Sample records for critical field study

  1. Final report for the field-reversed configuration power plant critical-issue scoping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santarius, John F.; Mogahed, Elsayed A.; Emmert, Gilbert A.; Khater, Hesham Y.; Nguyen, Canh N.; Ryzhkov, Sergei V.; Stubna, Michael D.; Steinhauer, Loren C.; Miley, George H.


    This report describes research in which a team from the Universities of Wisconsin, Washington, and Illinois performed a scoping study of critical issues for field-reversed configuration (FRC) power plants. The key tasks for this research were (1) systems analysis of deuterium-tritium (D-T) FRC fusion power plants, and (2) conceptual design of the blanket and shield module for an FRC fusion core.

  2. Field-Reversed Configuration Power Plant Critical-Issue Scoping Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santarius, J. F.; Mogahed, E. A.; Emmert, G. A.; Khater, H. Y.; Nguyen, C. N.; Ryzhkov, S. V.; Stubna, M. D.


    A team from the Universities of Wisconsin, Washington, and Illinois performed an engineering scoping study of critical issues for field-reversed configuration (FRC) power plants. The key tasks for this research were (1) systems analysis for deuterium-tritium (D-T) FRC fusion power plants, and (2) conceptual design of the blanket and shield module for an FRC fusion core. For the engineering conceptual design of the fusion core, the project team focused on intermediate-term technology. For example, one decision was to use steele structure. The FRC systems analysis led to a fusion power plant with attractive features including modest size, cylindrical symmetry, good thermal efficiency (52%), relatively easy maintenance, and a high ratio of electric power to fusion core mass, indicating that it would have favorable economics.

  3. Effects of mobile phone electromagnetic fields: critical evaluation of behavioral and neurophysiological studies. (United States)

    Kwon, Myoung Soo; Hämäläinen, Heikki


    For the last two decades, a large number of studies have investigated the effects of mobile phone radiation on the human brain and cognition using behavioral or neurophysiological measurements. This review evaluated previous findings with respect to study design and data analysis. Provocation studies found no evidence of subjective symptoms attributed to mobile phone radiation, suggesting psychological reasons for inducing such symptoms in hypersensitive people. Behavioral studies previously reported improved cognitive performance under exposure, but it was likely to have occurred by chance due to multiple comparisons. Recent behavioral studies and replication studies with more conservative statistics found no significant effects compared with original studies. Neurophysiological studies found no significant effects on cochlear and brainstem auditory processing, but only inconsistent results on spontaneous and evoked brain electrical activity. The inconsistent findings suggest possible false positives due to multiple comparisons and thus replication is needed. Other approaches such as brain hemodynamic response measurements are promising but the findings are few and not yet conclusive. Rigorous study design and data analysis considering multiple comparisons and effect size are required to reduce controversy in this important field of research. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Critical Digital Tourism Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Munar, Ana María


    This paper advocates the need for a critical and cross-disciplinary research agenda on the field of digital technologies and tourism. The changing virtual landscape of tourism has received increased attention by tourism scholars. However, contemporary studies on information technologies (IT......) are approached mostly from a business administration perspective and informed by conceptual frameworks developed in management and marketing. IT studies in tourism are still at a stage similar to the first advocacy phase of tourism research in general (Jafari, 1990) and are seldom inspired by relevant...... to studying digital socio-technical systems and virtual mediation in tourism. Critical Digital Tourism Studies opens a new cross-disciplinary field where the sociality of virtual tourism interactions is examined (entailing the study of structures, social rules, ideologies, power relations, sustainability...

  5. Superconductivity in Strong Magnetic Field (Greater Than Upper Critical Field)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessema, G.X.; Gamble, B.K.; Skove, M.J.; Lacerda, A.H.; Mielke, C.H.


    The National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, funded by the National Science Foundation and other US federal Agencies, has in recent years built a wide range of magnetic fields, DC 25 to 35 Tesla, short pulse 50 - 60 Tesla, and quasi-continuous 60 Tesla. Future plans are to push the frontiers to 45 Tesla DC and 70 to 100 Tesla pulse. This user facility, is open for national and international users, and creates an excellent tool for materials research (metals, semiconductors, superconductors, biological systems ..., etc). Here we present results of a systematic study of the upper critical field of a novel superconducting material which is considered a promising candidate for the search for superconductivity beyond H{sub c2} as proposed by several new theories. These theories predict that superconductors with low carrier density can reenter the superconducting phase beyond the conventional upper critical field H{sub c2}. This negates the conventional thinking that superconductivity and magnetic fields are antagonistic.

  6. Experimental study of the lower critical field in high-{Tc}-single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandstatter, C.; Boehmer, C. [Atominstitut der Oesterreichischen Univ., Wien (Austria); Weber, H.W.; Veal, B.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Materials Science Div.


    Employing SQUID magnetometry and novel measuring and evaluation techniques, precise information on the first penetration field can be obtained and used to extract H{sub cl}. Tl- and Bi-based as well as a series of oxygen deficient Y-123 high {Tc} superconducting single crystals were investigated (H{parallel}c). In all cases, H{sub cl} is smaller than previously reported and can be described by BCS-theory.

  7. Trace Metal Bioremediation: Assessment of Model Components from Laboratory and Field Studies to Identify Critical Variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Jaffe; Herschel Rabitz


    The objective of this project was to gain an insight into the modeling support needed for the understanding, design, and operation of trace metal/radionuclide bioremediation. To achieve this objective, a workshop was convened to discuss the elements such a model should contain. A ''protomodel'' was developed, based on the recommendations of the workshop, and was used to perform sensitivity analysis as well as some preliminary simulations in support for bioremediation test experiments at UMTRA sites. To simulate the numerous biogeochemical processes that will occur during the bioremediation of uranium contaminated aquifers, a time-dependent one-dimensional reactive transport model has been developed. The model consists of a set of coupled, steady state mass balance equations, accounting for advection, diffusion, dispersion, and a kinetic formulation of the transformations affecting an organic substrate, electron acceptors, corresponding reduced species, and uranium. This set of equations is solved numerically, using a finite element scheme. The redox conditions of the domain are characterized by estimating the pE, based on the concentrations of the dominant terminal electron acceptor and its corresponding reduced specie. This pE and the concentrations of relevant species are passed to a modified version of MINTEQA2, which calculates the speciation and solubilities of the species of interest. Kinetics of abiotic reactions are described as being proportional to the difference between the actual and equilibrium concentration. A global uncertainty assessment, determined by Random Sampling High Dimensional Model Representation (RS-HDMR), was performed to attain a phenomenological understanding of the origins of output variability and to suggest input parameter refinements as well as to provide guidance for field experiments to improve the quality of the model predictions. Results indicated that for the usually high nitrate contents found ate many DOE

  8. The Use of Critical Thinking in Social Science Textbooks of High School: A Field Study of Fars Province in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ahmad Hashemi


    Full Text Available This study aims at investigating the use of critical thinking in high school social science textbooks based on Fars Province teachers' attitudes in order to present a model for textbook development. To achieve this goal, the use of the following skills in the social science textbooks was analyzed: reasoning, questioning, assessment of examples and statements, group work, interpretation, true judgment about issues, analysis and evaluation, logicality, and explicitness. It is a field study which was conducted in several high schools of Fars Province in Iran. The population of this study included 568 social science teachers. The sample was selected based on the stratified random sampling procedure so that 153 teachers participated in this study. The data were collected using a forty-four-item questionnaire based on Likert-scale, which was developed and validated by the researcher himself and some experts. The reliability coefficient was also estimated as 0.86. The data were analyzed through descriptive statistics (frequency, percentage, standard deviation, and coefficient of variations and inferential statistics (Chi-square and Kruskal-Wallis Non-parametric tests. The result showed that the teachers of the Social Studies Textbook evaluated assessment of examples and statements, and analysis and evaluation skills as not satisfactory respectively. They evaluated the other skills as fairly satisfactory. Teachers of Sociology Textbook 1 evaluated explicitness, assessment of examples and statements, analysis and evaluation, and interpretation skills as not satisfactory respectively. They also evaluated other skills as fairly satisfactory. Teachers of Sociology Textbook 2 evaluated explicitness as not satisfactory, logicality as satisfactory, and other skills as fairly satisfactory. Therefore it is possible to rank order the social science textbooks of high school as satisfactory and not satisfactory with regard to the use of critical thinking. In other

  9. Being Critical in Marketing Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dholakia, Nikilesh


    In this article, I argue that an elevated macro-level perspective is imperative for conducting critical studies in the fields of marketing and consumer research. There are epistemic barriers to operating in this manner, and I offer several suggestions for overcoming these barriers. Finally, I...... review the research spaces for critical studies of marketing in various global settings and conclude that United Kingdom and Nordic Europe have the best epistemic climate, and this region needs to take leadership in promoting greater range of macro and critical studies of marketing in the rest...

  10. Critical Metadata for Spectroscopy Field Campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara A. Rasaiah


    Full Text Available A field spectroscopy metadata standard is defined as those data elements that explicitly document the spectroscopy dataset and field protocols, sampling strategies, instrument properties and environmental and logistical variables. Standards for field spectroscopy metadata affect the quality, completeness, reliability, and usability of datasets created in situ. Currently there is no standardized methodology for documentation of in situ spectroscopy data or metadata. This paper presents results of an international experiment comprising a web-based survey and expert panel evaluation that investigated critical metadata in field spectroscopy. The survey participants were a diverse group of scientists experienced in gathering spectroscopy data across a wide range of disciplines. Overall, respondents were in agreement about a core metadataset for generic campaign metadata, allowing for a prioritization of critical metadata elements to be proposed including those relating to viewing geometry, location, general target and sampling properties, illumination, instrument properties, reference standards, calibration, hyperspectral signal properties, atmospheric conditions, and general project details. Consensus was greatest among individual expert groups in specific application domains. The results allow the identification of a core set of metadata fields that enforce long term data storage and serve as a foundation for a metadata standard. This paper is part one in a series about the core elements of a robust and flexible field spectroscopy metadata standard.

  11. Low-temperature critical field of YBCO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.L.; Fowler, C.M.; Freeman, B.L.; Hults, W.L.; King, J.C.; Rickel, D.G. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Brooks, J.S.; Goettee, J.D.; De Obaldia, E.I.; Skocpol, W.J. (Boston Univ., MA (United States)); Mankiewich, P.M. (Boston Univ., MA (United States) AT T Bell Lab., Holmdel, NJ (United States)); O' Malley, M.L. (AT T Bell Lab., Holmdel, NJ (United States))


    We have measured the upper critical field H[sub C2](T) of YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7] (YBCO) thin films in magnetic fields up to 140 T for H applied parallel to the c-axis of the film. We prepared a 1700 A film of YBCO on a LaAlO[sub 3] substrate using the BaF[sub 2] process. Such a film has the c-axis perpendicular to the substrate. A meander pattern with large tabs for electrical contact was photolithographically prepared on this film, and the sample was cut into small squares less than 10 mm on their sides. We prepared evaporated niobium films to match the YBCO films and used them to cancel out the induced emf from the area of the pattern by connecting the two films in series-opposition. We measured R(T) of the films for linearity and transition width both in the laboratory and outdoors in the actual experiment during cooling before the field was applied. The critical field in the zero-temperature limit is 138 T, and the temperature dependence does not fit any simple model. 9 refs., 1 fig.

  12. The external field dependence of the BCS critical temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank, Rupert L.; Hainzl, Christian; Seiringer, Robert


    We consider the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer free energy functional for particles interacting via a two-body potential on a microscopic scale and in the presence of weak external fields varying on a macroscopic scale. We study the influence of the external fields on the critical temperature. We show...

  13. Critical cyberculture studies

    CERN Document Server

    Silver, David; Jones, Steve


    Starting in the early 1990s, journalists and scholars began responding to and trying to take account of new technologies and their impact on our lives. By the end of the decade, the full-fledged study of cyberculture had arrived. Today, there exists a large body of critical work on the subject, with cutting-edge studies probing beyond the mere existence of virtual communities and online identities to examine the social, cultural, and economic relationships that take place online. Taking stock of the exciting work that is being done and positing what cyberculture's future might look like, Criti

  14. Quantum field theory and critical phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Zinn-Justin, Jean


    Over the last twenty years quantum field theory has become not only the framework for the discussion of all fundamental interactions except gravity, but also for the understanding of second-order phase transitions in statistical mechanics. This advanced text is based on graduate courses and summer schools given by the author over a number of years. It approaches the subject in terms of path and functional intergrals, adopting a Euclidean metric and using the language of partition and correlation functions. Renormalization and the renormalization group are examined, as are critical phenomena and the role of instantons. Changes for this edition 1. Extensive revision to eliminate a few bugs that had survived the second edition and (mainly) to improve the pedagogical presentation, as a result of experience gathered by lecturing. 2. Additional new topics; holomorphic or coherent state path integral; functional integral and representation of the field theory S-matrix in the holomorphic formalis; non-relativistic li...

  15. Effective and fundamental quantum fields at criticality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, Michael


    We employ Wetterich's approach to functional renormalization as a suitable method to investigate universal phenomena in non-perturbative quantum field theories both qualitatively and quantitatively. Therefore we derive and investigate flow equations for a class of chiral Yukawa models with and without gauge bosons and reveal fixed-point mechanisms. In four dimensions chiral Yukawa systems serve as toy models for the standard model Higgs sector and show signatures of asymptotically safe fixed points by a balancing of bosonic and fermionic contributions. In the approximations investigated this renders the theory fundamental and solves the triviality problem. Further, we obtain predictions for the Higgs mass and even for the top mass of our toy model. In three dimensions we compute the critical exponents which define new universality classes and provide benchmark values for systems of strongly correlated chiral fermions. In a Yukawa system of non-relativistic two-component fermions a fixed point dominates the renormalization flow giving rise to universality in the BCS-BEC crossover. We push the functional renormalization method to a quantitative level and we compute the critical temperature and the single-particle gap with a considerable precision for the whole crossover. Finally, we provide further evidence for the asymptotic safety scenario in quantum gravity by confirming the existence of an ultraviolet fixed point under inclusion of a curvature-ghost coupling. (orig.)

  16. On the Ginzburg-Landau critical field in three dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fournais, Søren; Helffer, Bernard


    as to when they coincide. An interesting part of the analysis is the study of the monotonicity of the ground state energy of the Laplacian with constant magnetic field and with Neumann (magnetic) boundary condition in a domain . It is proved that the ground state energy is a strictly increasing function...... of the field strength for sufficiently large fields. As a consequence of our analysis, we give an affirmative answer to a conjecture by Pan. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.......We study the three-dimensional Ginzburg-Landau model of superconductivity. Several natural definitions of the (third) critical field, HC3, governing the transition from the superconducting state to the normal state, are considered. We analyze the relation between these fields and give conditions...

  17. The critical magnetic fields of heavy fermions superconductors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects on the upper critical and lower critical fields of a system with two almost degenerate order parameters were considered. Within the first order perturbations, we write the two order parameters as linear combinations of the states |0> and |2>. The upper critical field is close to Tc = T5 and occurs below a certain ...





    Critical psychology (Walkerdine, 2001) has not deeply considered the possibilities of construction ofalternative approaches to industrial and organizational psychology. This paper presents research andintervention fields that do not have left aside questions about efficiency but are formulating questionabout why and what for we are organized in certain ways for work. The studies conducted within thediscursive psychology (Parker, 1997), social psychology of organizations Schvarstein (1992), so...

  19. Teaching Critical Reflection in Social Work Field Education (United States)

    Theobald, Jacqui; Gardner, Fiona; Long, Natasha


    This article explores the process and outcomes of teaching critical reflection to social work students in an Australian university, based on our experience with teaching critical reflection. The application by students of a particular model of critical reflection to their learning experiences during field education placements is described and…

  20. Journal of critical globalisation studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    The Journal of Critical Globalisation Studies is a peer-reviewed, open-access journal that invites contributors to challenge dominant ideas of globalisation and ideas that globalisation is a singular...

  1. Critical electric field for maximum tunability in nonlinear dielectrics (United States)

    Akdogan, E. K.; Safari, A.


    The authors develop a self-consistent thermodynamic theory to compute the critical electric field at which maximum tunability is attained in a nonlinear dielectric. They then demonstrate that the stored electrostatic free energy functional has to be expanded at least up to the sixth order in electric field so as to define the critical field, and show that it depends solely on the fourth and sixth order permittivities. They discuss the deficiency of the engineering tunability metric in describing nonlinear dielectric phenomena, introduce a critical field renormalized tunability parameter, and substantiate the proposed formalism by computing the critical electric field for prototypical 0.9Pb(Mg1/3,Nb2/3)-0.1PbTiO3 and Ba(Ti0.85,Sn0.15)O3 paraelectrics.

  2. Participative Critical Enquiry in Graduate Field-Based Learning (United States)

    Reilly, Kathy; Clavin, Alma; Morrissey, John


    This paper outlines a critical pedagogic approach to field-based learning (FBL) at graduate level. Drawing on student experience stemming from a FBL module and as part of an MA programme in Environment, Society and Development, the paper addresses the complexities associated with student-led, participative critical enquiry during fieldwork in…

  3. Field dependence of critical current density in flat superconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Ryuji [Faculty of Engineering, Oita University, 700 Dannoharu Oita (Japan); Fukami, Takeshi [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Himeji Institute of Technology, Himeji (Japan); Tamegai, Tsuyoshi, E-mail: [Department of Applied Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)


    Surface field of a thin superconductor YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-delta} in mixed state is measured by a Hall probe array. To reproduce the measured field profiles, shielding current distributions are determined by numerical iterative calculations without supposing any models for field dependence of critical current density J{sub c} (B). Utilizing the estimated local current density and local magnetic field for x - y coordinates, a field variation of current density is plotted. Though any model for J{sub c} (B) is not used for numerical calculations, the field variation roughly shows a dependence like Kim model.

  4. Integrable field theory and critical phenomena: the Ising model in a magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delfino, Gesualdo [International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), via Beirut 2-4, 34014 Trieste (Italy); INFN, sezione di Trieste (Italy)


    The two-dimensional Ising model is the simplest model of statistical mechanics exhibiting a second-order phase transition. While in absence of magnetic field it is known to be solvable on the lattice since Onsager's work of the 1940s, exact results for the magnetic case have been missing until the late 1980s, when A Zamolodchikov solved the model in a field at the critical temperature, directly in the scaling limit, within the framework of integrable quantum field theory. In this paper, we review this field theoretical approach to the Ising universality class, with particular attention to the results obtained starting from Zamolodchikov's scattering solution and to their comparison with the numerical estimates on the lattice. The topics discussed include scattering theory, form factors, correlation functions, universal amplitude ratios and perturbations around integrable directions. Although we restrict our discussion to the Ising model, the emphasis is on the general methods of integrable quantum field theory which can be used in the study of all universality classes of critical behaviour in two dimensions. (topical review)

  5. TOPICAL REVIEW: Integrable field theory and critical phenomena: the Ising model in a magnetic field (United States)

    Delfino, Gesualdo


    The two-dimensional Ising model is the simplest model of statistical mechanics exhibiting a second-order phase transition. While in absence of magnetic field it is known to be solvable on the lattice since Onsager's work of the 1940s, exact results for the magnetic case have been missing until the late 1980s, when A Zamolodchikov solved the model in a field at the critical temperature, directly in the scaling limit, within the framework of integrable quantum field theory. In this paper, we review this field theoretical approach to the Ising universality class, with particular attention to the results obtained starting from Zamolodchikov's scattering solution and to their comparison with the numerical estimates on the lattice. The topics discussed include scattering theory, form factors, correlation functions, universal amplitude ratios and perturbations around integrable directions. Although we restrict our discussion to the Ising model, the emphasis is on the general methods of integrable quantum field theory which can be used in the study of all universality classes of critical behaviour in two dimensions.

  6. Static Magnetic Field Therapy: A Critical Review of Treatment Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha P. Colbert


    Full Text Available Static magnetic field (SMF therapy, applied via a permanent magnet attached to the skin, is used by people worldwide for self-care. Despite a lack of established SMF dosage and treatment regimens, multiple studies are conducted to evaluate SMF therapy effectiveness. Our objectives in conducting this review are to: (i summarize SMF research conducted in humans; (ii critically evaluate reporting quality of SMF dosages and treatment parameters and (iii propose a set of criteria for reporting SMF treatment parameters in future clinical trials. We searched 27 electronic databases and reference lists. Only English language human studies were included. Excluded were studies of electromagnetic fields, transcranial magnetic stimulation, magnets placed on acupuncture points, animal studies, abstracts, posters and editorials. Data were extracted on clinical indication, study design and 10 essential SMF parameters. Three reviewers assessed quality of reporting and calculated a quality assessment score for each of the 10 treatment parameters. Fifty-six studies were reviewed, 42 conducted in patient populations and 14 in healthy volunteers. The SMF treatment parameters most often and most completely described were site of application, magnet support device and frequency and duration of application. Least often and least completely described were characteristics of the SMF: magnet dimensions, measured field strength and estimated distance of the magnet from the target tissue. Thirty-four (61% of studies failed to provide enough detail about SMF dosage to permit protocol replication by other investigators. Our findings highlight the need to optimize SMF dosing parameters for individual clinical conditions before proceeding to a full-scale clinical trial.

  7. Critical Theory and Information Studies: A Marcusean Infusion (United States)

    Pyati, Ajit K.


    In the field of library and information science, also known as information studies, critical theory is often not included in debates about the discipline's theoretical foundations. This paper argues that the critical theory of Herbert Marcuse, in particular, has a significant contribution to make to the field of information studies. Marcuse's…

  8. Isomorphism of critical and off-critical operator spaces in two-dimensional quantum field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delfino, G. [International School of Advanced Studies (SISSA), Trieste (Italy)]|[INFN sezione di Trieste (Italy); Niccoli, G. [Univ. de Cergy-Pontoise (France). LPTM


    For the simplest quantum field theory originating from a non-trivial fixed point of the renormalization group, the Lee-Yang model, we show that the operator space determined by the particle dynamics in the massive phase and that prescribed by conformal symmetry at criticality coincide. (orig.)

  9. Critical external fields for nuclear matter; localized hadronic states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zverev, M.V.; Khodel' , V.A.


    The behavior of nuclear matter in an external static field acting in a region of finite dimensions is investigated. It is shown that, at some critical value V/sub c/ of the field intensity, nuclear matter is expelled from the region in which the field acts. The quantity V/sub c/ is estimated, and found to be almost an order of magnitude smaller than the Fermi energy. The use of a mechanical analogy reveals that the equilibrium equation for nuclear matter in an external field can have three types of solutions simultaneously, namely, the traditional bubble and soliton solutions and a new, hybrid solution, and allows the solution at a qualitative level of the problem of localized hadronic states.

  10. Critical validation studies of neurofeedback. (United States)

    Gruzelier, John; Egner, Tobias


    The field of neurofeedback training has proceeded largely without validation. In this article the authors review studies directed at validating sensory motor rhythm, beta and alpha-theta protocols for improving attention, memory, and music performance in healthy participants. Importantly, benefits were demonstrable with cognitive and neurophysiologic measures that were predicted on the basis of regression models of learning to enhance sensory motor rhythm and beta activity. The first evidence of operant control over the alpha-theta ratio is provided, together with remarkable improvements in artistic aspects of music performance equivalent to two class grades in conservatory students. These are initial steps in providing a much needed scientific basis to neurofeedback.

  11. a field study


    Köster, Gudrun


    Factors influencing udder health and prevalence of mastitis pathogens and their resistance to antimicrobials in large dairy herds in Brandenburg, Germany- a field study The objective of the field study was to 1) investigate factors influencing udder health in dairy herds in Brandenburg, Germany and 2) to describe prevalence and spreading of mastitis pathogens and their resistance patterns to antimicrobials. Eighty dairy farms were visited between July 2001 and October 2002. Data were evalu...

  12. Critical current studies of a HTS rectangular coil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Z. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom); Chudy, M., E-mail: [Graduate School of Technology Management, University of Pretoria (South Africa); Institute of Power and Applied Electrical Engineering, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava (Slovakia); Ruiz, H.S. [Department of Engineering, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Zhang, X.; Coombs, T. [Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge (United Kingdom)


    Highlights: • Unique square pancake coil was manufactured. • Measurements in relatively high magnetic field were performed. • Different sections of the coil were characterized. • Parts of the coil which are limiting critical current were identified. - Abstract: Nowadays, superconducting high field magnets are used in numerous applications due to their superior properties. High temperature superconductors (HTS) are usually used for production of circular pancake or racetrack coils. However different geometries of HTS coils might be required for some specific applications. In this study, the HTS coil wound on a rectangular frame was fully characterized in homogeneous DC background field. The study contains measurements of critical current angular dependencies. The critical current of the entire coil and two selected strands under different magnitudes and orientations of external magnetic fields are measured. The critical regions of the coil in different angular regimes are determined. This study brings better understanding of the in- field performance of HTS coils wound on frames with right-angles.

  13. Getting 'Entangled': Reflexivity and the 'Critical Turn' in Tourism Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ateljevic, I.; Harris, C.; Wilson, E.; Collins, F.L.


    Reflecting a broader postmodern shift to unmask the cultural politics of research and knowledge-making in academia, tourism studies as a field is demonstrating a notable `critical turn¿ ¿ a shift in thought that serves to provide and legitimise a space for more interpretative and critical modes of

  14. Microbial field pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Coates, J.D.; Chisholm, J.L.


    A multi-well microbially enhanced oil recovery field pilot has been performed in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit in Payne County, Oklahoma. The primary emphasis of the experiment was preferential plugging of high permeability zones for the purpose of improving waterflood sweep efficiency. Studies were performed to determine reservoir chemistry, ecology, and indigenous bacteria populations. Growth experiments were used to select a nutrient system compatible with the reservoir that encouraged growth of a group of indigenous nitrate-using bacteria and inhibit growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria. A specific field pilot area behind an active line drive waterflood was selected. Surface facilities were designed and installed. Injection protocols of bulk nutrient materials were prepared to facilitate uniform distribution of nutrients within the pilot area. By the end of December, 1991, 82.5 tons (75.0 tonnes) of nutrients had been injected in the field. A tracer test identified significant heterogeneity in the SEVVSU and made it necessary to monitor additional production wells in the field. The tracer tests and changes in production behavior indicate the additional production wells monitored during the field trial were also affected. Eighty two and one half barrels (13.1 m[sup 3]) of tertiary oil have been recovered. Microbial activity has increased CO[sub 2] content as indicated by increased alkalinity. A temporary rise in sulfide concentration was experienced. These indicate an active microbial community was generated in the field by the nutrient injection. Pilot area interwell pressure interference test results showed that significant permeability reduction occurred. The interwell permeabilities in the pilot area between the injector and the three pilot production wells were made more uniform which indicates a successful preferential plugging enhanced oil recovery project.

  15. Criticality safety basics, a study guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. L. Putman


    This document is a self-study and classroom guide, for criticality safety of activities with fissile materials outside nuclear reactors. This guide provides a basic overview of criticality safety and criticality accident prevention methods divided into three parts: theory, application, and history. Except for topic emphasis, theory and history information is general, while application information is specific to the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Information presented here should be useful to personnel who must know criticality safety basics to perform their assignments safely or to design critically safe equipment or operations. However, the guide's primary target audience is fissile material handler candidates.

  16. Examining Graduate Dissertations in the Field of Critical Thinking: A Case from Turkey (United States)

    Demirel, Melek; Derman, Ipek; Can Aran, Ozge


    Purpose: The aim of this study is to conduct content analyses of graduate dissertations about critical thinking skills in the field of educational sciences in Turkey and to document general trends in dissertations. Research Methods: This study is constructed using qualitative research methods and techniques. A document review was used to gather…

  17. Microbial field pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Chisholm, J.L.


    The objective of this project is to perform a microbial enhanced oil recovery field pilot in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU) in Payne County, Oklahoma. Indigenous, anaerobic, nitrate reducing bacteria will be stimulated to selectively plug flow paths which have been referentially swept by a prior waterflood. This will force future flood water to invade bypassed regions of the reservoir and increase sweep efficiency. This report covers progress made during the second year, January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1990, of the Microbial Field Pilot Study project. Information on reservoir ecology, surface facilities design, operation of the unit, core experiments, modeling of microbial processes, and reservoir characterization and simulation are presented in the report. To better understand the ecology of the target reservoir, additional analyses of the fluids which support bacteriological growth and the microbiology of the reservoir were performed. The results of the produced and injected water analysis show increasing sulfide concentrations with respect to time. In March of 1990 Mesa Limited Partnership sold their interest in the SEVVSU to Sullivan and Company. In April, Sullivan and Company assumed operation of the field. The facilities for the field operation of the pilot were refined and implementation was begun. Core flood experiments conducted during the last year were used to help define possible mechanisms involved in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The experiments were performed at SEVVSU temperature using fluids and inoculum from the unit. The model described in last year's report was further validated using results from a core flood experiment. The model was able to simulate the results of one of the core flood experiments with good quality.

  18. Microbial field pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Chisholm, J.L.


    The objective of this project is to perform a microbial enhanced oil recovery field pilot in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit (SEVVSU) in Payne County, Oklahoma. Indigenous, anaerobic, nitrate reducing bacteria will be stimulated to selectively plug flow paths which have been referentially swept by a prior waterflood. This will force future flood water to invade bypassed regions of the reservoir and increase sweep efficiency. This report covers progress made during the second year, January 1, 1990 to December 31, 1990, of the Microbial Field Pilot Study project. Information on reservoir ecology, surface facilities design, operation of the unit, core experiments, modeling of microbial processes, and reservoir characterization and simulation are presented in the report. To better understand the ecology of the target reservoir, additional analyses of the fluids which support bacteriological growth and the microbiology of the reservoir were performed. The results of the produced and injected water analysis show increasing sulfide concentrations with respect to time. In March of 1990 Mesa Limited Partnership sold their interest in the SEVVSU to Sullivan and Company. In April, Sullivan and Company assumed operation of the field. The facilities for the field operation of the pilot were refined and implementation was begun. Core flood experiments conducted during the last year were used to help define possible mechanisms involved in microbial enhanced oil recovery. The experiments were performed at SEVVSU temperature using fluids and inoculum from the unit. The model described in last year`s report was further validated using results from a core flood experiment. The model was able to simulate the results of one of the core flood experiments with good quality.

