-range correlations are ubiquitous to dynamical systems in nature and are identified as signatures of self-organized criticality in atmospheric flows. Also, mathematical models for simulation and prediction of atmospheric flows are nonlinear and computer realizations give unrealistic solutions because of deterministic chaos, a direct consequence of finite precision round-off error doubling for each iteration of iterative computations incorporated in long-term numerical integration schemes used for model solutions An alternative non-deterministic cell dynamical system model predicts, (a): the observed self organized criticality as a consequence of quantumlike mechanics governing...

  7. Entropy Flow in Near-Critical Quantum Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedan, Daniel

    2017-05-01

    Near-critical quantum circuits close to equilibrium are ideal physical systems for asymptotically large-scale quantum computers, because their low energy collective excitations evolve reversibly, effectively isolated from microscopic environmental fluctuations by the renormalization group. Entropy flows in near-critical quantum circuits near equilibrium as a locally conserved quantum current, obeying circuit laws analogous to the electric circuit laws. These "Kirchhoff laws" for entropy flow are the fundamental design constraints for asymptotically large-scale quantum computers. A quantum circuit made from a near-critical system (of conventional type) is described by a relativistic 1+1 dimensional relativistic quantum field theory on the circuit. The quantum entropy current near equilibrium is just the energy current divided by the temperature. The universal properties of the energy-momentum tensor constrain the entropy flow characteristics of the circuit components: the entropic conductivity of the quantum wires and the entropic admittance of the quantum circuit junctions. For example, near-critical quantum wires are always resistanceless inductors for entropy. A universal formula is derived for the entropic conductivity: σ S(ω ) = iv2 S/ω T , where ω is the frequency, T the temperature, S the equilibrium entropy density and v the velocity of "light". The thermal conductivity is Re(Tσ S(ω ))=π v2 S δ (ω ). The thermal Drude weight is, universally, v2S. This gives a way to measure the entropy density directly.

  8. Temperature of critical clusters in nucleation theory: Generalized Gibbs' approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzer, Jürn W. P.; Boltachev, Grey Sh.; Abyzov, Alexander S.

    2013-07-01

    According to the classical Gibbs' approach to the description of thermodynamically heterogeneous systems, the temperature of the critical clusters in nucleation is the same as the temperature of the ambient phase, i.e., with respect to temperature the conventional macroscopic equilibrium conditions are assumed to be fulfilled. In contrast, the generalized Gibbs' approach [J. W. P. Schmelzer, G. Sh. Boltachev, and V. G. Baidakov, J. Chem. Phys. 119, 6166 (2003), 10.1063/1.1602066; J. W. P. Schmelzer, G. Sh. Boltachev, and V. G. Baidakov, J. Chem. Phys. 124, 194503 (2006)], 10.1063/1.2196412 predicts that critical clusters (having commonly spatial dimensions in the nanometer range) have, as a rule, a different temperature as compared with the ambient phase. The existence of a curved interface may lead, consequently, to an equilibrium coexistence of different phases with different temperatures similar to differences in pressure as expressed by the well-known Laplace equation. Employing the generalized Gibbs' approach, it is demonstrated that, for the case of formation of droplets in a one-component vapor, the temperature of the critical droplets can be shown to be higher as compared to the vapor. In this way, temperature differences between critically sized droplets and ambient vapor phase, observed in recent molecular dynamics simulations of argon condensation by Wedekind et al. [J. Chem. Phys. 127, 064501 (2007)], 10.1063/1.2752154, can be given a straightforward theoretical interpretation. It is shown as well that - employing the same model assumptions concerning bulk and interfacial properties of the system under consideration - the temperature of critical bubbles in boiling is lower as compared to the bulk liquid.

  9. Flow rate dependency of critical wall shear stress in a radial-flow cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detry, J.G.; Jensen, Bo Boye Busk; Sindic, M.

    2009-01-01

    of a water or ethanol suspension of starch granules on the surfaces. Depending on the substrate and on the suspending liquid, the aggregates differed in size and shape. Aggregate removal was studied at two flow rates. At the lower flow rate (Re-inlet = 955), the values of critical wall shear stress......In the present work, a radial-flow cell was used to study the removal of starch particle aggregates from several solid substrates (glass, stainless steel, polystyrene and PTFE) in order to determine the critical wall shear stress value for each case. The particle aggregates were formed by aspersion...... for the different surfaces suggested that capillary forces were, for all of them, playing an important role in aggregate adhesion since aqueous based aggregates were always more difficult to remove. At the higher flow rate (Re-inlet = 2016) the critical wall shear stress increased as a result of the change...

  10. Redesigning a General Education Science Course to Promote Critical Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Matthew P; Gillespie, B Marcus; Harris, Kevin R; Koether, Steven D; Shannon, Li-Jen Y; Rose, Lori A

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies question the effectiveness of a traditional university curriculum in helping students improve their critical thinking and scientific literacy. We developed an introductory, general education (gen ed) science course to overcome both deficiencies. The course, titled Foundations of Science, differs from most gen ed science offerings in that it is interdisciplinary; emphasizes the nature of science along with, rather than primarily, the findings of science; incorporates case studies, such as the vaccine-autism controversy; teaches the basics of argumentation and logical fallacies; contrasts science with pseudoscience; and addresses psychological factors that might otherwise lead students to reject scientific ideas they find uncomfortable. Using a pretest versus posttest design, we show that students who completed the experimental course significantly improved their critical-thinking skills and were more willing to engage scientific theories the general public finds controversial (e.g., evolution), while students who completed a traditional gen ed science course did not. Our results demonstrate that a gen ed science course emphasizing the process and application of science rather than just scientific facts can lead to improved critical thinking and scientific literacy.

  11. Experimental study of critical flow of water at supercritical pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuzhou CHEN; Chunsheng YANG; Shuming ZHANG; Minfu ZHAO; Kaiwen DU; Xu CHENG

    2009-01-01

    Experimental studies of the critical flow of water were conducted under steady-state conditions with a nozzle 1.41mm in diameter and 4.35 mm in length, covering the inlet pressure range of 22.1-26.8 MPa and inlet temperature range of 38^74°C. The parametric trend of the flow rate was investigated, and the experimental data were compared with the predictions of the homogeneous equilibrium model, the Bernoulli correlation, and the models used in the reactor safety analysis code RELAP5/ MOD3.3. It is concluded that in the near or beyond pseudo-critical region, thermal-dynamic equilibrium is dominant, and at a lower temperature, choking does not occur. The onset of the choking condition is not predicted reasonably by the RELAP5 code.

  12. Far from equilibrium energy flow in quantum critical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bhaseen, M J; Lucas, Andrew; Schalm, Koenraad

    2013-01-01

    We investigate far from equilibrium energy transport in strongly coupled quantum critical systems. Combining results from gauge-gravity duality, relativistic hydrodynamics, and quantum field theory, we argue that long-time energy transport occurs via a universal steady-state for any spatial dimensionality. This is described by a boosted thermal state. We determine the transport properties of this emergent steady state, including the average energy flow and its long-time fluctuations.

  13. Critical resources in clean energy technologies and waste flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Komal

    A broader implementation of clean energy technologies in future is a widely motivated scenario for meeting the climate change goals as well as to reduce our dependency on the non‐renewable fossil fuels. However, the transition from the current fossil‐based society to a future low‐carbon society...... constraints for the emerging clean energy technologies in future, along with an insight into the resource criticality assessment methodologies, detailed material flow analysis (MFA) of critical resources, and recovery of critical resources from the waste streams. The key findings of this PhD study were......:  The demand of neodymium and dysprosium, driven by the clean energy technologies is estimated to be 10 times higher by 2050 compared to the present primary supply (mining). This implies that either a highly accelerated rate of mining is required to meet the future demand or a radical change in current...

  14. Liquid general anesthetics lower critical temperatures in plasma membrane vesicles

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, Ellyn; Machta, Benjamin B; Veatch, Sarah L

    2013-01-01

    A large and diverse array of small hydrophobic molecules induce general anesthesia. Their efficacy as anesthetics has been shown to correlate both with their affinity for a hydrophobic environment and with their potency in inhibiting certain ligand gated ion channels. Here we explore the effects that n-alcohols and other liquid anesthetics have on the two-dimensional miscibility critical point observed in cell derived giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMVs). We show that anesthetics depress the critical temperature (Tc) of these GPMVs without strongly altering the ratio of the two liquid phases found below Tc. The magnitude of this affect is consistent across n-alcohols when their concentration is rescaled by the median anesthetic concentration (AC50) for tadpole anesthesia, but not when plotted against the overall concentration in solution. At AC50 we see a 4{\\deg}C downward shift in Tc, much larger than is typically seen in the main chain transition at these anesthetic concentrations. GPMV miscibility critic...

  15. NUMERICAL COMPUTATIONS OF CO-EXISTING SUPER-CRITICAL AND SUB-CRITICAL FLOWS BASED UPON CRD SCHEMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, Katsuya; Okamura, Seiji; Kobayashi, Yusuke; Hyodo, Makoto; Hida, Yoshihisa; Nishimoto, Naoshi; Mori, Akio

    Stream flows in steep gradient bed form complicating flow configurations, where co-exist super-critical and sub-critical flows. Computing numerically such flows are the key to successful river management. This study applied CRD schemes to 1D and 2D stream flow computations and proposed genuine ways to eliminate expansion shock waves. Through various cases of computing stream flows conducted, CRD schemes showed that i) conservativeness of discharge and accuracy of four significant figures are ensured, ii) artificial viscosity is not explicitly used for computational stabilization, and thus iii) 1D and 2D computations based upon CRD schemes are applicable to evaluating complicating stream flows for river management.

  16. Concave Generalized Flows with Applications to Market Equilibria

    CERN Document Server

    Vegh, Laszlo A

    2011-01-01

    We consider a nonlinear extension of the generalized network flow model, with the flow leaving an arc being an increasing concave function of the flow entering it, as proposed by Truemper and Shigeno. We give the first polynomial time combinatorial algorithm for solving corresponding optimization problems, finding a epsilon-approximate solution in O(m(m+\\log n)\\log(MUm/epsilon)) arithmetic operations and value oracle queries, where M and U are upper bounds on simple parameters. For (linear) generalized flows, our algorithm can be seen as a variant of the highest-gain augmenting path algorithm by Goldfarb, Jin and Orlin. We show that this general convex programming model serves as a common framework for several market equilibrium problems, including the linear Fisher market model and its various extensions. Our result immediately enables us to extend these market models to more general settings and to solve some open problems in the literature.

  17. State of art report for critical flow model to analyze a break flow in pressurizer of integral type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yeon Moon; Lee, D. J.; Yoon, J. H.; Kim, J. P.; Kim, H. Y

    1999-03-01

    At a critical flow condition, the flow rate can't exceed a maximum value for given upstream conditions and the limited flow rate is called as a critical flow rate. The phenomena of critical flow occur at the discharge of a single phase gas or subcooled water through nozzles and pipes. Among the previous researches on critical flow, many accurate correlations on pressure, temperature and flow rate are represented for the single phase gas. However, for the two phase critical flow, the results of previous work showed that there was a large discrepancy between the analytical and experimental data and the data were in agreement for the limited thermodynamic conditions. Thus, further studies are required to enhance the two phase critical flow model. In the integral reactor, the critical flows of nitrogen gas and subcooled water are expected for the break of gas cylinder pipeline connected to the pressurizer. It requires that the inlet shape of the pipe and the nitrogen gas effect should be considered for the critical flow of integral reactor. The nitrogen gas exist in the pressurizer may affect the flow rate of primary coolant, which has been considered only for a few previous researches. Thus, the evaluation of the effect of the nitrogen on the critical flow gas should be preceded for the proper analysis of the critical flow in the integral reactor. In this report, not only the essences of previous work on critical flow were investigated and summarized but also the effect of nitrogen gas and the inlet shape of the pipe on the critical flow were also investigated. (author)

  18. State of art report for critical flow model to analyze a break flow in pressurizer of integral type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yeon Moon; Lee, D. J.; Yoon, J. H.; Kim, J. P.; Kim, H. Y

    1999-03-01

    At a critical flow condition, the flow rate can't exceed a maximum value for given upstream conditions and the limited flow rate is called as a critical flow rate. The phenomena of critical flow occur at the discharge of a single phase gas or subcooled water through nozzles and pipes. Among the previous researches on critical flow, many accurate correlations on pressure, temperature and flow rate are represented for the single phase gas. However, for the two phase critical flow, the results of previous work showed that there was a large discrepancy between the analytical and experimental data and the data were in agreement for the limited thermodynamic conditions. Thus, further studies are required to enhance the two phase critical flow model. In the integral reactor, the critical flows of nitrogen gas and subcooled water are expected for the break of gas cylinder pipeline connected to the pressurizer. It requires that the inlet shape of the pipe and the nitrogen gas effect should be considered for the critical flow of integral reactor. The nitrogen gas exist in the pressurizer may affect the flow rate of primary coolant, which has been considered only for a few previous researches. Thus, the evaluation of the effect of the nitrogen on the critical flow gas should be preceded for the proper analysis of the critical flow in the integral reactor. In this report, not only the essences of previous work on critical flow were investigated and summarized but also the effect of nitrogen gas and the inlet shape of the pipe on the critical flow were also investigated. (author)

  19. Two critical issues in Langevin simulation of gas flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jun [James Weir Fluids Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XJ, United Kingdom and State Key Laboratory of High Temperature Gas Dynamics, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Fan, Jing [State Key Laboratory of High Temperature Gas Dynamics, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-12-09

    A stochastic algorithm based on the Langevin equation has been recently proposed to simulate rarefied gas flows. Compared with the direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, the Langevin method is more efficient in simulating small Knudsen number flows. While it is well-known that the cell sizes and time steps should be smaller than the mean free path and the mean collision time, respectively, in DSMC simulations, the Langevin equation uses a drift term and a diffusion term to describe molecule movements, so no direct molecular collisions have to be modeled. This enables the Langevin simulation to proceed with a much larger time step than that in the DSMC method. Two critical issues in Langevin simulation are addressed in this paper. The first issue is how to reproduce the transport properties as that described by kinetic theory. Transport coefficients predicted by Langevin equation are obtained by using Green-Kubo formulae. The second issue is numerical scheme with boundary conditions. We present two schemes corresponding to small time step and large time step, respectively. For small time step, the scheme is similar to DSMC method as the update of positions and velocities are uncoupled; for large time step, we present an analytical solution of the hitting time, which is the crucial factor for accurate simulation. Velocity-Couette flow, thermal-Couette flow, Rayleigh-Bénard flow and wall-confined problem are simulated by using these two schemes. Our study shows that Langevin simulation is a promising tool to investigate small Knudsen number flows.

  20. 3D critical layers in fully-developed turbulent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxton-Fox, Theresa; McKeon, Beverley

    2016-11-01

    Recent work has shown that 3D critical layers drive self-sustaining behavior of exact coherent solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations (Wang et al. 2007; Hall and Sherwin 2010; Park and Graham 2015). This study investigates the role of 3D critical layers in fully-developed turbulent flows. 3D critical layer effects are identified in instantaneous snapshots of turbulent boundary layers in both experimental and DNS data (Wu et al. 2014). Additionally, a 3D critical layer effect is demonstrated to appear using only a few resolvent response modes from the resolvent analysis of McKeon and Sharma 2010, with phase relationships appropriately chosen. Connections are sought to the thin shear layers observed in turbulent boundary layers (Klewicki and Hirschi 2004; Eisma et al. 2015) and to amplitude modulation observations (Mathis et al. 2009; Duvvuri and McKeon 2014). This research is made possible by the Department of Defense through the National Defense & Engineering Graduate Fellowship (NDSEG) Program and by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research Grant # FA9550-12-1-0060. The support of the Center for Turbulence Research (CTR) summer program at Stanford is gratefully acknowledged.

  1. Critical Bottleneck Size for Jamless Particle Flows in Two Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Takumi; Nishinari, Katsuhiro; Schadschneider, Andreas

    2014-04-01

    We propose a simple microscopic model for arching phenomena at bottlenecks. The dynamics of particles in front of a bottleneck is described by a one-dimensional stochastic cellular automaton on a semicircular geometry. The model reproduces oscillation phenomena due to the formation and collapsing of arches. It predicts the existence of a critical bottleneck size for continuous particle flows. The dependence of the jamming probability on the system size is approximated by the Gompertz function. The analytical results are in good agreement with simulations.

  2. Einstein and Beyond: A Critical Perspective on General Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Gopal Vishwakarma

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available An alternative approach to Einstein’s theory of General Relativity (GR is reviewed, which is motivated by a range of serious theoretical issues inflicting the theory, such as the cosmological constant problem, presence of non-Machian solutions, problems related with the energy-stress tensor T i k and unphysical solutions. The new approach emanates from a critical analysis of these problems, providing a novel insight that the matter fields, together with the ensuing gravitational field, are already present inherently in the spacetime without taking recourse to T i k . Supported by lots of evidence, the new insight revolutionizes our views on the representation of the source of gravitation and establishes the spacetime itself as the source, which becomes crucial for understanding the unresolved issues in a unified manner. This leads to a new paradigm in GR by establishing equation R i k = 0 as the field equation of gravitation plus inertia in the very presence of matter.

  3. Einstein and Beyond: A Critical Perspective on General Relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Vishwakarma, Ram Gopal

    2016-01-01

    An alternative approach to Einstein's theory of General Relativity (GR) is reviewed, which is motivated by a range of serious theoretical issues inflicting the theory, such as the cosmological constant problem, presence of non-Machian solutions, problems related with the energy-stress tensor $T^{ik}$ and unphysical solutions. The new approach emanates from a critical analysis of these problems, providing a novel insight that the matter fields, together with the ensuing gravitational field, are already present inherently in the spacetime without taking recourse to $T^{ik}$. Supported by numerous evidences, the new insight revolutionizes our views on the representation of the source of gravitation and establishes the spacetime itself as the source, which becomes crucial for understanding the unresolved issues in a unified manner. This leads to a new paradigm in GR by establishing equation $R^{ik}=0$ as the field equation of gravitation plus inertia in the very presence of matter.

  4. Critical rotation of general-relativistic polytropic models revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geroyannis, V.; Karageorgopoulos, V.

    2013-09-01

    We develop a perturbation method for computing the critical rotational parameter as a function of the equatorial radius of a rigidly rotating polytropic model in the "post-Newtonia approximation" (PNA). We treat our models as "initial value problems" (IVP) of ordinary differential equations in the complex plane. The computations are carried out by the code dcrkf54.f95 (Geroyannis and Valvi 2012 [P1]; modified Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg code of fourth and fifth order for solving initial value problems in the complex plane). Such a complex-plane treatment removes the syndromes appearing in this particular family of IVPs (see e.g. P1, Sec. 3) and allows continuation of the numerical integrations beyond the surface of the star. Thus all the required values of the Lane-Emden function(s) in the post-Newtonian approximation are calculated by interpolation (so avoiding any extrapolation). An interesting point is that, in our computations, we take into account the complete correction due to the gravitational term, and this issue is a remarkable difference compared to the classical PNA. We solve the generalized density as a function of the equatorial radius and find the critical rotational parameter. Our computations are extended to certain other physical characteristics (like mass, angular momentum, rotational kinetic energy, etc). We find that our method yields results comparable with those of other reliable methods. REFERENCE: V.S. Geroyannis and F.N. Valvi 2012, International Journal of Modern Physics C, 23, No 5, 1250038:1-15.

  5. Anderson-Witting transport coefficients for flows in general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrus, Victor E

    2016-01-01

    The transport coefficients induced by the Anderson-Witting approximation of the collision term in the relativistic Boltzmann equation are derived for close to equilibrium flows in general relativity. Using the tetrad formalism, it is shown that the expression for these coefficients is the same as that obtained on flat space-time, in agreement with the generalized equivalence principle.

  6. Cyclic and heteroclinic flows near general static spherically symmetric black holes: semi-cyclic flows - addendum and corrigendum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azreg-Ainou, Mustapha [Baskent University, Engineering Faculty, Ankara (Turkey)

    2017-01-15

    We present new accretion solutions of a polytropic perfect fluid onto an f(R)-gravity de Sitter-like black hole. We consider two f(R)-gravity models and obtain finite-period cyclic flows oscillating between the event and cosmological horizons as well as semi-cyclic critical flows executing a two-way motion from and back to the same horizon. Besides the generalizations and new solutions presented in this work, a corrigendum to Eur. Phys. J. C (2016) 76:280 is provided. (orig.)

  7. Sensitivity study on critical flow models of SPACE for inadvertent opening of containment spray valve in Shin Kori unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seyun; Kim, Minhee [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    SPACE (Safety and Performance Analysis Code for Nuclear Power Plants) has been developed by KHNP with the cooperation with KEPCO E and C and KAERI. SPACE code is expected to be applied to the safety analysis for LOCA (Loss of Coolant Accident) and Non-LOCA scenarios. SPACE code solves two-fluid, three-field governing equations and programmed with C++ computer language using object-oriented concepts. To evaluate the analysis capability for the transient phenomena in the actual nuclear power plant, an inadvertent opening of spray valve in startup test phase of Shin Kori unit 1 was simulated with SPACE. To assess the critical flow models of SPACE, the calculation with several critical flow models were carried out. The simulations of an inadvertent opening of spray valve of Shin Kori unit 1 with several critical flow models were carried out. The calculated transient behaviors of major reactor parameters with four critical flow models generally show good agreement with the measured.

  8. Superhydrophobic drag reduction in laminar flows: a critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choongyeop; Choi, Chang-Hwan; Kim, Chang-Jin

    2016-12-01

    A gas in between micro- or nanostructures on a submerged superhydrophobic (SHPo) surface allows the liquid on the structures to flow with an effective slip. If large enough, this slippage may entail a drag reduction appreciable for many flow systems. However, the large discrepancies among the slippage levels reported in the literature have led to a widespread misunderstanding on the drag-reducing ability of SHPo surfaces. Today we know that the amount of slip, generally quantified with a slip length, is mainly determined by the structural features of SHPo surfaces, such as the pitch, solid fraction, and pattern type, and further affected by secondary factors, such as the state of the liquid-gas interface. Reviewing the experimental data of laminar flows in the literature comprehensively and comparing them with the theoretical predictions, we provide a global picture of the liquid slip on structured surfaces to assist in rational design of SHPo surfaces for drag reduction. Because the trapped gas, called plastron, vanishes along with its slippage effect in most application conditions, lastly we discuss the recent efforts to prevent its loss. This review is limited to laminar flows, for which the SHPo drag reduction is reasonably well understood.

  9. A study on the counter current and cocurrent annular flow critical heat flux under low flow conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Cheol

    1998-02-15

    Empirical and phenomenological investigations have been performed for countercurrent and cocurrent annular flow critical heat fluxes(CHFs) under low flow conditions. The CHF characteristics on finned surfaces were also examined by experiments and analyses for finned and unfinned geometries. A new form of C{sub w}{sup 2} in the Wallis flooding correlation was proposed for a general use in predicting the flooding limited CHF at tubes, annuli and rectangular channels under zero and very low flow conditions. The suggested correlation showed reasonable predictions compared to the measured CHF with an root-mean-square(RMS) error of 18.8%. A physical model for the prediction of a CHF location at a zero inlet flow condition was improved to take into account entrainment from the liquid film and to extend the applicable range to subcooled inlet flow conditions. The improved model showed reasonable agreements with the Katto data, and provided details of the CHF mechanism due to flooding. It was analytically confirmed that the flooding is a triggering mechanism of a countercurrent annular flow CHF under zero and very low flow conditions. It was also revealed that the heat flux effect such as the nucleation induced entrainment in the liquid film should be considered for the analysis of a flooding limited CHF, especially in small L/D geometry. In addition, an attempt was made to predict CHF values by applying the improved model with predetermined CHF locations. The results showed that the predictions by the improved physical model agreed reasonably with the experimental data. Annular flow hydrodynamic models of Whalley, Levy and Katto, which were developed for high flow conditions, were compared with available low flow CHF data to make out the applicability of the models to low flow conditions. As a result, it was found that Katto model, which improved the fault of Whally and Levy models, could be applied to predict low flow CHF with some improvements although the model

  10. Phenomenology of a flow around a circular cylinder at sub-critical and critical Reynolds numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capone, Alessandro; Klein, Christian; Di Felice, Fabio; Miozzi, Massimo

    2016-07-01

    In this work, the flow around a circular cylinder is investigated at Reynolds numbers ranging from 79 000 up to 238 000 by means of a combined acquisition system based on Temperature Sensitive Paint (TSP) and particle velocimetry. The proposed setup allows simultaneous and time-resolved measurement of absolute temperature and relative skin friction fields onto the cylinder surface and near-wake velocity field. Combination of time-resolved surface measurements and planar near-field velocity data allows the investigation of the profound modifications undergone by the wall shear stress topology and its connections to the near-field structure as the flow regime travels from the sub-critical to the critical regime. Laminar boundary-layer separation, transition, and re-attachment are analyzed in the light of temperature, relative skin friction maps, and Reynolds stress fields bringing about a new perspective on the relationship between boundary layer development and shear layer evolution. The fast-responding TSP employed allows high acquisition frequency and calculation of power spectral density from surface data. Correlation maps of surface and near-wake data provide insight into the relationship between boundary-layer evolution and vortex shedding. We find that as the Reynolds number approaches the critical state, the separation line oscillations feature an increasingly weaker spectrum peak compared to the near-wake velocity spectrum. In the critical regime, separation line oscillations are strongly reduced and the correlation to the local vorticity undergoes an overall decrease giving evidence of modifications in the vortex shedding mechanism.

  11. Excited TBA equations II: massless flow from tricritical to critical Ising model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearce, Paul A. E-mail: p.pearce@ms.unimelb.edu.au; Chim, Leung E-mail: leung.chim@dsto.defence.gov.au; Ahn, Changrim E-mail: ahn@dante.ewha.ac.kr

    2003-06-16

    We consider the massless tricritical Ising model M(4,5) perturbed by the thermal operator phi (cursive,open) Greek{sub 1,3} in a cylindrical geometry and apply integrable boundary conditions, labelled by the Kac labels (r,s), that are natural off-critical perturbations of known conformal boundary conditions. We derive massless thermodynamic Bethe ansatz (TBA) equations for all excitations by solving, in the continuum scaling limit, the TBA functional equation satisfied by the double-row transfer matrices of the A{sub 4} lattice model of Andrews, Baxter and Forrester (ABF) in Regime IV. The resulting TBA equations describe the massless renormalization group flow from the tricritical to critical Ising model. As in the massive case of Part I, the excitations are completely classified in terms of (m,n) systems but the string content changes by one of three mechanisms along the flow. Using generalized q-Vandermonde identities, we show that this leads to a flow from tricritical to critical Ising characters. The excited TBA equations are solved numerically to follow the continuous flows from the UV to the IR conformal fixed points.

  12. GENERALIZED VARIATIONAL OPTIMAZATION ANALYSIS FOR 2-D FLOW FIELD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Si-xun; XU Ding-hua; LAN Wei-ren; TENG Jia-jun

    2005-01-01

    The Variational Optimization Analysis Method (VOAM) for 2-D flow field suggested by Sasaki was reviewed first. It is known that the VOAM can be used efficiently in most cases. However, in the cases where there are high frequency noises in 2-D flow field, it appears to be inefficient. In the present paper, based on Sasaki's VOAM, a Generalized Variational Optimization Analysis Method (GVOAM) was proposed with regularization ideas, which could deal well with flow fields containing high frequency noises. A numerical test shows that observational data can be both variationally optimized and filtered, and therefore the GVOAM is an efficient method.

  13. High-precision thermodynamic and critical properties from tensor renormalization-group flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinczewski, Michael; Berker, A Nihat

    2008-01-01

    The recently developed tensor renormalization-group (TRG) method provides a highly precise technique for deriving thermodynamic and critical properties of lattice Hamiltonians. The TRG is a local coarse-graining transformation, with the elements of the tensor at each lattice site playing the part of the interactions that undergo the renormalization-group flows. These tensor flows are directly related to the phase diagram structure of the infinite system, with each phase flowing to a distinct surface of fixed points. Fixed-point analysis and summation along the flows give the critical exponents, as well as thermodynamic functions along the entire temperature range. Thus, for the ferromagnetic triangular lattice Ising model, the free energy is calculated to better than 10(-5) along the entire temperature range. Unlike previous position-space renormalization-group methods, the truncation (of the tensor index range D) in this general method converges under straightforward and systematic improvements. Our best results are easily obtained with D=24, corresponding to 4624-dimensional renormalization-group flows.

  14. High-Precision Thermodynamic and Critical Properties from Tensor Renormalization-Group Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinczewski, Michael; Berker, A. Nihat

    2008-03-01

    The recently developed tensor renormalization-group (TRG) method [1] provides a highly precise technique for deriving thermodynamic and critical properties of lattice Hamiltonians. The TRG is a local coarse-graining transformation, with the elements of the tensor at each lattice site playing the part of the interactions that undergo the renormalization-group flows. These tensor flows are directly related [2] to the phase diagram structure of the infinite system, with each phase flowing to a distinct surface of fixed points. Fixed-point analysis and summation along the flows give the critical exponents, as well as thermodynamic functions along the entire temperature range. Thus, for the ferromagnetic triangular lattice Ising model, the free energy is calculated to better than 10-5 along the entire temperature range. Unlike previous position-space renormalization-group methods, the truncation (of the tensor index range D) in this general method converges under straightforward and systematic improvements. Our best results are easily obtained with D=24, corresponding to 4624-dimensional renormalization-group flows. [1] M. Levin and C.P. Nave, Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 120601 (2007). [2] M. Hinczewski and A.N. Berker, arXiv:0709.2803v1 [cond-mat.stat-mech], Phys. Rev. E, in press.

  15. General Separations Area (GSA) Groundwater Flow Model Update: Hydrostratigraphic Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagwell, L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Bennett, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Flach, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-02-21

    This document describes the assembly, selection, and interpretation of hydrostratigraphic data for input to an updated groundwater flow model for the General Separations Area (GSA; Figure 1) at the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). This report is one of several discrete but interrelated tasks that support development of an updated groundwater model (Bagwell and Flach, 2016).

  16. FLUENT/BFC - A general purpose fluid flow modeling program for all flow speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvinsky, Arkady S.

    FLUENT/BFC is a fluid flow modeling program for a variety of applications. Current capabilities of the program include laminar and turbulent flows, subsonic and supersonic viscous flows, incompressible flows, time-dependent and stationary flows, isothermal flows and flows with heat transfer, Newtonian and power-law fluids. The modeling equations in the program have been written in coordinate system invariant form to accommodate the use of boundary-conforming, generally nonorthogonal coordinate systems. The boundary-conforming coordinate system can be generated using both an internal grid generator, which is an integral part of the code, and external application-specific grid generators. The internal grid generator is based on a solution of a system of elliptic partial differential equations and can produce grids for a wide variety of two- and three-dimensional geometries.

  17. Generalized dynamic scaling for quantum critical relaxation in imaginary time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuyi; Yin, Shuai; Zhong, Fan

    2014-10-01

    We study the imaginary-time relaxation critical dynamics of a quantum system with a vanishing initial correlation length and an arbitrary initial order parameter M0. We find that in quantum critical dynamics, the behavior of M0 under scale transformations deviates from a simple power law, which was proposed for very small M0 previously. A universal characteristic function is then suggested to describe the rescaled initial magnetization, similar to classical critical dynamics. This characteristic function is shown to be able to describe the quantum critical dynamics in both short- and long-time stages of the evolution. The one-dimensional transverse-field Ising model is employed to numerically determine the specific form of the characteristic function. We demonstrate that it is applicable as long as the system is in the vicinity of the quantum critical point. The universality of the characteristic function is confirmed by numerical simulations of models belonging to the same universality class.

  18. Effect of the hydrodynamic conditions of electrolyte flow on critical states in electrochemical machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, Jerzy; Paczkowski, Tomasz

    2015-05-01

    The paper presents the results of experimental studies of electrochemical machining process oriented on occurring in the treatment critical states caused by electrolyte flow hydrodynamic conditions in the gap between electrodes. Material forming in electrochemical machining is carried out by anodic dissolution. In general in ECM process, the essence of the treatment is that the workpiece is the anode and the tool is the cathode. The space between the anode and cathode is filled by electrolyte. The current flow between the electrodes causes anodic dissolution process, resulting in the removal of material from the anode. Choosing in the process of electrochemical machining, respectively: anode and cathode material, electrolyte and processing parameters, such conditions can be created that enable a high process efficiency and smoothness of the surface. Inappropriate selection of machining parameters can cause the emergence of critical states in the ECM, which are mainly related to the flow of the electrolyte in the gap between electrodes. This work is an attempt to assess the occurring critical states in ECM on the example of machining of curved surfaces with any sort of outline and curved rotating surfaces.

  19. "Quiet flows the Don" by M.A. Sholokhov: evolution of interpretation by Chinese critics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsytsenko Irina Ivanovna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article attempts to analyze and give a general idea about the main approaches to the study of “Quiet Flows the Don” in China from 1949 to the 2000s, which is essential for the reconstruction and the description of the international reception of Mikhail Sholokhov’s creativity in general, and also allows to see the dynamics of the perception process of the individual specific cultural dialogue between Russia and China in the XX century, due to the political, historical, aesthetic and linguistic factors. The development of “Quiet Flows the Don” in Chinese literary criticism has two main stages: 1949-1985s (one-sided interpretation of “Quiet Flows the Don” in the context of political culture and the 1985-2000s (a scientific approach in the context of a non-political culture. Each of these stages considers separate periods marking the specifics of the study related to the specific feature of China’s historical and cultural situation, analyzes the most interesting point of view of Chinese researchers. Great attention is given to the issues that were discussed in the Chinese literary criticism and topical issues that reflect the experience of revolution and civil war, the question about the main character of the epic novel and the origins of the tragedy and artistic skill of Sholokhov. Key words: reception, art world, paradigm of socio-cultural factors, ideological and artistic humanism, concept of the character.

  20. Dynamics of generalized Gaussian polymeric structures in random layered flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katyal, Divya; Kant, Rama

    2015-04-01

    We develop a formalism for the dynamics of a flexible branched polymer with arbitrary topology in the presence of random flows. This is achieved by employing the generalized Gaussian structure (GGS) approach and the Matheron-de Marsily model for the random layered flow. The expression for the average square displacement (ASD) of the center of mass of the GGS is obtained in such flow. The averaging is done over both the thermal noise and the external random flow. Although the formalism is valid for branched polymers with various complex topologies, we mainly focus here on the dynamics of the flexible star and dendrimer. We analyze the effect of the topology (the number and length of branches for stars and the number of generations for dendrimers) on the dynamics under the influence of external flow, which is characterized by their root-mean-square velocity, persistence flow length, and flow exponent α . Our analysis shows two anomalous power-law regimes, viz., subdiffusive (intermediate-time polymer stretching and flow-induced diffusion) and superdiffusive (long-time flow-induced diffusion). The influence of the topology of the GGS is unraveled in the intermediate-time regime, while the long-time regime is only weakly dependent on the topology of the polymer. With the decrease in the value of α , the magnitude of the ASD decreases, while the temporal exponent of the ASD increases in both the time regimes. Also there is an increase in both the magnitude of the ASD and the crossover time (from the subdiffusive to the superdiffusive regime) with an increase in the total mass of the polymeric structure.

  1. General surgery in crisis – the critical shortage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper we report on the critical shortage of medical practitioners ... surgeons of south africa (assa) undertook this study to determine ..... being of potential benefit. However ... working overseas in English-speaking 'First-World' countries.

  2. Generalized primary/secondary flow analysis of viscous flow around bodies at incidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindan, T. R.; Briley, W. R.; Chang, Ming-Shun

    1991-01-01

    Generalized primary/secondary flow equations, which are an approximation to the Navier-Stokes equations, have been utilized to compute the three-dimensional viscous flow around bodies at incidence. Two features central to the approximations in the primary/secondary flow equations are a locally specified primary flow direction and a decomposition of the secondary velocity field. For the flow around a body at incidence, the local primary flow direction is aligned with streamlines for the potential flow around the body at zero degrees incidence. A sequentially decoupled implicit algorithm exploits the form of the primary/secondary flow equations for fast run times. Computed solutions for flow around an ogive cylinder at incidence and an unappended submarine hull in drift have been presented. These solutions show the generation of strong lee-side vortices which are a source of propulsor inlet distortion and a side-force on the body. Computed solutions agree well with available experimental data. The combined efficiency and accuracy of the approximate equations and solution algorithm make this approach attractive for computing viscous flow around bodies at incidence.

  3. Thinking & Living Skills: General Semantics for Critical Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawin, Gregory, Ed.

    The 37 essays in this collection describe the usefulness of general semantics in different daily situations. After an introduction by Alvin Toffler, "The Relevance of General Semantics," essays in the collection include: "Time-Binding To Build a Fire" (James D. French); "To Be a Poet a Thousand Years Hence" (James Elroy Flecker); "In Pursuit of…

  4. Flow regimes and mechanistic modeling of critical heat flux under subcooled flow boiling conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Corre, Jean-Marie

    Thermal performance of heat flux controlled boiling heat exchangers are usually limited by the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) above which the heat transfer degrades quickly, possibly leading to heater overheating and destruction. In an effort to better understand the phenomena, a literature review of CHF experimental visualizations under subcooled flow boiling conditions was performed and systematically analyzed. Three major types of CHF flow regimes were identified (bubbly, vapor clot and slug flow regime) and a CHF flow regime map was developed, based on a dimensional analysis of the phenomena and available data. It was found that for similar geometric characteristics and pressure, a Weber number (We)/thermodynamic quality (x) map can be used to predict the CHF flow regime. Based on the experimental observations and the review of the available CHF mechanistic models under subcooled flow boiling conditions, hypothetical CHF mechanisms were selected for each CHF flow regime, all based on a concept of wall dry spot overheating, rewetting prevention and subsequent dry spot spreading. It is postulated that a high local wall superheat occurs locally in a dry area of the heated wall, due to a cyclical event inherent to the considered CHF two-phase flow regime, preventing rewetting (Leidenfrost effect). The selected modeling concept has the potential to span the CHF conditions from highly subcooled bubbly flow to early stage of annular flow. A numerical model using a two-dimensional transient thermal analysis of the heater undergoing nucleation was developed to mechanistically predict CHF in the case of a bubbly flow regime. In this type of CHF two-phase flow regime, the high local wall superheat occurs underneath a nucleating bubble at the time of bubble departure. The model simulates the spatial and temporal heater temperature variations during nucleation at the wall, accounting for the stochastic nature of the boiling phenomena. The model has also the potential to evaluate

  5. Recycling Potentials of Critical Metals-Analyzing Secondary Flows from Selected Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Zimmermann

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Metal mobilization in general, as well as the number of metals used in products to increase performance and provide sometimes unique functionalities, has increased steadily in the past decades. Materials, such as indium, gallium, platinum group metals (PGM, and rare earths (RE, are used ever more frequently in high-tech applications and their criticality as a function of economic importance and supply risks has been highlighted in various studies. Nevertheless, recycling rates are often below one percent. Against this background, secondary flows of critical metals from three different end-of-life products up to 2020 are modeled and losses along the products’ end-of-life (EOL chain are identified. Two established applications of PGM and RE–industrial catalysts and thermal barrier coatings–and CIGS photovoltaic cells as a relatively new product have been analyzed. In addition to a quantification of future EOL flows, the analysis showed that a relatively well working recycling system exists for PGM-bearing catalysts, while a complete loss of critical metals occurs for the other applications. The reasons include a lack of economic incentives, technologically caused material dissipation and other technological challenges.

  6. A general mixture model for sediment laden flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Lixin; Yu, Xiping; Bombardelli, Fabián

    2017-09-01

    A mixture model for general description of sediment-laden flows is developed based on an Eulerian-Eulerian two-phase flow theory, with the aim at gaining computational speed in the prediction, but preserving the accuracy of the complete two-fluid model. The basic equations of the model include the mass and momentum conservation equations for the sediment-water mixture, and the mass conservation equation for sediment. However, a newly-obtained expression for the slip velocity between phases allows for the computation of the sediment motion, without the need of solving the momentum equation for sediment. The turbulent motion is represented for both the fluid and the particulate phases. A modified k-ε model is used to describe the fluid turbulence while an algebraic model is adopted for turbulent motion of particles. A two-dimensional finite difference method based on the SMAC scheme was used to numerically solve the mathematical model. The model is validated through simulations of fluid and suspended sediment motion in steady open-channel flows, both in equilibrium and non-equilibrium states, as well as in oscillatory flows. The computed sediment concentrations, horizontal velocity and turbulent kinetic energy of the mixture are all shown to be in good agreement with available experimental data, and importantly, this is done at a fraction of the computational efforts required by the complete two-fluid model.

  7. Maximum estimates for generalized Forchheimer flows in heterogeneous porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Emine; Hoang, Luan

    2017-02-01

    This article continues the study in [4] of generalized Forchheimer flows in heterogeneous porous media. Such flows are used to account for deviations from Darcy's law. In heterogeneous media, the derived nonlinear partial differential equation for the pressure can be singular and degenerate in the spatial variables, in addition to being degenerate for large pressure gradient. Here we obtain the estimates for the L∞-norms of the pressure and its time derivative in terms of the initial and the time-dependent boundary data. They are established by implementing De Giorgi-Moser's iteration in the context of weighted norms with the weights specifically defined by the Forchheimer equation's coefficient functions. With these weights, we prove suitable weighted parabolic Poincaré-Sobolev inequalities and use them to facilitate the iteration. Moreover, local in time L∞-bounds are combined with uniform Gronwall-type energy inequalities to obtain long-time L∞-estimates.

  8. Thermal power system analysis using a generalized network flow model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, John Arun [Former Senior Design Engineer, Power System Analysis and Control Group, Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, New Delhi (India); Chebiyam, Radhakrishna [Former Director, Academic Staff College, JNT University, Hyderabad-72 (India)

    2012-07-01

    This paper analyzes an Integrated Thermal Power System using a Multiperiod Generalized Network Flow Model. The thermal system analysis is carried out by taking into account the complex dynamics involved in utilizing multiple energy carriers (coal, diesel and natural gas). The model comprises energy source nodes, energy transformation nodes, energy storage nodes, energy demand nodes and their interconnections. The solution to the integrated energy system problem involves the evaluation of energy flows that meet the electricity demand at minimum total cost, while satisfying system constraints. This is illustrated through the India case study using a minimum time-step of one hour. MATLAB based software was developed for carrying out this study. TOMLAB/CPLEX software was utilized for obtaining the optimal solution. The model and the methodology utilized for conducting the study would be of interest to those involved in integrated energy system planning for a country or a region.

  9. General spectral flow formula for fixed maximal domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booss-Bavnbek, Bernhelm; Zhu, Chaofeng

    2005-01-01

    We consider a continuous curve of linear elliptic formally self-adjoint differential operators of first order with smooth coefficients over a compact Riemannian manifold with boundary together with a continuous curve of global elliptic boundary value problems. We express the spectral flow...... of the resulting continuous family of (unbounded) self-adjoint Fredholm operators in terms of the Maslov index of two related curves of Lagrangian spaces. One curve is given by the varying domains, the other by the Cauchy data spaces. We provide rigorous definitions of the underlying concepts of spectral theory...... and symplectic analysis and give a full (and surprisingly short) proof of our General Spectral Flow Formula for the case of fixed maximal domain. As a side result, we establish local stability of weak inner unique continuation property (UCP) and explain its role for parameter dependent spectral theory....

  10. Calculation of turbulent reactive flows in general orthogonal coordinates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, M. K. Y.

    1992-02-01

    The mathematical and numerical methodology for an extended and enhanced version of the TURCOM computer code, called TURCOM-BFC, is presented. This code solves the conservation equations of multi-component chemically reactive and turbulent flows in general curvilinear orthogonal coordinates. The k-epsilon turbulence submodel is used. Flame chemistry assumes a number of species and chemical reactions. The latter are subdivided into finite-rate reaction steps and a one-step irreversible reaction, whose rate is controlled by a combination of mixing and global kinetics. Both the SIMPLE and PISO algorithms are implemented to solve the system of equations. The capability of TURCOM-BFC is tested and demonstrated by predicting 3-dimensional combustion flow inside a reaction furnace, where both polar-cylindrical and bipolar coordinates are used.

  11. Convective heat flow in space cryogenics plugs - Critical and moderate He II heat flux densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, S. W. K.; Frederking, T. H. K.

    1990-01-01

    Plug flow rates of entropy, heat and normal fluid in phase separators and in zero net mass flow systems are, to some extent, quite similar. A simplified analysis of critical conditions is presented in agreement with data trends. A critical temperature gradient arises on the basis of the He II two-fluid model at the stability limit constraining the thermohydrodynamics of the system. Thus, the question of critical thermodynamic fluctuations associated with nucleation versus the possibility of critical gradients in externally imposed parameters is answered in favor of the latter route toward turbulence. Furthermore, a similarity equation is presented which incorporates size dependent rates for moderate heat flow densities observed in experiments.

  12. Generalized transport coefficients for inelastic Maxwell mixtures under shear flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzó, Vicente; Trizac, Emmanuel

    2015-11-01

    The Boltzmann equation framework for inelastic Maxwell models is considered to determine the transport coefficients associated with the mass, momentum, and heat fluxes of a granular binary mixture in spatially inhomogeneous states close to the simple shear flow. The Boltzmann equation is solved by means of a Chapman-Enskog-type expansion around the (local) shear flow distributions fr(0 ) for each species that retain all the hydrodynamic orders in the shear rate. Due to the anisotropy induced by the shear flow, tensorial quantities are required to describe the transport processes instead of the conventional scalar coefficients. These tensors are given in terms of the solutions of a set of coupled equations, which can be analytically solved as functions of the shear rate a , the coefficients of restitution αr s, and the parameters of the mixture (masses, diameters, and composition). Since the reference distribution functions fr(0 ) apply for arbitrary values of the shear rate and are not restricted to weak dissipation, the corresponding generalized coefficients turn out to be nonlinear functions of both a and αr s. The dependence of the relevant elements of the three diffusion tensors on both the shear rate and dissipation is illustrated in the tracer limit case, the results showing that the deviation of the generalized transport coefficients from their forms for vanishing shear rates is in general significant. A comparison with the previous results obtained analytically for inelastic hard spheres by using Grad's moment method is carried out, showing a good agreement over a wide range of values for the coefficients of restitution. Finally, as an application of the theoretical expressions derived here for the transport coefficients, thermal diffusion segregation of an intruder immersed in a granular gas is also studied.

  13. [Robotics in general surgery: personal experience, critical analysis and prospectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fracastoro, Gerolamo; Borzellino, Giuseppe; Castelli, Annalisa; Fiorini, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    Today mini invasive surgery has the chance to be enhanced with sophisticated informative systems (Computer Assisted Surgery, CAS) like robotics, tele-mentoring and tele-presence. ZEUS and da Vinci, present in more than 120 Centres in the world, have been used in many fields of surgery and have been tested in some general surgical procedures. Since the end of 2003, we have performed 70 experimental procedures and 24 operations of general surgery with ZEUS robotic system, after having properly trained 3 surgeons and the operating room staff. Apart from the robot set-up, the mean operative time of the robotic operations was similar to the laparoscopic ones; no complications due to robotic technique occurred. The Authors report benefits and disadvantages related to robots' utilization, problems still to be solved and the possibility to make use of them with tele-surgery, training and virtual surgery.

  14. Generalized Wilson-Fisher critical points from the conformal OPE

    CERN Document Server

    Gliozzi, Ferdinando; Petkou, Anastasios C; Wen, Congkao

    2016-01-01

    We study possible smooth deformations of Generalized Free Conformal Field Theories in arbitrary dimensions by exploiting the singularity structure of the conformal blocks dictated by the null states. We derive in this way, at the first non trivial order in the $\\epsilon$-expansion, the anomalous dimensions of an infinite class of scalar local operators, without using the equations of motion. In the cases where other computational methods apply, the results agree.

  15. Epi-two-dimensional flow and generalized enstrophy

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, Zensho

    2016-01-01

    The conservation of the enstrophy ($L^2$ norm of the vorticity $\\omega$) plays an essential role in the physics and mathematics of two-dimensional (2D) Euler fluids. Generalizing to compressible ideal (inviscid and barotropic) fluids, the generalized enstrophy $\\int_{\\Sigma(t)} f(\\omega/\\rho)\\rho\\, d^2 x$, ($f$ an arbitrary smooth function, $\\rho$ the density, and $\\Sigma(t)$ an arbitrary 2D domain co-moving with the fluid) is a constant of motion, and plays the same role. On the other hand, for the three-dimensional (3D) ideal fluid, the helicity $\\int_{M} {V}\\cdot\\omega\\,d^3x$, ($V$ the flow velocity, $\\omega=\

  16. Transfer matrix computation of generalized critical polynomials in percolation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scullard, Christian R.; Lykke Jacobsen, Jesper

    2012-12-01

    Percolation thresholds have recently been studied by means of a graph polynomial PB(p), henceforth referred to as the critical polynomial, that may be defined on any periodic lattice. The polynomial depends on a finite subgraph B, called the basis, and the way in which the basis is tiled to form the lattice. The unique root of PB(p) in [0, 1] either gives the exact percolation threshold for the lattice, or provides an approximation that becomes more accurate with appropriately increasing size of B. Initially PB(p) was defined by a contraction-deletion identity, similar to that satisfied by the Tutte polynomial. Here, we give an alternative probabilistic definition of PB(p), which allows for much more efficient computations, by using the transfer matrix, than was previously possible with contraction-deletion. We present bond percolation polynomials for the (4, 82), kagome, and (3, 122) lattices for bases of up to respectively 96, 162 and 243 edges, much larger than the previous limit of 36 edges using contraction-deletion. We discuss in detail the role of the symmetries and the embedding of B. For the largest bases, we obtain the thresholds pc(4, 82) = 0.676 803 329…, pc(kagome) = 0.524 404 998…, pc(3, 122) = 0.740 420 798…, comparable to the best simulation results. We also show that the alternative definition of PB(p) can be applied to study site percolation problems. This article is part of ‘Lattice models and integrability’, a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical in honour of F Y Wu's 80th birthday.

  17. Understanding critical levels of sheared flow on microinstabilities

    CERN Document Server

    Newton, Sarah L; Loureiro, Nuno F

    2010-01-01

    The competition between the drive and stabilization of plasma microinstabilities by sheared flow is investigated, focusing on the ion temperature gradient mode. Using a twisting mode representation in sheared slab geometry, the characteristic equations have been formulated for a dissipative fluid model, developed rigorously from the gyrokinetic equation. They clearly show that perpendicular flow shear convects perturbations along the field at a speed we denote by $Mc_s$ (where $c_s$ is the sound speed), whilst parallel flow shear enters as an instability driving term analogous to the usual temperature and density gradient effects. For sufficiently strong perpendicular flow shear, $M >1$, the propagation of the system characteristics is unidirectional and no unstable eigenmodes may form. Perturbations are swept along the field, to be ultimately dissipated as they are sheared ever more strongly. Numerical studies of the equations also reveal the existence of stable regions when $M < 1$, where the driving ter...

  18. Analogy Between Hydraulic Jump in Films Formed by Impinging Liquid Jet and Critical Flow in Internal Flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaroslaw Mikielewicz

    2003-01-01

    Formulated are simple models for the flow in liquid film, formed by impinging jet, and a two-phase downward flow in pipe. The models are based on simplified equations of mass, momentum and energy. The solutions of such conservation equations may have regular points belonging to one integral curve only as well as turning points can be found amongst them, which refer to extreme values in the appropriate co-ordinate system. The solutions can also have singular points belonging to none or more than one integral curve. Both the turning and singular points have a clear physical meaning. They could be linked to critical flow conditions in the pipe flow or to the so-called hydraulic jump. Analogy existing between critical conditions in the pipe and the flow of liquid films formed by the liquid jet have been shown in the paper.

  19. A Critical Survey of Optimization Models for Tactical and Strategic Aspects of Air Traffic Flow Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsimas, Dimitris; Odoni, Amedeo

    1997-01-01

    This document presents a critical review of the principal existing optimization models that have been applied to Air Traffic Flow Management (TFM). Emphasis will be placed on two problems, the Generalized Tactical Flow Management Problem (GTFMP) and the Ground Holding Problem (GHP), as well as on some of their variations. To perform this task, we have carried out an extensive literature review that has covered more than 40 references, most of them very recent. Based on the review of this emerging field our objectives were to: (i) identify the best available models; (ii) describe typical contexts for applications of the models; (iii) provide illustrative model formulations; and (iv) identify the methodologies that can be used to solve the models. We shall begin our presentation below by providing a brief context for the models that we are reviewing. In Section 3 we shall offer a taxonomy and identify four classes of models for review. In Sections 4, 5, and 6 we shall then review, respectively, models for the Single-Airport Ground Holding Problem, the Generalized Tactical FM P and the Multi-Airport Ground Holding Problem (for the definition of these problems see Section 3 below). In each section, we identify the best available models and discuss briefly their computational performance and applications, if any, to date. Section 7 summarizes our conclusions about the state of the art.

  20. A Generalized Minimum Cost Flow Model for Multiple Emergency Flow Routing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxun Cui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During real-life disasters, that is, earthquakes, floods, terrorist attacks, and other unexpected events, emergency evacuation and rescue are two primary operations that can save the lives and property of the affected population. It is unavoidable that evacuation flow and rescue flow will conflict with each other on the same spatial road network and within the same time window. Therefore, we propose a novel generalized minimum cost flow model to optimize the distribution pattern of these two types of flow on the same network by introducing the conflict cost. The travel time on each link is assumed to be subject to a bureau of public road (BPR function rather than a fixed cost. Additionally, we integrate contraflow operations into this model to redesign the network shared by those two types of flow. A nonconvex mixed-integer nonlinear programming model with bilinear, fractional, and power components is constructed, and GAMS/BARON is used to solve this programming model. A case study is conducted in the downtown area of Harbin city in China to verify the efficiency of proposed model, and several helpful findings and managerial insights are also presented.

  1. Logically rectangular mixed methods for Darcy flow on general geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbogast, T.; Keenan, P.T.; Wheeler, M.F.; Yotov, I. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The authors consider an expanded mixed finite element formulation (cell centered finite difference) for Darcy flow with a tensor absolute permeability. The reservoir can be geometrically general with internal features, but the computational domain is rectangular. The method is defined on a curvilinear grid that need not be orthogonal, obtained by mapping the rectangular, computational grid. The original flow problem becomes a similar problem with a modified permeability on the computational grid. Quadrature rules turn the mixed method into a cell-centered finite difference method with a 9 point stencil in 2-D and 19 in 3-D. As shown by theory and experiment, if the modified permeability on the computational domain is smooth, then the convergence rate is optimal and both pressure and velocity are superconvergent at certain points. If not, Lagrange multiplier pressures can be introduced on boundaries of elements so that optimal convergence is retained. This modification presents only small changes in the solution process; in fact, the same parallel domain decomposition algorithms can be applied with little or no change to the code if the modified permeability is smooth over the subdomains. This Lagrange multiplier procedure can be used to extend the difference scheme to multi-block domains, and to give a coupling with unstructured grids. In all cases, the mixed formulation is locally conservative. Computational results illustrate the advantage and convergence of this method.

  2. Miniaturizing free-flow electrophoresis - A critical review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohlheyer, D.; Eijkel, J.C.T.; Berg, van den A.; Schasfoort, R.B.M.

    2008-01-01

    Free-flow electrophoresis (FFE) separation methods have been developed and investigated for around 50 years and have been applied not only to many types of analytes for various biomedical applications, but also for the separation of inorganic and organic substances. Its continuous sample preparation

  3. A Review of Critical Conditions for the Onset of Nonlinear Fluid Flow in Rock Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyuan Yu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Selecting appropriate governing equations for fluid flow in fractured rock masses is of special importance for estimating the permeability of rock fracture networks. When the flow velocity is small, the flow is in the linear regime and obeys the cubic law, whereas when the flow velocity is large, the flow is in the nonlinear regime and should be simulated by solving the complex Navier-Stokes equations. The critical conditions such as critical Reynolds number and critical hydraulic gradient are commonly defined in the previous works to quantify the onset of nonlinear fluid flow. This study reviews the simplifications of governing equations from the Navier-Stokes equations, Stokes equation, and Reynold equation to the cubic law and reviews the evolutions of critical Reynolds number and critical hydraulic gradient for fluid flow in rock fractures and fracture networks, considering the influences of shear displacement, normal stress and/or confining pressure, fracture surface roughness, aperture, and number of intersections. This review provides a reference for the engineers and hydrogeologists especially the beginners to thoroughly understand the nonlinear flow regimes/mechanisms within complex fractured rock masses.

  4. Recent developments in organic redox flow batteries: A critical review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, P.; Shah, A. A.; Sanz, L.; Flox, C.; Morante, J. R.; Xu, Q.; Mohamed, M. R.; Ponce de León, C.; Walsh, F. C.

    2017-08-01

    Redox flow batteries (RFBs) have emerged as prime candidates for energy storage on the medium and large scales, particularly at the grid scale. The demand for versatile energy storage continues to increase as more electrical energy is generated from intermittent renewable sources. A major barrier in the way of broad deployment and deep market penetration is the use of expensive metals as the active species in the electrolytes. The use of organic redox couples in aqueous or non-aqueous electrolytes is a promising approach to reducing the overall cost in long-term, since these materials can be low-cost and abundant. The performance of such redox couples can be tuned by modifying their chemical structure. In recent years, significant developments in organic redox flow batteries has taken place, with the introduction of new groups of highly soluble organic molecules, capable of providing a cell voltage and charge capacity comparable to conventional metal-based systems. This review summarises the fundamental developments and characterization of organic redox flow batteries from both the chemistry and materials perspectives. The latest advances, future challenges and opportunities for further development are discussed.

  5. Critical Thinking Skills among Elementary School Students: Comparing Identified Gifted and General Education Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettler, Todd

    2014-01-01

    Education reform efforts, including the current adoption of Common Core State Standards, have increased attention to teaching critical thinking skills to all students. This study investigated the critical thinking skills of fourth-grade students from a school district in Texas, including 45 identified gifted students and 163 general education…

  6. Effects of Active Learning on Enhancing Student Critical Thinking in an Undergraduate General Science Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoungna; Sharma, Priya; Land, Susan M.; Furlong, Kevin P.

    2013-01-01

    To enhance students' critical thinking in an undergraduate general science course, we designed and implemented active learning modules by incorporating group-based learning with authentic tasks, scaffolding, and individual reports. This study examined the levels of critical thinking students exhibited in individual reports and the students'…

  7. Critical Thinking Skills among Elementary School Students: Comparing Identified Gifted and General Education Student Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettler, Todd

    2014-01-01

    Education reform efforts, including the current adoption of Common Core State Standards, have increased attention to teaching critical thinking skills to all students. This study investigated the critical thinking skills of fourth-grade students from a school district in Texas, including 45 identified gifted students and 163 general education…

  8. On the characteristics of the equations of motion for a bubbly flow and the related problem of critical flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prosperetti, A.; Wijngaarden, van L.