  19. Non-mean-field critical exponent in a mean-field model: dynamics versus statistical mechanics. (United States)

    Ogawa, Shun; Patelli, Aurelio; Yamaguchi, Yoshiyuki Y


    Mean-field theory tells us that the classical critical exponent of susceptibility is twice that of magnetization. However, linear response theory based on the Vlasov equation, which is naturally introduced by the mean-field nature, makes the former exponent half of the latter for families of quasistationary states having second order phase transitions in the Hamiltonian mean-field model and its variances, in the low-energy phase. We clarify that this strange exponent is due to the existence of Casimir invariants which trap the system in a quasistationary state for a time scale diverging with the system size. The theoretical prediction is numerically confirmed by N-body simulations for the equilibrium states and a family of quasistationary states.

  20. Interpretation of the electric fields measured in an ionospheric critical ionization velocity experiment (United States)

    Brenning, N.; Faelthammar, C.-G.; Marklund, G.; Haerendel, G.; Kelley, M. C.; Pfaff, R.


    The quasi-dc electric fields measured in the CRIT I ionospheric release experiment are studied. In the experiment, two identical barium shaped charges were fired toward a main payload, and three-dimensional measurements of the electric field inside the streams were made. The relevance of proposed mechanisms for electron heating in the critical ionization velocity (CIV) mechanism is addressed. It is concluded that both the 'homogeneous' and the 'ionizing front' models probably are valid, but in different parts of the streams. It is also possible that electrons are directly accelerated by a magnetic field-aligned component of the electric field. The coupling between the ambient ionosphere and the ionized barium stream is more complicated that is usually assumed in CIV theories, with strong magnetic-field-aligned electric fields and probably current limitation as important processes.

  1. Critical thinking in respiratory care practice: a qualitative research study. (United States)

    Mishoe, Shelley C


    Recent publications indicate that critical thinking should be an integral part of respiratory care education. However, we know very little about critical thinking in the context of respiratory care. The critical thinking abilities and decision-making characteristics of practicing respiratory therapists have not been studied. Identify and describe the critical thinking skills and traits of respiratory therapists, using a qualitative, descriptive research methodology. Critical thinking was defined as the combination of logical reasoning, problem-solving, and reflection. The sample was selected through nominations of experts, using reputational-case selection. The research involved observations of 18 registered respiratory therapists, followed by in-depth interviews. Data were collected over a 1-year period and there were 125 hours of observation and 36 hours of interview. The observations were the basis for identifying and describing context-bound situations that require critical thinking, as well as the essential skills and related traits. The data set consists of over 600 single-spaced pages of interview transcripts and participant-observation field notes, in addition to 36 audio tapes. Field notes and interview transcripts were continuously analyzed throughout the study, using the constant-comparative method described by Glaser and Strauss. The findings suggest that critical thinking in respiratory care practice involves the abilities to prioritize, anticipate, troubleshoot, communicate, negotiate, reflect, and make decisions.

  2. Perturbative Field-Theoretical Renormalization Group Approach to Driven-Dissipative Bose-Einstein Criticality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe C. Täuber


    Full Text Available The universal critical behavior of the driven-dissipative nonequilibrium Bose-Einstein condensation transition is investigated employing the field-theoretical renormalization group method. Such criticality may be realized in broad ranges of driven open systems on the interface of quantum optics and many-body physics, from exciton-polariton condensates to cold atomic gases. The starting point is a noisy and dissipative Gross-Pitaevski equation corresponding to a complex-valued Landau-Ginzburg functional, which captures the near critical nonequilibrium dynamics, and generalizes model A for classical relaxational dynamics with nonconserved order parameter. We confirm and further develop the physical picture previously established by means of a functional renormalization group study of this system. Complementing this earlier numerical analysis, we analytically compute the static and dynamical critical exponents at the condensation transition to lowest nontrivial order in the dimensional ε expansion about the upper critical dimension d_{c}=4 and establish the emergence of a novel universal scaling exponent associated with the nonequilibrium drive. We also discuss the corresponding situation for a conserved order parameter field, i.e., (subdiffusive model B with complex coefficients.

  3. [Contributions from the critical leisure field to the health promotion]. (United States)

    Bacheladenski, Miguel Sidenei; Matiello Júnior, Edgard


    The studies about leisure for health promotion still tend to choose the active body occupation in the free-time (leisure activities), revealing the influence of the functionalist way of thinking, which trying to reduce the links between society and health-disease process, undoubtedly do not keep with the purpose of population health promotion. Focusing on this idea, and keeping in mind the premise that in the Brazilian physical training there are different opinions since the earliest 80s which try to achieve the purpose to avoid the ideas of the functionalist way of thinking. However, those opinions are almost unknown both in the Brazilian public health system and the collective health system, once the bibliography revision about leisure activities development was made in the country, looking for ideas taken in common knowledge for health promotion presuppositions, this report has the aim to show critical and alternatives concepts of leisure in the way it is linked to healthy as a real social change, using a political-pedagogical proposal called lazerania. In general, this is an emancipatory concept of leisure, which comes from the sport phenomenon as a problem and provides the feeling, thinking and behavior of the population, trying to build a society based on solidarity and consumer participation.

  4. Assessment of critical thinking: a Delphi study. (United States)

    Paul, Sheila A


    Nurse educators are responsible for preparing nurses who critically analyze patient information and provide meaningful interventions in today's complex health care system. By using the Delphi research method, this study, utilized the specialized and experiential knowledge of Certified Nurse Educators. This original Delphi research study asked Certified Nurse Educators how to assess the critical-thinking ability of nursing students in the clinical setting. The results showed that nurse educators need time, during the clinical experience, to accurately assess each individual nursing student. This study demonstrated the need for extended student clinical time, and a variety of clinical learning assessment tools. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The critical role of force-fields in property prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsdottir, Svava Osk; Welsh, William J.; Rasmussen, Kjeld


    of conformational energydifferences and interaction energies vary significantly from one force-field to another. As a test for the reliability of the non-bonded interactions, vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data have been calculated for a small number of systems using three different force-fields. The force...

  6. Critical behavior of an anisotropic Ising antiferromagnet in both external longitudinal and transverse fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Denise A. do, E-mail: [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, 3000, Japiim, 69077-000 Manaus-AM (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Roraima, BR 174, Km 12. Bairro Monte Cristo, CEP: 69300-000 Boa Vista/RR (Brazil); Neto, Minos A., E-mail: [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, 3000, Japiim, 69077-000 Manaus-AM (Brazil); Ricardo de Sousa, J., E-mail: [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, 3000, Japiim, 69077-000 Manaus-AM (Brazil); National Institute of Science and Technology for Complex Systems, 3000, Japiim, 69077-000 Manaus-AM (Brazil); Pacobahyba, Josefa T., E-mail: [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Roraima, BR 174, Km 12. Bairro Monte Cristo, CEP: 69300-000 Boa Vista/RR (Brazil)


    In this paper we study the critical behavior of a two-sublattice Ising model on an anisotropic square lattice in both uniform longitudinal (H) and transverse ({Omega}) fields by using the effective-field theory. The model consists of ferromagnetic interaction J{sub x} in the x direction and antiferromagnetic interaction J{sub y} in the y direction in the presence of the H and {Omega} fields. We obtain the phase diagrams in the H-T and {Omega}-T planes changing values of the {Omega} and H parameters, respectively for fixed value at {lambda}=J{sub x}/J{sub y}=1. At null temperature, the ground state phase diagram in the {Omega}-H plane for several values of {lambda} parameter is analyzed. In the particular case of {lambda}=1 we compare our results with mean-field theory (MFT) and was not observed reentrant behavior around of the critical field H{sub c}/J{sub y}=2.0 for {Omega}=0 by using EFT. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In the last decade there has been a great interest in physics of the quantum phase transition in system at low dimensional. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In particular, the transverse Ising model has been studied by a variety of approximate methods. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In the context of quantum phase transition and critical phenomena. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First time, is presented a study of the superantiferromagnetic transverse Ising model on an anisotropic square lattice. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We have obtained finite temperature and ground state phase diagrams.

  7. Critical Studies in Teaching and Learning

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Critical Studies in Teaching and Learning is a peer-reviewed journal that publishes scholarly articles and essays that make marked contributions to the scholarship of teaching and learning in higher education. The Journal aims to provide a stimulating and challenging forum for contributors to describe, theorise and reflect ...

  8. Wright Field turboprop study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzetti, R.C.; Dull, P.P.


    The considered investigation was conducted as part of an effort to reduce aircraft fuel costs. Turboprops are very fuel efficient at speeds below Mach 0.6. One of the most promising approaches to reduce fuel consumption in the speed range from Mach 0.6 to 0.8 is related to an employment of the swept eight to ten blade propeller (propfan) being developed by NASA. All studies to date indicate that turboshaft engines with propfans might save 15% or more of the fuel used by a turbofan engine of comparable technology. Attention is given to a turboprop status review, contractor studies, the NASA propfan program, an in-house performance study, specific problems which have to be solved to make a twin-turboprop, 100-150 passenger transport a viable possibility for the early 1990s, and turboprop dilemmas.

  9. Automated Critical Peak Pricing Field Tests: Program Descriptionand Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David; Motegi, Naoya; Kiliccote, Sila; Xu, Peng


    California utilities have been exploring the use of critical peak prices (CPP) to help reduce needle peaks in customer end-use loads. CPP is a form of price-responsive demand response (DR). Recent experience has shown that customers have limited knowledge of how to operate their facilities in order to reduce their electricity costs under CPP (Quantum 2004). While the lack of knowledge about how to develop and implement DR control strategies is a barrier to participation in DR programs like CPP, another barrier is the lack of automation of DR systems. During 2003 and 2004, the PIER Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) conducted a series of tests of fully automated electric demand response (Auto-DR) at 18 facilities. Overall, the average of the site-specific average coincident demand reductions was 8% from a variety of building types and facilities. Many electricity customers have suggested that automation will help them institutionalize their electric demand savings and improve their overall response and DR repeatability. This report focuses on and discusses the specific results of the Automated Critical Peak Pricing (Auto-CPP, a specific type of Auto-DR) tests that took place during 2005, which build on the automated demand response (Auto-DR) research conducted through PIER and the DRRC in 2003 and 2004. The long-term goal of this project is to understand the technical opportunities of automating demand response and to remove technical and market impediments to large-scale implementation of automated demand response (Auto-DR) in buildings and industry. A second goal of this research is to understand and identify best practices for DR strategies and opportunities. The specific objectives of the Automated Critical Peak Pricing test were as follows: (1) Demonstrate how an automated notification system for critical peak pricing can be used in large commercial facilities for demand response (DR). (2) Evaluate effectiveness of such a system. (3) Determine how customers

  10. Nucleation of bulk superconductivity close to critical magnetic fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fournais, Søren; Kachmar, Ayman


    threshold value of the applied magnetic field for which bulk superconductivity contributes to the leading order of the energy. Furthermore, the energy of the bulk is related to that of the Abrikosov problem in a periodic lattice. A key ingredient of the proof is a novel L∞ -bound which is of independent...

  11. Field Research of Firing Stored Peat Critical Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulesh Roman N.


    Full Text Available This paper presents field research: influence of different factors on peat massif firing with local outside heat source. Minimum temperatures of defined size heat source which fires the peat under the wide range of moisture value and heat-exchange conditions with terrestrial environment were found. Besides, peat massif moisture values whereby no firing is undergoing within the range of the researched temperatures of ignition source were defined.

  12. On the Critical Behaviour of Observed and Simulated Spatial Soil Moisture Fields during SGP97

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mekonnen Gebremichael


    Full Text Available The aircraft-based ESTAR soil moisture fields from the Southern Great Plains 1997 (SGP97 Hydrology Experiment are compared to the simulated ones obtained by Bertoldi et al. [1] with the GEOtop model [2], with a particular focus on their capability in capturing the critical point behaviour in their space-time dynamics (see [3]. The critical point behaviour should denote the transition of soil moisture spatial patterns from an unorganized to organized appearance, as conditions become wetter. The study region is the Little Washita watershed, located in the southwest Oklahoma, in the Southern Great Plains region of the USA. The case study takes place from June 27 to July 16 and encompasses wetting and drying cycles allowing for exploring the behaviour under transient conditions. Results show that the critical probability value is 0.85 for GEOtop, and 0.80 for ESTAR. The GEOtop patterns appear more fragmented, being more reluctant to organization, as confirmed by the higher value of critical probability. Such behaviour is probably inherited by the model’s parameterization: land use and soil classes impose additional spatial structures to those related to the meteorological forcings and the hillslope morphology, driving to higher degrees of heterogeneity.

  13. FLUKA Simulations for SEE Studies of Critical LHC Underground Areas

    CERN Document Server

    Roed, K; Brugger, M; Spiezia, G; Losito, R; Boccone, V; Ferrari, A; Versaci, R; Lebbos, E; Mereghetti, A


    FLUKA Monte Carlo simulations have been performed to identify particle energy spectra and fluences relevant for evaluating the risk of single event effects in electronics installed in critical LHC underground areas. Since these simulations are associated with significant uncertainties, the results will compared with an online monitoring system installed to evaluate radiation levels at the location of the electronics. This comparison approach have been benchmarked in a mixed field reference facility and for a preliminary LHC monitoring case study.

  14. Reliability of the Single-Visit Field Test of Critical Speed in Trained and Untrained Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Nimmerichter


    Full Text Available Recent studies in adults have shown that the critical intensity during running and cycling estimated from three prediction trials interspersed by 30 min is valid and reliable. To establish the reliability of the single-visit field test to determine critical speed (CS and the distance above critical speed (D′ in adolescents, 29 trained and 14 untrained participants (mean ± SD age: 17.5 ± 0.5 years performed three tests on a 400-m outdoor track separated by 48 h. Each test consisted of three distances selected to result in finishing times between 2 and 15 min that must be completed as fast as possible. CS and D′ were modeled using the linear 1/time model (Speed = D′(1/t + CS. While the coefficient of variation (CV of CS was between 2.4% and 4.3%, the CV of D′ was 9.3% to 13.6%. Also the intraclass correlation coefficient ranged from 0.919 to 0.983 for CS and from 0.325 to 0.828 for D′. The results show that the single-visit field test provides reliable estimates of CS but not D′ in trained and untrained adolescents.

  15. Field-induced quantum criticality in the Kitaev system α -RuCl3 (United States)

    Wolter, A. U. B.; Corredor, L. T.; Janssen, L.; Nenkov, K.; Schönecker, S.; Do, S.-H.; Choi, K.-Y.; Albrecht, R.; Hunger, J.; Doert, T.; Vojta, M.; Büchner, B.


    α -RuCl3 has attracted enormous attention since it has been proposed as a prime candidate to study fractionalized magnetic excitations akin to Kitaev's honeycomb-lattice spin liquid. We have performed a detailed specific-heat investigation at temperatures down to 0.4 K in applied magnetic fields up to 9 T for fields parallel to the a b plane. We find a suppression of the zero-field antiferromagnetic order, together with an increase of the low-temperature specific heat, with increasing field up to μ0Hc≈6.9 T. Above Hc, the magnetic contribution to the low-temperature specific heat is strongly suppressed, implying the opening of a spin-excitation gap. Our data point toward a field-induced quantum critical point at Hc; this is supported by universal scaling behavior near Hc. Remarkably, the data also reveal the existence of a small characteristic energy scale well below 1 meV, above which the excitation spectrum changes qualitatively. We relate the data to theoretical calculations based on a J1-K1-Γ1-J3 honeycomb model.

  16. Critical loss radius in a Penning trap subject to multipole fields

    CERN Document Server

    Fajans, J; Robicheaux, F


    When particles in a Penning trap are subject to a magnetic multipole field, those beyond a critical radius will be lost. The critical radius depends on the history by which the field is applied, and can be much smaller if the particles are injected into a preexisting multipole than if the particles are subject to a ramped multipole. Both cases are relevant to ongoing experiments designed to trap antihydrogen.

  17. Presidential Rhetoric: Definition of a Field of Study. (United States)

    Windt, Theodore Otto, Jr.


    Surveys literature published since 1960, dividing it into four categories of critical analyses. Evaluates current knowledge of presidential rhetoric and suggests directions for future research in this field of study. (PD)

  18. Magnetic Field Dependence of the Critical Current in S-N Bilayer Thin Films (United States)

    Sadleir, John E.; Lee, Sang-Jun; Smith, Stephen James; Bandler, Simon; Chervenak, James; Kilbourne, Caroline A.; Finkbeiner, Fred M.; Porter, Frederick S.; Kelley, Richard L.; Adams, Joseph S.; hide


    Here we investigate the effects a non-uniform applied magnetic field has on superconducting transition-edge sensors (TESs) critical current. This has implications on TES optimization. It has been shown that TESs resistive transition can be altered by magnetic fields. We have observed critical current rectification effects and explained these effects in terms of a magnetic self-field arising from asymmetric current injection into the sensor. Our TES physical model shows that this magnetic self-field can result in significantly degraded or improved TES performance. In order for this magnetically tuned TES strategy to reach its full potential we are investigating the effect a non-uniform applied magnetic field has on the critical current.

  19. Mean-field behavior as a result of noisy local dynamics in self-organized criticality: Neuroscience implications (United States)

    Moosavi, S. Amin; Montakhab, Afshin


    Motivated by recent experiments in neuroscience which indicate that neuronal avalanches exhibit scale invariant behavior similar to self-organized critical systems, we study the role of noisy (nonconservative) local dynamics on the critical behavior of a sandpile model which can be taken to mimic the dynamics of neuronal avalanches. We find that despite the fact that noise breaks the strict local conservation required to attain criticality, our system exhibits true criticality for a wide range of noise in various dimensions, given that conservation is respected on the average. Although the system remains critical, exhibiting finite-size scaling, the value of critical exponents change depending on the intensity of local noise. Interestingly, for a sufficiently strong noise level, the critical exponents approach and saturate at their mean-field values, consistent with empirical measurements of neuronal avalanches. This is confirmed for both two and three dimensional models. However, the addition of noise does not affect the exponents at the upper critical dimension (D =4). In addition to an extensive finite-size scaling analysis of our systems, we also employ a useful time-series analysis method to establish true criticality of noisy systems. Finally, we discuss the implications of our work in neuroscience as well as some implications for the general phenomena of criticality in nonequilibrium systems.

  20. Critical Indigenous Studies: From Difference to Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Andersen


    Full Text Available Proponents of the discipline of Native Studies (in its various guises have attempted to produce a methodologically and theoretically distinctive body of scholarship to justify its existence in the field of academia. Critiquing Duane Champagne’s recent article published in a flagship journal for North American Native Studies, I argue that while establishing Native Studies as a discipline has little or nothing to do with securing Native Studies departments on university campuses, a place nonetheless exists for these departments. Marrying Native Studies literature on the importance of producing tribally specific knowledge with Australian-based Whiteness Studies literature focusing on the utility of indigeneity for denaturalising white privilege, I argue that the discipline of Native Studies should justify itself departmentally by teaching about the complex forms of local indigeneity upon which white privilege is reproduced.

  1. AHP 28: Review: Critical Han Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiguo Ye


    Full Text Available This path-breaking volume is an academic collaboration that emerged out of the "Critical Han Studies Conference and Workshop" at Stanford University in April 2008. Eleven scholars contributed to the question of what it means to be 'Han' in China, both historically and at present. Constituting over ninety percent of China's population, the Han are not only the largest ethnic group in China, but are also one of the largest categories of collective identity in the world. Despite this, the dominant Han group has so far eluded careful scholarly scrutiny, with the Han often referred to as an unmarked majority category in contemporary China. This volume challenges such conventional views by conceptualizing new interdisciplinary approaches to the question of Hanness.

  2. Lower critical field and SNS-Andreev spectroscopy of 122-arsenides: Evidence of nodeless superconducting gap (United States)

    Abdel-Hafiez, M.; Pereira, P. J.; Kuzmichev, S. A.; Kuzmicheva, T. E.; Pudalov, V. M.; Harnagea, L.; Kordyuk, A. A.; Silhanek, A. V.; Moshchalkov, V. V.; Shen, B.; Wen, Hai-Hu; Vasiliev, A. N.; Chen, Xiao-Jia


    Using two experimental techniques, we studied single crystals of the 122-FeAs family with almost the same critical temperature, Tc. We investigated the temperature dependence of the lower critical field Hc1(T ) of a Ca0.32Na0.68Fe2As2 (Tc≈34K) single crystal under static magnetic fields H parallel to the c axis. The temperature dependence of the London penetration depth can be described equally well either by a single anisotropic s-wave-like gap or by a two-gap model, while a d-wave approach cannot be used to fit the London penetration depth data. Intrinsic multiple Andreev reflection effect spectroscopy was used to detect bulk gap values in single crystals of the intimate compound Ba0.65K0.35Fe2As2, with the same Tc. We estimated the range of the large gap value ΔL=6-8 meV (depending on small variation of Tc) and its a k space anisotropy of about 30%, and the small gap ΔS≈1.7±0.3 meV. This clearly indicates that the gap structure of our investigated systems more likely corresponds to a nodeless s-wave two gaps.

  3. Sub-Critical Closed String Field Theory in D Less Than 26


    Kaku, Michio


    We construct the second quantized action for sub-critical closed string field theory with zero cosmological constant in dimensions $ 2 \\leq D < 26$, generalizing the non-polynomial closed string field theory action proposed by the author and the Kyoto and MIT groups for $D = 26$. The proof of gauge invariance is considerably complicated by the presence of the Liouville field $\\phi$ and the non-polynomial nature of the action. However, we explicitly show that the polyhedral vertex functions ob...

  4. Critical Thinking in Nurse Anesthesia Education: A Pilot Study (United States)

    Burns, Shari; Mendel, Shaun; Fisher, Rodney; Cooper, Kimball; Fisher, Michael


    Critical thinking is pivotal for student success in health professions education. Knowing the critical thinking ability of the learner helps educators tailor curriculum to enhance critical thinking. A quantitative comparative pilot study assessed critical thinking ability for students at two distinct points in a nurse anesthesia program…

  5. Critical current density and current distribution in field cooled superconducting disks (United States)

    Bernstein, Pierre; Noudem, Jacques; Dupont, Louis


    Applications of bulk superconductors concern superconducting motors and generators, the levitation of vehicles, the generation of high magnetic fields with small size cryo-magnets, the shielding of magnetic fields and other applications. For all of them, it is essential to determine the critical current density, and to understand the effect of the shape and size of the bulks on the properties of interest. In this contribution, we show how the combination of levitation force and trapped field measurements allow one to determine the characteristics and the potential performances of superconducting disks using analytical modeling. As examples of applications we detail the effects of the magnetizing field and of the bulk sheet critical current density on the levitation force. An important result of the reported measurements is that in field-cooled samples, the shielding currents possibly do not flow along the whole thickness of the disks.

  6. Enhancement of the upper critical field in codoped iron-arsenic high-temperature superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosner, H.; Nicklas, M.; Schnelle, W.; Leithe-Jasper, A. [MPI CPfS Dresden (Germany); Wosnitza, J. [HLD Dresden-Rossendorf (Germany); Weickert, F. [MPI CPfS Dresden (Germany); LANL, Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    We present the first study of codoped iron-arsenide superconductors of the 122 family (Sr/Ba){sub 1-x}K{sub x}Fe{sub 2-y}Co{sub y}As{sub 2} with the purpose to increase the upper critical field H{sub c2} compared to single doped Sr/BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} materials. H{sub c2} was investigated by measuring the magnetoresistance in high pulsed magnetic fields up to 64 T. We find, that H{sub c2} extrapolated to T=0 is indeed enhanced significantly to 90 T for polycrystalline samples of Ba{sub 0.55}K{sub 0.45}Fe{sub 1.95}Co{sub 0.05}As{sub 2} compared to 75 T for Ba{sub 0.55}K{sub 0.45}Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} and BaFe{sub 1.8}Co{sub 0.2}As{sub 2} single crystals. Codoping thus is a promising way for the systematic optimization of iron-arsenic based superconductors for magnetic-field and high-current applications.

  7. Field-induced magnetization jumps and quantum criticality in the 2D J-Q model (United States)

    Iaizzi, Adam; Sandvik, Anders

    The J-Q model is a `designer hamiltonian' formed by adding a four spin `Q' term to the standard antiferromagnetic S = 1 / 2 Heisenberg model. The Q term drives a quantum phase transition to a valence-bond solid (VBS) state: a non-magnetic state with a pattern of local singlets which breaks lattice symmetries. The elementary excitations of the VBS are triplons, i.e. gapped S=1 quasiparticles. There is considerable interest in the quantum phase transition between the Néel and VBS states as an example of deconfined quantum criticality. Near the phase boundary, triplons deconfine into pairs of bosonic spin-1/2 excitations known as spinons. Using exact diagonalization and the stochastic series expansion quantum monte carlo method, we study the 2D J-Q model in the presence of an external magnetic field. We use the field to force a nonzero density of magnetic excitations at T=0 and look for signatures of Bose-Einstein condensation of spinons. At higher magnetic fields, there is a jump in the induced magnetization caused by the onset of an effective attractive interaction between magnons on a ferromagnetic background. We characterize the first order quantum phase transition and determine the minimum value of the coupling ratio q ≡ Q / J required to produce this jump. Funded by NSF DMR-1410126.

  8. Visualizing Robustness of Critical Points for 2D Time-Varying Vector Fields

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, B.


    Analyzing critical points and their temporal evolutions plays a crucial role in understanding the behavior of vector fields. A key challenge is to quantify the stability of critical points: more stable points may represent more important phenomena or vice versa. The topological notion of robustness is a tool which allows us to quantify rigorously the stability of each critical point. Intuitively, the robustness of a critical point is the minimum amount of perturbation necessary to cancel it within a local neighborhood, measured under an appropriate metric. In this paper, we introduce a new analysis and visualization framework which enables interactive exploration of robustness of critical points for both stationary and time-varying 2D vector fields. This framework allows the end-users, for the first time, to investigate how the stability of a critical point evolves over time. We show that this depends heavily on the global properties of the vector field and that structural changes can correspond to interesting behavior. We demonstrate the practicality of our theories and techniques on several datasets involving combustion and oceanic eddy simulations and obtain some key insights regarding their stable and unstable features. © 2013 The Author(s) Computer Graphics Forum © 2013 The Eurographics Association and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Changing institutions: Critical Management Studies as a Social Movement


    Willmott, H.


    Purpose\\ud \\ud To consider Critical Management Studies as a social movement.\\ud Design/methodology/approach\\ud \\ud The purpose is fulfilled by reflecting upon the history of Critical Management Studies by reference to social movement theory, institutional theory and the social theory of hegemony.\\ud Findings\\ud \\ud Critical Management Studies is plausibly understood as a social movement.\\ud Originality/value\\ud \\ud The chapter offers a fresh perspective on Critical Management Studies by repre...

  10. Critical properties of scalar field theory with Lorentz violation: Exact treatment of Lorentz-violating mechanism (United States)

    Carvalho, P. R. S.; Sena-Junior, M. I.


    In this work, we compute analytically the infrared divergences of massless O(N) self-interacting scalar field theories with Lorentz violation, which are exact in the Lorentz-violating Kμν coefficients, for evaluating the corresponding next-to-leading order critical exponents. For that, we apply three distinct and independent field-theoretic renormalization group methods. We find that the outcomes for the critical exponents are the same in the three methods and, furthermore, are identical to their Lorentz invariant counterparts. We generalize the results for all loop levels by employing a general theorem arising from the exact procedure and give the corresponding physical interpretation.

  11. Leading Critically: A Grounded Theory of Applied Critical Thinking in Leadership Studies (United States)

    Jekins, Daniel M.; Cutchens, Amanda B.


    This study describes the development of a grounded theory of applied critical thinking in leadership studies and examines how student-centered experiential learning in leadership education bridged critical thinking with action. Over three semester undergraduate students in an upper level leadership studies course at a large four-year public…

  12. When Sex and Power Collide: An Argument for Critical Sexuality Studies. (United States)

    Fahs, Breanne; McClelland, Sara I


    Attentive to the collision of sex and power, we add momentum to the ongoing development of the subfield of critical sexuality studies. We argue that this body of work is defined by its critical orientation toward the study of sexuality, along with a clear allegiance to critical modalities of thought, particularly feminist thought. Critical sexuality studies takes its cues from several other critical moments in related fields, including critical psychology, critical race theory, critical public health, and critical youth studies. Across these varied critical stances is a shared investment in examining how power and privilege operate, understanding the role of historical and epistemological violence in research, and generating new models and paradigms to guide empirical and theoretical research. With this guiding framework, we propose three central characteristics of critical sexuality studies: (a) conceptual analysis, with particular attention to how we define key terms and conceptually organize our research (e.g., attraction, sexually active, consent, agency, embodiment, sexual subjectivity); (b) attention to the material qualities of abject bodies, particularly bodies that are ignored, overlooked, or pushed out of bounds (e.g., viscous bodies, fat bodies, bodies in pain); and (c) heteronormativity and heterosexual privilege, particularly how assumptions about heterosexuality and heteronormativity circulate in sexuality research. Through these three critical practices, we argue that critical sexuality studies showcases how sex and power collide and recognizes (and tries to subvert) the various power imbalances that are deployed and replicated in sex research.

  13. Exploring critical thinking in critical care nursing education: a pilot study. (United States)

    Rogal, Sonya M; Young, Jeanne


    Critical care nurses process vast amounts of information and require well developed critical-thinking skills to make clinical decisions. Using a pretest posttest design, the critical-thinking skills of 31 postgraduate nurses were evaluated using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST). For the total group, mean critical-thinking scores improved slightly over time. The CCTST revealed a mean pretest score of 18.5 and a mean posttest score of 19.7, both of which were higher than the established norms for the test. Overall, no significant difference was observed between pretest and posttest. However, statistical significance was observed posttest for nurses whose critical-thinking scores improved (p nurses improved their critical-thinking skills during the course of their study.

  14. Frequency- and time-domain asymptotic fields near the critical cone in fluid-fluid configuration. (United States)

    Lihh, Won-Seok


    Near the critical cone of a point source placed at the interface between two half-space fluid media, investigation is made of the asymptotic fields in the frequency domain and their synthetic wave forms in the time domain. While the leading-order (and the head-wave) components give a good description of the true fields well off the critical cone, the uniform asymptotic (UA) analysis has to be made for the approximation near the critical cone. The UA analysis splits into two cases, depending on the medium densities and wave speeds. For Case 1, the UA1 approximation is employed that takes into account the proximity of the stationary-phase point to the branch point. In Case 2, the UA2 approximation is employed in which consideration is also given to the proximity of the stationary point to the pole and to the combined effect of the stationary point, the branch point, and the pole. The validities of the asymptotic fields are checked in the time domain by comparing the asymptotic field wave forms against the wave-number-synthetic wave forms. The UA fields show good accuracy and causal behaviors, with the causality of the UA2 fields previously unreported in the literature.

  15. Critical Discourse Analysis and Critical Thinking: An Experimental Study in an EFL Context (United States)

    Hashemi, Mohammad Reza; Ghanizadeh, Afsaneh


    The present study investigated the impact of critical discourse analysis (CDA) on TEFL students' critical thinking (CT) ability in "Reading Journalistic Texts" classes. In so doing, the study utilized an experimental design with 24 participants in the control group and 29 participants in the experimental group. The results of a pretest indicated…

  16. Critical Points of the Electric Field from a Collection of Point Charges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Max, N; Weinkauf, T


    The electric field around a molecule is generated by the charge distribution of its constituents: positively charged atomic nuclei, which are well approximated by point charges, and negatively charged electrons, whose probability density distribution can be computed from quantum mechanics. For the purposes of molecular mechanics or dynamics, the charge distribution is often approximated by a collection of point charges, with either a single partial charge at each atomic nucleus position, representing both the nucleus and the electrons near it, or as several different point charges per atom. The critical points in the electric field are useful in visualizing its geometrical and topological structure, and can help in understanding the forces and motion it induces on a charged ion or neutral dipole. Most visualization tools for vector fields use only samples of the field on the vertices of a regular grid, and some sort of interpolation, for example, trilinear, on the grid cells. There is less risk of missing or misinterpreting topological features if they can be derived directly from the analytic formula for the field, rather than from its samples. This work presents a method which is guaranteed to find all the critical points of the electric field from a finite set of point charges. To visualize the field topology, we have modified the saddle connector method to use the analytic formula for the field.

  17. Industry-sponsored economic studies in critical and intensive care versus studies sponsored by nonprofit organizations. (United States)

    Hartmann, Michael; Knoth, Holger; Schulz, Diane; Knoth, Sven; Meier-Hellmann, Andreas


    The purpose of this analysis of health economic studies in the field of intensive and critical care was to investigate whether any relationship could be established between type of sponsorship and (1) type of economic analysis, (2) health technology assessed, (3) sensitivity analysis performed, (4) publication status, and (5) qualitative cost assessment. Using the terms critical care or intensive care, all health economics publications in the field of critical and intensive care were identified in the Health Economic Evaluations Database (HEED, Version 1995-2001) on the basis of sponsorship and comparative studies. This search yielded a total of 42 eligible articles. Their evaluations were prepared independently by 2 investigators on the basis of specific criteria. When evaluators disagreed, a third investigator provided a deciding evaluation. There was no statistically demonstrable relationship between types of sponsorship and sensitivity analysis performed, publication status, types of economic analysis, or qualitative cost assessment.

  18. Bourdieu's Habitus and Field: Implications on the Practice and Theory of Critical Action Learning (United States)

    Warwick, Rob; McCray, Janet; Board, Douglas


    This paper considers the logic of practice of the French sociologist Pierre Bourdieu in relation to critical action learning: in particular "habitus" which is co-created with field and the interplay amongst the two in the form of misrecognition and risk. We draw on interviews with participants who have experienced action learning as part…

  19. Beyond Capitalist Realism - Why We Need Critical Future Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Goode


    Full Text Available This paper introduces the interdisciplinary field of Critical Future Studies (CFS. CFS investigates the scope and constraints within public culture for imagining and debating different potential futures. It interrogates imagined futures founded - often surreptitiously - upon values and assumptions from the past and present, as well as those representing a departure from current social trajectories. CFS draws on perspectives from various disciplines including sociology, political studies, intellectual history, cultural history, media and cultural studies, utopian studies, science and technology studies, and philosophy. CFS also engages with discourses and ideas from the natural sciences (including popular science, computing and economics. And, given our concern with public culture, CFS aims to contribute constructively to vigorous and imaginative public debate about the future - a futural public sphere - and to challenge a prevalent contemporary cynicism about our capacity to imagine alternative futures while trapped in a parlous present. To that extent, we propose CFS as a programme of engaged and open-ended social critique, not as a solely academic endeavour. Our paper begins by describing the relationship between CFS and mainstream Future Studies. Subsequently, we discuss the contemporary context for Critical Future Studies. Here we make the case that CFS is a timely and even urgent project at our current historical juncture, arguing also for the significance of both utopian and dystopian imaginings. We then go on to discuss methodologies within CFS scholarship. Finally, we conclude by reflecting on the values underpinning CFS. Overall, this paper not only describes CFS as a field of research but also serves as an invitation to cultural scholars to consider how their own work might intersect with and contribute to CFS.

  20. Critical Thinking and Online Supplemental Instruction: A Case Study (United States)

    Shaw, Cassandra S.; Holmes, Karen E.


    A wealth of research is available regarding supplemental instruction; however, a dearth exists regarding online supplemental instruction and critical thinking. This case study explored what was assumed to be known of critical thinking and investigated the extent to which critical thought was promoted within a university's online supplemental…

  1. Developing critical thinking through Socratic Questioning: An Action Research Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husniah Sahamid


    Full Text Available An action research study was conducted among 24 Form 4 level Malaysian students, aged 16. The duration of the study was five months and constituted 16 one-hour literature lessons (short stories from the secondary level Malaysian English Language Upper Secondary Level school syllabus. This paper describes my experience as a teacher-as-researcher to assist students to respond to teacher questions through Paul’s (1993 model of Socratic Questioning which claims to develop students’ critical thinking. Data was collected through researcher’s field notes, students’ writing tasks and student interviews which were analysed after each cycle of the action research study. Changes and adaptations were consequently made based on the data collected and upon teacher reflection to improve practice. The results of this study indicate that repeated practice of Socratic Questioning had a positive effect on student responses and writing tasks. Some of the factors affecting students’ performance included students’ language proficiency, weak reading ability and students’ anxiety towards the questioning method. These issues had to be addressed and dealt with, before Socratic Questioning could be properly implemented in the classroom. Keywords: Socratic questioning, teacher questioning, critical thinking, action research

  2. Studies in quantum field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, C.M.; Mandula, J.E.; Shrauner, J.E.


    Washington University is currently conducting research in many areas of high energy theoretical and mathematical physics. These areas include: strong-coupling approximation; classical solutions of non-Abelian gauge theories; mean-field approximation in quantum field theory; path integral and coherent state representations in quantum field theory; lattice gauge calculations; the nature of perturbation theory in large orders; quark condensation in QCD; chiral symmetry breaking; the l/N expansion in quantum field theory; effective potential and action in quantum field theories, including QCD.

  3. Ernesto Laclau and Critical Media Studies: Marxism, Capitalism, and Critique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jannick


    and post-Marxism by arguing that rather than abandoning Marxism, Laclau actively situates his own work as a dialogue with and against this tradition. Second, the paper addresses the relation between Laclau’s analysis of so-called globalised capitalism and political struggle, which leads to a discussion...... and needs to receive further attention by future research. By providing an extended discussion of Laclau’s own work, this paper seeks to contribute to the critical application of discourse theory within the field of media studies and contribute to the on-going dialogue between Marxism, post......Ernesto Laclau’s post-Marxist discourse theory is increasingly utilised within media studies in order to investigate discourses circulating about, within, and through media. Discourse theory has proved itself to be a productive theoretical asset that can yield important empirical insights...

  4. SANS studies of critical phenomena in ternary mixtures

    CERN Document Server

    Bulavyn, L A; Hohryakov, A; Garamus, V; Avdeev, M; Almasy, L


    Critical behaviour of a quasi-binary liquid mixture is investigated by small-angle neutron scattering. Analysis of the changes of the critical parameters, caused by addition of a small amount of electrolyte into the binary mixture 3-methylpyridine-heavy water, shows that the third component does not change the 3D Ising-type behaviour of the system; a crossover towards the mean-field behaviour is not observed. (orig.)

  5. Frameworks for future critical STS studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markham, Annette

    conceptual trajectories that can be use to build a framework for critical STS scholarship in digital futures. Datafication. This term marks the growing tendency to digitize, quantify, and transform human experience into data. When used as part of big data calculations, our experiences are equalized...... and flattened into data points, giving the illusion that all experiences are equally meaningful and ultimately accessible. Our digital traces are stored in large government and privately held data centers, bought and sold for marketing, personalization of apps, or just to keep track of us. Data...... are simultaneously invisible and everywhere. They assume an “itness,” making their qualities seem concrete and incontrovertible. Algorithmic interpellation happens as algorithms manipulate data and feed us information about ourselves. Future norms and structures are emerging through current designs and frameworks...

  6. Critical web literacy: a study of six Chinese university students


    Li, Xiaochun


    This study investigated the ways in which six Chinese university students, who were studying English as a compulsory component of their degrees, used the Internet in their everyday lives. The focus was on how their online activities contributed to the development of their critical literacy capabilities. The notion of critical web literacy provides the study’s conceptual framework. It draws on a range of theoretical resources associated with the New Literacy Studies, critical literacy theories...

  7. Anisotropic upper critical magnetic fields in Rb2Cr3As3superconductor. (United States)

    Tang, Zhang-Tu; Liu, Yi; Bao, Jin-Ke; Xi, Chuan-Ying; Pi, Li; Cao, Guang-Han


    Rb 2 Cr 3 As 3 is a structurally one-dimensional superconductor containing Cr 3 As 3 chains with a superconducting transition temperature of [Formula: see text] K. Here we report the electrical resistance measurements for Rb 2 Cr 3 As 3 single crystals, under magnetic fields up to 29.5 T and at temperatures down to 0.36 K, from which the upper critical fields, [Formula: see text], can be obtained in a broad temperature range. For field parallel to the Cr 3 As 3 chains, [Formula: see text] is paramagnetically limited with an initial slope of [Formula: see text]d[Formula: see text]/d[Formula: see text] T [Formula: see text] and a zero-temperature upper critical field of [Formula: see text] T. For field perpendicular to the Cr 3 As 3 chains, however, [Formula: see text] is only limited by orbital pair-breaking effect with [Formula: see text]d[Formula: see text]/d[Formula: see text] T [Formula: see text]. As a consequence, the anisotropy [Formula: see text] decreases sharply near T c and reverses below 2 K. Remarkably, the low-temperature [Formula: see text] down to 0.075 [Formula: see text] remains to increase linearly up to over three times the Pauli paramagnetic limit, which strongly suggests dominant spin-triplet superconductivity in Rb 2 Cr 3 As 3 .

  8. Surface critical magnetic field Hc3(T) of a bulk superconductor MgB2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Two-band Ginzburg–Landau (TB G–L) equations for a bulk MgB2 were solved analyti- cally to determine the temperature dependence of surface critical magnetic field Hc3(T). It is shown that Hc3(T) has the same temperature dependence with Hc2(T), similar to the case of a single-band superconductor, Hc3(T) ...

  9. Field theory of bicritical and tetracritical points. IV. Critical dynamics including reversible terms. (United States)

    Folk, R; Holovatch, Yu; Moser, G


    This article concludes a series of papers [Folk, Holovatch, and Moser, Phys. Rev. E 78, 041124 (2008); 78, 041125 (2008); 79, 031109 (2009)] where the tools of the field theoretical renormalization group were employed to explain and quantitatively describe different types of static and dynamic behavior in the vicinity of multicritical points. Here we give the complete two-loop calculation and analysis of the dynamic renormalization-group flow equations at the multicritical point in anisotropic antiferromagnets in an external magnetic field. We find that the time scales of the order parameters characterizing the parallel and perpendicular ordering with respect to the external field scale in the same way. This holds independent whether the Heisenberg fixed point or the biconical fixed point in statics is the stable one. The nonasymptotic analysis of the dynamic flow equations shows that due to cancellation effects the critical behavior is described, in distances from the critical point accessible to experiments, by the critical behavior qualitatively found in one-loop order. Although one may conclude from the effective dynamic exponents (taking almost their one-loop values) that weak scaling for the order parameter components is valid, the flow of the time-scale ratios is quite different, and they do not reach their asymptotic values. © 2012 American Physical Society

  10. Critical frequency for coalescence of emulsions in an AC electric field (United States)

    Liu, Zhou; Ali, Faizi Hammad; Shum, Ho Cheung


    Applying an electric field to trigger the coalescence of emulsions has been applied in various applications which include crude oil recovery, emulsion stability characterization as well as pico-injection and droplet-based chemical reaction in microfluidics. In this work, we systematically investigated the responses of surfactant-stabilized emulsions to a controlled AC electric field using a customer-built chip. At a given amplitude of the AC voltage, we found a critical frequency beyond which the emulsions remain stable. When the frequency is decreased to below the critical value, emulsions coalesce immediately. Such critical frequency is found to be dependent of amplitude of the AC voltage, viscosity of the fluids, concentration and type of the surfactant as well as the electric conductivity of the droplet phase. Using a model based on the drainage of thin film, we have explored the mechanism behind and interpret this phenomenon systematically. Our work extends the understanding of the electro-coalescence of emulsions and can be beneficial for any applications involve the coalescence of droplets in an AC electric field.

  11. Influence of oxygen doping on critical fields in MgB2 bulk superconductors (United States)

    Zhang, D.; Li, X.; Wan, F.; Thong, C. J.; Rindfleisch, M. A.; Tomsic, M. J.; Sumption, M. D.; Collings, E. W.


    In this work we studied the influence of SnO2 doping on the critical fields and temperatures of MgB2 bulk samples. Bulk samples were made by mixing ex-situ MgB2 powder with 5 wt% SnO2 powder and then pressing the mixed powders into pellets using a pressure of 2000 psi. The bulk pellets were sintered at 900°C in a furnace under flowing Ar. The samples were quenched to room temperature after dwelling at 900°C for 5h. XRD, SEM, and magnetic measurements were made on doped and control samples. XRD showed a decomposition of the SnO2 and very slight reductions in the a-axis and c-axis lattice parameters of the MgB2 phase. M-T (Magnetization-Temperature) curves showed a decrease in Bc2 of approximately 1 T in the temperature range of 24 K - 39 K with SnO2 additions as compared to the control samples.

  12. Unusual upper critical field behavior in Nb-doped bismuth selenides (United States)

    Kobayashi, Kaya; Ueno, T.; Fujiwara, H.; Yokoya, T.; Akimitsu, J.


    We investigate superconductivity in the candidate topological superconductor NbxBi2Se3 from x =0 to 1. We observe superconductivity for all x >0 with a superconducting transition temperature TC˜ 3 K similar to that reported in Cu- and Sr-intercalated Bi2Se3 . Structurally, for small x we find introduction of Nb modifies the Bi2Se3 separation while for larger x the system is driven to the BiSe structure. While all compounds are found to be superconducting, two distinct behaviors for the upper critical field Hc 2 are observed. From photoemission spectroscopy we find that the enhanced Hc 2 corresponds to compounds with a low surface Dirac point energy (-0.67 eV) relative to the Fermi level; in absolute scale this value is lower than previously reported superconductors in this materials family. We comment on the utility of this system for the study of topological superconductivity in a new structure type combining a doping (Bi2 type) layer and layers with topologically protected gapless state (Bi2Se3 type).

  13. Critical Current Test of Liquid Hydrogen Cooled HTC Superconductors under External Magnetic Field (United States)

    Shirai, Yasuyuki; Shiotsu, Masahiro; Tatsumoto, Hideki; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Naruo, Yoshihiro; Nonaka, Satoshi; Inatani, Yoshifumi

    High-Tc (HTC) superconductors including MgB2 will show excellent properties under temperature of Liquid Hydrogen (LH2:20K), which has large latent heat and low viscosity coefficient. In order to design and fabricate the LH2 cooled superconducting energy devices, we must clear the cooling property of LH2 for superconductors, the cooling system and safety design of LH2 cooled superconducting devices and electro-magnetic property evaluation of superconductors (BSCCO, REBCO and MgB2) and their magnets cooled by LH2. As the first step of the study, an experimental setup which can be used for investigating heat transfer characteristics of LH2 in a pool and also in forced flow (circulation loop with a pump), and also for evaluation of electro-magnetic properties of LH2 cooled superconductors under external magnetic field (up to 7 T). In this paper, we will show a short sketch of the experimental set-up, practical experiences in safety operation of liquid hydrogen cooling system and example test results of critical current evaluation of HTC superconductors cooled by LH2.

  14. Advertisement Analysis: A Comparative Critical Study (United States)

    Abdelaal, Noureldin Mohamed; Sase, Amal Saleh


    This study aimed at analyzing two advertisements, and investigating how advertisers use discourse and semiotics to make people and customers buy into their ideas, beliefs, or simply their products. The two advertisements analyzed are beauty products which have been selected from internet magazines. The methodology adopted in this study is…

  15. The Emerging Field of Quantitative Blood Metabolomics for Biomarker Discovery in Critical Illnesses (United States)

    Serkova, Natalie J.; Standiford, Theodore J.


    Metabolomics, a science of systems biology, is the global assessment of endogenous metabolites within a biologic system and represents a “snapshot” reading of gene function, enzyme activity, and the physiological landscape. Metabolite detection, either individual or grouped as a metabolomic profile, is usually performed in cells, tissues, or biofluids by either nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy or mass spectrometry followed by sophisticated multivariate data analysis. Because loss of metabolic homeostasis is common in critical illness, the metabolome could have many applications, including biomarker and drug target identification. Metabolomics could also significantly advance our understanding of the complex pathophysiology of acute illnesses, such as sepsis and acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome. Despite this potential, the clinical community is largely unfamiliar with the field of metabolomics, including the methodologies involved, technical challenges, and, most importantly, clinical uses. Although there is evidence of successful preclinical applications, the clinical usefulness and application of metabolomics in critical illness is just beginning to emerge, the advancement of which hinges on linking metabolite data to known and validated clinically relevant indices. In addition, other important aspects, such as patient selection, sample collection, and processing, as well as the needed multivariate data analysis, have to be taken into consideration before this innovative approach to biomarker discovery can become a reliable tool in the intensive care unit. The purpose of this review is to begin to familiarize clinicians with the field of metabolomics and its application for biomarker discovery in critical illnesses such as sepsis. PMID:21680948

  16. Kiloampere, Variable-Temperature, Critical-Current Measurements of High-Field Superconductors. (United States)

    Goodrich, L F; Cheggour, N; Stauffer, T C; Filla, B J; Lu, X F


    K to those measured on the same specimen in flowing helium gas ("gas" or I c gas) at the same temperature. These comparisons indicate the temperature control is effective over the superconducting wire length between the voltage taps, and this condition is valid for all types of sample investigated, including Nb-Ti, Nb3Sn, and MgB2 wires. The liquid/gas comparisons are used to study the variable-temperature measurement protocol that was necessary to obtain the "correct" critical current, which was assumed to be the I c liq. We also calibrated the magnetoresistance effect of resistive thermometers for temperatures from 4 K to 35 K and magnetic fields from 0 T to 16 T. This calibration reduces systematic errors in the variable-temperature data, but it does not affect the liquid/gas comparison since the same thermometers are used in both cases.

  17. Critical Appraisal of Mixed Methods Studies (United States)

    Heyvaert, Mieke; Hannes, Karin; Maes, Bea; Onghena, Patrick


    In several subdomains of the social, behavioral, health, and human sciences, research questions are increasingly answered through mixed methods studies, combining qualitative and quantitative evidence and research elements. Accordingly, the importance of including those primary mixed methods research articles in systematic reviews grows. It is…

  18. Critical Issues in Psychological Autopsy Studies (United States)

    Pouliot, Louise; De Leo, Diego


    This paper reviews research based on the psychological autopsy (PA) method applied to the study of suicide. It evidences the presence of a number of methodological problems. Shortcomings concern sampling biases in the selection of control subjects, confounding influences of extraneous variables, and reliability of the assessment instruments. The…

  19. A Critical Study of Iranian EFL Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Molavi Vardanjani


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the theoretical and pedagogical issues in EFL learning and instruction to explore the research problem ‘the EFL teaching deficiencies in Iranian classrooms’. The primary aim of this study is to provide a solid overview of the second language teaching methods and approaches in the context of English as a foreign language in Iran. The theoretical issues discussed include research on the nature of the two commonly used Grammar Translation Method (GTM and Communicative Language Teaching approaches (CLT, the methodology and strategies employed in Iranian EFL classrooms and evaluating the students’ achievement from the point of view of language teachers and learners. To fulfill the aims of the study, a modified version of a BALLI questionnaire was employed. Results show that in spite of its deficiencies, both teachers and students still prefer to use the traditional GTM.

  20. Industrial Water Analysis Program: A Critical Study. (United States)


    The effect that time has on the boiler water constituents is an important aspect which must be considered when reviewing the results of the independent laboratory [2:441. Research Objectives The objectives of this study are the following: 1. Review the current Air Force practice of...any substance which tends to keep a compound, mixture, or solution from changing its form or chemical nautre [6:964]. Quebracho tannin : [a chemical

  1. Role of critical points of the skin friction field in formation of plumes in thermal convection

    CERN Document Server

    Bandaru, Vinodh; Padberg-Gehle, Kathrin; Schumacher, Jörg


    The dynamics in the thin boundary layers of temperature and velocity is the key to a deeper understanding of turbulent transport of heat and momentum in thermal convection. The velocity gradient at the hot and cold plates of a Rayleigh-B\\'{e}nard convection cell forms the two-dimensional skin friction field and is related to the formation of thermal plumes in the respective boundary layers. Our analysis is based on a direct numerical simulation of Rayleigh-B\\'{e}nard convection in a closed cylindrical cell of aspect ratio $\\Gamma=1$ and focused on the critical points of the skin friction field. We identify triplets of critical points, which are composed of two unstable nodes and a saddle between them, as the characteristic building block of the skin friction field. Isolated triplets as well as networks of triplets are detected. The majority of the ridges of line-like thermal plumes coincide with the unstable manifolds of the saddles. From a dynamical Lagrangian perspective, thermal plumes are formed together ...

  2. Critical behavior of mean-field spin glasses on a dilute random graph (United States)

    DeSanctis, Luca; Barra, Adriano; Folli, Viola


    We provide a rigorous strategy to find the critical exponents of the overlaps for dilute spin glasses, in the absence of an external field. Such a strategy is based on the expansion of a suitably perturbed average of the overlaps, which is used in the formulation of the free energy as the difference between a cavity part and the derivative of the free energy itself, considered as a function of the connectivity of the model. We assume the validity of certain reasonable approximations, equivalent to assuming a second-order transition, e.g. that higher powers of overlap monomials are of smaller magnitude near the critical point, of which we do not provide a rigorous proof.

  3. Critical behavior of mean-field spin glasses on a dilute random graph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Sanctis, Luca [Dipartimento di Matematica e di Psicologia, Universita di Bologna, P.zza di Porta San Donato 5, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Barra, Adriano; Folli, Viola [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita La Sapienza, P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Roma (Italy)], E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:


    We provide a rigorous strategy to find the critical exponents of the overlaps for dilute spin glasses, in the absence of an external field. Such a strategy is based on the expansion of a suitably perturbed average of the overlaps, which is used in the formulation of the free energy as the difference between a cavity part and the derivative of the free energy itself, considered as a function of the connectivity of the model. We assume the validity of certain reasonable approximations, equivalent to assuming a second-order transition, e.g. that higher powers of overlap monomials are of smaller magnitude near the critical point, of which we do not provide a rigorous proof.

  4. Critical dynamics a field theory approach to equilibrium and non-equilibrium scaling behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Täuber, Uwe C


    Introducing a unified framework for describing and understanding complex interacting systems common in physics, chemistry, biology, ecology, and the social sciences, this comprehensive overview of dynamic critical phenomena covers the description of systems at thermal equilibrium, quantum systems, and non-equilibrium systems. Powerful mathematical techniques for dealing with complex dynamic systems are carefully introduced, including field-theoretic tools and the perturbative dynamical renormalization group approach, rapidly building up a mathematical toolbox of relevant skills. Heuristic and qualitative arguments outlining the essential theory behind each type of system are introduced at the start of each chapter, alongside real-world numerical and experimental data, firmly linking new mathematical techniques to their practical applications. Each chapter is supported by carefully tailored problems for solution, and comprehensive suggestions for further reading, making this an excellent introduction to critic...

  5. Mainstreaming Critical Disability Studies: Towards Undoing the Last Prejudice (United States)

    McDonald-Morken, Colleen Ann


    According to critical disability studies scholars, disablism may be the fundamental system of unearned advantaging and disadvantaging upon which all other notions of difference-as-deviance are constructed. If so, a deeply critical and intersectional investigation of enabled privilege/disablism prepares a grounding from which seeds of novel and…

  6. Study of marine magnetic field

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhattacharya, G.C.

    ,000nT near the magnetic poles. The dip of the geomagnetic field in the northern hemisphere is downward (+ ve ) towards the north and in the southern hemisphere is upwards (- ve ). This dip is vertical at the magnetic poles and horizontal... synergistic attitude. Essentially, interpretation is a process of trying to reconcile various types of evidence into a complete geologically understandable picture. In practice, by integrating results of other methods, the interpreter derives a...

  7. Field measurements of supermarket refrigeration systems. Part II: Analysis of HFC refrigeration systems and comparison to CO2 trans-critical


    Sawalha, Samer; Piscopiello, Salvatore; Karampour, Mazyar; Manickam, Louis; Rogstam, Jörgen


    This part of the study investigates the performance of HFC refrigeration systems for supermarkets and compares the performance with alternative CO2 trans-critical solutions. The investigated HFC system solutions are typical in supermarkets in Sweden. The analysis in this study is based on field measurements which were carried out in three supermarkets in Sweden. The results are compared to the findings from Part I of this study where five CO2 trans-critical systems were analyzed. Using the fi...

  8. Metabolic Desynchronization in Critical Conditions: Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Livanov


    Full Text Available Objective. To conduct an experimental study of the impact of the time of administration of succinic acid preparations on central nervous system (CNS function and gas exchange while simulating metabolic therapy for severe poisoning by ethyl alcohol. The study was performed on 74 male albino rats weighing 140—180 g. Acute severe and very severe intoxication was simulated, by intraabdominally administering 30% ethanol to the rats. Cytoflavin was used to simulate experimental therapy. The rate of gas exchange was estimated by the oxygen uptake determined by the closed chamber method in a Regnault apparatus (Germany. Spontaneous bioelectrical activity was recorded in the frontooccipital lead by the routine procedure. External pain stimulation and rhythmical photostimulation were employed to evaluate cerebral responsiveness. Heterodirectional EEG changes in the «early» and «late» administration of succinate were not followed by the similar alterations of gas exchange: oxygen consumption in both the «early» and «late» administration of succinate remained significantly lower than in the control animals. With the late administration of succinate to the animals with mixed (toxic and hypoxic coma, the so-called discrepancy between the noticeably increased energy production and brutally diminished metabolism occurred. It may be just the pathological mechanism that was the basis for higher mortality in the late succinate administration group. The findings and their analysis make it possible to advance a hypothesis that succinate may cause metabolic desynchronization if activation of metabolic processes takes place under severe tissue respiratory tissue depression. In these cases, there is a severe damage to tissue and chiefly the brain. This manifests itself as EEG epileptiform activity splashes preceding the animals’ death. Therefore, resuscitation aimed at restoring the transport of oxygen and its involvement in tissue energy processes should

  9. DNA Scaffolded Silver Clusters: A Critical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidisha Sengupta


    Full Text Available Fluorescent silver nanoclusters (Ag-NCs are in prominence as novel sensing materials due to their biocompatibility, photostability, and molecule-like optical properties. The present work is carried out on an array (17 sequences of 16 bases long cytosine rich, single stranded DNA templates 5′-C3XiC3XiiC3XiiiC3Xiv-3′ where i, ii, iii, iv correspond to T/G/C deoxynucleobases (with default base A. Among all the oligonucleotides, a sequence C3AC3AC3TC3G (3T4G has been identified, which grows three different near-infrared-emitting NC species with absorption/emission maxima at ~620/700 (species I, 730/800 (species II, and 830 (Species III nm, respectively. The nature of the spectral profiles, along with relevant parameters namely absorption maximum (\\(\\lambda_{abs}^{max}\\, emission maximum (\\(\\lambda_{em}^{max}\\, anisotropy (r, lifetime (\\(\\tau\\, circular dichroism spectral data are used to understand the microenvironments of the fluorescent NC species I, II, and III. DNA:Ag stiochiometric, pH and solvent dependent studies proved that i-motif scaffolds with different folding topologies are associated with the growth of these three species and a certain concentration of silver and H+ favor the growth of species III. Size exclusion chromatographic measurements provided similar indications that a folded, more compact, classic i-motif template is associated with the formation of the longer NIR (~830 nm absorbing species. This study provides a more definitive approach to design and obtain a targeted DNA templated Ag-NC with required emission properties for biophysical and cellular applications.

  10. Anisotropy of the critical field in CeCu/sub 2/Si/sub 2/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliev, F.G.; Brandt, N.B.; Moshchalkov, V.V.; Zalyalyutdinov, M.K.; Lutsiv, R.V.; Yasnitskii, R.I.; Chudinov, S.M.


    An anisotropy (approx.170%) of the derivative of the upper critical field at T = T/sub c/ has been observed in the compound CeCu/sub 2/Si/sub 2/ during rotation of H in a plane near the basis plane. This anisotropy indicates that the superconducting gap may vanish along a line on the Fermi surface in this compound, in which a superconductivity arises in a heavy-fermion system at pressures p> or approx. =1 kbar. The anisotropy disappears at p>9 kbar.

  11. Growth and decay of runaway electrons above the critical electric field under quiescent conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paz-Soldan, C., E-mail: [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830-8050 (United States); Eidietis, N. W.; Wesley, J. C. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Granetz, R. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Hollmann, E. M.; Moyer, R. A. [University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States); Zhang, J.; Crocker, N. A. [University of California Los Angeles, P.O. Box 957099, Los Angeles, California 90095-7099 (United States); Austin, M. E. [University of Texas at Austin, 2100 San Jacinto Blvd, Austin, Texas 78712-1047 (United States); Wingen, A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Zhu, Y. [University of California Irvine, University Dr., Irvine, California 92697 (United States)


    Extremely low density operation free of error field penetration supports the excitation of trace-level quiescent runaway electron (RE) populations during the flat-top of DIII-D Ohmic discharges. Operation in the quiescent regime allows accurate measurement of all key parameters important to RE excitation, including the internal broadband magnetic fluctuation level. RE onset is characterized and found to be consistent with primary (Dreicer) generation rates. Impurity-free collisional suppression of the RE population is investigated by stepping the late-time main-ion density, until RE decay is observed. The transition from growth to decay is found to occur 3–5 times above the theoretical critical electric field for avalanche growth and is thus indicative of anomalous RE loss. This suggests that suppression of tokamak RE avalanches can be achieved at lower density than previously expected, though extrapolation requires predictive understanding of the RE loss mechanism and magnitude.