    1976-01-01

    For the study of transients in gas-liquid flows, the equations of the so-called separated flow model are inadequate, because they possess, in the general case where gas and liquid move at different velocities, complex characteristics. This paper is concerned with the equations of motion for bubbly f

  9. An investigation of flow characteristics and critical heat flux in vertical upward round tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Prediction of critical heat flux (CHF) in annular flow is important for the safety of once- through steam generator and the reactor core under accident conditions. The dryout in annular flow occurs at the point where the film is depleted due to entrainment, deposition, and evaporation. The film thickness, film mass flow rate along axial distribution, and CHF are calculated in vertical upward round tube on the basis of a separated flow model of annular flow. The theoretical CHF values are higher than those derived from experimental data, with error being within 30%.

  10. A Comparison of Critical Regimes in Collapsible Tube, Pipe, Open Channel and Gas-Dynamic Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, C. P.

    2003-11-01

    Though of considerable interest to clinical scientists, collapsible tubes are only recently receiving due interest by fluid physicists. The subject of critical phenomena in collapsible tube flow appears not to have been examined critically. For example, it has been proposed in the past that shock waves in physiological tubes are abnormal. We propose a classification of flow through collapsible tubes recognising that compressibility in gas-dynamic and pipe flow (cf.waterhammer) corresponds to distensibility in collapsible tube flow. Thus, opening and closing waves of collapsible tube flow (predistension regime) is subcritical flow and the post-distension regime, supercritical. Physiological tubes are often hyperelastic and contractile and often, when distension is very significant, a hypercritical regime corresponding to hypersonic gas-dynamic flow is admissible. Such a hypercritical regime would allow storage of energy and muscle contraction in the wall of the tube and hence continuance of propulsion in the essentially intermittent flow that is seen in collapsible tubes. Such a mechanism appears to be in operation in the human aorta, bowel and urethra. The present work offers a comparison of critical regimes in various fluid flow situations including collapsible tubes, that is in harmony with known phenomena seen in nature.

  11. Activation Energy for Superplastic Flow Above Critical Temperature of Die Steels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Jiu-ba; ZHANG Ke-ke; CHEN Fu-xiao; YANG Yong-shun

    2006-01-01

    Some commercial cold working die steels GCr15 and CrWMn with ultra-fine grain size were chosen as tested materials to research the activation energy for superplastic flow at different temperatures and strain rates above critical temperature. Based on the Arrhenius equation, the activation energy for superplastic flow is evaluated. The activation energy at constant strain rate is estimated by the logσt vs 1/T relationship. The results show that the activation energy is usually small under the conditions of optimal flow. The characteristics of superplastic deformation of steels above the critical temperature were also analyzed.

  12. Critical flow phenomena and modeling in advanced nuclear safety technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yuzhou [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China)

    2016-05-15

    The discharge could be non-choking or choking, depending on the break shape, length and conditions. This presents a challenge in the calculation of standard problems. A stable experiment of water was performed to study the break flow rate in nozzles of diameter of 1.41 and 2.0 mm with rounded-edge and sharp-edge. The pressure covered the ranges of 0.5 to 29.5 MPa, inlet quality 0 to 1.0 and subcooling up to 350 C. The results exhibited a close relation of thermal non-equilibrium with pressure. For supercritical pressure a modified equilibrium model in combination with the Bernoulli equation is presented.

  13. Identification of critical zones in the flow through prosthetic heart valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, A.; Ledesma, R.; Zenit, R.; Pulos, G.

    2008-11-01

    The hemodynamic properties of prosthetic heart valves can cause blood damage and platelet activation due to the non- physiological flow patterns. Blood recirculation and elevated shear stresses are believed to be responsible for these complications. The objective of this study is to identify and quantify the conditions for which recirculation and high stress zones appear. We have performed a comparative study between a mechanical monoleaflet and biological valve. In order to generate the flow conditions to test the prosthesis, we have built a hydraulic circuit which reproduces the human systemic circulation, on the basis of the Windkessel model. This model is based on an electrical analogy which consists of an arterial resistance and compliance. Using PIV 3D- Stereo measurements, taken downstream from the prosthetic heart valves, we have reconstructed the full phase-averaged tridimensional velocity field. Preliminary results show that critical zones are more prominent in mechanical prosthesis, indicating that valves made with bio-materials are less likely to produce blood trauma. This is in accordance with what is generally found in the literature.

  14. Discounted cash flow valuation methods: Examples of perpetuities, constant growth and general case

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Pablo

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the discounted cash flow valuation methods. We start the paper with the simplest case: no-growth, perpetual-life companies. Then we will study the continuous growth case and, finally, the general case. The different concepts of cash flow used in company valuation are defined: equity cash flow (ECF), free cash flow (FCF), and capital cash flow (CCF). Then the appropriate discount rate is determined for each cash flow, depending on the valuation method used. Our starting poi...

  15. Discounted cash flow valuation methods: Examples of perpetuities, constant growth and general case

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, Pablo

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the discounted cash flow valuation methods. We start the paper with the simplest case: no-growth, perpetual-life companies. Then we will study the continuous growth case and, finally, the general case. The different concepts of cash flow used in company valuation are defined: equity cash flow (ECF), free cash flow (FCF), and capital cash flow (CCF). Then the appropriate discount rate is determined for each cash flow, depending on the valuation method used. Our starting poi...

  16. Flow instability and critical heat flux for downward flow in a vertical narrow rectangular channel heated from both-sides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Juhyung; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Daeseong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    Subcooled flow boiling in a vertical rectangular channel was experimentally investigated to enhance the understanding of the CHF and the effect of the two-phase flow instability on it under low pressure conditions, especially for downward flow which was adopted for Jordan Research and Training Reactor (JRTR) and Kijang research reactor (KJRR) to achieve easier fuel and irradiation rig loading. In addition, visual observations of subcoold flow boiling was conducted by using high-speed video (HSV) for a clear understanding of both phenomena. We concluded that flow excursion (which is static instability) could be induced due to the OPDF (which is dynamic instability) when a system has no resistibility to the pressure drop perturbation, which is caused by the coalescence of facing bubbles on opposing heated surfaces. In more stable system with throttling applied, flow rate could be maintained and stable CHF could be reached. The static flow instability (FI) and critical heat flux (CHF) for subcooled flow boiling in a vertical narrow channels under low pressure condition are fairly crucial phenomena relative to thermal-hydraulic design and safety analysis for pool-type research reactors. It has been recommended that RRs and MTRs be designed to have sufficient margins for CHF and the onset of FI as well, since unstable flow could leads to premature CHF under very low wall heat flux in comparison to stable CHF. Even the fact and previous studies, however, the understanding of relationship among FI, premature CHF and stable CHF is not sufficient to date.

  17. Critical Regimes of Two-Phase Flows with a Polydisperse Solid Phase

    CERN Document Server

    Barsky, Eugene

    2010-01-01

    This book brings to light peculiarities of the formation of critical regimes of two-phase flows with a polydisperse solid phase. A definition of entropy is formulated on the basis of statistical analysis of these peculiarities. The physical meaning of entropy and its correlation with other parameters determining two-phase flows are clearly defined. The interrelations and main differences between this entropy and the thermodynamic one are revealed. The main regularities of two-phase flows both in critical and in other regimes are established using the notion of entropy. This parameter serves as a basis for a deeper insight into the physics of the process and for the development of exhaustive techniques of mass exchange estimation in such flows. The book is intended for graduate and postgraduate students of engineering studying two-phase flows, and to scientists and engineers engaged in specific problems of such fields as chemical technology, mineral dressing, modern ceramics, microelectronics, pharmacology, po...

  18. Learning to improve: using writing to increase critical thinking performance in general education biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitadamo, Ian J; Kurtz, Martha J

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, national stakeholders express concern that U.S. college graduates cannot adequately solve problems and think critically. As a set of cognitive abilities, critical thinking skills provide students with tangible academic, personal, and professional benefits that may ultimately address these concerns. As an instructional method, writing has long been perceived as a way to improve critical thinking. In the current study, the researchers compared critical thinking performance of students who experienced a laboratory writing treatment with those who experienced traditional quiz-based laboratory in a general education biology course. The effects of writing were determined within the context of multiple covariables. Results indicated that the writing group significantly improved critical thinking skills whereas the non-writing group did not. Specifically, analysis and inference skills increased significantly in the writing group but not the non-writing group. Writing students also showed greater gains in evaluation skills; however, these were not significant. In addition to writing, prior critical thinking skill and instructor significantly affected critical thinking performance, whereas other covariables such as gender, ethnicity, and age were not significant. With improved critical thinking skill, general education biology students will be better prepared to solve problems as engaged and productive citizens.

  19. GENERALIZED FLOW LAWS OF POLYPHASE ROCKS: AN OVERVIEW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI; Shao-cheng; FAN; Wei-ming; WANG; Yue-jun

    2002-01-01

    Rheological properties of polyphase rocks play an important role in the dynamics of the lithosphere and asthenosphere. However, such fundamental issues have not been well resolved. A theoretical analysis has been made to develop expressions for the flow laws of polyphase rocks in terms of the volume fractions and flow laws of their constituent phases. The flow strengths predicted by the proposed model for common crustal and upper mantle rocks such as granite, diorite, diabase and lherzolite, and for synthetic two-phase composites such as forsterite-enstatite and water ice-ammonia dehydrate aggregates are in good agreement with previously determined experimental values. The proposed theoretical model allows one to calculate, to the first approximation, the flow laws of a large number of polyphase rocks at geologic conditions based on the experimentally determined flow laws of a relatively small number of monomineralic aggregates.

  20. Critical care research in a district general hospital: the first year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camsooksai, Julie; Barnes, Helena; Reschreiter, Henrik

    2013-09-01

    Until recently, research in critical care units has usually taken place in university teaching hospitals. The 'general' critical care unit patient population is broader than this and the research needs to reflect this. As a general critical care unit in a district general hospital we wanted to set-up research within our own department, as part of the critical care team and part of our culture. With extensive background communication, drive and hard work, the support of the hospital Research and Development department was gained and Comprehensive Local Research Network funding successfully applied for. A research team was established and a model for the Research Nurse role was developed and implemented. This model is described. Participation in national trials commenced and the research portfolio is growing. Networking with other teams also proved valuable. Research has been established as part of the 'culture' of the day-to-day work and the staff have embraced this. Dedicated Research Nurse posts and education of the whole team have ensured successful implementation and recruitment of the studies. Experiences of the first year are shared and discussed here. Sharing experience of developing research within a critical care unit in a district general hospital, and a suggested model for a new Research Nurse role, may benefit other similar units in their efforts to establish research.

  1. An improved mechanistic critical heat flux model for subcooled flow boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Young Min [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    Based on the bubble coalescence adjacent to the heated wall as a flow structure for CHF condition, Chang and Lee developed a mechanistic critical heat flux (CHF) model for subcooled flow boiling. In this paper, improvements of Chang-Lee model are implemented with more solid theoretical bases for subcooled and low-quality flow boiling in tubes. Nedderman-Shearer`s equations for the skin friction factor and universal velocity profile models are employed. Slip effect of movable bubbly layer is implemented to improve the predictability of low mass flow. Also, mechanistic subcooled flow boiling model is used to predict the flow quality and void fraction. The performance of the present model is verified using the KAIST CHF database of water in uniformly heated tubes. It is found that the present model can give a satisfactory agreement with experimental data within less than 9% RMS error. 9 refs., 5 figs. (Author)

  2. A philosophical analysis of the general methodology of qualitative research: a critical rationalist perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnick, Abraham

    2014-09-01

    Philosophical discussion of the general methodology of qualitative research, such as that used in some health research, has been inductivist or relativist to date, ignoring critical rationalism as a philosophical approach with which to discuss the general methodology of qualitative research. This paper presents a discussion of the general methodology of qualitative research from a critical rationalist perspective (inspired by Popper), using as an example mental health research. The widespread endorsement of induction in qualitative research is positivist and is suspect, if not false, particularly in relation to the context of justification (or rather theory testing) as compared to the context of discovery (or rather theory generation). Relativism is riddled with philosophical weaknesses and hence it is suspect if not false too. Theory testing is compatible with qualitative research, contrary to much writing about and in qualitative research, as theory testing involves learning from trial and error, which is part of qualitative research, and which may be the form of learning most conducive to generalization. Generalization involves comparison, which is a fundamental methodological requirement of any type of research (qualitative or other); hence the traditional grounding of quantitative and experimental research in generalization. Comparison--rather than generalization--is necessary for, and hence compatible with, qualitative research; hence, the common opposition to generalization in qualitative research is misdirected, disregarding whether this opposition's claims are true or false. In conclusion, qualitative research, similar to quantitative and experimental research, assumes comparison as a general methodological requirement, which is necessary for health research.

  3. Critical behavior in the inverse to forward energy transition in two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seshasayanan, Kannabiran; Alexakis, Alexandros

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the critical transition from an inverse cascade of energy to a forward energy cascade in a two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic flow as the ratio of magnetic to mechanical forcing amplitude is varied. It is found that the critical transition is the result of two competing processes. The first process is due to hydrodynamic interactions and cascades the energy to the large scales. The second process couples small-scale magnetic fields to large-scale flows, transferring the energy back to the small scales via a nonlocal mechanism. At marginality the two cascades are both present and cancel each other. The phase space diagram of the transition is sketched.

  4. Flow boiling critical heat flux enhancement by using magnetic nanofluids and external magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, T.; Jeong, Y.H. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Tech., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-07-01

    By using the nanofluid as a working fluid, we can expect the enhancement in the flow boiling critical heat flux mainly due to the deposition of nanoparticles on the heat transfer surface. In this study, we suggest the magnetic nanofluid, or magnetite-water nanofluid, as a working fluid which is regarded as a controllable nanofluid, that is, nanoparticles or magnetite nanoparticles in a nanofluid can be controlled by an external magnetic field. Therefore, we can expect the advantages of magnetic nanofluid such as, i) control of nanofluid concentration to maintain nanoparticle suspension and to localize nanofluid concentration, and ii) removal of nanoparticle from nanofluid when we want. In this study, we focused on the investigation of flow boiling critical heat flux characteristics for the magnetic nanofluid. Series of experiments were performed under the low pressure and low flow conditions, and based on the experimental results; we can conclude that the use of magnetic nanofluid improves the flow boiling critical heat flux characteristics. This is mainly due to the deposition of magnetite nanoparticles on the heat transfer surface, which results in the improvement of wettability and re-wetting characteristics of heat transfer surface. Preliminary results of the magnetic field effects on the flow boiling critical heat flux would be presented also. (author)

  5. The Critical Flow back Velocity in Hydraulic-Fracturing Shale Gas Wells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The loss of prop pant during the flow back process in hydraulic fracturing treatments has been a problem for many years. The effectiveness of the fracture treatment is reduced. A well cleanup is often required to remove the unwanted proppant from the wellbore to re-establish production. Among several techniques available to reduce the prop pant loss, controlling flow back velocity within a critical range is an essential measure. The objective of this study is to determine the critical flow back velocity under different confining pressures in the propped fractures of different thicknesses. This objective is achieved based experimental studies conducted in a specially designed apparatus. For a fracture with a given width, the closure stress helps hold the proppant in place. This is due to the friction force that is proportional to the normal force created by the closure stress. The critical flow back velocity necessary to mobilize the proppant therefore increases with closure stress. However, the stress effect may be influenced by the shape of solid particles and friction coefficient of solid. Under the condition of constant closure stress, a narrow fracture holds proppant better than a wide fracture, resulting in increased critical flow back velocity. This is interpreted to be due to the “tighter” packing of proppant in narrow fractures.

  6. Thermal analysis of a reactive generalized Couette flow of power law fluids between concentric cylindrical pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinde, O. D.

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, the steady generalized axial Couette flow of Ostwald-de Waele power law reactive fluids between concentric cylindrical pipes is investigated. It is assumed that the outer cylinder is stationary and exchanges heat with the ambient surrounding following Newton's law of cooling, while the inner cylinder with isothermal surface is set in motion in the axial direction. The model nonlinear differential equations for the momentum and energy balance are obtained and tackled numerically using the shooting method coupled with the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg integration technique. The effects of various embedded thermophysical parameters on the velocity and temperature fields including skin friction, Nusselt number and thermal criticality conditions are presented graphically and discussed quantitatively.

  7. Critical Stokes number for the capture of inertial particles by recirculation cells in two-dimensional quasisteady flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verjus, Romuald; Angilella, Jean-Régis

    2016-05-01

    Inertial particles are often observed to be trapped, temporarily or permanently, by recirculation cells which are ubiquitous in natural or industrial flows. In the limit of small particle inertia, determining the conditions of trapping is a challenging task, as it requires a large number of numerical simulations or experiments to test various particle sizes or densities. Here, we investigate this phenomenon analytically and numerically in the case of heavy particles (e.g., aerosols) at low Reynolds number, to derive a trapping criterion that can be used both in analytical and numerical velocity fields. The resulting criterion allows one to predict the characteristics of trapped particles as soon as single-phase simulations of the flow are performed. Our analysis is valid for two-dimensional particle-laden flows in the vertical plane, in the limit where the particle inertia, the free-fall terminal velocity, and the flow unsteadiness can be treated as perturbations. The weak unsteadiness of the flow generally induces a chaotic tangle near heteroclinic or homoclinic cycles if any, leading to the apparent diffusion of fluid elements through the boundary of the cell. The critical particle Stokes number Stc below which aerosols also enter and exit the cell in a complex manner has been derived analytically, in terms of the flow characteristics. It involves the nondimensional curvature-weighted integral of the squared velocity of the steady fluid flow along the dividing streamline of the recirculation cell. When the flow is unsteady and St>Stc , a regular motion takes place due to gravity and centrifugal effects, like in the steady case. Particles driven towards the interior of the cell are trapped permanently. In contrast, when the flow is unsteady and St

  8. Histological investigations of muscle atrophy and end plates in two critically ill patients with generalized weakness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wokke, J.H.J.; Jennekens, F.G.I.; Oord, C.J.M. van den; Veldman, H.; Gijn, Jan van

    1988-01-01

    We describe pathological alterations at the light microscopical and ultrastructural level of motor end plates and muscle fibres in 2 critically ill patients with generalized muscular atrophy and weakness. Axonal degeneration of intramuscular nerve fibres was not conspicuous. The sural nerve in one p

  9. Critical rainfall conditions for the initiation of torrential flows. Results from the Rebaixader catchment (Central Pyrenees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abancó, Clàudia; Hürlimann, Marcel; Moya, José; Berenguer, Marc

    2016-10-01

    Torrential flows like debris flows or debris floods are fast movements formed by a mix of water and different amounts of unsorted solid material. They generally occur in steep torrents and pose high risk in mountainous areas. Rainfall is their most common triggering factor and the analysis of the critical rainfall conditions is a fundamental research task. Due to their wide use in warning systems, rainfall thresholds for the triggering of torrential flows are an important outcome of such analysis and are empirically derived using data from past events. In 2009, a monitoring system was installed in the Rebaixader catchment, Central Pyrenees (Spain). Since then, rainfall data of 25 torrential flows ("TRIG rainfalls") were recorded, with a 5-min sampling frequency. Other 142 rainfalls that did not trigger torrential flows ("NonTRIG rainfalls") were also collected and analyzed. The goal of this work was threefold: (i) characterize rainfall episodes in the Rebaixader catchment and compare rainfall data that triggered torrential flows and others that did not; (ii) define and test Intensity-Duration (ID) thresholds using rainfall data measured inside the catchment by with different techniques; (iii) analyze how the criterion used for defining the rainfall duration and the spatial variability of rainfall influences the value obtained for the thresholds. The statistical analysis of the rainfall characteristics showed that the parameters that discriminate better the TRIG and NonTRIG rainfalls are the rainfall intensities, the mean rainfall and the total rainfall amount. The antecedent rainfall was not significantly different between TRIG and NonTRIG rainfalls, as it can be expected when the source material is very pervious (a sandy glacial soil in the study site). Thresholds were derived from data collected at one rain gauge located inside the catchment. Two different methods were applied to calculate the duration and intensity of rainfall: (i) using total duration, Dtot

  10. Leading-edge flow criticality as a governing factor in leading-edge vortex initiation in unsteady airfoil flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesh, Kiran; Granlund, Kenneth; Ol, Michael V.; Gopalarathnam, Ashok; Edwards, Jack R.

    2017-08-01

    A leading-edge suction parameter (LESP) that is derived from potential flow theory as a measure of suction at the airfoil leading edge is used to study initiation of leading-edge vortex (LEV) formation in this article. The LESP hypothesis is presented, which states that LEV formation in unsteady flows for specified airfoil shape and Reynolds number occurs at a critical constant value of LESP, regardless of motion kinematics. This hypothesis is tested and validated against a large set of data from CFD and experimental studies of flows with LEV formation. The hypothesis is seen to hold except in cases with slow-rate kinematics which evince significant trailing-edge separation (which refers here to separation leading to reversed flow on the aft portion of the upper surface), thereby establishing the envelope of validity. The implication is that the critical LESP value for an airfoil-Reynolds number combination may be calibrated using CFD or experiment for just one motion and then employed to predict LEV initiation for any other (fast-rate) motion. It is also shown that the LESP concept may be used in an inverse mode to generate motion kinematics that would either prevent LEV formation or trigger the same as per aerodynamic requirements.

  11. A general theory of wave interactions in layered flows

    CERN Document Server

    Guha, Anirban

    2016-01-01

    Using kinematics, we propose a theory of non-modal interactions between the interfaces of a 2D, inviscid, multi-layered fluid system. Specifically, a $3$-interface problem with kinematic and geometric symmetry is explored. Repetitive, extremely short bursts of very high wave growth/decay-rates are observed in the parameter ranges where normal-mode theory predicts stability. The underlying dynamical system predicts chaotic outcomes for some initial conditions. For realistic multi-layered flows, such instabilities of finite amplitude may alter the mean flow to a noisy, unpredictable state.

  12. Maternal criticism and adolescent depressive and generalized anxiety disorder symptoms: a 6-year longitudinal community study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelemans, Stefanie A; Hale, William W; Branje, Susan J T; Hawk, Skyler T; Meeus, Wim H J

    2014-01-01

    This 6-year longitudinal study examined the direction of effects (i.e., parent effects, child effects, or reciprocal effects) between maternal criticism and adolescent depressive and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) symptoms, including adolescents' perceptions of criticism as a potential mediator. Consistent with recent empirical findings on associations between parenting and adolescent internalizing symptoms, we hypothesized stronger child effects than parent effects. A community sample of 497 adolescents (M age = 13.03 at T1, 57 % boys) reported annually on their depressive and GAD symptoms as well as their perceptions of parental criticism. Their mothers (M age = 44.41 at T1) also reported annually on their own critical behavior toward their adolescent. As expected, cross-lagged panel models demonstrated stronger child effects (i.e., adolescent psychopathology predicting maternal criticism) than parent effects (i.e., maternal criticism predicting adolescent psychopathology) for both adolescent depressive and GAD symptoms, including adolescent perceived criticism as a significant mediator. Our results emphasize the importance of considering (1) potential bidirectional influences over time, contrary to a focus on parent effects on adolescent mental health, as well as (2) adolescent perceptions of parenting as an important potential mediator in associations between aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship and adolescent internalizing psychopathological symptoms.

  13. A Study of the Critical Nozzle for Flow Rate Measurement of High-Pressure Hydrogen Gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    H.D.Kim; J.H.Lee; K.A.Park; T.Setoguchi; S.Matsuo

    2007-01-01

    The mass flow rate measurement using a critical nozzle shows the validity of the inviscid theory, indicating that the discharge coefficient increases and approaches unity as the Reynolds number increases under the ideal gas law.However, when the critical nozzle measures the mass flow rate of a real gas such as hydrogen at a pressure of hundreds bar, the discharge coefficient exceeds unity, and the real gas effects should be taken into account. The present study aims at investigating the flow features of the critical nozzle using high-pressured hydrogen gas. The axisymmetric, compressible Navier-Stokes computation is employed to simulate the critical nozzle flow, and a fully implicit finite volume method is used to discretize the governing equation system. The real gas effects are simulated to consider the intermolecular forces, which account for the possibility of liquefying hydrogen gas. The computational results are compared with past experimental data. It has been found that the coefficient of discharge for real gas can be corrected properly below unity adopting the real gas assumption.

  14. P-V criticality of AdS black holes in a general framework

    CERN Document Server

    Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    Interpreting the cosmological constant as pressure, it has been observed that AdS black holes behave as van der Waals system. The critical exponents for the phase transition for all AdS black holes are exactly same as those for the van der Waals system. Till now this has been observed case by case. Here, without using any specific form of the black hole metric, we present a general framework based on just two universal inputs. These are the general forms of the Smarr formula and the first law of thermodynamics. We find that the same values of the critical exponents can be obtained by this general analysis. Therefore there is no need to investigate for a particular metric. The importance of our analysis is that it highlights the observed universality, as well as revels the reason for such universality.

  15. Deconfined criticality flow in the Heisenberg model with ring-exchange interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kun; Huang, Yuan; Deng, Youjin; Kuklov, A B; Prokof'ev, N V; Svistunov, B V

    2013-05-03

    Quantum transition points in the J-Q model--the test bed of the deconfined critical point theory--and the SU(2)-symmetric discrete noncompact CP(1) representation of the deconfined critical action are directly compared by the flowgram method. We find that the flows of two systems coincide in a broad region of linear system sizes (10 < L < 50 for the J-Q model), implying that the deconfined critical point theory correctly captures the mesoscopic physics of competition between the antiferromagnetic and valence-bond orders in quantum spin systems. At larger sizes, however, we observe significant deviations between the two flows which both demonstrate strong violations of scale invariance. This reliably rules out the second-order transition scenario in at least one of the two models and suggests the most likely explanation for the nature of the transition in the J-Q model.

  16. Generalized chemical distance distribution in all-sided critical percolation clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katunin, Andrzej

    2016-12-01

    The algorithm of evaluation of chemical distance distribution in 2D and 3D critical percolation clusters is presented in the following study. The algorithm is enriched by numerous examples of 2D and 3D critical percolation clusters related to the currently investigated problem of electrical percolation in a mixture of conducting/dielectric polymers. The introduced measure of the chemical distance distribution can be a useful tool for characterization of percolation clusters, and in problems of percolation theory and graphs theory in general.

  17. Potential of Entropic Force in Markov Systems with Nonequilibrium Steady State, Generalized Gibbs Function and Criticality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Lowell; Qian, Hong

    2016-08-01

    In this paper we revisit the notion of the “minus logarithm of stationary probability” as a generalized potential in nonequilibrium systems and attempt to illustrate its central role in an axiomatic approach to stochastic nonequilibrium thermodynamics of complex systems. It is demonstrated that this quantity arises naturally through both monotonicity results of Markov processes and as the rate function when a stochastic process approaches a detrministic limit. We then undertake a more detailed mathematical analysis of the consequences of this quantity, culminating in a necessary and sufficient condition for the criticality of stochastic systems. This condition is then discussed in the context of recent results about criticality in biological systems.

  18. A generalized Forchheimer radial flow model for constant-rate tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming-Ming; Chen, Yi-Feng; Zhan, Hongbin; Hu, Ran; Zhou, Chuang-Bing

    2017-09-01

    Models used for data interpretation of constant-rate tests (CRTs) are commonly derived with the assumption of Darcian flow in an idealized integer flow dimension, where the non-Darcian nature of fluid flow and the complexity of flow geometry are disregarded. In this study, a Forchheimer's law-based analytical model is proposed with the assumption of buildup (or drawdown) decomposition for characterizing the non-Darcian flow in a generalized radial formation where the flow dimension n may become non-integer. The proposed model immediately reduces to Barker's (1988) model for Darcian flow in the generalized radial formation and to Mathias et al.'s (2008) model for non-Darcian flow in a two-dimensional confined aquifer. A comparison with numerical simulations shows that the proposed model behaves well at late times for flow dimension n > 1.5. The proposed model is finally applied for data interpretation of the constant-rate pumping tests performed at Ploemeur (Le Borgne et al., 2004), showing that the intrinsic hydraulic conductivity of formations will be underestimated and the specific storage will be overestimated if the non-Darcian effect is ignored. The proposed model is an extension of the generalized radial flow (GRF) model based on Forchheimer's law, which would be of significance for data interpretation of CRTs in aquifers of complex flow geometry in which non-Darcian flow occurs.

  19. Redox Changes Induced by General Anesthesia in Critically Ill Patients with Multiple Traumas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Papurica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The critically ill polytrauma patient is a constant challenge for the trauma team due to the complexity of the complications presented. Intense inflammatory response and infections, as well as multiple organ dysfunctions, significantly increase the rate of morbidity and mortality in these patients. Moreover, due to the physiological and biochemical imbalances present in this type of patients, the bioproduction of free radicals is significantly accelerated, thus installing the oxidative stress. In the therapeutic management of such patients, multiple surgical interventions are required and therefore they are being subjected to repeated general anesthesia. In this paper, we want to present the pathophysiological implications of oxidative stress in critically ill patients with multiple traumas and the implications of general anesthesia on the redox mechanisms of the cell. We also want to summarize the antioxidant treatments able to reduce the intensity of oxidative stress by modulating the biochemical activity of some cellular mechanisms.

  20. Redox Changes Induced by General Anesthesia in Critically Ill Patients with Multiple Traumas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papurica, Marius; Rogobete, Alexandru Florin; Sandesc, Dorel; Dumache, Raluca; Nartita, Radu; Sarandan, Mirela; Cradigati, Alina Carmen; Luca, Loredana; Vernic, Corina; Bedreag, Ovidiu Horea

    2015-01-01

    The critically ill polytrauma patient is a constant challenge for the trauma team due to the complexity of the complications presented. Intense inflammatory response and infections, as well as multiple organ dysfunctions, significantly increase the rate of morbidity and mortality in these patients. Moreover, due to the physiological and biochemical imbalances present in this type of patients, the bioproduction of free radicals is significantly accelerated, thus installing the oxidative stress. In the therapeutic management of such patients, multiple surgical interventions are required and therefore they are being subjected to repeated general anesthesia. In this paper, we want to present the pathophysiological implications of oxidative stress in critically ill patients with multiple traumas and the implications of general anesthesia on the redox mechanisms of the cell. We also want to summarize the antioxidant treatments able to reduce the intensity of oxidative stress by modulating the biochemical activity of some cellular mechanisms. PMID:26693352

  1. Criticality of flow transition behind two side-by-side elliptic cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Y. F.; Sau, Amalendu; Hwang, Robert R.; Yang, W. C.; Hsieh, Chih-Min

    2012-03-01

    In this study, near-critical bifurcations of low Reynolds number (Re) flows past a pair of elliptic cylinders in the side-by-side arrangement are numerically investigated, and onsets of several distinct transition scenarios are addressed. A nested Cartesian-grid formulation, in combination with an effective immersed boundary method and a two-step fractional-step procedure, has been adopted to simulate the flows. The transition scenarios associated with various periodic, quasi-periodic, and biased flows, their bifurcation characteristics, corresponding critical Reynolds numbers, and phase-portraits are exploited to better understand the governing physics. From the global point of view, there appear variety of flow patterns within the investigated parameter space, 40 ⩽ Re ⩽ 300, 0.2 ⩽ G ⩽ 3.0 (G being the gap-ratio of the cylinders), and 1.5 ⩽ A ⩽ 3 (A is the cylinder aspect-ratio), which include, symmetric vortex shedding mode, semi-single/twin vortex street formations, asymmetric/deflected flows, stationary/biased flip-flopped-type vortex shedding, weakly-chaotic flows, and in-phase/anti-phase vortex synchronizations. We numerically present these flows by tuning Re quasi-stationary, and provide a broader understanding of the entire transition process. A comprehensive analysis of effects of Reynolds number, the gap-ratio, and the angle of incidence on different flow-induced forces on the cylinders is included in this regard. On the other hand, our simulated wakes with various non-zero incidence-angles are found to reveal a rich variety of instability induced weakly synchronized physical evolution characteristics, which remained virtually unexplored.

  2. Activation of Dopamine Neurons is Critical for Aversive Conditioning and Prevention of Generalized Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Generalized anxiety is thought to result, in part, from impairments in contingency awareness during conditioning to cues that predict aversive or fearful outcomes. Dopamine neurons of the ventral midbrain exhibit heterogeneous responses to aversive stimuli that are thought to provide a critical modulatory signal to facilitate orienting to environmental changes and assignment of motivational value to unexpected events. Here, we describe a mouse model in which activation of dopamine neurons in ...

  3. Two-Phase Critical Discharge of Initially Saturated or Subcooled Water Flowing in Sharp-Edgred Tubes at High Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    The transient critical flow experiment with sharp-deged tubes as the break geometries is conducted in high pressure convective circulation test loop of Xi'an Jiantong University.The initial Steady operation pressure is up to 22.0MPa.An empirical correlation was made to obtain the critical mass flow rates,the critical pressure ratio and the thermal nonequilibrium number were correlated as the functions of the tube length to tube diameter ratio L/D.The predicted critical mass flow rate gets a higher accureacy for short tubes with L/D 12.

  4. Generalized second-order slip boundary condition for nonequilibrium gas flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhaoli; Qin, Jishun; Zheng, Chuguang

    2014-01-01

    It is a challenging task to model nonequilibrium gas flows within a continuum-fluid framework. Recently some extended hydrodynamic models in the Navier-Stokes formulation have been developed for such flows. A key problem in the application of such models is that suitable boundary conditions must be specified. In the present work, a generalized second-order slip boundary condition is developed in which an effective mean-free path considering the wall effect is used. By combining this slip scheme with certain extended Navier-Stokes constitutive relation models, we obtained a method for nonequilibrium gas flows with solid boundaries. The method is applied to several rarefied gas flows involving planar or curved walls, including the Kramers' problem, the planar Poiseuille flow, the cylindrical Couette flow, and the low speed flow over a sphere. The results show that the proposed method is able to give satisfied predictions, indicating the good potential of the method for nonequilibrium flows.

  5. Generalized Method of Variational Analysis for 3-D Flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰伟仁; 黄思训; 项杰

    2004-01-01

    The generalized method of variational analysis (GMVA) suggested for 2-D wind observations by Huang et al. is extended to 3-D cases. Just as in 2-D cases, the regularization idea is applied. But due to the complexity of the 3-D cases, the vertical vorticity is taken as a stable functional. The results indicate that wind observations can be both variationally optimized and filtered. The efficiency of GMVA is also checked in a numerical test. Finally, 3-D wind observations with random disturbances are manipulated by GMVA after being filtered.

  6. On the Geometric Structure of Flows I: The Referential Gradient. A Generally Covariant Measure of Flow Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Edmondson, J K

    2014-01-01

    Assuming a-priori a smooth generating vector field, we introduce a generally covariant measure of the flow geometry called the referential gradient of the flow. The main result is the explicit relation between the referential gradient and the generating vector field, and is provided for from two equivalent perspectives: a Lagrangian specification with respect to a generalized parameter, and an Eulerian specification making explicit the evolution dynamics. Furthermore, we provide explicit non-trivial conditions which govern the transformation properties of the referential gradient object.

  7. Optical characterization of bubbly flows with a near-critical-angle scattering technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onofri, Fabrice R.A.; Krzysiek, Mariusz [IUSTI, UMR, CNRS, University of Provence, Polytech' DME, Technopole Chateau-Gombert, Marseille (France); Mroczka, Janusz [CEPM, Technical University of Wroclaw, Wroclaw (Poland); Ren, Kuan-Fang [CORIA, UMR, CNRS, University of Rouen, Saint-Etienne-du-Rouvray (France); Radev, Stefan [IMECH, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Bonnet, Jean-Philippe [M2P2, UMR, CNRS, University Paul Cezanne, Aix-en-Provence (France)

    2009-10-15

    The newly developed critical angle refractometry and sizing technique (CARS) allows simultaneous and instantaneous characterization of the local size distribution and the relative refractive index (i.e. composition) of a cloud of bubbles. The paper presents the recent improvement of this technique by comparison of different light scattering models and inversion procedures. Experimental results carried in various air/water and air/water-ethanol bubbly flows clearly demonstrate the efficiency and the potential of this technique. (orig.)

  8. Upper bounds for the critical car densities in traffic flow problems

    CERN Document Server

    Chau, H F; Woo, Y F; Chau, H F; Hui, P M; Woo, Y F

    1995-01-01

    In most models of traffic flow, the car density p is the only free parameter in determining the average car velocity \\langle v \\rangle. The critical car density p_c, which is defined to be the car density separating the jamming phase (with \\langle v \\rangle = 0) and the moving phase (with \\langle v \\rangle > 0), is an important physical quantity to investigate. By means of simple statistical argument, we show that p_c 2) dimensions.

  9. Self-organized Criticality in a Modified Evolution Model on Generalized Barabási-Albert Scale-Free Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Min; WANG Gang; CHEN Tian-Lun

    2007-01-01

    A modified evolution model of self-organized criticality on generalized Barabási-Albert (GBA) scale-free networks is investigated. In our model, we find that spatial and temporal correlations exhibit critical behaviors. More importantly, these critical behaviors change with the parameter b, which weights the distance in comparison with the degree in the GBA network evolution.

  10. The Generalized Higher Criticism for Testing SNP-Set Effects in Genetic Association Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Ian; Mukherjee, Rajarshi; Lin, Xihong

    2017-01-01

    It is of substantial interest to study the effects of genes, genetic pathways, and networks on the risk of complex diseases. These genetic constructs each contain multiple SNPs, which are often correlated and function jointly, and might be large in number. However, only a sparse subset of SNPs in a genetic construct is generally associated with the disease of interest. In this article, we propose the generalized higher criticism (GHC) to test for the association between an SNP set and a disease outcome. The higher criticism is a test traditionally used in high-dimensional signal detection settings when marginal test statistics are independent and the number of parameters is very large. However, these assumptions do not always hold in genetic association studies, due to linkage disequilibrium among SNPs and the finite number of SNPs in an SNP set in each genetic construct. The proposed GHC overcomes the limitations of the higher criticism by allowing for arbitrary correlation structures among the SNPs in an SNP-set, while performing accurate analytic p-value calculations for any finite number of SNPs in the SNP-set. We obtain the detection boundary of the GHC test. We compared empirically using simulations the power of the GHC method with existing SNP-set tests over a range of genetic regions with varied correlation structures and signal sparsity. We apply the proposed methods to analyze the CGEM breast cancer genome-wide association study. Supplementary materials for this article are available online.

  11. Multiple critical velocities in oscillatory flow of superfluid 4He due to quartz tuning forks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmoranzer, D.; Jackson, M. J.; Tsepelin, V.; Poole, M.; Woods, A. J.; Človečko, M.; Skrbek, L.

    2016-12-01

    We report recent investigations into the transition to turbulence in superfluid 4He, realized experimentally by measuring the drag forces acting on two custom-made quartz tuning forks with fundamental resonances at 6.5 kHz and 55.5 kHz, in the temperature range 10 mK to 2.17 K. In pure superfluid in the zero temperature limit, three distinct critical velocities were observed with both tuning forks. We discuss the significance of all critical velocities and associate the third critical velocity reported here with the development of large vortical structures in the flow, which thus starts to mimic turbulence in classical fluids. The interpretation of our results is directly linked to previous experimental work with oscillators such as tuning forks, grids, and vibrating wires, focusing on the behavior of purely superfluid 4He at very low temperatures.

  12. Discharge coefficient correlations for circular-arc venturi flowmeters at critical /sonic/ flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnberg, B. T.; Britton, C. L.; Seidl, W. F.

    1973-01-01

    Experimental data are analyzed to support theoretical predictions for discharge coefficients in circular-arc venturi flow meters operating in the critical sonic flow regime at throat Reynolds numbers above 150 thousand. The data tend to verify the predicted 0.25% decrease in the discharge coefficient during transition from a laminar to turbulent boundary layer. Four different test gases and three flow measurement facilities were used in the experiments with 17 venturis with throat sizes from 0.15 to 1.37 in. and Beta ratios ranging from 0.014 to 0.25. Recommendations are given as to how the effectiveness of future studies in the field could be improved.

  13. Possible Self-Organised Criticality and Dynamical Clustering of Traffic flow in Open Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Larraga, M E; Mehta, A; Mehta, Anita

    1999-01-01

    We focus in this work on the study of traffic in open systems using a modified version of an existing cellular automaton model. We demonstrate that the open system is rather different from the closed system in its 'choice' of a unique steady-state density and velocity distribution, independently of the initial conditions, reminiscent of self-organised criticality. Quantities of interest such as average densities and velocities of cars, exhibit phase transitions between free flow and the jammed state, as a function of the braking probability R in a way that is very different from closed systems. Velocity correlation functions show that the concept of a dynamical cluster, introduced earlier in the context of granular flow is also relevant for traffic flow models.

  14. Prediction of Critical Heat Flux for Saturated Flow Boiling Water in Vertical Narrow Rectangular Channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Gil Sik; Jeong, Yong Hun [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Soon Heung [Handong Univ., Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    There is an increasing need to understand the thermal-hydraulic phenomena, including the critical heat flux (CHF), in narrow rectangular channels and consider these in system design. The CHF mechanism under a saturated flow boiling condition involves the depletion of the liquid film of an annular flow. To predict this type of CHF, the previous representative liquid film dryout models (LFD models) were studied, and their shortcomings were reviewed, including the assumption that void fraction or quality is constant at the boundary condition for the onset of annular flow (OAF). A new LFD model was proposed based on the recent constitutive correlations for the droplet deposition rate and entrainment rate. In addition, this LFD model was applied to predict the CHF in vertical narrow rectangular channels that were uniformly heated. The predicted CHF showed good agreement with 284 pieces of experimental data, with a mean absolute error of 18. 1 % and root mean square error of 22.9 %.

  15. Discharge coefficient correlations for circular-arc venturi flowmeters at critical /sonic/ flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnberg, B. T.; Britton, C. L.; Seidl, W. F.

    1973-01-01

    Experimental data are analyzed to support theoretical predictions for discharge coefficients in circular-arc venturi flow meters operating in the critical sonic flow regime at throat Reynolds numbers above 150 thousand. The data tend to verify the predicted 0.25% decrease in the discharge coefficient during transition from a laminar to turbulent boundary layer. Four different test gases and three flow measurement facilities were used in the experiments with 17 venturis with throat sizes from 0.15 to 1.37 in. and Beta ratios ranging from 0.014 to 0.25. Recommendations are given as to how the effectiveness of future studies in the field could be improved.

  16. P-V criticality of AdS black holes in a general framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan; Samanta, Saurav

    2017-10-01

    In black hole thermodynamics, it has been observed that AdS black holes behave as van der Waals system if one interprets the cosmological constant as a pressure term. Also the critical exponents for the phase transition of AdS black holes and the van der Waals systems are same. Till now this type of analysis is done by two steps. In the first step one shows that a particular metric allows phase transition and in the second step, using this information, one calculates the exponents. Here, we present a different approach based on two universal inputs (the general forms of the Smarr formula and the first law of thermodynamics) and one assumption regarding the existence of van der Waals like critical point for a metric. We find that the same values of the critical exponents can be obtained by this approach. Thus we demonstrate that, though the existence of van der Waals like phase transition depends on specific metrics, the values of critical exponents are then fixed for that set of metrics.

  17. Prediction of chronic critical illness in a general intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio H. Loss

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence, costs, and mortality associated with chronic critical illness (CCI, and to identify clinical predictors of CCI in a general intensive care unit. METHODS: This was a prospective observational cohort study. All patients receiving supportive treatment for over 20 days were considered chronically critically ill and eligible for the study. After applying the exclusion criteria, 453 patients were analyzed. RESULTS: There was an 11% incidence of CCI. Total length of hospital stay, costs, and mortality were significantly higher among patients with CCI. Mechanical ventilation, sepsis, Glasgow score < 15, inadequate calorie intake, and higher body mass index were independent predictors for cci in the multivariate logistic regression model. CONCLUSIONS: CCI affects a distinctive population in intensive care units with higher mortality, costs, and prolonged hospitalization. Factors identifiable at the time of admission or during the first week in the intensive care unit can be used to predict CCI.

  18. Local criticality, diffusion and chaos in generalized Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev models

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Yingfei; Stanford, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    The Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev model is a $(0+1)$-dimensional model describing Majorana fermions or complex fermions with random interactions. This model has various interesting properties such as approximate local criticality (power law correlation in time), zero temperature entropy, and quantum chaos. In this article, we propose a higher dimensional generalization of the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev model, which is a lattice model with $N$ Majorana fermions at each site and random interactions between them. Our model can be defined on arbitrary lattices in arbitrary spatial dimensions. In the large $N$ limit, the higher dimensional model preserves many properties of the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev model such as local criticality in two-point functions, zero temperature entropy and chaos measured by the out-of-time-ordered correlation functions. In addition, we obtain new properties unique to higher dimensions such as diffusive energy transport and a "butterfly velocity" describing the propagation of chaos in space. We mainly present res...

  19. Criticism of generally accepted fundamentals and methodologies of traffic and transportation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerner, Boris S. [Physics of Transportation and Traffic, University Duisburg-Essen, 47048 Duisburg (Germany)

    2015-03-10

    It is explained why the set of the fundamental empirical features of traffic breakdown (a transition from free flow to congested traffic) should be the empirical basis for any traffic and transportation theory that can be reliable used for control and optimization in traffic networks. It is shown that generally accepted fundamentals and methodologies of traffic and transportation theory are not consistent with the set of the fundamental empirical features of traffic breakdown at a highway bottleneck. To these fundamentals and methodologies of traffic and transportation theory belong (i) Lighthill-Whitham-Richards (LWR) theory, (ii) the General Motors (GM) model class (for example, Herman, Gazis et al. GM model, Gipps’s model, Payne’s model, Newell’s optimal velocity (OV) model, Wiedemann’s model, Bando et al. OV model, Treiber’s IDM, Krauß’s model), (iii) the understanding of highway capacity as a particular stochastic value, and (iv) principles for traffic and transportation network optimization and control (for example, Wardrop’s user equilibrium (UE) and system optimum (SO) principles). Alternatively to these generally accepted fundamentals and methodologies of traffic and transportation theory, we discuss three-phase traffic theory as the basis for traffic flow modeling as well as briefly consider the network breakdown minimization (BM) principle for the optimization of traffic and transportation networks with road bottlenecks.

  20. Criticism of generally accepted fundamentals and methodologies of traffic and transportation theory: A brief review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Boris S.

    2013-11-01

    It is explained why the set of the fundamental empirical features of traffic breakdown (a transition from free flow to congested traffic) should be the empirical basis for any traffic and transportation theory that can be reliably used for control and optimization in traffic networks. It is shown that the generally accepted fundamentals and methodologies of the traffic and transportation theory are not consistent with the set of the fundamental empirical features of traffic breakdown at a highway bottleneck. To these fundamentals and methodologies of the traffic and transportation theory belong (i) Lighthill-Whitham-Richards (LWR) theory, (ii) the General Motors (GM) model class (for example, Herman, Gazis et al. GM model, Gipps’s model, Payne’s model, Newell’s optimal velocity (OV) model, Wiedemann’s model, Bando et al. OV model, Treiber’s IDM, Krauß’s model), (iii) the understanding of highway capacity as a particular (fixed or stochastic) value, and (iv) principles for traffic and transportation network optimization and control (for example, Wardrop’s user equilibrium (UE) and system optimum (SO) principles). Alternatively to these generally accepted fundamentals and methodologies of the traffic and transportation theory, we discuss the three-phase traffic theory as the basis for traffic flow modeling as well as briefly consider the network breakdown minimization (BM) principle for the optimization of traffic and transportation networks with road bottlenecks.

  1. Generalization of the one-dimensional ideal plasma flow with spherical waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golovin, Sergey V [Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario K7 L 3N6 (Canada)

    2006-06-09

    We give a description of the ideal plasma flow, which is governed by an exact partially invariant solution of the magnetohydrodynamics equations. The solution generalizes known one-dimensional flow with spherical waves. The generalization consists in addition of the special tangent vector components of the velocity and the magnetic field at any plasma particle. In the special case of zeroth tangential component the solution coincides with the classical one-dimensional one. This paper describes a three-dimensional picture of the plasma flow, governed by the obtained solution.

  2. Oscillating line source in a shear flow with a free surface: critical layer-like contributions

    CERN Document Server

    Ellingsen, Simen Å

    2016-01-01

    The linearized water-wave radiation problem for an oscillating submerged line source in an inviscid shear flow with a free surface is investigated analytically at finite, constant depth in the presence of a shear flow varying linearly with depth. The surface velocity is taken to be zero relative to the oscillating source, so that Doppler effects are absent. The radiated wave out from the source is calculated based on Euler's equation of motion with the appropriate boundary and radiation conditions, and differs substantially from the solution obtained by assuming potential flow. To wit, an additional wave is found in the downstream direction in addition to the previously known dispersive wave solutions; this wave is non-dispersive and we show how it is the surface manifestation of a critical layer-like flow generated by the combination of shear and mass flux at the source, passively advected with the flow. As seen from a system moving at the fluid velocity at the source's depth, streamlines form closed curves ...

  3. Symmetries of the Euler compressible flow equations for general equation of state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Zachary M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ramsey, Scott D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Baty, Roy S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-15

    The Euler compressible flow equations exhibit different Lie symmetries depending on the equation of state (EOS) of the medium in which the flow occurs. This means that, in general, different types of similarity solution will be available in different flow media. We present a comprehensive classification of all EOS’s to which the Euler equations apply, based on the Lie symmetries admitted by the corresponding flow equations, restricting to the case of 1-D planar, cylindrical, or spherical geometry. The results are conveniently summarized in tables. This analysis also clarifies past work by Axford and Ovsiannikov on symmetry classification.

  4. A General Approach to Time Periodic Incompressible Viscous Fluid Flow Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geissert, Matthias; Hieber, Matthias; Nguyen, Thieu Huy

    2016-06-01

    This article develops a general approach to time periodic incompressible fluid flow problems and semilinear evolution equations. It yields, on the one hand, a unified approach to various classical problems in incompressible fluid flow and, on the other hand, gives new results for periodic solutions to the Navier-Stokes-Oseen flow, the Navier-Stokes flow past rotating obstacles, and, in the geophysical setting, for Ornstein-Uhlenbeck and various diffusion equations with rough coefficients. The method is based on a combination of interpolation and topological arguments, as well as on the smoothing properties of the linearized equation.

  5. Using the stress function in the flow of generalized Newtonian fluids through pipes and slits

    CERN Document Server

    Sochi, Taha

    2015-01-01

    We use a generic and general numerical method to obtain solutions for the flow of generalized Newtonian fluids through circular pipes and plane slits. The method, which is simple and robust can produce highly accurate solutions which virtually match any analytical solutions. The method is based on employing the stress, as a function of the pipe radius or slit thickness dimension, combined with the rate of strain function as represented by the fluid rheological constitutive relation that correlates the rate of strain to stress. Nine types of generalized Newtonian fluids are tested in this investigation and the solutions obtained from the generic method are compared to the analytical solutions which are obtained from the Weissenberg-Rabinowitsch-Mooney-Schofield method. Very good agreement was obtained in all the investigated cases. All the required quantities of the flow which include local viscosity, rate of strain, flow velocity profile and volumetric flow rate, as well as shear stress, can be obtained from ...

  6. Computational multi-fluid dynamics predictions of critical heat flux in boiling flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mimouni, S., E-mail: stephane.mimouni@edf.fr; Baudry, C.; Guingo, M.; Lavieville, J.; Merigoux, N.; Mechitoua, N.

    2016-04-01

    Highlights: • A new mechanistic model dedicated to DNB has been implemented in the Neptune-CFD code. • The model has been validated against 150 tests. • Neptune-CFD code is a CFD tool dedicated to boiling flows. - Abstract: Extensive efforts have been made in the last five decades to evaluate the boiling heat transfer coefficient and the critical heat flux in particular. Boiling crisis remains a major limiting phenomenon for the analysis of operation and safety of both nuclear reactors and conventional thermal power systems. As a consequence, models dedicated to boiling flows have being improved. For example, Reynolds Stress Transport Model, polydispersion and two-phase flow wall law have been recently implemented. In a previous work, we have evaluated computational fluid dynamics results against single-phase liquid water tests equipped with a mixing vane and against two-phase boiling cases. The objective of this paper is to propose a new mechanistic model in a computational multi-fluid dynamics tool leading to wall temperature excursion and onset of boiling crisis. Critical heat flux is calculated against 150 tests and the mean relative error between calculations and experimental values is equal to 8.3%. The model tested covers a large physics scope in terms of mass flux, pressure, quality and channel diameter. Water and R12 refrigerant fluid are considered. Furthermore, it was found that the sensitivity to the grid refinement was acceptable.

  7. A Macroscopic Description of a Generalized Self-organized Criticality System: Astrophysical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschwanden, Markus J.

    2014-02-01

    We suggest a generalized definition of self-organized criticality (SOC) systems: SOC is a critical state of a nonlinear energy dissipation system that is slowly and continuously driven toward a critical value of a system-wide instability threshold, producing scale-free, fractal-diffusive, and intermittent avalanches with power law-like size distributions. We develop here a macroscopic description of SOC systems that provides an equivalent description of the complex microscopic fine structure, in terms of fractal-diffusive transport (FD-SOC). Quantitative values for the size distributions of SOC parameters (length scales L, time scales T, waiting times Δt, fluxes F, and fluences or energies E) are derived from first principles, using the scale-free probability conjecture, N(L)dLvpropL -d , for Euclidean space dimension d. We apply this model to astrophysical SOC systems, such as lunar craters, the asteroid belt, Saturn ring particles, magnetospheric substorms, radiation belt electrons, solar flares, stellar flares, pulsar glitches, soft gamma-ray repeaters, black-hole objects, blazars, and cosmic rays. The FD-SOC model predicts correctly the size distributions of 8 out of these 12 astrophysical phenomena, and indicates non-standard scaling laws and measurement biases for the others.

  8. A generalized Sz. Nagy inequality in higher dimensions and the critical thin film equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jian-Guo; Wang, Jinhuan

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we provide an alternative proof for the classical Sz. Nagy inequality in one dimension by a variational method and generalize it to higher dimensions d≥slant 1 J(h):=(∫Rd|h| dx)a-1∫Rd|∇h|2 dx(∫Rd|h|m+1 dx)a+1m+1⩾β0, where m  >  0 for d  =  1, 2, 0 for d≥slant 3 , and a=\\frac{d+2(m+1)}{md} . The Euler-Lagrange equation for critical points of J (h) in the non-negative radial decreasing function space is given by a free boundary problem for a generalized Lane-Emden equation, which has a unique solution (denoted by h c ) and the solution determines the best constant for the above generalized Sz. Nagy inequality. The connection between the critical mass {{M}c}={\\int}{R}{{h}c} \\text{d}x=\\frac{2\\sqrt{2}π}{3} for the thin-film equation and the best constant of the Sz. Nagy inequality in one dimension was first noted by Witelski et al (2004 Eur. J. Appl. Math. 15 223-56). For the following critical thin film equation in multi-dimension d≥slant 2 ht+∇ṡ(h ∇Δh)+∇ṡ(h ∇hm)=0,x∈Rd, where m  =  1  +  2/d, the critical mass is also given by {{M}c}:={\\int}{{{R}d}}{{h}c} \\text{d}x . A finite time blow-up occurs for solutions with the initial mass larger than M c . On the other hand, if the initial mass is less than M c and a global non-negative entropy weak solution exists, then the second moment goes to infinity as t\\to ∞ or h≤ft(\\centerdot,{{t}k}\\right)\\rightharpoonup 0 in {{L}1}≤ft({{{R}}d}\\right) for some subsequence {{t}k}\\to ∞ . This shows that a part of the mass spreads to infinity.

  9. Generalized Flow Tracing for the Analysis of Networked Renewable Electricity Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hörsch, Jonas; Becker, Sarah; Schramm, Stefan; Greiner, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Flow allocation methods represent a valuable tool set to analyze the power flows in networked electricity systems. Based on this flow allocation, the costs associated with the usage of the underlying network infrastructure can be assigned to the users of the electricity system. This paper presents a generalization of the flow tracing method that is applicable to arbitrary compositions of inflow appearing naturally in aggregated networks. The composition of inflow is followed from net-generating sources through the network and assigns corresponding shares of the total power flow as well as of the outflow to the net-consuming sinks. We showcase the analytical power of this method for a scenario based on the IEEE 118 bus network and emphasize the need of appropriate aggregating measures, which allow to integrate over whole time series of fluctuating flow patterns.

  10. Restructuring patient flow logistics around patient care needs: implications and practicalities from three critical cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Stefano; Barbieri, Marta; Lega, Federico

    2009-06-01

    To make hospitals more patient-centered it is necessary to intervene on patient flow logistics. The study analyzes three innovative redesign projects implemented at three Italian hospitals. The three hospitals have reorganized patient flow logistics around patient care needs using, as proxies, the expected length of stay and the level of nursing assistance. In order to do this, they have extensively revised their logistical configuration changing: (1) the organization of wards, (2) the hospital's physical lay-out, (3) the capacity planning system, and (4) the organizational roles supporting the patient flow management. The study describes the changes implemented as well as the results achieved and draws some general lessons that provide useful hints for those other hospitals involved in such type of redesign projects. The paper ends by discussing some policy implications. In fact, the results achieved in the three cases investigated provide interesting material for further discussion on clinical, operational, and economic issues.

  11. Self-organized criticality of a catalytic reaction network under flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awazu, Akinori; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    2009-07-01

    Self-organized critical behavior in a catalytic reaction network system induced by smallness in the molecule number is reported. The system under a flow of chemicals is shown to undergo a transition from a stationary to an intermittent reaction phase when the flow rate is decreased. In the intermittent reaction phase, two temporal regimes with active and halted reactions alternate. The number frequency of reaction events at each active regime and its duration time are shown to obey a universal power law with the exponents 4/3 and 3/2, respectively, independently of the parameters and network structure. These power laws are explained by a one-dimensional random-walk representation of the number of catalytically active chemicals. Possible relevance of the result to reaction dynamics in artificial and biological cells is briefly discussed.

  12. Global existence and incompressible limit in critical spaces for compressible flow of liquid crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bie, Qunyi; Cui, Haibo; Wang, Qiru; Yao, Zheng-An

    2017-10-01

    The Cauchy problem for the compressible flow of nematic liquid crystals in the framework of critical spaces is considered. We first establish the existence and uniqueness of global solutions provided that the initial data are close to some equilibrium states. This result improves the work by Hu and Wu (SIAM J Math Anal 45(5):2678-2699, 2013) through relaxing the regularity requirement of the initial data in terms of the director field. Based on the global existence, we then consider the incompressible limit problem for ill prepared initial data. We prove that as the Mach number tends to zero, the global solution to the compressible flow of liquid crystals converges to the solution to the corresponding incompressible model in some function spaces. Moreover, the accurate converge rates are obtained.

  13. Critical decision points in crisis support: using checklists and flow charts in psychological crises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jeffrey T

    2011-01-01

    The field of crisis intervention has grown dramatically during the last hundred years. Many new procedures and techniques have been added to the crisis intervention repertoire. Periodically, providers of crisis intervention, psychological first aid, critical incident stress management, or Peer Support overlook important elements of crisis intervention or make inadvertent mistakes as they attempt to intervene. The use of checklists and flow charts, similar to those used in aviation and medicine, may assist crisis intervention personnel in properly assessing a traumatic event and its impact on the people involved. Simple checklists and flow charts may significantly decrease the potential for mistakes in crisis intervention. This article provides background on the development of flip charts in aviation and medicine and suggests how these tools may be utilized within the field of crisis intervention. Examples of checklists and flow charts that are relevant to crisis intervention are provided. The article also provides guidelines for developing additional checklists and flow charts for use in crisis intervention services.