  12. Quantum entanglement and criticality of the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model in an external field (United States)

    Liu, Guang-Hua; Li, Ruo-Yan; Tian, Guang-Shan


    By Lanczos exact diagonalization and the infinite time-evolving block decimation (iTEBD) technique, the two-site entanglement as well as the bipartite entanglement, the ground state energy, the nearest-neighbor correlations, and the magnetization in the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg (AFH) model under an external field are investigated. With increasing external field, the small size system shows some distinct upward magnetization stairsteps, accompanied synchronously with some downward two-site entanglement stairsteps. In the thermodynamic limit, the two-site entanglement, as well as the bipartite entanglement, the ground state energy, the nearest-neighbor correlations, and the magnetization are calculated, and the critical magnetic field hc = 2.0 is determined exactly. Our numerical results show that the quantum entanglement is sensitive to the subtle changing of the ground state, and can be used to describe the magnetization and quantum phase transition. Based on the discontinuous behavior of the first-order derivative of the entanglement entropy and fidelity per site, we think that the quantum phase transition in this model should belong to the second-order category. Furthermore, in the magnon existence region (h behavior of block entanglement which can be described by a free bosonic field theory is observed, and the central charge c is determined to be 1.

  13. Quantum entanglement and criticality of the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg model in an external field. (United States)

    Liu, Guang-Hua; Li, Ruo-Yan; Tian, Guang-Shan


    By Lanczos exact diagonalization and the infinite time-evolving block decimation (iTEBD) technique, the two-site entanglement as well as the bipartite entanglement, the ground state energy, the nearest-neighbor correlations, and the magnetization in the antiferromagnetic Heisenberg (AFH) model under an external field are investigated. With increasing external field, the small size system shows some distinct upward magnetization stairsteps, accompanied synchronously with some downward two-site entanglement stairsteps. In the thermodynamic limit, the two-site entanglement, as well as the bipartite entanglement, the ground state energy, the nearest-neighbor correlations, and the magnetization are calculated, and the critical magnetic field h(c) = 2.0 is determined exactly. Our numerical results show that the quantum entanglement is sensitive to the subtle changing of the ground state, and can be used to describe the magnetization and quantum phase transition. Based on the discontinuous behavior of the first-order derivative of the entanglement entropy and fidelity per site, we think that the quantum phase transition in this model should belong to the second-order category. Furthermore, in the magnon existence region (h entanglement which can be described by a free bosonic field theory is observed, and the central charge c is determined to be 1.

  14. Critical behavior of a tumor growth model: directed percolation with a mean-field flavor. (United States)

    Lipowski, Adam; Ferreira, António Luis; Wendykier, Jacek


    We examine the critical behavior of a lattice model of tumor growth where supplied nutrients are correlated with the distribution of tumor cells. Our results support the previous report [Ferreira et al., Phys. Rev. E 85, 010901(R) (2012)], which suggested that the critical behavior of the model differs from the expected directed percolation (DP) universality class. Surprisingly, only some of the critical exponents (β, α, ν([perpendicular]), and z) take non-DP values while some others (β', ν(||), and spreading-dynamics exponents Θ, δ, z') remain very close to their DP counterparts. The obtained exponents satisfy the scaling relations β=αν(||), β'=δν(||), and the generalized hyperscaling relation Θ+α+δ=d/z, where the dynamical exponent z is, however, used instead of the spreading exponent z'. Both in d=1 and d=2 versions of our model, the exponent β most likely takes the mean-field value β=1, and we speculate that it might be due to the roulette-wheel selection, which is used to choose the site to supply a nutrient.

  15. Conformal field theory of critical Casimir forces between surfaces with alternating boundary conditions in two dimensions (United States)

    Dubail, J.; Santachiara, R.; Emig, T.


    Systems as diverse as binary mixtures and inclusions in biological membranes, and many more, can be described effectively by interacting spins. When the critical fluctuations in these systems are constrained by boundary conditions, critical Casimir forces (CCF) emerge. Here we analyze CCF between boundaries with alternating boundary conditions in two dimensions, employing conformal field theory (CFT). After presenting the concept of boundary changing operators, we specifically consider two different boundary configurations for a strip of critical Ising spins: (I) alternating equi-sized domains of up and down spins on both sides of the strip, with a possible lateral shift, and (II) alternating domains of up and down spins of different size on one side and homogeneously fixed spins on the other side of the strip. Asymptotic results for the CCF at small and large distances are derived. We introduce a novel modified Szegö formula for determinants of real antisymmetric block Toeplitz matrices to obtain the exact CCF and the corresponding scaling functions at all distances. We demonstrate the existence of a surface renormalization group flow between universal force amplitudes of different magnitude and sign. The Casimir force can vanish at a stable equilibrium position that can be controlled by parameters of the boundary conditions. Lateral Casimir forces assume a universal simple cosine form at large separations.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schaaf, Marike; Beelen, Anita; Dongelmans, Dave A.; Vroom, Margreeth B.; Nollet, Frans


    Objective: To determine the time course of functional health status, and to inventory impairments in body functions, limitations in activities, and restrictions in participation after critical illness. Design: Prospective observational cohort study. Setting: Mixed medical and surgical closed format;

  17. Magnet Lab Highlight: Upper critical field reaches 90 tesla near the Mott transition in fulleride superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcdonald, Ross David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The alkali-doped fullerides provide the first example of a transition from a three-dimensional Mott insulator to a superconductor, enabling the effects of both dimensionality and electron correlation on superconductivity to be explored. Chemically the alkali species tunes the superconductivity in the vicinity of the the Mott transition via sample volume. Measuring the relationship between the superconducting transition temperature and upper critical field reveals a crossover from weak- to strong-coupling associated with the dynamical Jahn–Teller effect as the Mott transition is approached. The use of pulsed magnets is required because the upper critical field is enhanced in the vicinity of the Mott insulating phase, reaching 90 T for RbxCs3-xC60 — the highest among cubic crystals. This required close collaboration between Prof Kasahara’s group and the Mag Lab to design rf-measurements compatible with sample encapsulation in an inert atmosphere. The concomitant increase of pairing strength with lattice volume near the Mott transition suggest that the cooperative interplay between molecular electronic structure and strong electron correlations plays a key role in realizing robust superconductivity (with high-TC and high-HC2).

  18. Automated Critical PeakPricing Field Tests: 2006 Pilot ProgramDescription and Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David; Motegi, Naoya; Kiliccote, Sila


    During 2006 Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and the Demand Response Research Center (DRRC) performed a technology evaluation for the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) Emerging Technologies Programs. This report summarizes the design, deployment, and results from the 2006 Automated Critical Peak Pricing Program (Auto-CPP). The program was designed to evaluate the feasibility of deploying automation systems that allow customers to participate in critical peak pricing (CPP) with a fully-automated response. The 2006 program was in operation during the entire six-month CPP period from May through October. The methodology for this field study included site recruitment, control strategy development, automation system deployment, and evaluation of sites' participation in actual CPP events through the summer of 2006. LBNL recruited sites in PG&E's territory in northern California through contacts from PG&E account managers, conferences, and industry meetings. Each site contact signed a memorandum of understanding with LBNL that outlined the activities needed to participate in the Auto-CPP program. Each facility worked with LBNL to select and implement control strategies for demand response and developed automation system designs based on existing Internet connectivity and building control systems. Once the automation systems were installed, LBNL conducted communications tests to ensure that the Demand Response Automation Server (DRAS) correctly provided and logged the continuous communications of the CPP signals with the energy management and control system (EMCS) for each site. LBNL also observed and evaluated Demand Response (DR) shed strategies to ensure proper commissioning of controls. The communication system allowed sites to receive day-ahead as well as day-of signals for pre-cooling, a DR strategy used at a few sites. Measurement of demand response was conducted using two different baseline models for estimating peak load savings. One

  19. Correlation of Electric Field and Critical Design Parameters for Ferroelectric Tunable Microwave Filters (United States)

    Subramanyam, Guru; VanKeuls, Fred W.; Miranda, Felix A.; Canedy, Chadwick L.; Aggarwal, Sanjeev; Venkatesan, Thirumalai; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy


    The correlation of electric field and critical design parameters such as the insertion loss, frequency ability return loss, and bandwidth of conductor/ferroelectric/dielectric microstrip tunable K-band microwave filters is discussed in this work. This work is based primarily on barium strontium titanate (BSTO) ferroelectric thin film based tunable microstrip filters for room temperature applications. Two new parameters which we believe will simplify the evaluation of ferroelectric thin films for tunable microwave filters, are defined. The first of these, called the sensitivity parameter, is defined as the incremental change in center frequency with incremental change in maximum applied electric field (EPEAK) in the filter. The other, the loss parameter, is defined as the incremental or decremental change in insertion loss of the filter with incremental change in maximum applied electric field. At room temperature, the Au/BSTO/LAO microstrip filters exhibited a sensitivity parameter value between 15 and 5 MHz/cm/kV. The loss parameter varied for different bias configurations used for electrically tuning the filter. The loss parameter varied from 0.05 to 0.01 dB/cm/kV at room temperature.

  20. Experimental Study on Ferromagnetic Shunt Effects on the Critical Current of BSCCO Tape in Stacked Conductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Sun


    Full Text Available In the 200 m high temperature superconducting (HTS cable test facility at Chubu University constructed in 2010, a three-layer structure of the tapes in the cable is employed for obtaining the high current capacity up to 2 kA. Previous study shows that the critical current is affected by the layout of the tapes such as gaps and the current feeding mode. In the stacked tape conductors, the critical current of BSCCO tapes shows strong dependence on the current feeding directions between the tapes. The critical current is improved when the opposite-direction current is applied to them and degraded for the same-direction current feeding mode because of strong magnetic field interaction between them from the transport current in each tape. This paper presents the measurements of the critical currents of a BSCCO tape in the stacked conductors with the ferromagnetic materials. By using the ferromagnetic materials surrounding the tapes, self-field of HTS tapes is affected and their critical currents are improved by more than 10%. Ferromagnetic shunt effects on the critical current of HTS tape are reported through the magnetic field analysis.

  1. Personality and field of study choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Humburg, M.


    Field of study choice has far-reaching implications for individuals enrolling in university. Field of study choice is strongly linked to the subject matter graduates will specialize in, the kind of work environment they will be working in, and the returns to their skills they can expect once they

  2. Critical collapse of a rotating scalar field in 2 +1 dimensions (United States)

    JałmuŻna, Joanna; Gundlach, Carsten


    We carry out numerical simulations of the collapse of a complex rotating scalar field of the form Ψ (t ,r ,θ )=ei m θΦ (t ,r ), giving rise to an axisymmetric metric, in 2 +1 spacetime dimensions with cosmological constant Λ 0 is very different from the case m =0 we have considered before: the thresholds for mass scaling and Ricci scaling are significantly different (for the same family); scaling stops well above the scale set by Λ , and the exponents depend strongly on the family. Hence, in contrast to the m =0 case, and to many other self-gravitating systems, there is only weak evidence for the collapse threshold being controlled by a self-similar critical solution and no evidence for it being universal.

  3. Rapid Capability Fielding Toolbox Study (United States)


    skipped  or  attenuated, depending on the specific effort) are as follows:   The  process  is  initiated  with  the  identification  and  careful ...O.L., “Modeling Methods and Conceptual Design Principles for Reconfigurable Systems”,  Journal  of Mechanical Design, 139, 101102, October 2008.  15...Motorola  Dennis Roberson is Vice Provost and Executive Director of the Institute of Business and  Interprofessional   Studies, as well as Acting

  4. Delirium in Critically Ill Children: An International Point Prevalence Study. (United States)

    Traube, Chani; Silver, Gabrielle; Reeder, Ron W; Doyle, Hannah; Hegel, Emily; Wolfe, Heather A; Schneller, Christopher; Chung, Melissa G; Dervan, Leslie A; DiGennaro, Jane L; Buttram, Sandra D W; Kudchadkar, Sapna R; Madden, Kate; Hartman, Mary E; deAlmeida, Mary L; Walson, Karen; Ista, Erwin; Baarslag, Manuel A; Salonia, Rosanne; Beca, John; Long, Debbie; Kawai, Yu; Cheifetz, Ira M; Gelvez, Javier; Truemper, Edward J; Smith, Rebecca L; Peters, Megan E; O'Meara, A M Iqbal; Murphy, Sarah; Bokhary, Abdulmohsen; Greenwald, Bruce M; Bell, Michael J


    To determine prevalence of delirium in critically ill children and explore associated risk factors. Multi-institutional point prevalence study. Twenty-five pediatric critical care units in the United States, the Netherlands, New Zealand, Australia, and Saudi Arabia. All children admitted to the pediatric critical care units on designated study days (n = 994). Children were screened for delirium using the Cornell Assessment of Pediatric Delirium by the bedside nurse. Demographic and treatment-related variables were collected. Primary study outcome measure was prevalence of delirium. In 159 children, a final determination of mental status could not be ascertained. Of the 835 remaining subjects, 25% screened positive for delirium, 13% were classified as comatose, and 62% were delirium-free and coma-free. Delirium prevalence rates varied significantly with reason for ICU admission, with highest delirium rates found in children admitted with an infectious or inflammatory disorder. For children who were in the PICU for 6 or more days, delirium prevalence rate was 38%. In a multivariate model, risk factors independently associated with development of delirium included age less than 2 years, mechanical ventilation, benzodiazepines, narcotics, use of physical restraints, and exposure to vasopressors and antiepileptics. Delirium is a prevalent complication of critical illness in children, with identifiable risk factors. Further multi-institutional, longitudinal studies are required to investigate effect of delirium on long-term outcomes and possible preventive and treatment measures. Universal delirium screening is practical and can be implemented in pediatric critical care units.

  5. Field and temperature scaling of the critical current density in commercial REBCO coated conductors

    CERN Document Server

    Senatore, Carmine; Bonura, Marco; Kulich, Miloslav; Mondonico, Giorgio


    Scaling relations describing the electromagnetic behaviour of coated conductors (CCs) greatly simplify the design of REBCO-based devices. The performance of REBCO CCs is strongly influenced by fabrication route, conductor architecture and materials, and these parameters vary from one manufacturer to the others. In the present work we have examined the critical surface for the current density, Jc(T,B,θ ), of coated conductors from six different manufacturers: American Superconductor Co. (US), Bruker HTS GmbH (Germany), Fujikura Ltd. (Japan), SuNAM Co. Ltd. (Korea), SuperOx ZAO (Russia) and SuperPower Inc. (US). Electrical transport and magnetic measurements were performed at temperatures between 4.2 K and 77 K and in magnetic field up to 19 T. Experiments were conducted at three different orientations of the field with respect to the crystallographic c-axis of the REBCO layer, θ = 0deg , 45deg and 90deg , in order to probe the angular anisotropy of Jc. In spite of the large variability of CCs performance, ...

  6. Effect of the axial stress and the magnetic field on the critical current and the electric resistance of the joints between HTS coated conductors (United States)

    Konstantopoulou, K.; Sarazin, M.; Granados, X.; Y Pastor, J.; Obradors, X.


    High temperature superconducting (HTS) wires require a detailed characterization of the possible degradation of their properties by handling at room temperature as well as during their service life, establishing the limits for associated functional devices and systems. In this paper, we study the mechanical behavior of spliced joints between commercial HTS coated conductors based on YBCO at room (300 K) and service temperatures (77 K). Single lap shear tests were performed and the evolution of the critical current and electric resistivity of the joints were measured. The complete strain field for the tape and joints was also obtained by digital image correlation. In addition, tensile tests under an external magnetic field were performed, and the effect of the applied field on the critical current and electric resistivity of the joints were studied. Finally, finite element simulations were employed to reproduce the distribution of the stress field developed in the spliced joint samples during axial loading.

  7. Use of homeopathic preparations in phytopathological models and in field trials: a critical review. (United States)

    Betti, Lucietta; Trebbi, Grazia; Majewsky, Vera; Scherr, Claudia; Shah-Rossi, Devika; Jäger, Tim; Baumgartner, Stephan


    The literature on the applications of homeopathy for controlling plant diseases in both plant pathological models and field trials was first reviewed by Scofield in 1984. No other review on homeopathy in plant pathology has been published since, though much new research has subsequently been carried out using more advanced methods. To conduct an up-to-date review of the existing literature on basic research in homeopathy using phytopathological models and experiments in the field. A literature search was carried out on publications from 1969 to 2009, for papers that reported experiments on homeopathy using phytopathological models (in vitro and in planta) and field trials. The selected papers were summarized and analysed on the basis of a Manuscript Information Score (MIS) to identify those that provided sufficient information for proper interpretation (MIS>or=5). These were then evaluated using a Study Methods Evaluation Procedure (SMEP). A total of 44 publications on phytopathological models were identified: 19 papers with statistics, 6 studies with MIS>or=5. Publications on field were 9, 6 with MIS>or=5. In general, significant and reproducible effects with decimal and centesimal potencies were found, including dilution levels beyond the Avogadro's number. The prospects for homeopathic treatments in agriculture are promising, but much more experimentation is needed, especially at a field level, and on potentisation techniques, effective potency levels and conditions for reproducibility. Phytopathological models may also develop into useful tools to answer pharmaceutical questions.

  8. Studying Irony Detection Beyond Ironic Criticism: Let's Include Ironic Praise. (United States)

    Bruntsch, Richard; Ruch, Willibald


    Studies of irony detection have commonly used ironic criticisms (i.e., mock positive evaluation of negative circumstances) as stimulus materials. Another basic type of verbal irony, ironic praise (i.e., mock negative evaluation of positive circumstances) is largely absent from studies on individuals' aptitude to detect verbal irony. However, it can be argued that ironic praise needs to be considered in order to investigate the detection of irony in the variety of its facets. To explore whether the detection ironic praise has a benefit beyond ironic criticism, three studies were conducted. In Study 1, an instrument (Test of Verbal Irony Detection Aptitude; TOVIDA) was constructed and its factorial structure was tested using N = 311 subjects. The TOVIDA contains 26 scenario-based items and contains two scales for the detection of ironic criticism vs. ironic praise. To validate the measurement method, the two scales of the TOVIDA were experimentally evaluated with N = 154 subjects in Study 2. In Study 3, N = 183 subjects were tested to explore personality and ability correlates of the two TOVIDA scales. Results indicate that the co-variance between the ironic TOVIDA items was organized by two inter-correlated but distinct factors: one representing ironic praise detection aptitude and one representing ironic criticism detection aptitude. Experimental validation showed that the TOVIDA items truly contain irony and that item scores reflect irony detection. Trait bad mood and benevolent humor (as a facet of the sense of humor) were found as joint correlates for both ironic criticism and ironic praise detection scores. In contrast, intelligence, trait cheerfulness, and corrective humor were found as unique correlates of ironic praise detection scores, even when statistically controlling for the aptitude to detect ironic criticism. Our results indicate that the aptitude to detect ironic praise can be seen as distinct from the aptitude to detect ironic criticism. Generating

  9. Challenges of traction in critical care: a case study. (United States)

    Harvey, C V


    Traction can sometimes seem like an overwhelming challenge in the critical care setting not only to the patient and family, but also to the nurse. Critical care nurses must know the principles, purposes, methods, and patient care considerations necessary to be able to provide appropriate care and teaching for the patient in traction. This article describes these principles and then illustrates them through a case study. The case describes a patient who experiences multiple trauma and focuses on the nurse's role in the care of this patient in traction.

  10. The Crisis of Critique in Critical Management Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lystbæk, Christian Tang

    two kinds or lines of critique in critical management studies. With reference to the German philosopher Immanuel Kant, these two kinds or lines of critique can be characterized as a “reflective” conception of critique and a “receptive” conception of critique. The reflective conception of critique...

  11. Post-Fordism, Political Economy, and Critical Organizational Communication Studies. (United States)

    Nadesan, Majia Holmer


    Introduces readers to the literature on post-Fordism by first describing the social and economic phenomena that it seeks to explain and then by introducing the divergent research approaches that contest the scope and effects of post-Fordist phenomena. Suggests that critical organizational communication studies has much to gain, analytically and…

  12. Interpretive and Critical Phenomenological Crime Studies: A Model Design (United States)

    Miner-Romanoff, Karen


    The critical and interpretive phenomenological approach is underutilized in the study of crime. This commentary describes this approach, guided by the question, "Why are interpretive phenomenological methods appropriate for qualitative research in criminology?" Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to describe a model of the interpretive…

  13. Predictors of Critical Acute Pancreatitis: A Prospective Cohort Study


    Ke, Lu; Tong, Zhi-hui; Li, Wei-Qin; Wu, Congye; Li, Ning; Windsor, John A.; Li, Jie-Shou; Petrov, Maxim S.


    Abstract Critical acute pancreatitis (CAP) has recently emerged as the most ominous severity category of acute pancreatitis (AP). As such there have been no studies specifically designed to evaluate predictors of CAP. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the accuracy of 4 parameters (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation [APACHE] II score, C-reactive protein [CRP], D-dimer, and intra-abdominal pressure [IAP]) for predicting CAP early after hospital admission. During the study period, ...

  14. Studying Irony Detection Beyond Ironic Criticism: Let's Include Ironic Praise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Bruntsch


    Full Text Available Studies of irony detection have commonly used ironic criticisms (i.e., mock positive evaluation of negative circumstances as stimulus materials. Another basic type of verbal irony, ironic praise (i.e., mock negative evaluation of positive circumstances is largely absent from studies on individuals' aptitude to detect verbal irony. However, it can be argued that ironic praise needs to be considered in order to investigate the detection of irony in the variety of its facets. To explore whether the detection ironic praise has a benefit beyond ironic criticism, three studies were conducted. In Study 1, an instrument (Test of Verbal Irony Detection Aptitude; TOVIDA was constructed and its factorial structure was tested using N = 311 subjects. The TOVIDA contains 26 scenario-based items and contains two scales for the detection of ironic criticism vs. ironic praise. To validate the measurement method, the two scales of the TOVIDA were experimentally evaluated with N = 154 subjects in Study 2. In Study 3, N = 183 subjects were tested to explore personality and ability correlates of the two TOVIDA scales. Results indicate that the co-variance between the ironic TOVIDA items was organized by two inter-correlated but distinct factors: one representing ironic praise detection aptitude and one representing ironic criticism detection aptitude. Experimental validation showed that the TOVIDA items truly contain irony and that item scores reflect irony detection. Trait bad mood and benevolent humor (as a facet of the sense of humor were found as joint correlates for both ironic criticism and ironic praise detection scores. In contrast, intelligence, trait cheerfulness, and corrective humor were found as unique correlates of ironic praise detection scores, even when statistically controlling for the aptitude to detect ironic criticism. Our results indicate that the aptitude to detect ironic praise can be seen as distinct from the aptitude to detect ironic

  15. Kajian Strategi Pengamanan Infrastruktur Sumber Daya Informasi Kritis [Study of Critical Information Resources Infrastructure Security Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Budi Setiawan


    Full Text Available Infrastruktur informasi kritis merupakan salah satu infrastruktur kritis yang menggabungkan antara infrastruktur telekomunikasi serta jaringan internet yang digunakan dalam pelayanan publik. Dengan demikian, infrastruktur informasi kritis  harus beroperasi dengan aman dan memenuhi aspek keamanan informasi. Kajian ini adalah studi kasus pada infrastruktur informasi kritis sebagai salah satu infrastruktur kritis Nasional yang digunakan dalam pelayanan publik. Adapun infrastruktur informasi kritis yang dijadikan studi kasus adalah pada bidang energi ketenagalistrikan. Tujuan kajian ini adalah memberikan masukan pada kebijakan pengamanan infrastruktur kritis berdasarkan studi kasus yang dilakukan. Kajian ini dilakukan dengan metode gabungan kuantitatif dan kualitatif yang mengkombinasikan hasil penilaian risiko pada obyek riset dengan pendapat pengambil kebijakan, akademisi, pakar dan praktisi. Hasil kajian ini adalah masukan untuk kebijakan dan kerangka kerja pengamanan infrastruktur kritis khususnya sector TIK. *****Critical information infrastructure is one of the critical infrastructure that combines telecommunications infrastructure and Internet networks used in the public service. Thus, the critical information infrastructure must operate safely and meet the aspects of information security. This study is a case study on critical information infrastructure as one of the critical national infrastructure used in public service. The critical information infrastructure which is used as a case study is in the field of electricity energy. The purpose of this sudy is to provide input on critical infrastructure security policy based on case studies conducted. This study was conducted with the combined quantitative and qualitative method that combines the results of the risk assessment on the research object with the opinion of policy makers, academics, experts and practitioners. These results are input to the policy framework and securing critical

  16. Numerical analysis of temperature field improvement with nanoparticles designed to achieve critical power dissipation in magnetic hyperthermia (United States)

    Tang, Yundong; Flesch, Rodolfo C. C.; Jin, Tao


    Magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) hyperthermia is a promising emerging therapy for cancer treatment that is minimally invasive and has been successfully used to treat different types of tumors. The power dissipation of MNPs, which is one of the most important factors during a hyperthermia treatment, is determined by the properties of MNPs and characteristics of the magnetic field. This paper proposes a method based on the finite element analysis for determining the value of the power dissipation of particles (PDP) that can maximize the average temperature of the tumor during treatment and at the same time guarantee that the maximum temperature is within the therapeutic range. The application of the critical PDP value can improve the effectiveness of the treatment since it increases the average temperature in the tumor region while limiting the damage to the healthy tissue that surrounds it. After the critical PDP is determined for a specific model, it is shown how the properties of the MNPs can be chosen to achieve the desired PDP value. The transient behavior of the temperature distribution for two different models considering blood vessels is analyzed as a case study, showing that the presence of a blood vessel inside the tumor region can significantly decrease the uniformity of the temperature field and also increase the treatment duration given its cooling effects. To present a solution that does not depend upon a good model of the tumor region, an alternative method that uses MNPs with low Curie temperature is proposed, given the temperature self-regulating properties of such MNPs. The results demonstrate that the uniformity of the temperature field can be significantly increased by combining the optimization procedure proposed in this paper with the use of low-Curie-temperature MNPs.

  17. Breakdown and critical field evaluation for porous PZT 95/5 ferroelectric ceramics under shock wave compression (United States)

    Jiang, Yixuan; Wang, Xingzhe; Zhang, Fuping; He, Hongliang


    Bounded charges of PZT 95/5 ferroelectric ceramics with polarization can be rapidly released by shock wave loadings to form a high-power electrical energy output, which motivates pulsed power applications of ferroelectric materials. In the present paper, we first investigated experimentally the depoling current and output electric field, as well as the critical electric fields of breakdown for porous PZT 95/5 ceramics in the normal shock-wave-loaded mode by means of a gas-gun facility. By combining the output electric-field profile by shock loading with the breakdown of the quasi-static electric field, we were able to theoretically evaluate the range of the breakdown field for porous ferroelectric ceramics with different porosities under shock wave compression. Although it is a rough bound-field evaluation on breakdown of shocked porous PZT 95/5 ferroelectric ceramics suggested in the present work, it sounds reasonable and the predictions of critical field-bounds on the breakdown show good agreement with the magnitude of the experimental results. The influences of load resistance, porosity and velocity of shock wave on the lower and upper bounds of critical electric field for poled porous PZT 95/5 ceramics during the discharge process were also discussed.

  18. Reimagining the Educational Field: Thoughts on a Critical Criminology of Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Guebert


    Full Text Available Prompted by the need to expand the criminological enterprise, this paper makes a case for a critical criminology of education, one that takes a governance approach. It seeks to illustrate what such a criminology might entail by developing an analytic framework with which to analyze the educational field. The framework is put to use to provide an analytic discussion of Ontario education policy reformations concerning student discipline. Education was conceptualized by policymakers as an institution for disciplining and governing students, specifically through the concept of “bullying”. From this analysis, the paper suggests it is possible to theorize education as a “security apparatus”, one that is increasingly concerned with the governance of social (insecurity and public safety. The discussion suggests that education is an important institution for governing by identifying one regulatory project that concerns student behavior both within and beyond the school. In so doing, the paper illustrates the creative process in developing a criminology of education, and the value of imaginative thinking within criminology.

  19. Upper critical field reaches 90 tesla near the Mott transition in fulleride superconductors (United States)

    Kasahara, Y.; Takeuchi, Y.; Zadik, R. H.; Takabayashi, Y.; Colman, R. H.; McDonald, R. D.; Rosseinsky, M. J.; Prassides, K.; Iwasa, Y.


    Controlled access to the border of the Mott insulating state by variation of control parameters offers exotic electronic states such as anomalous and possibly high-transition-temperature (Tc) superconductivity. The alkali-doped fullerides show a transition from a Mott insulator to a superconductor for the first time in three-dimensional materials, but the impact of dimensionality and electron correlation on superconducting properties has remained unclear. Here we show that, near the Mott insulating phase, the upper critical field Hc2 of the fulleride superconductors reaches values as high as ~90 T--the highest among cubic crystals. This is accompanied by a crossover from weak- to strong-coupling superconductivity and appears upon entering the metallic state with the dynamical Jahn-Teller effect as the Mott transition is approached. These results suggest that the cooperative interplay between molecular electronic structure and strong electron correlations plays a key role in realizing robust superconductivity with high-Tc and high-Hc2.

  20. Moessbauer Studies of Static and Dynamic Critical Behavior. (United States)

    Chowdhury, Ataur Rahman

    Two separate studies were made on two distinct problems in the area of critical phenomena in Heisenberg ferromagnets by Mossbauer effect. The first study involves static critical behavior of a Heisenberg ferromagnet, Fe, randomly disordered by non-magnetic Al impurities. For the theoretical model best representing this system, the random exchange model, it is expected that the static critical exponents remain unchanged with addition of impurity. In order to test this prediction Mossbauer measurements were made to determine the critical exponent (beta). It is found that (beta) remains unchanged with addition of disorder, in agreement with the theoretical prediction. By inclusion of correction to scaling terms in the data analysis, a mean value of (beta) = 0.366(2) is found for five measurements on pure Fe and FeAl alloys. This value is in excellent agreement with the renormalization group prediction (beta) = 0.364(2). The second study concerns the dynamic critical behavior of Gd. The q-averaged atomic spin auto-correlation time, (tau)(,c) was measured from the excess broadening, (DELTA)(GAMMA) of the Mossbauer linewidth of ('161)Dy just above T(,c). On the assumption that the spin fluctuations are isotropic and describable by dynamic scaling theory, (DELTA)(GAMMA) is directly proportional to (tau)(,c) and is expressable as a power law, (DELTA)(GAMMA) = Dt('-w), in an exponent w = (nu)(z-1-(eta)), related to the static exponents (nu) and (eta) and the dynamic exponent z. Theory predicts for Heisenberg ferro- magnets that z = 2.5 (2.0) for spin conserved (non-conserved) order parameter. From measurements in the range 3 x 10('-4) < (T - T(,c))/T(,c) < 3 x 10('-2) we deduced 1.30 < z < 1.52. This anomalous value is much lower than any current theoretical predictions.

  1. Critical Security Studies in the 21st Century: Any Directions for Lithuanian Security Studies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakniūnaitė Dovilė


    Full Text Available This article focuses on recent developments and discussions in the field of security studies and aims to suggest new guidelines for the research of Lithuanian security policy. First it covers the main subjects of contemporary security discourse; next it provides evaluation and review of the critical tradition in security studies that frames presuppositions and is the means for analyzing specific security issues as well as that which fosters reflexive thinking about security. The third part deals with three topics of security research (analysis of security through the concepts of risk, exceptionality and media which have become talking-points in recent years and which have provided innovative insights in security studies.

  2. Sleeping with the enemy: Audience studies and critical literacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, J.; van den Berg, A.; Mol, M.


    Audience studies is not the vibrant field it was in its 1980s and early 1990s heyday. Cultural studies today has a more balanced interest in production, audiences and texts. A renewed focus in audience studies on everyday meaning production, identity and relations of power could benefit from recent

  3. [Introduction to critical reading of articles: study design and biases]. (United States)

    García Villar, C


    The critical evaluation of an article enables professionals to make good use of the new information and therefore has direct repercussions for the benefit of our patients. Before undertaking a detailed critical reading of the chosen article, we need to consider whether the study used the most appropriate design for the question it aimed to answer (i.e., whether the level of evidence is adequate). To do this, we need to know how to classify studies in function of their design (descriptive or analytical; prospective or retrospective; cross-sectional or longitudinal) as well as their correlation with the levels of evidence. In critical reading it is also important to know the main systematic errors or biases that can affect a study. Biases can appear in any phase of a study; they can affect the sample, the development of the study, or the measurement of the results. Copyright © 2014 SERAM. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. $P-V$ criticality of a specific black hole in $f(R)$ gravity coupled with Yang-Mills field arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Övgün, Ali

    In this paper, we study the $P-v$ criticality of a specific charged AdS type black hole (SBH) in $f(R)$ gravity coupled with Yang-Mills field. In the extended phase space, we treat the cosmological constant as a thermodynamic pressure. After we study the various thermodynamical quantities, we show that the thermodynamic properties of the SBH behave as a Van der Waals liquid-gas system at the critical points and there is a first order phase transition between small-large SBH.

  5. Critical current measurements of high-temperature superconducting short samples at a wide range of temperatures and magnetic fields. (United States)

    Ma, Hongjun; Liu, Huajun; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Huahui; Ci, Lu; Shi, Yi; Lei, Lei


    High-Temperature Superconductors (HTS) are potential materials for high-field magnets, low-loss transmission cables, and Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) due to their high upper critical magnetic field (H c2 ) and critical temperature (T c ). The critical current (I c ) of HTS, which is one of the most important parameters for superconductor application, depends strongly on the magnetic fields and temperatures. A new I c measurement system that can carry out accurate I c measurement for HTS short samples with various temperatures (4.2-80 K), magnetic fields (0-14 T), and angles of the magnetic field (0°-90°) has been developed. The I c measurement system mainly consists of a measurement holder, temperature-control system, background magnet, test cryostat, data acquisition system, and DC power supply. The accuracy of temperature control is better than ±0.1 K over the 20-80 K range and ±0.05 K when measured below 20 K. The maximum current is over 1000 A with a measurement uncertainty of 1%. The system had been successfully used for YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x (YBCO) tapes I c determination with different temperatures and magnetic fields.

  6. Numerical Study of Electric Field Enhanced Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Han, Jie


    Electric fields can be used to change and control flame properties, for example changing flame speed, enhancing flame stability, or reducing pollutant emission. The ions generated in flames are believed to play the primary role. Although experiments have been carried out to study electric field enhanced combustion, they are not sufficient to explain how the ions in a flame are affected by an electric field. It is therefore necessary to investigate the problem through numerical simulations. In the present work, the electric structure of stabilized CH4/air premixed flames at atmospheric pressure within a direct current field is studied using numerical simulations. This study consists of three parts. First, the transport equations are derived from the Boltzmann kinetic equation for each individual species. Second, a general method for computing the diffusivity and mobility of ions in a gas mixture is introduced. Third, the mechanisms for neutral and charged species are improved to give better predictions of the concentrations of charged species, based on experimental data. Following from this, comprehensive numerical results are presented, including the concentrations and fluxes of charged species, the distributions of the electric field and electric potential, and the electric current-voltage relation. Two new concepts introduced with the numerical results are the plasma sheath and dead zone in the premixed flame. A reactive plasma sheath and a Boltzmann relation sheath are discovered in the region near the electrodes. The plasma sheath penetrates into the flame gas when a voltage is applied, and penetrating further if the voltage is higher. The zone outside the region of sheath penetration is defined as the dead zone. With the two concepts, analytical solutions for the electric field, electric potential and current-voltage curve are derived. The solutions directly describe the electric structure of a premixed flame subject to a DC field. These analytical solutions

  7. Possibility of critical field enhancement due to field penetration in high-Tc sponges and thin films (United States)

    Collings, E. W.; Markoworth, A. J.; Marken, K. R., Jr.


    Magnetic susceptibility measurements of a sample of sintered high-Tc ceramic superconductor of nominal composition Y1Ba2Cu3O(7-y) were conducted as a function of temperature from liquid-He temperatures to Tc. The fitted form of the susceptibility temperature dependence yielded a sample-particle size that was only a few times larger than the field-penetration depth. The particle size was much less than the grain size and commensurate with the thickness of the optical twins. The results of the enhancement studies are also discussed in the light of Bean's (1964) early experiments on Pb sponges (in this case wavelength much greater than particle size) which exhibited spectacular enhancements of Hc in association with flux trapping at or between the Pb filaments. It is predicted that it should be possible, using presently available film-deposition techniques, to produce high-Tc films possessing severalfold enhancements of H(c1) beyond the bulk value, and that, as with the Pb sponges, the magnetization loops, even when taken within what passes for the Meissner state in such materials, will be hysteretic.

  8. Critical Issues in the Measurement of Ethnic and Racial Identity: A Referendum on the State of the Field (United States)

    Cokley, Kevin


    Ethnic and racial identity are among the most researched topics in the multicultural counseling literature. The popularity of these constructs, combined with ongoing controversies surrounding their measurement, warrants a critical examination by scholars in the field. The author contends that a combination of science and ideology has influenced…

  9. Embedding Culture in a Field Experience Seminar: Lessons Learned about Promoting Preservice Teacher Critical Consciousness in an Urban School Partnership (United States)

    Jacobs, Jennifer; Casciola, Vanessa; Arndt, Katie; Mallory, Mashainah


    This article reports the research findings of teacher educator inquiry using qualitative methods examining how incorporating the topic of culture into the field seminar component of a newly developed urban school-university partnership influenced preservice teachers' abilities to become critically conscious. After analyzing preservice teacher…

  10. Tendency toward crossover of the effective susceptibility exponent from its doubled Ising value to its doubled mean-field value near a double critical point. (United States)

    Pradeep, U K


    The critical behavior of osmotic susceptibility in an aqueous electrolyte mixture 1-propanol (1P) + water (W) + potassium chloride is reported. This mixture exhibits re-entrant phase transitions and has a nearly parabolic critical line with its apex representing a double critical point (DCP). The behavior of the susceptibility exponent is deduced from static light-scattering measurements, on approaching the lower critical solution temperatures (T(L)'s) along different experimental paths (by varying t) in the one-phase region. The light-scattering data analysis substantiates the existence of a nonmonotonic crossover behavior of the susceptibility exponent in this mixture. For the T(L) far away from the DCP, the effective susceptibility exponent gamma(eff) as a function of t displays a nonmonotonic crossover from its single limit three-dimensional (3D)-Ising value (approximately 1.24) toward its mean-field value with increase in t. While for that closest to the DCP, gamma(eff) displays a sharp, nonmonotonic crossover from its nearly doubled 3D-Ising value toward its nearly doubled mean-field value with increase in t. The renormalized Ising regime extends over a relatively larger t range for the T(L) closest to the DCP, and a trend toward shrinkage in the renormalized Ising regime is observed as T(L) shifts away from the DCP. Nevertheless, the crossover to the mean-field limit extends well beyond t>10(-2) for the T(L)'s studied. The observed crossover behavior is attributed to the presence of strong ion-induced clustering in this mixture, as revealed by various structure probing techniques. As far as the critical behavior in complex or associating mixtures with special critical points (like the DCP) is concerned, our results indicate that the influence of the DCP on the critical behavior must be taken into account not only on the renormalization of the critical exponent but also on the range of the Ising regime, which can shrink with decrease in the influence of the

  11. Surgery resident selection and evaluation. A critical incident study. (United States)

    Edwards, J C; Currie, M L; Wade, T P; Kaminski, D L


    This article reports a study of the process of selecting and evaluating general surgery residents. In personnel psychology terms, a job analysis of general surgery was conducted using the Critical Incident Technique (CIT). The researchers collected 235 critical incidents through structured interviews with 10 general surgery faculty members and four senior residents. The researchers then directed the surgeons in a two-step process of sorting the incidents into categories and naming the categories. The final essential categories of behavior to define surgical competence were derived through discussion among the surgeons until a consensus was formed. Those categories are knowledge/self-education, clinical performance, diagnostic skills, surgical skills, communication skills, reliability, integrity, compassion, organization skills, motivation, emotional control, and personal appearance. These categories were then used to develop an interview evaluation form for selection purposes and a performance evaluation form to be used throughout residency training. Thus a continuum of evaluation was established. The categories and critical incidents were also used to structure the interview process, which has demonstrated increased interview validity and reliability in many other studies. A handbook for structuring the interviews faculty members conduct with applicants was written, and an interview training session was held with the faculty. The process of implementation of the structured selection interviews is being documented currently through qualitative research.

  12. My Critique is Bigger than Yours: Constituting Exclusions in Critical Security Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Roger Mutimer


    Full Text Available Critical Security Studies proceeds from the premise that words are world-making, that is that the ways we think about security are constitutive of the worlds of security we analyse. Turned to conventional security studies and the practices of global politics, this critical insight has revealed the ways in which the exclusions that are the focus of this conference have been produced. Perhaps most notable in this regard has been David Campbell's work, showing how the theory and practice of security are an identity discourse producing both insides and outsides, but the production of excluded others is a theme that runs through the critical scholarship on security in the past decade or more. This article turns the critical security studies gaze on itself, to explore the field's own complicity in the production of exclusions. The article reads three important instances of critical security studies for the inclusions and exclusions they produce: Ken Booth's Theory of World Securitv, the epilogue to David Campbell's Writing Security, and the CASE Collective Manifesto. The article concludes by asking about the nature of the inclusions and exclusions these divisions produce and the politics which those exclusions, in turn, (reproduce.

  13. A simulation study of the critical ionization velocity process (United States)

    Machida, S.; Goertz, C. K.


    The critical ionization velocity process is studied by first investigating a coupled system of equations describing the production of several ion species and electrons by impact ionization, their collisions with neutrals, and the heating of electrons. Analytic relations derived from this were tested with the help of a particle simulation, including collisional processes between neutrals and plasma particles. It was found that resistive heating of electrons plays an important role when the density of the neutrals is high, and that electron heating due to lower hybrid waves is significant when the neutral density is low. In both cases, the control of the plasma production rate by the ratio of the beam velocity to the critical velocity was verified.

  14. Simulation study of the ionizing front in the critical ionization velocity phenomenon (United States)

    Machida, S.; Goertz, C. K.; Lu, G.


    The simulation of the critical ionization velocity for a neutral gas cloud moving across the static magnetic field is presented. A low-beta plasma is studied, using a two and a half-dimensional electrostatic code linked with the Plasma and Neutral Interaction Code (Goertz and Machida, 1987). The physics of the ionizing front and the instabilities which occur there are discussed. Results are presented from four numerical runs designed so that the effects of the charge separation field can be distinguished from the wave heating.

  15. "Idols" - A Game for Field Studies. (United States)

    Connally, James T.


    Described is a game for field studies titled "Idols." Idols is a struggle of intellect and reason against instinct and superstition. The game involves two "tribes" which are protecting a superstitious legacy while trying to replace it with other forms of wealth and understanding. (Author/DS)

  16. Jupiter Environmental Research & Field Studies Academy. (United States)

    Huttemeyer, Bob


    Describes the development and workings of the Jupiter Environmental Research and Field Studies Academy that focuses on enabling both teachers and students to participate in real-life learning experiences. Discusses qualifications for admittance, curriculum, location, ongoing projects, students, academics, preparation for life, problem solving, and…

  17. Video Field Studies with your Cell Phone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Fraser, Euan


    is monumental, that equipment is difficult to handle etc. This tutorial presents a lightweight entry into video field studies, using cheap devices like cell phones and portable webcams for informal shooting and simple computer handling for editing. E.g. how far can you get with an iPhone or a video capable i...

  18. Expatriate Compound Living: An Ethnographic Field Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan


    ethnographic field-work methodology, including interviews and participant observation during a period of three months, this exploratory study investigated 16 Danish business expatriates of a large Danish corporation and their families living in the same compound in Saudi Arabia. They shared their spare time...

  19. A multinational study of thromboprophylaxis practice in critically ill children. (United States)

    Faustino, Edward Vincent S; Hanson, Sheila; Spinella, Philip C; Tucci, Marisa; O'Brien, Sarah H; Nunez, Antonio Rodriguez; Yung, Michael; Truemper, Edward; Qin, Li; Li, Simon; Marohn, Kimberly; Randolph, Adrienne G


    Although critically ill children are at increased risk for developing deep venous thrombosis, there are few pediatric studies establishing the prevalence of thrombosis or the efficacy of thromboprophylaxis. We tested the hypothesis that thromboprophylaxis is infrequently used in critically ill children even for those in whom it is indicated. Prospective multinational cross-sectional study over four study dates in 2012. Fifty-nine PICUs in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Portugal, Singapore, Spain, and the United States. All patients less than 18 years old in the PICU during the study dates and times were included in the study, unless the patients were 1) boarding in the unit waiting for a bed outside the PICU or 2) receiving therapeutic anticoagulation. None. Of 2,484 children in the study, 2,159 (86.9%) had greater than or equal to 1 risk factor for thrombosis. Only 308 children (12.4%) were receiving pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis (e.g., aspirin, low-molecular-weight heparin, or unfractionated heparin). Of 430 children indicated to receive pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis based on consensus recommendations, only 149 (34.7%) were receiving it. Mechanical thromboprophylaxis was used in 156 of 655 children (23.8%) 8 years old or older, the youngest age for that device. Using nonlinear mixed effects model, presence of cyanotic congenital heart disease (odds ratio, 7.35; p children. This is true even for children at high risk of thrombosis where consensus guidelines recommend pharmacologic thromboprophylaxis.

  20. Electronic in-plane symmetry breaking at field-tuned quantum criticality in CeRhIn5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helm, T. [MPI-CPFS (Germany); Bachmann, M. [MPI-CPFS (Germany); Moll, P.J.W. [MPI-CPFS (Germany); Balicas, L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). National High Magnetic Field Lab. (MagLab); Chan, Mun Keat [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ramshaw, Brad [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mcdonald, Ross David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Balakirev, Fedor Fedorovich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bauer, Eric Dietzgen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ronning, Filip [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Electronic nematicity appears in proximity to unconventional high-temperature superconductivity in the cuprates and iron-arsenides, yet whether they cooperate or compete is widely discussed. While many parallels are drawn between high-Tc and heavy fermion superconductors, electronic nematicity was not believed to be an important aspect in their superconductivity. We have found evidence for a field-induced strong electronic in-plane symmetry breaking in the tetragonal heavy fermion superconductor CeRhIn5. At ambient pressure and zero field, it hosts an anti-ferromagnetic order (AFM) of nominally localized 4f electrons at TN=3.8K(1). Moderate pressure of 17kBar suppresses the AFM order and a dome of superconductivity appears around the quantum critical point. Similarly, a density-wave-like correlated phase appears centered around the field-induced AFM quantum critical point. In this phase, we have now observed electronic nematic behavior.

  1. Critical care physician cognitive task analysis: an exploratory study. (United States)

    Fackler, James C; Watts, Charles; Grome, Anna; Miller, Thomas; Crandall, Beth; Pronovost, Peter


    For better or worse, the imposition of work-hour limitations on house-staff has imperiled continuity and/or improved decision-making. Regardless, the workflow of every physician team in every academic medical centre has been irrevocably altered. We explored the use of cognitive task analysis (CTA) techniques, most commonly used in other high-stress and time-sensitive environments, to analyse key cognitive activities in critical care medicine. The study objective was to assess the usefulness of CTA as an analytical tool in order that physician cognitive tasks may be understood and redistributed within the work-hour limited medical decision-making teams. After approval from each Institutional Review Board, two intensive care units (ICUs) within major university teaching hospitals served as data collection sites for CTA observations and interviews of critical care providers. Five broad categories of cognitive activities were identified: pattern recognition; uncertainty management; strategic vs. tactical thinking; team coordination and maintenance of common ground; and creation and transfer of meaning through stories. CTA within the framework of Naturalistic Decision Making is a useful tool to understand the critical care process of decision-making and communication. The separation of strategic and tactical thinking has implications for workflow redesign. Given the global push for work-hour limitations, such workflow redesign is occurring. Further work with CTA techniques will provide important insights toward rational, rather than random, workflow changes.

  2. Magnetocaloric effect and its implementation in critical behaviour study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The magnetocaloric effect (MCE) and the field dependence of the magnetic entropy changes in the perovskite-type a 0.67 Ca 0.33 Mn 0.9 Fe 0.1 O 3 were studied using the phenomenological model. The model parameters were determined from the magnetization data adjustment and used to give better fits to magnetic ...

  3. Local Magnetic Fields in Ferromagnetics Studied by Positive Muon Precession

    CERN Multimedia


    Positive muons are used to study local magnetic fields in different materials. A polarized muon beam is employed with energies of 30-50 MeV, and the muons are stopped in the target being studied. During its lifetime the muon will precess in the magnetic fields present, and after the decay of the muon the emitted positron is detected in plastic scintillators. The time and angle of the detected positron is used to calculate the magnetic field at the position of the muon in the sample. \\\\ \\\\ The detector system consists of plastic scintillators. Most of the measurements are made in an applied magnetic field. A dilution cryostat is used to produce temperatures down to well below $ 1 ^0 $ K. \\\\ \\\\ The present line of experiments concern mainly: \\item a)~~~~Local magnetism in the paramagnetic state of the Lave's phase type REAl$_{2} $ and RENi$_{2} $ systems ~~~where RE is a rare-earth ion. \\item b)~~~~Local magnetic fields and critical behaviour of the magnetism in Gd metal. \\item c)~~~~Investigation of flux exclu...

  4. Crystal field interactions studied by high-field magnetization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radwanski, R.J.; Franse, J.J.M. (Van der Waals-Zeeman Lab., Univ. Amsterdam (Netherlands))


    The effect of crystalline electric field (CEF) interactions of the 4f ions on the magnetization process is reviewed for some intermetallic compounds. Special emphasis is given to metamagnetic transitions. The transitions in Ho{sub 2}Co{sub 17} are exchange-driven transitions associated with the formation of a non-collinear magnetic structure in contrast to the transition found in DyCo{sub 2}Si{sub 2} that is of a level-crossing type. The transition found in Pr{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B results from a competition between lower and higher order crystal field terms. The formation of the rare earth moment under the action of CEF and exchange interactions as well as of external fields is analyzed. (orig.).

  5. A Critical Fast Ion Beta in the Madison Symmetric Torus Reversed Field Pinch (United States)

    Capecchi, William J.

    The first fast-ion profile measurements have been made in a reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasma. A large population of fast-ions are deposited in the core of the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) through use of a 1 MW neutral beam injector (NBI) giving rise to a variety of beam-driven instabilities. One such mode, the energetic-particle mode (EPM) has been shown to reduce fast-ion content in MST, evident through drops in signal levels of the advanced neutral particle analyzer (ANPA). EPMs in MST appear as bursts of magnetic fluctuations at a lab frequency of ˜100 kHz reaching peak amplitude and decaying away within 100 microseconds. A burst ensemble of the neutron data does not reveal a drop in neutron emission across a burst, implying the population of fast-ions transported by a burst constitute a small fraction of the total. The burst may also pitch-angle scatter out of the ANPA phase space or be transported to mid-radius where charge-exchange with the background neutrals or fast-ion orbit stochasticity may reduce fast-ion confinement. Data gathered from the expanded neutron diagnostic suite including a new collimated neutron detector (CiNDe) was used to reconstruct the fast-ion profile in MST and measure critical fast-ion beta quantities. Measurements were made in plasma conditions with varying magnetic field strength in order to investigate the interplay between the energetic particle (EP) drive and Alfven continuum damping. The measured values of the core fast-ion beta (7.5% (1.2%) in 300 (500) kA plasmas) are reduced from classical predictions (TRANSP predicts up to 10% core value) due to EPM activity. The frequency, magnitude, and rate of occurrence of the bursts depends on the tearing mode amplitude, Alfven continuum damping rate, fast-ion profile shape, and resonant orbit dynamics. Marginal stability was reached in both moderate- (300 kA) and high- (500 kA) current discharges, marked by sustained EPM activity and a saturated global neutron signal during NBI

  6. A Critical Study of Selected Political Elites' Discourse in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biook Behnam


    Full Text Available This study explored how political elites can contribute to power enactment through using language. It started with a theoretical overview of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA, and then presented a corpus consisting of speeches of eight political elites, namely, Malcolm X, Noam Chomsky, Martin Luther King, Josef Stalin, Vladimir Lenin, Winston Churchill, J.F. Kennedy and Adolph Hitler. This study analyzed speeches in terms of figures of' speech, and interpreted them from the point of view of CDA using the framework introduced by Fairclough (1989 as a three-dimensional approach to the study of discourse (Description, Interpretation, Explanation and van Dijk (2004 as the theory of critical context analysis.. Speech figures are classified in this study into six main categories as Comparison, Grammar, Meaning, Parenthesis, Repetition and Rhetoric. The result of analyses reveals that while there are differences in the type and degree of speech figures employed by our selected individual political elites, there is one striking pattern which is common among all speeches: the frequent use of figures of Grammar, Repetition and Rhetoric

  7. Contextualizing critical care family needs through triangulation: an Australian study. (United States)

    Burr, G


    Family needs and concerns within the critical care context have been thoroughly explored from the quantitative perspective utilizing the Critical Care Family Needs Inventory (CCFNI). Nursing interventions have been designed on the basis of the findings from these studies. However, while the CCFNI would seem to encompass all the possible needs of families with a critically ill loved one, at no time were the family members themselves consulted at length in regard to the development of the instrument, or in any subsequent validation studies. Individual reality generates the variables that are measured in a needs analysis, and the family member experiences encompass dimensions that are not easily assessed by quantification. In fact the unique experiences of family members underpin their perception of need. Methodological triangulation formed the basis for this study to determine the degree of confirmation (or otherwise) between family member respondents to the CCFNI (n = 105) and those participating in an interview (n = 26) designed to explore needs and experiences. The qualitative data served the purpose of completeness by providing a more contextual representation of needs and therefore greater depth of understanding of the whole construct. The results indicate that, while there were many areas of convergence between the two samples, there were also areas of diveregence. Two major needs emerged from the interviews that are not represented on the CCFNI: the need of family members to provide reassurance and support to the patient; and their need to protect (others as well as the patient). A more complete understanding of family needs was obtained through the contextualization of their experiences.

  8. Microbial field pilot study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, R.M.; McInerney, M.J.; Menzie, D.E.; Coates, J.D.; Chisholm, J.L.


    A multi-well microbially enhanced oil recovery field pilot has been performed in the Southeast Vassar Vertz Sand Unit in Payne County, Oklahoma. The primary emphasis of the experiment was preferential plugging of high permeability zones for the purpose of improving waterflood sweep efficiency. Studies were performed to determine reservoir chemistry, ecology, and indigenous bacteria populations. Growth experiments were used to select a nutrient system compatible with the reservoir that encouraged growth of a group of indigenous nitrate-using bacteria and inhibit growth of sulfate-reducing bacteria. A specific field pilot area behind an active line drive waterflood was selected. Surface facilities were designed and installed. Injection protocols of bulk nutrient materials were prepared to facilitate uniform distribution of nutrients within the pilot area. By the end of December, 1991, 82.5 tons (75.0 tonnes) of nutrients had been injected in the field. A tracer test identified significant heterogeneity in the SEVVSU and made it necessary to monitor additional production wells in the field. The tracer tests and changes in production behavior indicate the additional production wells monitored during the field trial were also affected. Eighty two and one half barrels (13.1 m{sup 3}) of tertiary oil have been recovered. Microbial activity has increased CO{sub 2} content as indicated by increased alkalinity. A temporary rise in sulfide concentration was experienced. These indicate an active microbial community was generated in the field by the nutrient injection. Pilot area interwell pressure interference test results showed that significant permeability reduction occurred. The interwell permeabilities in the pilot area between the injector and the three pilot production wells were made more uniform which indicates a successful preferential plugging enhanced oil recovery project.

  9. Rotational symmetry breaking in the topological superconductor SrxBi2Se3 probed by upper-critical field experiments. (United States)

    Pan, Y; Nikitin, A M; Araizi, G K; Huang, Y K; Matsushita, Y; Naka, T; de Visser, A


    Recently it was demonstrated that Sr intercalation provides a new route to induce superconductivity in the topological insulator Bi2Se3. Topological superconductors are predicted to be unconventional with an odd-parity pairing symmetry. An adequate probe to test for unconventional superconductivity is the upper critical field, Bc2. For a standard BCS layered superconductor Bc2 shows an anisotropy when the magnetic field is applied parallel and perpendicular to the layers, but is isotropic when the field is rotated in the plane of the layers. Here we report measurements of the upper critical field of superconducting SrxBi2Se3 crystals (Tc = 3.0 K). Surprisingly, field-angle dependent magnetotransport measurements reveal a large anisotropy of Bc2 when the magnet field is rotated in the basal plane. The large two-fold anisotropy, while six-fold is anticipated, cannot be explained with the Ginzburg-Landau anisotropic effective mass model or flux flow induced by the Lorentz force. The rotational symmetry breaking of Bc2 indicates unconventional superconductivity with odd-parity spin-triplet Cooper pairs (Δ4-pairing) recently proposed for rhombohedral topological superconductors, or might have a structural nature, such as self-organized stripe ordering of Sr atoms.

  10. Critical constructivism: Concept and possibillities of its application in the field of education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milutinović Jovana


    Full Text Available The paper focuses on critical constructivism which, as a perspective of social constructivism, concentrates on the role of social and cultural environment in the creation of knowledge, including critical dimensions of the transformation of social meanings and practices. The aim of the research was to critically analyse educational potentialities of critical constructivism, especially when it comes to education for active citizenship and democracy. The basic concepts of this theoretic perspective are analysed as well as their implications for education, understanding the role of the teachers, and the curricula for their initial and in-service teacher training. The research results of the effects of the teaching practice framed by the ideas of critical constructivism are also presented. It may be concluded that the critical constructivistic perspective may be of special importance for preparing pupils for the role of active citizens who will participate in further democratization of the social community, as well as for life in the uncertain world of diversity. At the same time the theoretical analysis and the research results imply that in education and teaching practice more space should be given to developing pluralistic views which can unify elements of different theoretical perspectives and acquired experiential knowledge into a coherent basis for innovative acting.

  11. study of fractures in precambrian crystalline rocks using field ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    A thorough hydrogeological understanding is often a critical issue for cost effective .... obtained from the field exposures have been analyzed, by taking into account .... vegetation, topographic and drainage linearity (Lillesand 1989; Drury 1990; ...

  12. Ethics and Indian Television Content Portrayals: A Critical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bheemaiah Krishnan Ravi


    Full Text Available Ethics in communication approaches by the Indian electronic media, particularly television about its content on air are a heated debate in the country today. Why do channels adopt “devious” ways to lure the viewers? How fair are channels conducting media trials? Is judiciary in India unable to address that TV channels should take up head-on? Does political ownership of Channels affect ethical practices? Do artistes on programs pass-off comments that affect social order? Do channels air programs without prior permissions or copyrights from the artistes or organizers? What is the degree of professionalism and credibility among viewers? The theoretical framework of the study is based on the macroscopic theory of Political Economy. This critical study examines case studies of program content drawn from different pan-India channels, satellite or cable. This study focuses on media ethics and effects on society.

  13. Critical reading: integrating principles of critical discourse analysis and gender studies Critical reading: integrating principles of critical discourse analysis and gender studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Heberle


    Full Text Available Reading has become the most important skill in EFL teaching in Brazil, if we consider factors such as students’ needs in our globalized contemporary society, institutional support, teacher demands and learning-teaching conditions in our elementary and secondary schools. The interest in reading can be observed in the large number of different publications in the area and in the priority given to it in the new national curriculum parameters for foreign language teaching. Besides, several master’s and doctoral programs in Applied Linguistics or Language Studies in Brazil include research in reading as one of their main areas, specially since the development of the National ESP Project in Brazil (Moita Lopes, 1996. Reading has become the most important skill in EFL teaching in Brazil, if we consider factors such as students’ needs in our globalized contemporary society, institutional support, teacher demands and learning-teaching conditions in our elementary and secondary schools. The interest in reading can be observed in the large number of different publications in the area and in the priority given to it in the new national curriculum parameters for foreign language teaching. Besides, several master’s and doctoral programs in Applied Linguistics or Language Studies in Brazil include research in reading as one of their main areas, specially since the development of the National ESP Project in Brazil (Moita Lopes, 1996.