  14. Experiment on smooth, circular cylinders in cross-flow in the critical Reynolds number regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miau, J.J.; Tsai, H.W.; Lin, Y.J.; Tu, J.K.; Fang, C.H.; Chen, M.C. [National Cheng Kung University, Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Tainan (China)

    2011-10-15

    Experiments were conducted for 2D circular cylinders at Reynolds numbers in the range of 1.73 x 10{sup 5}-5.86 x 10{sup 5}. In the experiment, two circular cylinder models made of acrylic and stainless steel, respectively, were employed, which have similar dimensions but different surface roughness. Particular attention was paid to the unsteady flow behaviors inferred by the signals obtained from the pressure taps on the cylinder models and by a hot-wire probe in the near-wake region. At Reynolds numbers pertaining to the initial transition from the subcritical to the critical regimes, pronounced pressure fluctuations were measured on the surfaces of both cylinder models, which were attributed to the excursion of unsteady flow separation over a large circumferential region. At the Reynolds numbers almost reaching the one-bubble state, it was noted that the development of separation bubble might switch from one side to the other with time. Wavelet analysis of the pressure signals measured simultaneously at {theta} = {+-}90 further revealed that when no separation bubble was developed, the instantaneous vortex-shedding frequencies could be clearly resolved, about 0.2, in terms of the Strouhal number. The results of oil-film flow visualization on the stainless steel cylinder of the one-bubble and two-bubble states showed that the flow reattachment region downstream of a separation bubble appeared not uniform along the span of the model. Thus, the three dimensionality was quite evident. (orig.)

  15. Dual solutions of MHD stagnation point flow and heat transfer over a stretching/shrinking sheet with generalized slip condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ABBAS Zaheer; MASOOD Tahmina; OLANREWAJU Philip Oladapo

    2015-01-01

    An analysis was made to study the steady momentum and heat transfer characteristics of a viscous electrically conducting fluid near a stagnation point due to a stretching/shrinking sheet in the presence of a transverse magnetic field and generalized slip condition. Two flow problems corresponding to the planar and axisymmetric stretching/shrinking sheet were considered. By means of similarity transformations, the obtained resultant nonlinear ordinary differential equations were solved numerically using a shooting method for dual solutions of velocity and temperature profiles. Some important physical features of the flow and heat transfer in terms of the fluid velocity, the temperature distribution, the skin friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number for various values of the controlling governing parameters like velocity slip parameter, critical shear rate, magnetic field, ratio of stretching/shrinking rate to external flow rate and Prandtl number were analyzed and discussed. An increase of the critical shear rate decreases the fluid velocity whereas the local Nusselt number increases. The comparison of the present numerical results with the existing literature in a limiting case is given and found to be in an excellent agreement.

  16. Cyclic and heteroclinic flows near general static spherically symmetric black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Ayyesha K.; Jamil, Mubasher [National University of Sciences and Technology(NUST), Department of Mathematics, School of Natural Sciences (SNS), Islamabad (Pakistan); Azreg-Ainou, Mustapha [Baskent University, Engineering Faculty, Ankara (Turkey); Faizal, Mir [University of Lethbridge, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Alberta (Canada); University of Waterloo, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Waterloo, ON (Canada)

    2016-05-15

    We investigate the Michel-type accretion onto a static spherically symmetric black hole. Using a Hamiltonian dynamical approach, we show that the standard method employed for tackling the accretion problem has masked some properties of the fluid flow. We determine new analytical solutions that are neither transonic nor supersonic as the fluid approaches the horizon(s); rather, they remain subsonic for all values of the radial coordinate. Moreover, the three-velocity vanishes and the pressure diverges on the horizon(s), resulting in a flow-out of the fluid under the effect of its own pressure. This is in favor of the earlier prediction that pressure-dominant regions form near the horizon. This result does not depend on the form of the metric and it applies to a neighborhood of any horizon where the time coordinate is timelike. For anti-de Sitter-like f(R) black holes we discuss the stability of the critical flow and determine separatrix heteroclinic orbits. For de Sitter-like f(R) black holes, we construct polytropic cyclic, non-homoclinic, physical flows connecting the two horizons. These flows become non-relativistic for Hamiltonian values higher than the critical value, allowing for a good estimate of the proper period of the flow. (orig.)

  17. Development of a Water Based, Critical Flow, Non-Vapor Compression cooling Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosni, Mohammad H.

    2014-03-30

    Expansion of a high-pressure liquid refrigerant through the use of a thermostatic expansion valve or other device is commonplace in vapor-compression cycles to regulate the quality and flow rate of the refrigerant entering the evaporator. In vapor-compression systems, as the condensed refrigerant undergoes this expansion, its pressure and temperature drop, and part of the liquid evaporates. We (researchers at Kansas State University) are developing a cooling cycle that instead pumps a high-pressure refrigerant through a supersonic converging-diverging nozzle. As the liquid refrigerant passes through the nozzle, its velocity reaches supersonic (or critical-flow) conditions, substantially decreasing the refrigerant’s pressure. This sharp pressure change vaporizes some of the refrigerant and absorbs heat from the surrounding conditions during this phase change. Due to the design of the nozzle, a shockwave trips the supersonic two-phase refrigerant back to the starting conditions, condensing the remaining vapor. The critical-flow refrigeration cycle would provide space cooling, similar to a chiller, by running a secondary fluid such as water or glycol over one or more nozzles. Rather than utilizing a compressor to raise the pressure of the refrigerant, as in a vapor-cycle system, the critical-flow cycle utilizes a high-pressure pump to drive refrigerant liquid through the cooling cycle. Additionally, the design of the nozzle can be tailored for a given refrigerant, such that environmentally benign substances can act as the working fluid. This refrigeration cycle is still in early-stage development with prototype development several years away. The complex multi-phase flow at supersonic conditions presents numerous challenges to fully understanding and modeling the cycle. With the support of DOE and venture-capital investors, initial research was conducted at PAX Streamline, and later, at Caitin. We (researchers at Kansas State University) have continued development

  18. Variational Approach for Resolving the Flow of Generalized Newtonian Fluids in Circular Pipes and Plane Slits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Sochi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We use a generic and general variational method to obtain solutions to the flow of generalized Newtonian fluids through circular pipes and plane slits. The new method is not based on the use of the Euler-Lagrange variational principle and hence it is totally independent of our previous approach which is based on this principle. Instead, the method applies a very generic and general optimization approach which can be justified by the Dirichlet principle although this is not the only possible theoretical justification. The results that were obtained from the new method using nine types of fluid are in total agreement, within certain restrictions, with the results obtained from the traditional methods of fluid mechanics as well as the results obtained from the previous variational approach. In addition to being a useful method in its own for resolving the flow field in circular pipes and plane slits, the new variational method lends more support to the old variational method as well as for the use of variational principles in general to resolve the flow of generalized Newtonian fluids and obtain all the quantities of the flow field which include shear stress, local viscosity, rate of strain, speed profile, and volumetric flow rate.

  19. How does variability in input load relate to the probability of critically delayed delivery in a simple Multipart Re-entrant Flow-line problem?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erland Hejn

    2003-01-01

    of the estimation of the probability of critically delayed delivery beyond a specified threshold value given a certain production batch size and try to establish a relation to certain parameters that can be linked to the degree of regularity of the arrival stream of parts to the job/flow-shop. This last aspect...... relates remotely to the Lean Thinking philosophy that praises the smooth and uninterrupted production flow to be beneficial to the overall operation of productive plants in general, and we will link our findings to this discussion as well....

  20. A generalized network flow model for the multi-mode resource-constrained project scheduling problem with discounted cash flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Miawjane; Yan, Shangyao; Wang, Sin-Siang; Liu, Chiu-Lan

    2015-02-01

    An effective project schedule is essential for enterprises to increase their efficiency of project execution, to maximize profit, and to minimize wastage of resources. Heuristic algorithms have been developed to efficiently solve the complicated multi-mode resource-constrained project scheduling problem with discounted cash flows (MRCPSPDCF) that characterize real problems. However, the solutions obtained in past studies have been approximate and are difficult to evaluate in terms of optimality. In this study, a generalized network flow model, embedded in a time-precedence network, is proposed to formulate the MRCPSPDCF with the payment at activity completion times. Mathematically, the model is formulated as an integer network flow problem with side constraints, which can be efficiently solved for optimality, using existing mathematical programming software. To evaluate the model performance, numerical tests are performed. The test results indicate that the model could be a useful planning tool for project scheduling in the real world.

  1. General relativistic hydrodynamic flows around a static compact object in final stages of accretion flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Ghanbari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Dynamics of stationary axisymmetric configuration of the viscous accreting fluids surrounding a non-rotating compact object in final stages of accretion flow is presented here. For the special case of thin disk approximation, the relativistic fluid equations ignoring self-gravity of the disk are derived in Schwarzschild geometry. For two different state equations, two sets of self-consistent analytical solutions of fully relativistic fluid equations are obtained separately. The effect of bulk viscosity coefficient on the physical functions are investigated for each state equation, as well as the bounds that exert on the free parameters due to the condition of accretion flow in the last stages. The solutions found show that the radial and azimuthal velocities, density and pressure of the fluid increase inwards for both state equations. Also, viscosity has no effect on the velocities and density distributions in both state equations. Two state equations show different types of behavior with respect to the bulk viscosity coefficient. For p=K state equation, if there is no bulk viscosity, the pressure remains constant throughout the disk, whereas with increasing bulk viscosity the pressure falls off in the inner regions but soon stabilizes at an almost constant value. However, for p=ρc2 state equation, the pressure is never constant, even in the absence of bulk viscosity. The larger the value of ηb, the higher the value of pressure in the inner regions.

  2. Calculation of three-dimensional transonic flows in turbomachinery with generalized von Mises corrdinate system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈孟育; 刘秋生; 张增产

    1996-01-01

    An efficient numerical method for calculating the three-dimensional transonic flows in turbomachinery is proposed. Instead of the Euler equation, streamsurface-governing equations are deduced in the generalized von Mises coordinate system to reflect the flow feature in turbomachinery. Its main advantage is that it is easier to specify more reasonable initial values, i.e. initial streamsurface position, thus accelerating the convergence rate of the iteration process. Moreover, to use the generalized von Mises coordinates makes the present method capable of incorporating the calculation of the flow field, design and modification of the blade contour into a unified algorithm. A rotated finite difference scheme for the streamsurface-governing equations is constructed, and a new measure is presented to deal with the double-value problem of the velocity and density caused by the application of the stream functions as coordinates in the transonic flow. Three test cases were considered with the present approach

  3. Pressure Gradient Influence on MHD Flow for Generalized Burgers’ Fluid with Slip Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada H. Ibraheem,

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a research for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD flow of an incompressible generalized Burgers' fluid including by an accelerating plate and flowing under the action of pressure gradient. Where the no – slip assumption between the wall and the fluid is no longer valid. The fractional calculus approach is introduced to establish the constitutive relationship of the generalized Burgers' fluid. By using the discrete Laplace transform of the sequential fractional derivatives, a closed form solutions for the velocity and shear stress are obtained in terms of Fox H- function for the following two problems: (i flow due to a constant pressure gradient, and (ii flow due to due to a sinusoidal pressure gradient. The solutions for no – slip condition and no magnetic field, can be derived as special cases of our solutions. Furthermore, the effects of various parameters on the velocity distribution characteristics are analyzed and discussed in detail. Comparison between the two cases is also made.

  4. Transient critical heat flux under flow coast-down in vertical annulus with non-uniform heat flux distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, S.K.; Chun, S.Y.; Choi, K.Y.; Yang, S.K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-07-01

    An experimental study on transient critical heat flux (CHF) under flow coast-down has been performed for water flow in a non-uniformly heated vertical annulus under low flow and a wide range of pressure conditions. The objectives of this study are to systematically investigate the effect of the flow transient on the CHF and to compare the transient CHF with steady state CHF. The transient CHF experiments have been performed for three kinds of flow transient modes based on the coast-down data of the Kori 3/4 nuclear power plant reactor coolant pump. Most of the CHFs occurred in the annular-mist flow regime. Thus, it means that the possible CHF mechanism might be the liquid film dryout in the annular-mist flow regime. For flow transient mode with the smallest flow reduction rate, the time-to-CHF is the largest. At the same inlet subcooling, system pressure and heat flux, the effect of the initial mass flux on the critical mass flux can be negligible. However, the effect of the initial mass flux on the time-to-CHF becomes large as the heat flux decreases. Usually, the critical mass flux is large for slow flow reduction. There is a pressure effect on the ratio of the transient CHF data to steady state CHF data. Some conventional correlations show relatively better CHF prediction results for high system pressure, high quality and slow transient modes than for low system pressure, low quality and fast transient modes. (author)

  5. Identification of critical paralog groups with indispensable roles in the regulation of signaling flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modos, Dezso; Brooks, Johanne; Fazekas, David; Ari, Eszter; Vellai, Tibor; Csermely, Peter; Korcsmaros, Tamas; Lenti, Katalin

    2016-12-06

    Extensive cross-talk between signaling pathways is required to integrate the myriad of extracellular signal combinations at the cellular level. Gene duplication events may lead to the emergence of novel functions, leaving groups of similar genes - termed paralogs - in the genome. To distinguish critical paralog groups (CPGs) from other paralogs in human signaling networks, we developed a signaling network-based method using cross-talk annotation and tissue-specific signaling flow analysis. 75 CPGs were found with higher degree, betweenness centrality, closeness, and 'bowtieness' when compared to other paralogs or other proteins in the signaling network. CPGs had higher diversity in all these measures, with more varied biological functions and more specific post-transcriptional regulation than non-critical paralog groups (non-CPG). Using TGF-beta, Notch and MAPK pathways as examples, SMAD2/3, NOTCH1/2/3 and MEK3/6-p38 CPGs were found to regulate the signaling flow of their respective pathways. Additionally, CPGs showed a higher mutation rate in both inherited diseases and cancer, and were enriched in drug targets. In conclusion, the results revealed two distinct types of paralog groups in the signaling network: CPGs and non-CPGs. Thus highlighting the importance of CPGs as compared to non-CPGs in drug discovery and disease pathogenesis.

  6. Critical gradients and plasma flows in the edge plasma of Alcator C-Moda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labombard, B.; Hughes, J. W.; Smick, N.; Graf, A.; Marr, K.; McDermott, R.; Reinke, M.; Greenwald, M.; Lipschultz, B.; Terry, J. L.; Whyte, D. G.; Zweben, S. J.; Alcator C-Mod Team

    2008-05-01

    Recent experiments have led to a fundamental shift in our view of edge transport physics; transport near the last-closed flux surface may be more appropriately described in terms of a critical gradient phenomenon rather than a diffusive and/or convective paradigm. Edge pressure gradients, normalized by the square of the poloidal magnetic field strength, appear invariant in plasmas with the same normalized collisionality, despite vastly different currents and magnetic fields—a behavior that connects with first-principles electromagnetic plasma turbulence simulations. Near-sonic scrape-off layer (SOL) flows impose a cocurrent rotation boundary condition on the confined plasma when B ×∇B points toward the active x-point, suggesting a link to the concomitant reduction in input power needed to attain high-confinement modes. Indeed, low-confinement mode plasmas are found to attain higher edge pressure gradients in this configuration, independent of the direction of B, evidence that SOL flows may affect transport and "critical gradient" values in the edge plasma.

  7. Contact process on generalized Fibonacci chains: infinite-modulation criticality and double-log periodic oscillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barghathi, Hatem; Nozadze, David; Vojta, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    We study the nonequilibrium phase transition of the contact process with aperiodic transition rates using a real-space renormalization group as well as Monte Carlo simulations. The transition rates are modulated according to the generalized Fibonacci sequences defined by the inflation rules A → ABk and B → A. For k=1 and 2, the aperiodic fluctuations are irrelevant, and the nonequilibrium transition is in the clean directed percolation universality class. For k≥3, the aperiodic fluctuations are relevant. We develop a complete theory of the resulting unconventional "infinite-modulation" critical point, which is characterized by activated dynamical scaling. Moreover, observables such as the survival probability and the size of the active cloud display pronounced double-log periodic oscillations in time which reflect the discrete scale invariance of the aperiodic chains. We illustrate our theory by extensive numerical results, and we discuss relations to phase transitions in other quasiperiodic systems.

  8. Phase transition and critical phenomena of black holes: A general approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Abhijit; Samanta, Saurav; Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan

    2016-09-01

    We present a general framework to study the phase transition of a black hole. Assuming that there is a phase transition, it is shown that without invoking any specific black hole, the critical exponents and the scaling powers can be obtained. We find that the values, which were calculated by taking explicit forms of different black hole spacetimes, are exactly the same. The reason for this universality is also explained. The implication of the analysis is that one does not need to investigate this problem case by case, as researchers are doing right now. We also observe that these values, except for two such quantities, are independent of the details of the spacetime dimensions.

  9. Interfacial wave behavior in oil-water channel flows: Prospects for a general understanding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCready, M.J.; Uphold, D.D.; Gifford, K.A. [Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Oil-water pressure driven channel flow is examined as a model for general two-layer flows where interfacial disturbances are important. The goal is to develop sufficient understanding of this system so that the utility and limitations of linear and nonlinear theories can be known a priori. Experiments show that sometimes linear stability is useful at predicting the steady or dominant evolving waves. However in other situations there is no agreement between the linearly fastest growing wave and the spectral peak. An interesting preliminary result is that the bifurcation to interfacial waves is supercritical for all conditions that were studied for an oil-water channel flow, gas-liquid channel flow and two-liquid Couette flow. However, three different mechanisms are dominant for each of these three situations.

  10. An exact solution of unsteady Couette flow of generalized second grade fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The fractional calculus approach is introduced into the rheological constitutive model of a generalized second grade fluid. A constitutive model with fractional derivative is developed for the generalized second grade fluid. Unsteady Couette flow of the generalized second grade fluid is studied by using the method of the discrete inverse Laplace transform and generalized Mittag-Leffler function. And then an exact solution is obtained for this problem with arbitrary fractional derivative. This provides a new analytical tool for the study of viscoelastic fluid mechanics.

  11. Emergence of criticality in the transportation passenger flow: scaling and renormalization in the Seoul bus system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segun Goh

    Full Text Available Social systems have recently attracted much attention, with attempts to understand social behavior with the aid of statistical mechanics applied to complex systems. Collective properties of such systems emerge from couplings between components, for example, individual persons, transportation nodes such as airports or subway stations, and administrative districts. Among various collective properties, criticality is known as a characteristic property of a complex system, which helps the systems to respond flexibly to external perturbations. This work considers the criticality of the urban transportation system entailed in the massive smart card data on the Seoul transportation network. Analyzing the passenger flow on the Seoul bus system during one week, we find explicit power-law correlations in the system, that is, power-law behavior of the strength correlation function of bus stops and verify scale invariance of the strength fluctuations. Such criticality is probed by means of the scaling and renormalization analysis of the modified gravity model applied to the system. Here a group of nearby (bare bus stops are transformed into a (renormalized "block stop" and the scaling relations of the network density turn out to be closely related to the fractal dimensions of the system, revealing the underlying structure. Specifically, the resulting renormalized values of the gravity exponent and of the Hill coefficient give a good description of the Seoul bus system: The former measures the characteristic dimensionality of the network whereas the latter reflects the coupling between distinct transportation modes. It is thus demonstrated that such ideas of physics as scaling and renormalization can be applied successfully to social phenomena exemplified by the passenger flow.

  12. Emergence of criticality in the transportation passenger flow: scaling and renormalization in the Seoul bus system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Segun; Lee, Keumsook; Choi, Moo Young; Fortin, Jean-Yves

    2014-01-01

    Social systems have recently attracted much attention, with attempts to understand social behavior with the aid of statistical mechanics applied to complex systems. Collective properties of such systems emerge from couplings between components, for example, individual persons, transportation nodes such as airports or subway stations, and administrative districts. Among various collective properties, criticality is known as a characteristic property of a complex system, which helps the systems to respond flexibly to external perturbations. This work considers the criticality of the urban transportation system entailed in the massive smart card data on the Seoul transportation network. Analyzing the passenger flow on the Seoul bus system during one week, we find explicit power-law correlations in the system, that is, power-law behavior of the strength correlation function of bus stops and verify scale invariance of the strength fluctuations. Such criticality is probed by means of the scaling and renormalization analysis of the modified gravity model applied to the system. Here a group of nearby (bare) bus stops are transformed into a (renormalized) "block stop" and the scaling relations of the network density turn out to be closely related to the fractal dimensions of the system, revealing the underlying structure. Specifically, the resulting renormalized values of the gravity exponent and of the Hill coefficient give a good description of the Seoul bus system: The former measures the characteristic dimensionality of the network whereas the latter reflects the coupling between distinct transportation modes. It is thus demonstrated that such ideas of physics as scaling and renormalization can be applied successfully to social phenomena exemplified by the passenger flow.

  13. Generalizing the Reynolds number from turbulence to Self Organized Criticality and ecosystems

    CERN Document Server

    Chapman, S C; Watkins, N W

    2007-01-01

    In fluid turbulence a single control parameter, the Reynolds number R_E, which is a function of macroscopic system variables is sufficient to quantify the transition from ordered (laminar) to disordered (turbulent) flow. We suggest that a wider class of systems has this property, including Self Organized Criticality (SOC) and ecosystem models for species abundance. These systems can all be driven into a state with defining characteristics: they have many degrees of freedom (d.o.f.); are driven, dissipating and out of equilibrium; are on average in a steady state; and show scaling over a large dynamic range. The Reynolds number expresses the number of d.o.f., or energy carrying modes in the system. For avalanche models exhibiting SOC, d.o.f. refer to avalanche sizes and the Reynolds number R_A that we identify is simply the well known ratio of the driving rate to system dissipation rate. The SOC slowly driven interaction dominated limit is reached by taking R_A to zero; we show this maximizes the number of d.o...

  14. Analysis and generalization of experimental data on heat transfer to supercritical pressure water flow in annular channels and rod bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deev, V. I.; Kharitonov, V. S.; Churkin, A. N.

    2017-02-01

    Experimental data on heat transfer to supercritical pressure water presented at ISSCWR-5, 6, and 7 international symposiums—which took place in 2011-2015 in Canada, China, and Finland—and data printed in recent periodical scientific publications were analyzed. Results of experiments with annular channels and three- and four-rod bundles of heating elements positioned in square or triangular grids were examined. Methodology used for round pipes was applied at generalization of experimental data and establishing of correlations suitable for engineering analysis of heat exchange coefficient in conditions of strongly changing water properties in the near-critical pressure region. Empiric formulas describing normal heat transfer to supercritical pressure water mowing in annular channels and rod bundles were obtained. As compared to existing recommendations, suggested correlations are distinguished by specified dependency of heat exchange coefficient on density of heat flux and mass flow velocity of water near pseudo-critical temperature. Differences between computed values of heat exchange coefficient and experimental data usually do not exceed ±25%. Detailed statistical analysis of deviations between computed and experimental results at different states of supercritical pressure water flow was carried out. Peculiarities of deteriorated heat exchange were considered and their existence boundaries were defined. Experimental results obtained for these regimes were generalized using criteria by J.D. Jackson that take the influence of thermal acceleration and Archimedes forces on heat exchange processes into account. Satisfactory agreement between experimental data on heat exchange at flowing of water in annular channels and rod bundles and data for round pipes was shown.

  15. An integrated model to assess critical rain fall thresholds for the critical run-out distances of debris flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Asch, Th.W.J.; Tang, C.; Alkema, D.; Zhu, J.; Zhou, W.

    2013-01-01

    A dramatic increase in debris flows occurred in the years after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake in SW China due to the deposition of loose co-seismic landslide material. This paper proposes a preliminary integrated model, which describes the relationship between rain input and debris flow run-out in or

  16. Electrohydrodynamic migration of a spherical drop in a general quadratic flow

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, Shubhadeep; Chakraborty, Suman

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the motion of a spherical drop in a general quadratic flow acted upon by an arbitrarily oriented externally applied uniform electric field. The drop and media are considered to be leaky dielectrics. The flow field affects the distribution of charges on the drop surface, which leads to alteration in the electric field, thereby affecting the velocity field through the Maxwell stress on the fluid-fluid interface. The two-way coupled electrohydrodynamics is central towards dictating the motion of the drop in the flow field. We analytically address the electric potential distribution and Stokesian flow field in and around the drop in a general quadratic flow for small electric Reynolds number (which is the ratio of the charge relaxation time scale to the convective time scale). As a special case, we consider a drop in an unbounded cylindrical Poiseuille flow and show that, an otherwise absent, cross-stream drop migration may be obtained in the presence of a uniform electric field. Depending on the d...

  17. Faculty Approaches to Assessing Critical Thinking in the Humanities and the Natural and Social Sciences: Implications for General Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, Mark C.; Labig, Chalmer E., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    An analysis of interviews, focus-group discussions, assessment instruments, and assignment prompts revealed that within general education, faculty assessed critical thinking as faceted using methods and criteria that varied epistemically across disciplines. Faculty approaches were misaligned with discipline-general institutional approaches.…

  18. Slip effects on a generalized Burgers’ fluid flow between two side walls with fractional derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shihao Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a research for the 3D flow of a generalized Burgers’ fluid between two side walls generated by an exponential accelerating plate and a constant pressure gradient, where the no-slip assumption between the exponential accelerating plate and the Burgers’ fluid is no longer valid. The governing equations of the generalized Burgers’ fluid flow are established by using the fractional calculus approach. Exact analytic solutions for the 3D flow are established by employing the Laplace transform and the finite Fourier sine transform. Furthermore, some 3D and 2D figures for the fluid velocity and shear stress are plotted to analyze and discuss the effects of various parameters.

  19. Generalized Fleming-Viot processes with immigration via stochastic flows of partitions

    CERN Document Server

    Foucart, Clément

    2011-01-01

    The generalized Fleming-Viot processes were defined in 1999 by Donnelly and Kurtz using a particle model and by Bertoin and Le Gall in 2003 using stochastic flows of bridges. In both methods, the key argument used to characterize these processes is the duality between these processes and exchangeable coalescents. A larger class of coalescent processes, called distinguished coalescents, was set up recently to incorporate an immigration phenomenon in the underlying population. The purpose of this article is to define and characterize a class of probability-measure valued processes called the generalized Fleming-Viot processes with immigration. We consider some stochastic flows of partitions of Z_{+}, in the same spirit as Bertoin and Le Gall's flows, replacing roughly speaking, composition of bridges by coagulation of partitions. Identifying at any time a population with the integers $\\mathbb{N}:=\\{1,2,...\\}$, the formalism of partitions is effective in the past as well as in the future especially when there ar...

  20. Magnetohydrodynamic flow of generalized Maxwell fluids in a rectangular micropump under an AC electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Guangpu [School of Mathematical Science, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia 010021 (China); Jian, Yongjun, E-mail: jianyj@imu.edu.cn [School of Mathematical Science, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia 010021 (China); Chang, Long [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Inner Mongolia University of Finance and Economics, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia 010051 (China); Buren, Mandula [School of Mathematical Science, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia 010021 (China)

    2015-08-01

    By using the method of separation of variables, an analytical solution for the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of the generalized Maxwell fluids under AC electric field through a two-dimensional rectangular micropump is reduced. By the numerical computation, the variations of velocity profiles with the electrical oscillating Reynolds number Re, the Hartmann number Ha, the dimensionless relaxation time De are studied graphically. Further, the comparison with available experimental data and relevant researches is presented. - Highlights: • MHD flow of the generalized Maxwell fluids under AC electric field is analyzed. • The MHD flow is confined to a two-dimensional rectangular micropump. • Analytical solution is obtained by using the method of separation of variables. • The influences of related parameters on the MHD velocity are discussed.

  1. Consideration notes on the critical rainfall threshold to predict the triggering of pyroclastic flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotto di Santolo, A.

    2009-04-01

    This paper reports the results of a theoretical analysis carried out designed to evaluate meteoric events that can be defined as critical since they are capable of triggering landslides in partially saturated pyroclastic soils. The study refers to analyses of the pyroclastic covers in the area of Campania, Italy, which is often affected by complex phenomena that begin as rotational or translational slide or fall and evolve into rapid landslides as earth-flows (debris or mud as function of grain size distributions). The prediction of triggering factors is of extreme importance for the implementation of civic protection schemes, given the dynamic features that characterize these phenomena during their evolution. The study highlights the fact that it is impossible to define the criticality of a meteoric event by means of empiric laws that correlate the mean intensity of rainfall and the "mean" duration of the event. However, it is possible to identify the criticality of a meteoric event in partially saturated soils, by means of a more complex approach which is physically conditioned. The rainfall is critical if it is capable of causing the rainwater to filter into the subsoil into "weak" layers where there is an increase in the specific volume with a significant reduction of the suction and resistance to the shear of the terrain (Fredlund et al., 78). This study focuses exclusively on seepage, regardless of the resistance of the soil, by analyzing, among various aspects, the phenomenon using a simplified subsoil model. For this study, it is assumed that the rainfall is critical when it is capable of saturating the soil cover for a predefined summit thickness Zc. For the purposes of this study, value Zc could be given an arbitrary value. This has been assumed to be 1m, considering that the experimental evidence has shown that rapid flows, at least when triggered, prove to be superficial. The other hypotheses are: • 1D infiltration, • Rigid solid skeleton;

  2. In-airway molecular flow sensing: A new technology for continuous, noninvasive monitoring of oxygen consumption in critical care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaffoni, Luca; O'Neill, David P; Couper, John H; Ritchie, Grant A D; Hancock, Gus; Robbins, Peter A

    2016-08-01

    There are no satisfactory methods for monitoring oxygen consumption in critical care. To address this, we adapted laser absorption spectroscopy to provide measurements of O2, CO2, and water vapor within the airway every 10 ms. The analyzer is integrated within a novel respiratory flow meter that is an order of magnitude more precise than other flow meters. Such precision, coupled with the accurate alignment of gas concentrations with respiratory flow, makes possible the determination of O2 consumption by direct integration over time of the product of O2 concentration and flow. The precision is illustrated by integrating the balance gas (N2 plus Ar) flow and showing that this exchange was near zero. Measured O2 consumption changed by <5% between air and O2 breathing. Clinical capability was illustrated by recording O2 consumption during an aortic aneurysm repair. This device now makes easy, accurate, and noninvasive measurement of O2 consumption for intubated patients in critical care possible.

  3. General Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of the Hard State as a Magnetically-Dominated Accretion Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Fragile, P Chris

    2008-01-01

    (Abridged) We present one of the first physically-motivated two-dimensional general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) numerical simulations of a radiatively-cooled black-hole accretion disk. The fiducial simulation combines a total-energy-conserving formulation with a radiative cooling function, which includes bremsstrahlung, synchrotron, and Compton effects. By comparison with other simulations we show that in optically thin advection-dominated accretion flows, radiative cooling can significantly affect the structure, without necessarily leading to an optically thick, geometrically thin accretion disk. We further compare the results of our radiatively-cooled simulation to the predictions of a previously developed analytic model for such flows. For the very low stress parameter and accretion rate found in our simulated disk, we closely match a state called the "transition" solution between an outer advection-dominated accretion flow and what would be a magnetically-dominated accretion flow (MDAF) in th...

  4. Oscillations in a flexible channel flow of a generalized Newtonian fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Goswami, Prakash; Chakraborty, Suman

    2016-01-01

    We study the flow of a generalized Newtonian fluid, characterized by a power-law model, through a channel consisting of a wall with a flexible membrane under longitudinal tension. It is assumed that at steady state the flow through the channel admits a constant flux unidirectional flow profile, while for the unsteady case, we employ the long wave approximation and use a set of reduced equations to describe the variation of the shape of the membrane (assumed to be massless and elastic) and the variation of the fluid-flux. By means of asymptotic expansion, multiscale analysis and full numerical solutions of the pertinent governing equations, we show that depending upon the Reynolds number and the membrane stress, the flow behaviour for a shear-thinning, shear-thickening and Newtonian fluid may be markedly different, being oscillatory for one while chaotic for the other. The results presented herein hold practical relevance for several biologically relevant processes involving transport of rheologically complex ...

  5. A TRUST REGION ALGORITHM VIA BILEVEL LINEAR PROGRAMMING FOR SOLVING THE GENERAL MULTICOMMODITY MINIMAL COST FLOW PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhuDetong

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a nonmonotonic backtracking trust region algorithm via bilevel linear programming for solving the general multicommodity minimal cost flow problems. Using the duality theory of the linear programming and convex theory, the generalized directional derivative of the general multicommodity minimal cost flow problems is derived. The global convergence and superlinear convergence rate of the proposed algorithm are established under some mild conditions.

  6. Learning to Improve: Using Writing to Increase Critical Thinking Performance in General Education Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Quitadamo, Ian J.; Kurtz, Martha J.

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, national stakeholders express concern that U.S. college graduates cannot adequately solve problems and think critically. As a set of cognitive abilities, critical thinking skills provide students with tangible academic, personal, and professional benefits that may ultimately address these concerns. As an instructional method, writing has long been perceived as a way to improve critical thinking. In the current study, the researchers compared critical thinking performance of stud...

  7. Learning to Improve: Using Writing to Increase Critical Thinking Performance in General Education Biology

    OpenAIRE

    Quitadamo, Ian J.; Kurtz, Martha J.

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, national stakeholders express concern that U.S. college graduates cannot adequately solve problems and think critically. As a set of cognitive abilities, critical thinking skills provide students with tangible academic, personal, and professional benefits that may ultimately address these concerns. As an instructional method, writing has long been perceived as a way to improve critical thinking. In the current study, the researchers compared critical thinking performance of stud...

  8. Occurrence of critical heat flux during blowdown with flow reversal. [PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, J C.M.

    1977-01-01

    A small-scale experiment using Freon-11 at 130/sup 0/F (54.4/sup 0/C) and 65 psia (0.45 MPa) in a well-instrumented, transparent annular test section was used to study the occurrence of critical heat flux (CHF) during blowdown with flow reversal. The inner stainless steel tube of the annulus was uniformly heated over its 61-cm length. Inlet and exit void fractions were measured by a capacitance technique. Flow-regime transition was observed with high-speed photography. A 1-hr contact time between Freon-11 and nitrogen at 130/sup 0/F (54.4/sup 0/C) and 60 psig (0.517 MPa) was found to greatly affect the steady-state subcooled-boiling initial conditions. Delay in bubble growth was observed in adiabatic blowdown runs. This was caused by the conditions of thermodynamic nonequilibrium required for the unstable bubble growth. For the diabatic runs, equilibrium was more closely approached in the test section during the early phase of blowdown.

  9. Stocks, Flows, and Distribution of Critical Metals in Embedded Electronics in Passenger Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Eliette; Løvik, Amund N; Wäger, Patrick; Widmer, Rolf; Lonka, Radek; Müller, Daniel B

    2017-02-07

    One of the major applications of critical metals (CMs) is in electrical and electronic equipment (EEE), which is increasingly embedded in other products, notably passenger vehicles. However, recycling strategies for future CM quantities in end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) are poorly understood, mainly due to a limited understating of the complexity of automotive embedded EEE. We introduce a harmonization of the network structure of automotive electronics that enables a comprehensive quantification of CMs in all embedded EEE in a vehicle. This network is combined with a material flow analysis along the vehicle lifecycle in Switzerland to quantify the stocks and flows of Ag, Au, Pd, Ru, Dy, La, Nd, and Co in automotive embedded EEE. In vehicles in use, we calculated 5-2(+3) t precious metals in controllers embedded in all vehicle types and 220-60(+90) t rare earth elements (REE); found mainly in five electric motors: alternator, starter, radiator-fan and electronic power steering motor embedded in conventional passenger vehicles and drive motor/generator embedded in hybrid and electric vehicles. Dismantling these devices before ELV shredding, as well as postshredder treatment of automobile shredder residue may increase the recovery of CMs from ELVs. Environmental and economic implications of such recycling strategies must be considered.

  10. Characteristics of qualitative studies in influential journals of general medicine: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Slingsby, Brian Taylor; Takahashi, Miyako; Hayashi, Yoko; Sugimori, Hiroki; Nakayama, Takeo

    2009-12-01

    Although qualitative studies have increased since the 1990s, some reports note that relatively few influential journals published them up until 2000. This study critically reviewed the characteristics of qualitative studies published in top tier medical journals since 2000. We assessed full texts of qualitative studies published between 2000 and 2004 in the Annals of Internal Medicine, BMJ, JAMA, Lancet, and New England Journal of Medicine. We found 80 qualitative studies, of which 73 (91%) were published in BMJ. Only 10 studies (13%) combined qualitative and quantitative methods. Sixty-two studies (78%) used only one method of data collection. Interviews dominated the choice of data collection. The median sample size was 36 (range: 9-383). Thirty-three studies (41%) did not specify the type of analysis used but rather described the analytic process in detail. The rest indicated the mode of data analysis, in which the most prevalent methods were the constant comparative method (23%) and the grounded theory approach (22%). Qualitative data analysis software was used by 33 studies (41%). Among influential journals of general medicine, only BMJ consistently published an average of 15 qualitative study reports between 2000 and 2004. These findings lend insight into what qualities and characteristics make a qualitative study worthy of consideration to be published in an influential journal, primarily BMJ.

  11. How does variability in input load relate to the probability of critically delayed delivery in a simple Multipart Re-entrant Flow-line problem?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erland Hejn

    2003-01-01

    of the estimation of the probability of critically delayed delivery beyond a specified threshold value given a certain production batch size and try to establish a relation to certain parameters that can be linked to the degree of regularity of the arrival stream of parts to the job/flow-shop. This last aspect......In this paper we will discuss aspects of the computation of tail-probabilities by simulation in the context of a generic job/flow-shop model consisting of structural elements such as bottle-necks, re-entrance as well as a mixture of these two fundamental types of production complexity and all...... relates remotely to the Lean Thinking philosophy that praises the smooth and uninterrupted production flow to be beneficial to the overall operation of productive plants in general, and we will link our findings to this discussion as well....

  12. Boundary Layer Flow and Heat Transfer over a Permeable Exponentially Stretching/Shrinking Sheet with Generalized Slip Velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezad Hafidzuddin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the steady laminar boundary layer flow and heat transfer over a permeable exponentially stretching/shrinking sheet with generalized slip velocity is studied. The flow and heat transfer induced by stretching/shrinking sheets are important in the study of extrusion processes and is a subject of considerable interest in the contemporary literature. Appropriate similarity variables are used to transform the governing nonlinear partial differential equations to a system of nonlinear ordinary (similarity differential equations. The transformed equations are then solved numerically using the bvp4c function in MATLAB. Dual (upper and lower branch solutions are found for a certain range of the suction and stretching/shrinking parameters. Stability analysis is performed to determine which solutions are stable and physically realizable and which are not stable. The effects of suction parameter, stretching/shrinking parameter, velocity slip parameter, critical shear rate and Prandtl number on the skin friction and heat transfer coefficients as well as the velocity and temperature profiles are presented and discussed in detail. It is found that the introduction of the generalized slip boundary condition resulted in the reduction of the local skin friction coefficient and local Nusselt number. Finally, it is concluded from the stability analysis that the first (upper branch solution is stable while the second (lower branch solution is not stable.

  13. Dynamic wettability alteration in immiscible two-phase flow in porous media: Effect on transport properties and critical slowing down

    CERN Document Server

    Flovik, Vegard; Hansen, Alex

    2015-01-01

    The change in contact angles due to the injection of low salinity water or any other wettability altering agent in an oil-rich porous medium is modeled by a network model of disordered pores transporting two immiscible fluids. We introduce a dynamic wettability altering mechanism, where the time dependent wetting property of each pore is determined by the cumulative flow of water through it. Simulations are performed to reach steady-state for different possible alterations in the wetting angle ($\\theta$). We find that deviation from oil-wet conditions re-mobilizes the stuck clusters and increases the oil fractional flow. However, the rate of increase in the fractional flow depends strongly on $\\theta$ and as $\\theta\\to 90^\\circ$, a critical angle, the system shows critical slowing down which is characterized by two dynamic critical exponents.

  14. Dynamic wettability alteration in immiscible two-phase flow in porous media: Effect on transport properties and critical slowing down

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vegard eFlovik

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The change in contact angles due to the injection of low salinity water or any other wettability altering agent in an oil-rich porous medium is modeled by a network model of disordered pores transporting two immiscible fluids. We introduce a dynamic wettability altering mechanism, where the time dependent wetting property of each pore is determined by the cumulative flow of water through it. Simulations are performed to reach steady-state for different possible alterations in the wetting angle (θ. We find that deviation from oil-wet conditions re-mobilizes the stuck clusters and increases the oil fractional flow. However, the rate of increase in the fractional flow depends strongly on θ and as θ → 90◦ , a critical angle, the system shows critical slowing down which is characterized by two dynamic critical exponents.

  15. A general theory of two- and three-dimensional rotational flow in subsonic and transonic turbomachines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chung-Hua

    1993-01-01

    This report represents a general theory applicable to axial, radial, and mixed flow turbomachines operating at subsonic and supersonic speeds with a finite number of blades of finite thickness. References reflect the evolution of computational methods used, from the inception of the theory in the 50's to the high-speed computer era of the 90's. Two kinds of relative stream surfaces, S(sub 1) and S(sub 2), are introduced for the purpose of obtaining a three-dimensional flow solution through the combination of two-dimensional flow solutions. Nonorthogonal curvilinear coordinates are used for the governing equations. Methods of computing transonic flow along S(sub 1) and S(sub 2) stream surfaces are given for special cases as well as for fully three-dimensional transonic flows. Procedures pertaining to the direct solutions and inverse solutions are presented. Information on shock wave locations and shapes needed for computations are discussed. Experimental data from a Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt fur Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DFVLR) rotor and from a Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) transonic compressor rotor are compared with the computed flow properties.

  16. Review:Liquid film dryout model for predicting critical heat flux in annular two-phase flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo JIAO; Li-min QIU; Jun-liang LU; Zhi-hua GAN

    2009-01-01

    Gas-liquid two-phase flow and heat transfer can be encountered in numerous fields, such as chemical engineering, refrigeration, nuclear power reactor, metallurgical industry, spaceflight. Its critical heat flux (CHF) is one of the most important factors for the system security of engineering applications. Since annular flow is the most common flow pattern in gas-liquid two-phase flow, predicting CHF of annular two-phase flow is more significant. Many studies have shown that the liquid film dryout model is successful for that prediction, and determining the following parameters will exert predominant effects on the accuracy of this model: onset of annular flow, inception criterion for droplets entrainment, entrainment fraction, droplets deposi-tion and entrainment rates. The main theoretical results achieved on the above five parameters are reviewed; also, limitations in the existing studies and problems for further research are discussed.

  17. Impact of critical thinking disposition, general self-efficacy, and leadership on clinical competence in nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jee Won; Kim, Chun Ja; Kim, Yong Soon; Yoo, Moon Sook; Yoo, Hyera; Chae, Sun Mi; Ahn, Jeong Ah

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships among critical thinking disposition, general self-efficacy, leadership and clinical competence, and identify the factors influencing clinical competence in nursing students. In this descriptive study, 153 nursing students (from 2nd to 4th school year) of a university in South Korea were enrolled in December 2010. The instruments for this study were the Korean versions of the Critical Thinking Disposition Scale, General Self-Efficacy Scale, Leadership Inventory, and Clinical Competence Scale. Data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, t-test, MANOVA, Pearson correlation, and multiple linear regression with PASW 18.0 software. The mean scores (ranging from 1 to 5) in nursing students for critical thinking disposition, general self-efficacy, leadership, and clinical competence were 3.44, 3.51, 3.55, and 3.42, respectively. Positive correlations were found for clinical competence with critical thinking disposition, general self-efficacy, and leadership. The strongest predictor of clinical competence was leadership. In addition, leadership, nursing school year, and subjective academic achievement accounted for 34.5% of variance in clinical competence. This study revealed that developing leadership, critical thinking disposition, and self-efficacy in undergraduate nursing education is important to improve clinical competence of nursing students.

  18. Ricci flow, Killing spinors, and T-duality in generalized geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Fernandez, Mario

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a notion of Ricci flow in generalized geometry, extending a previous definition by Gualtieri on exact Courant algebroids. Special stationary points of the flow are given by solutions to first-order differential equations, the Killing spinor equations, which encompass special holonomy metrics with solutions of the Strominger system. Our main result investigates a method to produce new solutions of the Ricci flow and the Killing spinor equations. For this, we consider T-duality between possibly topologically distinct torus bundles endowed with Courant structures, and demonstrate that solutions of the equations are exchanged under this symmetry. As applications, we give a mathematical explanation of the dilaton shift in string theory and prove that the Strominger system is preserved by T-duality.

  19. Generalized Hasimoto Transform of One-Dimensional Dispersive Flows into Compact Riemann Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji Onodera

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We study the structure of differential equations of one-dimensional dispersive flows into compact Riemann surfaces. These equations geometrically generalize two-sphere valued systems modeling the motion of vortex filament. We define a generalized Hasimoto transform by constructing a good moving frame, and reduce the equation with values in the induced bundle to a complex valued equation which is easy to handle. We also discuss the relationship between our reduction and the theory of linear dispersive partial differential equations.

  20. Classical and generalized Horton laws for peak flows in rainfall-runoff events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Vijay K; Ayalew, Tibebu B; Mantilla, Ricardo; Krajewski, Witold F

    2015-07-01

    The discovery of the Horton laws for hydrologic variables has greatly lagged behind geomorphology, which began with Robert Horton in 1945. We define the classical and the generalized Horton laws for peak flows in rainfall-runoff events, which link self-similarity in network geomorphology with river basin hydrology. Both the Horton laws are tested in the Iowa River basin in eastern Iowa that drains an area of approximately 32 400 km(2) before it joins the Mississippi River. The US Geological Survey continuously monitors the basin through 34 stream gauging stations. We select 51 rainfall-runoff events for carrying out the tests. Our findings support the existence of the classical and the generalized Horton laws for peak flows, which may be considered as a new hydrologic discovery. Three different methods are illustrated for estimating the Horton peak-flow ratio due to small sample size issues in peak flow data. We illustrate an application of the Horton laws for diagnosing parameterizations in a physical rainfall-runoff model. The ideas and developments presented here offer exciting new directions for hydrologic research and education.

  1. Generalized Mean-Flow Theory of Wave-Current-Bottom Interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The interaction between waves, currents and bottoms in estuarine and coastal regions is ubiquitious, in particular the dynamic mechanism of waves on large-scale slowly varying currents. The wave action concept may be extended and applicated to the study of the mechanism. Considering the effects of moving bottoms and starting from the Navier-Stokes equation of motion of a viscous fluid including the Coriolis force, a generalized mean-flow model theory for the nearshore region, that is, a set of mean-flow equations and their generalized wave action equation involving the three new kinds of actions termed respectively as the current wave action, the bottom wave action and the dissipative wave action which can be applied to arbitrary depth over moving bottoms and ambient currents with a typical vertical structure, is developed by vertical integration and time-averaging over a wave period, thus extending the classical concept, wave action, from the ideal averaged flow conservative system to the real averaged flow dissipative dynamical system, and having a large range of application.

  2. Numerical Investigation of Entropy Generation in Unsteady MHD Generalized Couette Flow with Variable Electrical Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinyoka, T.; Makinde, O. D.

    2013-01-01

    The thermodynamic second law analysis is utilized to investigate the inherent irreversibility in an unsteady hydromagnetic generalized Couette flow with variable electrical conductivity in the presence of induced electric field. Based on some simplified assumption, the model nonlinear governing equations are obtained and solved numerically using semidiscretization finite difference techniques. Effects of various thermophysical parameters on the fluid velocity, temperature, current density, skin friction, the Nusselt number, entropy generation number, and the Bejan number are presented graphically and discussed quantitatively. PMID:23956691

  3. Axisymmetric electrostatic magnetohydrodynamic oscillations in tokamaks with general cross-sections and toroidal flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, M. S.; Guo, Wenfeng

    2016-06-01

    The frequency spectrum and mode structure of axisymmetric electrostatic oscillations [the zonal flow (ZF), sound waves (SW), geodesic acoustic modes (GAM), and electrostatic mean flows (EMF)] in tokamaks with general cross-sections and toroidal flows are studied analytically using the electrostatic approximation for magnetohydrodynamic modes. These modes constitute the "electrostatic continua." Starting from the energy principle for a tokamak plasma with toroidal rotation, we showed that these modes are completely stable. The ZF, the SW, and the EMF could all be viewed as special cases of the general GAM. The Euler equations for the general GAM are obtained and are solved analytically for both the low and high range of Mach numbers. The solution consists of the usual countable infinite set of eigen-modes with discrete eigen-frequencies, and two modes with lower frequencies. The countable infinite set is identified with the regular GAM. The lower frequency mode, which is also divergence free as the plasma rotation tends to zero, is identified as the ZF. The other lower (zero) frequency mode is a pure geodesic E×B flow and not divergence free is identified as the EMF. The frequency of the EMF is shown to be exactly 0 independent of plasma cross-section or its flow Mach number. We also show that in general, sound waves with no geodesic components are (almost) completely lost in tokamaks with a general cross-sectional shape. The exception is the special case of strict up-down symmetry. In this case, half of the GAMs would have no geodesic displacements. They are identified as the SW. Present day tokamaks, although not strictly up-down symmetric, usually are only slightly up-down asymmetric. They are expected to share the property with the up-down symmetric tokamak in that half of the GAMs would be more sound wave-like, i.e., have much weaker coupling to the geodesic components than the other half of non-sound-wave-like modes with stronger coupling to the geodesic

  4. Community-Based Inquiry Improves Critical Thinking in General Education Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitadamo, Ian J.; Faiola, Celia L.; Johnson, James E.; Kurtz, Martha J.

    2008-01-01

    National stakeholders are becoming increasingly concerned about the inability of college graduates to think critically. Research shows that, while both faculty and students deem critical thinking essential, only a small fraction of graduates can demonstrate the thinking skills necessary for academic and professional success. Many faculty are…

  5. Learning to Improve: Using Writing to Increase Critical Thinking Performance in General Education Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quitadamo, Ian J.; Kurtz, Martha J.

    2007-01-01

    Increasingly, national stakeholders express concern that U.S. college graduates cannot adequately solve problems and think critically. As a set of cognitive abilities, critical thinking skills provide students with tangible academic, personal, and professional benefits that may ultimately address these concerns. As an instructional method, writing…

  6. Investigation of Particles Statistics in large Eddy Simulated Turbulent Channel Flow using Generalized lattice Boltzmann Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandana Samari Kermani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of spherical solid particles with turbulent eddies in a 3-D turbulent channel flow with friction Reynolds number was studied. A generalized lattice Boltzmann equation (GLBE was used for computation of instantaneous turbulent flow field for which large eddy simulation (LES was employed. The sub-grid-scale (SGS turbulence effects were simulated through a shear-improved Smagorinsky model (SISM, which can predict turbulent near wall region without any wall function. Statistical properties of particles behavior such as root mean square (RMS velocities were studied as a function of dimensionless particle relaxation time ( by using a Lagrangian approach. Combination of SISM in GLBE with particle tracking analysis in turbulent channel flow is novelty of the present work. Both GLBE and SISM solve the flow field equations locally. This is an advantage of this method and makes it easy implementing. Comparison of the present results with previous available data indicated that SISM in GLBE is a reliable method for simulation of turbulent flows which is a key point to predict particles behavior correctly.

  7. General slip regime permeability model for gas flow through porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bo; Jiang, Peixue; Xu, Ruina; Ouyang, Xiaolong

    2016-07-01

    A theoretical effective gas permeability model was developed for rarefied gas flow in porous media, which holds over the entire slip regime with the permeability derived as a function of the Knudsen number. This general slip regime model (GSR model) is derived from the pore-scale Navier-Stokes equations subject to the first-order wall slip boundary condition using the volume-averaging method. The local closure problem for the volume-averaged equations is studied analytically and numerically using a periodic sphere array geometry. The GSR model includes a rational fraction function of the Knudsen number which leads to a limit effective permeability as the Knudsen number increases. The mechanism for this behavior is the viscous fluid inner friction caused by converging-diverging flow channels in porous media. A linearization of the GSR model leads to the Klinkenberg equation for slightly rarefied gas flows. Finite element simulations show that the Klinkenberg model overestimates the effective permeability by as much as 33% when a flow approaches the transition regime. The GSR model reduces to the unified permeability model [F. Civan, "Effective correlation of apparent gas permeability in tight porous media," Transp. Porous Media 82, 375 (2010)] for the flow in the slip regime and clarifies the physical significance of the empirical parameter b in the unified model.

  8. Critical flow-storm approach to total maximum daily load(TMDL) development: an analytical conceptual model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harry X.ZHANG; Shaw L.YU

    2008-01-01

    One of the key challenges in the total max-imum daily load (TMDL) development process is how to define the critical condition for a receiving water-body. The main concern in using a continuous simu-lation approach is the absence of any guarantee that the most critical condition will be captured during the selected representative hydrologic period, given the scar-city of long-term continuous data. The objectives of this paper are to clearly address the critical condition in the TMDL development process and to compare continu-ous and evEnt-based approaches in defining critical con-dition during TMDL development for a waterbody impacted by both point and nonpoint source pollution. A practical, event-based critical flow-storm (CFS) approach was developed to explicitly addresses the crit-ical condition as a combination of a low stream flow and a storm event of a selected magnitude, both having cer-tain frequencies of occurrence. This paper illustrated the CFS concept and provided its theoretical basis using a derived analytical conceptual model. The CFS approach clearly defined a critical condition, obtained reasonable results and could be considered as an alternative method in TMDL development.

  9. Does blood flow restriction result in skeletal muscle damage? A critical review of available evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loenneke, J P; Thiebaud, R S; Abe, T

    2014-12-01

    Blood flow restriction (BFR) alone or in combination with exercise has been shown to result in muscle hypertrophy and strength gain across a variety of populations. Although there are numerous studies in the literature showing beneficial muscular effects following the application of BFR, questions have been raised over whether BFR may lead to or even increase the incidence of muscle damage. The purpose of this review is to examine the proposed mechanisms behind muscle damage and critically review the available BFR literature. The available evidence does not support the hypothesis that BFR in combination with low-intensity exercise increases the incidence of muscle damage. Instead, the available literature suggests that minimal to no muscle damage is occurring with this type of exercise. This conclusion is drawn from the following observations: (a) no prolonged decrements in muscle function; (b) no prolonged muscle swelling; (c) muscle soreness ratings similar to a submaximal low load control; and (d) no elevation in blood biomarkers of muscle damage.

  10. Immune Monitoring in Cancer Vaccine Clinical Trials: Critical Issues of Functional Flow Cytometry-Based Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iole Macchia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of immune monitoring assays is essential to determine the immune responses against tumor-specific antigens (TSAs and tumor-associated antigens (TAAs and their possible correlation with clinical outcome in cancer patients receiving immunotherapies. Despite the wide range of techniques used, to date these assays have not shown consistent results among clinical trials and failed to define surrogate markers of clinical efficacy to antitumor vaccines. Multiparameter flow cytometry- (FCM- based assays combining different phenotypic and functional markers have been developed in the past decade for informative and longitudinal analysis of polyfunctional T-cells. These technologies were designed to address the complexity and functional heterogeneity of cancer biology and cellular immunity and to define biomarkers predicting clinical response to anticancer treatment. So far, there is still a lack of standardization of some of these immunological tests. The aim of this review is to overview the latest technologies for immune monitoring and to highlight critical steps involved in some of the FCM-based cellular immune assays. In particular, our laboratory is focused on melanoma vaccine research and thus our main goal was the validation of a functional multiparameter test (FMT combining different functional and lineage markers to be applied in clinical trials involving patients with melanoma.

  11. Ground state solution for a class of Schrödinger equations involving general critical growth term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiu; Liao, Jia-Feng; Tang, Chun-Lei

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we study a class of Schrödinger equations -△u=k(u),x∈RN, where N≥slant 3 and k satisfies very general critical growth conditions. By using the Pohozaev constraint, we obtain a positive ground state solution which is radially symmetric.

  12. A general approach for modeling the motion of rigid and deformable ellipsoids in ductile flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Dazhi

    2012-01-01

    A general approach for modeling the motion of rigid or deformable objects in viscous flows is presented. It is shown that the rotation of a 3D object in a viscous fluid, regardless of the mechanical property and shape of the object, is defined by a common and simple differential equation, dQ/dt=-Θ˜Q, where Q is a matrix defined by the orientation of the object and Θ˜ is the angular velocity tensor of the object. The difference between individual cases lies only in the formulation for the angular velocity. Thus the above equation, together with Jeffery's theory for the angular velocity of rigid ellipsoids, describes the motion of rigid ellipsoids in viscous flows. The same equation, together with Eshelby's theory for the angular velocity of deformable ellipsoids, describes the motion of deformable ellipsoids in viscous flows. Both problems are solved here numerically by a general approach that is much simpler conceptually and more economic computationally, compared to previous approaches that consider the problems separately and require numerical solutions to coupled differential equations about Euler angles or spherical (polar coordinate) angles. A Runge-Kutta approximation is constructed for solving the above general differential equation. Singular cases of Eshelby's equations when the object is spheroidal or spherical are handled in this paper in a much simpler way than in previous work. The computational procedure can be readily implemented in any modern mathematics application that handles matrix operations. Four MathCad Worksheets are provided for modeling the motion of a single rigid or deformable ellipsoid immersed in viscous fluids, as well as the evolution of a system of noninteracting rigid or deformable ellipsoids embedded in viscous flows.

  13. Anticonvulsant pharmacotherapy for generalized and localized vulvodynia : a critical review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelstra, Symen K.; Borg, Charmaine; Schultz, Willibrord C. M. Weijmar

    Anticonvulsant therapy has occasionally been recommended to treat vulvodynia. However, convincing evidence to support this therapeutic option is lacking. The goal of this study was to critically review studies published on the effectiveness of anticonvulsants for the treatment of vulvodynia.

  14. Self Organized Criticality in a two dimensional Cellular Automaton model of a magnetic flux tube with background flow

    CERN Document Server

    Danila, Bogdan; Mocanu, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the transition to Self Organized Criticality in a two-dimensional model of a flux tube with a background flow. The magnetic induction equation, represented by a partial differential equation with a stochastic source term, is discretized and implemented on a two dimensional cellular automaton. The energy released by the automaton during one relaxation event is the magnetic energy. As a result of the simulations we obtain the time evolution of the energy release, of the system control parameter, of the event lifetime distribution and of the event size distribution, respectively, and we establish that a Self Organized Critical state is indeed reached by the system. Moreover, energetic initial impulses in the magnetohydrodynamic flow can lead to one dimensional signatures in the magnetic two dimensional system, once the Self Organized Critical regime is established. The applications of the model for the study of Gamma Ray Bursts is briefly considered, and it is shown that some astrophysical paramet...

  15. A Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program to Model Flow Distribution in Fluid Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumdar, Alok; Bailey, John W.; Schallhorn, Paul; Steadman, Todd

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a general purpose computer program for analyzing steady state and transient flow in a complex network. The program is capable of modeling phase changes, compressibility, mixture thermodynamics and external body forces such as gravity and centrifugal. The program's preprocessor allows the user to interactively develop a fluid network simulation consisting of nodes and branches. Mass, energy and specie conservation equations are solved at the nodes; the momentum conservation equations are solved in the branches. The program contains subroutines for computing "real fluid" thermodynamic and thermophysical properties for 33 fluids. The fluids are: helium, methane, neon, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, fluorine, hydrogen, parahydrogen, water, kerosene (RP-1), isobutane, butane, deuterium, ethane, ethylene, hydrogen sulfide, krypton, propane, xenon, R-11, R-12, R-22, R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134A, R-152A, nitrogen trifluoride and ammonia. The program also provides the options of using any incompressible fluid with constant density and viscosity or ideal gas. Seventeen different resistance/source options are provided for modeling momentum sources or sinks in the branches. These options include: pipe flow, flow through a restriction, non-circular duct, pipe flow with entrance and/or exit losses, thin sharp orifice, thick orifice, square edge reduction, square edge expansion, rotating annular duct, rotating radial duct, labyrinth seal, parallel plates, common fittings and valves, pump characteristics, pump power, valve with a given loss coefficient, and a Joule-Thompson device. The system of equations describing the fluid network is solved by a hybrid numerical method that is a combination of the Newton-Raphson and successive substitution methods. This paper also illustrates the application and verification of the code by comparison with Hardy Cross method for steady state flow and analytical solution for unsteady flow.

  16. Cavitating flow during water hammer using a generalized interface vaporous cavitation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadafi, Mohamadhosein; Riasi, Alireza; Nourbakhsh, Seyed Ahmad

    2012-10-01

    In a transient flow simulation, column separation may occur when the calculated pressure head decreases to the saturated vapor pressure head in a computational grid. Abrupt valve closure or pump failure can result in a fast transient flow with column separation, potentially causing problems such as pipe failure, hydraulic equipment damage, cavitation or corrosion. This paper reports a numerical study of water hammer with column separation in a simple reservoir-pipeline-valve system and pumping station. The governing equations for two-phase transient flow in pipes are solved based on the method of characteristics (MOC) using a generalized interface vaporous cavitating model (GIVCM). The numerical results were compared with the experimental data for validation purposes, and the comparison indicated that the GIVCM describes the experimental results more accurately than the discrete vapor cavity model (DVCM). In particular, the GIVCM correlated better with the experimental data than the DVCM in terms of timing and pressure magnitude. The effects of geometric and hydraulic parameters on flow behavior in a pumping station with column separation were also investigated in this study.

  17. The horizontally homogeneous model equations of incompressible atmospheric flow in general orthogonal coordinates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann Jensen, B.

    2003-12-01

    The goal of this brief report is to express the model equations for an incompressible flow which is horizontally homogeneous. It is intended as a computationally inexpensive starting point of a more complete solution for neutral atmospheric flow over complex terrain. This idea was set forth by Ayotte and Taylor (1995) and in the work of Beljaars et al. (1987). Unlike the previous models, the present work uses general orthogonal coordinates. Strong conservation form of the model equations is employed to allow a robust and consistent numerical procedure. An invariant tensor form of the model equations is utilized expressing the flow variables in a transformed coordinate system in which they are horizontally homogeneous. The model utilizes the k - e model with limited mixing length by Apsley and Castro (1997). This turbulence closure reflects the fact that the atmosphere is only neutral up to a certain height. The horizontally homogeneous flow model is a part of a perturbation solver under development which is hoped to be more accurate than the current standard program WAsP by Troen and Petersen (1989) while achieving a high speed of execution. (au)

  18. Towards a dynamic assessment of raw materials criticality: linking agent-based demand--with material flow supply modelling approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoeri, Christof; Wäger, Patrick A; Stamp, Anna; Althaus, Hans-Joerg; Weil, Marcel

    2013-09-01

    Emerging technologies such as information and communication-, photovoltaic- or battery technologies are expected to increase significantly the demand for scarce metals in the near future. The recently developed methods to evaluate the criticality of mineral raw materials typically provide a 'snapshot' of the criticality of a certain material at one point in time by using static indicators both for supply risk and for the impacts of supply restrictions. While allowing for insights into the mechanisms behind the criticality of raw materials, these methods cannot account for dynamic changes in products and/or activities over time. In this paper we propose a conceptual framework intended to overcome these limitations by including the dynamic interactions between different possible demand and supply configurations. The framework integrates an agent-based behaviour model, where demand emerges from individual agent decisions and interaction, into a dynamic material flow model, representing the materials' stocks and flows. Within the framework, the environmental implications of substitution decisions are evaluated by applying life-cycle assessment methodology. The approach makes a first step towards a dynamic criticality assessment and will enhance the understanding of industrial substitution decisions and environmental implications related to critical metals. We discuss the potential and limitation of such an approach in contrast to state-of-the-art methods and how it might lead to criticality assessments tailored to the specific circumstances of single industrial sectors or individual companies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Characteristics of critical heat flux under rolling condition for flow boiling in vertical tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Jin-Seok, E-mail: hjscd@snu.ac.kr [Seoul National University, 599 Gwanak-Ro, Gwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yeon-Gun, E-mail: yeongun2@snu.ac.kr [Seoul National University, 599 Gwanak-Ro, Gwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Goon-Cherl, E-mail: parkgc@snu.ac.kr [Seoul National University, 599 Gwanak-Ro, Gwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Experiment was conducted on CHF under rolling condition in vertical tube. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CHF loop was mounted on rolling device to achieve rolling conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trends of CHF ratio as mass flux and pressure were studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Trends of CHF ratio under rolling motion was suggested using hypothetical CHF mechanism. - Abstract: This paper presents the characteristics of the critical heat flux (CHF) for the boiling of R-134a in vertical tube under rolling motion in a marine reactor. It is important to predict CHF of marine reactor under rolling motion in order to consider the safety margin of the reactor. MArine Reactor Moving Simulator (MARMS) test was conducted to measure the CHF of R-134a flowing upward in a uniformly heated vertical tube under rolling motion. A CHF loop mounted on rolling equipment, which can periodically roll from side to side through rotating by motor and mechanical power transmission gear. The CHF tests were performed in a 9.5 mm I.D. test section with heated length of 1 m. Mass flux ranges from 285 kg/m{sup 2} s to 1300 kg/m{sup 2} s, inlet subcoolings from 3 to 38 Degree-Sign C and outlet pressures from 1.3 to 2.4 bar, respectively. Amplitudes of rolling range from 15 Degree-Sign to 40 Degree-Sign and period from 6 to 12 s. Fluid-to-fluid (FTF) scaling was applied to convert the test matrix of MARMS from water to R-134a equivalent conditions. CHF ratios (ratio of the CHF under rolling condition to the stationary CHF) as mass flux and pressure in rolling motion are quite different from those of other existing transient CHF experiments. For the mass fluxes below 500 kg/m{sup 2} s (region of relative low mass flux) at 13, 16 bar, CHF ratios seem smaller than unit but in region (region of relative high mass flux) where mass fluxes are above 500 kg/m{sup 2} s, it was found that the ratios increased. Moreover, rolling CHFs tend to enhance

  20. Generalized multiscale finite element method for non-Newtonian fluid flow in perforated domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, E. T.; Iliev, O.; Vasilyeva, M. V.

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we consider a non-Newtonian fluid flow in perforated domains. Fluid flow in perforated domains have a multiscale nature and solution techniques for such problems require high resolution. In particular, the discretization needs to honor the irregular boundaries of perforations. This gives rise to a fine-scale problems with many degrees of freedom which can be very expensive to solve. In this work, we develop a multiscale approach that attempt to solve such problems on a coarse grid by constructing multiscale basis functions. We follow Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Method (GMsFEM) [1, 2] and develop a multiscale procedure where we identify multiscale basis functions in each coarse block using snapshot space and local spectral problems [3, 4]. We show that with a few basis functions in each coarse block, one can accurately approximate the solution, where each coarse block can contain many small inclusions.

  1. Enstrophy-based proper orthogonal decomposition of flow past rotating cylinder at super-critical rotating rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, Tapan K.; Gullapalli, Atchyut

    2016-11-01

    Spinning cylinder rotating about its axis experiences a transverse force/lift, an account of this basic aerodynamic phenomenon is known as the Robins-Magnus effect in text books. Prandtl studied this flow by an inviscid irrotational model and postulated an upper limit of the lift experienced by the cylinder for a critical rotation rate. This non-dimensional rate is the ratio of oncoming free stream speed and the surface speed due to rotation. Prandtl predicted a maximum lift coefficient as CLmax = 4π for the critical rotation rate of two. In recent times, evidences show the violation of this upper limit, as in the experiments of Tokumaru and Dimotakis ["The lift of a cylinder executing rotary motions in a uniform flow," J. Fluid Mech. 255, 1-10 (1993)] and in the computed solution in Sengupta et al. ["Temporal flow instability for Magnus-robins effect at high rotation rates," J. Fluids Struct. 17, 941-953 (2003)]. In the latter reference, this was explained as the temporal instability affecting the flow at higher Reynolds number and rotation rates (>2). Here, we analyze the flow past a rotating cylinder at a super-critical rotation rate (=2.5) by the enstrophy-based proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) of direct simulation results. POD identifies the most energetic modes and helps flow field reconstruction by reduced number of modes. One of the motivations for the present study is to explain the shedding of puffs of vortices at low Reynolds number (Re = 60), for the high rotation rate, due to an instability originating in the vicinity of the cylinder, using the computed Navier-Stokes equation (NSE) from t = 0 to t = 300 following an impulsive start. This instability is also explained through the disturbance mechanical energy equation, which has been established earlier in Sengupta et al. ["Temporal flow instability for Magnus-robins effect at high rotation rates," J. Fluids Struct. 17, 941-953 (2003)].

  2. Water Hammer Simulations of MMH Propellant - New Capability Demonstration of the Generalized Fluid Flow Simulation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Z.; Ramachandran, N.; Majumdar, A.

    2017-01-01

    Fluid Transient analysis is important for the design of spacecraft propulsion system to ensure structural stability of the system in the event of sudden closing or opening of the valve. Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP), a general purpose flow network code developed at NASA/MSFC is capable of simulating pressure surge due to sudden opening or closing of valve when thermodynamic properties of real fluid are available for the entire range of simulation. Specifically GFSSP needs an accurate representation of pressure-density relationship in order to predict pressure surge during a fluid transient. Unfortunately, the available thermodynamic property programs such as REFPROP, GASP or GASPAK does not provide the thermodynamic properties of Monomethylhydrazine (MMH). This paper will illustrate the process used for building a customized table of properties of state variables from available properties and speed of sound that is required by GFSSP for simulation. Good agreement was found between the simulations and measured data. This method can be adopted for modeling flow networks and systems with other fluids whose properties are not known in detail in order to obtain general technical insight. Rigorous code validation of this approach will be done and reported at a future date.

  3. A characteristic based volume penalization method for general evolution problems applied to compressible viscous flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Dymkoski, Eric; Kasimov, Nurlybek; Vasilyev, Oleg V.

    2014-04-01

    In order to introduce solid obstacles into flows, several different methods are used, including volume penalization methods which prescribe appropriate boundary conditions by applying local forcing to the constitutive equations. One well known method is Brinkman penalization, which models solid obstacles as porous media. While it has been adapted for compressible, incompressible, viscous and inviscid flows, it is limited in the types of boundary conditions that it imposes, as are most volume penalization methods. Typically, approaches are limited to Dirichlet boundary conditions. In this paper, Brinkman penalization is extended for generalized Neumann and Robin boundary conditions by introducing hyperbolic penalization terms with characteristics pointing inward on solid obstacles. This Characteristic-Based Volume Penalization (CBVP) method is a comprehensive approach to conditions on immersed boundaries, providing for homogeneous and inhomogeneous Dirichlet, Neumann, and Robin boundary conditions on hyperbolic and parabolic equations. This CBVP method can be used to impose boundary conditions for both integrated and non-integrated variables in a systematic manner that parallels the prescription of exact boundary conditions. Furthermore, the method does not depend upon a physical model, as with porous media approach for Brinkman penalization, and is therefore flexible for various physical regimes and general evolutionary equations. Here, the method is applied to scalar diffusion and to direct numerical simulation of compressible, viscous flows. With the Navier-Stokes equations, both homogeneous and inhomogeneous Neumann boundary conditions are demonstrated through external flow around an adiabatic and heated cylinder. Theoretical and numerical examination shows that the error from penalized Neumann and Robin boundary conditions can be rigorously controlled through an a priori penalization parameter η. The error on a transient boundary is found to converge as O

  4. Axisymmetric Stagnation-Point Flow with a General Slip Boundary Condition over a Lubricated Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Sajid; K. Mahmood; Z. Abbas

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the axisymmetric stagnation-point flow of a viscous fluid over a lubricated surface by imposing a generalized slip condition at the fluid-fluid interface.The power law non-Newtonian fluid is considered as a lubricant.The lubrication layer is thin and assumed to have a variable thickness.The transformed nonlinear ordinary differential equation governing the flow is linearized using quasilinearization.The method of superposition is adopted to convert the boundary value problem into an initial value problem and the solution is obtained numerically by using the fourth-order RungeKutta method.The results are discussed to see the influence of pertinent parameters.The limiting cases of Navier and no-slip boundary conditions are obtained as the special cases and found to be in excellent agreement with the existing results in the literature.%We investigate the axisymmetric stagnation-point flow of a viscous fluid over a lubricated surface by imposing a generalized slip condition at the fluid-fluid interface. The power law non-Newtonian fluid is considered as a lubricant. The lubrication layer is thin and assumed to have a variable thickness. The transformed nonlinear ordinary differential equation governing the flow is linearized using quasilinearization. The method of superposition is adopted to convert the boundary value problem into an initial value problem and the solution is obtained numerically by using the fourth-order Runge Kutta method. The results arc discussed to see the influence of pertinent parameters. The limiting cases of Navier and no-slip boundary conditions are obtained as the special cases and found to be in excellent agreement with the existing results in the literature.

  5. Critical velocity for superfluid flow across the BEC-BCS crossover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, D E; Chin, J K; Stan, C A; Liu, Y; Setiawan, W; Sanner, C; Ketterle, W

    2007-08-17

    Critical velocities have been observed in an ultracold superfluid Fermi gas throughout the BEC-BCS crossover. A pronounced peak of the critical velocity at unitarity demonstrates that superfluidity is most robust for resonant atomic interactions. Critical velocities were determined from the abrupt onset of dissipation when the velocity of a moving one-dimensional optical lattice was varied. The dependence of the critical velocity on lattice depth and on the inhomogeneous density profile was studied.

  6. On the MHD flow of fractional generalized Burgers' fluid with modified Darcy's law

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    T. Hayat; M. Khan; S. Asghar

    2007-01-01

    This work is concerned with applying the fractional calculus approach to the magnetohydrodynamic(MHD) pipe flow of a fractional generalized Burgers' fluid in a porous space by using modified Darcy's relationship. The fluid is electrically conducting in the presence of a constant applied magnetic field in the transverse direction. Exact solution for the velocity distribution is developed with the help of Fourier transform for fractional calculus. The solutions for a Navier-Stokes, second grade, Maxwell, Oldroyd-B and Burgers' fluids appear as the limiting cases of the present analysis.

  7. Numerical investigation into entropy generation in a transient generalized Couette flow of nanofluids with convective cooling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M H Mkwizu; O D Makinde; Yaw Nkansah-Gyekye

    2015-10-01

    This work investigates the effects of convective cooling on entropy generation in a transient generalized Couette flow of water-based nanofluids containing Copper (Cu) and Alumina (Al2O3) as nanoparticles. Both First and Second Laws of thermodynamics are utilised to analyse the problem. The model partial differential equations for momentum and energy balance are tackled numerically using a semidiscretization finite difference method together with Runge–Kutta Fehlberg integration scheme. Graphical results on the effects of parameter variation on velocity, temperature, skin friction, Nusselt number, entropy generation rate, irreversibility ratio and Bejan number are presented and discussed.

  8. The horizontally homogeneous model equations of incompressible atmospheric flow in general orthogonal coordinates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Bo Hoffmann

    2003-01-01

    by Ayotte and Taylor (1995) and in the work of Beljaars et al. (1987). Unlike the previous models, the present work uses general orthogonal coordinates. Strong conservation form of the model equations is employedto allow a robust and consistent numerical procedure. An invariant tensor form of the model...... equations is utilized expressing the flow variables in a transformed coordinate system in which they are horizontally homogeneous. The model utilizes the k - emodel with limited mixing length by Apsley and Castro (1997). This turbulence closure reflects the fact that the atmosphere is only neutral up...

  9. Anticonvulsant pharmacotherapy for generalized and localized vulvodynia : a critical review of the literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelstra, Symen K.; Borg, Charmaine; Schultz, Willibrord C. M. Weijmar

    2013-01-01

    Anticonvulsant therapy has occasionally been recommended to treat vulvodynia. However, convincing evidence to support this therapeutic option is lacking. The goal of this study was to critically review studies published on the effectiveness of anticonvulsants for the treatment of vulvodynia. Evaluat

  10. Professionalism versus General Critical Thinking Abilities of Senior Nursing Students in Four Types of Nursing Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Karen L.; Shepherd, Jan M.

    1992-01-01

    A survey of 50 students each in 4 types of nursing programs (associate degree, diploma, generic bachelor's and upper-level bachelor's) found no significant difference between professionalism exhibited by seniors in generic and associate degree programs. Positive correlations of critical thinking and professionalism were almost as strong among…

  11. Generalized scaling theory for critical phenomena including essential singularities and infinite dimensionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogawa, Tomoaki; Hasegawa, Takehisa; Nemoto, Koji

    2012-06-22

    We propose a generic scaling theory for critical phenomena that includes power-law and essential singularities in finite and infinite dimensional systems. In addition, we clarify its validity by analyzing the Potts model in a simple hierarchical network, where a saddle-node bifurcation of the renormalization-group fixed point governs the essential singularity.

  12. Research on the Critical Speed of a Mixed-Flow Turbocharger with Hybrid Ceramic Ball Bearing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Ruo; GE Xin-bin; MA Chao-chen

    2009-01-01

    The critical speeds for a vehicle turbocharger with hybrid ceramic ball bearing are researched. The ball bearing-rotor system produces resonance when it working in critical speed and that makes the turbocharger injury working for a long time. The calculation and analysis methods of the critical speed for the vehicle turbocharger are described. The critical speed is computed by two methods including Riccati transfer matrix and DyRoBeS finite element method for a vehicle turbocharger with hybrid ceramic ball bearing. The vibration experiment had been taken to validate the calculating result. Comparison between the results by two calculation methods and the test results show that the first critical speed differences are 6.47% and 5.66%, the second critical speed differences are 2.87% and 2.94% respectively. And then, the primary factors which influence the critical speed are analyzed, the conclusions will be helpful for the vehicle turbocharger bearing-rotor system design.

  13. A Teaching Method to Develop a Critical Thinking of the Students of the General Education Ecclesiastical School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phrakhruvisitpattanaporn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The objectives of the research were to study (1 the teaching method to develop a critical thinking of the students of the General Education Ecclesiastical School, (2 the effectiveness of the teaching method to develop a critical thinking of the students of the General Education Ecclesiastical School. Approach: The populations were the students of 35 general education ecclesiastical schools in the provinces of Ubon Ratchathani, Yasothon and Amnat Charoen. The samples of 43 students of Kittiyanwittaya were selected by a purposive sampling. The research instruments were a lesson plan on Buddhist Doctrine, a format to assess an ability of a critical thinking and a test on an achievement. Statistics used was t-test. Learning activity consisted of five components: (1 ability to define the problems, (2 ability to choose an information relevant to the problems, (3 ability to be aware of the preliminary agreement, (4 ability to determine and choose hypothesis and (5 ability to conclude reasonably. Results: As for the effectiveness of the teaching method in study, there were two parts considered: (1 the effectiveness of the teaching method to develop a critical thinking of the students was found at 81.0/84.0, which was in conformity with the 80/80 criterion; (2 as regards achievement of the teaching and learning based on the teaching method under study, it was found that the achievement after using of the method was higher with a statistical significance of 0.01. Conclusion: The significance of the research is the effectiveness of the teaching method to develop a critical thinking of the students. The teaching method had the effectiveness at 81.0/84.0. and the achievement of the teaching after used the teaching method the average score was equivalent 42.09. The learning achievement was statically higher than that before using the method at 0.01 level of significance.

  14. Multiscale Simulations for Coupled Flow and Transport Using the Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric T. Chung

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we develop a mass conservative multiscale method for coupled flow and transport in heterogeneous porous media. We consider a coupled system consisting of a convection-dominated transport equation and a flow equation. We construct a coarse grid solver based on the Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Method (GMsFEM for a coupled system. In particular, multiscale basis functions are constructed based on some snapshot spaces for the pressure and the concentration equations and some local spectral decompositions in the snapshot spaces. The resulting approach uses a few multiscale basis functions in each coarse block (for both the pressure and the concentration to solve the coupled system. We use the mixed framework, which allows mass conservation. Our main contributions are: (1 the development of a mass conservative GMsFEM for the coupled flow and transport; (2 the development of a robust multiscale method for convection-dominated transport problems by choosing appropriate test and trial spaces within Petrov-Galerkin mixed formulation. We present numerical results and consider several heterogeneous permeability fields. Our numerical results show that with only a few basis functions per coarse block, we can achieve a good approximation.

  15. An improved parallel SPH approach to solve 3D transient generalized Newtonian free surface flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jinlian; Jiang, Tao; Lu, Weigang; Li, Gang

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a corrected parallel smoothed particle hydrodynamics (C-SPH) method is proposed to simulate the 3D generalized Newtonian free surface flows with low Reynolds number, especially the 3D viscous jets buckling problems are investigated. The proposed C-SPH method is achieved by coupling an improved SPH method based on the incompressible condition with the traditional SPH (TSPH), that is, the improved SPH with diffusive term and first-order Kernel gradient correction scheme is used in the interior of the fluid domain, and the TSPH is used near the free surface. Thus the C-SPH method possesses the advantages of two methods. Meanwhile, an effective and convenient boundary treatment is presented to deal with 3D multiple-boundary problem, and the MPI parallelization technique with a dynamic cells neighbor particle searching method is considered to improve the computational efficiency. The validity and the merits of the C-SPH are first verified by solving several benchmarks and compared with other results. Then the viscous jet folding/coiling based on the Cross model is simulated by the C-SPH method and compared with other experimental or numerical results. Specially, the influences of macroscopic parameters on the flow are discussed. All the numerical results agree well with available data, and show that the C-SPH method has higher accuracy and better stability for solving 3D moving free surface flows over other particle methods.

  16. Multiscale Simulations for Coupled Flow and Transport Using the Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Method

    KAUST Repository

    Chung, Eric

    2015-12-11

    In this paper, we develop a mass conservative multiscale method for coupled flow and transport in heterogeneous porous media. We consider a coupled system consisting of a convection-dominated transport equation and a flow equation. We construct a coarse grid solver based on the Generalized Multiscale Finite Element Method (GMsFEM) for a coupled system. In particular, multiscale basis functions are constructed based on some snapshot spaces for the pressure and the concentration equations and some local spectral decompositions in the snapshot spaces. The resulting approach uses a few multiscale basis functions in each coarse block (for both the pressure and the concentration) to solve the coupled system. We use the mixed framework, which allows mass conservation. Our main contributions are: (1) the development of a mass conservative GMsFEM for the coupled flow and transport; (2) the development of a robust multiscale method for convection-dominated transport problems by choosing appropriate test and trial spaces within Petrov-Galerkin mixed formulation. We present numerical results and consider several heterogeneous permeability fields. Our numerical results show that with only a few basis functions per coarse block, we can achieve a good approximation.

  17. General Model to Predict Power Flow Transmitted into Laminated Beam Bases in Flexible Isolation Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Junchuan; GE Peiqi; HOU Cuirong; LIM C W; SONG Kongjie

    2009-01-01

    For estimating the vibration transmission accurately and performing vibration control efficiently in isolation systems, a novel general model is presented to predict the power flow transmitted into the complicate flexible bases of laminated beams. In the model, the laminated beam bases are simulated by the first-order shear deformation laminated plate theory, which is relatively simple and economic but accurate in predicting the vibration solutions of flexible isolation systems with laminated beam bases in comparison with classical laminated beam theories and higher order theories. On the basis of the presented model, substructure technique and variational principle are employed to obtain the governing equation of the isolation system and the power flow solution. Then, the vibration characteristics of the flexible isolation systems with laminated bases are investigated. Several numerical examples are given to show the validity and efficiency of the presented model. It is concluded that the presented model is the extension of the classical one and it can obtain more accurate power flow solutions.

  18. ALGEBRAIC GENERALIZATION OF THE CASH FLOW STATEMENT: REFLECTIONS BY MEANS OF AN ALGEBRAIC ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Kassai

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Starting on January 1, 2008 it became mandatory for all Brazilian public companies and private companies with net worth greater than two million reais (about one million dollars as of this writing to publish a cash flow statement (CFS as part of their financial statements, making this statement another important source of information for investors. This article proposes an algebraic generalization for the CFS. Working papers can help fill in a gap in teaching about cash flow statements and produce an indirect method and a direct method, side by side with their equivalence highlighted, in a single matrix by means of algebraic algorithms. This study is normative in nature and stresses the transversal relationship between accounting and mathematics, showing that accounting reports and their structures can be seen as matrices and be subjected to algebraic deductions about the events recorded by double entries. As a result, we demonstrate a mathematical algorithm with matrices and submatrices and a script in the format of working papers, compatible with the normative orientations of the Federal Accounting Council (CFS and Brazilian legislation, permitting formulation of clear, reliable and effective cash flow statements.

  19. Integrable generalizations of Schrodinger maps and Heisenberg spin models from Hamiltonian flows of curves and surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Anco, S C

    2010-01-01

    A moving frame formulation of non-stretching geometric curve flows in Euclidean space is used to derive a 1+1 dimensional hierarchy of integrable SO(3)-invariant vector models containing the Heisenberg ferromagnetic spin model as well as a model given by a spin-vector version of the mKdV equation. These models describe a geometric realization of the NLS hierarchy of soliton equations whose bi-Hamiltonian structure is shown to be encoded in the Frenet equations of the moving frame. This derivation yields an explicit bi-Hamiltonian structure, recursion operator, and constants of motion for each model in the hierarchy. A generalization of these results to geometric surface flows is presented, where the surfaces are non-stretching in one direction while stretching in all transverse directions. Through the Frenet equations of a moving frame, such surface flows are shown to encode a hierarchy of 2+1 dimensional integrable SO(3)-invariant vector models, along with their bi-Hamiltonian structure, recursion operator, ...

  20. Critical Rainfall Conditions Triggering Shallow Landslides or Debris Flows in Torrents - Analysis of Debris Flow events 2012, 2013 and 2014 in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Markus; Mehlhorn, Susanne; Janu, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Generally, debris flows are caused by both small-scale intensive precipitation and long lasting rainfalls with lower intensity but high pre-wetting or both combined. The triggering mechanism of the debris flow events in Austria 2012, 2013 and 2014 were mass movements (rapid shallow landslides) on steep slopes in the upper catchments. Those masses slide with very high velocity into the torrent beds provoking hyperconcentrated flows or debris flows. In areas of the geologically unstable Greywacke zone, the torrents were cleared up onto the bedrock and the debris was deposited in the storage areas of existing debris flow breakers or in torrents without technical protection measures the debris caused catastrophic damage to residential buildings and other infrastructural facilities on the alluvial fan. Following the events, comprehensive documentation work was undertaken comprising precipitation analysis (rainfall data, weather radar data), identification and quantification of the landslide masses, cross profiles along the channel and of deposition in the storage areas or on the fan. The documentation and analysis of torrential events is an essential part of an integrated risk management. It supports the understanding of the occurred processes to mitigate future hazards. Unfortunately, the small-scale heavy rain events are not detected by the precipitation stations. Therefore, weather radar data (INCA-Data) analysis was used to determine the - usually very local - intensities which caused those catastrophic landslides and debris flows. Analysis results showed an agreement with the range of the previously known precipitation thresholds for debris flow triggering in the Alps.

  1. Relativistic thermodynamics, a Lagrangian field theory for general flows including rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frønsdal, Christian

    Any theory that is based on an action principle has a much greater predictive power than one that does not have such a formulation. The formulation of a dynamical theory of General Relativity, including matter, is here viewed as a problem of coupling Einstein’s theory of pure gravity to an independently chosen and well-defined field theory of matter. It is well known that this is accomplished in a most natural way when both theories are formulated as relativistic, Lagrangian field theories, as is the case with Einstein-Maxwell theory. Special matter models of this type have been available; here a more general thermodynamical model that allows for vortex flows is presented. In a wider context, the problem of subjecting hydrodynamics and thermodynamics to an action principle is one that has been pursued for at least 150 years. A solution to this problem has been known for some time, but only under the strong restriction to potential flows. A variational principle for general flows has become available. It represents a development of the Navier-Stokes-Fourier approach to fluid dynamics. The principal innovation is the recognition that two kinds of flow velocity fields are needed, one the gradient of a scalar field and the other the time derivative of a vector field, the latter closely associated with vorticity. In the relativistic theory that is presented here, the latter is the Hodge dual of an exact 3-form, well known as the notoph field of Ogievetskij and Palubarinov, the B-field of Kalb and Ramond and the vorticity field of Lund and Regge. The total number of degrees of freedom of a unary system, including the density and the two velocity fields is 4, as expected — as in classical hydrodynamics. In this paper, we do not reduce Einstein’s dynamical equation for the metric to phenomenology, which would have denied the relevance of any intrinsic dynamics for the matter sector, nor do we abandon the equation of continuity - the very soul of hydrodynamics.

  2. Modelling uncertainty in incompressible flow simulation using Galerkin based generalized ANOVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Souvik; Chowdhury, Rajib

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm, referred to here as Galerkin based generalized analysis of variance decomposition (GG-ANOVA) for modelling input uncertainties and its propagation in incompressible fluid flow. The proposed approach utilizes ANOVA to represent the unknown stochastic response. Further, the unknown component functions of ANOVA are represented using the generalized polynomial chaos expansion (PCE). The resulting functional form obtained by coupling the ANOVA and PCE is substituted into the stochastic Navier-Stokes equation (NSE) and Galerkin projection is employed to decompose it into a set of coupled deterministic 'Navier-Stokes alike' equations. Temporal discretization of the set of coupled deterministic equations is performed by employing Adams-Bashforth scheme for convective term and Crank-Nicolson scheme for diffusion term. Spatial discretization is performed by employing finite difference scheme. Implementation of the proposed approach has been illustrated by two examples. In the first example, a stochastic ordinary differential equation has been considered. This example illustrates the performance of proposed approach with change in nature of random variable. Furthermore, convergence characteristics of GG-ANOVA has also been demonstrated. The second example investigates flow through a micro channel. Two case studies, namely the stochastic Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and stochastic vortex dipole, have been investigated. For all the problems results obtained using GG-ANOVA are in excellent agreement with benchmark solutions.

  3. Understanding the sub-critical transition to turbulence in wall flows

    CERN Document Server

    Manneville, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Contrasting with free shear flows presenting velocity profiles with inflection points which cascade to turbulence in a relatively mild way, wall bounded flows are deprived of (inertial) instability modes at low Reynolds numbers and become turbulent in a much wilder way, most often marked by the coexistence of laminar and turbulent domains at intermediate Reynolds numbers, well below the range where (viscous) instabilities can show up. There can even be no unstable mode at all, as for plane Couette flow (pCf) or for Poiseuille pipe flow (Ppf) that currently are the subject of intense research. Though the mechanisms involved in the transition to turbulence in wall flows are now better understood, statistical properties of the transition itself are yet unsatisfactorily assessed. A review of the situation is given. An alternative to the temporal theory of the transition to turbulence in terms of chaotic transients in such globally subcritical flows is proposed, which invokes spatio-temporal intermittence and the ...

  4. [High flow nasal cannula in infants: Experience in a critical patient unit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner A, Adriana; Cespedes F, Pamela; Godoy M, María Loreto; Erices B, Pedro; Urrutia C, Luis; Venthur U, Carina; Labbé C, Marcela; Riquelme M, Hugo; Sanchez J, Cecilia; Vera V, Waldo; Wood V, David; Contreras C, Juan Carlos; Urrutia S, Efren

    2015-01-01

    The high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is a method of respiratory support that is increasingly being used in paediatrics due to its results and safety. To determine the efficacy of HFNC, as well as to evaluate the factors related to its failure and complications associated with its use in infants. An analysis was performed on the demographic, clinical, blood gas, and radiological data, as well as the complications of patients connected to a HFNC in a critical care unit between June 2012 and September 2014. A comparison was made between the patients who failed and those who responded to HFNC. A failure was considered as the need for further respiratory support during the first 48hours of connection. The Kolmogorov Smirnov, Mann-Whitney U, chi squared and the Exact Fisher test were used, as well as correlations and a binary logistic regression model for P≤.05. The study included 109 patients, with a median age and weight: 1 month (0.2-20 months) and 3.7kg (2-10kg); 95 percentile: 3.7 months and 5.7kg, respectively. The most frequent diagnosis and radiological pattern was bronchiolitis (53.2%) and interstitial infiltration (56%). Around 70.6% responded. There was a significant difference between failure and response in the diagnosis (P=.013), radiography (P=018), connection context (P<.0001), pCO2 (median 40.7mmHg [15.4-67 mmHg] versus 47.3mmHg [28.6-71.3mmHg], P=.004) and hours on HFNC (median 60.75hrs [5-621.5 hrs] versus 10.5hrs [1-29 hrs], P<.0001). The OR of the PCO2 ≥ 55mmHg for failure was 2.97 (95% CI; 1.08-8.17; P=.035). No patient died and no complications were recorded. The percentage success observed was similar to that published. In this sample, the failure of HFNC was only associated with an initial pCO2 ≥ 55mmHg. On there being no complications reported as regards it use, it is considered safe, although a randomised, controlled, multicentre study is required to compare and contrast these results. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Chilena de Pediatr

  5. Vertex centred Discretization of Two-Phase Darcy flows on General Meshes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbin Raphaèle

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the discretization of multiphase Darcy flows, in the case of heterogeneous anisotropic porous media and general 3D meshes used in practice to represent reservoir and basin geometries. An unconditionally coercive and symmetric vertex centred approach is introduced in this paper. This scheme extends the Vertex Approximate Gradient scheme (VAG, already introduced for single phase diffusive problems in [9], to multiphase Darcy flows. The convergence of the VAG scheme is proved for a simplified two-phase Darcy flow model, coupling an elliptic equation for the pressure and a linear hyperbolic equation for the saturation. The ability for the VAG scheme to efficiently deal with highly heterogeneous media and complex meshes is exhibited on immiscible and miscible two phase Darcy flow models. Cet article porte sur la discrétisation des flux de Darcy polyphasiques au sein de milieux poreux hétérogènes et anisotropes, dans des maillages tridimensionnels généraux utilisés dans le contexte de la simulation de réservoir ou de bassin. Un schéma avec inconnues aux sommets [9], qui a l’avantage d’être inconditionnellement coercif et symétrique, est généralisé au cas des écoulements de Darcy polyphasiques. La convergence du schéma est démontrée sur un modèle diphasique simplifié, couplant une équation elliptique pour la pression à une équation hyperbolique linéaire pour la saturation. On illustre ensuite la capacité du schéma à prendre en compte efficacement les fortes hétérogénéités et les maillages complexes sur des exemples d’écoulements diphasiques immiscibles et miscibles.

  6. Money and generalized exchange: A critical look at Neo-Walrasian theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Pérez Caldentey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available L a prueba de existencia del equilibrio general es la piedra angular de la teoría neoclásica. Si bien se presenta, generalmente, como un marco basado en el trueque, la prueba de existencia del equilibrio general asume de hecho un sistema aceptado de créditos y dé - bitos; un sistema de promesas de pago emitidas por los privados o, lo que es lo mismo, compromisos por parte de los agentes privados de entregar una cierta cantidad de un determinado bien a un precio de equilibrio dado. En otras palabras, la prueba de exis-tencia del equilibrio general presupone la existencia de ‘dinero interno’. No obstante, un sistema de intercambio generalizado no es compatible con los principios de base de la teoría monetaria neoclásica, incluyendo el hecho de que la inflación es siempre, y en todas partes, un fenómeno monetario, el dinero exógeno, y también la neutralidad del dinero. Esto explica la importancia y necesidad de introducir ‘el dinero externo’ en el marco del equilibrio general. Centrándonos en la ‘dicotomía invalida’ de Patinkin y el efecto de los saldos reales, y en menor medida en los modelos de generaciones traslapadas, tratamos de demostrar que los esfuerzos de integrar el dinero externo en un marco de equilibrio general han sido infructuosos. En ambos casos, la integración de la teoría monetaria y de la teoría del valor equivale a colapsar todos los agentes en uno solo. Esto es lo que niega el propio problema económico (i.e., el problema de intercambio múltiple que dio lugar a la teoría del equilibrio general y al requisito imperante de probar su existencia.

  7. Phase transition and critical phenomena of black holes: A general approach

    CERN Document Server

    Mandal, Abhijit; Majhi, Bibhas Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    We give some universal results for the phase transition of a black hole. Assuming that there is a phase transition, it is shown that without invoking any specific black hole, the critical exponents and the scaling powers can be obtained. We find that the values are exactly same which were calculated by taking explicit forms of different black hole spacetimes. The reason for this universality is also explained. The implication of the analysis is -- {\\it one does not need to investigate this problem case by case}, what the people are doing right now. We also observe that these, except two such quantities, are independent of the details of the spacetime dimensions.

  8. Dryout-type critical heat flux in vertical upward annular flow: effects of entrainment rate, initial entrained fraction and diameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zan; Wadekar, Vishwas; Wang, Chenglong; Sunden, Bengt

    2017-07-01

    This study aims to reveal the effects of liquid entrainment, initial entrained fraction and tube diameter on liquid film dryout in vertical upward annular flow for flow boiling. Entrainment and deposition rates of droplets were included in mass conservation equations to estimate the local liquid film mass flux in annular flow, and the critical vapor quality at dryout conditions. Different entrainment rate correlations were evaluated using flow boiling data of water and organic liquids including n-pentane, iso-octane and R134a. Effect of the initial entrained fraction (IEF) at the churn-to-annular flow transition was also investigated. A transitional Boiling number was proposed to separate the IEF-sensitive region at high Boiling numbers and the IEF-insensitive region at low Boiling numbers. Besides, the diameter effect on dryout vapor quality was studied. The dryout vapor quality increases with decreasing tube diameter. It needs to be pointed out that the dryout characteristics of submillimeter channels might be different because of different mechanisms of dryout, i.e., drying of liquid film underneath long vapor slugs and flow boiling instabilities.

  9. Somali refugees' experiences with their general practitioners: frames of reference and critical episodes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feldmann, C.T.; Bensing, J.M.; Ruijter, A. de; Boeije, H.R.

    2006-01-01

    The article presents the results of a qualitative study based on in-depth interviews with Somali refugees living in The Netherlands, on their experiences with general practitioners (GPs). The central question is: what are the frames of reference participants use to interpret their experiences? The c

  10. Somali refugees’ experiences with their general practitioners: frames of reference and critical episodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Titia Feldmann, C.; Bensing, J.; Ruijter, Arie de; Boeije, H.R.

    2006-01-01

    The article presents the results of a qualitative study based on in-depth interviews with Somali refugees living in The Netherlands, on their experiences with general practitioners (GPs). The central question is: what are the frames of reference participants use to interpret their experiences? The c

  11. Integrating Critical Thinking in the Curriculum of the Command and General Staff College

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-13

    institution as well. Indeed Karl Popper , renowned philosopher of science, explains that this is truly the only way for a discipline – or institution - to... Popper will be interrogated with regard to the production of knowledge and the general enlightenment of man. The roots of western philosophy are found

  12. Python tools for rapid development, calibration, and analysis of generalized groundwater-flow models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starn, J. J.; Belitz, K.

    2014-12-01

    National-scale water-quality data sets for the United States have been available for several decades; however, groundwater models to interpret these data are available for only a small percentage of the country. Generalized models may be adequate to explain and project groundwater-quality trends at the national scale by using regional scale models (defined as watersheds at or between the HUC-6 and HUC-8 levels). Coast-to-coast data such as the National Hydrologic Dataset Plus (NHD+) make it possible to extract the basic building blocks for a model anywhere in the country. IPython notebooks have been developed to automate the creation of generalized groundwater-flow models from the NHD+. The notebook format allows rapid testing of methods for model creation, calibration, and analysis. Capabilities within the Python ecosystem greatly speed up the development and testing of algorithms. GeoPandas is used for very efficient geospatial processing. Raster processing includes the Geospatial Data Abstraction Library and image processing tools. Model creation is made possible through Flopy, a versatile input and output writer for several MODFLOW-based flow and transport model codes. Interpolation, integration, and map plotting included in the standard Python tool stack also are used, making the notebook a comprehensive platform within on to build and evaluate general models. Models with alternative boundary conditions, number of layers, and cell spacing can be tested against one another and evaluated by using water-quality data. Novel calibration criteria were developed by comparing modeled heads to land-surface and surface-water elevations. Information, such as predicted age distributions, can be extracted from general models and tested for its ability to explain water-quality trends. Groundwater ages then can be correlated with horizontal and vertical hydrologic position, a relation that can be used for statistical assessment of likely groundwater-quality conditions

  13. Determination of flow stress and the critical strain for the onset of dynamic recrystallization using a sine function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solhjoo, Soheil

    2014-01-01

    A new model has been developed to estimate the flow stress under hot deformation conditions up to the peak of the stress-strain curves. The model is constructed on the basis of the general form of sine functions by introducing an additional exponent. Besides, an equation is derived from the model, w

  14. Multiphase forces on bend structures – critical gas fraction for transition single phase gas to multiphase flow behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belfroid, S.P.C.; Nennie, E.D.; Lewis, M.

    2016-01-01

    Piping structures are generally subjected to high dynamic loading due to multiphase forces. In particular subsea structures are very vulnerable as large flexibility is required to cope for instance with thermal stresses. The forces due to multiphase flow are characterized by a broadband spectrum wit

  15. Multiphase forces on bend structures – critical gas fraction for transition single phase gas to multiphase flow behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belfroid, S.P.C.; Nennie, E.D.; Lewis, M.

    2016-01-01

    Piping structures are generally subjected to high dynamic loading due to multiphase forces. In particular subsea structures are very vulnerable as large flexibility is required to cope for instance with thermal stresses. The forces due to multiphase flow are characterized by a broadband spectrum wit

  16. Static seals of confined flow near critical point; Etancheites statiques des ecoulements de filtration au voisinage du point critique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khelalfa, R.; Durastanti, J.F. [Centre d' Etudes et de Recherche en Thermique, Environnement et Systemes, Paris 12, 61 avenue du General de Gaulle, 94010 Creteil Cedex (France); Darrozes, J.S. [Institut Jean Le Rond d' Alembert, Paris 6, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2011-07-01

    The assembly of metal parts that may be encountered in industry (nuclear, space, ...), creates frequently a path of leakage which can let a fluid pass. In this following study, we aim at understanding the phenomenology of a confined flow through the vicinity of critical point and its influence on the leakage rate. This sealing problem was limited to stationary and viscous situations. The leakage geometry has been assimilated to a capillary tube whose the wall temperature is fixed at the fluid critical value. A difference of pressure was imposed between a supercritical inlet and a subcritical outlet. The phenomenological approach has led to highlight the existence of a transition zone crossing the critical point. In this region of strong expansion, has shown the existence of a thermo-mechanical coupling and be taken a into account by the thermal convection joined the conduction to transport heat. It shows that the progression in fluid outwards is slowed by that cap effect. (authors)

  17. A dry-spot model for the prediction of critical heat flux in water boiling in bubbly flow regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Sang Jun; No, Hee Cheon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents a prediction of critical heat flux (CHF) in bubbly flow regime using dry-spot model proposed recently by authors for pool and flow boiling CHF and existing correlations for forced convective heat transfer coefficient, active site density and bubble departure diameter in nucleate boiling region. Without any empirical constants always present in earlier models, comparisons of the model predictions with experimental data for upward flow of water in vertical, uniformly-heated round tubes are performed and show a good agreement. The parametric trends of CHF have been explored with respect to variations in pressure, tube diameter and length, mass flux and inlet subcooling. 16 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  18. Multiphase Binary Mixture Flows in Porous Media in a Wide Pressure and Temperature Range Including Critical Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasyev, A.

    2011-12-01

    Multiphase flows in porous media with a transition between sub- and supercritical thermodynamic conditions occur in many natural and technological processes (e.g. in deep regions of geothermal reservoirs where temperature reaches critical point of water or in gas-condensate fields where subject to critical conditions retrograde condensation occurs and even in underground carbon dioxide sequestration processes at high formation pressure). Simulation of these processes is complicated due to degeneration of conservation laws under critical conditions and requires non-classical mathematical models and methods. A new mathematical model is proposed for efficient simulation of binary mixture flows in a wide range of pressures and temperatures that includes critical conditions. The distinctive feature of the model lies in the methodology for mixture properties determination. Transport equations and Darcy law are solved together with calculation of the entropy maximum that is reached in thermodynamic equilibrium and determines mixture composition. To define and solve the problem only one function - mixture thermodynamic potential - is required. Such approach allows determination not only single-phase states and two-phase states of liquid-gas type as in classical models but also two-phase states of liquid-liquid type and three-phase states. The proposed mixture model was implemented in MUFITS (Multiphase Filtration Transport Simulator) code for hydrodynamic simulations. As opposed to classical approaches pressure, enthalpy and composition variables together with fully implicit method and cascade procedure are used. The code is capable of unstructured grids, heterogeneous porous media, relative permeability and capillary pressure dependence on temperature and pressure, multiphase diffusion, optional number of sink and sources, etc. There is an additional module for mixture properties specification. The starting point for the simulation is a cubic equation of state that is

  19. On the transition to turbulence of wall-bounded flows in general, and plane Couette flow in particular

    CERN Document Server

    Manneville, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The main part of this contribution to the special issue of EJM-B/Fluids dedicated to Patrick Huerre outlines the problem of the subcritical transition to turbulence in wall-bounded flows in its historical perspective with emphasis on plane Couette flow, the flow generated between counter-translating parallel planes. Subcritical here means discontinuous and direct, with strong hysteresis. This is due to the existence of nontrivial flow regimes between the global stability threshold Re_g, the upper bound for unconditional return to the base flow, and the linear instability threshold Re_c characterized by unconditional departure from the base flow. The transitional range around Re_g is first discussed from an empirical viewpoint ({\\S}1). The recent determination of Re_g for pipe flow by Avila et al. (2011) is recalled. Plane Couette flow is next examined. In laboratory conditions, its transitional range displays an oblique pattern made of alternately laminar and turbulent bands, up to a third threshold Re_t beyo...

  20. Forced convection analysis for generalized Burgers nanofluid flow over a stretching sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Masood; Khan, Waqar Azeem

    2015-10-01

    This article reports the two-dimensional forced convective flow of a generalized Burgers fluid over a linearly stretched sheet under the impacts of nano-sized material particles. Utilizing appropriate similarity transformations the coupled nonlinear partial differential equations are converted into a set of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The analytic results are carried out through the homotopy analysis method (HAM) to investigate the impact of various pertinent parameters for the velocity, temperature and concentration fields. The obtained results are presented in tabular form as well as graphically and discussed in detail. The presented results show that the rate of heat transfer at the wall and rate of nanoparticle volume fraction diminish with each increment of the thermophoresis parameter. While incremented values of the Brownian motion parameter lead to a quite opposite effect on the rates of heat transfer and nanoparticle volume fraction at the wall.

  1. Radiative, two-temperature simulations of low luminosity black hole accretion flows in general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Sadowski, A; Narayan, R; Abarca, D; McKinney, J C

    2016-01-01

    We present a numerical method which evolves a two-temperature, magnetized, radiative, accretion flow around a black hole, within the framework of general relativistic radiation magnetohydrodynamics. As implemented in the code KORAL, the gas consists of two sub-components -- ions and electrons -- which share the same dynamics but experience independent, relativistically consistent, thermodynamical evolution. The electrons and ions are heated independently according to a standard prescription from the literature for magnetohydrodynamical turbulent dissipation. Energy exchange between the particle species via Coulomb collisions is included. In addition, electrons gain and lose energy and momentum by absorbing and emitting synchrotron and bremsstrahlung radiation, and through Compton scattering. All evolution equations are handled within a fully covariant framework in the relativistic fixed-metric spacetime of the black hole. Numerical results are presented for five models of low luminosity black hole accretion. ...

  2. TOUGH2: A general-purpose numerical simulator for multiphase nonisothermal flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruess, K. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1991-06-01

    Numerical simulators for multiphase fluid and heat flows in permeable media have been under development at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for more than 10 yr. Real geofluids contain noncondensible gases and dissolved solids in addition to water, and the desire to model such `compositional` systems led to the development of a flexible multicomponent, multiphase simulation architecture known as MULKOM. The design of MULKOM was based on the recognition that the mass-and energy-balance equations for multiphase fluid and heat flows in multicomponent systems have the same mathematical form, regardless of the number and nature of fluid components and phases present. Application of MULKOM to different fluid mixtures, such as water and air, or water, oil, and gas, is possible by means of appropriate `equation-of-state` (EOS) modules, which provide all thermophysical and transport parameters of the fluid mixture and the permeable medium as a function of a suitable set of primary thermodynamic variables. Investigations of thermal and hydrologic effects from emplacement of heat-generating nuclear wastes into partially water-saturated formations prompted the development and release of a specialized version of MULKOM for nonisothermal flow of water and air, named TOUGH. TOUGH is an acronym for `transport of unsaturated groundwater and heat` and is also an allusion to the tuff formations at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The TOUGH2 code is intended to supersede TOUGH. It offers all the capabilities of TOUGH and includes a considerably more general subset of MULKOM modules with added capabilities. The paper briefly describes the simulation methodology and user features.

  3. A generalized lattice Boltzmann model for flow through tight porous media with Klinkenberg's effect

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Li; Kang, Qinjun; Hyman, Jeffrey De'Haven; Viswanathan, Hari S; Tao, Wen-Quan

    2014-01-01

    Gas slippage occurs when the mean free path of the gas molecules is in the order of the characteristic pore size of a porous medium. This phenomenon leads to the Klinkenberg's effect where the measured permeability of a gas (apparent permeability) is higher than that of the liquid (intrinsic permeability). A generalized lattice Boltzmann model is proposed for flow through porous media that includes Klinkenberg's effect, which is based on the model of Guo et al. (Z.L. Guo et al., Phys.Rev.E 65, 046308 (2002)). The second-order Beskok and Karniadakis-Civan's correlation (A. Beskok and G. Karniadakis, Microscale Thermophysical Engineering 3, 43-47 (1999), F. Civan, Transp Porous Med 82, 375-384 (2010)) is adopted to calculate the apparent permeability based on intrinsic permeability and Knudsen number. Fluid flow between two parallel plates filled with porous media is simulated to validate model. Simulations performed in a heterogeneous porous medium with components of different porosity and permeability indicat...

  4. Radiative, two-temperature simulations of low-luminosity black hole accretion flows in general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sądowski, Aleksander; Wielgus, Maciek; Narayan, Ramesh; Abarca, David; McKinney, Jonathan C.; Chael, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    We present a numerical method that evolves a two-temperature, magnetized, radiative, accretion flow around a black hole, within the framework of general relativistic radiation magnetohydrodynamics. As implemented in the code KORAL, the gas consists of two sub-components - ions and electrons - which share the same dynamics but experience independent, relativistically consistent, thermodynamical evolution. The electrons and ions are heated independently according to a prescription from the literature for magnetohydrodynamical turbulent dissipation. Energy exchange between the particle species via Coulomb collisions is included. In addition, electrons gain and lose energy and momentum by absorbing and emitting synchrotron and bremsstrahlung radiation and through Compton scattering. All evolution equations are handled within a fully covariant framework in the relativistic fixed-metric space-time of the black hole. Numerical results are presented for five models of low-luminosity black hole accretion. In the case of a model with a mass accretion rate dot{M}˜ 4× 10^{-8} dot{M}_Edd, we find that radiation has a negligible effect on either the dynamics or the thermodynamics of the accreting gas. In contrast, a model with a larger dot{M}˜ 4× 10^{-4} dot{M}_Edd behaves very differently. The accreting gas is much cooler and the flow is geometrically less thick, though it is not quite a thin accretion disc.

  5. Clinical and Experimental Study of Effects of Rhubarb on Gastrointestinal Blood Flow Perfusion in Critical Illness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; De-chang

    2001-01-01

    [1]Border JR. Multiple system organ failure. Ann Surg 1992;216(2)∶111-116.[2]Schiessel R, Feil W, Wenzel E. Mechanisms of stress ulceration and implications for treatment. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 1990;19(1)∶101-120.[3]CHEN DC, YANG JD, YANG XY, et al. The effects of rhubarb on permeability of intestinal mucosa and blood vessel in shocked rats. Chin Crit Care Med 1997;9(7)∶385-387.[4]CHEN DC, JING BW. The effects of rhubarb on the protection of gut barrier. Chin Crit Care Med 1994;6(6)∶329-331.[5]American College of Chest Physician/Society of Critical Care Medicine Consensus: Definitions for sepsis and organ failure and guidelines for the use of innovative therapies in sepsis. Crit Care Med 1992;20(6)∶864-874.[6]CHEN DC, JING BW, YANG XY, et al. Therapeutic effects of rhubarb on gastrointestinal failure. Med J Chin PLA 1996;21(1)∶24-26.[7]Nakayama SE. Infusion of very hypertonic saline to bled rats: membrane potential and fluid shifts. J Surg Res 1985;38(2)∶180-186.[8]Bulkley GB. Relationship of blood flow and oxygen consumption to ischemic injury in the canine small intestine. Gastroenterology 1985;89(4)∶852-857.[9]Marshall JC, Christon NV, Meakins JL, et al. The gastrointestinal tract: The “undrained abscess” of multiple organ failure. Ann Surg 1993;218(2)∶111-119.[10].Fiddiann-Green RG, McGough E, Pittenger G, et al. Predictive value of intramural pH and other risk factors for massive bleeding from stress ulceration. Gastroenterology. 1983;85(3)∶613-620.[11].ZHU L, YANG ZC, LI A. Changes and significance of the ability of gastric acid excretion during burn shock in rats. Chin Crit Care Med 1997;9(7)∶398-399.[12].JIAO DH, CHEN SX, ZHANG GH, et al. Clinical study of the effects of rhubarb on peptic ulcer with hemorrhage. CJITWM 1984;10(10)∶597-599.[13].YU JD, GONG LS. Effects of rhubarb on thromboxane A2 and prostacyclin in circulation blood in healthy people and acute myocardial

  6. Modelling and critical analysis of bubbly flows of dilute nanofluids in a vertical tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiangdong; Yuan, Yang [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, VIC 3083 (Australia); Tu, Jiyuan, E-mail: jiyuan.tu@rmit.edu.au [School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, RMIT University, PO Box 71, Bundoora, VIC 3083 (Australia); Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Advanced Reactor Engineering and Safety, Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology, Tsinghua University, PO Box 1021, Beijing 100086 (China)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • The classic two-fluid model needs improvement for nanofluid bubbly flows. • The nanoparticle self-assembly changes the interfacial behaviours of bubbles. • Key job is to reformulate the interfacial transfer terms. - Abstract: The bubbly flows of air–nanofluid and air–water in a vertical tube were numerically simulated using the two-fluid model. Comparison of the numerical results against the experimental data of Park and Chang (2011) demonstrated that the classic two-fluid model, although agreed well with the air–water data, was not applicable to the air–nanofluid bubbly flow. It was suggested that in a bubbly flow system, the existence of interfaces allows the spontaneous formation of a thin layer of nanoparticle assembly at the interfaces, which significantly changes the interfacial behaviours of the air bubbles and the roles of the interfacial forces. As the conservation equations of the classic two-fluid model are still applicable to nanofluids, the mechanisms underlying the modified interfacial behaviours need to be carefully taken into account when modelling air–nanofluid bubbly flows. Thus, one of the key tasks when modelling bubbly flows of air–nanofluid using the two-fluid model is to reformulate the interfacial transfer terms according to the interfacial behaviour modifications induced by nanoparticles.

  7. Critical review and hydrologic application of threshold detection methods for the generalized Pareto (GP) distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamalakis, Antonios; Langousis, Andreas; Deidda, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Estimation of extreme rainfall from data constitutes one of the most important issues in statistical hydrology, as it is associated with the design of hydraulic structures and flood water management. To that extent, based on asymptotic arguments from Extreme Excess (EE) theory, several studies have focused on developing new, or improving existing methods to fit a generalized Pareto (GP) distribution model to rainfall excesses above a properly selected threshold u. The latter is generally determined using various approaches, such as non-parametric methods that are intended to locate the changing point between extreme and non-extreme regions of the data, graphical methods where one studies the dependence of GP distribution parameters (or related metrics) on the threshold level u, and Goodness of Fit (GoF) metrics that, for a certain level of significance, locate the lowest threshold u that a GP distribution model is applicable. In this work, we review representative methods for GP threshold detection, discuss fundamental differences in their theoretical bases, and apply them to 1714 daily rainfall records from the NOAA-NCDC open-access database, with more than 110 years of data. We find that non-parametric methods that are intended to locate the changing point between extreme and non-extreme regions of the data are generally not reliable, while methods that are based on asymptotic properties of the upper distribution tail lead to unrealistically high threshold and shape parameter estimates. The latter is justified by theoretical arguments, and it is especially the case in rainfall applications, where the shape parameter of the GP distribution is low; i.e. on the order of 0.1 ÷ 0.2. Better performance is demonstrated by graphical methods and GoF metrics that rely on pre-asymptotic properties of the GP distribution. For daily rainfall, we find that GP threshold estimates range between 2÷12 mm/d with a mean value of 6.5 mm/d, while the existence of quantization in the

  8. Hierarchical multiscale modeling for flows in fractured media using generalized multiscale finite element method

    KAUST Repository

    Efendiev, Yalchin R.

    2015-06-05

    In this paper, we develop a multiscale finite element method for solving flows in fractured media. Our approach is based on generalized multiscale finite element method (GMsFEM), where we represent the fracture effects on a coarse grid via multiscale basis functions. These multiscale basis functions are constructed in the offline stage via local spectral problems following GMsFEM. To represent the fractures on the fine grid, we consider two approaches (1) discrete fracture model (DFM) (2) embedded fracture model (EFM) and their combination. In DFM, the fractures are resolved via the fine grid, while in EFM the fracture and the fine grid block interaction is represented as a source term. In the proposed multiscale method, additional multiscale basis functions are used to represent the long fractures, while short-size fractures are collectively represented by a single basis functions. The procedure is automatically done via local spectral problems. In this regard, our approach shares common concepts with several approaches proposed in the literature as we discuss. We would like to emphasize that our goal is not to compare DFM with EFM, but rather to develop GMsFEM framework which uses these (DFM or EFM) fine-grid discretization techniques. Numerical results are presented, where we demonstrate how one can adaptively add basis functions in the regions of interest based on error indicators. We also discuss the use of randomized snapshots (Calo et al. Randomized oversampling for generalized multiscale finite element methods, 2014), which reduces the offline computational cost.