  14. Thermodynamic Critical Field and Superconducting Fluctuation of Vortices for High Temperature Cuprate Superconductor: La-214

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnemore, Douglas K. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Thermodynamics has been studied systematically for the high temperature cuprate superconductor La2-xSrxCuO4-δ, La-214, in the entire superconductive region from strongly underdoped to strongly overdoped regimes. Magnetization studies with H $\\parallel$ c have been made in order to investigate the changes in free energy of the system as the number of carriers is reduced. Above the superconducting transition temperature, the normal-state magnetization exhibits a two-dimensional Heisenberg antiferromagnetic behavior. Below Tc, magnetization data are thermodynamically reversible over large portions of the H-T plane, so the free energy is well defined in these regions. As the Sr concentration is varied over the wide range from 0.060 (strongly underdoped) to 0.234 (strongly overdoped), the free energy change goes through a maximum at the optimum doped in a manner similar to the Tc0 vs. x curve. The density of states, N(0), remains nearly constant in the overdoped and optimum doped regimes, taking a broad maximum around x = 0.188, and then drops abruptly towards zero in the underdoped regime. The La2-xSrxCuO4 (La-214) system displays the fluctuating vortex behavior with the characteristic of either 2D or 3D fluctuations as indicated by clearly identifiable crossing points T* close to Tc. The dimensional character of the fluctuations depends on both applied magnetic fields and the density of charge carriers. The dimensional crossover from 2D to 3D occurs in the strongly underdoped regime when the c-axis coherence distance ξc becomes comparable to the spacing between adjacent CuO2 layers s at sufficiently high magnetic field near Hc2.

  15. Energy tourism: An emerging field of study


    Frantál, B. (Bohumil); Urbánková, R.


    After conceptualizing the interrelationships between energy and tourism, the authors provide a definition of energy tourism as a new niche of industrial tourism, theorize on how it overlaps with other types of special interest tourism, and discuss specifics concerning its forms, locales, and possible societal impacts. Potential directions, along with research questions, for future research in the field of energy tourism are proposed. Then, the results of an explorative pilot study of energy t...

  16. Application of the string method to the study of critical nuclei in capillary condensation. (United States)

    Qiu, Chunyin; Qian, Tiezheng; Ren, Weiqing


    We adopt a continuum description for liquid-vapor phase transition in the framework of mean-field theory and use the string method to numerically investigate the critical nuclei for capillary condensation in a slit pore. This numerical approach allows us to determine the critical nuclei corresponding to saddle points of the grand potential function in which the chemical potential is given in the beginning. The string method locates the minimal energy path (MEP), which is the most probable transition pathway connecting two metastable/stable states in configuration space. From the MEP, the saddle point is determined and the corresponding energy barrier also obtained (for grand potential). Moreover, the MEP shows how the new phase (liquid) grows out of the old phase (vapor) along the most probable transition pathway, from the birth of a critical nucleus to its consequent expansion. Our calculations run from partial wetting to complete wetting with a variable strength of attractive wall potential. In the latter case, the string method presents a unified way for computing the critical nuclei, from film formation at solid surface to bulk condensation via liquid bridge. The present application of the string method to the numerical study of capillary condensation shows the great power of this method in evaluating the critical nuclei in various liquid-vapor phase transitions.

  17. Application of the string method to the study of critical nuclei in capillary condensation (United States)

    Qiu, Chunyin; Qian, Tiezheng; Ren, Weiqing


    We adopt a continuum description for liquid-vapor phase transition in the framework of mean-field theory and use the string method to numerically investigate the critical nuclei for capillary condensation in a slit pore. This numerical approach allows us to determine the critical nuclei corresponding to saddle points of the grand potential function in which the chemical potential is given in the beginning. The string method locates the minimal energy path (MEP), which is the most probable transition pathway connecting two metastable/stable states in configuration space. From the MEP, the saddle point is determined and the corresponding energy barrier also obtained (for grand potential). Moreover, the MEP shows how the new phase (liquid) grows out of the old phase (vapor) along the most probable transition pathway, from the birth of a critical nucleus to its consequent expansion. Our calculations run from partial wetting to complete wetting with a variable strength of attractive wall potential. In the latter case, the string method presents a unified way for computing the critical nuclei, from film formation at solid surface to bulk condensation via liquid bridge. The present application of the string method to the numerical study of capillary condensation shows the great power of this method in evaluating the critical nuclei in various liquid-vapor phase transitions.

  18. The factors influencing burnout and job satisfaction among critical care nurses: a study of Saudi critical care nurses. (United States)

    Alharbi, Jalal; Wilson, Rhonda; Woods, Cindy; Usher, Kim


    The aim of the study was to explore the prevalence of burnout and job satisfaction among Saudi national critical care nurses. Burnout is caused by a number of factors, including personal, organisational and professional issues. Previous literature reports a strong relationship between burnout and job satisfaction among critical care nurses. Little is known about this phenomenon among Saudi national critical care nurses. A convenience sample of 150 Saudi national critical care nurses from three hospitals in Hail, Saudi Arabia were included in a cross-sectional survey. Saudi national critical care registered nurses reported moderate to high levels of burnout in the areas of emotional exhaustion and depersonalisation. Participants also reported a feeling of ambivalence and dissatisfaction with their jobs but were satisfied with the nature of their work. Saudi national critical care nurses experience moderate to high levels of burnout and low levels of job satisfaction. Burnout is a predictor of job satisfaction for Saudi national critical care nurses. These results provide clear evidence of the need for nurse managers and policy makers to devise strategies to help nurses better cope with a stressful work environment, thereby also improving job satisfaction among Saudi national critical care nurses. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. The Gap and the Upper Critical Field Hc2 as Function of Doping for High-Tc Cuprates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Orozco


    Full Text Available The relation between the d-wave superconducting gap Δ0 and the specific heat obtained with the Volovik effect is used to determine the upper critical field Hc2 as doping function, for high-temperature superconductors. A two-components model with d-wave symmetry, within the BCS framework, is introduced to describe the superconducting state. Generalized Fermi surface topologies are used in order to increase the density of states at the Fermi level, allowing the high-Tc values observed. The electron-phonon interaction is considered the most relevant mechanism for the high-Tc cuprates, where the available phonon energy is provided by the half-breathing modes. The energy gap values Δ0 calculated with this model are introduced to describe the variation of the upper critical field Hc2 as function of doping, for La2-xSrxCuO4.

  20. Applications of Canonical transformations and nontrivial vacuum solutions to flavor mixing and critical phenomena in quantum field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishchenko, Yuriy [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)


    MISHCHENKO, YURIY. Applications of Canonical Transformations and Nontrivial Vacuum Solutions to flavor mixing and critical phenomena in Quantum Field Theory. (Under the direction of Chueng-Ryong Ji.) In this dissertation we consider two recent applications of Bogoliubov Transformation to the phenomenology of quantum mixing and the theory of critical phenomena. In recent years quantum mixing got in the focus of the searches for New Physics due to its unparalleled sensitivity to SM parameters and indications of neutrino mixing. It was recently suggested that Bogoliubov Transformation may be important in proper definition of the flavor states that otherwise results in problems in perturbative treatment. As first part of this dissertation we investigate this conjecture and develop a complete formulation of such a mixing field theory involving introduction of general formalism, analysis of space-time conversion and phenomenological implications. As second part of this dissertati

  1. Effect of the magnetic field orientation on the modulation period of the critical current of ramp-type Josephson junctions


    Heinsohn, J.-K.; Dittmann, R.; Niemeyer, J.; Rodriguez Contreras, J.; Goldobin, E.; Klushin, A. M.; Siegel, M.; Hagedorn, D.; Pöpel, R.; Dolata, R.; Buchholz, F. -I.


    We have investigated the dependence of the critical current I-C on the value and orientation of an externally applied magnetic field H for interface-engineered YBa2Cu3O7-x ramp-type Josephson junctions. The results are compared with measurements of Nb ramp-type junctions with a PdAu interlayer. The I-C versus H dependences are similar to Fraunhofer patterns and their modulation period changes several orders of magnitude with the orientation of the magnetic field. For both junction types, the ...

  2. A Critical Study of Informal New Media Uses in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiannis Mylonas


    Full Text Available This study looks at a variety of "informal" uses of new media and ICTs. The term informal describes popular uses of digital technologies that often exist outside the norms, laws, and codes that dictate how digital technologies and networks are to be used. Such activities include what is commonly described as "piracy," but also embrace different peer-to-peer practices. Informal activities develop due to the affordances of digital technologies, which allow space for creativity and personalization of use, but are also due to broader sociocultural variables and contextual issues. In general terms, informal activities are those that concern the amateur activities of people using digital programs, tools, and networks. Media scholars see great potential in new media/ICT affordances, as related to the proliferation of grassroots participation, communication, and creativity. Nevertheless, a growing critical literature forces us to examine the actualization of such potential. This paper discusses the aforementioned issues by looking at new media/ICT uses in Sweden; it departs from critical perspectives that take into consideration the political economy of new media, and the cultural-political critiques of late-modern consumer societies.

  3. Language as a Field of Energy: A Critical Question for Language Pedagogy (United States)

    Soter, Anna O.; Connors, Sean P.


    This essay offers a reorientation of our views on the interrelationships of language and thought as a field of constantly reprogrammable energy, and provides an argument as to why we believe this new metaphor (i.e., language as a field of energy) matters in language pedagogy, in classrooms at all levels, as well as within teacher education and…

  4. Sitting in the Waiting Room: Paulo Freire and the Critical Turn in the Field of Education (United States)

    Gottesman, Isaac


    Although it is commonly assumed that Paulo Freire was widely influential in the field of education in the United States immediately upon publication of his classic work, "Pedagogy of the Oppressed", in 1970, the historical evidence indicates otherwise. In fact, Freire's work only began to gain wide reception in the field in the mid- and late…

  5. Anisotropy of the upper critical field in the magnetic heavy-fermion superconductor URu2Si2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moshchalkov, V.V.; Aliev, F.; Kovachik, V.; Zalyaljutdinov, M.; Palstra, T.T.M.; Menovsky, A.A.; Mydosh, J.A.


    Measurements have been performed of the upper critical field Hc2 anisotropy in the magnetic heavy-fermion superconductor URu2Si2. The dHc2/dT value is constant within 5% when H is rotated in the basal plane, whereas |dHc2/dT| decreases by about 35% for H rotated by 20°–30° out of the basal plane.

  6. Predictors of critical acute pancreatitis: a prospective cohort study. (United States)

    Ke, Lu; Tong, Zhi-hui; Li, Wei-qin; Wu, Congye; Li, Ning; Windsor, John A; Li, Jie-shou; Petrov, Maxim S


    Critical acute pancreatitis (CAP) has recently emerged as the most ominous severity category of acute pancreatitis (AP). As such there have been no studies specifically designed to evaluate predictors of CAP. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the accuracy of 4 parameters (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation [APACHE] II score, C-reactive protein [CRP], D-dimer, and intra-abdominal pressure [IAP]) for predicting CAP early after hospital admission. During the study period, data on patients with AP were prospectively collected and D-dimer, CRP, and IAP levels were measured using standard methods at admission whereas the APACHE II score was calculated within 24 hours of hospital admission. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was applied and the likelihood ratios were calculated to evaluate the predictive accuracy. A total of 173 consecutive patients were included in the analysis and 47 (27%) of them developed CAP. The overall hospital mortality was 11% (19 of 173). APACHE II score ≥11 and IAP ≥13 mm Hg showed significantly better overall predictive accuracy than D-dimer and CRP (area under the ROC curve-0.94 and 0.92 vs. 0.815 and 0.667, correspondingly). The positive likelihood ratio of APACHE II score is excellent (9.9) but of IAP is moderate (4.2). The latter can be improved by adding CRP (5.8). In conclusion, of the parameters studied, APACHE II score and IAP are the best available predictors of CAP within 24 hours of hospital admission. Given that APACHE II score is rather cumbersome, the combination of IAP and CRP appears to be the most practical way to predict critical course of AP early after hospital admission.

  7. Enhancement of the critical current density in FeO-coated MgB2 thin films at high magnetic fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei E. Surdu


    Full Text Available The effect of depositing FeO nanoparticles with a diameter of 10 nm onto the surface of MgB2 thin films on the critical current density was studied in comparison with the case of uncoated MgB2 thin films. We calculated the superconducting critical current densities (Jc from the magnetization hysteresis (M–H curves for both sets of samples and found that the Jc value of FeO-coated films is higher at all fields and temperatures than the Jc value for uncoated films, and that it decreases to ~105 A/cm2 at B = 1 T and T = 20 K and remains approximately constant at higher fields up to 7 T.

  8. ESPRIT study design and outcomes--a critical appraisal. (United States)

    Einhäupl, Karl


    Evidence is needed to guide therapeutic decisions on patients who had ischaemic cerebral events. The recently published European/Australasian Stroke Prevention in Reversible Ischaemia Trial (ESPRIT), an open-label randomised controlled study, compared long-term treatment of patients randomised to aspirin 30-325 mg daily with (n = 1363) or without (n = 1376) dipyridamole 200 mg twice daily. The study found the combination to be superior to aspirin alone (13% vs. 16% events in a composite endpoint of vascular death, non-fatal stroke, non-fatal myocardial infarction, or major bleeding; hazard ratio 0.8; 95% confidence interval 0.66-0.98). In the interpretation of the results, criticism has been raised related to the study design (open-label, change during the study), the study conduct (half of the aspirin patients underdosed, 33% drop-out rate in the combination group, missing information on potential confounders such as protective concomitant medication), and the outcomes (lack of differences in the efficacy outcomes between the intent-to-treat and the on-treatment populations, lack of differences in minor bleedings between treatment groups, borderline statistical significance of primary study endpoint). Further studies are needed to determine the place of aspirin/dipyridamole combinations in the secondary prevention of stroke.

  9. The classics, African literature, and the critics | Field | English in Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... stretches from defensive cultural nationalism to an open-ended combination of the cosmopolitan and the vernacular. The article concludes that a combination of resistance and appropriation is the best way to make new and local these canonical texts. Keywords: Homer, African literature, Hellenism, Postcolonial criticism, ...

  10. Effect of the magnetic fields on microstructure and critical current properties of the Bi-2223 tapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, X.Y., E-mail: [Faculty of Engineering and Resource Science, Akita University, Akita 010-8502 (Japan); Nagata, A.; Sugawara, K. [Faculty of Engineering and Resource Science, Akita University, Akita 010-8502 (Japan); Watanabe, K. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Nojima, T. [Center for Low Temperature Science, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Chen, H. [School of Material, Changchun University of Technology, Changchun 130012 (China)


    The microstructure and superconducting properties of Bi-based superconducting tapes fabricated in high magnetic fields were investigated. The flat tapes 0.6 mm in thickness and 3 mm in width set on the an isolite holder were sintered at 835-850 deg. C for 120 h in 0 or 10 T magnetic field in air. The results show that the tape sintered with 10 T magnetic field shows stronger c-axis alignment of the Bi-2223 phase and higher J{sub c} value than that sintered without magnetic field. The tape sintered at 835 deg. C in a 10 T magnetic field shows a high proportion of Bi-2223 phase, however, a low c-axis alignment of the Bi-2223 phase. The tape sintered above 845 deg. C in a 10 T magnetic field shows a strong c-axis alignment of the Bi-2223 phase, however, a low proportion of Bi-2223 phase. The tape sintered at 840 deg. C in a 10 T magnetic field shows a strong c-axis alignment of the Bi-2223 phase, a high proportion of Bi-2223 phase, and the highest J{sub c} value.

  11. Studying children's religious knowledge: contributions of ethnography and the clinical-critical method. (United States)

    García Palacios, Mariana; Castorina, José Antonio


    We analyze different methodological and conceptual contributions of anthropology and psychogenetic theory to the research of children's religious knowledge. We argue that for the study of children's points of view it is possible to build an approach that links aspects studied by both disciplinary fields. With this aim, we revise some of their basic theoretical assumptions and recent reviews as well as their methodological proposals. Then we review the core characteristics of ethnography and the clinical-critical method-proposed by Piaget's psychogenetic theory-with the goal of stressing their potentialities as well as their limitations in research. We argue that within an ethnographic approach, we must establish certain restrictions on the clinical-critical method following basic premises of social anthropology. This approach lets us demonstrate the importance of understanding children's constructions by placing them within social relations that children produce and update in everyday interactions.

  12. Re-Examining and Re-Envisioning Criticality in Language Studies: Theories and Praxis (United States)

    Kubota, Ryuko; Miller, Elizabeth R.


    As critical perspectives in language studies have gained legitimacy and even mainstream status in applied linguistics, it is necessary to re-examine the meaning of criticality in language studies and to re-envision criticality for further development. The authors explore criticality from several theoretical perspectives as well as from the notion…

  13. Coping with traumatic stress in journalism: a critical ethnographic study. (United States)

    Buchanan, Marla; Keats, Patrice


    Journalists who witness trauma and disaster events are at risk for physical, emotional, and psychological injury. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a critical ethnographic study among 31 Canadian journalists and photojournalists with regard to coping strategies used to buffer the effects of being exposed to trauma and disaster events and work-related stress. The findings are the result of in-depth individual interviews and six workplace observations with journalists across Canada. The most commonly reported coping strategies were: avoidance strategies at work, use of black humor, controlling one's emotions and memories, exercise and other physical activities, focusing on the technical aspects, and using substances. Recommendations for addressing the effects of work-related stress within this population are provided.

  14. Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, Andy L.; Conrad, Mark E.; Daily, William D.; Fink, James B.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Gee, Glendon W.; Hoversten, Gary M.; Keller, Jason M.; Majer, Ernest L.; Murray, Christopher J.; White, Mark D.; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Zhang, Z. F.


    From FY 2000 through FY 2003, a series of vadose zone transport field experiments were conducted as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project Science and Technology Project, now known as the Remediation and Closure Science Project, and managed by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The series of experiments included two major field campaigns, one at a 299-E24-11 injection test site near PUREX and a second at a clastic dike site off Army Loop Road. The goals of these experiments were to improve our understanding of vadose zone transport processes; to develop data sets to validate and calibrate vadose zone flow and transport models; and to identify advanced monitoring techniques useful for evaluating flow-and-transport mechanisms and delineating contaminant plumes in the vadose zone at the Hanford Site. This report summarizes the key findings from the field studies and demonstrates how data collected from these studies are being used to improve conceptual models and develop numerical models of flow and transport in Hanford’s vadose zone. Results of these tests have led to a better understanding of the vadose zone. Fine-scale geologic heterogeneities, including grain fabric and lamination, were observed to have a strong effect on the large-scale behavior of contaminant plumes, primarily through increased lateral spreading resulting from anisotropy. Conceptual models have been updated to include lateral spreading and numerical models of unsaturated flow and transport have revised accordingly. A new robust model based on the concept of a connectivity tensor was developed to describe saturation-dependent anisotropy in strongly heterogeneous soils and has been incorporated into PNNL’s Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) simulator. Application to field-scale transport problems have led to a better understanding plume behavior at a number of sites where lateral spreading may have dominated waste

  15. Simulation of Field Dependence of Critical Current Densities of Bulk High Tc Superconducting Materials regarding Thermally Activated Flux Motion (United States)

    Santosh, M.; Naik, S. Pavan Kumar; Koblischka, M. R.


    In the upcoming generation, bulk high temperature superconductors (HTS) will play a crucial and a promising role in numerous industrial applications ranging from Maglev trains to magnetic resonance imaging, etc. Especially, the bulk HTS as permanent magnets are suitable due to the fact that they can trap magnetic fields being several orders of magnitude higher than those of the best hard ferromagnets. The bulk HTS LREBa2Cu3O7-δ (LREBCO or LRE-123, LRE: Y, Gd, etc.,) materials could obtain very powerful compact superconducting super-magnets, which can be operated at the cheaper liquid nitrogen temperature or below due to higher critical temperatures (i.e., ∼90 K). As a result, the new advanced technology can be utilized in a more attractive manner for a variety of technological and medical applications which have the capacity to revolutionize the field. An understanding of the magnetic field dependence of the critical current density (J c(H)) is important to develop better adapted materials. To achieve this goal, a variety of Jc (H) behaviours of bulk LREBCO samples were modelled regarding thermally activated flux motion. In essence, the Jc (H) curves follows a certain criterion where an exponential model is applied. However, to fit the complete Jc (H) curve of the LRE-123 samples an unique model is necessary to explain the behavior at low and high fields. The modelling of the various superconducting materials could be understood in terms of the pinning mechanisms.





    Extreme Programming represents a modern Project Management methodology, being a part of AGILE methodologies. The present paper has the purpose of making a critical analysis of the Extreme Programming (XP) from the point of view of advantages and disadvantages that it implies, both from a theoretical and practical approach. From the theoretical point of view the paper will present the main contributions in the Extreme Programming literature, analyzing in the same time the main characteristics ...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Borodin


    Full Text Available  Competitive production management is impossible without comprehensive hazard monitoring and critical parameters control at every stage of food production from raw material and auxiliary materials delivery to ready product realization, which is difficult without modern IT-support. The HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points approach to product safety differs from ready product testing for compliance with NaTD requirements (Normative and Technical Documentation and emphasizes the importance of the process approach to monitoring at every stage of food production. Critical control points (CCP identification is a stage, where the presence of a risk of manufacturing products that are unsafe for human health is recognized and it is possible to take action to its elimination, prevention or reduction to an acceptable level. The use of soſtware package significantly increases the enterprise HACCP system efficiency. The article describes methodological bases for IT-approach to the CCP identification in the trophological meat production chain from field to fork. The algorithmic support and soſtware for the «Decision tree», which allows detecting existing hazards, identifying risks, determining CCPs and describing them, has been developed.

  18. Planetary geomorphology field studies: Washington and Alaska (United States)

    Malin, M. C.


    Field studies of terrestrial landforms and the processes that shape them provide new directions to the study of planetary features. Investigations discussed address principally mudflow phenomena and drainage development. At the Valley of 10,000 Smokes (Katmai, AK) and Mount St. Helens, WA, studies of the development of erosional landforms (in particular, drainage) on fresh, new surfaces permitted analysis of the result of competition between geomorphic processes. Of specific interest is the development of stream pattern as a function of the competition between perennial seepage overland flow (from glacial or groundwater sources), ephemeral overland flow (from pluvial or seasonal melt sources), and ephemeral/perennial groundwater sapping, as a function of time since initial resurfacing, material properties, and seasonal/annual environmental conditions.

  19. Planetary geomorphology field studies: Iceland and Antarctica (United States)

    Malin, M. C.


    Field studies of terrestrial landforms and the processes that shape them provide new directions to the study of planetary features. These studies, conducted in Iceland and in Antarctica, investigated physical and chemical weathering mechanisms and rates, eolitan processes, mudflow phenomena, drainage development, and catastrophic fluvial and volcanic phenomena. Continuing investigations in Iceland fall in three main catagories: (1) catastrophic floods of the Jokulsa a Fjollum, (2) lahars associated with explosive volcanic eruptions of Askja caldera, and (3) rates of eolian abrasion in cold, volcanic deserts. The ice-free valleys of Antarctica, in particular those in South Victoria Land, have much is common with the surface of Mars. In addition to providing independent support for the application of the Iceland findings to consideration of the martian erosional system, the Antarctic observations also provide analogies to other martian phenomena. For example, a family of sand dunes in Victoria Valley are stabilized by the incorporation of snow as beds.

  20. Critical reading and critical thinking--study design and methodology: a personal approach on how to read the clinical literature. (United States)

    Lipman, Timothy O


    The volume of medical literature grows exponentially. Yet we are faced with the necessity to make clinical decisions based on the availability and quality of scientific information. The general strength (reliability, robustness) of any interpretation that guides us in clinical decision making is dependent on how information was obtained. All information and medical studies and, consequently, all conclusions are not created equal. It is incumbent upon us to be able to assess the quality of the information that guides us in the care of our patients. Being able to assess medical literature critically requires use of critical reading and critical thinking skills. To achieve these skills, to be able to analyze medical literature critically, takes a combination of education and practice, practice, and more practice.

  1. Hyperglycaemia and mortality in critically ill patients. A prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Christian; Toft, Palle; Jørgensen, Hans Skriver


    To describe hyperglycaemia as a possible marker of morbidity and mortality in critically ill medical and surgical patients admitted to a multidisciplinary ICU.......To describe hyperglycaemia as a possible marker of morbidity and mortality in critically ill medical and surgical patients admitted to a multidisciplinary ICU....

  2. Enhancing the Critical Current of a Superconducting Film in a Wide Range of Magnetic Fields with a Conformal Array of Nanoscale Holes


    Wang, Yong-Lei; Latimer, M. L.; Xiao, Zhi-Li; Divan, R.; Ocola, L. E.; Crabtree, G. W.; Kwok, Wai-Kwong


    The maximum current (critical current) a type-II superconductor can transmit without energy loss is limited by the motion of the quantized magnetic flux penetrating into a superconductor. Introducing nanoscale holes into a superconducting film has been long pursued as a promising way to increase the critical current. So far the critical current enhancement was found to be mostly limited to low magnetic fields. Here we experimentally investigate the critical currents of superconducting films w...

  3. Critical Analysis of Multimodal Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Leeuwen, Theo


    This is an encyclopaedia article which defines the fields of critical discourse analysis and multimodality studies, argues that within critical discourse analysis more attention should be paid to multimodality, and within multimodality to critical analysis, and ends reviewing a few examples...... of recent work in the critical analysis of multimodal discourse....

  4. Critique and Contribute: A Practice-Based Framework for Improving Critical Data Studies and Data Science. (United States)

    Neff, Gina; Tanweer, Anissa; Fiore-Gartland, Brittany; Osburn, Laura


    What would data science look like if its key critics were engaged to help improve it, and how might critiques of data science improve with an approach that considers the day-to-day practices of data science? This article argues for scholars to bridge the conversations that seek to critique data science and those that seek to advance data science practice to identify and create the social and organizational arrangements necessary for a more ethical data science. We summarize four critiques that are commonly made in critical data studies: data are inherently interpretive, data are inextricable from context, data are mediated through the sociomaterial arrangements that produce them, and data serve as a medium for the negotiation and communication of values. We present qualitative research with academic data scientists, "data for good" projects, and specialized cross-disciplinary engineering teams to show evidence of these critiques in the day-to-day experience of data scientists as they acknowledge and grapple with the complexities of their work. Using ethnographic vignettes from two large multiresearcher field sites, we develop a set of concepts for analyzing and advancing the practice of data science and improving critical data studies, including (1) communication is central to the data science endeavor; (2) making sense of data is a collective process; (3) data are starting, not end points, and (4) data are sets of stories. We conclude with two calls to action for researchers and practitioners in data science and critical data studies alike. First, creating opportunities for bringing social scientific and humanistic expertise into data science practice simultaneously will advance both data science and critical data studies. Second, practitioners should leverage the insights from critical data studies to build new kinds of organizational arrangements, which we argue will help advance a more ethical data science. Engaging the insights of critical data studies will

  5. Critical phenomena in a mixed spin-3/2 and spin-5/2 Ising ferro-ferrimagnetic system in a longitudinal magnetic field (United States)

    De La Espriella, N.; Madera, J. C.; Buendía, G. M.


    We apply Monte Carlo simulation techniques to study the magnetic behavior of a mixed Ising system on a square lattice, where spins SA = ± 3 / 2, ± 1 / 2 alternate with spins σB = ± 5 / 2, ± 3 / 2, ± 1 / 2 in two interpenetrating sublattices A and B, respectively. The Hamiltonian of the system contains an exchange interaction between nearest neighbors and a longitudinal magnetic field. In order to understand the differences between a mixed Ising system with competing interactions with one with cooperating ones, we study both cases, the ferrimagnetic and the ferromagnetic exchange interactions. We calculate the dependence of the total magnetization, the sublattice magnetizations, the energy, and the magnetic susceptibility, with the magnetic field, and their temperature dependence for a fixed field. We found that under the influence of the magnetic field the ferrimagnetic system presents an interesting phenomena associated with a reversal of the sublattice magnetizations at low temperatures. We found that our system has no compensation temperatures. In both, the ferri and the antiferromagnetic cases, the magnetic field smooths the transition between the ordered and the paramagnetic phase. Finally we present a phase diagram with the critical temperatures in terms of the magnetic field for the ferri and ferromagnetic cases.

  6. Reading the World's Classics Critically: A Keyword-Based Approach to Literary Analysis in Foreign Language Studies (United States)

    García, Nuria Alonso; Caplan, Alison


    While there are a number of important critical pedagogies being proposed in the field of foreign language study, more attention should be given to providing concrete examples of how to apply these ideas in the classroom. This article offers a new approach to the textual analysis of literary classics through the keyword-based methodology originally…

  7. On the critical behaviour of the 2-point function in scalar field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malbouisson, A.P.C. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    By the use of a Mellin representation of Feynman integrals, a convergent asymptotic expansion for generic Feynman amplitudes for any set of invariants going to zero or to {infinity}, may be obtained. In the case of scalar field theories in Euclidean metric, we use this expansion to analyse the behaviour of the two-point function for small values of the mass parameter, for fixed external momentum. (author)

  8. Cancer risk assessment of extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields: a critical review of methodology.


    McCann, J.


    This review provides a discussion of cancer risk assessment methodology pertinent to developing a strategy for extremely low frequency electric and magnetic fields (EMF). Approaches taken for chemical agents or ionizing radiation in six key topic areas are briefly reviewed, and then those areas are examined from the perspective of EMF, identifying issues to be addressed in developing a risk assessment strategy. The following recommendations are offered: 1) risk assessment should be viewed as ...

  9. Handover patterns: an observational study of critical care physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilan Roy


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Handover (or 'handoff' is the exchange of information between health professionals that accompanies the transfer of patient care. This process can result in adverse events. Handover 'best practices', with emphasis on standardization, have been widely promoted. However, these recommendations are based mostly on expert opinion and research on medical trainees. By examining handover communication of experienced physicians, we aim to inform future research, education and quality improvement. Thus, our objective is to describe handover communication patterns used by attending critical care physicians in an academic centre and to compare them with currently popular, standardized schemes for handover communication. Methods Prospective, observational study using video recording in an academic intensive care unit in Ontario, Canada. Forty individual patient handovers were randomly selected out of 10 end-of-week handover sessions of attending physicians. Two coders independently reviewed handover transcripts documenting elements of three communication schemes: SBAR (Situation, Background, Assessment, Recommendations; SOAP (Subjective, Objective, Assessment, Plan; and a standard medical admission note. Frequency and extent of questions asked by incoming physicians were measured as well. Analysis consisted of descriptive statistics. Results Mean (± standard deviation duration of patient-specific handovers was 2 min 58 sec (± 57 sec. The majority of handovers' content consisted of recent and current patient status. The remainder included physicians' interpretations and advice. Questions posed by the incoming physicians accounted for 5.8% (± 3.9% of the handovers' content. Elements of all three standardized communication schemes appeared repeatedly throughout the handover dialogs with no consistent pattern. For example, blocks of SOAP's Assessment appeared 5.2 (± 3.0 times in patient handovers; they followed Objective blocks in only 45

  10. Transient critical heat flux and blowdown heat-transfer studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, J.C.