  9. Time Periodic Electroosmotic Flow of The Generalized Maxwell Fluids in a Semicircular Microchannel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO Li-Ping; JIAN Yong-Jun; CHANG Long; SU Jie; ZHANG Hai-Yan; LIU Quan-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Analytical solutions are presented using method of separation of variables for the time periodic electroosmotic flow (EOF) of linear viscoelastic fluids in semicircular microchannel.The linear viscoelastic fluids used here are described by the general Maxwell model.The solution involves analytically solving the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann (P-B) equation,together with the Cauchy momentum equation and the general Maxwell constitutive equation.By numerical computations,the influences of electric oscillating Reynolds number Re and Deborah number De on velocity amplitude are presented.For small Re,results show that the larger velocity amplitudeis confined to the region near the charged wall when De is small.With the increase of the Deborah number De,the velocity far away the charged wall becomes larger for large Deborah number De.However,for larger Re,the oscillating characteristic of the velocity amplitude occurs and becomes significant with the increase of De,especially for larger Deborah number.

  10. Critical rotation of general-relativistic polytropic models simulating neutron stars: a post-Newtonian hybrid approximative scheme

    CERN Document Server

    Geroyannis, Vassilis S

    2014-01-01

    We develop a "hybrid approximative scheme" in the framework of the post-Newtonian approximation for computing general-relativistic polytropic models simulating neutron stars in critical rigid rotation. We treat the differential equations governing such a model as a "complex initial value problem", and we solve it by using the so-called "complex-plane strategy". We incorporate into the computations the complete solution for the relativistic effects, this issue representing a significant improvement with regard to the classical post-Newtonian approximation, as verified by extended comparisons of the numerical results.

  11. Generalization of Martinelli-Nelson method of pressure drop calculation in two-phase flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trela Marian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple method of pressure drop calculation for two-phase flows of different fluids during convective boiling in channels is presented. It is based on experimental data of pressure drop multiplier R and void fraction φ obtained by Martinelli and Nelson for boiling of water in vertical tubes. The data cover the whole two-phase domain from ambient to critical pressure. Unfortunately, they have been presented in graphical forms. The first step in the procedure proposed in the paper was a transformation of the graphical data into analytical formulas which contain such dimensionless quantities as steam quality x, Martinelli parameter X, multiplier Φl2 and dimensionless coefficients D, m, E and k. In the second step, simple analytical formulas were determined to express the dimensionless coefficients as a function of physical property parameter K. In this way two simple analytical expressions for the multiplier R and void fraction φ were obtained. They are in analytical dimensionless form so they may be used directly for different fluids, not only for water. This is the main advantage of the proposed method.

  12. An Experimental Study on Flow Boiling Critical Heat Flux Characteristics of Suddenly Expanded Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Jin; Song, Sub Lee; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Sang Ki [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In this experiment, test section has been designed to simulate sudden flow path change due to deformation of cladding. It was tended to simulate cladding deformation that has discontinuous diameter change so coolant flow path changes suddenly. Experiments are in progress. Experiments on test section that simulate deformed flow path which contains sudden contraction and sudden expansion part have been done. Location of CHF has been varied by different condition of experiment. CHF at the outlet of test section fits well into the Macbeth's correlation and data of reference experiment, which was held on plain test section that had same diameter with inlet diameter of deformed test section. CHF at sudden expansion part was in churn flow regime and CHF was very low compared to expectation. It is discussed that liquid film separation from wall or bubble accumulation by backflow might be the reason of this result. For future work, experiments for two additional blockage ratio conditions will be carried out. Also, discussion and model development for deformed channel with sudden expand flow path will be held on.

  13. Study of safety relief valve operation under ATWS conditions. [Super critical flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutmacher, E.S.; Whitten, S.D.

    1979-07-25

    In March 1979, ETEC published as ETEC-TDR-78-19 a search which updated earlier NRC studies of saturated or subcooled water flow through relief valves, under ATWS conditions. This Supplement expands upon that search to include supercritical steam-water flow. No applicable data for the supercritical conditions was found, nor were any newer data on saturated or subcooled conditions uncovered. The Supplement also updated a look for facilities currently capable of simultaneously imposing all ATWS conditions upon test relief valves. Results confirmed the negative findings of ETEC-TDR-78.19.

  14. Critical slowing down and the gradient flow coupling in the Schroedinger functional

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzsch, Patrick; Stollenwerk, Felix [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Ramos, Alberto [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2013-11-15

    We study the sensitivity of the gradient flow coupling to sectors of different topological charge and its implications in practical situations. Furthermore, we investigate an alternative definition of the running coupling that is expected to be less sensitive to the problems of the HMC algorithm to efficiently sample all topological sectors.

  15. Streamline topologies near simple degenerate critical points in two-dimensional flow away from boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Morten; Hartnack, Johan Nicolai

    1999-01-01

    Streamline patterns and their bifurcations in two-dimensional incompressible flow are investigated from a topological point of view. The velocity field is expanded at a point in the fluid, and the expansion coefficients are considered as bifurcation parameters. A series of nonlinear coordinate...

  16. Streamline topologies near simple degenerate critical points in two-dimensional flow away from boundaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Morten; Hartnack, Johan Nicolai

    1998-01-01

    Streamline patterns and their bifurcations in two-dimensional incompressible flow are investigated from a topological point of view. The velocity field is expanded at a point in the fluid, and the expansion coefficients are considered as bifurcation parameters. A series of non-linear coordinate...

  17. Critical transport issues for improving the performance of aqueous redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X. L.; Zhao, T. S.; An, L.; Zeng, Y. K.; Wei, L.

    2017-01-01

    As the fraction of electricity generated from intermittent renewable sources (such as solar and wind) grows, developing reliable energy storage technologies to store electrical energy in large scale is of increasing importance. Redox flow batteries are now enjoying a renaissance and regarded as a leading technology in providing a well-balanced solution for current daunting challenges. In this article, state-of-the-art studies of the complex multicomponent transport phenomena in aqueous redox flow batteries, with a special emphasis on all-vanadium redox flow batteries, are reviewed and summarized. Rather than elaborating on the details of previous experimental and numerical investigations, this article highlights: i) the key transport issues in each battery's component that need to be tackled so that the rate capability and cycling stability of flow batteries can be significantly improved, ii) the basic mechanisms that control the active species/ion/electron transport behaviors in each battery's component, and iii) the key experimental and numerical findings regarding the correlations between the multicomponent transport processes and battery performance.

  18. General relativistic radiation hydrodynamics of accretion flows - II. Treating stiff source terms and exploring physical limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roedig, C.; Zanotti, O.; Alic, D.

    2012-10-01

    We present the implementation of an implicit-explicit (IMEX) Runge-Kutta numerical scheme for general relativistic (GR) hydrodynamics coupled to an optically thick radiation field in two existing GR-(magneto)hydrodynamics codes. We argue that the necessity of such an improvement arises naturally in most astrophysically relevant regimes where the optical thickness is high as the equations become stiff. By performing several simple 1D tests, we verify the codes' new ability to deal with this stiffness and show consistency. Then, still in one spatial dimension, we compute a luminosity versus accretion rate diagram for the set-up of spherical accretion on to a Schwarzschild black hole and find good agreement with previous work which included more radiation processes than we currently have available. Lastly, we revisit the supersonic Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton (BHL) accretion in two dimensions where we can now present simulations of realistic temperatures, down to T ˜ 106 K or less. Here we find that radiation pressure plays an important role, but also that these highly dynamical set-ups push our approximate treatment towards the limit of physical applicability. The main features of radiation hydrodynamics BHL flows manifest as (i) an effective adiabatic index approaching γeff ˜ 4/3; (ii) accretion rates two orders of magnitude lower than without radiation pressure, but still super-Eddington; (iii) luminosity estimates around the Eddington limit, hence with an overall radiative efficiency as small as ηBHL˜10-2; (iv) strong departures from thermal equilibrium in shocked regions; (v) no appearance of the flip-flop instability. We conclude that the current optically thick approximation to the radiation transfer does give physically substantial improvements over the pure hydro also in set-ups departing from equilibrium, and, once accompanied by an optically thin treatment, is likely to provide a fundamental tool for investigating accretion flows in a large variety of

  19. Geographically weighted regression as a generalized Wombling to detect barriers to gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz-Filho, José Alexandre Felizola; Soares, Thannya Nascimento; de Campos Telles, Mariana Pires

    2016-08-01

    Barriers to gene flow play an important role in structuring populations, especially in human-modified landscapes, and several methods have been proposed to detect such barriers. However, most applications of these methods require a relative large number of individuals or populations distributed in space, connected by vertices from Delaunay or Gabriel networks. Here we show, using both simulated and empirical data, a new application of geographically weighted regression (GWR) to detect such barriers, modeling the genetic variation as a "local" linear function of geographic coordinates (latitude and longitude). In the GWR, standard regression statistics, such as R(2) and slopes, are estimated for each sampling unit and thus are mapped. Peaks in these local statistics are then expected close to the barriers if genetic discontinuities exist, capturing a higher rate of population differentiation among neighboring populations. Isolation-by-Distance simulations on a longitudinally warped lattice revealed that higher local slopes from GWR coincide with the barrier detected with Monmonier algorithm. Even with a relatively small effect of the barrier, the power of local GWR in detecting the east-west barriers was higher than 95 %. We also analyzed empirical data of genetic differentiation among tree populations of Dipteryx alata and Eugenia dysenterica Brazilian Cerrado. GWR was applied to the principal coordinate of the pairwise FST matrix based on microsatellite loci. In both simulated and empirical data, the GWR results were consistent with discontinuities detected by Monmonier algorithm, as well as with previous explanations for the spatial patterns of genetic differentiation for the two species. Our analyses reveal how this new application of GWR can viewed as a generalized Wombling in a continuous space and be a useful approach to detect barriers and discontinuities to gene flow.

  20. INCIDENCE OF PNEUMONIA IN CRITICALLY ILL PATIENTS ON VENTILATOR IN BASAVESHWAR TEACHING AND GENERAL HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basavaraj R

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Nosocomial pneumonia (NP is defined as parenchymal lung infection, occurring after the first 48 hours of hospital admission. Ventilator Associated Pneumonia (VAP is the most common cause of nosocomial pneumonia. The clinical presentation and organisms causing the VAP are different in different set ups. Hence early diagnosis and management of these patients will decrease morbidity and also the mortality. AIM OF STUDY: Is to find the most common organism, sensitivity, and clinical profile of the patients suffering from VAP. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients on mechanical ventilation admitted in Intensive Care Units (ICU of Basaweshwar Teaching and General Hospital attached to M.R.M.C Gulbarga for approximately 2 years from September 2010 to June 2012 were considered. Patients under study were those satisfying inclusion criteria and a detail history and clinical examination of the selected patients was taken. RESULTS: 224 patients were put on mechanical ventilator during the study period of them 60 patients developed VAP. Out of 60patients, 29 developed early onset and 31 developed late onset VAP. The most common sign in early onset VAP was crepitation (83% and late onset were fever and tachycardia (61%. Commonest organism isolated in early onset VAP was Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus aureus (21% and Pseudomonas (52% in late onset. Piperacillin, meropenem and vancomycin were the most common antibiotics for which cultures were sensitive in early onset VAP, as compared to meropenem, vancomycin and levofloxacin in late onset VAP. Commonest risk factors in early and late onset VAP was use of H2 blockers (97% and 100% respectively. late onset VAP had very high mortality rate of 71% as compared to only 17% in early onset VAP. CONCLUSION: Keen observation, clinical, radiological examination and culture sensitivity of respiratory secretions of ventilated patients in ICU would help to detect early onset of VAP. This early

  1. Review of critical flow rate, propagation of pressure pulse, and sonic velocity in two-phase media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Y.

    1972-01-01

    For single-phase media, the critical discharge velocity, the sonic velocity, and the pressure pulse propagation velocity can be expressed in the same form by assuming isentropic, equilibria processes. In two-phase mixtures, the same concept is not valid due to the existence of interfacial transports of momentum, heat, and mass. Thus, the three velocities should be treated differently and separately for each particular condition, taking into account the various transport processes involved under that condition. Various attempts are reviewed to predict the critical discharge rate or the propagation velocities by considering slip ratio (momentum change), evaporation (mass and heat transport), flow pattern, etc. Experimental data were compared with predictions based on various theorems. The importance is stressed of the time required to achieve equilibrium as compared with the time available during the process, for example, of passing a pressure pulse.

  2. Understanding the sub-critical transition to turbulence in wall flows

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Paul Manneville

    2008-06-01

    In contrast with free shear flows presenting velocity profiles with injection points which cascade to turbulence in a relatively mild way, wall bounded flows are deprived of (inertial) instability modes at low Reynolds numbers and become turbulent in a much wilder way, most often marked by the coexistence of laminar and turbulent domains at intermediate Reynolds numbers, well below the range where (viscous) instabilities can show up. There can even be no unstable mode at all, as for plane Couette flow (pCf) or for Poiseuille pipe flow (Ppf) that are currently the subject of intense research. Though the mechanisms involved in the transition to turbulence in wall flows are now better understood, statistical properties of the transition itself are yet unsatisfactorily assessed. A widely accepted interpretation rests on non-trivial solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations in the form of unstable travelling waves and on transient chaotic states associated to chaotic repellors. Whether these concepts typical of the theory of temporal chaos are really appropriate is yet unclear owing to the fact that, strictly speaking, they apply when confinement in physical space is effective while the physical systems considered are rather extended in at least one space direction, so that spatiotemporal behaviour cannot be ruled out in the transitional regime. The case of pCf will be examined in this perspective through numerical simulations of a model with reduced cross-stream () dependence, focusing on the in-plane (, ) space dependence of a few velocity amplitudes. In the large aspect-ratio limit, the transition to turbulence takes place via spatiotemporal intermittency and we shall attempt to make a connection with the theory of first-order (thermodynamic) phase transitions, as suggested long ago by Pomeau.

  3. Crossing the threshold: gene flow, dominance and the critical level of standing genetic variation required for adaptation to novel environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuismer, S L; MacPherson, A; Rosenblum, E B

    2012-12-01

    Genetic architecture plays an important role in the process of adaptation to novel environments. One example is the role of allelic dominance, where advantageous recessive mutations have a lower probability of fixation than advantageous dominant mutations. This classic observation, termed 'Haldane's sieve', has been well explored theoretically for single isolated populations adapting to new selective regimes. However, the role of dominance is less well understood for peripheral populations adapting to novel environments in the face of recurrent and maladaptive gene flow. Here, we use a combination of analytical approximations and individual-based simulations to explore how dominance influences the likelihood of adaptation to novel peripheral environments. We demonstrate that in the face of recurrent maladaptive gene flow, recessive alleles can fuel adaptation only when their frequency exceeds a critical threshold within the ancestral range.

  4. A modified DRIL procedure by flow reversal of an aborted distal cephalic vein for critical hand ischaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danzer, D; Czerny, M; Widmer, M K

    2011-09-01

    Treatment of dialysis access-related hand ischaemia with preservation of the access remains an issue. We report the case of a patient presenting critical hand ischaemia 2 years after proximalisation of a distal radio-cephalic fistula with preservation of the original access. After valvulotomy, the distal cephalic vein was used as in situ bypass and directly anastomosed to the distal brachial artery, providing a direct flow to the hand. This procedure relieved the hand ischaemia without sacrificing the functioning fistula. Six months later, the fistula and bypass were still patent, showing that flow reversal of a previous fistula can be an efficient strategy to correct dialysis access-related hand ischaemia in selected cases.

  5. General Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamic Simulations of Magnetically Choked Accretion Flows around Black Holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinney, Jonathan C.; Tchekhovskoy, Alexander; Blandford, Roger D.

    2012-04-26

    Black hole (BH) accretion flows and jets are qualitatively affected by the presence of ordered magnetic fields. We study fully three-dimensional global general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of radially extended and thick (height H to cylindrical radius R ratio of |H/R| {approx} 0.2-1) accretion flows around BHs with various dimensionless spins (a/M, with BH mass M) and with initially toroidally-dominated ({phi}-directed) and poloidally-dominated (R-z directed) magnetic fields. Firstly, for toroidal field models and BHs with high enough |a/M|, coherent large-scale (i.e. >> H) dipolar poloidal magnetic flux patches emerge, thread the BH, and generate transient relativistic jets. Secondly, for poloidal field models, poloidal magnetic flux readily accretes through the disk from large radii and builds-up to a natural saturation point near the BH. While models with |H/R| {approx} 1 and |a/M| {le} 0.5 do not launch jets due to quenching by mass infall, for sufficiently high |a/M| or low |H/R| the polar magnetic field compresses the inflow into a geometrically thin highly non-axisymmetric 'magnetically choked accretion flow' (MCAF) within which the standard linear magneto-rotational instability is suppressed. The condition of a highly-magnetized state over most of the horizon is optimal for the Blandford-Znajek mechanism that generates persistent relativistic jets with and 100% efficiency for |a/M| {approx}> 0.9. A magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz unstable magnetospheric interface forms between the compressed inflow and bulging jet magnetosphere, which drives a new jet-disk oscillation (JDO) type of quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) mechanism. The high-frequency QPO has spherical harmonic |m| = 1 mode period of {tau} {approx} 70GM/c{sup 3} for a/M {approx} 0.9 with coherence quality factors Q {approx}> 10. Overall, our models are qualitatively distinct from most prior MHD simulations (typically, |H/R| << 1 and poloidal flux is

  6. The contraction rate in Thompson metric of order-preserving flows on a cone - application to generalized Riccati equations

    CERN Document Server

    Gaubert, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    We give a formula for the Lipschitz constant in Thompson's part metric of any order-preserving flow on the interior of a (possibly infinite dimensional) closed convex pointed cone. This provides an explicit form of a characterization of Nussbaum concerning non order-preserving flows. As an application of this formula, we show that the flow of the generalized Riccati equation arising in stochastic linear quadratic control is a local contraction on the cone of positive definite matrices and characterize its Lipschitz constant by a matrix inequality. We also show that the same flow is no longer a contraction in other natural Finsler metrics on this cone, including the standard invariant Riemannian metric. This is motivated by a series of contraction properties concerning the standard Riccati equation, established by Bougerol, Liverani, Wojtowski, Lawson, Lee and Lim: we show that some of these properties do, and that some other do not, carry over to the generalized Riccati equation.

  7. The effect of spacer grid critical component on pressure drop under both single and two phase flow conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, B.; Yang, B.W.; Zhang, H.; Mao, H.; Zha, Y. [Xi' an Jiaotong Univ., Shaanxi (China). Science and Technology Center for Advanced Nuclear Fuel Research

    2016-07-15

    As pressure drop is one of the most critical thermal hydraulic parameters for spacer grids the accurate estimation of it is the key to the design and development of spacer grids. Most of the available correlations for pressure drop do not contain any real geometrical parameters that characterize the grid effect. The main functions for spacer grid are structural support and flow mixing. Once the boundary sublayer near the rod bundle is disturbed, the liquid forms swirls or flow separation that affect pressure drop. However, under two phase flow conditions, due to the existence of steam bubble, the complexity for spacer grid are multiplied and pressure drop calculation becomes much more challenging. The influence of the dimple location, distance of mixing vane to the nearest strip, and the effect of inter-subchannel mixing among neighboring subchannels on pressure drop and downstream flow fields are analyzed in this paper. Based on this study, more detailed space grid geometry parameters are recommended for adding into the correlation when predicting pressure drop.

  8. Gas dilution system using critical flow Venturi nozzles for generating primary trace-moisture standards in multiple gas species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Minami; Abe, Hisashi

    2017-02-01

    Gas dilution systems are commonly used to generate calibration gas mixtures for secondary gas standards. However, if a gas dilution system is used to generate gas mixtures for primary trace-moisture standards in multiple gas species, difficulty arises; flow control with relative stability of better than 0.009% is required although the relative uncertainty of the best gas flow meter to date is around 0.3%. In this study, we developed a novel gas dilution system using critical flow Venturi nozzles to address this problem. The developed dilution system can measure and control the flow rates of gases in the range of approximately 0.05 l min-1 to 7 l min-1 (when converted to those measured at 101 325 Pa and 273.15 K) with relative stability of better than 0.007%. Using the dilution system, we developed a magnetic suspension balance/diffusion-tube humidity generator capable of generating trace moisture in N2 in the range of approximately 10 nmol mol-1 to 5 µmol mol-1 in amount fraction. The accuracy of the generated trace-moisture standard was verified by measurement with cavity ring-down spectroscopy.

  9. Effects of forced wall vibration on the onset of flow instability and critical heat flux in uniformly-heated microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stromberger, Jorg Hermann

    Numerous experimental and theoretical investigations on two-phase flow instability and burnout in heated microchannels have been reported in the literature. However none of these investigations deals with the possible effects of wall vibrations on such flow boiling processes within microchannels. Fluid-structure interaction in ultra high power density systems cooled by high velocity single phase forced convection in microchannels may result in vibration amplitudes that are a significant fraction of the diameter of the channel. Such vibrations may significantly impact vapor bubble dynamics at the wall and, hence, the limiting heat fluxes corresponding to the onset of flow instability and/or burnout. The primary purpose of this research was to experimentally quantify the effect of forced wall vibration on the onset of flow instability (OFI) and the critical heat flux (CHF) in uniformly-heated annular microchannels. The secondary interest of this investigation was to compare the experimental data collected in the single-phase regime to commonly used single-phase forced convection correlations. Experimental data acquired in the flow boiling regime were to be utilized to confirm the validity of common flow boiling correlations for microchannel flow. The influence of forced wall vibration on subcooled single-phase forced convection and flow boiling was examined. The Georgia Tech Microchannel Test Facility (GTMTF) was modified to allow such experiments to be conducted at controlled values of transverse wall vibration amplitudes and accelerations for a range of frequencies. The channel demand curves were obtained for various inner and outer surface heat fluxes. Experiments were conducted for broad ranges of transverse wall vibration amplitudes over a range of frequencies. The experiments conducted in this investigation provide designers of high power density systems cooled by forced convection in microchannels with the appropriate data and correlations to confidently

  10. A laminar flow unit for the care of critically ill newborn infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez JM

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Jose MR Perez,1 Sergio G Golombek,2 Carlos Fajardo,3 Augusto Sola41Stella Maris Hospital, International Neurodevelopment Neonatal Center (CINN, Sao Paulo, Brazil; 2M Fareri Children’s Hospital, Westchester Medical Center, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY, USA; 3University of Calgary, Calgary, Canada; 4St Jude Hospital, Fullerton, California, CA, USAIntroduction: Medical and nursing care of newborns is predicated on the delicate control and balance of several vital parameters. Closed incubators and open radiant warmers are the most widely used devices for the care of neonates in intensive care; however, several well-known limitations of these devises have not been resolved. The use of laminar flow is widely used in many fields of medicine, and may have applications in neonatal care.Objective: To describe the neonatal laminar flow unit, a new equipment we designed for care of ill newborns.Methods: The idea, design, and development of this device was completed in Sao Paulo, Brazil. The unit is an open mobile bed designed with the objective of maintaining the advantages of the incubator and radiant warmer, while overcoming some of their inherent shortcomings; these shortcomings include noise, magnetic fields and acrylic barriers in incubators, and lack of isolation and water loss through skin in radiant warmers. The unit has a pump that aspirates environmental air which is warmed by electrical resistance and decontaminated with High Efficiency Particulate Air Filter (HEPA filters (laminar flow. The flow is directed by an air flow directioner. The unit has an embedded humidifier to increase humidity in the infant’s microenvironment and a servo control mechanism for regulation of skin temperature.Results: The laminar flow unit is open and facilitates access of care providers and family, which is not the case in incubators. It provides warming by convection at an air velocity of 0.45 m/s, much faster than an incubator (0.1 m/s. The system

  11. General approach for the determination of the magneto-angular dependence of the critical current of YBCO coated conductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Zhong, Z.; Ruiz, H. S.; Geng, J.; Coombs, T. A.

    2017-02-01

    The physical understanding and numerical modelling of superconducting devices which exploit the high performance of second generation high temperature superconducting tapes (2G-HTS), is commonly hindered by the lack of accurate functions which allow the consideration of the in-field dependence of the critical current. This is true regardless of the manufacturer of the superconducting tape. In this paper, we present a general approach for determining a unified function I c(B, θ), ultimately capable of describing the magneto-angular dependence of the in-field critical current of commercial 2G-HTS tapes in the Lorentz configuration. Five widely different superconducting tapes, provided by three different manufacturers, have been tested in a liquid nitrogen bath and external magnetic fields of up to 400 mT. The critical current was recorded at 90 different orientations of the magnetic field ranging from θ = 0°, i.e., with B aligned with the crystallographic ab-planes of the YBCO layer, towards ±90°, i.e., with B perpendicular to the wider surfaces of the 2G-HTS tape. The whole set of experimental data has been analysed using a novel multi-objective model capable of predicting a sole function I c(B, θ). This allows an accurate validation of the experimental data regardless of the fabrication differences and widths of the superconducting tapes. It is shown that, in spite of the wide set of differences between the fabrication and composition of the considered tapes, at liquid nitrogen temperature the magneto-angular dependence of the in-field critical current of YBCO-based 2G-HTS tapes, can be described by a universal function I c(f(B), θ), with a power law field dependence dominated by the Kim’s factor B/B 0, and an angular dependence moderated by the electron mass anisotropy ratio of the YBCO layer.

  12. The Effect of Inclination Angle on Critical Heat Flux in a Locally Heated Liquid Film Moving Under the Action of Gas Flow in a Mini-Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkachenko Egor M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Intensively evaporating liquid films moving under the action of the cocurrent gas flow in a microchannel are promising for the use in modern cooling systems of semiconductor devices with high local heat release. This work has studied the dependence of the critical heat flux on the inclination angle of the channel. It has been found that the inclination angle in the plane parallel to the flow has no significant effect on the critical heat flux. Whereas the inclination angle in the plane perpendicular to the flow, on the contrary, significantly changes the value of the critical heat flux. However, for a given flow rate of fluid there is a threshold gas velocity at which the critical heat flux does not differ from the case of zero inclination of the channel. Thus, it can be concluded that the cooling system based on shear-driven liquid films can be potentially used when direction of the gravity changes.

  13. Critical points in the 16-moment approximation. [plasma flow in laboratory and space plasmas study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasseen, F.; Retterer, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    The singular points in steady state, field-aligned plasma transport models based on velocity moment theory are examined. In particular, two separate singular points in the equations obtained from the 16-moment approximation are identified. These equations are presented in a form that makes the singularities apparent, and they are solved in a simple illustrative case. The singular points, one occurring at the sonic point and the other at a critical value of the parallel heat flux, give rise to different outflow regimes, characterized generically by different asymptotic behavior. The existence of the different outflow regimes separated by the heat flux critical point has been only hinted at in previous discussions of numerical simulation of the polar wind.

  14. Are Self-Organised Critical Dislocation Dynamics Relevant to Ice Sheet Flow?

    OpenAIRE

    Louchet, François; Duval,Paul; Montagnat, Maurine; Weiss, Jérôme

    2009-01-01

    It was recently shown thai crystals (including ice) plastically deform in an intermittent manner in usual laboratory conditions. The present paper aims at discussing whether such self-organised critical dynamics still apply to polar ice sheet conditions. Field data suggest that grains should contain between zero and one dislocation moving at a time. However, this is nothing but an average estimate. Field data also show that strong back-stresses are present, collesponding to a significant dens...

  15. Tuning hydrological models for ecological modeling - improving simulations of low flows critical to stream ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Martin; Troldborg, Lars; Boegh, Eva

    2008-01-01

    The consequences of using simulated discharge from a conventional hydrological model as input in stream physical habitat modelling was investigated using output from the Danish national hydrological model and a physical habitat model of three small streams. It was found that low flow simulation...... errors could have large impact on simulation of physical habitat conditions. If these two models are to be used to assess groundwater abstraction impact on physical habitat conditions the hydrological model should be tuned to the purpose...

  16. Tuning hydrological models for ecological modeling - improving simulations of low flows critical to stream ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Martin; Troldborg, Lars; Boegh, Eva;

    2008-01-01

    The consequences of using simulated discharge from a conventional hydrological model as input in stream physical habitat modelling was investigated using output from the Danish national hydrological model and a physical habitat model of three small streams. It was found that low flow simulation...... errors could have large impact on simulation of physical habitat conditions. If these two models are to be used to assess groundwater abstraction impact on physical habitat conditions the hydrological model should be tuned to the purpose...

  17. Immune Monitoring in Cancer Vaccine Clinical Trials: Critical Issues of Functional Flow Cytometry-Based Assays

    OpenAIRE

    Iole Macchia; Francesca Urbani; Enrico Proietti

    2013-01-01

    The development of immune monitoring assays is essential to determine the immune responses against tumor-specific antigens (TSAs) and tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) and their possible correlation with clinical outcome in cancer patients receiving immunotherapies. Despite the wide range of techniques used, to date these assays have not shown consistent results among clinical trials and failed to define surrogate markers of clinical efficacy to antitumor vaccines. Multiparameter flow cytometr...

  18. Water velocity and the nature of critical flow in large rapids on the Colorado River, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magirl, C.S.; Gartner, J.W.; Smart, G.M.; Webb, R.H.

    2009-01-01

     Rapids are an integral part of bedrock-controlled rivers, influencing aquatic ecology, geomorphology, and recreational value. Flow measurements in rapids and high-gradient rivers are uncommon because of technical difficulties associated with positioning and operating sufficiently robust instruments. In the current study, detailed velocity, water surface, and bathymetric data were collected within rapids on the Colorado River in eastern Utah. With the water surface survey, it was found that shoreline-based water surface surveys may misrepresent the water surface slope along the centerline of a rapid. Flow velocities were measured with an ADCP and an electronic pitot-static tube. Integrating multiple measurements, the ADCP returned velocity data from the entire water column, even in sections of high water velocity. The maximum mean velocity measured with the ADCP was 3.7 m/s. The pitot-static tube, while capable of only point measurements, quantified velocity 0.39 m below the surface. The maximum mean velocity measured with the pitot tube was 5.2 m/s, with instantaneous velocities up to 6.5 m/s. Analysis of the data showed that flow was subcritical throughout all measured rapids with a maximum measured Froude number of 0.7 in the largest measured rapids. Froude numbers were highest at the entrance of a given rapid, then decreased below the first breaking waves. In the absence of detailed bathymetric and velocity data, the Froude number in the fastest-flowing section of a rapid was estimated from near-surface velocity and depth soundings alone.

  19. Testing the relationship between FDI inflow and out flow in India: a critical analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Raveesh KRISHNANKUTTY

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the factors determining FDI inflow and outflow from India using annual data set from the period 1980-2009. More over the study has tested whether FDI inflow has any role in determining FDI out flow and vice versa. The study used stepwise regression for finding the determinants. Trade openness (Trade as a percentage of GDP), Gross Capital Formation, economic stability (Lending Rate as the proxy for economic stability) and FDI outflow are found to be the major factors determ...

  20. Existence and uniqueness of solutions in general multisolute renal flow problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, J B; Kellogg, R B

    1988-01-01

    This paper considers systems of differential equations that describe flows in renal networks. The flow geometry is of the type that occurs in modelling the renal medulla. The unknowns in the system include the flow rate, the hydrostatic pressure, and the concentrations of the various solutes. Existence and uniqueness of solutions of the appropriate boundary value problems are established, in the case of small permeability coefficients and transport rates, or large diffusion coefficients and small resistance to flow constants.

  1. Numerical method of the Riemann problem for two-dimensional multi-fluid flows with general equation of state

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Jing-Song; Zhang Zhan-Ji; Li Ping; Zhong Min

    2006-01-01

    Based on the classical Roe method, we develop an interface capture method according to the general equation of state, and extend the single-fluid Roe method to the two-dimensional (2D) multi-fluid flows, as well as construct the continuous Roe matrix for the whole flow field. The interface capture equations and fluid dynamic conservative equations are coupled together and solved by using any high-resolution schemes that usually suit for the single-fluid flows. Some numerical examples are given to illustrate the solution of 1D and 2D multi-fluid Riemann problems.

  2. Generalized function of the parameters in the storage-discharge relation for low flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, Kazumasa; Iseri, Yoshihiko; Kanae, Shinjiro; Murakami, Masahiro

    2015-04-01

    The accurate estimation of low flows can contribute to better water resource management and more reliable evaluation of the impact of climate change on water resources. For the case of low flows, the nonlinearity of the discharge Q associated with the storage S was originally proposed by Horton (1936) as the power function Q=KSN, where K is a constant and N is the exponent. Although the Q(S) relations for groundwater runoff from unconfined aquifers have been treated as second-order polynomial functions on the basis of the hydraulic investigation by Ding (1966), the general power function Q = KNSN was introduced into the unit hydrograph model for overland flow and the parameters K and N were calibrated by Ding (2011). According to recent studies, the value of the exponent N is varied between 1 and 3 or higher by calibration (e.g., Wittenberg, 1994 and Ding, 2011); however, it is currently unclear whether the optimum value of N has the rule. Fujimura et al. (2014) applied the general power function Q = KNSN for low flows in mountainous basins over a period spanning more than 10 years using hourly data, and carried out sensitivity analysis using a hydrological model for 19 900 sets of the two parameters K and N, in which the exponent N was varied between 1 and 100 in steps of 0.5. The results showed that the optimum relation between N and K could be characterized by the exponential function K=1/(α Nβ), where α and β are constants. Moreover, the lowest error in the sensitivity analysis was obtained by using an exponent N of 100. The aim of this study is to extend the previous study of Fujimura et al. to clarify the properties of the K(N) relations. A sensitivity analysis is performed efficiently using a hydrological model, in which the exponent N is varied between 1 and 100 000 along the neighborhood of the exponential function K=1/(α Nβ). The hourly hydrological model used in this study comprises the Diskin-Nazimov infiltration model, groundwater recharge and

  3. Generalized adjoint consistent treatment of wall boundary conditions for compressible flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Ralf; Leicht, Tobias

    2015-11-01

    In this article, we revisit the adjoint consistency analysis of Discontinuous Galerkin discretizations of the compressible Euler and Navier-Stokes equations with application to the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes and k- ω turbulence equations. Here, particular emphasis is laid on the discretization of wall boundary conditions. While previously only one specific combination of discretizations of wall boundary conditions and of aerodynamic force coefficients has been shown to give an adjoint consistent discretization, in this article we generalize this analysis and provide a discretization of the force coefficients for any consistent discretization of wall boundary conditions. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a related evaluation of the cp- and cf-distributions is required. The freedom gained in choosing the discretization of boundary conditions without loosing adjoint consistency is used to devise a new adjoint consistent discretization including numerical fluxes on the wall boundary which is more robust than the adjoint consistent discretization known up to now. While this work is presented in the framework of Discontinuous Galerkin discretizations, the insight gained is also applicable to (and thus valuable for) other discretization schemes. In particular, the discretization of integral quantities, like the drag, lift and moment coefficients, as well as the discretization of local quantities at the wall like surface pressure and skin friction should follow as closely as possible the discretization of the flow equations and boundary conditions at the wall boundary.

  4. Generalization of geometrical flux maximizing flow on Riemannian manifolds for improved volumetric blood vessel segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooya, Ali; Liao, Hongen; Sakuma, Ichiro

    2012-09-01

    Geometric flux maximizing flow (FLUX) is an active contour based method which evolves an initial surface to maximize the flux of a vector field on the surface. For blood vessel segmentation, the vector field is defined as the vectors specified by vascular edge strengths and orientations. Hence, the segmentation performance depends on the quality of the detected edge vector field. In this paper, we propose a new method for level set based segmentation of blood vessels by generalizing the FLUX on a Riemannian manifold (R-FLUX). We consider a 3D scalar image I(x) as a manifold embedded in the 4D space (x, I(x)) and compute the image metric by pullback from the 4D space, whose metric tensor depends on the vessel enhancing diffusion (VED) tensor. This allows us to devise a non-linear filter which both projects and normalizes the original image gradient vectors under the inverse of local VED tensors. The filtered gradient vectors pertaining to the vessels are less sensitive to the local image contrast and more coherent with the local vessel orientation. The method has been applied to both synthetic and real TOF MRA data sets. Comparisons are made with the FLUX and vesselsness response based segmentations, indicating that the R-FLUX outperforms both methods in terms of leakage minimization and thiner vessel delineation.

  5. UNSTEADY FLOWS OF A GENERALIZED SECOND GRADE FLUID WITH THE FRACTIONAL DERIVATIVE MODEL BETWEEN TWO PARALLEL PLATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Wenchang; XU Mingyu

    2004-01-01

    The fractional calculus approach in the constitutive relationship model of a generalized second grade fluid is introduced. Exact analytical solutions are obtained for a class of unsteady flows for the generalized second grade fluid with the fractional derivative model between two parallel plates by using the Laplace transform and Fourier transform for fractional calculus. The unsteady flows are generated by the impulsive motion or periodic oscillation of one of the plates. In addition, the solutions of the shear stresses at the plates are also determined.

  6. River flow is critical for vegetation dynamics: Lessons from multi-scale analysis in a hyper-arid endorheic basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qin; Gao, Guangyao; Lü, Yihe; Wang, Shuai; Jiang, Xiaohui; Fu, Bojie

    2017-12-15

    Knowledge of the spatio-temporal responses of vegetation dynamics to hydro-climatic factors is important to assess ecological restoration efforts in arid and semiarid areas. In this study, the vegetation dynamics during 2000-2015 were investigated in the downstream area of the Heihe River Basin (HRB) in Northwest China where an ecological water diversion project (EWDP) commenced in 2000. The spatio-temporal relationships between vegetation cover and climatic factors (precipitation and temperature) and available water resources (river flow and groundwater) were determined. The results indicated that the mean growing season NDVI increased significantly during the period of 2000-2015, and the area of East Juyan Lake (EJL) enlarged to 36.4km(2) in 2010. The scale effect of the relationships between NDVI and hydro-climatic factors was obvious. At the catchment scale, changes of NDVI were not significantly correlated with climatic factors, but significantly related with the antecedent 1-year river flow. River flow played an important role in vegetation growth within approximately 2000m distance from the river bank. At the pixel scale, the changes of NDVI were significantly positive with temperature and river flow in 17.40% and 7.14% of the study area, respectively, whereas significant relationship between NDVI and precipitation occurred in only 0.65% of study area. The suitable water table depth for vegetation growth was between 1.8 and 3.5m. The increased river flow and recovered groundwater due to the EWDP were critical for the improvement of vegetation cover, whereas the riparian vegetation degraded along some parts of the river bank. It is important to improve integrated watershed management with consideration of spatio-temporal lagged hydro-ecological connections in the study area. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Flow impinging effect of critical heat flux and nucleation boiling heat transfer on a downward facing heating surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Huai-En; Chen, Mei-Shiue; Chen, Jyun-Wei; Lin, Wei-Keng; Pei, Bau-Shei [National Tsing Hua Univ., Taiwan (China). Inst. of Nuclear Engineering and Science

    2015-05-15

    Boiling heat transfer has a high heat removal capability in convective cooling. However, the heat removal capability of downward-facing boiling is significantly worse than that of upward-facing cases because of the confined buoyancy effect. This study was inspired by the conception of external reactor vessel cooling (ERVC) condition relevant to the in-vessel retention (IVR) design of Westinghouse AP1000 plant. In the present study, a small-scale test facility had been established to investigate the local phenomena of boiling heat transfer under a downward-facing horizontal heated surface with impinging coolant flow. In this study, the surface temperature, heat flux information and several specific scenes of bubbles are taken down throughout the boiling processes for detailed investigation. It is observed that bubbles are confined under the downward-facing heated surface, which causes a worse heat transfer rate and a lower critical heat flux (CHF) limit than upward-facing boiling. Nevertheless, the impinging coolant flow is found to disturb the thermal boundary layer formed by the heated surface, so the CHF increases with an increase of coolant flow rate. In addition, during nucleate boiling, it is discovered that the growth, combination and dissipation of bubbles induce turbulent wakes and therefore enhance the heat transfer capability.

  8. Investigation on two-phase critical flow for loss-of-coolant accident of pressurized water reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    The previous investigations were mainly conducted under the condition of low pressure,however,the steam-water specific volume and the interphase evaporation rate in high pressure are much different from those in low pressure,Therefore,the new experimental and theoretical investigation are performed in Xi'an Jiaotong University.The investigation results could be directly applied to the analysis of loss-of -coolant accident for pressurized water reacor.The system transition characteristics of cold leg and hot leg break loss-of -coolant tests are described for convective circulation test loop.Two types of loss-of-coolant accident are identified for :hot leg” break,while three types for “cold leg”break and the effect parameters on the break geometries.Tests indicate that the mass flow rate with convergent-divergent nozzle reaches the maximum value among the different break sections at the same inlet fluid condition because the fluid separation does not occur.A wall surface cavity nucleation model is developed for prediction of the critical mass flow rate with water flowing in convergentdivergent nozzles.

  9. Viewing brain processes as Critical State Transitions across levels of organization: Neural events in Cognition and Consciousness, and general principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Gerhard

    2009-04-01

    In this theoretical and speculative essay, I propose that insights into certain aspects of neural system functions can be gained from viewing brain function in terms of the branch of Statistical Mechanics currently referred to as "Modern Critical Theory" [Stanley, H.E., 1987. Introduction to Phase Transitions and Critical Phenomena. Oxford University Press; Marro, J., Dickman, R., 1999. Nonequilibrium Phase Transitions in Lattice Models. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK]. The application of this framework is here explored in two stages: in the first place, its principles are applied to state transitions in global brain dynamics, with benchmarks of Cognitive Neuroscience providing the relevant empirical reference points. The second stage generalizes to suggest in more detail how the same principles could also apply to the relation between other levels of the structural-functional hierarchy of the nervous system and between neural assemblies. In this view, state transitions resulting from the processing at one level are the input to the next, in the image of a 'bucket brigade', with the content of each bucket being passed on along the chain, after having undergone a state transition. The unique features of a process of this kind will be discussed and illustrated.

  10. Critical universality and hyperscaling revisited for Ising models of general spin using extended high-temperature series

    CERN Document Server

    Butera, P

    2002-01-01

    We have extended through beta^{23} the high-temperature expansion of the second field derivative of the susceptibility for Ising models of general spin, with nearest-neighbor interactions, on the simple cubic and the body-centered cubic lattices. Moreover the expansions for the nearest-neighbor correlation function, the susceptibility and the second correlation moment have been extended up to beta^{25}. Taking advantage of these new data, we can improve the accuracy of direct estimates of critical exponents and of hyper-universal combinations of critical amplitudes such as the renormalized four-point coupling g_r or the quantity usually denoted by R^{+}_{xi}. We have used a variety of series extrapolation procedures and, in some of the analyses, we have assumed that the leading correction-to-scaling exponent theta is universal and roughly known. We have also verified, to high precision, the validity of the hyperscaling relation and of the universality property both with regard to the lattice structure and to ...

  11. A New Generalized Thermal Wind Equation and its Application to Zonal Flows on the Gas Giant Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Philip; Tollefson, Joshua; de Pater, Imke

    2015-11-01

    For baroclinic, rapidly-rotating flows, the Thermal Wind Equation (TWE) describes how the flow varies along the rotation axis as a function of temperature gradients. The TWE works well for many laboratory and atmospheric flows on Earth. We show that the TWE also works well for the zonal (west-to-east) flows u on Jupiter. However, our recent observations of Neptune's zonal flows not only do not fit the TWE, but also have the incorrect ``sign.'' When an atmosphere's longitudinally-averaged temperature is warmer at the equator than at the mid-latitudes, the TWE indicates that u increases with height in the atmosphere. The change in u as a function of height on Neptune has the opposite sign. Here, we show that the high-velocities of u on Neptune make the cyclostrophic terms (i.e., some of the nonlinear terms proportional to u2) large, and these terms are dropped in the standard derivation of the TWE. When the cyclostrophic terms are retained, a more generalized TWE is obtained that both qualitatively and quantitatively agrees with the observations of the change in u as a function of height in Neptune's atmosphere. We show that both the standard and generalized TWE for zonal flows can be extended to the equator despite the fact that the Coriolis force vanishes there.

  12. Using Simulations of Black Holes to Study General Relativity and the Properties of Inner Accretion Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoormann, Janie Katherine

    2016-06-01

    While Albert Einstein's theory of General Relativity (GR) has been tested extensively in our solar system, it is just beginning to be tested in the strong gravitational fields that surround black holes. As a way to study the behavior of gravity in these extreme environments, I have used and added to a ray-tracing code that simulates the X-ray emission from the accretion disks surrounding black holes. In particular, the observational channels which can be simulated include the thermal and reflected spectra, polarization, and reverberation signatures. These calculations can be performed assuming GR as well as four alternative spacetimes. These results can be used to see if it is possible to determine if observations can test the No-Hair theorem of GR which states that stationary, astrophysical black holes are only described by their mass and spin. Although it proves difficult to distinguish between theories of gravity, it is possible to exclude a large portion of the possible deviations from GR using observations of rapidly spinning stellar mass black holes such as Cygnus X-1. The ray-tracing simulations can furthermore be used to study the inner regions of black hole accretion flows. I examined the dependence of X-ray reverberation observations on the ionization of the disk photosphere. My results show that X-ray reverberation and X-ray polarization provides a powerful tool to constrain the geometry of accretion disks which are too small to be imaged directly. The second part of my thesis describes the work on the balloon-borne X-Calibur hard X-ray polarimetry mission and on the space-borne PolSTAR polarimeter concept.

  13. Cerebral Blood Flow during Rest Associates with General Intelligence and Creativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Nagase, Tomomi; Nouchi, Rui; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2011-01-01

    Recently, much scientific attention has been focused on resting brain activity and its investigation through such methods as the analysis of functional connectivity during rest (the temporal correlation of brain activities in different regions). However, investigation of the magnitude of brain activity during rest has focused on the relative decrease of brain activity during a task, rather than on the absolute resting brain activity. It is thus necessary to investigate the association between cognitive factors and measures of absolute resting brain activity, such as cerebral blood flow (CBF), during rest (rest-CBF). In this study, we examined this association using multiple regression analyses. Rest-CBF was the dependent variable and the independent variables included two essential components of cognitive functions, psychometric general intelligence and creativity. CBF was measured using arterial spin labeling and there were three analyses for rest-CBF; namely mean gray matter rest-CBF, mean white matter rest-CBF, and regional rest-CBF. The results showed that mean gray and white matter rest-CBF were significantly and positively correlated with individual psychometric intelligence. Furthermore, mean white matter rest-CBF was significantly and positively correlated with creativity. After correcting the effect of mean gray matter rest-CBF the significant and positive correlation between regional rest-CBF in the perisylvian anatomical cluster that includes the left superior temporal gyrus and insula and individual psychometric intelligence was found. Also, regional rest-CBF in the precuneus was significantly and negatively correlated with individual creativity. Significance of these results of regional rest-CBF did not change when the effect of regional gray matter density was corrected. The findings showed mean and regional rest-CBF in healthy young subjects to be correlated with cognitive functions. The findings also suggest that, even in young cognitively intact

  14. A CRITICAL ANALYSIS OF THE SERRATED FLOW OF PORTEVIN - LE CHATELIER EFFECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K CHIHAB

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Plastic instabilities associated with the Portevin - Le Chatelier (PLC effect will be examined with special attention to relaxation oscillations behaviour. The types of serrations are studied and interpreted in terms of a constitutive flow model which takes into account stress dependent changes accompanying a strain rate changes. The experimental data in aluminium - magnesium industrial dilute alloys are discussed in the light of the present study and a new analysis vision of PLC effect is proposed. Emphasis is put on the connection between the different types of instabilities and the relaxation oscillations behaviour. The spatial correlation in the case of A and B types of PLC instabilities is investigated and discussed with reference to A9G5 alloy.

  15. Experimental study on the optimization of general conditions for a free-flow electrophoresis device with a thermoelectric cooler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jian; Yang, Cheng-Zhang; Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Kong, Fan-Zhi; Cao, Cheng-Xi; Jin, Xin-Qiao

    2014-12-01

    With a given free-flow electrophoresis device, reasonable conditions (electric field strength, carrier buffer conductivity, and flow rate) are crucial for an optimized separation. However, there has been no experimental study on how to choose reasonable general conditions for a free-flow electrophoresis device with a thermoelectric cooler in view of Joule heat generation. Herein, comparative experiments were carried out to propose the selection procedure of general conditions in this study. The experimental results demonstrated that appropriate conditions were (i) electrophoresis separation would be destroyed by bubbles caused by more Joule heating. Additionally, a series of applications under the appropriate conditions were performed with samples of model dyes, proteins (bovine serum albumin, myoglobin, and cytochrome c), and cells (Escherichia coli, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae). The separation results showed that under the appropriate conditions, separation efficiency was obviously better than that in the previous experiments with randomly or empirically selected conditions.

  16. Clinical and Experimental Study of Effects of Rhubarb on Gastrointestinal Blood Flow Perfusion in Critical Illness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of rhubarb on gastrointestinal blood perfusion in critical illness and hemorrhagic shocked rats.Methods: Clinical Study: Sixty-four septic patients, who suffered from stress ulcer, were treated with rhubarb at a dose of 25 mg/kg. Twenty-five non-septic patients were taken as control. The gastrointestinal perfusion was evaluated by intramural pH (pHi). Animal study: SD rats were anesthetized with intraperitoneal sodium pentobarbital at a dose of 20 mg/kg. Blood-letting were performed in the animals. Blood pressure reduced to 5.32 kPa and maintained for 120 mins. They were resuscitated at the end of shock by reinfusing all of the shed blood. The rats were randomly divided into four groups: Normal control, shock group, therapeutic group (shocked rats were treated with 50 mg/kg rhubarb at the end of shock) and rhubarb group (normal rats were treated with rhubarb). Laser Doppler was applied to estimate the gastrointestinal blood perfusion. Results: Clinical Study: The gastrointestinal pHi in septic patients was much lower than that in the control, whereas rhubarb could obviously elevate gastrointestinal pHi (P<0.001). In addition, rhubarb also had good effect on gastric hemorrhage caused by stress ulcer. Animal Study: Although the shocked rats were resuscitated completely, their gastrointestinal blood perfusion was much lower than that in the control. Rhubarb could significantly improve the blood perfusion in gastrointestinal mucosa and mesentery (P<0.01). Furthermore, rhubarb also increase the gastrointestinal perfusion in normal rats. Conclusion: Rhubarb could improve gastrointestinal blood perfusion in critical illness and shocked rats.

  17. A critical review of engineered nanomaterial release data: Are current data useful for material flow modeling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caballero-Guzman, Alejandro; Nowack, Bernd

    2016-06-01

    Material flow analysis (MFA) is a useful tool to predict the flows of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) to the environment. The quantification of release factors is a crucial part of MFA modeling. In the last years an increasing amount of literature on release of ENM from materials and products has been published. The purpose of this review is to analyze the strategies implemented by MFA models to include these release data, in particular to derive transfer coefficients (TC). Our scope was focused on those articles that analyzed the release from applications readily available in the market in settings that resemble average use conditions. Current MFA studies rely to a large extent on extrapolations, authors' assumptions, expert opinions and other informal sources of data to parameterize the models. We were able to qualitatively assess the following aspects of the release literature: (i) the initial characterization of ENM provided, (ii) quantitative information on the mass of ENM released and its characterization, (iii) description of transformation reactions and (iv) assessment of the factors determining release. Although the literature on ENM release is growing, coverage of exposure scenarios is still limited; only 20% of the ENMs used industrially and 36% of the product categories involved have been investigated in release studies and only few relevant release scenarios have been described. Furthermore, the information provided is rather incomplete concerning descriptions and characterizations of ENMs and the released materials. Our results show that both the development of methods to define the TCs and of protocols to enhance assessment of ENM release from nano-applications will contribute to increase the exploitability of the data provided for MFA models. The suggestions we provide in this article will likely contribute to an improved exposure modeling by providing ENM release estimates closer to reality.

  18. Prediction of the critical heat flux for saturated upward flow boiling water in vertical narrow rectangular channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Gil Sik, E-mail: choigs@kaist.ac.kr; Chang, Soon Heung; Jeong, Yong Hoon

    2016-07-15

    A study, on the theoretical method to predict the critical heat flux (CHF) of saturated upward flow boiling water in vertical narrow rectangular channels, has been conducted. For the assessment of this CHF prediction method, 608 experimental data were selected from the previous researches, in which the heated sections were uniformly heated from both wide surfaces under the high pressure condition over 41 bar. For this purpose, representative previous liquid film dryout (LFD) models for circular channels were reviewed by using 6058 points from the KAIST CHF data bank. This shows that it is reasonable to define the initial condition of quality and entrainment fraction at onset of annular flow (OAF) as the transition to annular flow regime and the equilibrium value, respectively, and the prediction error of the LFD model is dependent on the accuracy of the constitutive equations of droplet deposition and entrainment. In the modified Levy model, the CHF data are predicted with standard deviation (SD) of 14.0% and root mean square error (RMSE) of 14.1%. Meanwhile, in the present LFD model, which is based on the constitutive equations developed by Okawa et al., the entire data are calculated with SD of 17.1% and RMSE of 17.3%. Because of its qualitative prediction trend and universal calculation convergence, the present model was finally selected as the best LFD model to predict the CHF for narrow rectangular channels. For the assessment of the present LFD model for narrow rectangular channels, effective 284 data were selected. By using the present LFD model, these data are predicted with RMSE of 22.9% with the dryout criterion of zero-liquid film flow, but RMSE of 18.7% with rivulet formation model. This shows that the prediction error of the present LFD model for narrow rectangular channels is similar with that for circular channels.

  19. Critical tonicity determination of sperm using fluorescent staining and flow cytometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noiles, E.E.; Ruffing, N.A.; Kleinhans, F.W.; Mark, L.A.; Watson, P.F.; Critser, J.K. (Methodist Hospital, Indianapolis, IN (USA)); Horstman, L. (Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN (USA). School of Veterinary Medicine); Mazur, P. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The use of cryopreserved, rather than fresh, mammalian semen for artificial insemination confers several important medical and/or economic advantages. However, current methods for cryopreservation of both human and bovine spermatozoa result in approximately only a 50% survival rate with thawing, obviously reducing the fertilizing capacity of the semen. A primary consideration during the cooling process is to avoid intracellular ice crystal formation with its lethal consequences to the cell. Current techniques achieve this by controlling the cooling rate. Computation of the time necessary for this dehydration, and hence, the cooling rate, is dependent upon knowledge of the water permeability coefficient (L{sub {rho}}) and its activation energy. The fluorophore, 6-carboxyfluoroscein diacetate (CFDA), which is nonfluorescent, readily crosses the intact plasma membrane. Intracellular esterases hydrolyze CFDA to 6-carboxyfluoroscein, a fluorescent, membrane-impermeable fluorophore. Consequently, spermatozoa with intact plasma membranes fluoresce bright green (Garner et. al., 1986), but those with disrupted membranes do not. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to use loss of CFDA fluorescence to determine the osmolality at which 50% of the spermatozoa will swell and lyse (critical tonicity, CT). These data will then be used to determine the L{sub {rho}} and its activation energy for sperm, thus increasing the knowledge available in cellular cryopreservation. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  20. A more general Force Balance Model to predict Bubble Departure and Lift-off Diameters in flow boiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kommajosyula, Ravikishore; Mazzocco, Thomas; Ambrosini, Walter; Baglietto, Emilio

    2016-11-01

    Accurate prediction of Bubble Departure and Lift-off Diameters is key for development of closures in two-phase Eulerian CFD simulation of Flow Boiling, owing to its sensitivity in the Heat Flux partitioning approach. Several models ranging from simple correlations to solving complex force balance models have been proposed in literature; however, they rely on data-fitting for specific databases, and have shown to be inapplicable for general flow applications. The aim of this study is to extend the approach by proposing a more consistent and general formulation that accounts for relevant forces acting on the Bubble at the point of Departure and Lift-off. Among the key features of the model, the Bubble Inclination angle is treated as an unknown to be inferred along with the Departure Diameter, and the relative velocity of the bubble sliding on the surface, is modeled to determine the Lift-off Diameter. A novel expression is developed for the bubble growth force in terms of flow quantities, based on extensive data analysis. The model has been validated using 6 different experimental databases with varying flow conditions and 3 fluids. Results show high accuracy of predictions over a broad range, outperforming existing models both in terms of accuracy and generality. CASL - The Consortium for Advanced Simulation of LWRs.

  1. Efficient determination of the critical parameters and the statistical quantities for Klein-Gordon and sine-Gordon equations with a singular potential using generalized polynomial chaos methods

    CERN Document Server

    Chakraborty, Debananda

    2011-01-01

    We consider the Klein-Gordon and sine-Gordon type equations with a point-like potential, which describes the wave phenomenon in disordered media with a defect. The singular potential term yields a critical phenomenon--that is, the solution behavior around the critical parameter value bifurcates into two extreme cases. Pinpointing the critical value with arbitrary accuracy is even more challenging. In this work, we adopt the generalized polynomial chaos (gPC) method to determine the critical values and the mean solutions around such values. First, we consider the critical value associated with the strength of the singular potential for the Klein-Gordon equation. We expand the solution in the random variable associated with the parameter. The obtained partial differential equations are solved using the Chebyshev collocation method. Due to the existence of the singularity, the Gibbs phenomenon appears in the solution, yielding a slow convergence of the numerically computed critical value. To deal with the singul...

  2. Rotating MHD flow of a generalized burgers’ fluid over an oscillating plate embedded in a porous medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Ilyas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is concerned with the magnetohydrodynamic unsteady rotating flows of generalized Burgers' fluid with a porous medium. The flows are created by the plate oscillations. Modified Darcy's law has been employed to model the governing problem. Closed-form solutions corresponding to cosine and sine oscillations are obtained by the Laplace transform method. The performed calculations disclose that Hartmann number, porosity of the medium, angular frequency, and oscillating frequency have strong influence on the velocity. The graphs are presented for such influence and examined carefully.

  3. A Conceptual Framework for Improving Critical Care Patient Flow and Bed Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Elisa F.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: High demand for intensive care unit (ICU) services and limited bed availability have prompted hospitals to address capacity planning challenges. Simulation modeling can examine ICU bed assignment policies, accounting for patient acuity, to reduce ICU admission delays. Objectives: To provide a framework for data-driven modeling of ICU patient flow, identify key measurable outcomes, and present illustrative analysis demonstrating the impact of various bed allocation scenarios on outcomes. Methods: A description of key inputs for constructing a queuing model was outlined, and an illustrative simulation model was developed to reflect current triage protocol within the medical ICU and step-down unit (SDU) at a single tertiary-care hospital. Patient acuity, arrival rate, and unit length of stay, consisting of a “service time” and “time to transfer,” were estimated from 12 months of retrospective data (n = 2,710 adult patients) for 36 ICU and 15 SDU staffed beds. Patient priority was based on acuity and whether the patient originated in the emergency department. The model simulated the following hypothetical scenarios: (1) varied ICU/SDU sizes, (2) reserved ICU beds as a triage strategy, (3) lower targets for time to transfer out of the ICU, and (4) ICU expansion by up to four beds. Outcomes included ICU admission wait times and unit occupancy. Measurements and Main Results: With current bed allocation, simulated wait time averaged 1.13 (SD, 1.39) hours. Reallocating all SDU beds as ICU decreased overall wait times by 7.2% to 1.06 (SD, 1.39) hours and increased bed occupancy from 80 to 84%. Reserving the last available bed for acute patients reduced wait times for acute patients from 0.84 (SD, 1.12) to 0.31 (SD, 0.30) hours, but tripled subacute patients’ wait times from 1.39 (SD, 1.81) to 4.27 (SD, 5.44) hours. Setting transfer times to wards for all ICU/SDU patients to 1 hour decreased wait times for incoming ICU patients, comparable to building

  4. A Conceptual Framework for Improving Critical Care Patient Flow and Bed Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Kusum S; Long, Elisa F

    2015-06-01

    High demand for intensive care unit (ICU) services and limited bed availability have prompted hospitals to address capacity planning challenges. Simulation modeling can examine ICU bed assignment policies, accounting for patient acuity, to reduce ICU admission delays. To provide a framework for data-driven modeling of ICU patient flow, identify key measurable outcomes, and present illustrative analysis demonstrating the impact of various bed allocation scenarios on outcomes. A description of key inputs for constructing a queuing model was outlined, and an illustrative simulation model was developed to reflect current triage protocol within the medical ICU and step-down unit (SDU) at a single tertiary-care hospital. Patient acuity, arrival rate, and unit length of stay, consisting of a "service time" and "time to transfer," were estimated from 12 months of retrospective data (n = 2,710 adult patients) for 36 ICU and 15 SDU staffed beds. Patient priority was based on acuity and whether the patient originated in the emergency department. The model simulated the following hypothetical scenarios: (1) varied ICU/SDU sizes, (2) reserved ICU beds as a triage strategy, (3) lower targets for time to transfer out of the ICU, and (4) ICU expansion by up to four beds. Outcomes included ICU admission wait times and unit occupancy. With current bed allocation, simulated wait time averaged 1.13 (SD, 1.39) hours. Reallocating all SDU beds as ICU decreased overall wait times by 7.2% to 1.06 (SD, 1.39) hours and increased bed occupancy from 80 to 84%. Reserving the last available bed for acute patients reduced wait times for acute patients from 0.84 (SD, 1.12) to 0.31 (SD, 0.30) hours, but tripled subacute patients' wait times from 1.39 (SD, 1.81) to 4.27 (SD, 5.44) hours. Setting transfer times to wards for all ICU/SDU patients to 1 hour decreased wait times for incoming ICU patients, comparable to building one to two additional ICU beds. Hospital queuing and simulation modeling

  5. Redistribution of microcirculatory blood flow within the intestinal wall during sepsis and general anesthesia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hiltebrand, Luzius B; Krejci, Vladimir; tenHoevel, Marcus E; Banic, Andrej; Sigurdsson, Gisli H

    2003-01-01

    .... Impairment of the autoregulation of microcirculatory blood flow in the intestinal tract has been suggested to play an important role in the development of multiple organ failure during sepsis and surgery...

  6. ALGEBRAIC GENERALIZATION OF THE CASH FLOW STATEMENT: REFLECTIONS BY MEANS OF AN ALGEBRAIC ALGORITHM

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    José Roberto Kassai; Antonio Geloneze Neto

    2012-01-01

    ... (about one million dollars as of this writing) to publish a cash flow statement (CFS) as part of their financial statements, making this statement another important source of information for investors...

  7. A Critical Review of Mineral Matter Related Issues during Gasification of Coal in Fixed, Fluidized, and Entrained Flow Gasifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayaragavan Krishnamoorthy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Gasification of coal is gaining more popularity due to its clean operation, and its ability to generate products for various markets. However, these technologies are not widely commercialized due to reliability and economic issues. Mineral matter in coal plays an important role in affecting the availability/reliability of a gasifier. Agglomeration in the bed, slag mobility and blockage of the syngas exit section are some of the operations related concerns in fixed-bed gasifiers, while ash deposition and sudden defluidization are the major concerns in fluidized bed gasifiers. In the case of entrained flow gasifiers, syngas cooler fouling and blockage, corrosion and erosion of refractory, and slag mobility are some of the major issues affecting the operations and the reliability of the gasifier. This review is aimed at critically examining various mineral matter related issues contributing to the operation and reliability problems in three types of generic gasifiers (fixed bed, fluidized bed and entrained flow gasifiers. Based on the review, some strategies to counter the potential mineral matter related issues are presented.

  8. CFD simulation on critical heat flux of flow boiling in IVR-ERVC of a nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiang, E-mail: zhangxiang3@snptc.com.cn [State Nuclear Power Technology Research & Development Center, South Area, Future Science and Technology Park, Chang Ping District, Beijing 102209 (China); Hu, Teng [State Nuclear Power Technology Research & Development Center, South Area, Future Science and Technology Park, Chang Ping District, Beijing 102209 (China); Chen, Deqi, E-mail: chendeqi@cqu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Low-grade Energy Utilization Technologies and Systems, Chongqing University, 400044 (China); Zhong, Yunke; Gao, Hong [Key Laboratory of Low-grade Energy Utilization Technologies and Systems, Chongqing University, 400044 (China)

    2016-08-01

    Highlights: • CFD simulation on CHF of boiling two-phase flow in ERVC is proposed. • CFD simulation result of CHF agrees well with that of experimental result. • The characteristics of boiling two-phase flow and boiling crisis are analyzed. - Abstract: The effectiveness of in-vessel retention (IVR) by external reactor vessel cooling (ERVC) strongly depends on the critical heat flux (CHF). As long as the local CHF does not exceed the local heat flux, the lower head of the pressure vessel can be cooled sufficiently to prevent from failure. In this paper, a CFD simulation is carried out to investigate the CHF of ERVC. This simulation is performed by a CFD code fluent couple with a boiling model by UDF (User-Defined Function). The experimental CHF of ERVC obtained by State Nuclear Power Technology Research and Development Center (SNPTRD) is used to validate this CFD simulation, and it is found that the simulation result agrees well with the experimental result. Based on the CFD simulation, detailed analysis focusing on the pressure distribution, velocity distribution, void fraction distribution, heating wall temperature distribution are proposed in this paper.

  9. Effects of Al2O3 nanoparticles deposition on critical heat flux of R-123 in flow boiling heat transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok Bin seo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, R-123 flow boiling experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of nanoparticle deposition on heater surfaces on flow critical heat flux (CHF and boiling heat transfer. It is known that CHF enhancement by nanoparticles results from porous structures that are very similar to layers of Chalk River unidentified deposit formed on nuclear fuel rod surfaces during the reactor operation period. Although previous studies have investigated the surface effects through surface modifications, most studies are limited to pool boiling conditions, and therefore, the effects of porous surfaces on flow boiling heat transfer are still unclear. In addition, there have been only few reports on suppression of wetting for decoupled approaches of reasoning. In this study, bare and Al2O3 nanoparticle-coated surfaces were prepared for the study experiments. The CHF of each surface was measured with different mass fluxes of 1,600 kg/m2s, 1,800 kg/m2s, 2,100 kg/m2s, 2,400 kg/m2s, and 2,600 kg/m2s. The nanoparticle-coated tube showed CHF enhancement up to 17% at a mass flux of 2,400 kg/m2s compared with the bare tube. The factors for CHF enhancement are related to the enhanced rewetting process derived from capillary action through porous structures built-up by nanoparticles while suppressing relative wettability effects between two sample surfaces as a highly wettable R-123 refrigerant was used as a working fluid.

  10. Critical heat flux enhancement in flow boiling of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiC nanofluids under low pressure and low flow conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Won; Park, Seong Dae; Kang, Sarah; Kim, Seong Man; Seo, Han; Bang, In Cheol [Interdisciplinary School of Green Energy, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Dong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Critical heat flux (CHF) is the thermal limit of a phenomenon in which a phase change occurs during heating (such as bubbles forming on a metal surface used to heat water), which suddenly decreases the heat transfer efficiency, thus causing localized overheating of the heating surface. The enhancement of CHF can increase the safety margins and allow operation at higher heat fluxes; thus, it can increase the economy. A very interesting characteristic of nanofluids is their ability to significantly enhance the CHF. Nanofluids are nanotechnology-based colloidal dispersions engineered through the stable suspension of nanoparticles. All experiments were performed in round tubes with an inner diameter of 0.01041 m and a length of 0.5 m under low pressure and low flow (LPLF) conditions at a fixed inlet temperature using water, 0.01 vol.% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/water nanofluid, and SiC/water nanofluid. It was found that the CHF of the nanofluids was enhanced and the CHF of the SiC/water nanofluid was more enhanced than that of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/water nanofluid.

  11. Linear stability of plane Poiseuille flow over a generalized Stokes layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quadrio, Maurizio [Dip. Ing. Aerospaziale, Politecnico di Milano, Campus Bovisa, I-20156 Milano (Italy); Martinelli, Fulvio; Schmid, Peter J, E-mail: maurizio.quadrio@polimi.it [Laboratoire d' Hydrodynamique (LadHyX), CNRS-Ecole Polytechnique, F-91128 Palaiseau (France)

    2011-12-22

    Linear stability of plane Poiseuille flow subject to spanwise velocity forcing applied at the wall is studied. The forcing is stationary and sinusoidally distributed along the streamwise direction. The long-term aim of the study is to explore a possible relationship between the modification induced by the wall forcing to the stability characteristic of the unforced Poiseuille flow and the signifcant capabilities demonstrated by the same forcing in reducing turbulent friction drag. We present in this paper the statement of the mathematical problem, which is considerably more complex that the classic Orr-Sommerfeld-Squire approach, owing to the streamwise-varying boundary condition. We also report some preliminary results which, although not yet conclusive, describe the effects of the wall forcing on modal and non-modal characteristics of the flow stability.

  12. Exact solutions for unsteady unidirectional flows of a generalized second-order fluid through a rectangular conduit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jianhong; Xu, Mingyu

    2009-04-01

    The exact solutions are obtained for unsteady unidirectional flows of a generalized second-order fluid through a rectangular conduit. The fractional calculus in the constitutive relationship of a non-Newtonian fluid is introduced. We construct the solutions by means of Fourier transform and the discrete Laplace transform of the sequential derivatives and the double finite Fourier transform. The solutions for Newtonian fluid between two infinite parallel plates appear as limiting cases of our solutions.

  13. Exact solutions for unsteady unidirectional flows of a generalized second-order fluid through a rectangular conduit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianhong Kang; Mingyu Xu

    2009-01-01

    The exact solutions are obtained for unsteady unidirectional flows of a generalized second-order fluid through a rectangular conduit. The fractional calculus in the constitutive relationship of a non-Newtonian fluid is introduced. We construct the solutions by means of Fourier transform and the discrete Laplace transform of the sequential derivatives and the double finite Fourier transform. The solutions for Newtonian fluid between two infinite parallel plates appear as limiting cases of our solutions.

  14. Geophysical flows under location uncertainty, Part I Random transport and general models

    CERN Document Server

    Resseguier, Valentin; Chapron, Bertrand

    2016-01-01

    A stochastic flow representation is considered with the Eulerian velocity decomposed between a smooth large scale component and a rough small-scale turbulent component. The latter is specified as a random field uncorrelated in time. Subsequently, the material derivative is modified and leads to a stochastic version of the material derivative to include a drift correction, an inhomogeneous and anisotropic diffusion, and a multiplicative noise. As derived, this stochastic transport exhibits a remarkable energy conservation property for any realizations. As demonstrated, this pivotal operator further provides elegant means to derive stochastic formulations of classical representations of geophysical flow dynamics.

  15. Analysis of general second-order fluid flow in double cylinder rheometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄军旗; 何光渝; 刘慈群

    1997-01-01

    The fractional calculus approach in the constitutive relationship model of second-order fluid is introduced and the flow characteristics of the viscoelastic fluid in double cylinder rheometer are studied. First, the analytical solution of which the derivative order is 1/2 is derived with the analytical solution and the reliability of Laplace numerical inversion based on Crump algorithm for the problem is verified, then the characteristics of second-order fluid flow in the rheometer by using Crump method is analyzed. The results indicate that the more obvious the viscoelastic properties of fluid are, the more sensitive the dependence of velocity and stress on fractional derivative order is.

  16. Lubrication of textured surfaces: a general theory for flow and shear stress factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaraggi, Michele

    2012-08-01

    We report on a mean field theory of textured surface lubrication. We study the fluid flow dynamics occurring at the interface as a function of the texture characteristics, e.g. texture area density, shape and distribution of microstructures, and local slip lengths. The present results may be very important for the investigation of tailored microtextured surfaces for low-friction hydrodynamic applications.

  17. Zero area singularities in general relativity and inverse mean curvature flow

    CERN Document Server

    Robbins, Nicholas P

    2010-01-01

    First we restate the definition of a Zero Area Singularity, recently introduced by H. Bray. We then consider several definitions of mass for these singularities. We use the Inverse Mean Curvature Flow to prove some new results about the mass of a singularity, the ADM mass of the manifold, and the capacity of the singularity.

  18. Effect of Cross-flow Velocity on the Critical Flux of Ceramic Membrane Filtration as a Pre-treatment for Seawater Desalination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Zhaoliang; PENG Wenbo; FAN Yiqun; XING Weihong; XU Nanping

    2013-01-01

    Pre-treatment,which supplies a stable,high-quality feed for reverse osmosis (RO) membranes,is a critical step for successful operation in a seawater reverse osmosis plant.In this study,ceramic membrane systems were employed as pre-treatment for seawater desalination.A laboratory experiment was performed to investigate the effect of the cross-flow velocity on the critical flux and consequently to optimize the permeate flux.Then a pilot test was performed to investigate the long-term performance.The result shows that there is no significant effect of the cross-flow velocity on the critical flux when the cross-flow velocity varies in laminar flow region only or in turbulent flow region only,but the effect is distinct when the cross-flow velocity varies in the transition region.The membrane fouling is slight at the permeate flux of 150 L·m-2·h-1 and the system is stable,producing a high-quality feed (the turbidity and silt density index are less than 0.1 NTU and 3.0,respectively) for RO to ran for 2922.4 h without chemical cleaning.Thus the ceramic membranes are suitable to filtrate seawater as the pre-treatment for RO.

  19. Work Practice Simulation of Complex Human-Automation Systems in Safety Critical Situations: The Brahms Generalized berlingen Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancey, William J.; Linde, Charlotte; Seah, Chin; Shafto, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The transition from the current air traffic system to the next generation air traffic system will require the introduction of new automated systems, including transferring some functions from air traffic controllers to on­-board automation. This report describes a new design verification and validation (V&V) methodology for assessing aviation safety. The approach involves a detailed computer simulation of work practices that includes people interacting with flight-critical systems. The research is part of an effort to develop new modeling and verification methodologies that can assess the safety of flight-critical systems, system configurations, and operational concepts. The 2002 Ueberlingen mid-air collision was chosen for analysis and modeling because one of the main causes of the accident was one crew's response to a conflict between the instructions of the air traffic controller and the instructions of TCAS, an automated Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System on-board warning system. It thus furnishes an example of the problem of authority versus autonomy. It provides a starting point for exploring authority/autonomy conflict in the larger system of organization, tools, and practices in which the participants' moment-by-moment actions take place. We have developed a general air traffic system model (not a specific simulation of Überlingen events), called the Brahms Generalized Ueberlingen Model (Brahms-GUeM). Brahms is a multi-agent simulation system that models people, tools, facilities/vehicles, and geography to simulate the current air transportation system as a collection of distributed, interactive subsystems (e.g., airports, air-traffic control towers and personnel, aircraft, automated flight systems and air-traffic tools, instruments, crew). Brahms-GUeM can be configured in different ways, called scenarios, such that anomalous events that contributed to the Überlingen accident can be modeled as functioning according to requirements or in an

  20. Simulation of flow and sediment mobility using a multidimensional flow model for the White Sturgeon critical-habitat reach, Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Gary J.; McDonald, Richard R.; Nelson, Jonathan M.; Dinehart, Randal L.

    2005-01-01

    In 1994, the Kootenai River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) was listed as an Endangered Species as a direct result of two related observations. First, biologists observed that the white sturgeon population in the Kootenai River was declining. Second, they observed a decline in recruitment of juvenile sturgeon beginning in the 1950s with an almost total absence of recruitment since 1974, following the closure of Libby Dam in 1972. This second observation was attributed to changes in spawning and (or) rearing habitat resulting from alterations in the physical habitat, including flow regime, sediment-transport regime, and bed morphology of the river. The Kootenai River White Sturgeon Recovery Team was established to find and implement ways to improve spawning and rearing habitat used by white sturgeon. They identified the need to develop and apply a multidimensional flow model to certain reaches of the river to quantify physical habitat in a spatially distributed manner. The U.S. Geological Survey has addressed these needs by developing, calibrating, and validating a multidimensional flow model used to simulate streamflow and sediment mobility in the white sturgeon critical-habitat reach of the Kootenai River. This report describes the model and limitations, presents the results of a few simple simulations, and demonstrates how the model can be used to link physical characteristics of streamflow to biological or other habitat data. This study was conducted in cooperation with the Kootenai Tribe of Idaho along a 23-kilometer reach of the Kootenai River, including the white sturgeon spawning reach near Bonners Ferry, Idaho that is about 108 to 131 kilometers below Libby Dam. U.S. Geological Survey's MultiDimensional Surface-Water Modeling System was used to construct a flow model for the critical-habitat reach of the Kootenai River white sturgeon, between river kilometers 228.4 and 245.9. Given streamflow, bed roughness, and downstream water-surface elevation

  1. Robust and general method for determining surface fluid flow boundary conditions in articular cartilage contact mechanics modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawaskar, Sainath Shrikant; Fisher, John; Jin, Zhongmin

    2010-03-01

    Contact detection in cartilage contact mechanics is an important feature of any analytical or computational modeling investigation when the biphasic nature of cartilage and the corresponding tribology are taken into account. The fluid flow boundary conditions will change based on whether the surface is in contact or not, which will affect the interstitial fluid pressurization. This in turn will increase or decrease the load sustained by the fluid phase, with a direct effect on friction, wear, and lubrication. In laboratory experiments or clinical hemiarthroplasty, when a rigid indenter or metallic prosthesis is used to apply load to the cartilage, there will not be any fluid flow normal to the surface in the contact region due to the impermeable nature of the indenter/prosthesis. In the natural joint, on the other hand, where two cartilage surfaces interact, flow will depend on the pressure difference across the interface. Furthermore, in both these cases, the fluid would flow freely in non-contacting regions. However, it should be pointed out that the contact area is generally unknown in advance in both cases and can only be determined as part of the solution. In the present finite element study, a general and robust algorithm was proposed to decide nodes in contact on the cartilage surface and, accordingly, impose the fluid flow boundary conditions. The algorithm was first tested for a rigid indenter against cartilage model. The algorithm worked well for two-dimensional four-noded and eight-noded axisymmetric element models as well as three-dimensional models. It was then extended to include two cartilages in contact. The results were in excellent agreement with the previous studies reported in the literature.

  2. Update and critical appraisal of combined timolol and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and the effect on ocular blood flow in glaucoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Adam M; Harris, Alon; Siesky, Brent; Rusia, Deepam; Williamson, Kathleen M; Shoshani, Yochai

    2010-04-26

    Topical hypotensive therapy with both timolol and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors has been shown to be efficacious at reducing intraocular pressure. Many prospective studies have also suggested that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors augment ocular blood flow and vascular regulation independent of their hypotensive effects. Although consistent in their findings, these studies must be cautiously interpreted due to the limitations of study design and specific blood flow imaging modalities. The purpose of this review is to appraise and critically evaluate the current body of literature investigating the effects of combined treatment with topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and timolol in patients with glaucoma with respect to ocular blood flow, visual function, and optic nerve head structure.

  3. General Relativistic Hydrodynamic Simulation of Accretion Flow from a Stellar Tidal Disruption

    CERN Document Server

    Shiokawa, Hotaka; Cheng, Roseanne M; Piran, Tsvi; Noble, Scott C

    2015-01-01

    We study how the matter dispersed when a supermassive black hole tidally disrupts a star joins an accretion flow. Combining a relativistic hydrodynamic simulation of the stellar disruption with a relativistic hydrodynamics simulation of the tidal debris motion, we track such a system until ~80% of the stellar mass bound to the black hole has settled into an accretion flow. Shocks near the stellar pericenter and also near the apocenter of the most tightly-bound debris dissipate orbital energy, but only enough to make the characteristic radius comparable to the semi-major axis of the most-bound material, not the tidal radius as previously thought. The outer shocks are caused by post-Newtonian effects, both on the stellar orbit during its disruption and on the tidal forces. Accumulation of mass into the accretion flow is non-monotonic and slow, requiring ~3--10x the orbital period of the most tightly-bound tidal streams, while the inflow time for most of the mass may be comparable to or longer than the mass accu...

  4. General Reynolds Analogy for Blunt-nosed Bodies in Hypersonic Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Xing-Xing; Yu, Yong-Liang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the relation between skin friction and heat transfer along windward sides of blunt-nosed bodies in hypersonic flows is investigated. The self-similar boundary layer analysis is accepted to figure out the distribution of the ratio of skin friction to heat transfer coefficients along the wall. It is theoretically obtained that the ratio depends linearly on the local slope angle of the wall surface, and an explicit analogy expression is presented for circular cylinders, although the linear distribution is also found for other nose shapes and even in gas flows with chemical reactions. Furthermore, based on the theoretical modelling of the second order shear and heat transfer terms in Burnett equations, a modified analogy is derived in the near continuum regime by considering the rarefied gas effects. And a bridge function is also constructed to describe the nonlinear analogy in the transition flow regime. At last, the direct simulation Monte Carlo method is used to validate the theoretical results....

  5. Two-phase flows and heat transfer within systems with ambient pressure above the thermodynamic critical pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Braun, M. J.; Mullen, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    In systems where the design inlet and outlet pressure P sub amb are maintained above the thermodynamic critical pressure P sub c, it is often assumed that heat and mass transfer are governed by single-phase relations and that two-phase flows cannot occur. This simple rule of thumb is adequate in many low-power designs but is inadequate for high-performance turbomachines, boilers, and other systems where two-phase regions can exist even though P sub amb P sub c. Heat and mass transfer and rotordynamic-fluid-mechanic restoring forces depend on momentum differences, and those for a two-phase zone can differ significantly from those for a single-phase zone. By using a laminar, variable-property bearing code and a rotating boiler code, pressure and temperature surfaces were determined that illustrate nesting of a two-phase region within a supercritical pressure region. The method of corresponding states is applied to bearings with reasonable rapport.

  6. Validation of the generalized model of two-phase thermosyphon loop based on experimental measurements of volumetric flow rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieliński, Henryk

    2016-09-01

    The current paper presents the experimental validation of the generalized model of the two-phase thermosyphon loop. The generalized model is based on mass, momentum, and energy balances in the evaporators, rising tube, condensers and the falling tube. The theoretical analysis and the experimental data have been obtained for a new designed variant. The variant refers to a thermosyphon loop with both minichannels and conventional tubes. The thermosyphon loop consists of an evaporator on the lower vertical section and a condenser on the upper vertical section. The one-dimensional homogeneous and separated two-phase flow models were used in calculations. The latest minichannel heat transfer correlations available in literature were applied. A numerical analysis of the volumetric flow rate in the steady-state has been done. The experiment was conducted on a specially designed test apparatus. Ultrapure water was used as a working fluid. The results show that the theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the measured volumetric flow rate at steady-state.

  7. Generalizing J2 flow theory: Fundamental issues in strain gradient plasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John W. Hutchinson

    2012-01-01

    It has not been a simple matter to obtain a sound extension of the classical J2 flow theory of plasticity that incorporates a dependence on plastic strain gradients and that is capable of capturing size-dependent behaviour of metals at the micron scale.Two classes of basic extensions of classical J2 theory have been proposed:one with increments in higher order stresses related to increments of strain gradients and the other characterized by the higher order stresses themselves expressed in terms of increments of strain gradients. The theories proposed by Muhlhaus and Aifantis in 1991 and Fleck and Hutchinson in 2001 are in the first class,and,as formulated,these do not always satisfy thermodynamic requirements on plastic dissipation.On the other hand,theories of the second class proposed by Gudmundson in 2004 and Gurtin and Anand in 2009 have the physical deficiency that the higher order stress quantities can change discontinuously for bodies subject to arbitrarily small load changes.The present paper lays out this background to the quest for a sound phenomenological extension of the rateindependent J2 flow theory of plasticity to include a dependence on gradients of plastic strain.A modification of the Fleck-Hutchinson formulation that ensures its thermo dynamic integrity is presented and contrasted with a comparable formulation of the second class where in the higher order stresses are expressed in terms of the plastic strain rate.Both versions are constructed to reduce to the classical J2 flow theory of plasticity when the gradients can be neglected and to coincide with the simpler and more readily formulated J2 deformation theory of gradient plasticity for deformation histories characterized by proportional straining.

  8. Using the stress function in the flow of generalized Newtonian fluids through conduits with non-circular or multiply connected cross sections

    CERN Document Server

    Sochi, Taha

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the possibility that the spatial dependency of stress in generalized Newtonian flow systems is a function of the applied pressure field and the conduit geometry but not of the fluid rheology. This possibility is well established for the case of a one-dimensional flow through simply connected regions, specifically tubes of circular uniform cross sections and plane thin slits. If it can also be established for the more general case of generalized Newtonian flow through non-circular or multiply connected geometries, such as the two-dimensional flow through conduits of rectangular or elliptical cross sections or the flow through annular circular pipes, then analytical or semi-analytical or highly accurate numerical solutions; regarding stress, rate of strain, velocity profile and volumetric flow rate; for these geometries can be obtained from the stress function, which can be easily obtained from the Newtonian case, in combination with the constitutive rheological relation for the particular non-Ne...

  9. Generalized moist potential vorticity and its application in the analysis of atmospheric flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linus A.Mofor; Chungu Lu

    2009-01-01

    Potential vorticity(PV)serves as an important dynamic tracer for large-scale motions in the atmosphere and oceans.Significant pro-gress has been made on the understanding and application of PV since the work of Hoskins et al,who introduced an"IPV thinking"of a dynamical system in a purely dry atmosphere.In particular,there has been a substantial amount of work done on the PV in a general moist atmosphere.In this paper,the generalized moist potential vorticity(GMPV)and its application in the mesoscale meteorological fields are reviewed.The GMPV is derived for a real atmosphere(neither completely dry nor saturated)by introducing a generalized potential temperature instead of the potential temperature or equivalent potential temperature.Such a generalization can depict the moist effect on PV anomaly in the non-uniformly saturated atmosphere.The effect of mass forcing induced by rainfall on the anomaly of GMPV is also reviewed and a new dynamic variable,the convective vorticity vector(CVV),is introduced in connection with GMPV.2008 National Natural Science Foundation of China and Chinese Academy of Sciences.Published by Elsevier Limited and Science in China Press.All rights reserved.

  10. Lagrangian viscoelastic flow computations using a generalized molecular stress function model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik K.

    2002-01-01

    –Sawyers fluid to a fluid described by a generalized molecular stress function (MSF) model allowing the use of dissipative convective constraint release in the constitutive equation. The convergence of the method is demonstrated on the axis-symmetric problem of the inflation of a polymeric membrane only...

  11. General Observations of the Time-Dependent Flow Field Around Flat Plates in Free Fall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hærvig, Jakob; Jensen, Anna Lyhne; Pedersen, Marie Cecilie

    2015-01-01

    The free fall trajectories of flat plates are investigated in order to improve understanding of the forces acting on falling blunt objects. The long term goal is to develop a general applicable model to predict free fall trajectories. Numerically the free fall of a flat plate is investigated usin...

  12. A mechanistic model for predicting flow-assisted and general corrosion of carbon steel in reactor primary coolants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lister, D. [University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Lang, L.C. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River Lab., ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    Flow-assisted corrosion (FAC) of carbon steel in high-temperature lithiated water can be described with a model that invokes dissolution of the protective oxide film and erosion of oxide particles that are loosened as a result. General corrosion under coolant conditions where oxide is not dissolved is described as well. In the model, the electrochemistry of magnetite dissolution and precipitation and the effect of particle size on solubility move the dependence on film thickness of the diffusion processes (and therefore the corrosion rate) away from reciprocal. Particle erosion under dissolving conditions is treated stochastically and depends upon the fluid shear stress at the surface. The corrosion rate dependence on coolant flow under FAC conditions then becomes somewhat less than that arising purely from fluid shear (proportional to the velocity squared). Under non-dissolving conditions, particle erosion occurs infrequently and general corrosion is almost unaffected by flow For application to a CANDU primary circuit and its feeders, the model was bench-marked against the outlet feeder S08 removed from the Point Lepreau reactor, which furnished one value of film thickness and one of corrosion rate for a computed average coolant velocity. Several constants and parameters in the model had to be assumed or were optimised, since values for them were not available. These uncertainties are no doubt responsible for the rather high values of potential that evolved as steps in the computation. The model predicts film thickness development and corrosion rate for the whole range of coolant velocities in outlet feeders very well. In particular, the detailed modelling of FAC in the complex geometry of one outlet feeder (F11) is in good agreement with measurements. When the particle erosion computations are inserted in the balance equations for the circuit, realistic values of crud level are obtained. The model also predicts low corrosion rates and thick oxide films for inlet

  13. Tensor formulation of the model equations on strong conservation form for an incompressible flow in general coordinates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Bo Hoffmann

    2003-01-01

    equations on a general form which accommodate curvilinear coordinates. Strong conservation form is obtained by formulating the equations so that the flow variables, velocity and pressure, are expressed in thephysical coordinate system while the location of evaluation is expressed within the transformed...... coordinate system. The tensor formulation allows both a finite difference and a pseudo-spectral description of the model equations. The intention is for thefinite difference formulation to achieve the same robustness and conservation properties as a finite volume discretization. Furthermore, an invariant...

  14. Calibrating Alonso's General Theory of Movement: the Case of Inter-Provincial Migration Flows in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    J Ledent

    1980-01-01

    First, it is shown that Alonso's general theory of movement relies on a standard doubly-constrained spatial interaction model which subsumes the usual gravity and entropy-derived formulations. Such a finding then suggests the use of a biproportional adjustment method (RAS method) to adequately estimate the systemic variables specified in the underlying model. This eventually leads to the development of a complete and precise methodology for calibrating the Alonso model. This methodology is il...

  15. Generalized breakup and coalescence models for population balance modelling of liquid-liquid flows

    CERN Document Server

    Traczyk, Marcin; Thompson, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Population balance framework is a useful tool that can be used to describe size distribution of droplets in a liquid-liquid dispersion. Breakup and coalescence models provide closures for mathematical formulation of the population balance equation (PBE) and are crucial for accu- rate predictions of the mean droplet size in the flow. Number of closures for both breakup and coalescence can be identified in the literature and most of them need an estimation of model parameters that can differ even by several orders of magnitude on a case to case basis. In this paper we review the fundamental assumptions and derivation of breakup and coalescence ker- nels. Subsequently, we rigorously apply two-stage optimization over several independent sets of experiments in order to identify model parameters. Two-stage identification allows us to estab- lish new parametric dependencies valid for experiments that vary over large ranges of important non-dimensional groups. This be adopted for optimization of parameters in breakup...

  16. Testing General Relativity with Accretion-Flow Imaging of Sgr A^{*}.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannsen, Tim; Wang, Carlos; Broderick, Avery E; Doeleman, Sheperd S; Fish, Vincent L; Loeb, Abraham; Psaltis, Dimitrios

    2016-08-26

    The Event Horizon Telescope is a global, very long baseline interferometer capable of probing potential deviations from the Kerr metric, which is believed to provide the unique description of astrophysical black holes. Here, we report an updated constraint on the quadrupolar deviation of Sagittarius A^{*} within the context of a radiatively inefficient accretion flow model in a quasi-Kerr background. We also simulate near-future constraints obtainable by the forthcoming eight-station array and show that in this model already a one-day observation can measure the spin magnitude to within 0.005, the inclination to within 0.09°, the position angle to within 0.04°, and the quadrupolar deviation to within 0.005 at 3σ confidence. Thus, we are entering an era of high-precision strong gravity measurements.

  17. Testing General Relativity with Accretion-Flow Imaging of Sgr A*

    CERN Document Server

    Johannsen, Tim; Broderick, Avery E; Doeleman, Sheperd S; Fish, Vincent L; Loeb, Abraham; Psaltis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    The Event Horizon Telescope is a global very-long baseline interferometer capable of probing potential deviations from the Kerr metric, which is believed to provide the unique description of astrophysical black holes. Here we report an updated constraint on the quadrupolar deviation of Sagittarius A* within the context of a radiatively inefficient accretion flow model in a quasi-Kerr background. We also simulate near-future constraints obtainable by the forthcoming eight-station array and show that in this model already a one-day observation can measure the spin magnitude to within 0.005, the inclination to within 0.09{\\deg}, the position angle to within 0.04{\\deg}, and the quadrupolar deviation to within 0.005 at 3{\\sigma} confidence. Thus, we are entering an era of high-precision strong gravity measurements.

  18. Estimating evapotranspiration and groundwater flow from water-table fluctuations for a general wetland scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migration_USER, IPDS; Wiley, Michael J.; Wilcox, Douglas A.

    2016-01-01

    The use of diurnal water-table fluctuation methods to calculate evapotranspiration (ET) and groundwater flow is of increasing interest in ecohydrological studies. Most studies of this type, however, have been located in riparian wetlands of semi-arid regions where groundwater levels are consistently below topographic surface elevations and precipitation events are infrequent. Current methodologies preclude application to a wider variety of wetland systems. In this study, we extended a method for estimating sub-daily ET and groundwater flow rates from water-level fluctuations to fit highly dynamic, non-riparian wetland scenarios. Modifications included (1) varying the specific yield to account for periodic flooded conditions and (2) relating empirically derived ET to estimated potential ET for days when precipitation events masked the diurnal signal. To demonstrate the utility of this method, we estimated ET and groundwater fluxes over two growing seasons (2006–2007) in 15 wetlands within a ridge-and-swale wetland complex of the Laurentian Great Lakes under flooded and non-flooded conditions. Mean daily ET rates for the sites ranged from 4.0 mm d−1 to 6.6 mm d−1. Shallow groundwater discharge rates resulting from evaporative demand ranged from 2.5 mm d−1 to 4.3 mm d−1. This study helps to expand our understanding of the evapotranspirative demand of plants under various hydrologic and climate conditions. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  19. CriticalEd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellberg, Caspar Mølholt; Meredith, David

    2014-01-01

    The best text method is commonly applied among music scholars engaged in producing critical editions. In this method, a comment list is compiled, consisting of variant readings and editorial emendations. This list is maintained by inserting the comments into a document as the changes are made....... Since the comments are not input sequentially, with regard to position, but in arbitrary order, this list must be sorted by copy/pasting the rows into place—an error-prone and time-consuming process. Scholars who produce critical editions typically use off-the-shelf music notation software...... such as Sibelius or Finale. It was hypothesized that it would be possible to develop a Sibelius plug-in, written in Manuscript 6, that would improve the critical editing work flow, but it was found that the capabilities of this scripting language were insufficient. Instead, a 3-part system was designed and built...

  20. On the use of hot-wire anemometry in pulsating flows. A comment on 'A critical review on advanced velocity measurement techniques in pulsating flows'

    OpenAIRE

    Berson, Arganthaël; Blanc-Benon, Philippe; Comte-Bellot, Geneviève

    2010-01-01

    International audience; In their recent topical review, Nabavi and Siddiqui (Meas. Sci. Technol. 2010 21 042002) recommended the use of hot-wire anemometry for velocity measurements in pulsating flows, especially at high frequency. This recommendation is misleading. The procedures invoked by these authors are valid only for small-amplitude fluctuations, which are of little interest for pulsating flows. When large-amplitude velocity changes occur without flow reversal, new procedures for the c...

  1. A pressure correction scheme for generalized form of energy-stable open boundary conditions for incompressible flows

    CERN Document Server

    Dong, Suchuan

    2014-01-01

    We present a generalized form of open boundary conditions, and an associated numerical algorithm, for simulating incompressible flows involving open or outflow boundaries. The generalized form represents a family of open boundary conditions, which all ensure the energy stability of the system, even in situations where strong vortices or backflows occur at the open/outflow boundaries. Our numerical algorithm for treating these open boundary conditions is based on a rotational pressure correction-type strategy, with a formulation suitable for $C^0$ spectral-element spatial discretizations. We have introduced a discrete equation and associated boundary conditions for an auxiliary variable. The algorithm contains constructions that prevent a numerical locking at the open/outflow boundary. In addition, we have also developed a scheme with a provable unconditional stability for a sub-class of the open boundary conditions. Extensive numerical experiments have been presented to demonstrate the performance of our meth...

  2. Gradually-varied open-channel flow profiles normalized by critical depth and analytically solved by using Gaussian hypergeometric functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. Jan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The equation of one-dimensional gradually-varied flow (GVF in sustaining and non-sustaining open channels is normalized using the critical depth, hc, and then analytically solved by the direct integration method with the use of the Gaussian hypergeometric function (GHF. The GHF-based solution so obtained from the hc-based dimensionless GVF equation is more useful and versatile than its counterpart from the GVF equation normalized by the normal depth, hn, because the GHF-based solutions of the hc-based dimensionless GVF equation for the mild (M and adverse (A profiles can asymptotically reduce to the hc-based dimensionless horizontal (H profiles as hc/hn → 0. An in-depth analysis of the hc-based dimensionless profiles expressed in terms of the GHF for GVF in sustaining and adverse wide channels has been conducted to discuss the effects of hc/hn and the hydraulic exponent N on the profiles This paper has laid the foundation to compute at one sweep the hc-based dimensionless GVF profiles in a series of sustaining and adverse channels, which have horizontal slopes sandwiched in between them, by using the GHF-based solutions.

  3. Evolution of N-species Kimura/voter models towards criticality, a surrogate for general models of accidental pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Peyman; Stollenwerk, Nico

    2012-09-01

    In models for accidental pathogens, with the paradigmatic epidemiological system of bacterial meningitis, there was evolution towards states exhibiting critical fluctuations with power law behaviour observed [1]. This is a model with many possibly pathogenic strains essentially evolving independently to low pathogenicity. A first and previous study had shown that in the limit of vanishing pathogenicity there are critical fluctuations with power law distributions observed, already when only two strains interact [2]. This earlier version of a two strain model was very recently reinvestigated [3] and named as Stollenwerk-Jansen model (SJ). Muñoz et al. demonstrated that this two-strain model for accidental pathogens is in the universality class of the so-called voter model. Though this model clearly shows criticality, its control parameter, the pathogenicity, is not self-tuning towards criticality. However, the multi-strain version mentioned above [1] is well evolving towards criticality, as well as a spatially explicit version of this, shown in [4] p. 155. These models of multi-strain type including explicitly mutations of the pathogenicity can be called SJ-models of type II [5]. Since the original epidemiological model is of SIRYX-type, the evolution to zero pathogenicity is slow and perturbed by large population noise. In the present article we now show on the basis of the notion of the voter-model universality classes the evolution of n-voter models with mutaion towards criticality, now much less perturbed by population noise, hence demonstrating a clear mechanism of self-organized criticality in the sense of [6, 7]. The present results have wide implications for many diseases in which a large proportion of infections is asymptomatic, meaning that the system has already evolved towards an average low pathogenicity. This holds not only for the original paradigmatic case of bacterial meningitis, but was reecently also suggested for example for dengue fever (DENFREE

  4. Implementation of CTRLPOS, a VENTURE module for control rod position criticality searches, control rod worth curve calculations, and general criticality searches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, L.A.; Renier, J.P.

    1994-06-01

    A module in the VENTURE reactor analysis code system, CTRLPOS, is developed to position control rods and perform control rod position criticality searches. The module is variably dimensioned so that calculations can be performed with any number of control rod banks each having any number of control rods. CTRLPOS can also calculate control rod worth curves for a single control rod or a bank of control rods. Control rod depletion can be calculated to provide radiation source terms. These radiation source terms can be used to predict radiation doses to personnel and estimate the shielding and long-term storage requirements for spent control rods. All of these operations are completely automated. The numerous features of the module are discussed in detail. The necessary input data for the CTRLPOS module is explained. Several sample problems are presented to show the flexibility of the module. The results presented with the sample problems show that the CTRLPOS module is a powerful tool which allows a wide variety of calculations to be easily performed.

  5. Magnetic collimation of meridional-self-similar general relativistic MHD flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Globus, Noemie; Sauty, Christophe; Cayatte, Véronique; Celnikier, Ludwik M.

    2014-06-01

    We present a model for the spine of relativistic Magnetohydrodynamics outflows in the Kerr geometry. Meridional self-similarity is invoked to derive semianalytical solutions close to the polar axis. The study of the energy conservation along a particular field line gives a simple criterion for the collimation of jets. Such parameter have already been derived in the classical case by Sauty et al. 1999 and also extended to the Schwarzschild metric by Meliani et al. 2006. We generalize the same study to the Kerr metric. We show that the rotation of the black hole increases the magnetic self-confinement.

  6. Magnetic collimation of meridional-self-similar general relativistic MHD flows

    CERN Document Server

    Globus, Noemie; Cayatte, Véronique; Celnikier, Ludwik M

    2014-01-01

    We present a model for the spine of relativistic MHD outflows in the Kerr geometry. Meridional self-similarity is invoked to derive semi-analytical solutions close to the polar axis. The study of the energy conservation along a particular field line gives a simple criterion for the collimation of jets. Such parameter have already been derived in the classical case by Sauty et al. 1999 and also extended to the Schwarzschild metric by Meliani et al. 2006. We generalize the same study to the Kerr metric. We show that the rotation of the black hole increases the magnetic self-confinement.

  7. Update and critical appraisal of combined timolol and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and the effect on ocular blood flow in glaucoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam M Moss

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Adam M Moss, Alon Harris, Brent Siesky, Deepam Rusia, Kathleen M Williamson, Yochai ShoshaniDepartment of Ophthalmology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Indianapolis, Indiana, USAAbstract: Topical hypotensive therapy with both timolol and carbonic anhydrase inhibitors has been shown to be efficacious at reducing intraocular pressure. Many prospective studies have also suggested that carbonic anhydrase inhibitors augment ocular blood flow and vascular regulation independent of their hypotensive effects. Although consistent in their findings, these studies must be cautiously interpreted due to the limitations of study design and specific blood flow imaging modalities. The purpose of this review is to appraise and critically evaluate the current body of literature investigating the effects of combined treatment with topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and timolol in patients with glaucoma with respect to ocular blood flow, visual function, and optic nerve head structure.Keywords: ocular blood flow, carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, timolol, glaucoma, visual function, optic nerve head

  8. Analysis of impact of general-purpose graphics processor units in supersonic flow modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelyanov, V. N.; Karpenko, A. G.; Kozelkov, A. S.; Teterina, I. V.; Volkov, K. N.; Yalozo, A. V.

    2017-06-01

    Computational methods are widely used in prediction of complex flowfields associated with off-normal situations in aerospace engineering. Modern graphics processing units (GPU) provide architectures and new programming models that enable to harness their large processing power and to design computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations at both high performance and low cost. Possibilities of the use of GPUs for the simulation of external and internal flows on unstructured meshes are discussed. The finite volume method is applied to solve three-dimensional unsteady compressible Euler and Navier-Stokes equations on unstructured meshes with high resolution numerical schemes. CUDA technology is used for programming implementation of parallel computational algorithms. Solutions of some benchmark test cases on GPUs are reported, and the results computed are compared with experimental and computational data. Approaches to optimization of the CFD code related to the use of different types of memory are considered. Speedup of solution on GPUs with respect to the solution on central processor unit (CPU) is compared. Performance measurements show that numerical schemes developed achieve 20-50 speedup on GPU hardware compared to CPU reference implementation. The results obtained provide promising perspective for designing a GPU-based software framework for applications in CFD.

  9. Nonlinear Stochastic Dynamics of Complex Systems, II: Potential of Entropic Force in Markov Systems with Nonequilibrium Steady State, Generalized Gibbs Function and Criticality

    CERN Document Server

    Thompson, Lowell F

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we revisit the notion of the "minus logarithm of stationary probability" as a generalized potential in nonequilibrium systems and attempt to illustrate its central role in an axiomatic approach to stochastic nonequilibrium thermodynamics of complex systems. It is demonstrated that this quantity arises naturally through both monotonicity results of Markov processes and as the rate function when a stochastic process approaches a detrministic limit. We then undertake a more detailed mathematical analysis of the consequences of this quantity, culminating in a necessary and sufficient condition for the criticality of stochastic systems. This condition is then discussed in the context of recent results about criticality in biological systems.

  10. Evaluating the “critical relative humidity” as a measure of subgrid-scale variability of humidity in general circulation model cloud cover parameterizations using satellite data

    OpenAIRE

    Quaas, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    A simple way to diagnose fractional cloud cover in general circulation models is to relate it to the simulated relative humidity, and allowing for fractional cloud cover above a “critical relative humidity” of less than 100%. In the formulation chosen here, this is equivalent to assuming a uniform “top-hat” distribution of subgrid-scale total water content with a variance related to saturation. Critical relative humidity has frequently been treated as a “tunable” constant, yet it is an observ...

  11. Fractional generalization of the Ginzburg–Landau equation: an unconventional approach to critical phenomena in complex media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milovanov, A.V.; Juul Rasmussen, J.

    2005-01-01

    class of critical phenomena when the organization of the system near the phase transition point is influenced by a competing nonlocal ordering. Fractional modifications of the free energy functional at criticality and of the widely known Ginzburg-Landau equation central to the classical Landau theory...... of second-type phase transitions are discussed in some detail. An implication of the fractional Ginzburg-Landau equation is a renormalization of the transition temperature owing to the nonlocality present. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  12. Integrable generalizations of Schrödinger maps and Heisenberg spin models from Hamiltonian flows of curves and surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anco, Stephen C.; Myrzakulov, R.

    2010-10-01

    A moving frame formulation of non-stretching geometric curve flows in Euclidean space is used to derive a 1+1 dimensional hierarchy of integrable SO(3)-invariant vector models containing the Heisenberg ferromagnetic spin model as well as a model given by a spin vector version of the mKdV equation. These models describe a geometric realization of the NLS hierarchy of soliton equations whose bi-Hamiltonian structure is shown to be encoded in the Frenet equations of the moving frame. This derivation yields an explicit bi-Hamiltonian structure, recursion operator, and constants of motion for each model in the hierarchy. A generalization of these results to geometric surface flows is presented, where the surfaces are non-stretching in one direction while stretching in all transverse directions. Through the Frenet equations of a moving frame, such surface flows are shown to encode a hierarchy of 2+1 dimensional integrable SO(3)-invariant vector models, along with their bi-Hamiltonian structure, recursion operator, and constants of motion, describing a geometric realization of 2+1 dimensional bi-Hamiltonian NLS and mKdV soliton equations. Based on the well-known equivalence between the Heisenberg model and the Schrödinger map equation in 1+1 dimensions, a geometrical formulation of these hierarchies of 1+1 and 2+1 vector models is given in terms of dynamical maps into the 2-sphere. In particular, this formulation yields a new integrable generalization of the Schrödinger map equation in 2+1 dimensions as well as a mKdV analog of this map equation corresponding to the mKdV spin model in 1+1 and 2+1 dimensions.

  13. A general methodology and applications for conduction-like flow-channel design.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings, Eric B.; Fiechtner, Gregory J.

    2004-02-01

    A novel design methodology is developed for creating conduction devices in which fields are piecewise uniform. This methodology allows the normally analytically intractable problem of Lagrangian transport to be solved using algebraic and trigonometric equations. Low-dispersion turns, manifolds, and expansions are developed. In this methodology, regions of piece-wise constant specific permeability (permeability per unit width) border each other with straight, generally tilted interfaces. The fields within each region are made uniform by satisfying a simple compatibility relation between the tilt angle and ratio of specific permeability of adjacent regions. This methodology has particular promise in the rational design of quasi-planar devices, in which the specific permeability is proportional to the depth of the channel. For such devices, the methodology can be implemented by connecting channel facets having two or more depths, fabricated, e.g., using a simple two-etch process.

  14. Modeling Two-Phase Flow and Vapor Cycles Using the Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Amanda D.; Majumdar, Alok K.

    2017-01-01

    This work presents three new applications for the general purpose fluid network solver code GFSSP developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center: (1) cooling tower, (2) vapor-compression refrigeration system, and (3) vapor-expansion power generation system. These systems are widely used across engineering disciplines in a variety of energy systems, and these models expand the capabilities and the use of GFSSP to include fluids and features that are not part of its present set of provided examples. GFSSP provides pressure, temperature, and species concentrations at designated locations, or nodes, within a fluid network based on a finite volume formulation of thermodynamics and conservation laws. This paper describes the theoretical basis for the construction of the models, their implementation in the current GFSSP modeling system, and a brief evaluation of the usefulness of the model results, as well as their applicability toward a broader spectrum of analytical problems in both university teaching and engineering research.

  15. A Fisher’s Criterion-Based Linear Discriminant Analysis for Predicting the Critical Values of Coal and Gas Outbursts Using the Initial Gas Flow in a Borehole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of coal and gas outbursts can be predicted using a method that is linear and continuous and based on the initial gas flow in the borehole (IGFB; this method is significantly superior to the traditional point prediction method. Acquiring accurate critical values is the key to ensuring accurate predictions. Based on ideal rock cross-cut coal uncovering model, the IGFB measurement device was developed. The present study measured the data of the initial gas flow over 3 min in a 1 m long borehole with a diameter of 42 mm in the laboratory. A total of 48 sets of data were obtained. These data were fuzzy and chaotic. Fisher’s discrimination method was able to transform these spatial data, which were multidimensional due to the factors influencing the IGFB, into a one-dimensional function and determine its critical value. Then, by processing the data into a normal distribution, the critical values of the outbursts were analyzed using linear discriminant analysis with Fisher’s criterion. The weak and strong outbursts had critical values of 36.63 L and 80.85 L, respectively, and the accuracy of the back-discriminant analysis for the weak and strong outbursts was 94.74% and 92.86%, respectively. Eight outburst tests were simulated in the laboratory, the reverse verification accuracy was 100%, and the accuracy of the critical value was verified.

  16. Debris Flow Simulation using FLO-2D on the 2004 Landslide Area of Real, General Nakar, and Infanta, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llanes, F.; dela Resma, M.; Ferrer, P.; Realino, V.; Aquino, D. T.; Eco, R. C.; Lagmay, A.

    2013-12-01

    From November 14 to December 3, 2004, Luzon Island was ravaged by 4 successive typhoons: Typhoon Mufia, Tropical Storm Merbok, Tropical Depression Winnie, and Super Typhoon Nanmadol. Tropical Depression Winnie was the most destructive of the four when it triggered landslides on November 29 that devastated the municipalities of Infanta, General Nakar, and Real in Quezon Province, southeast Luzon. Winnie formed east of Central Luzon on November 27 before it moved west-northwestward over southeastern Luzon on November 29. A total of 1,068 lives were lost and more than USD 170 million worth of damages to crops and infrastructure were incurred from the landslides triggered by Typhoon Winnie on November 29 and the flooding caused by the 4 typhoons. FLO-2D, a flood routing software for generating flood and debris flow hazard maps, was utilized to simulate the debris flows that could potentially affect the study area. Based from the rainfall intensity-duration-frequency analysis, the cumulative rainfall from typhoon Winnie on November 29 which was approximately 342 mm over a 9-hour period was classified within a 100-year return period. The Infanta station of the Philippine Atmospheric Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) was no longer able to measure the amount of rainfall after this period because the rain gauge in that station was washed away by floods. Rainfall data with a 100-year return period was simulated over the watersheds delineated from a SAR-derived digital elevation model. The resulting debris flow hazard map was compared with results from field investigation and previous studies made on the landslide event. The simulation identified 22 barangays (villages) with a total of 45,155 people at risk of turbulent flow and flooding.

  17. Generalized solution for 1-D non-Newtonian flow in a porous domain due to an instantaneous mass injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Federico, V.; Ciriello, V.

    2011-12-01

    Non-Newtonian fluid flow in porous media is of considerable interest in hydrology, chemical and petroleum engineering, and biofluid mechanics. We consider an infinite porous domain of plane (d=1), cylindrical (d=2) or semi-spherical geometry (d=3), having uniform permeability k and porosity Φ, initially at uniform pressure and saturated by a weakly compressible non-Newtonian fluid, and analyze the dynamics of the pressure variation generated within the domain by an instantaneous mass injection m0 in its origin. The fluid is described by a rheological power-law model of given consistency index H and flow behavior index n; the flow law is a modified Darcy's law depending on H, Φ, n. Coupling flow law and mass balance equations yields the nonlinear partial differential equation governing the pressure field; an analytical solution is derived in space r and time t as a function of a self-similar variable η=r/tβ(n). We revisit and expand the work in previous papers by providing a dimensionless general formulation and solution to the problem for d=1,2,3. When a shear-thinning fluid (nfluids; the front velocity is proportional to t(n-2)/2 in plane geometry, t(2n-3)/(3-n) in cylindrical geometry, and t(3n-4)/(4-2n) in semi-spherical geometry. The front position is a markedly increasing function of n and is inversely dependent on d; the pressure front advances at a slower rate for larger values of compressibility, higher injected mass and lower porosity. When pressure is considered, it is seen that an increase in d from 1 to 3 brings about an order of magnitude reduction. An increase in compressibility implies a significant decrease in pressure, especially at early times. To reflect the uncertainty inherent in values of the problem parameters, we then consider selected properties of fluid (flow behavior index n) and porous domain (permeability k, porosity Φ, and medium compressibility cp) as independent random variables with uniform probability distribution. The

  18. Fluorescence triggering: A general strategy for enumerating and phenotyping extracellular vesicles by flow cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arraud, Nicolas; Gounou, Céline; Turpin, Delphine; Brisson, Alain R

    2016-02-01

    Plasma contains cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) which participate in various physiopathological processes and have potential biomedical applications. Despite intense research activity, knowledge on EVs is limited mainly due to the difficulty of isolating and characterizing sub-micrometer particles like EVs. We have recently reported that a simple flow cytometry (FCM) approach based on triggering the detection on a fluorescence signal enabled the detection of 50× more Annexin-A5 binding EVs (Anx5+ EVs) in plasma than the conventional FCM approach based on light scattering triggering. Here, we present the application of the fluorescence triggering approach to the enumeration and phenotyping of EVs from platelet free plasma (PFP), focusing on CD41+ and CD235a+ EVs, as well as their sub-populations which bind or do not bind Anx5. Higher EV concentrations were detected by fluorescence triggering as compared to light scattering triggering, namely 40× for Anx5+ EVs, 75× for CD41+ EVs, and 15× for CD235a+ EVs. We found that about 30% of Anx5+ EVs were of platelet origin while only 3% of them were of erythrocyte origin. In addition, a majority of EVs from platelet and erythrocyte origin do not expose PS, in contrast to the classical theory of EV formation. Furthermore, the same PFP samples were analyzed fresh and after freeze-thawing, showing that freeze-thawing processes induce an increase, of about 35%, in the amount of Anx5+ EVs, while the other EV phenotypes remain unchanged. The method of EV detection and phenotyping by fluorescence triggering is simple, sensitive and reliable. We foresee that its application to EV studies will improve our understanding on the formation mechanisms and functions of EVs in health and disease and help the development of EV-based biomarkers. © 2015 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  19. Critical Realism and Realist Review: Analyzing Complexity in Educational Restructuring and the Limits of Generalizing Program Theories Across Borders

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza, Denise E.

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the design of a critical realist review that deployed Bhaskar's resolution, redescribing, retroduction, eliminating, identifying, and correcting schema and Pawson and Tilley's Context-Mechanism-Outcome configuration underpinned by realist social theory. Methodologically, the review examined the relationship between…

  20. A mathematical recursive model for accurate description of the phase behavior in the near-critical region by Generalized van der Waals Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jibeom; Jeon, Joonhyeon

    2015-01-01

    Recently, related studies on Equation Of State (EOS) have reported that generalized van der Waals (GvdW) shows poor representations in the near critical region for non-polar and non-sphere molecules. Hence, there are still remains a problem of GvdW parameters to minimize loss in describing saturated vapor densities and vice versa. This paper describes a recursive model GvdW (rGvdW) for an accurate representation of pure fluid materials in the near critical region. For the performance evaluation of rGvdW in the near critical region, other EOS models are also applied together with two pure molecule group: alkane and amine. The comparison results show rGvdW provides much more accurate and reliable predictions of pressure than the others. The calculating model of EOS through this approach gives an additional insight into the physical significance of accurate prediction of pressure in the nearcritical region.

  1. General relativistic radiation hydrodynamics of accretion flows: II. Treating stiff source terms and exploring physical limitations

    CERN Document Server

    Roedig, Constanze; Alic, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    We present the implementation of an implicit-explicit (IMEX) Runge-Kutta numerical scheme for general relativistic hydrodynamics coupled to an optically thick radiation field in two existing GR-hydrodynamics codes. We argue that the necessity of such an improvement arises naturally in astrophysically relevant regimes where the optical thickness is high as the equations become stiff. By performing several 1D tests we verify the codes' new ability to deal with this stiffness and show consistency. Then, still in 1D, we compute a luminosity versus accretion rate diagram for the setup of spherical accretion onto a Schwarzschild black hole and find good agreement with previous work. Lastly, we revisit the supersonic Bondi Hoyle Lyttleton (BHL) accretion in 2D where we can now present simulations of realistic temperatures, down to T~10^6 K. Here we find that radiation pressure plays an important role, but also that these highly dynamical set-ups push our approximate treatment towards the limit of physical applicabil...

  2. Using Simulations of Black Holes to Study General Relativity and the Properties of Inner Accretion Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Hoormann, Janie K

    2016-01-01

    While Albert Einstein's theory of General Relativity (GR) has been tested extensively in our solar system, it is just beginning to be tested in the strong gravitational fields that surround black holes. As a way to study the behavior of gravity in these extreme environments I have used and added to a ray-tracing code that simulates the X-ray emission from the accretion disks surrounding black holes. In particular, the observational channels which can be simulated include the thermal and reflected spectra, polarization, and reverberation signatures. These calculations can be performed assuming GR as well as four alternative spacetimes. These results can be used to see if it is possible to determine if observations can test the No-Hair theorem of GR which states that stationary, astrophysical black holes are only described by their mass and spin. Although it proves difficult to distinguish between theories of gravity it is possible to exclude a large portion of the possible deviations from GR using observations...