    Objective of this study is to give a best-estimate prediction of transient critical heat flux (CHF) during reactor transients and hypothetical accidents. To accomplish this task, a predictional method has been developed. Basically it involves the thermal-hydraulic calculation of the heated core with boundary conditions supplied from experimental measurements. CHF predictions were based on the instantaneous ''local-conditions'' hypothesis, and eight correlations (consisting of round-tube, rod-bundle, and transient correlations) were tested against most recent blowdown heat-transfer test data obtained in major US facilities. The prediction results are summarized in a table in which both CISE and Biasi correlations are found to be capable of predicting the early CHF of approx. 1 s. The Griffith-Zuber correlation is credited for its prediction of the delay CHF that occurs in a more tranquil state with slowly decaying mass velocity. In many instances, the early CHF can be well correlated by the x = 1.0 criterion; this is certainly indicative of an annular-flow dryout-type crisis. The delay CHF occurred at near or above 80% void fraction, and the success of the modified Zuber pool-boiling correlation suggests that this CHF is caused by flooding and pool-boiling type hydrodynamic crisis.

  11. Digital subjectivation and financial markets: Criticizing Social Studies of Finance with Lazzarato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Christiaens


    Full Text Available The recently rising field of Critical Data Studies is still facing fundamental questions. Among these is the enigma of digital subjectivation. Who are the subjects of Big Data? A field where this question is particularly pressing is finance. Since the 1990s traders have been steadily integrated into computerized data assemblages, which calls for an ontology that eliminates the distinction between human sovereign subjects and non-human instrumental objects. The latter subjectivize traders in pre-conscious ways, because human consciousness runs too slow to follow the volatility of the market. In response to this conundrum Social Studies of Finance has drawn on Actor-Network Theory to interpret financial markets as technically constructed networks of human and non-human actors. I argue that in order to develop an explicitly critical data study it might be advantageous to refer to Maurizio Lazzarato’s theory of machinic subjugation instead. Although both accounts describe financial digital subjectivation similarly, Lazzarato has the advantage of coupling his description to a clear critique of and resistance to finance.

  12. A Critical Evaluation of the Outcome Research Dominating the Field of Executive Coaching


    Jones, Rebecca J.; Woods, S.A.


    Objective: In their review, Kampa-Kokesch and Anderson (2001) identified that there was a need for the rigorous investigation into the type of outcomes to be expected from executive coaching and how the process in executive coaching relates to these outcomes. Almost ten years on, Grant et al. (2010) came to many of the same conclusions. This paper will evaluate the main issues with the theory and research in the field of executive coaching outcomes and why little change has been seen over the...

  13. Numerical Investigation of Symmetry Breaking and Critical Behavior of the Acoustic Streaming Field in High-Intensity Discharge Lamps

    CERN Document Server

    Baumann, Bernd; Wolff, Marcus; Manders, Freddy; Suijker, Jos


    For energy efficiency and material cost reduction it is preferred to drive high-intensity discharge lamps at frequencies of approximately 300 kHz. However, operating lamps at these high frequencies bears the risk of stimulating acoustic resonances inside the arc tube, which can result in low frequency light flicker and even lamp destruction. The acoustic streaming effect has been identified as the link between high frequency resonances and low frequency flicker. A highly coupled 3D multiphysics model has been set up to calculate the acoustic streaming velocity field inside the arc tube of high-intensity discharge lamps. It has been found that the velocity field suffers a phase transition to an asymmetrical state at a critical acoustic streaming force. The system behaves similar to a ferromagnet near the Curie point. Furthermore, it is discussed how the model allows to investigate the light flicker phenomenon. Concerning computer resources the procedure is considerably less demanding than a direct approach wit...

  14. Upper critical field of the 3 Kelvin phase in Sr sub 2 RuO sub 4

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, M; Sigrist, M


    The inhomogeneous 3 Kelvin phase is most likely a superconducting state nucleating at the interface between micrometer-sized Ru-metal inclusions and Sr sub 2 RuO sub 4 above the bulk onset of superconductivity. This filamentary superconducting state yields a characteristic temperature dependence of the upper critical field which is sublinear, i.e., H sub c sub 2 (T) propor to (T* - T) supgamma with 0.5 <= gamma< 1 (T*: nucleation temperature). The Ginzburg-Landau theory is used to analyze the behavior of the nucleated spin-triplet phase in a field and the characteristic features of H sub c sub 2 observed in the experiment are explained based on a two-component order parameter in the presence of a filament of enhanced superconductivity with a finite width. (author)

  15. Case studies of first-year critical science teachers (United States)

    Love, Kurt A.

    Brent Davis and Dennis Sumara (1997) performed a study of themselves and another professor who took a sabbatical to work in an elementary school for a year. Their intentions, as professors focused on cognition, was to create a change in teaching practices throughout the school that aligned more closely with social cognitive research. However, their experiences did not go as planned. Each found that he could not just simply bring their philosophies into their classrooms independent of the sociocultural context of the school. They found very quickly that none of them could act as fully autonomous agents. They described their experiences as being part of the sociocultural fabric of the school because each of their teaching practices changed in ways that they did not anticipate and in ways that were not philosophically aligned. However, they also found that this was a two-way relationship. They were not describing completely deterministic experiences. Davis and Sumara described observing colleagues changing their practices in ways that did incorporate some of the philosophies that they espoused during their tenure at the elementary school. They explain their experience as one where they were pushed and pulled by the sociocultural context and they also pushed and pulled on the sociocultural context. This dissertation focuses on three first-year science teachers (a 4 th grade teacher and two high school science teachers) who identified as wanting to bring critical, feminist, and ecojustice perspectives into their teaching practices. Each enacts these practices much differently in the context of the sociocultural contexts of their own schools, and often changed their teaching practices in ways that seemed to more closely align with those contexts. Each of the three dealt with external and internal hegemonic pressures that caused them to align more closely with their contexts. The philosophical foundations of their sociocultural contexts were manifested externally through

  16. [A critical perspective on the global research activity in the field of bladder cancer]. (United States)

    Schöffel, N; Domnitz, F; Brüggmann, D; Klingelhöfer, D; Bendels, M H K; Groneberg, D A


    Bladder cancer (BC) is one of the most common forms of cancer world-wide. This underestimated disease can cause severe morbidity and mortality in individuals. Increasing awareness can be depicted by the increasing numbers of publications since the 1990s. Hence, it is challenging for a scientist to obtain an overview of the topic. To quantify the global research activity in this field, a scientometric investigation was conducted. Using the database Web of Science, the bibliometric data of publications on the topic of BC was acquired for the period 1900-2007. According to the NewQIS protocol, different visualization techniques and scientometric methods were applied. A total of 19,651 publications were evaluated. The USA takes a leading position in terms of the overall number of publications, institutions, and collaborations. International collaboration on BC has changed considerably in terms of quantity during the past 20 years. The largest number of articles and the highest number of citations regarding BC are found in the Journal of Urology. Thus, it is considered the most prolific journal. Furthermore, the productivity (i. e., publication numbers) of authors and scientific impact (i. e., citation rates) vary greatly. The field of BC continues to progress, whereby the influence of international co-operation on scientific progress is of increasing importance. New evaluation factors/tools have to be established for a more reliable evaluation of scientific work.

  17. Critical laboratory and field evaluation of selected surface prospecting techniques for locating oil and natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heemstra, R.J.; Ray, R.M.; Wesson, T.C.; Abrams, J.R.; Moore, G.A.


    The theoretical basis for the radiation HALO method in geochemical exploration for oil and gas is largely unproven but has been covered extensively in the literature. An evaluation of the method was conducted by direct field examination of some of the variables. The variables chosen were surface radiometry, magnetometry, gravity, and near-surface soil sampling. The radiometry included measurements of potassium-40, thallium-208, and bismuth-214. The near-surface soil samples were analyzed for light hydrocarbon gases through C-4, pH, conductivity, surface area, and moisture. Statistical evaluation and comparisons of these variables were made by computer from their data bases. High correlations between variables were confirmed by comparisons of contour maps on transparent overlays. The highest positive correlations were between the five normal gases over the entire eighteen-section map. A distinct relationship was found between conductivity, pH, and the five normal gases. The role of field topography was also found to be significant. No relationship between the hydrocarbon and radiometric anomalies could be found. Radiometric patterns were heavily influenced, however, by the topographic features.

  18. Flux creep and high-field critical currents in epitaxial thin films of YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 7/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hettinger, J.D.; Swanson, A.G.; Skocpol, W.J.; Brooks, J.S.; Graybeal, J.M.; Mankiewich, P.M.; Howard, R.E.; Straughn, B.L.; Burkhardt, E.G.


    The critical current density J/sub c/(B,T) is measured to 15 T for c-axis-perpendicular expitaxial thin films of YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub 7/ with J/sub c/(0,77 K) of order 10/sup 6/ A/cm/sup 2/. Even in the least-favorable perpendicular orientation, critical currents can exceed 5 x 10/sup 5/ A/cm/sup 2/ at 20 K in 15-T fields. Thermally activated flux motion (flux creep) is prominently observed, and can in large part explain the magnitude, temperature, and field dependence of the high-field critical currents.

  19. Situating peace journalism in journalism studies: A critical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hanitzsch


    Full Text Available Most wars were not brought to our attention if there were no journalists to report on them and no news media to send reporters to conflict spots. At the same time, the media often give priority to conflict and war at the expense of playing a positive role in attempts to bring about peace. The concept of peace journalism is, therefore, seen as an alternative model to traditional ways of war reporting. This article argues, however, that the idea of peace journalism comes as old wine in new bottles. Although carrying a noble goal, it ignores the manifold nuances in the media and tends to highlight the exceptional, spectacular and negative of war coverage. The idea of peace journalism tends to overestimate the influence journalists and the media have on political decisions; and it often understands audiences in terms of a passive mass that needs to be enlightened by virtue of peace reporting. In addition to this, peace journalism is, to a considerable extent, based on an overly individualistic perspective and ignores the many structural constraints that shape and limit the work of journalists: few personnel, time and material resources; editorial procedures and hierarchies; textual constraints; availability of sources; access to the scene and information in general - just to name a few. All this suggests that the conduct of peace journalism is not a matter of individual leeway, and media structures and professional routines cannot be modified from the position of the individual journalist. Modern corporate journalism involves processes of organized news production, thus giving priority to organizational and institutional factors as well as processes of professional socialization. To have any impact on the way the news is made, and its critical scrutiny, the advocates of peace journalism must address the structural constraints of news production. The discussion of peace journalism, and particularly of its practical implications, must be tied to the

  20. Fabrication of Chemically Doped, High Upper Critical Field Magnesium Diboride Superconducting Wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzik, James, V.


    Controlled chemical doping of magnesium diboride (MgB2) has been shown to substantially improve its superconducting properties to the levels required for high field magnets, but the doping is difficult to accomplish through the usual route of solid state reaction and diffusion. Further, superconducting cables of MgB2 are difficult to fabricate because of the friable nature of the material. In this Phase I STTR project, doped and undoped boron fibers were made by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Several >100m long batches of doped and undoped fiber were made by CVD codeposition of boron plus dopants. Bundles of these fibers infiltrated with liquid magnesium and subsequently converted to MgB2 to form Mg-MgB2 metal matrix composites. In a parallel path, doped boron nano-sized powder was produced by a plasma synthesis technique, reacted with magnesium to produce doped MgB2 superconducting ceramic bodies. The doped powder was also fabricated into superconducting wires several meters long. The doped boron fibers and powders made in this program were fabricated into fiber-metal composites and powder-metal composites by a liquid metal infiltration technique. The kinetics of the reaction between boron fiber and magnesium metal was investigated in fiber-metal composites. It was found that the presence of dopants had significantly slowed the reaction between magnesium and boron. The superconducting properties were measured for MgB2 fibers and MgB2 powders made by liquid metal infiltration. Properties of MgB2 products (Jc, Hc2) from Phase I are among the highest reported to date for MgB2 bulk superconductors. Chemically doped MgB2 superconducting magnets can perform at least as well as NbTi and NbSn3 in high magnetic fields and still offer an improvement over the latter two in terms of operating temperature. These characteristics make doped MgB2 an effective material for high magnetic field applications, such as magnetic confined fusion, and medical MRI devices. Developing

  1. Using Bourdieu in Critical Mediatization Research: Communicational Doxa and Osmotic Pressures in the Field of UN Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Jansson


    Full Text Available This article develops a Bourdieusian approach to mediatization. It is argued that the Bourdieusian theories of doxa and fields can make valuable contributions to a critical perspective on mediatization, one that moves beyond the divides between institutionalist, social-constructivist and materialist understandings (e.g., Bourdieu, 1972/1977. Mediatization is here seen as the historically growing dependence on media technologies and institutions within diverse social fields and settings. In order to establish the link between mediatization and Bourdieu’s theories (ibid., the article introduces the concept of communicational doxa, which refers to the taken for granted communicational conventions and demands that regulate the inclusion of membership within a particular field. The article also shows how communicational doxa can be applied as an analytical concept. Findings from qualitative fieldwork carried out among highly mobile and skilled professionals within the field of UN organizations in Geneva, show how the autonomy of social agents is negotiated in relation to an increasingly mediatized communicational doxa.

  2. Criticality features in ultra-low frequency magnetic fields prior to the 2013 M6.3 Kobe earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelios M. Potirakis


    Full Text Available The nonlinear criticality of ultra-low frequency (ULF magnetic variations is investigated before a particular earthquake (EQ occurred in Kobe on April 12, 2013, by applying the “natural time” analysis on a few ULF parameters: Fh, Fz and Dh. The first two refer to radiation from the lithosphere, and the last parameter corresponds to depression of horizontal component as a signature of ionospheric perturbation. A recent paper of our team has indicated, using the same data as in this paper but by means of conventional statistical analysis, a clear effect of depression in the horizontal component as an ionospheric signature. But there seems to be no convincing signature of lithospheric ULF radiation according to the specific analysis, so this paper aims at extending our study on the electromagnetic data recorded prior to the specific EQ by trying to find any significant phenomenon in ULF effects (both lithospheric radiation and the depression of horizontal component using the critical, natural time analysis. The natural time analysis has yielded that criticality at Shigaraki (SGA, as the station closest to the EQ epicenter, is reached on March 27-29 for Fh and March 27 to April 1 for Fz (about two weeks before the EQ. But, the criticality for Dh was not observed at SGA probably due to high noise, on the other hand such criticality was observed at Kanoya (KNY because of its known property of a wider range of detection of ULF depression.

  3. An ART field study in western Nepal. (United States)

    Yee, R


    To evaluate the effectiveness of three different types of glass ionomer restorations placed in children's teeth using the ART technique two years after placement by either dentists or primary health care workers. The rural district of Palpa in western Nepal. An opportunistic non-randomised field study, commenced in April 1997. Three different glass ionomer restorative cements were used: Fuji IX (GC), Dentsply Baseline (DENTSPLY/DeTrey), and S.S. WhiteR (S.S. White). The restorations were assessed two years later by an independent evaluator, who was blind to the type of restorations used and also blind to the operators. Four primary health care workers and two dentists restored 163 primary and permanent teeth using hand instruments. One and two surface restorations were placed in 105 students ranging from 3 to 19 years of age from seven schools. After two years, 79 (75%) of the restorations survived and 27 (25%) failed, while 100% of 21 evaluated single surface restorations placed on permanent molars with Fuji IX survived. There was no statistically significant difference in the survival of the restorations placed by dentists and placed by primary health care workers, which corroborates that both groups are both capable of performing the technique satisfactorily. ART is very effective for one surface permanent molars using improved glass ionomer cements designed for the ART technique.

  4. EFL Learners’ Critical Literacy Practices: A Case Study of Four College Students in Taiwan

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ko, Mei-yun; Wang, Tzu-Fu


    This qualitative case study explored four English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) learners’ critical literacy practices by analyzing their reflective essays on a gender-related article and their perceptions of critical literacy...

  5. Studies in quantum field theory. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, C.M.; Shrauner, J.E.; Mandula, J.E.

    The theoretical physics group at Washington University has been devoted to the solution of problems in theoretical and mathematical physics. All of the personnel on this task have a similar approach to their research in that they apply sophisticated analytical and numerical techniques to problems primarily in quantum field theory. Specifically, this group has worked on quantum chromodynamics, classical Yang-Mills fields, chiral symmetry breaking condensates, lattice field theory, strong-coupling approximations, perturbation theory in large order, nonlinear waves, l/N expansions, quantum solitons, phase transitions, and nuclear potentials. Progress is reported. (WHK)

  6. Poetry for Social Consciousness, Criticism and Change: A Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For Ezenwa-Ohaeto, a poet and a critic of international repute, the idea of writing and reading literature (poetry) for its own sake, is, in the words of Chunualumogu Achebe, “a deodorized shit.” In consonance with Achebe's views on the utility of literature, Ezenwa-Ohaeto, in most of his anthologies of poems, reveals himself ...

  7. Ethical Dilemmas of Turkish Counsellors: A Critical Incidents Study (United States)

    Sivis-Cetinkaya, Rahsan


    Ethical dilemmas from a national purposive sample of Turkish counsellors (N = 172) were collected using critical incidents technique. Content analysis was performed with open coding guided by the classification of American Counseling Association code of ethics. Incidents regarding confidentiality and privacy (56.4%), with 37.1% involving incidents…

  8. DNS as critical infrastructure, the energy system case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casalicchio, E.; Gheorghe, A.V.; Caselli, M.; Coletta, A.; Nai Fovino, I.


    Modern critical infrastructures (e.g., power plants, energy grids, oil pipelines, etc.), make nowadays extensive use of information and communication technologies (ICT). As a direct consequence their exposure to cyber-attacks is becoming a matter of public security. In this paper, we analyse a

  9. Combustion Safety Simplified Test Protocol Field Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Cautley, D. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Bohac, D. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Francisco, P. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Shen, L. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Gloss, S. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)


    Combustions safety is an important step in the process of upgrading homes for energy efficiency. There are several approaches used by field practitioners, but researchers have indicated that the test procedures in use are complex to implement and provide too many false positives. Field failures often mean that the house is not upgraded until after remediation or not at all, if not include in the program. In this report the PARR and NorthernSTAR DOE Building America Teams provide a simplified test procedure that is easier to implement and should produce fewer false positives. A survey of state weatherization agencies on combustion safety issues, details of a field data collection instrumentation package, summary of data collected over seven months, data analysis and results are included. The project team collected field data on 11 houses in 2015.

  10. Human rights law in the field of mental health: a critical review. (United States)

    Harding, T W


    The 'centrepiece' of international human rights law in the field of mental health is often said to be the United Nations Principles for the Protection of Persons with Mental Illness of 1991. Some observers appreciate the symbolic importance of these principles in providing visibility to the needs of the mentally ill, in stressing the right of access to adequate mental health care and in establishing the principle equivalence between psychiatry and the rest of medicine. However, the Principles appear basically flawed in several respects: (1) they do no have the status of a formal international treaty; (2) States are not required to adopt the Principles as 'minimum standards' for the protection of mentally ill persons; (3) in some respects, notably on the issue of consent to treatment, the Principles remove patients' rights rather than reinforce them; (4) the Principles do not provide for redress nor for any form of monitoring, inspection or supervision by an independent international body. Thus, it appears that even at an international level the deep-seated societal ambivalence towards the mentally ill has taken root and that so called 'human rights' principles have little material effect on the lives of psychiatric patients and create double standards in the exercise of choice.

  11. Geomagnetic Observations for Main Field Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzka, Jürgen; Chulliat, A.; Mandea, M.


    and the beginning of geomagnetic repeat stations surveys in the 19th century. In the second half of the 20th century, true global coverage with geomagnetic field measurements was accomplished by magnetometer payloads on low-Earth-orbiting satellites. This article describes the procedures and instruments...... for magnetic field measurements on ground and in space and covers geomagnetic observatories, repeat stations, automatic observatories, satellites and historic observations. Special emphasis is laid on the global network of geomagnetic observatories....

  12. Conservation psychology as a field of study


    Polona Kalc


    During the past decades the importance of psychology has become more prominent when addressing environmental issues. At the turn of the millennium a new field of psychological research was introduced to scientific community. The so-called conservation psychology strives to merge and spur basic and applied psychological research from the field of (pro)environmental behaviour and sustainable development. Together with environmental and population psychology, it forms Division 34 of American Psy...

  13. Monte Carlo study of the Ising antiferromagnetic with a longitudinal field on the anisotropic square lattice (United States)

    Viana, J. Roberto; Neto, Minos A.; de Sousa, J. Ricardo


    The Ising antiferromagnetic in the presence of a magnetic field on an anisotropic square lattice is studied by Monte Carlo simulation. We obtained the phase diagram in the T-H plane investigating the reentrant behavior around of the critical field H=2J. Using the Binder cumulant we locate the critical temperature T as a function of H. In order to test our simulation, for null field we obtain the critical behavior of T as a function of r=J/J and is in excellent agreement with exact solution of Onsager. Our results indicate a second-order transition for all values of H and particular case r=1 (independent of the ratio r≠0), where not reentrant behavior was observed.

  14. Monte Carlo study of the Ising antiferromagnetic with a longitudinal field on the anisotropic square lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, J. Roberto; Neto, Minos A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, 3000 Japiim, 69077-000 Manaus-AM (Brazil); Sousa, J. Ricardo de, E-mail: jsousa@pq.cnpq.b [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, 3000 Japiim, 69077-000 Manaus-AM (Brazil); National Institute of Science and Technology for Complex Systems, Universidade Federal do Amazonas, 3000 Japiim, 69077-000 Manaus-AM (Brazil)


    The Ising antiferromagnetic in the presence of a magnetic field on an anisotropic square lattice is studied by Monte Carlo simulation. We obtained the phase diagram in the T-H plane investigating the reentrant behavior around of the critical field H{sub c}=2J{sub y}. Using the Binder cumulant we locate the critical temperature T{sub c} as a function of H. In order to test our simulation, for null field we obtain the critical behavior of T{sub c} as a function of r=J{sub y}/J{sub x} and is in excellent agreement with exact solution of Onsager. Our results indicate a second-order transition for all values of H and particular case r=1 (independent of the ratio rnot =0), where not reentrant behavior was observed.

  15. The tourism sector in Asom - a critical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmasree Karamala


    Full Text Available The Tourism Sector has become a part or an appendage of the international trade and exchange system. The State of Asom in India is one of the most beautiful and attractive regions of India. There is hardly any other state which offers what Asom has. Asom has greater variety and colors in its natural scenery and in the cultural treasures of the people that inhabit it. Asom is blessed with an abundance of scenic grandeur. In view of the growing importance of the tourism sector all over the world in general, and in the State of Asom in particular, the tourism sector has become a part or an appendage of the international trade and exchange system. The present study intends to study the position of the Asom tourism sector. It was found that Asom has occupied the lionsshare in the North East Region, with almost 68 percent of this share, while in India it has only 0.005per cent, 0.0035per cent of the Asia Pacific region and accounts for 0.00044 per cent of the world tourist arrivals from 2011-2012. Although it is suffering from different threats and challenges, it has a number of key attributes to attract domestic and foreign tourists into the state. This has enormous potential for the future development of the tourism sector in the state, hence government should encourage the private sector to be involved in the tourism field and try to attract private investment. Consequently, a well co-ordinated tourism plan and a policy of publicprivate partnership is required so as to develop the tourism sector in the state in the long run.

  16. Transformation and Stasis: Two Case Studies of Critical Teacher Education in TESOL (United States)

    Nuske, Kyle


    Considering the prominent position of critical work in TESOL and Applied Linguistics, there is a need for detailed investigations of apprentice practitioners' formative interactions with critical ideas in graduate programs and how these affect their willingness to cultivate their own critical pedagogical repertories. Adopting a case study design,…

  17. Perceptions of Writing Confidence, Critical Thinking, and Writing Competence among Registered Nurse-Learners Studying Online (United States)

    Carter, Lorraine


    Historically, nursing education has recognized that writing enhances critical thinking, the basis of the clinical reasoning process. The online learning recently adopted by Nursing involves considerable writing, which may enhance critical thinking more than face-to-face courses. In the study reported here, the critical thinking and writing…

  18. Measuring Critical Thinking: Results from an Art Museum Field Trip Experiment (United States)

    Kisida, Brian; Bowen, Daniel H.; Greene, Jay P.


    Research shows that participation in school-based arts education has declined over the past decade. A problem for the arts' role in education has been a lack of rigorous scholarship that demonstrates educational benefits. A component of this problem has been a lack of available data. In this study, we use original data collected through a…

  19. A Study of Critical Thinking Training in the Army Contracting Workforce (United States)


    the instructors need additional critical thinking skills 3 There are real benefits to DoD acquisition programs when PMs and Contracting methods and contracting and business examples could benefit the contracting workforce and emphasize the importance of critical thinking in...Running head: CRITICAL THINKING TRAINING 1 A Study of Critical Thinking Training in the Army Contracting Workforce Cheryl L. Jones

  20. Combustion Safety Simplified Test Protocol Field Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Cautley, D. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Bohac, D. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Francisco, P. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Shen, L. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Gloss, S. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)


    "9Combustions safety is an important step in the process of upgrading homes for energy efficiency. There are several approaches used by field practitioners, but researchers have indicated that the test procedures in use are complex to implement and provide too many false positives. Field failures often mean that the house is not upgraded until after remediation or not at all, if not include in the program. In this report the PARR and NorthernSTAR DOE Building America Teams provide a simplified test procedure that is easier to implement and should produce fewer false positives. A survey of state weatherization agencies on combustion safety issues, details of a field data collection instrumentation package, summary of data collected over seven months, data analysis and results are included. The project provides several key results. State weatherization agencies do not generally track combustion safety failures, the data from those that do suggest that there is little actual evidence that combustion safety failures due to spillage from non-dryer exhaust are common and that only a very small number of homes are subject to the failures. The project team collected field data on 11 houses in 2015. Of these homes, two houses that demonstrated prolonged and excessive spillage were also the only two with venting systems out of compliance with the National Fuel Gas Code. The remaining homes experienced spillage that only occasionally extended beyond the first minute of operation. Combustion zone depressurization, outdoor temperature, and operation of individual fans all provide statistically significant predictors of spillage.

  1. The capabilities and scope-of-practice requirements of advanced life support practitioners undertaking critical care transfers: A Delphi study

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    Monique Venter


    Full Text Available Background. Critical care transfers (CCT refer to the high level of care given during transport (via ambulance, helicopter or fixed-wing aircraft of patients who are of high acuity. In South Africa (SA, advanced life support (ALS paramedics undertake CCTs. The scope of ALS in SA has no extended protocol regarding procedures or medications in terms of dealing with these CCTs. Aim. The aim of this study was to obtain the opinions of several experts in fields pertaining to critical care and transport and to gain consensus on the skills and scope-of-practice requirements of paramedics undertaking CCTs in the SA setting. Methods. A modified Delphi study consisting of three rounds was undertaken using an online survey platform. A heterogeneous sample (n=7, consisting of specialists in the fields of anaesthesiology, emergency medicine, internal medicine, critical care, critical care transport and paediatrics, was asked to indicate whether, in their opinion, selected procedures and medications were needed within the scope of practice of paramedics undertaking CCTs. Results. After three rounds, consensus was obtained in 70% (57/81 of procedures and medications. Many of these items are not currently within the scope of paramedics’ training. The panel felt that paramedics undertaking these transfers should have additional postgraduate training that is specific to critical care. Conclusion. Major discrepancies exist between the current scope of paramedic practice and the suggested required scope of practice for CCTs. An extended scope of practice and additional training should be considered for these practitioners.

  2. Measurement of ionization, attachment, detachment and charge transfer rate coefficients in dry air around the critical electric field (United States)

    Hösl, A.; Häfliger, P.; Franck, C. M.


    We obtain pressure-dependent rate coefficients in dry synthetic air (79% N2 , 21% O2 ) by fitting Pulsed Townsend measurements over a pressure range from 10 to 100 kPa, around the critical density-reduced electric field from 86 to 104 Td. The physical processes are reviewed and set in relation to a suitable kinetic model. A procedure for fitting kinetic reaction rates, based on finite-volume simulations of charge carrier drift, is described. Rate coefficients are obtained for electron attachment, ionization and detachment, as well as for ion conversion. We find a quadratic pressure dependency in the conversion rate, consistent with three-body collisions, and observe a pressure dependency in the onset of electron avalanche growth in dry air.

  3. Transmodern Critical Tourism Studies: A Call for Hope and Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Ateljevic


    Full Text Available AbstractIn this paper I engage with a broad range of literature that provides evidence of an emerging and significant paradigm shift in human evolution as we face an increasingly distressed and unsustainable world that screams for some hope and transformation. To describe this shift, different authors use a variety of terms, such as transmodernity paradigm (Ghisi; transmodern philosophy of political liberation (Dussel; Hegelian dialectical triad of thesis, antithesis and synthesis (Magda; reflective/living-systems paradigm (Elgin; partnership model of caring economics (Eisler; relational global consciousness and biosphere politics (Rifkin. Reviewing a broad range of these perspectives, I will argue that tourism is actually one of the key indicators that manifest the global shift in human consciousness. In consequence, an engagement with transmodern critical tourism studies and hopeful tourism scholarship gives us an enormous political weight to point to the agency and authority of tourism to possibly change the world for the better and assist it in its longings for more caring global economy and society. In doing so, we can finally penetrate public discourses and change their dominant interpretations of tourism as being nothing more than a frivolous leisure activity or yet another form of economic developmentKeywords: tPoststructuralism, Politics, and Education. Critical Studies in Education and Culture. (United States)

    Peters, Michael

    This book provides an introduction to poststructuralism by examining a range of interrelated themes central to the field of education that focus on the critique of reason and the problematic nature of the subject. The first chapter examines the history of poststructuralism in terms of the broader canvas of European formalism, futurism, surrealism,…

  4. Teachers' Perceptions of Critical Thinking: A Study of Jordanian Secondary School Social Studies Teachers (United States)

    Alazzi, Khaled F.