  3. GLOBAL GENERAL RELATIVISTIC MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATIONS OF BLACK HOLE ACCRETION FLOWS: A CONVERGENCE STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiokawa, Hotaka; Dolence, Joshua C.; Gammie, Charles F. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Noble, Scott C. [Center for Computational Relativity and Gravitation, School of Mathematical Sciences, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, NY 14623 (United States)

    2012-01-10

    Global, general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations of non-radiative, magnetized disks are widely used to model accreting black holes. We have performed a convergence study of GRMHD models computed with HARM3D. The models span a factor of four in linear resolution, from 96 Multiplication-Sign 96 Multiplication-Sign 64 to 384 Multiplication-Sign 384 Multiplication-Sign 256. We consider three diagnostics of convergence: (1) dimensionless shell-averaged quantities such as plasma {beta}; (2) the azimuthal correlation length of fluid variables; and (3) synthetic spectra of the source including synchrotron emission, absorption, and Compton scattering. Shell-averaged temperature is, except for the lowest resolution run, nearly independent of resolution; shell-averaged plasma {beta} decreases steadily with resolution but shows signs of convergence. The azimuthal correlation lengths of density, internal energy, and temperature decrease steadily with resolution but show signs of convergence. In contrast, the azimuthal correlation length of magnetic field decreases nearly linearly with grid size. We argue by analogy with local models, however, that convergence should be achieved with another factor of two in resolution. Synthetic spectra are, except for the lowest resolution run, nearly independent of resolution. The convergence behavior is consistent with that of higher physical resolution local model ({sup s}hearing box{sup )} calculations and with the recent non-relativistic global convergence studies of Hawley et al.

  4. Aquaporin-1 shifts the critical transmural pressure to compress the aortic intima and change transmural flow: theory and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Shripad; Jan, Kung-Ming; Rumschitzki, David S

    2015-12-01

    Transmural-pressure (ΔP)-driven plasma advection carries macromolecules into the vessel wall, the earliest prelesion atherosclerotic event. The wall's hydraulic conductivity, LP, the water flux-to-ΔP ratio, is high at low pressures, rapidly decreases, and remains flat to high pressures (Baldwin AL, Wilson LM. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 264: H26-H32, 1993; Nguyen T, Toussaint, Xue JD, Raval Y, Cancel CB, Russell LM, Shou S, Sedes Y, Sun O, Yakobov Y, Tarbell JM, Jan KM, Rumschitzki DS. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 308: H1051-H1064, 2015; Tedgui A, Lever MJ. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 247: H784-H791, 1984. Shou Y, Jan KM, Rumschitzki DS. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 291: H2758-H2771, 2006) due to pressure-induced subendothelial intima (SI) compression that causes endothelial cells to partially block internal elastic laminar fenestrae. Nguyen et al. showed that rat and bovine aortic endothelial cells express the membrane protein aquaporin-1 (AQP1) and transmural water transport is both transcellular and paracellular. They found that LP lowering by AQP1 blocking was perplexingly ΔP dependent. We hypothesize that AQP1 blocking lowers average SI pressure; therefore, a lower ΔP achieves the critical force/area on the endothelium to partially block fenestrae. To test this hypothesis, we improve the approximate model of Huang et al. (Huang Y, Rumschitzki D, Chien S, Weinbaum SS. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 272: H2023-H2039, 1997) and extend it by including transcellular AQP1 water flow. Results confirm the observation by Nguyen et al.: wall LP and water transport decrease with AQP1 disabling. The model predicts 1) low-pressure LP experiments correctly; 2) AQP1s contribute 30-40% to both the phenomenological endothelial + SI and intrinsic endothelial LP; 3) the force on the endothelium for partial SI decompression with functioning AQP1s at 60 mmHg equals that on the endothelium at ∼43 mmHg with inactive AQP1s; and 4) increasing endothelial AQP1

  5. Thermal criticality for a reactive gravity driven thin film flow of a third-grade fluid with adiabatic free surface down an inclined plane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oluwole Daniel Makinde

    2009-01-01

    This study is devoted to the investigation of thermal criticality for a reactive gravity driven thin film flow of a third-grade fluid with adiabatic free surface down an inclined isothermal plane. It is assumed that the reaction is exothermic under Arrhenius kinetics, neglecting the consumption of the material. The governing non-linear equations for conservation of momentum and energy are obtained and solved by using a new com-implemented in MAPLE. This semi-numerical scheme offers some advantages over solu-tions obtained with traditional methods such as finite differences, spectral method, and shooting method. It reveals the analytical structure of the solution function. Important properties of overall flow structure including velocity field, temperature field, thermal criticality, and bifurcations are discussed.

  6. Accurate Locally Conservative Discretizations for Modeling Multiphase Flow in Porous Media on General Hexahedra Grids

    KAUST Repository

    Wheeler, M.F.

    2010-09-06

    For many years there have been formulations considered for modeling single phase ow on general hexahedra grids. These include the extended mixed nite element method, and families of mimetic nite di erence methods. In most of these schemes either no rate of convergence of the algorithm has been demonstrated both theoret- ically and computationally or a more complicated saddle point system needs to be solved for an accurate solution. Here we describe a multipoint ux mixed nite element (MFMFE) method [5, 2, 3]. This method is motivated from the multipoint ux approximation (MPFA) method [1]. The MFMFE method is locally conservative with continuous ux approximations and is a cell-centered scheme for the pressure. Compared to the MPFA method, the MFMFE has a variational formulation, since it can be viewed as a mixed nite element with special approximating spaces and quadrature rules. The framework allows han- dling of hexahedral grids with non-planar faces by applying trilinear mappings from physical elements to reference cubic elements. In addition, there are several multi- scale and multiphysics extensions such as the mortar mixed nite element method that allows the treatment of non-matching grids [4]. Extensions to the two-phase oil-water ow are considered. We reformulate the two- phase model in terms of total velocity, capillary velocity, water pressure, and water saturation. We choose water pressure and water saturation as primary variables. The total velocity is driven by the gradient of the water pressure and total mobility. Iterative coupling scheme is employed for the coupled system. This scheme allows treatments of di erent time scales for the water pressure and water saturation. In each time step, we rst solve the pressure equation using the MFMFE method; we then Center for Subsurface Modeling, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712; mfw@ices.utexas.edu. yCenter for Subsurface Modeling, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712; gxue

  7. Chaotic state to self-organized critical state transition of serrated flow dynamics during brittle-to-ductile transition in metallic glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C.; Wang, W. H.; Bai, H. Y., E-mail: hybai@aphy.iphy.ac.cn [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Sun, B. A. [Centre for Advanced Structural Materials, Department of Mechanical and Biomedical Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon Tong, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2016-02-07

    We study serrated flow dynamics during brittle-to-ductile transition induced by tuning the sample aspect ratio in a Zr-based metallic glass. The statistical analysis reveals that the serrated flow dynamics transforms from a chaotic state characterized by Gaussian-distribution serrations corresponding to stick-slip motion of randomly generated and uncorrelated single shear band and brittle behavior, into a self-organized critical state featured by intermittent scale-free distribution of shear avalanches corresponding to a collective motion of multiple shear bands and ductile behavior. The correlation found between serrated flow dynamics and plastic deformation might shed light on the plastic deformation dynamic and mechanism in metallic glasses.

  8. Measurement of the effect of manufacturing deviations on natural laminar flow for a single engine general aviation airplane

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    Renewed interest in natural laminar flow (NLF) had rekindled designer concern that manufacuring deviations may destroy the effectiveness of NLF for an operational aircraft. Experiments are summarized that attemtped to measure total drag changes associated with three different wing surface conditions on an aircraft typical of current general aviation high performance singles. The speed power technique was first used in an attempt to quantify the changes in total drag. Predicted and measured boundary layer transition locations for three different wing surface conditions were also compared, using two different forms of flow visualization. The three flight test phases included: assessment of an unpainted airframe, flight tests of the same aircraft after painstakingly filling and sanding the wings to design contours, and similar measurement after this aricraft was painted. In each flight phase, transition locations were monitored using with sublimating chemicals or pigmented oil. Two-dimensional drag coefficients were estimated using the Eppler-Somers code and measured with a wake rake in a method very similar to Jones' pitot traverse method. The net change in two-dimensional drag coefficient was approximately 20 counts between the unpainted aircraft and the hand-smoothed aircraft for typical cruise flight conditions.

  9. Efficient simulation of gas-liquid pipe flows using a generalized population balance equation coupled with the algebraic slip model

    KAUST Repository

    Icardi, Matteo

    2014-09-01

    The inhomogeneous generalized population balance equation, which is discretized with the direct quadrature method of moment (DQMOM), is solved to predict the bubble size distribution (BSD) in a vertical pipe flow. The proposed model is compared with a more classical approach where bubbles are characterized with a constant mean size. The turbulent two-phase flow field, which is modeled using a Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equation approach, is assumed to be in local equilibrium, thus the relative gas and liquid (slip) velocities can be calculated with the algebraic slip model, thereby accounting for the drag, lift, and lubrication forces. The complex relationship between the bubble size distribution and the resulting forces is described accurately by the DQMOM. Each quadrature node and weight represents a class of bubbles with characteristic size and number density, which change dynamically in time and space to preserve the first moments of the BSD. The predictions obtained are validated against previously published experimental data, thereby demonstrating the advantages of this approach for large-scale systems as well as suggesting future extensions to long piping systems and more complex geometries. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

  10. Nonlinear stability of oscillatory core-annular flow: A generalized Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation with time periodic coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coward, Adrian V.; Papageorgiou, Demetrios T.; Smyrlis, Yiorgos S.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper the nonlinear stability of two-phase core-annular flow in a pipe is examined when the acting pressure gradient is modulated by time harmonic oscillations and viscosity stratification and interfacial tension is present. An exact solution of the Navier-Stokes equations is used as the background state to develop an asymptotic theory valid for thin annular layers, which leads to a novel nonlinear evolution describing the spatio-temporal evolution of the interface. The evolution equation is an extension of the equation found for constant pressure gradients and generalizes the Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation with dispersive effects found by Papageorgiou, Maldarelli & Rumschitzki, Phys. Fluids A 2(3), 1990, pp. 340-352, to a similar system with time periodic coefficients. The distinct regimes of slow and moderate flow are considered and the corresponding evolution is derived. Certain solutions are described analytically in the neighborhood of the first bifurcation point by use of multiple scales asymptotics. Extensive numerical experiments, using dynamical systems ideas, are carried out in order to evaluate the effect of the oscillatory pressure gradient on the solutions in the presence of a constant pressure gradient.

  11. Policy and the Impact on Placement, Involvement, and Progress in General Education: Critical Issues That Require Rectification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryndak, Diane Lea; Taub, Debbie; Jorgensen, Cheryl M.; Gonsier-Gerdin, Jean; Arndt, Katrina; Sauer, Janet; Ruppar, Andrea L.; Morningstar, Mary E.; Allcock, Heather

    2014-01-01

    Students with significant disabilities continue to be among the most segregated in schools. In this article, we argue that the principles of least restrictive environment and involvement and progress in the general curriculum have been interpreted in ways that perpetuate segregation, rather than increasing students' access to meaningful…

  12. A CRITICAL STUDY REGARDING THE ELABORATION OF THE CASH FLOW STATEMENT USING THE DIRECT METHOD IN ROMANIA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    ŢĂRAN MOROŞAN ADRIAN

    2013-01-01

    .... Although IAS 7 recommends the usage of thedirect method to prepare the cash flow statement in order to better satisfy the informational need of information users,many enterprises choose to apply...

  13. Mode mixing in sub- and trans-critical flows over an obstacle: When should Hawking's predictions be recovered?

    CERN Document Server

    Michel, Florent

    2015-01-01

    We reexamine the scattering coefficients of shallow water waves blocked by a stationary counter current over an obstacle. By considering series of background flows, we show that the most relevant parameter is $F_{\\rm max}$, the maximal value of the ratio of the flow velocity over the speed of low frequency waves. For subcritical flows, i.e., $F_{\\rm max} < 1$, there is no analogue Killing horizon and the mode amplification is strongly suppressed. Instead, when $F_{\\rm max} \\gtrsim 1.1$, the amplification is enhanced at low frequency and the spectrum closely follows Hawking's prediction. We further study subcritical flows close to that used in the Vancouver experiment. Our numerical analysis suggests that their observation of the "thermal nature of the mode conversion" is due to the relatively steep slope on the upstream side and the narrowness of the obstacle.

  14. A new model approach for the near-critical point region: 1. Construction of the generalized van der Waals equation of state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sukbae; Jeon, Joonhyeon; Kim, Wonsoo; Chair, Tong-Seek

    2008-12-11

    To date, it has been considered that all classical equations of state (EOS) have failed to describe the properties of fluids near the critical region, where the density fluctuations have a significant influence on fluid properties. In this paper, we suggest a newly constructed equation for fluid states, the generalized van der Waals (GvdW) EOS with the highly simplified Dieterici's form P = [RT/(V - b)] - a(b/V)c by a new model potential construction describing intermolecular interactions. On the basis of the model potential construction, it is shown that the a, b, and c parameters have physical interpretations as an internal pressure, a void volume, and a dimensionless value that represents an inharmonic intermolecular cell potential, respectively. As an illustration of our model approach, we initially apply it to near the critical point (cp) region, where all classical EOS descriptions have been incorporated with experimental thermodynamic data, and we obtain a table of three parameters for 12 pure normal fluids, which precisely describes thermodynamic critical values. On the basis of the basic relations between pressure and volume at the critical point, we express the corresponding EOS in terms of the c parameter, and by this means, we also obtain a theoretical vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) line, which closely coincides with the experimental data for several pure normal fluids near the critical region. As a result, we show that thermodynamic properties near the critical region can be described analytically by only three parameters. In addition, to validate our EOS for the temperature-differential derivatives, we show that the calculated isochoric heat capacity (Cv) of saturated argon closely coincides with the experimental data. Moreover, the possibility of a precise description with respect to the entire fluid region is also argued, in terms of the physical cases from the triple point to the ideal gas region.

  15. Applicability of Markets to Global Scheduling in Grids: Critical Examination of General Equilibrium Theory and Market Folklore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, Junko; VanDerWijngaart, Rob F.

    2003-01-01

    Markets are often considered superior to other global scheduling mechanisms for distributed computing systems. This claim is supported by: a casual observation from our every-day life that markets successfully equilibrate supply and demand, and the features of markets which originate in the general equilibrium theory, e.g., efficiency and the lack of necessity of 2 central controller. This paper describes why such beliefs in markets are not warranted. It does so by examining the general equilibrium theory, in terms of scope, abstraction, and interpretation. Not only does the general equilibrium theory fail to provide a satisfactory explanation of actual economies, including a computing-resource economy, it also falls short of supplying theoretical foundations for commonly held views of market desirability. This paper also points out that the argument for the desirability of markets involves circular reasoning and that the desirability can be established only vis-a-vis a scheduling goal. Finally, recasting the conclusion of Arrow's Impossibility Theorem as that for global scheduling, we conclude that there exists no market-based scheduler that is rational (in the sense defined in microeconomic theory), takes into account utility of more than one user, and yet yields a Pareto-optimal outcome for arbitrary user utility functions.

  16. Critical Muralism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosette, Arturo

    2009-01-01

    This study focuses on the development and practices of Critical Muralists--community-educator-artist-leader-activists--and situates these specifically in relation to the Mexican mural tradition of los Tres Grandes and in relation to the history of public art more generally. The study examines how Critical Muralists address artistic and…

  17. Effects of dipyridamole and aminophylline on hemodynamics, regional myocardial blood flow and thallium-201 washout in the setting of a critical coronary stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granato, J.E.; Watson, D.D.; Belardinelli, L.; Cannon, J.M.; Beller, G.A. (Univ. of Virginia Health Sciences Center, Charlottesville (USA))

    1990-12-01

    Experiments were performed to characterize the interaction of intravenous dipyridamole and aminophylline on thallium-201 transport kinetics, regional myocardial blood flow and systemic hemodynamics in the presence of a critical coronary artery stenosis. In 12 dogs with a critical left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis, arterial pressure decreased from a mean value (+/- SEM) of 107 +/- 6 to 94 +/- 3 mm Hg and distal left anterior descending artery pressure decreased from 70 +/- 7 to 55 +/- 4 mm Hg after intravenous administration of dipyridamole. In the left anterior descending perfusion zone, the endocardial/epicardial flow ratio decreased from 0.70 to 0.36 and the intrinsic thallium washout rate was significantly prolonged. Intravenous aminophylline reversed the dipyridamole-induced systemic hypotension and transmural coronary steal and restored the thallium washout rate to baseline values. In six other dogs, aminophylline alone resulted in no alterations in systemic and coronary hemodynamics or regional myocardial blood flow. As expected, dipyridamole-induced vasodilation and coronary steal were prevented by aminophylline pretreatment. These data show that in a canine model of partial coronary stenosis, systemic hypotension, adverse regional flow effects and prolonged thallium-201 washout consequent to intravenously administered dipyridamole are promptly reversed by intravenous aminophylline administration. Aminophylline alone had no significant hemodynamic and coronary flow effects. This study provides further insight into the altered thallium kinetics occurring as a consequence of dipyridamole-induced vasodilation and suggests that the prompt reversal of symptoms and signs of ischemia with aminophylline in patients receiving intravenous dipyridamole for clinical imaging studies probably reflects the reversal of transmural coronary steal.

  18. Critical rate of electrolyte circulation for preventing zinc dendrite formation in a zinc-bromine redox flow battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hyeon Sun; Park, Jong Ho; Ra, Ho Won; Jin, Chang-Soo; Yang, Jung Hoon

    2016-09-01

    In a zinc-bromine redox flow battery, a nonaqueous and dense polybromide phase formed because of bromide oxidation in the positive electrolyte during charging. This formation led to complicated two-phase flow on the electrode surface. The polybromide and aqueous phases led to different kinetics of the Br/Br- redox reaction; poor mixing of the two phases caused uneven redox kinetics on the electrode surface. As the Br/Br- redox reaction was coupled with the zinc deposition reaction, the uneven redox reaction on the positive electrode was accompanied by nonuniform zinc deposition and zinc dendrite formation, which degraded battery stability. A single-flow cell was operated at varying electrolyte circulation rates and current densities. Zinc dendrite formation was observed after cell disassembly following charge-discharge testing. In addition, the flow behavior in the positive compartment was observed by using a transparent version of the cell. At low rate of electrolyte circulation, the polybromide phase clearly separated from the aqueous phase and accumulated at the bottom of the flow frame. In the corresponding area on the negative electrode, a large amount of zinc dendrites was observed after charge-discharge testing. Therefore, a minimum circulation rate should be considered to avoid poor mixing of the positive electrolyte.

  19. Mass-flow error in the numerical renormalization-group method and the critical behavior of the sub-Ohmic spin-boson model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojta, Matthias; Bulla, Ralf; Güttge, Fabian; Anders, Frithjof

    2010-02-01

    We discuss a particular source of error in the numerical renormalization group (NRG) method for quantum impurity problems, which is related to a renormalization of impurity parameters due to the bath propagator. At any step of the NRG calculation, this renormalization is only partially taken into account, leading to systematic variation in the impurity parameters along the flow. This effect can cause qualitatively incorrect results when studying quantum-critical phenomena, as it leads to an implicit variation in the phase transition’s control parameter as function of the temperature and thus to an unphysical temperature dependence of the order-parameter mass. We demonstrate the mass-flow effect for bosonic impurity models with a power-law bath spectrum, J(ω)∝ωs , namely, the dissipative harmonic oscillator and the spin-boson model. We propose an extension of the NRG to correct the mass-flow error. Using this, we find unambiguous signatures of a Gaussian critical fixed point in the spin-boson model for s<1/2 , consistent with mean-field behavior as expected from quantum-to-classical mapping.

  20. Nuclear criticality safety guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruvost, N.L.; Paxton, H.C. [eds.

    1996-09-01

    This technical reference document cites information related to nuclear criticality safety principles, experience, and practice. The document also provides general guidance for criticality safety personnel and regulators.

  1. A Critical Review of Surveys Emphasizing on Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks—An Anatomization under General Survey Design Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    A large number of routing-related surveys are published so far for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) that exhibit either complete or partial emphasis on routing in WSNs. These surveys classify and discuss the relevant routing protocols published mainly in the fields of classical, energy efficient, secure, hierarchical, geographic, intelligent, Quality of Service (QoS)-based and multipath WSNs. However, to the best of our knowledge, no study is presented so far which may clearly categorize the routing-related survey literature for WSNs.To fill this gap, an effort is made in this paper for presenting an in-depth review of already published routing-related survey literature in WSNs. Our review initially proposes a generalized survey design model and afterwards analyzes the routing-related survey literature in the light of the devised General Survey Design Framework (GSDF). Such an analysis describes the design soundness of the published routing-related surveys. Therefore, our review puts forth an original classification based on the frequency-of-survey-publication and taxonomizes the corresponding routing-related fields into high, medium and low focused areas of survey publication in WSNs. Furthermore, the surveys belonging to each main category are sub-categorized into various sub-classes and briefly discussed according to their design characteristics. On the one hand, this review is useful for beginners who may easily explore the already published routing-related survey literature in WSNs in a single document and investigate it by spending less effort. On the other hand, it is useful for expert researchers who may explore the trends and frequency of writing surveys in different areas of routing in WSNs. The experts may explore those areas of routing which are either neglected or least focused or lack in design soundness as per general survey design framework. In the end, insights and future research directions are outlined and a reasonable conclusion is put forth

  2. A Critical Examination of Frequency-Fixed Second-Order Generalized Integrator-Based Phase-Locked Loops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Mousazadeh Mousavi, Seyyed-Yousef; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    The implementation of a large number of single-phase phase-locked loops (PLLs) involves creating a fictitious quadrature signal. A popular approach for this purpose is using a second-order generalized integrator-based quadrature signal generator (SOGIQSG) because it results in an acceptable speed....../accuracy tradeoff. The SOGI-QSG based PLL (or briefly the SOGI-PLL), in its standard form, involves a frequency feedback loop for adjusting the SOGI resonance frequency under frequency drifts. Some recent research works have reported that the speed/accuracy tradeoff of the SOGI-PLL can be considerably enhanced......-based PLLs (FFSOGI-PLLs) to highlight their real advantages and disadvantages....

  3. Generation of Helicity and the Critical Transitions in a Twisted Flow of a Single-Phase Liquid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mitrofanova, O. V.

    2010-01-01

    Equations to determine the rate of change of the helicity in a dynamic liquid system are obtained. For the convenience of carrying out engineering calculations the equations are presented in dimensional and dimensionless forms. The conditions for critical transition to a helical character of a twist

  4. A CRITICAL STUDY REGARDING THE ELABORATION OF THE CASH FLOW STATEMENT USING THE DIRECT METHOD IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŢĂRAN MOROŞAN ADRIAN

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The direct method, which is the subject of this study, involves the identification and inclusion in the statement ofcash flows of the encashments and the payments made by the company. Although IAS 7 recommends the usage of thedirect method to prepare the cash flow statement in order to better satisfy the informational need of information users,many enterprises choose to apply the indirect method, due to its simplicity. On this issue we support the idea that thedirect cash flow reporting format, relative to the indirect method, leads to better prediction of future firm performanceand has a stronger association with share prices.One important conclusion of our paper is that the decision of theusers of accounting information, taking into account the cash flows generated by the economic entity, will not relievethem entirely from the effects of manifestation of the unexpected, but certainly reduces their magnitude. It is our beliefthat all Romanian companies whose financial statements are addressed to a large number of potential users shouldprepare comprehensive annual financial statements, whether or not the law requires them.

  5. Going against the flow: A critical analysis of virtual water trade in the context of India's National River Linking Programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verma, Shilp; Kampman, Doeke A.; Zaag, van der Pieter; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2007-01-01

    Virtual water trade has been promoted as a tool to address national and regional water scarcity. In the context of international (food) trade, this concept has been applied with a view to optimize the flow of commodities considering the water endowments of nations. The concept states that water-rich

  6. General self-efficacy, pre-competitive anxiety and flow feeling in handball team players from Costa Rica’s nactional team

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Vargas, Juan Carlos; Gutiérrez Vargas, Randall; Ureña Bonilla, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and analyze the relationship between self-efficacy, pre-competitive anxiety and flow feeling in male and female handball team players from the  Costa Rica national teams. Participants were 28 players (14 male and 14 female) from both teams. The scales of general self-efficacy, flow feeling and competitive anxiety were used to collect data. The average score in relation to self-efficacy was high (> 8.40). Regarding flow sensation, the average scores we...

  7. Educational interventions to improve the effectiveness in clinical competence of general practitioners: problem-based versus critical reading-based learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongora-Ortega Javier

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests that continuing medical education improves the clinical competence of general practitioners and the quality of health care services. Thus, we evaluated the relative impact of two educational strategies, critical reading (CR and problem based learning (PBL, on the clinical competence of general practitioners in a healthcare system characterized by excessive workload and fragmentation into small primary healthcare centers. Methods Clinical competence was evaluated in general practitioners assigned to three groups based on the educational interventions used: 1 critical reading intervention; 2 problem based learning intervention; and 3 no intervention (control group, which continued clinical practice as normal. The effect on the clinical competence of general practitioners was evaluated in three dimensions: the cognitive dimension, via a self-administered questionnaire; the habitual behavioral dimension, via information from patient’s medical records; and the affective dimension, through interviews with patients. A paired Student´s t-test was used to evaluate the changes in the mean clinical competence scores before and after the intervention, and a 3 x 2 ANOVA was used to analyze groups, times and their interaction. Results Nine general practitioners participated in the critical reading workshop, nine in the problem-based learning workshop, and ten were assigned to the control group. The participants exhibited no significant differences in clinical competence measures at baseline, or in socio-demographic or job characteristics (p > 0.05. Significant improvements in all three dimensions (cognitive, 45.67 vs 54.89; habitual behavioral, 53.78 vs 82.33; affective, 4.16 vs 4.76 were only observed in the problem-based learning group after the intervention (p > 0.017. Conclusions While no differences in post-intervention scores were observed between groups, we conclude that problem-based learning can be

  8. Multiple solutions in MHD flow and heat transfer of Sisko fluid containing nanoparticles migration with a convective boundary condition: Critical points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanai, Ruchika; Rana, Puneet; Kumar, Lokendra

    2016-05-01

    The motivation behind the present analysis is to focus on magneto-hydrodynamic flow and heat transfer characteristics of non-Newtonian fluid (Sisko fluid) past a permeable nonlinear shrinking sheet utilizing nanoparticles involving convective boundary condition. The non-homogenous nanofluid transport model considering the effect of Brownian motion, thermophoresis, suction/injection and no nanoparticle flux at the sheet with convective boundary condition has been solved numerically by the RKF45 method with shooting technique. Critical points for various pertinent parameters are evaluated in this study. The dual solutions (both first and second solutions) are captured in certain range of material constant (ncthermophoresis parameter.

  9. Flow, thermal criticality and transition of a reactive third-grade fluid in a pipe with Reynoldsʼ model viscosity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samuel S.OKOYA

    2016-01-01

    Neglecting the consumption of the material, a steady incompressible flow of an exothermic reacting third-grade fluid with viscous heating in a circular cylindrical pipe is numerically studied for both cases of constant viscosity and Reynolds’ viscosity model. The coupled ordinary differential equations governing the flow in cylindrical coordinates, are transformed into dimensionless forms using appropriate transformations, and then solved numerically. Solutions using Maple are presented in tabular form and given in terms of dimensionless central fluid velocity and temperature, skin friction and heat transfer rate for three parametric values in the Reynoldsʼ case. The numerical results for the velocity and temperature fields are also presented through graphs. Bifurcationsare discussed using shooting method. Comparisons are also made between the present results and those of previous work, and thus verify the validity of the provided numerical solutions. Important properties of thermal criticality are provided for variable viscosity para- meter and reaction order. Further numerical results are presented in the form of tables and graphs for transition of physical parame- ters, while varying certain flow and fluid material parameters. Also, the flow behaviour of the reactive fluid of third-grade is com- pared with those of the Newtonian reactive fluid.

  10. Economic Concerns in Optimal Power Dispatch in the Presence of a Generalized Unified Power Flow Controller under Practical Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Chintalapudi V.; Sivanagaraju, Sirigiri; Reddy, P. Umapathi

    2016-09-01

    In power system restructuring, pricing the electrical power plays a vital role in cost allocation between suppliers and consumers. In optimal power dispatch problem, not only the cost of active power generation but also the costs of reactive power generated by the generators, shunt capacitors, transmission losses and device investment costs should be considered. In this paper, a more realistic multi-fuel total cost objective is formulated by considering all the above mentioned costs. As the characteristics of reactive power cost curve are similar to that of active power cost curve, a non-convex reactive power cost function is formulated. The formulated cost function is optimized by satisfying equality, in-equality and practical constraints and also device limits using the proposed uniform distributed two-stage particle swarm optimization. In this paper, power injection model of generalized unified power flow controller (GUPFC) including converter switching losses is presented. The proposed objective functions are optimized in the presence of UPFC and GUPFC and finally suitable device is identified for the standard IEEE-30 bus test system.

  11. Perception of GMOs by scientists and practitioners--the critical role of information flow about transgenic organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Małyska, Aleksandra; Maciąg, Kamil; Twardowski, Tomasz

    2014-03-25

    The issue of GMOs arouses constantly strong emotions in public discourse. At the same time opinions of people particularly interested in this issues such as researchers, or potential users of this technology (e.g. farmers) are rarely subjected to analysis. Moreover, lack of knowledge about the flow of information "from the laboratory to the consumer" hinders implementation of any changes in this field. By using triangulation (combining quantitative and qualitative research and the use of various research tools) we explored the attitudes of Polish scientists, agricultural advisers and farmers (large scale agricultural producers) to the use of GMOs in the economy. On the basis of the performed research we diagnosed the effectiveness of information flow among these groups about transgenic organisms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Anterior-to-posterior wave of buccal expansion in suction feeding fishes is critical for optimizing fluid flow velocity profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Kristin L; Wainwright, Peter C; Holzman, Roi

    2008-11-01

    In fishes that employ suction feeding, coordinating the timing of peak flow velocity with mouth opening is likely to be an important feature of prey capture success because this will allow the highest forces to be exerted on prey items when the jaws are fully extended and the flow field is at its largest. Although it has long been known that kinematics of buccal expansion in feeding fishes are characterized by an anterior-to-posterior wave of expansion, this pattern has not been incorporated in most previous computational models of suction feeding. As a consequence, these models have failed to correctly predict the timing of peak flow velocity, which according to the currently available empirical data should occur around the time of peak gape. In this study, we use a simple fluid dynamic model to demonstrate that the inclusion of an anterior-to-posterior wave of buccal expansion can correctly reproduce the empirically determined flow velocity profile, although only under very constrained conditions, whereas models that do not allow this wave of expansion inevitably predict peak velocity earlier in the strike, when the gape is less than half of its maximum. The conditions that are required to produce a realistic velocity profile are as follows: (i) a relatively long time lag between mouth opening and expansion of the more posterior parts of the mouth, (ii) a short anterior portion of the mouth relative to more posterior sections, and (iii) a pattern of movement that begins slowly and then rapidly accelerates. Greater maximum velocities were generated in simulations without the anterior-to-posterior wave of expansion, suggesting a trade-off between maximizing fluid speed and coordination of peak fluid speed with peak gape.

  13. Positron emission tomography study of regional cerebral blood flow and flow-metabolism coupling during general anaesthesia with xenon in humans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rex, S; Meyer, P. T; Baumert, J.-H; Rossaint, R; Fries, M; Büll, U; Schaefer, W. M

    2008-01-01

    Background The effects of xenon on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) are controversial. Moreover, the precise sites of action at which xenon exerts its effects in the human brain remain to be established...

  14. 浅析临床普外危重症的治疗%Analysis of Clinical Treatment of Critically Ill Patients in General Surgery Department

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付寒林

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究分析普外科危重患者的临床治疗方式。方法根据我院普外科危重患者186例的临床治疗资料来进行研究分析,术后为患者提供氧代谢来调整器官功能情况,对治疗效果进行总结分析。结果患者接受一系列治疗措施后,致死率比较低,治疗效果较显著。结论普外科患者接受手术治疗,清除感染病灶,遏制高分解代谢能够对患者的生命体征稳定起到帮助,降低了临床死亡率,提升手术治疗效果,改善患者的生活质量。%Objective To study the clinical treatment of critically ill patients in department of general surgery.Methods According to the clinical treatment data of 186 cases of critically ill patients in the department of general surgery in our hospital to carry on the research analysis, for patients with postoperative oxygen metabolism to adjust the organ function, to analyze the therapeutic effect.Results A series of treatment measures in this study of patients in clinic, the lethal rate was relatively low, relatively significant patients receive treatment effect.ConclusionPatients in the department of general surgery received operation treatment, clear the infection foci, curb high catabolism stable vital signs, can reduce clinical mortality, improve the effect of operation treatment, improve the quality of life of patients.

  15. Whole blood flow cytometry measurements of in vivo platelet activation in critically-Ill patients are influenced by variability in blood sampling techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondina, Matthew T; Grissom, Colin K; Men, Shaohua; Harris, Estelle S; Schwertz, Hansjorg; Zimmerman, Guy A; Weyrich, Andrew S

    2012-06-01

    Flow cytometry is often used to measure in vivo platelet activation in critically-ill patients. Variability in blood sampling techniques, which may confound these measurements, remains poorly characterized. Platelet activation was measured by flow cytometry performed on arterial and venous blood from 116 critically-ill patients. We determined how variability in vascular sampling site, processing times, and platelet counts influenced levels of platelet-monocyte aggregates (PMA), PAC-1 binding (for glycoprotein (GP) IIbIIIa), and P-selectin (P-SEL) expression. Levels of PMA, but not PAC-1 binding or P-SEL expression, were significantly affected by variability in vascular sampling site. Average PMA levels were approximately 60% higher in whole blood drawn from an arterial vessel compared to venous blood (16.2±1.8% vs. 10.7±1.2%, psampling site, processing times, and platelet counts influence levels of PMA, but not PAC-1 binding or P-SEL expression. These data demonstrate the need for rigorous adherence to blood sampling protocols, particularly when levels of PMA, which are most sensitive to variations in blood collection, are measured for detection of in vivo platelet activation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Co-combustion of pulverized coal and solid recovered fuel in an entrained flow reactor - General combustion and ash behaviour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao Wu; Peter Glarborg; Flemming Jappe Frandsen; Kim Dam-Johansen; Peter Arendt Jensen; Bo Sander [Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering

    2011-05-15

    Co-combustion of a bituminous coal and a solid recovered fuel (SRF) was carried out in an entrained flow reactor, and the influence of additives such as NaCl, PVC, ammonium sulphate, and kaolinite was investigated. The experiments were carried out with SRF shares of 7.9 wt.%, 14.8 wt.% and 25 wt.%, respectively. The effect of additives was evaluated by maintaining the share of secondary fuel (mixture of SRF and additive) at 14.8 wt.%. The results showed that fuel burnout, NO and SO{sub 2} emission decreased with increasing share of SRF. The majority of the additives inhibited the burnout, except for NaCl which seemed to have a promoting effect. The impact of additives on NO emission was mostly insignificant, except for ammonium sulphate which greatly reduced NO emission. For SO{sub 2}, it was found that all of the additives increased the S-retention in ash. Analysis of the bulk composition of fly ash from different experiments indicated that the majority of S and Cl in the fuels were released to gas phase during combustion, whereas the K and Na in the fuels were mainly retained in ash in water insoluble form such as aluminosilicates or silicates. The addition of NaCl, PVC, and ammonium sulphate generally promoted the vaporization of Na and K, resulting in increased formation of water soluble alkalis such as alkali chlorides or sulphates. The vaporization degree of Na and K was found to be correlated during the experiments, suggesting an interaction between the vaporization of Na and K during combustion. By collecting deposits on an air-cooled probe, it was found that the ash deposition propensity in co-combustion decreased with increasing share of SRF. The addition of NaCl and PVC significantly increased the ash deposition propensity, whereas the addition of ammonium sulphate or kaolinite showed a slight reducing effect. 46 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Theory, Criticism and a Philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisenberg, Werner

    The following sections are included: * WHEN A GOLDEN AGE STARTED * FIRST STEPS IN PHYSICS * PHENOMENOLOGICAL THEORY * BOHR'S CONJECTURE * EINSTEIN ON THEORY AND OBSERVATION * STABILITY OF LAMINAR FLOW * SEQUEL AFTER TWENTY YEARS * FINDING A MATHEMATICAL MISTAKE * RIGOROUS AND DIRTY MATHEMATICS * ABANDONING OLD CONCEPTS * QUANTUM THEORY UNDERSTOOD * EINSTEIN'S FICTITIOUS EXPERIMENTS * ELECTRONS AND THE NUCLEUS * CHANGING THE OUTLOOK OF ATOMIC PHYSICS * PAIR CREATION * PHENOMENON ESTABLISHED * PAULI'S CRITICAL ACUMEN * MY GENERAL PHILOSOPHY

  18. Incompressible laminar flow through hollow fibers: a general study by means of a two-scale approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsi, Iacopo; Farina, Angiolo; Fasano, Antonio

    2011-08-01

    We study the laminar flow of an incompressible Newtonian fluid in a hollow fiber, whose walls are porous. We write the Navier-Stokes equations for the flow in the inner channel and Darcy's law for the flow in the fiber, coupling them by means of the Beavers-Joseph condition which accounts for the (possible) slip at the membrane surface. Then, we introduce a small parameter {\\varepsilon ≪ 1} (the ratio between the radius and the length of the fiber) and expand all relevant quantities in powers of ɛ. Averaging over the fiber cross section, we find the velocity profiles for the longitudinal flow and for the cross-flow, and eventually, we determine the explicit expression of the permeability of the system. This work is also preliminary to the study of more complex systems comprising a large number of identical fibers (e.g., ultrafiltration modules and dialysis).

  19. Antiperiodic Solutions for a Generalized High-Order (p,q-Laplacian Neutral Differential System with Delays in the Critical Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongzhi Liao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available By applying the method of coincidence degree, some criteria are established for the existence of antiperiodic solutions for a generalized high-order (p,q-Laplacian neutral differential system with delays (φp((x(t-cx(t-τ(k(m-k=F(t,xθ0(t,xθ1(t′,…,xθk(t(k,yϑ0(t,yϑ1(t′,…,yϑl(t(l, (φq((y(t-dy(t-σ(l(n-l=G(t,yμ0(t,yμ1(t′,…,yμl(t(l,xν0(t,xν1(t′,…,xνk(t(k in the critical case |c|=|d|=1. The results of this paper are completely new. Finally, an example is employed to illustrate our results.

  20. Electrosurgical devices: are we closer to finding the ideal appliance? A critical review of current evidence for the use of electrosurgical devices in general surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sran, Harkiran; Sebastian, Joseph; Hossain, Mohammad Ayaz

    2016-01-01

    Over the last decade, the use of electrosurgical devices has become commonplace across all surgical specialities. The current market is large enough to warrant a comparative review of each device. This has even more impetus given the budgetary constraints of NHS organisations. This review aims to compare the benefits and drawbacks of the most popular electrosurgical devices, whilst conducting a critical review of the literature. Structured searches using databases Medline and EMBASE were conducted. The search was restricted to English language papers only. Due to the abundance of literature, this review will focus on common general surgical procedures alone. Despite a plethora of available devices, individual preference still dictates use. Conventional diathermy may always have its place, but may see a decline in use if costs improve. Newer devices have shown comparable precision and added advantages.

  1. Pressure drop, heat transfer, critical heat flux, and flow stability of two-phase flow boiling of water and ethylene glycol/water mixtures - final report for project "Efficent cooling in engines with nucleate boiling."

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, W.; France, D. M.; Routbort, J. L. (Energy Systems)

    2011-01-19

    Because of its order-of-magnitude higher heat transfer rates, there is interest in using controllable two-phase nucleate boiling instead of conventional single-phase forced convection in vehicular cooling systems to remove ever increasing heat loads and to eliminate potential hot spots in engines. However, the fundamental understanding of flow boiling mechanisms of a 50/50 ethylene glycol/water mixture under engineering application conditions is still limited. In addition, it is impractical to precisely maintain the volume concentration ratio of the ethylene glycol/water mixture coolant at 50/50. Therefore, any investigation into engine coolant characteristics should include a range of volume concentration ratios around the nominal 50/50 mark. In this study, the forced convective boiling heat transfer of distilled water and ethylene glycol/water mixtures with volume concentration ratios of 40/60, 50/50, and 60/40 in a 2.98-mm-inner-diameter circular tube has been investigated in both the horizontal flow and the vertical flow. The two-phase pressure drop, the forced convective boiling heat transfer coefficient, and the critical heat flux of the test fluids were determined experimentally over a range of the mass flux, the vapor mass quality, and the inlet subcooling through a new boiling data reduction procedure that allowed the analytical calculation of the fluid boiling temperatures along the experimental test section by applying the ideal mixture assumption and the equilibrium assumption along with Raoult's law. Based on the experimental data, predictive methods for the two-phase pressure drop, the forced convective boiling heat transfer coefficient, and the critical heat flux under engine application conditions were developed. The results summarized in this final project report provide the necessary information for designing and implementing nucleate-boiling vehicular cooling systems.

  2. Characteristics of transonic spherical symmetric accretion flow in Schwarzschild-de Sitter and Schwarzschild anti-de Sitter backgrounds, in pseudo-general relativistic paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Shubhrangshu; Banik, Prabir

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we present a complete work on steady state spherically symmetric Bondi type accretion flow in the presence of cosmological constant (Λ) in both Schwarzschild-de Sitter (SDS) and Schwarzschild anti-de Sitter (SADS) backgrounds considering an isolated supermassive black hole (SMBH), with the inclusion of a simple radiative transfer scheme, in the pseudo-general relativistic paradigm. We do an extensive analysis on the transonic behavior of the Bondi type accretion flow onto the cosmological BHs including a complete analysis of the global parameter space and the stability of flow, and do a complete study of the global family of solutions for a generic polytropic flow. Bondi type accretion flow in SADS background renders multiplicity in its transonic behavior with inner "saddle" type and outer "center" type sonic points, with the transonic solutions forming closed loops or contours. There is always a limiting value for ∣Λ∣ up to which we obtain valid stationary transonic solutions, which correspond to both SDS and SADS geometries; this limiting value moderately increases with the increasing radiative efficiency of the flow, especially correspond to Bondi type accretion flow in SADS background. Repulsive Λ suppresses the Bondi accretion rate by an order of magnitude for relativistic Bondi type accretion flow for a certain range in temperature, and with a marginal increase in the Bondi accretion rate if the corresponding accretion flow occurs in SADS background. However, for a strongly radiative Bondi type accretion flow with high mass accretion rate, the presence of cosmological constant do not much influence the corresponding Bondi accretion rate of the flow. Our analysis show that the relic cosmological constant has a substantial effect on Bondi type accretion flow onto isolated SMBHs and their transonic solutions beyond length-scale of kiloparsecs, especially if the Bondi type accretion occurs onto the host supergiant ellipticals or central

  3. Using pressure pulse seismology to examine basal criticality and the influence of sticky spots on glacial flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, J. L.; Moore, P. L.; Dow, C. F.; Sanders, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    Here we report results of water pressure pulse studies conducted at Storglaciären (Sweden) and West Washmawapta Glacier (British Columbia, Canada). Comparison of pressure pulse records with meteorological conditions at Storglaciären indicates that several periods of increased basal slip activity observed during a 10 day interval of summer 2008 were due to precipitation loading of the glacier surface, rather than to infiltration of surface water to the glacier bed; this indicates that the glacier bed was close to the failure strength for much of this interval. Pressure pulse magnitudes for the two glaciers were well-fit by power law distributions similar to those earlier observed at Trapridge Glacier (and similar in form to the Gutenberg-Richter relationship commonly used in seismology), suggesting that the mechanical processes that give rise to these distributions are robust features of soft-bedded glaciers. In contrast, interevent time distributions for both glaciers diverge from those observed at Trapridge Glacier for short recurrence intervals, suggesting that the factors that govern the rate at which these processes occur differ between glaciers. An examination of pressure pulse characteristics at West Washmawapta Glacier indicates that the establishment of a basal drainage system in summer 2008 resulted in increased stability and reduced sensitivity to meltwater input, suggesting that common assumptions about the relationship between meltwater production and ice flow are oversimplified. These results demonstrate that water pressure pulse observations can provide valuable insight into the dynamics of soft-bedded glaciers.

  4. Pump used as a turbine (PAT) with flow control - Part 1: General; Petites centrales hydrauliques. Pompe fonctionnant en turbine avec reglage du debit (Pat-Francis). 1ere partie: presentation generale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapallaz, J.-M.

    2007-02-15

    This first part of a final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) discusses the use of a pump equipped with variable guide vanes, similar to a Francis turbine. This first part of a four-part article describes the PAT-Francis project in general. The turbine was realised by removing the existing spiral casing from a standard pump and replacing it with a guide vane system with a new spiral. General topics on the use of pumps as turbines are discussed and the characteristic curves and operational limits of a PAT are examined. The proposed concept for a PAT with variable flow, or PAT-Francis, is presented.

  5. Generalized Roughness Effects on Turbulent Boundary Layer Heat Transfer. A Discrete Element Predictive Approach for Turbulent Flow Over Rough Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-11-01

    element u.-lei is readily applied to such flows. For lully developed flow V = 0, and U and H are functions of y only (i.e., J ■ U(y) and H ■ H(y...included, application of the basic momentum theorem yields T b |£| . / w+ Jb \\ T r ’dx’ I W < s,av where T is the average shear stress

  6. General self-efficacy, pre-competitive anxiety and flow feeling in handball team players from Costa Rica’s nactional team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Gutiérrez Vargas

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to describe and analyze the relationship between self-efficacy, pre-competitive anxiety and flow feeling in male and female handball team players from the  Costa Rica national teams. Participants were 28 players (14 male and 14 female from both teams. The scales of general self-efficacy, flow feeling and competitive anxiety were used to collect data. The average score in relation to self-efficacy was high (> 8.40. Regarding flow sensation, the average scores were range from 3.41 (autotelic experience  to 5,78 (control sense. Somatic anxiety was the lowest in men = 1.59 and women female = 1.98, and self-confidence was the highest score in men = 2.99 and women = 2.70 respectively.  No significant changes were observed throughout the game in relation to the flow feeling. The anxiety reported by men was significantly lower than women, and the self-confidence levels were higher in men than in women. No significant correlation was found between self efficacy and sense of flow.  Somatic anxiety showed significant correlations with some dimensions of the flow feeling. In conclusion, these data showed that there is a need to incorporate psychological interventions to ensure that athletes can reach optimal psychophysical states in order to perform better.

  7. A generalized traction integral equation for Stokes flow, with applications to near-wall particle mobility and viscous erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, William H.; Spagnolie, Saverio E.

    2017-03-01

    A double-layer integral equation for the surface tractions on a body moving in a viscous fluid is derived which allows for the incorporation of a background flow and/or the presence of a plane wall. The Lorentz reciprocal theorem is used to link the surface tractions on the body to integrals involving the background velocity and stress fields on an imaginary bounding sphere (or hemisphere for wall-bounded flows). The derivation requires the velocity and stress fields associated with numerous fundamental singularity solutions which we provide for free-space and wall-bounded domains. Two sample applications of the method are discussed: we study the tractions on an ellipsoid moving near a plane wall, which provides a more detailed understanding of the well-studied glancing and reversing trajectories in the context of particle sedimentation, and the erosion of bodies by a viscous flow, in which the surface is ablated at a rate proportional to the local viscous shear stress. Simulations and analytical estimates suggest that a spherical body in a uniform flow first reduces nearly but not exactly to the drag minimizing profile and then vanishes in finite time. The shape dynamics of an eroding body in a shear flow and near a wall are also investigated. Stagnation points on the body surface lead generically to the formation of cusps, whose number depends on the flow configuration and/or the presence of nearby boundaries.

  8. The effect of direction for hydrophobic lines on subcooled flow boiling: Critical heat flux and heat transfer coefficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Man; Yu, Dong In; Park, Hyun Sun; Kim, Moo Hwan [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    A lot of time and effort were dedicated on study of BHT and CHF to understand and control boiling characteristics. To enhance boiling performance, structure and coating have been focused on recently. Coating can change wettability of the surface by controlling surface energy. Structure can affect nucleation cavity or wettability. These techniques make differences for boiling phenomena. From many reports, structures have received much attention due to facileness of manipulation for wetting, and so much data were collected about structures and boiling characteristics. In comparison to the structure, the study of coating technique is less active. Hydrophilic surface without structure is difficult to make for lasting during boiling condition, and hydrophobic surface impoverish CHF due to early dryout. For this reason, the study of coating effect is deficient relatively. However, hydrophobic pattern can be a brilliant method to enhance boiling performance. Betz et al. manufactured superbiphilic surfaces having juxtaposing hexagonal hydrophobic dots on the superhydrophilic surface. This surface improved HTC up to three times higher than on reported nanostructured surfaces. They reported that results were from increasing nucleation site due to hydrophobicity and constraining of bubble expansion on the surface to prevent formation of vapor blanket. In this study, hydrophobic patterns with stripe lines were achieved to study direction effect of hydrophobic pattern using Teflon solution, and further research is suggested. From the analysis of bubble dynamics with pattern effects, the following conclusions can be summarized. 1. Teflon coating can make many bubbles at early stage, so it showed the highest HTC, but lowest CHF due to early formation of vapor blanket. 2. Parallel patterns are advantageous higher CHF due to segregated vapor path in flow direction. 3. Cross patterns are unfavorable to delay CHF because merged vapor jets could cover hydrophilic line.

  9. Criticality Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Alsaed

    2004-09-14

    The ''Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report'' (YMP 2003) presents the methodology for evaluating potential criticality situations in the monitored geologic repository. As stated in the referenced Topical Report, the detailed methodology for performing the disposal criticality analyses will be documented in model reports. Many of the models developed in support of the Topical Report differ from the definition of models as given in the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management procedure AP-SIII.10Q, ''Models'', in that they are procedural, rather than mathematical. These model reports document the detailed methodology necessary to implement the approach presented in the Disposal Criticality Analysis Methodology Topical Report and provide calculations utilizing the methodology. Thus, the governing procedure for this type of report is AP-3.12Q, ''Design Calculations and Analyses''. The ''Criticality Model'' is of this latter type, providing a process evaluating the criticality potential of in-package and external configurations. The purpose of this analysis is to layout the process for calculating the criticality potential for various in-package and external configurations and to calculate lower-bound tolerance limit (LBTL) values and determine range of applicability (ROA) parameters. The LBTL calculations and the ROA determinations are performed using selected benchmark experiments that are applicable to various waste forms and various in-package and external configurations. The waste forms considered in this calculation are pressurized water reactor (PWR), boiling water reactor (BWR), Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Training Research Isotope General Atomic (TRIGA), Enrico Fermi, Shippingport pressurized water reactor, Shippingport light water breeder reactor (LWBR), N-Reactor, Melt and Dilute, and Fort Saint Vrain Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The scope of

  10. Non-equilibrium Phase Transitions: Activated Random Walks at Criticality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas, M.; Rolla, L. T.; Sidoravicius, V.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we present rigorous results on the critical behavior of the Activated Random Walk model. We conjecture that on a general class of graphs, including , and under general initial conditions, the system at the critical point does not reach an absorbing state. We prove this for the case where the sleep rate is infinite. Moreover, for the one-dimensional asymmetric system, we identify the scaling limit of the flow through the origin at criticality. The case remains largely open, with the exception of the one-dimensional totally-asymmetric case, for which it is known that there is no fixation at criticality.

  11. General Reynolds analogy on curved surfaces in hypersonic rarefied gas flows with non-equilibrium chemical reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xingxing, Chen; Zhihui, Wang; Yongliang, Yu

    2016-11-01

    Hypersonic chemical non-equilibrium gas flows around blunt nosed bodies are studied in the present paper to investigate the Reynolds analogy relation on curved surfaces. With a momentum and energy transfer model being applied through boundary layers, influences of molecular dissociations and recombinations on skin frictions and heat fluxes are separately modeled. Expressions on the ratio of Cf / Ch (skin friction coefficient to heat flux) are presented along the surface of circular cylinders under the ideal dissociation gas model. The analysis indicates that molecular dissociations increase the linear distribution of Cf / Ch, but the nonlinear Reynolds analogy relation could ultimately be obtained in flows with larger Reynolds numbers and Mach numbers, where the decrease of wall heat flux by molecular recombinations signifies. The present modeling and analyses are also verified by the DSMC calculations on nitrogen gas flows.

  12. Immune- and Nonimmune-Compartment-Specific Interferon Responses Are Critical Determinants of Herpes Simplex Virus-Induced Generalized Infections and Acute Liver Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Zachary M; Pasieka, Tracy Jo; Parker, George A; Leib, David A

    2016-12-01

    The interferon (IFN) response to viral pathogens is critical for host survival. In humans and mouse models, defects in IFN responses can result in lethal herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infections, usually from encephalitis. Although rare, HSV-1 can also cause fulminant hepatic failure, which is often fatal. Although herpes simplex encephalitis has been extensively studied, HSV-1 generalized infections and subsequent acute liver failure are less well understood. We previously demonstrated that IFN-αβγR(-/-) mice are exquisitely susceptible to liver infection following corneal infection with HSV-1. In this study, we used bone marrow chimeras of IFN-αβγR(-/-) (AG129) and wild-type (WT; 129SvEv) mice to probe the underlying IFN-dependent mechanisms that control HSV-1 pathogenesis. After infection, WT mice with either IFN-αβγR(-/-) or WT marrow exhibited comparable survival, while IFN-αβγR(-/-) mice with WT marrow had a significant survival advantage over their counterparts with IFN-αβγR(-/-) marrow. Furthermore, using bioluminescent imaging to maximize data acquisition, we showed that the transfer of IFN-competent hematopoietic cells controlled HSV-1 replication and damage in the livers of IFN-αβγR(-/-) mice. Consistent with this, the inability of IFN-αβγR(-/-) immune cells to control liver infection in IFN-αβγR(-/-) mice manifested as profoundly elevated aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels, indicative of severe liver damage. In contrast, IFN-αβγR(-/-) mice receiving WT marrow exhibited only modest elevations of AST and ALT levels. These studies indicate that IFN responsiveness of the immune system is a major determinant of viral tropism and damage during visceral HSV infections. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infection is an incurable viral infection with the most significant morbidity and mortality occurring in neonates and patients with compromised immune systems. Severe pathologies from HSV include the

  13. River-flow predictions for the South African mid-summer using a coupled general circulation model

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olivier, C

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available There are limited sources of streamflow data available in South Africa. These include simulated streamflow for catchments across South Africa and measured river-flow at specific rivers around the country. Given that a number of studies has been done...

  14. Kinetic theory of hydrodynamic flows. I. The generalized normal solution method and its application to the drag on a sphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijeren, H. van; Dorfman, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    We consider the flow of a dilute gas around a macroscopic heavy object. The state of the gas is described by an extended Boltzmann equation where the interactions between the gas molecules and the object are taken into account in computing the rate of change of the distribution function of the gas.

  15. Critical care nursing: Embedded complex systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinier, Ruth; Liske, Lori; Nenadovic, Vera

    2016-01-01

    Variability in parameters such as heart rate, respiratory rate and blood pressure defines healthy physiology and the ability of the person to adequately respond to stressors. Critically ill patients have lost this variability and require highly specialized nursing care to support life and monitor changes in condition. The critical care environment is a dynamic system through which information flows. The critical care unit is typically designed as a tree structure with generally one attending physician and multiple nurses and allied health care professionals. Information flow through the system allows for identification of deteriorating patient status and timely interventionfor rescue from further deleterious effects. Nurses provide the majority of direct patient care in the critical care setting in 2:1, 1:1 or 1:2 nurse-to-patient ratios. The bedside nurse-critically ill patient relationship represents the primary, real-time feedback loop of information exchange, monitoring and treatment. Variables that enhance information flow through this loop and support timely nursing intervention can improve patient outcomes, while barriers can lead to errors and adverse events. Examining patient information flow in the critical care environment from a dynamic systems perspective provides insights into how nurses deliver effective patient care and prevent adverse events.

  16. 中等胶结储层气井出砂临界流量实验测试技术%The Sand Production Critical Flow Test Technology of Gas Well in Moderate Cemented Formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓金根; 王利华; 李萍; 曹砚锋; 冯永存

    2011-01-01

    Sand production is of great harm to the moderate cemented formation in gas reservoir, so it is necessary to determine the sand production critical flow. In order to overcome the shortcomings in traditional sand production critical flow determining methods, such as high cost of field test and low computational accuracy of theoretical calculation, this paper shows that test equipments and test methods determine the sand production critical flow for gas well. The lab simulation test for determining the sand production critical flow in open hole completion is carried out. We measure the gas flow rate and sand production rate under different drawdown pressure. Finally, the sand production critical flow of gas well was determined. The test technology for determining the sand production critical flow of gas well is based on the critical flow rate back stepping strata of back-derive critical sand production drawdown pressure and productivity. This test method has been successfully used in a gas field of South China Sea. The result shows the advancement and reliability of this test method.%中等胶结砂岩气藏储层出砂危害极大,气井的出砂临界流量确定尤为重要.克服了以往确定出砂临界流量的现场试验方法成本高及理论计算精度低等不足,研制了测定气井出砂临界流量的实验装置并制定了测定气井出砂临界流量的实验方法.进行了裸眼完井条件下的室内气井出砂临界流量模拟实验,测定了不同生产压差下的气体流量及出砂量,确定了气井出砂临界流量.并利用临界流量反推地层条件下的出砂临界生产压差及产能,形成中等胶结储层气井出砂临界流量的实验测试技术,在南海某气田进行了成功应用.结果表明:该实验测试技术具有先进性和可靠性.

  17. Critical submergence for isolated and dual rectangular intakes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    KEREM TASTAN

    2016-04-01

    This study examined critical submergence for isolated and dual rectangular intakes. It is shown that the critical submergence for an isolated intake can be predicted by disregarding whole boundary blockages on the complete imaginary critical sink surface that is the combination of imaginary complete critical cylindrical and hemi-spherical sink surfaces. It is proposed that this theory can be applied to the rectangular intakes located in general geometrical and flow conditions (i.e., intake in still water, circulation imposed flow, non-developedcross-flow, multiple intakes, etc.) and that it does not require computation of blockages caused from flow boundaries. The concept of complete sink surface (disregarding whole boundary blockages) developed for an isolated intake was also applied to dual rectangular intakes. The agreement between available test data and theoretical results was found to be satisfactory.

  18. Development and application of a dispersed two-phase flow capability in a general multi-block Navier Stokes solver

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Anant Pankaj

    2005-01-01

    Gas turbines for military applications, when operating in harsh environments like deserts often encounter unexpected operation faults. Such performance deterioration of the gas turbine decreases the mission readiness of the Air Force and simultaneously increases the maintenance costs. Some of the major factors responsible for the reduced performance are ingestion of debris during take off and landing, distorted intake flows during low altitude maneuvers, and hot gas ingestion during artillery...

  19. A general gridding, discretization, and coarsening methodology for modeling flow in porous formations with discrete geological features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi-Fard, M.; Durlofsky, L. J.

    2016-10-01

    A comprehensive framework for modeling flow in porous media containing thin, discrete features, which could be high-permeability fractures or low-permeability deformation bands, is presented. The key steps of the methodology are mesh generation, fine-grid discretization, upscaling, and coarse-grid discretization. Our specialized gridding technique combines a set of intersecting triangulated surfaces by constructing approximate intersections using existing edges. This procedure creates a conforming mesh of all surfaces, which defines the internal boundaries for the volumetric mesh. The flow equations are discretized on this conforming fine mesh using an optimized two-point flux finite-volume approximation. The resulting discrete model is represented by a list of control-volumes with associated positions and pore-volumes, and a list of cell-to-cell connections with associated transmissibilities. Coarse models are then constructed by the aggregation of fine-grid cells, and the transmissibilities between adjacent coarse cells are obtained using flow-based upscaling procedures. Through appropriate computation of fracture-matrix transmissibilities, a dual-continuum representation is obtained on the coarse scale in regions with connected fracture networks. The fine and coarse discrete models generated within the framework are compatible with any connectivity-based simulator. The applicability of the methodology is illustrated for several two- and three-dimensional examples. In particular, we consider gas production from naturally fractured low-permeability formations, and transport through complex fracture networks. In all cases, highly accurate solutions are obtained with significant model reduction.

  20. The viscous curtain: General formulation and finite-element solution for the stability of flowing viscous sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdigou, C.; Audoly, B.

    2016-11-01

    The stability of thin viscous sheets has been studied so far in the special case where the base flow possesses a direction of invariance: the linear stability is then governed by an ordinary differential equation. We propose a mathematical formulation and a numerical method of solution that are applicable to the linear stability analysis of viscous sheets possessing no particular symmetry. The linear stability problem is formulated as a non-Hermitian eigenvalue problem in a 2D domain and is solved numerically using the finite-element method. Specifically, we consider the case of a viscous sheet in an open flow, which falls in a bath of fluid; the sheet is mildly stretched by gravity and the flow can become unstable by 'curtain' modes. The growth rates of these modes are calculated as a function of the fluid parameters and of the geometry, and a phase diagram is obtained. A transition is reported between a buckling mode (static bifurcation) and an oscillatory mode (Hopf bifurcation). The effect of surface tension is discussed.

  1. California Condor Critical Habitat

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — These Data identify (in general) the areas where critical habitat for the California Condor occur. Critical habitat for the species consists of the following 10...

  2. Numerical study on flow rate limitation of open capillary channel flow through a wedge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Ting Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The flow characteristics of slender-column flow in wedge-shaped channel under microgravity condition are investigated in this work. The one-dimensional theoretical model is applied to predict the critical flow rate and surface contour of stable flow. However, the one-dimensional model overestimates the critical flow rate for not considering the extra pressure loss. Then, we develop a three-dimensional simulation method with OpenFOAM, a computational fluid dynamics tool, to simulate various phenomena in wedge channels with different lengths. The numerical results are verified with the capillary channel flow experimental data on the International Space Station. We find that the three-dimensional simulation perfectly predicts the critical flow rates and surface contours under various flow conditions. Meanwhile, the general behaviors in subcritical, critical, and supercritical flow are studied in three-dimensional simulation considering variations of flow rate and open channel length. The numerical techniques for three-dimensional simulation is validated for a wide range of configurations and is hopeful to provide valuable guidance for capillary channel flow experiment and efficient liquid management in space.

  3. Novel Power Flow Problem Solutions Method’s Based on Genetic Algorithm Optimization for Banks Capacitor Compensation Using an Fuzzy Logic Rule Bases for Critical Nodal Detections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasri Abdelfatah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Reactive power flow’s is one of the most electrical distribution systems problem wich have great of interset of the electrical network researchers, it’s  cause’s active power transmission reduction, power losses decreasing, and  the drop voltage’s increase. In this research we described the efficiency of the FLC-GAO approach to solve the optimal power flow (OPF combinatorial problem. The proposed approach employ tow algorithms, Fuzzy logic controller (FLC algorithm for critical nodal detection and gentic algorithm  optimization (GAO algorithm for optimal seizing capacitor.GAO method is more efficient in combinatory problem solutions. The proposed approach has been examined and tested on the standard IEEE 57-bus the resulats show the power loss minimization denhancement, voltage profile, and stability improvement. The proposed approach results have been compared to those that reported in the literature recently. The results are promising and show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed approach.

  4. Effects of feeding and hypoxia on cardiac performance and gastrointestinal blood flow during critical speed swimming in the sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont-Prinet, A; Claireaux, G; McKenzie, D J

    2009-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that if European sea bass are exercised after feeding, they can achieve a significantly higher maximum metabolic rate (MMR) than when fasted. They can meet combined metabolic demands of digestion (specific dynamic action, SDA) and maximal aerobic exercise, with no decline in swimming performance. If, however, exposed to mild hypoxia (50% saturation), bass no longer achieve higher MMR after feeding but they swim as well fed as fasted, due to an apparent ability to defer the SDA response. This study explored patterns of cardiac output (Q(A)) and blood flow to the gastrointestinal tract (Q(GI)) associated with the higher MMR after feeding, and with the ability to prioritise swimming in hypoxia. Sea bass (mean mass approximately 325 g, forklength approximately 27 cm) were instrumented with flow probes to measure Q(A) and Q(GI) during an incremental critical swimming speed (U(crit)) protocol in a tunnel respirometer, to compare each animal either fasted or 6h after a meal of fish fillet equal to 3% body mass. Feeding raised oxygen uptake (M(O2)) prior to exercise, an SDA response associated with increased Q(A) (+30%) and Q(GI) (+100%) compared to fasted values. As expected, when exercised the fed bass maintained the SDA load throughout the protocol and achieved 14% higher MMR than when fasted, and the same U(crit) (approximately 100 cm s(-1)). Both fed and fasted bass showed pronounced increases in Q(A) and decreases in Q(GI) during exercise and the higher MMR of fed bass was not associated with higher maximum Q(A) relative to when fasted, or to any differences in Q(GI) at maximum Q(A). In hypoxia prior to exercise, metabolic and cardiac responses to feeding were similar compared to normoxia. Hypoxia caused an almost 60% reduction to MMR and 30% reduction to U(crit), but neither of these traits differed between fed or fasted bass. Despite hypoxic limitations to MMR and U(crit), maximum Q(A) and patterns of Q(GI) during exercise in fasted and

  5. New upscaled equations for multiphase flows in porous media based on a phase field formulation for general free energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmuck, Markus; Pradas, Marc; Pavliotis, Grigorios A.; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2014-11-01

    Based on thermodynamic and variational principles we formulate novel equations for mixtures of incompressible fluids in strongly heterogeneous domains, such as composites and porous media, using elements from the regular solution theory. Starting with equations that fully resolve the pores of a porous medium, represented as a periodic covering of a single reference pore, we rigorously derive effective macroscopic phase field equations under the assumption of periodic and strongly convective flow. Our derivation is based on the multiple scale method with drift and our recently introduced splitting strategy for Ginzburg-Landau/Cahn-Hilliard-type equations. We discover systematically diffusion-dispersion relations (including Taylor-Aris-dispersion) as in classical convection-diffusion problems. Our results represent a systematic and efficient computational strategy to macroscopically track interfaces in heterogeneous media which together with the well-known versatility of phase field models forms a promising basis for the analysis of a wide spectrum of engineering and scientific applications such as oil recovery, for instance.

  6. Generalized Kutta–Joukowski theorem for multi-vortex and multi-airfoil flow (a lumped vortex model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai Chenyuan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available For purpose of easy identification of the role of free vortices on the lift and drag and for purpose of fast or engineering evaluation of forces for each individual body, we will extend in this paper the Kutta–Joukowski (KJ theorem to the case of inviscid flow with multiple free vortices and multiple airfoils. The major simplification used in this paper is that each airfoil is represented by a lumped vortex, which may hold true when the distances between vortices and bodies are large enough. It is found that the Kutta–Joukowski theorem still holds provided that the local freestream velocity and the circulation of the bound vortex are modified by the induced velocity due to the outside vortices and airfoils. We will demonstrate how to use the present result to identify the role of vortices on the forces according to their position, strength and rotation direction. Moreover, we will apply the present results to a two-cylinder example of Crowdy and the Wagner example to demonstrate how to perform fast force approximation for multi-body and multi-vortex problems. The lumped vortex assumption has the advantage of giving such kinds of approximate results which are very easy to use. The lack of accuracy for such a fast evaluation will be compensated by a rigorous extension, with the lumped vortex assumption removed and with vortex production included, in a forthcoming paper.

  7. Generalized Kutta-Joukowski theorem for multi-vortex and multi-airfoil flow (a lumped vortex model)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Chenyuan; Wu Ziniu

    2014-01-01

    For purpose of easy identification of the role of free vortices on the lift and drag and for purpose of fast or engineering evaluation of forces for each individual body, we will extend in this paper the Kutta-Joukowski (KJ) theorem to the case of inviscid flow with multiple free vortices and multiple airfoils. The major simplification used in this paper is that each airfoil is represented by a lumped vortex, which may hold true when the distances between vortices and bodies are large enough. It is found that the Kutta-Joukowski theorem still holds provided that the local freestream velocity and the circulation of the bound vortex are modified by the induced velocity due to the out-side vortices and airfoils. We will demonstrate how to use the present result to identify the role of vortices on the forces according to their position, strength and rotation direction. Moreover, we will apply the present results to a two-cylinder example of Crowdy and the Wagner example to demon-strate how to perform fast force approximation for multi-body and multi-vortex problems. The lumped vortex assumption has the advantage of giving such kinds of approximate results which are very easy to use. The lack of accuracy for such a fast evaluation will be compensated by a rig-orous extension, with the lumped vortex assumption removed and with vortex production included, in a forthcoming paper.

  8. MHD Flow and Heat Transfer of a Generalized Burgers’ Fluid Due to an Exponential Accelerating Plate with Effects of the Second Order Slip and Viscous Dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Hao-Jie; Bai, Yu

    2017-06-01

    In classical study on generalized viscoelastic fluid, the momentum equation was derived by considering the fractional constitutive model, while the energy equation was ignored its effect. This paper presents an investigation for the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow and heat transfer of an incompressible generalized Burgers’ fluid due to an exponential accelerating plate with the effect of the second order velocity slip. The energy equation and momentum equation are coupled by the fractional Burgers’ fluid constitutive model. Numerical solutions for velocity, temperature and shear stress are obtained using the modified implicit finite difference method combined with the G1-algorithm, whose validity is confirmed by the comparison with the analytical solution. Our results show that the influences of the fractional parameters α and β on the flow are opposite each other, which is just like the effects of the two parameters on the temperature. Moreover, the impact trends of the relaxation time λ 1 and retardation time λ 3 on the velocity are opposite each other. Increasing the boundary parameter will promote the temperature, but has little effect on the temperature boundary layer thickness. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundations of China under Grant Nos. 21576023, 51406008, and the National Key Research Program of China under Grant Nos. 2016YFC0700601, 2016YFC0700603, and 2016YFE0115500

  9. Quantum criticality in Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, Wen-Yu, E-mail: steve.wen@gmail.com [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Department of Physics and Center for Theoretical Sciences and Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Department of Physics, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung Li 32023, Taiwan (China)

    2012-02-01

    We investigate the quantum Lifshitz criticality in a general background of Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity. In particular, we demonstrate the existence of critical point with dynamic critical exponent z by tuning a nonminimal coupling to its critical value. We also study the effect of nonminimal coupling and exponent z to the Efimov states and holographic RG flow in the overcritical region. We have found that the nonminimal coupling increases the instability for a probe scalar to condensate and its back reaction is discussed. At last, we give a quantum mechanics treatment to a solvable system with z=2, and comment for generic z>2.

  10. 泥石流启动临界土体含水量及其预警应用%Critical Soil Moisture for Debris Flow Initiation and Its Application in Forecasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡凯衡; 马超

    2014-01-01

    传统的泥石流预警方法多基于前期和实时降雨量等间接指标,但实际上直接影响泥石流启动的关键物理参数是土体含水量,通过分析土体含水量的变化来判断泥石流启动更为直接可靠。首先定义了泥石流启动的临界土体含水量的概念,然后基于国内外泥石流启动的观测试验数据,采用逐步回归分析方法,建立了临界土体含水量与土体渗透系数、孔隙度和颗粒曲率系数的经验关系,进而提出一种基于临界土体含水量和实时降雨的泥石流预警方法。最后,以云南东川蒋家沟1999年7月16日发生的一场泥石流为实例进行演算和验证。结果表明:该方法在可靠性和准确性上优于传统利用临界线和暴发线判别泥石流的预测模型。%Most of traditional debris flow forecasting methods are based on indirect variables such as antecedent and real-time rainfalls.But the key factor influencing directly the debris flow initiation is soil moisture,which is more reliable for debris flow forecasting.Firstly,the concept of critical soil moisture for debris flow initiation was defined; secondly, based on the experimental and observation data of debris flow initiation at home and abroad,the empirical relationships between critical soil moisture and permeability coefficient,porosity,coefficient of paritcle curvature were obtained by the means of step-wise regression analysis;finally,the forcasting method for debris flow based on critical soil moisture and real-time rainfall was proposed.The method was tested and verified by the debris flow happened at Jiangjiagou of Dongchuan,Yunnan on 1 6 July,1 999.The results show that the reliability and accuracy of new forcasting method is better than the traditional forecast method for debris flow based on critical line and occurrence line.

  11. Fundamental equations for two-phase flow. Part 1: general conservation equations. Part 2: complement and remarks; Equations fondamentales des ecoulements diphasiques. Premiere partie: equations generales de conservation. Deuxieme partie: complements et remarques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delhaye, J.M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, 38 - Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1968-12-01

    This report deals with the general equations of mass conservation, of momentum conservation, and energy conservation in the case of a two-phase flow. These equations are presented in several forms starting from integral equations which are assumed initially a priori. 1. Equations with local instantaneous variables, and interfacial conditions; 2. Equations with mean instantaneous variables in a cross-section, and practical applications: these equations include an important experimental value which is the ratio of the cross-section of passage of one phase to the total cross-section of a flow-tube. 3. Equations with a local statistical mean, and equations averaged over a period of time: A more advanced attempt to relate theory and experiment consists in taking the statistical averages of local equations. Equations are then obtained involving variables which are averaged over a period of time with the help of an ergodic assumption. 4. Combination of statistical averages and averages over a cross-section: in this study are considered the local variables averaged statistically, then averaged over the cross-section, and also the variables averaged over the section and then averaged statistically. 5. General equations concerning emulsions: In this case a phase exists in a locally very finely divided form. This peculiarity makes it possible to define a volume concentration, and to draw up equations which have numerous applications. - Certain points arising in the first part of this report concerning general mass conservation equations for two-phase flow have been completed and clarified. The terms corresponding to the interfacial tension have been introduced into the general equations. The interfacial conditions have thus been generalized. A supplementary step has still to be carried out: it has, in effect, been impossible to take the interfacial tension into account in the case of emulsions. It was then appeared interesting to compare this large group of fundamental

  12. Horizon as critical phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Sik

    2016-09-01

    We show that renormalization group flow can be viewed as a gradual wave function collapse, where a quantum state associated with the action of field theory evolves toward a final state that describes an IR fixed point. The process of collapse is described by the radial evolution in the dual holographic theory. If the theory is in the same phase as the assumed IR fixed point, the initial state is smoothly projected to the final state. If in a different phase, the initial state undergoes a phase transition which in turn gives rise to a horizon in the bulk geometry. We demonstrate the connection between critical behavior and horizon in an example, by deriving the bulk metrics that emerge in various phases of the U( N ) vector model in the large N limit based on the holographic dual constructed from quantum renormalization group. The gapped phase exhibits a geometry that smoothly ends at a finite proper distance in the radial direction. The geometric distance in the radial direction measures a complexity: the depth of renormalization group transformation that is needed to project the generally entangled UV state to a direct product state in the IR. For gapless states, entanglement persistently spreads out to larger length scales, and the initial state can not be projected to the direct product state. The obstruction to smooth projection at charge neutral point manifests itself as the long throat in the anti-de Sitter space. The Poincare horizon at infinity marks the critical point which exhibits a divergent length scale in the spread of entanglement. For the gapless states with non-zero chemical potential, the bulk space becomes the Lifshitz geometry with the dynamical critical exponent two. The identification of horizon as critical point may provide an explanation for the universality of horizon. We also discuss the structure of the bulk tensor network that emerges from the quantum renormalization group.

  13. Stochastic equations, flows and measure-valued processes

    CERN Document Server

    Dawson, Donald A

    2010-01-01

    We first prove some general results on pathwise uniqueness, comparison property and existence of non-negative strong solutions of stochastic equations driven by white noises and Poisson random measures. The results are then used to prove the strong existence of two classes of stochastic flows associated with coalescents with multiple collisions, that is, generalized Fleming-Viot flows and flows of continuous-state branching processes with immigration. One of them unifies the different treatments of three kinds of flows in Bertoin and Le Gall (2005). Two scaling limit theorems for the generalized Fleming-Viot flows are proved, which lead to sub-critical branching immigration superprocesses. {From} those theorems we derive easily a generalization of the limit theorem for finite point motions of the flows in Bertoin and Le Gall (2006).

  14. Critical Thinking Activities and the Enhancement of Ethical Awareness: An Application of a "Rhetoric of Disruption" to the Undergraduate General Education Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how critical thinking activities and assignments can function to enhance students' ethical awareness and sense of civic responsibility. Employing Levinas's Other-centered theory of ethics, Burke's notion of "the paradox of substance", and Murray's concept of "a rhetoric of disruption", this article…

  15. Theoretical and experimental studies on critical heat flux in subcooled boiling and vertical flow geometry; Badania teoretyczne i eksperymentalne kryzysu wrzenia w warunkach wrzenia przechlodzonego w przeplywie w kanale pionowym

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staron, E. [Institute of Atomic Energy, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    1996-12-31

    Critical Heat Flux is a very important subject of interest due to design, operation and safety analysis of nuclear power plants. Every new design of the core must be thoroughly checked. Experimental studies have been performed using freon as a working fluid. The possibility of transferring of results into water equivalents has been proved. The experimental study covers vertical flow, annular geometry over a wide range of pressure, mass flow and temperature at inlet of test section. Theoretical models of Critical Heat Flux have been presented but only those which cover DNB. Computer programs allowing for numerical calculations using theoretical models have been developed. A validation of the theoretical models has been performed in accordance with experimental results. (author). 83 refs, 32 figs, 4 tabs.

  16. Multi-objective optimal reactive power dispatch to maximize power system social welfare in the presence of generalized unified power flow controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Chintalapudi Venkata

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a novel non-linear optimization problem is formulated to maximize the social welfare in restructured environment with generalized unified power flow controller (GUPFC. This paper presents a methodology to optimally allocate the reactive power by minimizing voltage deviation at load buses and total transmission power losses so as to maximize the social welfare. The conventional active power generation cost function is modified by combining costs of reactive power generated by the generators, shunt capacitors and total power losses to it. The formulated objectives are optimized individually and simultaneously as multi-objective optimization problem, while satisfying equality, in-equality, practical and device operational constraints. A new optimization method, based on two stage initialization and random distribution processes is proposed to test the effectiveness of the proposed approach on IEEE-30 bus system, and the detailed analysis is carried out.

  17. Solitons, Bäcklund transformation and Lax pair for a generalized variable-coefficient Boussinesq system in the two-layered fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xue-Hui; Tian, Bo; Chai, Jun; Wu, Yu-Xiao; Guo, Yong-Jiang

    2016-11-01

    Under investigation in this paper is a generalized variable-coefficient Boussinesq system, which describes the propagation of the shallow water waves in the two-layered fluid flow. Bilinear forms, Bäcklund transformation and Lax pair are derived by virtue of the Bell polynomials. Hirota method is applied to construct the one- and two-soliton solutions. Propagation and interaction of the solitons are illustrated graphically: kink- and bell-shape solitons are obtained; shapes of the solitons are affected by the variable coefficients α1, α3 and α4 during the propagation, kink- and anti-bell-shape solitons are obtained when α3 > 0, anti-kink- and bell-shape solitons are obtained when α3 < 0; Head-on interaction between the two bidirectional solitons, overtaking interaction between the two unidirectional solitons are presented; interactions between the two solitons are elastic.

  18. 电子电气产品如何引入生态设计%The General Flow of Integrating Eco-design in Electronic and Electrical Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈欢; 李翔; 陈泽勇

    2012-01-01

    在全球环保法规以及可持续发展的要求下,我国电子电气企业为避免出口损失,亟需将生态设计引入产品的研发。该文介绍了电子电气产品引入生态设计的一般流程,并提供生态设计策略供企业参考。%In the requirements of global environmental regulations and sustainable development,the electronic and electrical enterprise shall immediately integrate the eco-design into product development to avoid export losses.This paper introduced the general flow of integrating eco-design into the product research and development process and provided the eco-design strategy for enterprise reference.

  19. Rotating flow

    CERN Document Server

    Childs, Peter R N

    2010-01-01

    Rotating flow is critically important across a wide range of scientific, engineering and product applications, providing design and modeling capability for diverse products such as jet engines, pumps and vacuum cleaners, as well as geophysical flows. Developed over the course of 20 years' research into rotating fluids and associated heat transfer at the University of Sussex Thermo-Fluid Mechanics Research Centre (TFMRC), Rotating Flow is an indispensable reference and resource for all those working within the gas turbine and rotating machinery industries. Traditional fluid and flow dynamics

  20. High-flow nasal oxygen availability for sedation decreases the use of general anesthesia during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Roman; Natov, Nikola S; Rocuts-Martinez, Klifford A; Finkelman, Matthew D; Phan, Tom V; Hegde, Sanjay R; Knapp, Robert M

    2016-01-01

    AIM To examine whether high-flow nasal oxygen (HFNO) availability influences the use of general anesthesia (GA) in patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and associated outcomes. METHODS In this retrospective study, patients were stratified into 3 eras between October 1, 2013 and June 30, 2014 based on HFNO availability for deep sedation at the time of their endoscopy. During the first and last 3-mo eras (era 1 and 3), no HFNO was available, whereas it was an option during the second 3-mo era (era 2). The primary outcome was the percent utilization of GA vs deep sedation in each period. Secondary outcomes included oxygen saturation nadir during sedation between periods, as well as procedure duration, and anesthesia-only time between periods and for GA vs sedation cases respectively. RESULTS During the study period 238 ERCP or EUS cases were identified for analysis. Statistical testing was employed and a P sedation was significantly higher in era 2 compared to era 3 (P sedation (P ≤ 0.007) as was the anesthesia-only time (P ≤ 0.001). CONCLUSION High-flow nasal oxygen availability was associated with decreased GA utilization and improved oxygenation for ERCP and EUS during sedation. PMID:28058020

  1. BiSpectral Index (BIS monitoring may detect critical hypotension before automated non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP measurement during general anaesthesia; a case report. [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2oi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew M. J. Smith

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient undergoing general anaesthesia for neurosurgery exhibited an unexpected sudden decrease in the BiSpectral Index (BIS value to near-zero. This prompted the detection of profound hypotension using non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP measurement and expedited urgent assessment and treatment, with the patient making a full recovery. Widely regarded as a ‘depth of anaesthesia’ monitor, this case demonstrates the potential extra clinical benefit BIS may have in the detection of critical incidents such as anaphylaxis during general anaesthesia.

  2. A comparative study of Atangana-Baleanu and Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivatives to the convective flow of a generalized Casson fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Nadeem Ahmad; Ali, Farhad; Saqib, Muhammad; Khan, Ilyas; Jan, Syed Aftab Alam

    2017-01-01

    Based on exponential kernel, Caputo and Fabrizio suggested a new definition for fractional order derivatives in 2015. Recently, in 2016, Atangana and Baleanu proposed another version of fractional derivatives, which uses the generalized Mittag-Leffler function as the non-singular and non-local kernel. Moreover, the Atangana-Balaenu (AB) version has all properties of fractional derivatives. Therefore, this articles aims to use the AB fractional derivative idea for the first time to study the free convection flow of a generalized Casson fluid due to the combined gradients of temperature and concentration. Hence, heat and mass transfer are considered together. For the sake of comparison, this problem is also solved via the Caputo-Fabrizio (CF) derivatives technique. Exact solutions in both cases (AB and CF derivatives) are obtained via the Laplace transform and compared graphically as well as in tabular form. In the case of AB approach, the influence of pertinent parameters on velocity field is displayed in plots and discussed. It is found that for unit time, the velocities obtained via AB and CF derivatives are identical. Velocities for time less than 1 show little variation and, for time higher than 1, this variation increases.

  3. An Identification Model for Self-organized Criticality of Power Grids Based on Power Flow Entropy%基于潮流嫡的复杂电网自组织临界态判断模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹一家; 王光增; 曹丽华; 丁理杰

    2011-01-01

    为研究复杂电网大停电的发生机理,同时找出影响大停电发生的关健因素,文中基于嫡理论提出了电网的潮流熵概念,用以定量描述线路潮流分布的不均衡性.基于潮流墒提出了复杂电网自组织临界态判断模型.对IEEE 118节点系统的仿真结果表明,潮流嫡对电网连锁故障的传播具有重要影响,是决定系统是否进入自组织临界态的重要因素.使用该判断模型分析了IEEE 118节点系统在给定的平均负载率下进入自组织临界态时的潮流墒.潮流熵较好地解释了实际电网在平均负载率较低时由于线路潮流分布的高度不均衡性而进入自组织临界态的现象.%To study how large-scale blackouts take place and find out the key factors affecting the spread of cascading failures, based on the entropy theory, a new concept of power flow entropy is proposed to quantify the unevenness extent of the power flow, and an identification model for self-organized criticality of power grids is proposed based on the power flow entropy. Simulation results on the IEEE 118-bus system indicate that the power flow entropy has important influence on the spread of cascading failures, and is one of the key factors determining the power grid whether to evolve into its self-organized criticality. The value of power flow entropy of the IEEE 118-bus system is presented when the system reaches its self-organized criticalities at given load levels. The power flow entropy reasonably elucidates why practical power systems with low average load level can reach their self-organized criticalities.

  4. Forced flow He vapor cooled critical current testing facility for measurements of superconductors in a wide temperature and magnetic field range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskys, Algirdas; Hopkins, Simon C.; Bader, Jakob; Glowacki, Bartek A.

    2016-10-01

    As superconducting materials find their way into applications, there is increasing need to verify their performance at operating conditions. Testing of critical current with respect to temperature and magnetic field is of particular importance. However, testing facilities covering a range of temperatures and magnetic fields can be costly, especially when considering the cooling power required in the cryogenic system in the temperature range below 65 K (inaccessible for LN2). Critical currents in excess of 500 A are common for commercial samples, making the testing of such samples difficult in setups cooled via a cryocooler, moreover it often does not represent the actual cooling conditions that the sample will experience in service. This work reports the design and operation of a low-cost critical current testing facility, capable of testing samples in a temperature range of 10-65 K, with magnetic field up to 1.6 T and measuring critical currents up to 900 A with variable cooling power.

  5. The Correlation between Critical Thinking and General Self-efficacy of Medical Students%医学生批判性思维能力与一般自我效能感的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄蕾; 鲁娟; 梁韵琳; 黄宇佳; 赵旭东

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study explores the correlation between critical thinking and general self-efficacy among medical students, in a bid to seek measures for the improvement of their critical thinking ability. Methods:Multistage Stratified Cluster Sampling is employed as the sampling method and 1861 medical students are recruited in five different years of training, gathered from three different medical schools in China. Results: The mean CTDI-CV score of the total population of 1861 students is 285.16, which implies that these students have a positive disposition towards critical thinking as a whole. The five subscales also display positive disposition except"truth seeking" and "systematicity". The mean score of general self-efficacy scale is 25.9. Statistically significant differences are found between schools, years of school attended, gender and age (p<0.001). The second-year students get the highest CTDI-CV score, while the fifth-year students get the lowest score. In general, the critical thinking ability of medical students is on the decline with the increase in years of school attended. Students with positive critical thinking ability get higher score of general self-efficacy than those with negative critical thinking ability. Conclusion: A positive correlation is found between medical students' critical thinking ability and their general self-efficacy, which implies that medical students' critical thinking ability could be enhanced by improving their general self-efficacy.%以我国4所医学院校临床医学专业的学生为研究对象,采用按照年级分层抽样的方法,选取大一到大五年级的1861名医学生进行问卷调研。研究结果显示:医学生批判性思维能力总平均分为285.16分,整体表现为正性批判性思维,除寻找真相和系统化能力表现为负性外,其余维度均表现为正性;一般自我效能感总分平均为25.90分;不同学校、年级、性别和

  6. Network Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-01

    Researchers have suggested other solution strategies, using ideas from nonlinear progamming for solving this general separable convex cost flow problems. Some...plane methods and branch and bound procedures of integer programming, primal-dual methods of linear and nonlinear programming, and polyhedral methods...Combinatorial Optimization: Networks and Matroids), Bazaraa and Jarvis [1978] (Linear Programming and Network Flows), Minieka [1978] (Optimization Algorithms for

  7. Using the Flow-3D General Moving Object Model to Simulate Coupled Liquid Slosh - Container Dynamics on the SPHERES Slosh Experiment: Aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulman, Richard; Kirk, Daniel; Marsell, Brandon; Roth, Jacob; Schallhorn, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The SPHERES Slosh Experiment (SSE) is a free floating experimental platform developed for the acquisition of long duration liquid slosh data aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The data sets collected will be used to benchmark numerical models to aid in the design of rocket and spacecraft propulsion systems. Utilizing two SPHERES Satellites, the experiment will be moved through different maneuvers designed to induce liquid slosh in the experiment's internal tank. The SSE has a total of twenty-four thrusters to move the experiment. In order to design slosh generating maneuvers, a parametric study with three maneuvers types was conducted using the General Moving Object (GMO) model in Flow-30. The three types of maneuvers are a translation maneuver, a rotation maneuver and a combined rotation translation maneuver. The effectiveness of each maneuver to generate slosh is determined by the deviation of the experiment's trajectory as compared to a dry mass trajectory. To fully capture the effect of liquid re-distribution on experiment trajectory, each thruster is modeled as an independent force point in the Flow-3D simulation. This is accomplished by modifying the total number of independent forces in the GMO model from the standard five to twenty-four. Results demonstrate that the most effective slosh generating maneuvers for all motions occurs when SSE thrusters are producing the highest changes in SSE acceleration. The results also demonstrate that several centimeters of trajectory deviation between the dry and slosh cases occur during the maneuvers; while these deviations seem small, they are measureable by SSE instrumentation.

  8. Streamline topology of axisymmetric flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Morten

    Topological fluid mechanics in the sense of the present paper is the study and classification of flow patterns close to a critical point. Here we discuss the topology of steady viscous incompressible axisymmetric flows in the vicinity of the axis. Following previous studies the velocity field $v......$ is expanded in a Taylor series at a point on the axis, and the expansion coefficients are considered as bifurcation parameters. After a normal form transformation we easily obtain the most common bifurcations of the flow patterns. The use of non-linear normal forms provide a gross simplification, which...... to the authors knowledge has not been used systematically to high orders in topological fluid mechanics. We compare the general results with experimental and computational results on the Vogel-Ronneberg flow. We show that the topology changes observed when recirculating bubbles on the vortex axis are created...

  9. Analysis on the critical rainfall for the outbreak of debris flow in Southeast mountain area of Zhejiang province%浙东南山丘区泥石流爆发的临界雨量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王一鸣; 袁民豪; 殷坤龙; 龚新法

    2011-01-01

    In the first place,studied the formation conditions(material sources,topography and precipitation conditions) of debris flow in southeast mountain areas of ZheJiang Province.Secondly,studied the basic characteristics of debris flow in this area:the generation type is mainly in the soil-power-based(in the vallay slope and the souce zone of the ditch) start-up mode;in erosion characteristics,there is surface erosion effect and gully erosion effect;in accumulation characteristics,taken at the macro,there can be alluvial fan when the scale is large enough,the debris flow always accumulate at the middle-lower channel when the scale isn't very large;taken at the micro,the piling up material structure is always mixed disorderly,the piling up material can be of different stages individualy.Finally,the prediction method of debris flow in this area was discussed.In prediction ideas,it is considered that the forcasting on the base of the critical rainfall combination in the region is more reasonable.Using the rainfall data of four group debris flow events in the region to determine the critical rainfall combination of the outbreak of debris flow,then the critical rainfall combination is used in forcasting debris flow in the region,it contains: ①collect the real-time rainfall data;②draw the real-time rainfall combination curve;③debris flow disaster waining;④validator and correction of the critical rainfall combination of the outbreak of debris flow.%首先对浙东南山区泥石流的形成条件(物源、地形和降水条件)进行了研究。随后研究了本区泥石流的基本特征:在形成方式上,以谷坡或沟源地带的土动力启动方式为主;在侵蚀特征方面,主要有面蚀作用和沟谷侵蚀作用;堆积特征方面,在宏观上当规模较大时可形成堆积扇,规模较小时往往以停积于中下游沟道为主;微观上,主要表现为堆积物质结构杂乱,个别具有期次性。对本区泥石流临界雨

  10. General design method for 3-dimensional, potential flow fields. Part 2: Computer program DIN3D1 for simple, unbranched ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanitz, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    The general design method for three-dimensional, potential, incompressible or subsonic-compressible flow developed in part 1 of this report is applied to the design of simple, unbranched ducts. A computer program, DIN3D1, is developed and five numerical examples are presented: a nozzle, two elbows, an S-duct, and the preliminary design of a side inlet for turbomachines. The two major inputs to the program are the upstream boundary shape and the lateral velocity distribution on the duct wall. As a result of these inputs, boundary conditions are overprescribed and the problem is ill posed. However, it appears that there are degrees of compatibility between these two major inputs and that, for reasonably compatible inputs, satisfactory solutions can be obtained. By not prescribing the shape of the upstream boundary, the problem presumably becomes well posed, but it is not clear how to formulate a practical design method under this circumstance. Nor does it appear desirable, because the designer usually needs to retain control over the upstream (or downstream) boundary shape. The problem is further complicated by the fact that, unlike the two-dimensional case, and irrespective of the upstream boundary shape, some prescribed lateral velocity distributions do not have proper solutions.

  11. Viscous flows the practical use of theory

    CERN Document Server

    Brenner, Howard

    1988-01-01

    Representing a unique approach to the study of fluid flows, Viscous Flows demonstrates the utility of theoretical concepts and solutions for interpreting and predicting fluid flow in practical applications. By critically comparing all relevant classes of theoretical solutions with experimental data and/or general numerical solutions, it focuses on the range of validity of theoretical expressions rather than on their intrinsic character.This book features extensive use of dimensional analysis on both models and variables, and extensive development of theoretically based correlating equations.

  12. The fluid flow consequences of CO2 migration from 1000 to 600 metres upon passing the critical conditions of CO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, L.G.H.; Hofstee, C.; Orlic, B.

    2009-01-01

    The minimum injection depth for the storage of CO2 is normally set at 800 metres. At and beyond this depth in the subsurface conditions exist where CO2 is in a so-called critical state. The supercritical CO2 has a viscosity comparable to that of a normal gas and a liquid-like density, Due to the hig

  13. The fluid flow consequences of CO2 migration from 1000 to 600 metres upon passing the critical conditions of CO2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, L.G.H.; Hofstee, C.; Orlic, B.

    2009-01-01

    The minimum injection depth for the storage of CO2 is normally set at 800 metres. At and beyond this depth in the subsurface conditions exist where CO2 is in a so-called critical state. The supercritical CO2 has a viscosity comparable to that of a normal gas and a liquid-like density, Due to the

  14. Heat transfer and critical heat flux in a asymmetrically heated tube helicoidal flow; Transfert thermique et flux critique dans un ecoulement helicoidal en tube chauffe asymetriquement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boscary, J.

    1995-10-01

    The design of plasma facing components is crucial for plasma performance in next fusion reactors. These elements will be submitted to very high heat flux. They will be actively water-cooled by swirl tubes in the subcooled boiling regime. High heat flux experiments were conducted in order to analyse the heat transfer and to evaluate the critical heat flux. Water-cooled mock-ups were one-side heated by an electron beam gun for different thermal-hydraulic conditions. The critical heat flux was detected by an original method based on the isotherm modification on the heated surface. The wall heat transfer law including forced convection and subcooled boiling regimes was established. Numerical calculations of the material heat transfer conduction allowed the non-homogeneous distribution of the wall temperature and of the wall heat flux to be evaluated. The critical heat flux value was defined as the wall maximum heat flux. A critical heat flux model based on the liquid sublayer dryout under a vapor blanket was established. A good agreement with test results was found. (author). 198 refs., 126 figs., 21 tabs.

  15. Heat transfer and critical heat flux in a spiral flow in an asymmetrical heated tube; Transfert thermique et flux critique dans un ecoulement helicoidal en tube chauffe asymetriquement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boscary, J. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Direction des Sciences de la Matiere]|[Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee

    1997-03-01

    The design of plasma facing components is crucial for plasma performance in next fusion reactors. These elements will be submitted to very high heat flux. They will be actively water-cooled by swirl tubes in the subcooled boiling regime. High heat flux experiments were conducted in order to analyse the heat transfer and to evaluate the critical heat flux. Water-cooled mock-ups were one-side heated by an electron beam gun for different thermal-hydraulic conditions. The critical heat flux was detected by an original method based on the isotherm modification on the heated surface. The wall heat transfer law including forced convection and subcooled boiling regimes was established. Numerical calculations of the material heat transfer conduction allowed the non-homogeneous distribution of the wall temperature and of the wall heat flux to be evaluated. The critical heat flux value was defined as the wall maximum heat flux. A critical heat flux model based on the liquid sublayer dryout under a vapor blanket was established. A good agreement with test results was found. (author) 197 refs.

  16. Critical mass flux for flaming ignition of dead, dry wood as a function of external radiant heat flux and oxidizer flow velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sara McAllister; Mark Finney; Jack Cohen

    2010-01-01

    Extreme weather often contributes to crown fires, where the fire spreads from one tree crown to the next as a series of piloted ignitions. An important aspect in predicting crown fires is understanding the ignition of fuel particles. The ignition criterion considered in this work is the critical mass flux criterion – that a sufficient amount of pyrolysis gases must be...

  17. Going against the flow: a critical analysis of inter-state virtual water trade in the context of India’s National River Linking Program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verma, Shilp; Kampman, Doeke A.; Zaag, van der Pieter; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2009-01-01

    Virtual water trade has been promoted as a tool to address national and regional water scarcity. In the context of international (food) trade, this concept has been applied with a view to optimize the flow of commodities considering the water endowments of nations. The concept states that water rich

  18. 基于自适应临界状态的交通流运营安全评价%Safety Audit of Traffic Flows Based on Self-adjustable Critical State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋锐; 郭忠印; 孔令旗

    2011-01-01

    考虑实际交通流中车辆驾驶员的主观能动性,改进交通冲突技术机械式假设的不足,提出交通流自适应临界状态概念.构建车速差、减速度差和行程时间差等3个模型,量化交通流运营状态的自适应“能力”.以安全车头时距和实际车头时距的差值,评价实时交通流运营安全性.通过实验分析,结果表明基于自适应临界状态的运营风险与历史事故数之间存在良好的相关性.%Considering characteristic of driver subjective in real traffic flows, self-adjustable critical state is put forward firstly conquering mechanical-hypothesis weakness of traffic conflict. Based on differences of speed/deceleration/travel time, analysis models are found to appraise ability of self-adjustable traffic flows. In according to discrepancy between safety headway and realistic headway, traffic flow risk index is introduced to audit real-time traffic safety. Experiment results showed that the relation between traffic flow risk and historical accidents is well.

  19. Flow and Flow Decay of Refractory Castables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhiqiang; Bjom Myhre; Bjorn Sandberg

    2003-01-01

    Installation of refractoty castables depend not only on flow, but also on how soon the flow is lost because of setting. The loss of flow (flow decay) has always been one of the main problems of refractory castable manufacturers,a problem that has not been too well described in literature. The flow decay has been studied for a castable system based on alumina, pointing out some general trends. The flow decay was found very temperature sensitive, being strongly accelerated by termperature increases. To compensate for excessive flow loss, a retarder like citric acid may be used. Thus flow decay was measured as a function of citric acid (retarder) addition at 35 ℃ .

  20. Critical rainfall characteristics for rainfall-induced debris flows in Wenchuan earthquake affected areas%汶川震区暴雨泥石流激发雨量特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周伟; 唐川; 周春花

    2012-01-01

    利用搜集的汶川震区典型泥石流暴发前后的降雨过程资料,分析了泥石流的激发雨量过程,获得了汶川震区的泥石流激发雨量特征,以期为泥石流的预测预报提供依据.结果表明,汶川地震区的泥石流激发雨型可分为快速激发型、中速激发型和慢速激发型3类,其差异主要体现在降雨的持续时间和强度方面.不同激发雨型下的泥石流形成过程的差别主要体现在松散土体饱和过程.雨型的差异(降雨的持续时间和强度)使得土体饱和产生超渗产流的时间出现差异,进而使得泥石流暴发的时间存在差异.激发雨强跟激发雨型存在一定的关系,激发雨强最大者为中速激发雨型,其次是慢速激发雨型,最小者为快速激发雨型.与地震之前相比,地震后的泥石流暴发时的累积雨量和临界雨量都有所降低.%The rainfall data before and after the occurrence of the debris flow event in Wenchuan earthquake affected area are collected and analyzed in order to better understand the critical rainfall characteristics for rainfall-induced debris flows. The study can provide the scientific base for the establishment of an advance warning system for debris flows. The results show that the critical rainfall pattern for the debris flow event during the earthquake can be classified into three types including the rapid triggering response pattern, the intermediate triggering response pattern, and the slow triggering response pattern. The main differences among the three patterns are in the duration and intensity of rainfall, which can result in different saturation mechanisms in loose zones for debris flow initiation. The timing of the occurrence of infiltration excess runoff is different for different rainfall patterns, and so do the triggered debris flows. Critical rainfall intensities could be related to critical rainfall patterns. For example, the intermediate triggering response pattern can be associated

  1. Subsurface Transport Over Reactive Multiphases (STORM): A general, coupled, nonisothermal multiphase flow, reactive transport, and porous medium alteration simulator, Version 2 user's guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DH Bacon; MD White; BP McGrail

    2000-03-07

    The Hanford Site, in southeastern Washington State, has been used extensively to produce nuclear materials for the US strategic defense arsenal by the Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors, the US Atomic Energy Commission and the US Energy Research and Development Administration. A large inventory of radioactive and mixed waste has accumulated in 177 buried single- and double shell tanks. Liquid waste recovered from the tanks will be pretreated to separate the low-activity fraction from the high-level and transuranic wastes. Vitrification is the leading option for immobilization of these wastes, expected to produce approximately 550,000 metric tons of Low Activity Waste (LAW) glass. This total tonnage, based on nominal Na{sub 2}O oxide loading of 20% by weight, is destined for disposal in a near-surface facility. Before disposal of the immobilized waste can proceed, the DOE must approve a performance assessment, a document that described the impacts, if any, of the disposal facility on public health and environmental resources. Studies have shown that release rates of radionuclides from the glass waste form by reaction with water determine the impacts of the disposal action more than any other independent parameter. This report describes the latest accomplishments in the development of a computational tool, Subsurface Transport Over Reactive Multiphases (STORM), Version 2, a general, coupled non-isothermal multiphase flow and reactive transport simulator. The underlying mathematics in STORM describe the rate of change of the solute concentrations of pore water in a variably saturated, non-isothermal porous medium, and the alteration of waste forms, packaging materials, backfill, and host rocks.

  2. Thinking Critically about Critical Thinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulnix, Jennifer Wilson

    2012-01-01

    As a philosophy professor, one of my central goals is to teach students to think critically. However, one difficulty with determining whether critical thinking can be taught, or even measured, is that there is widespread disagreement over what critical thinking actually is. Here, I reflect on several conceptions of critical thinking, subjecting…

  3. A TRUST REGION ALGORITHM VIA BILEVEL LINEAR PROGRAMMING FOR SOLVING THE GENERAL MULTICOMMODITY MINIMAL COST FLOW PROBLEMS%双水平线性规划的信赖域算法解广义多品种最小费用流问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱德通

    2004-01-01

    This paper proposes a nonmonotonic backtracking trust region algorithm via bilevel linear programming for solving the general multicommodity minimal cost flow problems. Using the duality theory of the linear programming and convex theory, the generalized directional derivative of the general multicommodity minimal cost flow problems is derived. The global convergence and superlinear convergence rate of the proposed algorithm are established under some mild conditions.

  4. Critical heat flux thermodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collado, F.J. E-mail: fjk@posta.unizar.es

    2002-11-01

    Convective boiling in subcooled water flowing through a heated channel is essential in many engineering applications where high heat flux need to be accommodated, such as in the divertor plates of fusion reactors. There are many available correlations for predicting heat transfer in the individual regimes of the empirical Nukiyama boiling curve, although unfortunately there is no physical fundamentals of such curve. Recently, the author has shown that the classical entropy balance could contain key information about boiling heat transfer. So, it was found that the average thermal gap in the heated channel (the wall temperature minus the average temperature of the coolant fluid) was strongly correlated with the efficiency of a theoretical reversible engine placed in this thermal gap. In this work and from the new proposed correlation, a new expression of the wall temperature in function of the average fluid temperature is derived and successfully checked against experimental data from General Electric. This expression suggests a new and simple definition of the critical heat flux (CHF), a key parameter of the thermal-hydraulic design of fusion reactors. Finally, based on the new definition, the CHF trends are commented.

  5. Noninvasive sensors in critical care medicine: near-infrared spectroscopy for the detection of altered microvascular blood flow in severe sepsis and septic shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, J. Matthias; Soller, Babs; Soyemi, Olusola; Yang, Ye; Landry, Michelle; Heard, Stephen O.

    2006-10-01

    It is estimated that 750,000 cases of severe sepsis occur in the United States annually, at least 225,000 of which are fatal, resulting in significant utilization of healthcare resources and expenses. Significant progress in the understanding of pathophysiology and treatment of this condition has been made lately. Among the newer treatment strategies for critically ill patients are the administration of early goal directed therapy, and Recombinant Human Activated Protein C (Drotrecogrin alfa (activated) [DTAA]) for severe sepsis. However, mortality remains unacceptably high.

  6. Uncertainties on the definition of critical rainfall patterns for debris-flows triggering. Results from the Rebaixader monitoring site (Central Pyrenees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hürlimann, Marcel; Abancó, Clàudia; Moya, Jose; Berenguer, Marc

    2015-04-01

    Empirical rainfall thresholds are a widespread technique in debris-flow hazard assessment and can be established by statistical analysis of historic data. Typically, data from one or several rain gauges located nearby the affected catchment is used to define the triggering conditions. However, this procedure has been demonstrated not to be accurate enough due to the spatial variability of convective rainstorms. In 2009, a monitoring system was installed in the Rebaixader catchment, Central Pyrenees (Spain). Since then, 28 torrential flows (debris flows and debris floods) have occurred and rainfall data of 25 of them are available with a 5-minutes frequency of recording ("event rainfalls"). Other 142 rainfalls that did not trigger events ("no event rainfalls) were also collected and analysed. The goal of this work was threefold: a) characterize rainfall episodes in the Rebaixader catchment and compare rainfall data that triggered torrential events and others that did not; b) define and test Intensity-Duration (ID) thresholds using rainfall data measured inside the catchment; c) estimate the uncertainty derived from the use of rain gauges located outside the catchment based on the spatial correlation depicted by radar rainfall maps. The results of the statistical analysis showed that the parameters that more distinguish between the two populations of rainfalls are the rainfall intensities, the mean rainfall and the total precipitation. On the other side, the storm duration and the antecedent rainfall are not significantly different between "event rainfalls" and "no event rainfalls". Four different ID rainfall thresholds were derived based on the dataset of the first 5 years and tested using the 2014 dataset. The results of the test indicated that the threshold corresponding to the 90% percentile showed the best performance. Weather radar data was used to analyse the spatial variability of the triggering rainfalls. The analysis indicates that rain gauges outside the

  7. Implementation of leak detection techniques in ducts with critical regimen multiphase flow; Implementacao de tecnicas de deteccao de vazamentos em dutos em regime de escoamento multifasico critico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Rodrigo S.; Maitelli, Andr L.; Doria Neto, Adriao D.; Salazar, Andres O. [Rio Grande do Norte Univ., Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    This paper presents signals processing techniques and artificial neural networks to identify leaks in multiphase flow pipeline. The greatest difficulty on traditional methods of leak detection (volume balance, pressure point analysis, etc) is that they are insufficient to design an adequate profile for the real conditions of oil pipeline transport. These difficult conditions goes since unevenly soil, that cause columns or vacuum throughout pipelines, until the presence of multi phases like water, gas and oil; plus other components as sand, which use to produce discontinuous flow off and diverse variations. To attenuate these difficulties, the transform wavelet was used to map the signal pressure in different resolution plan allowing the extraction of descriptors that identify leaks patterns and with then to provide training for the neural network multilayer perceptron (MLP) to learning of how to classify this pattern and report whenever this characterize leaks. During the tests were used transient and regime signals and pipelines with punctures with size variations from 1/2'' to 1'' of diameter to simulate leaks and, this way, it was possible to detect leaks with a time window of two minutes. The result show that the proposed descriptors considered, based in statistical methods applied in domain transform, are sufficient to identify leaks patterns and make it possible to train the neural classifier to indicate the occurrence of pipeline leaks. (author)

  8. Critical Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critical care helps people with life-threatening injuries and illnesses. It might treat problems such as complications ... a team of specially-trained health care providers. Critical care usually takes place in an intensive care ...

  9. Archetypal Criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesebro, James W.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Argues that archetypal criticism is a useful way of examining universal, historical, and cross-cultural symbols in classrooms. Identifies essential features of an archetype; outlines operational and critical procedures; illustrates archetypal criticism as applied to the cross as a symbol; and provides a synoptic placement for archetypal criticism…

  10. New Advances In Multiphase Flow Numerical Modelling Using A General Domain Decomposition and Non-orthogonal Collocated Finite Volume Algorithm: Application To Industrial Fluid Catalytical Cracking Process and Large Scale Geophysical Fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, R.; Gonzalez Ortiz, A.

    In the industry as well as in the geophysical community, multiphase flows are mod- elled using a finite volume approach and a multicorrector algorithm in time in order to determine implicitly the pressures, velocities and volume fractions for each phase. Pressures, and velocities are generally determined at mid-half mesh step from each other following the staggered grid approach. This ensures stability and prevents os- cillations in pressure. It allows to treat almost all the Reynolds number ranges for all speeds and viscosities. The disadvantages appear when we want to treat more complex geometries or if a generalized curvilinear formulation of the conservation equations is considered. Too many interpolations have to be done and accuracy is then lost. In order to overcome these problems, we use here a similar algorithm in time and a Rhie and Chow interpolation (1983) of the collocated variables and essentially the velocities at the interface. The Rhie and Chow interpolation of the velocities at the finite volume interfaces allows to have no oscillatons of the pressure without checkerboard effects and to stabilize all the algorithm. In a first predictor step, fluxes at the interfaces of the finite volumes are then computed using 2nd and 3rd order shock capturing schemes of MUSCL/TVD or Van Leer type, and the orthogonal stress components are treated implicitly while cross viscous/diffusion terms are treated explicitly. A pentadiagonal system in 2D or a septadiagonal in 3D must be solve but here we have chosen to solve 3 tridiagonal linear systems (the so called Alternate Direction Implicit algorithm), one in each spatial direction, to reduce the cost of computation. Then a multi-correction of interpolated velocities, pressures and volumic fractions of each phase are done in the cartesian frame or the deformed local curvilinear coordinate system till convergence and mass conservation. At the end the energy conservation equations are solved. In all this process the

  11. Scattering of gravity waves in subcritical flows over an obstacle

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, Scott; Parentani, Renaud

    2016-01-01

    We numerically study the scattering coefficients of linear water waves on stationary flows above a localized obstacle. We compare the scattering on trans- and subcritical flows, and then focus on the latter which have been used in recent analog gravity experiments. The main difference concerns the magnitude of the mode amplification: whereas transcritical flows display a large amplification (which is generally in good agreement with the Hawking prediction), this effect is heavily suppressed in subcritical flows. This is due to the transmission across the obstacle for frequencies less than some critical value. As a result, subcritical flows display high- and low-frequency behaviors separated by a narrow band around the critical frequency. In the low-frequency regime, transmission of long wavelengths is accompanied by non-adiabatic scattering into short wavelengths, whose spectrum is approximately linear in frequency. By contrast, in the high-frequency regime, no simple description seems to exist. In particular...

  12. How Critical Is Critical Thinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Ryan D.

    2014-01-01

    Recent educational discourse is full of references to the value of critical thinking as a 21st-century skill. In music education, critical thinking has been discussed in relation to problem solving and music listening, and some researchers suggest that training in critical thinking can improve students' responses to music. But what exactly is…

  13. Elution Is a Critical Step for Recovering Human Adenovirus 40 from Tap Water and Surface Water by Cross-Flow Ultrafiltration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hang; Xagoraraki, Irene; Bruening, Merlin L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper examines the recovery of the enteric adenovirus human adenovirus 40 (HAdV 40) by cross-flow ultrafiltration and interprets recovery values in terms of physicochemical interactions of virions during sample concentration. Prior to ultrafiltration, membranes were either blocked by exposure to calf serum (CS) or coated with a polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM). HAdV 40 is a hydrophobic virus with a point of zero charge between pH 4.0 and pH 4.3. In accordance with predictions from the extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek theory, the preelution recovery of HAdV (rpre) from deionized water was higher with PEM-coated membranes (rprePEM = 74.8% ± 9.7%) than with CS-blocked membranes (rpreCS = 54.1% ± 6.2%). With either membrane type, the total virion recovery after elution (rpost) was high for both deionized water (rpostPEM = 99.5% ± 6.6% and rpostCS = 98.8% ± 7.7%) and tap water (rpostPEM = 89% ± 15% and rpostCS = 93.7% ± 6.9%). The nearly 100% recoveries suggest that the polyanion (sodium polyphosphate) and surfactant (Tween 80) in the eluent disrupt electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions between the virion and the membrane. Addition of EDTA to the eluent greatly improved the elution efficacy (rpostCS = 88.6% ± 4.3% and rpostPEM = 87.0% ± 6.9%) with surface water, even when the organic carbon concentration in the water was high (9.4 ± 0.1 mg/liter). EDTA likely disrupts cation bridging between virions and particles in the feed water matrix or the fouling layer on the membrane surface. For complex water matrices, the eluent composition is the most important factor for achieving high virion recovery. IMPORTANCE Herein we present the results of a comprehensive physicochemical characterization of HAdV 40, an important human pathogen. The data on HAdV 40 surface properties enabled rigorous modeling to gain an understanding of the energetics of virion-virion and virion-filter interactions. Cross-flow filtration for concentration and recovery

  14. An atmospheric pressure flow reactor: Gas phase kinetics and mechanism in tropospheric conditions without wall effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koontz, Steven L.; Davis, Dennis D.; Hansen, Merrill

    1988-01-01

    A new type of gas phase flow reactor, designed to permit the study of gas phase reactions near 1 atm of pressure, is described. A general solution to the flow/diffusion/reaction equations describing reactor performance under pseudo-first-order kinetic conditions is presented along with a discussion of critical reactor parameters and reactor limitations. The results of numerical simulations of the reactions of ozone with monomethylhydrazine and hydrazine are discussed, and performance data from a prototype flow reactor are presented.

  15. Critical Jostling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pippin Barr

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Games can serve a critical function in many different ways, from serious games about real world subjects to self-reflexive commentaries on the nature of games themselves. In this essay we discuss critical possibilities stemming from the area of critical design, and more specifically Carl DiSalvo’s adversarial design and its concept of reconfiguring the remainder. To illustrate such an approach, we present the design and outcomes of two games, Jostle Bastard and Jostle Parent. We show how the games specifically engage with two previous games, Hotline Miami and Octodad: Dadliest Catch, reconfiguring elements of those games to create interactive critical experiences and extensions of the source material. Through the presentation of specific design concerns and decisions, we provide a grounded illustration of a particular critical function of videogames and hope to highlight this form as another valuable approach in the larger area of videogame criticism.

  16. Fast Transition between High-soft and Low-soft States in GRS 1915 + 105: Evidence for a Critically Viscous Accretion Flow

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S. Naik; A. R. Rao; Sandip K. Chakrabarti

    2002-09-01

    We present the results of a detailed analysis of RXTE observations of class (Klein-Wolt et al. 2002) which show an unusual state transition between high-soft and low-soft states in the Galactic microquasar GRS 1915+105. Out of about 600 pointed RXTE observations, the source was found to exhibit such state transition only on 16 occasions. An examination of the RXTE/ASM data in conjunction with the pointed observations reveals that these events appeared as a series of quasi-regular dips in two stretches of long duration (about 20 days during each occasion) when hard X-ray and radio flux were very low. The X-ray light curve and colour-colour diagram of the source during these observations are found to be different from any reported so far. The duration of these dips is found to be of the order of a few tens of seconds with a repetition time of a few hundred seconds. The transition between these dips and non-dips which differ in intensity by a factor of ∼ 3.5, is observed to be very fast (∼ a few seconds). It is observed that the low-frequency narrow QPOs are absent in the power density spectrum (PDS) of the dip and non-dip regions of class and the PDS is a power law in the 0.1 – 10 Hz frequency range. There is a remarkable similarity in the spectral and timing properties of the source during the dip and non-dip regions in this set of observations. These properties of the source are distinctly different from those seen in the observations of other classes. This indicates that the basic accretion disk structure during both dip and non-dip regions of class is similar, but differ only in intensity. To explain these observations, we invoke a model in which the viscosity is very close to critical viscosity and the shock wave is weak or absent.

  17. Multiphase flow through multilayers of thin porous media: General balance equations and constitutive relationships for a solid-gas-liquid three-phase system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, C.Z.; Hassanizadeh, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we propose a new approach to modeling multiphase flow and solute transport through a stack of thin porous layers. Currently, numerical simulation of thin layers involves discretization across the layer thickness. In our new approach, thin porous layers are treated as a bunch of two-dim

  18. Flow list and test results

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — These data accompany the manuscript 'Critical Review of Elementary Flows in LCA Data'. Each file presents a subgroup of the elementary flows (data used for analysis)...

  19. Nonlinear stability of non-stationary cross-flow vortices in compressible boundary layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajjar, J. S. B.

    1995-01-01

    The nonlinear evolution of long wavelength non-stationary cross-flow vortices in a compressible boundary layer is investigated and the work extends that of Gajjar (1994) to flows involving multiple critical layers. The basic flow profile considered in this paper is that appropriate for a fully three-dimensional boundary layer with O(1) Mach number and with wall heating or cooling. The governing equations for the evolution of the cross-flow vortex are obtained and some special cases are discussed. One special case includes linear theory where exact analytic expressions for the growth rate of the vortices are obtained. Another special case is a generalization of the Bassom & Gajjar (1988) results for neutral waves to compressible flows. The viscous correction to the growth rate is derived and it is shown how the unsteady nonlinear critical layer structure merges with that for a Haberman type of viscous critical layer.

  20. Critical proximity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay considers how written language frames visual objects. Drawing on Michel Foucault’s response to Raymond Roussel’s obsessive description, the essay proposes a model of criticism where description might press up against its objects. This critical closeness is then mapped across the conceptual art practice and art criticism of Ian Burn. Burn attends to the differences between seeing and reading, and considers the conditions which frame how we look at images, including how we look at, and through words. The essay goes on to consider Meaghan Morris’s writing on Lynn Silverman’s photographs. Both Morris and Burn offer an alternative to a parasitic model of criticism and enact a patient way of looking across and through visual landscapes.