    The author conducted research in Jordan, where he interviewed secondary school social studies teachers about their perspectives on teaching critical-thinking skills in their classrooms. All interviews were audiotaped or videotaped in Arabic and later translated into English. The author qualitatively analyzed data, including the translations of the…

  5. Promotion of critical thinking by using case studies as teaching method. (United States)

    Popil, Inna


    This paper examines the use of case studies as teaching strategies to promote critical thinking. Critical thinking and case studies are defined as teaching method. The benefits and limitations of case studies are also discussed. The literature review investigates research studies that have indicated how case studies facilitate and promote active learning, help clinical problem solving, and encourage the development of critical thinking skills. Using case studies in teaching will assist nurse educators in promoting active learning; furthermore, it will help in developing critical thinking skills, which are extremely important for nurses and other health care professionals. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhancing the critical current of a superconducting film in a wide range of magnetic fields with a conformal array of nanoscale holes (United States)

    Wang, Y. L.; Latimer, M. L.; Xiao, Z. L.; Divan, R.; Ocola, L. E.; Crabtree, G. W.; Kwok, W. K.


    The maximum current (critical current) a type-II superconductor can transmit without energy loss is limited by the motion of the quantized magnetic flux penetrating into a superconductor. Introducing nanoscale holes into a superconducting film has been long pursued as a promising way to increase the critical current. So far the critical current enhancement was found to be mostly limited to low magnetic fields. Here we experimentally investigate the critical currents of superconducting films with a conformal array of nanoscale holes that have nonuniform density while preserving the local ordering. We find that the conformal array of nanoscale holes provides a more significant critical current enhancement at high magnetic fields. The better performance can be attributed to its arching effect that not only gives rise to the gradient in hole density for pinning vortices with a wide range of densities but also prevents vortex channeling occurring in samples with a regular lattice of holes.

  7. Deformation study of Kamojang geothermal field (United States)

    Ramdhani, B. D.; Meilano, I.; Sarsito, D. A.


    GPS has proven to be an indispensable tool in the effort to understand crust deformation before, during, and after the big earthquake events through data analysis and numerical simulation. The development of GPS technology has been able to prove as a method for the detection of geothermal activity that related to deformation. Furthermore, the correlation of deformation and geothermal activity are related to the analysis of potential hazards in the geothermal field itself. But unfortunately, only few GPS observations established to see the relationship of tectonic and geothermal activity around geothermal energy area in Indonesia. This research will observe the interaction between deformation and geothermal sources around the geothermal field Kamojang using geodetic GPS. There are 4 campaign observed points displacement direction to north-east, and 2 others heading to south-east. The displacement of the observed points may have not able proven cause by deformation of geothermal activity due to duration of observation. Since our research considered as pioneer for such investigation in Indonesia, we expect our methodology and our findings could become a starter for other geothermal field cases in Indonesia.



    MAZLUM, Özge; Ekmekçi, Hasan


    One of the main goalsof education in our age, regardless of the field of education, is thedevelopment of effective critical thinking.Inthe same line, visual communication design education aims to provide the visualcommunication designers with the qualities of creative and critical thinking,problem solving, effective use of visual and verbal communication, as well astransmitting messages to other without any loss in meaning.Inthis context, education for visual communication design, which aims ...

  9. Distributions of Personalities Within Occupations and Fields of Study (United States)

    Holland, John L.; Holland, Joan E.


    Self Directed Search (SDS) and Vocational Preference Inventory (VPI) results occupations and fields of study were organized to show the distributions of personalities within an occupation or field of study. The results show that single fields tolerate several types, but some types occur only infrequently. (Author)

  10. Intense-laser-field ionization of the hydrogen molecular ions H2+ and D2+ at critical internuclear distances. (United States)

    Pavicić, D; Kiess, A; Hänsch, T W; Figger, H


    Fragmentation of H2+ and D2+ in ion beams has been studied with short intense laser pulses (100 fs, I=5x10(13)-1x10(15) W/cm2) and by a high-resolution two-dimensional velocity imaging technique. In the Coulomb explosion channel, at intensities just above the threshold for this process, we observe a clear structure in the kinetic energy spectra not previously found or predicted. The peaks can be attributed to single vibrational levels. We interpret this observation as a dissociative allocation of the electron to a proton followed by enhanced ionization at a well-defined "critical" overstretched internuclear distance. When using longer pulses we observe three separate Coulomb explosion velocity groups corresponding to critical distances of about 8, 11, and 15 a.u.

  11. A Pragmalinguistic and Sociopragmatic Study of Praise and Criticism in Academic Writing: The Case of Arabic Academic Book Reviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awni Shati Etaywe


    Full Text Available Given the scarce literature on the Arabic academic book reviews (BRs and the relatively under-searched praise and criticism speech acts, this study investigates praise and criticism as reflected in the evaluative voice of Arabic academic BRs. It aims to identify the evaluated aspects, the conventional lexical resources, praise and criticism strategies, and how politeness is achieved. To this end, the non-reactive fully naturalistic approach was used to collect data from 30 academic BRs. The corpus was analyzed qualitatively, and drawn chiefly on the speech act theory, Brown and Levinson’s notion of politeness, and Leech’s maxims of politeness. Results showed that praise and criticism were for the author and the authored. Lexical resources were affective, judgmental and appreciative, and presenting formulaic evaluation. Praise was for general and specific aspects of content, style, usefulness and relevance to the field, publishing standards, readership, and author’s reputation and expertise. Criticism was for specific aspects of content and style. ‘Statement of advantages via explicit expression of attitude’ appeared as the most frequent praise strategy. Criticism was direct and mostly indirect, with marked use of mitigation devices. Approbation Maxim and Tact Maxim characterized Arabic BRs. This study provides implications for cultural pragmatics and academic writing.

  12. Numerical quasi-linear study of the critical ionization velocity phenomenon (United States)

    Moghaddam-Taaheri, E.; Goertz, C. K.


    The critical ionization velocity (CIV) for a neutral barium (Ba) gas cloud moving across the static magnetic field is studied numerically using quasi-linear equations and a parameter range which is typical for the shaped-charge Ba gas release experiments in space. For consistency the charge exchange between the background oxygen ions and neutral atoms and its reverse process, as well as the excitation of the neutral Ba atoms, are included. The numerical results indicate that when the ionization rate due to CIV becomes comparable to the charge exchange rate the energy lost to the ionization and excitation collisions by the superthermal electrons exceeds the energy gain from the waves that are excited by the ion beam. This results in a CIV yield less than the yield by the charge exchange process.

  13. The Assessment of Critical Thinking Critically Assessed in Higher Education: A Validation Study of the CCTT and the HCTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Verburgh


    Full Text Available Although critical thinking (CT is generally acknowledged as an important aim of higher education, no validated instrument to assess CT in Dutch is available. Moreover, most instruments are validated on a broad sample with people of diverse educational backgrounds. This possibly hampers the reliability of assessing effects of instructional interventions within educational programmes, where diversity is less. This study investigates the psychometric quality of a translation of the Cornell Critical Thinking Test (CCTT and the Halpern Critical Thinking Assessment (HCTA in a sample of Dutch speaking freshmen majoring in educational sciences. Results show a higher content validity and preference by students for the HCTA. The CCTT, however, takes less time to administer and score, which makes it easier to use the CCTT on a larger scale. Neither of the two tests shows a high overall reliability. The strength of the correlations between the constructed-response items and the forced-choice items of the HCTA with the CCTT calls for further research on the precise relation between CT skills and dispositions and the ability of the HCTA to assess both independently.

  14. Effectiveness of Critical Thinking Skills for English Literature Study with Reader Response Theory: Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Qamar


    Full Text Available Since Socrates’ time, reasoning is considered valuable for the justification of speaker’s belief along with Thomas Aquinas’ testing of his thinking to answer his own thinking. Critical thinking has been part of discussion among the educators for its significance and application for last many decades. Many educators have conducted researches on the assessment of critical thinking within a domain or across the domain in order to test students’ critical thinking skills and its effect on their learning. Similarly, critical thinking is highly valuable for the study of literature as it explicitly asked for learners’ beliefs, perceptions, and judgments in order to remove the ambiguity of thought. Perfection of thought can be achieved with the use of critical thinking skills while training of mind needs interaction between literary text and the reader as literature has the capacity to achieve mental traits specified to critical thinking. Accordingly, this report presents a relationship between critical thinking skills and English literature study along with reader response theory techniques considering that without the use of critical thinking skills and reader response theory, study of literature is haphazard hence for the application of reader response theory, literary text is inevitable. In essence, I aim to highlight the effectiveness of critical thinking skills for the study of literature while emphasizing the significance of reader response theory which is also inevitable for the study of literature and for the use of critical thinking skills.

  15. Geosynthetic clay liners - slope stability field study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, D.A. [Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Daniel, D.E. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Koerner, R.M. [Geosynthetic Research Institute, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bonaparte, R. [GeoSyntec Consultants, Atlanta, GA (United States)


    A field research project was developed to examine the internal shear performance of geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs). Several combinations of cross sections were assembled using GCL materials that were available at the time of project initiation. The cross sections utilized were intended to simulate landfill cover applications. Thirteen (13) resulting test plots were constructed on two different slope angles, and each plot is instrumented for physical displacement and soil moisture characteristics. Test plots were constructed in a manner that dictated the shear plane in the clay portion of the GCL product. The project purpose is to assess field performance and to verify design parameters associated with the application of GCLs in waste containment applications. Interim research data shows that test slopes on 2H:1V show global deformation, but little internal shear evidence, and the 3H:1V slopes show little deformation at approximately 650 days. The research is ongoing, and this paper presents the most recent information available from the project.

  16. Coherent multiphoton photoelectron emission from single au nanorods: the critical role of plasmonic electric near-field enhancement. (United States)

    Grubisic, Andrej; Schweikhard, Volker; Baker, Thomas A; Nesbitt, David J


    Electron emission from individual Au nanorods deposited on indium-tin-oxide (ITO) following excitation with femtosecond laser pulses near the rod longitudinal plasmon resonance is studied via scanning photoionization microscopy. The measured electron signal is observed to strongly depend on the excitation laser polarization and wavelength. Correlated secondary electron microscopy (SEM) and dark-field microscopy (DFM) studies of the same nanorods unambiguously confirm that maximum electron emission results from (i) laser polarization aligned with the rod long axis and (ii) laser wavelength resonant with the localized surface plasmon resonance. The experimental results are in good agreement with quantitative predictions for a coherent multiphoton photoelectric effect, which is identified as the predominant electron emission mechanism for metal nanoparticles under employed excitation conditions. According to this mechanism, the multiphoton photoemission rate is increased by over 10 orders of magnitude in the vicinity of a localized surface plasmon resonance, due to enhancement of the incident electromagnetic field in the particle near-field. These findings identify multiphoton photoemission as an extremely sensitive metric of local electric fields (i.e., "hot spots") in plasmonic nanoparticles/structures that can potentially be exploited for direct quantitation of local electric field enhancement factors.

  17. Orbital and spin effects for the upper critical field in As-deficient disordered Fe pnictide superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuchs, G; Drechsler, S-L; Kozlova, N; Hamann-Borrero, J E; Behr, G; Nenkov, K; Freudenberger, J; Koehler, A; Knupfer, M; Buechner, B; Schultz, L [Leibniz-Institut IFW Dresden, PO Box 270116, D-01171 Dresden (Germany); Bartkowiak, M [Leibniz-Institut FZ Dresden-Rossendorf (FZD) (Germany); Klauss, H-H; Maeter, H; Kwadrin, A [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, TU Dresden, Dresden (Germany); Amato, A; Luetkens, H; Khasanov, R [Laboratory f. Muon-Spin Spectroscopy, Paul Scherrer Institut, Villigen (Switzerland); Arushanov, E [Institute of Applied Physics, Academy of Sciences of Moldova, Chisinau (Moldova, Republic of); Rosner, H [Max-Planck-Institut f. Chemische Physik fester Stoffe, Dresden (Germany)], E-mail:


    We report upper critical field B{sub c2}(T) data for LaO{sub 0.9}F{sub 0.1}FeAs{sub 1-{delta}} in a wide temperature and field range up to 60 T. The large slope of B{sub c2}{approx}- 5.4 to -6.6 T K{sup -1} near an improved T{sub c}{approx}28.5 K of the in-plane B{sub c2}(T) contrasts with a flattening starting near 23 K above 30 T we regard as the onset of Pauli-limited behaviour (PLB) with B{sub c2}(0){approx}63-68 T. We interpret a similar hitherto unexplained flattening of the B{sub c2}(T) curves reported for at least three other disordered closely related systems, Co-doped BaFe{sub 2}As{sub 2}, (Ba,K) Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} and NdO{sub 0.7}F{sub 0.3}FeAs (all single crystals), for applied fields H parallel (a,b), also as a manifestation of PLB. Their Maki parameters have been estimated by analysing their B{sub c2}(T) data within the Werthamer-Helfand-Hohenberg approach. The pronounced PLB of (Ba, K)Fe{sub 2}As{sub 2} single crystals obtained from an Sn flux is attributed also to a significant As deficiency detected by wavelength dispersive x-ray spectroscopy as reported by Ni et al (2008 Phys. Rev. B 78 014507). Consequences of our results are discussed in terms of disorder effects within conventional superconductivity (CSC) and unconventional superconductivity (USC). USC scenarios with nodes on individual Fermi surface sheets (FSS), e.g. p- and d-wave SC, can be discarded for our samples. The increase of dB{sub c2}/dT|{sub T{sub c}} by sizeable disorder provides evidence for an important intraband (intra-FSS) contribution to the orbital upper critical field. We suggest that it can be ascribed either to an impurity-driven transition from s{sub {+-}} USC to CSC of an extended s{sub ++}-wave state or to a stabilized s{sub {+-}}-state provided As-vacancies cause predominantly strong intraband scattering in the unitary limit. We compare our results with B{sub c2} data from the literature, which often show no PLB for fields below 60-70 T probed so far. A novel disorder

  18. Critical Thinking: Discovery of a Misconception (United States)

    Rohrer, Sandie


    Critical thinking skills in the healthcare field are imperative when making quick-thinking decisions. This descriptive comparative study investigated to what extent completing a critical thinking course improved college students' critical thinking skills. The study further investigated whether the instructors' critical thinking skills were…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta TRANDAFIR


    Full Text Available Oral mucosa cancerization is a process of malignant transformation, which has been widely discussed in the last 60 years. Malignant tumors of the oral cavity are often associated with large areas of histopathological changes in the mucosal epithelium, so that, despite the apparently good results of the treatment of primary malignant tumors in this region, there is a high probability of developing a second primary tumor in the upper aerodigestive tract. This misfortune is due to the accumulation of genetic changes initiated by prolonged action of carcinogens (chronic smoking and chronic alcohol abuse on all mucous membranes of the territory, once known that the carcinogenic process is conducted in several stages. The term “oral field cancerization” (originally proposed by Slaughter refers to several aspects, including: 1 oral cancer forms in multiple areas of premalignant lesions, 2 the area of abnormal tissue (from a molecular view surrounding the initial malignant tumor, 3 oral malignant tumor formed by coalescence of several independent lesions, 4 genetic changes in adjacent mucosa persist even after radical excision of the original tumor, which would explain the appearance of a second primary tumor or local recurrence. Good command of oral field cancerization requires identifying of the markers for an early detection of oral carcinoma, finding opportunities against the development of a second primary tumor or ways to delay tumor development. We present the clinical case of a 64 year-old male patient, diagnosed with a second malignancy of the head and neck segment affecting the left side of the oropharynx, after eight years from the diagnosis and complex treatment of a right mouth floor squamous cell carcinoma, noting that he never gave up smoking or alcohol abuse.

  1. The Optimal Dose of Midazolam for Promoting Sleep in Critically Ill Patients: A Pilot Study


    Se Joong Kim; Jisoo Park; Yeon Joo Lee; Jong Sun Park; Ho Il Yoon; Jae Ho Lee; Choon Taek Lee; Young Jae Cho


    BACKGROUND: Many critically ill patients treated in the intensive care unit (ICU) experience sleep disruption. Midazolam is commonly used for the sedation of critically ill patients. This pilot study is aimed to identify the optimal dose of midazolam for achieving sound sleep in critically ill patients. METHODS: This prospective study was conducted in the medical ICU of a tertiary referral hospital. Polysomnography recording was performed over 24 hours to assess the quantity and quality...

  2. Adequacy of authors' replies to criticism raised in electronic letters to the editor: cohort study. (United States)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C; Delamothe, Tony; Godlee, Fiona; Lundh, Andreas


    To investigate whether substantive criticism in electronic letters to the editor, defined as a problem that could invalidate the research or reduce its reliability, is adequately addressed by the authors. Cohort study. BMJ between October 2005 and September 2007. Inclusion criteria Research papers generating substantive criticism in the rapid responses section on Severity of criticism (minor, moderate, or major) as judged by two editors and extent to which the criticism was addressed by authors (fully, partly, or not) as judged by two editors and the critics. A substantive criticism was raised against 105 of 350 (30%, 95% confidence interval 25% to 35%) included research papers, and of these the authors had responded to 47 (45%, 35% to 54%). The severity of the criticism was the same in those papers as in the 58 without author replies (mean score 2.2 in both groups, P=0.72). For the 47 criticisms with replies, there was no relation between the severity of the criticism and the adequacy of the reply, neither as judged by the editors (P=0.88 and P=0.95, respectively) nor by the critics (P=0.83; response rate 85%). However, the critics were much more critical of the replies than the editors (average score 2.3 v 1.4, PAuthors are reluctant to respond to criticisms of their work, although they are not less likely to respond when criticisms are severe. Editors should ensure that authors take relevant criticism seriously and respond adequately to it.

  3. Critical analysis of laboratory measurements and monitoring system of water-pipe network corrosion-case study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Jazdzewska


    Full Text Available Case study of corrosion failure of urban water supply system caused by environmental factors was presented. Nowadays corrosion monitoring of water distribution systems is an object of major concern. There is possibility of application broad range of techniques like gravimetric and electrochemical. Both kinds of techniques can be applied in laboratory and field conditions. In many cases researches limit the case analysis to measurements in laboratory conditions. Presented work contain critical analysis of results obtained in laboratory and field conditions based on corrosion monitoring of three pipelines systems failure in Krakow.

  4. Serpentinomics-an emerging new field of study (United States)

    Jessica Wright; Eric von Wettberg


    "Serpentinomics" is an emerging field of study which has the potential to greatly advance our understanding of serpentine ecology. Several newly developing –omic fields, often using high-throughput tools developed for molecular biology, will advance the field of serpentine ecology, or, "serpentinomics." Using tools from the...

  5. NASA Computational Case Study: Modeling Planetary Magnetic and Gravitational Fields (United States)

    Simpson, David G.; Vinas, Adolfo F.


    In this case study, we model a planet's magnetic and gravitational fields using spherical harmonic functions. As an exercise, we analyze data on the Earth's magnetic field collected by NASA's MAGSAT spacecraft, and use it to derive a simple magnetic field model based on these spherical harmonic functions.

  6. Frozen-wave instability in near-critical hydrogen subjected to horizontal vibration under various gravity fields. (United States)

    Gandikota, G; Chatain, D; Amiroudine, S; Lyubimova, T; Beysens, D


    The frozen-wave instability which appears at a liquid-vapor interface when a harmonic vibration is applied in a direction tangential to it has been less studied until now. The present paper reports experiments on hydrogen (H2) in order to study this instability when the temperature is varied near its critical point for various gravity levels. Close to the critical point, a liquid-vapor density difference and surface tension can be continuously varied with temperature in a scaled, universal way. The effect of gravity on the height of the frozen waves at the interface is studied by performing the experiments in a magnetic facility where effective gravity that results from the coupling of the Earth's gravity and magnetic forces can be varied. The stability diagram of the instability is obtained. The experiments show a good agreement with an inviscid model [Fluid Dyn. 21 849 (1987)], irrespective of the gravity level. It is observed in the experiments that the height of the frozen waves varies weakly with temperature and increases with a decrease in the gravity level, according to a power law with an exponent of 0.7. It is concluded that the wave height becomes of the order of the cell size as the gravity level is asymptotically decreased to zero. The interface pattern thus appears as a bandlike pattern of alternate liquid and vapor phases, a puzzling phenomenon that was observed with CO2 and H2 near their critical point in weightlessness [Acta Astron. 61 1002 (2007); Europhys. Lett. 86 16003 (2009)].

  7. Competence requirements in intensive and critical care nursing--still in need of definition? A Delphi study. (United States)

    Lakanmaa, Riitta-Liisa; Suominen, Tarja; Perttilä, Juha; Puukka, Pauli; Leino-Kilpi, Helena


    Empirical studies in competence are lacking in the field of intensive and critical care nursing. To identify competence requirements, by soliciting the views of intensive care unit nurses and physicians. Two rounds of the Delphi method were used in 2006 in Finland. Data were analysed by content analysis and with descriptive statistics. Competence requirements in intensive and critical care nursing can be divided into five main domains: knowledge base, skill base, attitude and value base, nursing experience base and personal base of the nurse. Four of these domains can be found in the existing requirements and one new domain - personal base of the nurse - was identified. Competence requirements are multidimensional. Earlier descriptions of competence are not sufficient; more comprehensive and cohesive descriptions are needed. The personal base of a nurse should also be included in the competence requirements in intensive and critical care nursing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Postgraduate Studies in the Field of HCI (United States)

    Vainio, Teija; Surakka, Veikko; Raisamo, Roope; Räihä, Kari-Jouko; Isokoski, Poika; Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila, Kaisa; Kujala, Sari

    In September of 2007, the Tampere Unit for Computer Human Interaction (TAUCHI) at the University of Tampere and The Unit of Human-Centered Technology (IHTE) at the Tampere University of Technology initiated a joint effort to increase collaboration in the field of human-technology interaction (HTI). One of the main aims was to develop higher quality education for university students and to carry out joint internationally recognized HTI research. Both research units have their own master and postgraduate students while the focus of education is at IHTE on usability and humancentered design of interactive products and services whereas TAUCHI focuses on human-technology interaction developing it by harmonizing the potential of technology with human abilities, needs, and limitations. Based on our joint analysis we know now that together TAUCHI and IHTE are offering an internationally competitive master’s program consisting of more than 40 basic, intermediate and advanced level courses. Although both units are partners in the national Graduate School in User- Centered Information Technology (UCIT) led by TAUCHI we have recognized a clear need for developing and systematizing our doctoral education.

  9. Teaching a "Critical Accessibility Case Study": Developing Disability Studies Curricula for the Technical Communication Classroom (United States)

    Browning, Ella R.; Cagle, Lauren E.


    As technical communication (TC) instructors, it is vital that we continue reimagining our curricula as the field itself is continually reimagined in light of new technologies, genres, workplace practices, and theories--theories such as those from disability studies scholarship. Here, the authors offer an approach to including disability studies in…

  10. Attractive forces study in macromolecules and critical systems; Etude des forces attractives dans les macromolecules et les systemes critiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penninckx-Sans, A.


    The attractive forces effect is particularly interesting at the proximity of a critical point. In a liquid system, there are two kinds of attractive forces in presence : the forces bound to the solution volume and those generated by the presence of the solution surface or by a solution interface. In the first case, the attractive forces are the more important as the system is in a critical field. For this study, the selected example is a polymer solution in a two solvents mixture. A formulation in terms of way integrals as part of statistical physics has lead us to find again some known results on the polymer chain conformation in the presence of two solvents (collapse of the polymer on itself) far from the critical point and to extend these results to the critical field. In the case of attractive forces created by the surface in some critical systems (polymer of infinite size in solution and binary mixture near the de mixture point), the adsorption profile created by the attraction of one specie by the surface, follows a scale law. The optical methods usually used for the study of these systems do not give characteristic sign of concentration profile in power law. In the case where the interaction potential between radiation and matter is attractive, the reflectivity gives a separate mark of the existence of the scale law in the form of a resonance. After some theoretical forecasts, the author has used this method on the binary mixture methanol-cyclohexane in order to reveal experimentally a reflectivity pseudo-discontinuity and then the existence of the power law in the critical adsorption profile. (O.L.). 69 refs., 60 tabs.

  11. How to Teach Critical-Thinking in Social Studies Education: An Examination of Three NCSS Journals (United States)

    Karabulut, Ülkü S.


    Problem Statement: Teaching a student critical-thinking skills has always been an important mission of social studies education. Over the years, literature and scholarly interest in critical-thinking in social studies have grown sporadically. Nevertheless, growing interest in the literature and commitment among the scholars did not ensure…

  12. Social Studies: A Field of Dreams? (United States)

    Larrabee, Larry J.


    Discusses the development of social studies from the social upheaval of the industrial revolution to the present. Defines social studies as an integrated, interdisciplinary curriculum for instruction in citizenship education. Lists objectives as gaining necessary knowledge, developing skill in processing information, examining one's own beliefs,…

  13. Intergenerational Resemblance in Field of Study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werfhorst, Herman G. van de; Graaf, Nan Dirk de; Kraaykamp, Gerbert


    Level of education has always been the focus of attention in studies on the intergenerational transmission of education. Consequently, we do not know whether field of study is a relevant new boundary. We expect field of study to be important, because it indicates the type of resources that students

  14. Hitler Studies: A Field of Amateurs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Novak


    Full Text Available Uno de los más grandes misterios del siglo debe ser el fallo de historiadores profesionales y biógrafos, después de más de medio siglo transcurrido desde los hechos, para mostrarse tanto interés en explicarlo. El hecho de que Hitler continúe siendo un misterio, sin embargo, no es un hecho como otros, para ser registrado como un dato de la historia y dejado a un lado. Un misterio, por definición, es la aparición de algo sorprendente e inesperado que reclama una explicación. Pero, ¿no es uno de los propósitos de la historia (de hecho, la principal función de los historiadores explicar hechos históricos y hacerlos comprensibles? Los historiadores profesionales han rechazado ensuciarse sus manos investigando los muchos misterios de la vida y carrera de Hitler, dedicándose a entrevistar a testigos. Los historiadores no sólo han fallado sino que han sido acusados por colegas de evadir su deber en la transformación de los hechos de la vida y carrera de Hitler en una narración comprensible y coherente.______________________ABSTRACT:One of the greatest mysteries of the century must be the failure of professional historians and biographers, for more than half a century after the event, to show much interest in actually explaining it. The fact that Hitler continues to be a mystery, however, is not a fact like other facts, to be recorded as a datum of history and passed over. A mystery, by definition, is the appearance of something surprising or unexpected that fairly calls out for an explanation. But, is it not one of the purposes of history (indeed, the major function of historians to explain historical events and to make them understandable? Professional historians have consistently refused to get their hands dirty investigating the many mysteries of Hitler’s life and career by going into the field to interview witnesses. Historians have not only failed, but have been charged by fellow historians with "evading", their duty to weave the

  15. Developing Critical Thinking through Socratic Questioning: An Action Research Study (United States)

    Sahamid, Husniah


    An action research study was conducted among 24 Form 4 level Malaysian students, aged 16. The duration of the study was five months and constituted 16 one-hour literature lessons (short stories from the secondary level Malaysian English Language Upper Secondary Level school syllabus). This paper describes my experience as a teacher-as-researcher…

  16. NAFTA Guidance Document for Conducting Terrestrial Field Dissipation Studies (United States)

    Harmonized guidance for TFD studies that demonstrate transformation, transport and fate of pesticides under representative actual use conditions. Field studies substantiate physicochemical, mobility and biotransformation data from laboratory studies.

  17. Cliffs' GRE StudyWare Package: A Critical Evaluation. (United States)

    Brooke, Stephanie L.


    Provides evaluation of Cliffs' GRE StudyWare package (Bobrow, 1992). Discusses the educational implications of using Cliffs' approach, in addition to focusing on software considerations. Makes recommendations concerning Cliffs' method for Graduate Record Examination (GRE) preparation. (Author/LKS)

  18. Summary of the qualitative criticisms made during the ICD-10 field trial and remarks on the German translation of ICD-10. (United States)

    Mombour, W; Spitzner, S; Reger, K H; von Cranach, M; Dilling, H; Helmchen, H


    The 1987 draft of ICD-10 presents many new aspects of the psychiatric diagnostic evaluation. Some were readily accepted by the participants of the field study, including: the purely descriptive approach with the abautonment of many theoretical concepts; the more operationalized descriptions of the diagnoses; similarity in structure and terms to DSM-III-R. Others proved controversial: extension of the term dementia to include even mild and moderately severe organic psychosyndromes; inclusion of all forms of depression in one chapter, and their subdivisioning only by severity; different time criteria for the diagnosis of schizophrenia in DSM-III-R (6 months) and ICD-10 (1 month). Considerable criticism was levelled at the overly long and often tediously formulated text, and the lack of didactic organisation. A number of examples of translation difficulties are given, and the differences between a too literal and a technically correct equivalent translation disu-used.

  19. Pushing the Frontiers of Critical International Business Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boussebaa, Mehdi; Morgan, Glenn


    Purpose: – This paper aims to discuss the context- and power-sensitive approach to the study of multinationals that has emerged in the last decade, argues for the need to supplement it by a clearer focus on the wider geopolitical context in which multinationals operate and outlines the implications...... for the development of IB research in this area. Design/methodology/approach: – The paper provides a summary overview of context- and power-sensitive studies of multinationals before proposing a research agenda for the next decade. In particular, it argues for the need to combine the institutionalist angle taken...... by context/power analyses with post-colonial theory as a means of bringing geopolitics into the study of multinationals, a task that CPoIB is well positioned to accomplish. Findings: – The paper identifies a lack of “criticality” in context/power research and, in particular, a lack of attention to the neo...

  20. A practitioner's guide to developing critical appraisal skills: interventional studies. (United States)

    Barnett, Michael L; Pihlstrom, Bruce Lee


    Randomized controlled clinical trials are considered to provide the highest level of evidence for clinical practice, public health policy and evidence-based systematic reviews. Although all randomized controlled clinical trials share basic design characteristics, to assess the outcome of a particular trial one must carefully evaluate specific details of its design and analysis that might bias the study and influence its results. In this article, the authors review key points that practitioners should consider when assessing randomized controlled clinical trials so they can determine the applicability of study results to clinical practice. Dentists encounter a variety of types of evidence when trying to assess the utility of new therapeutic agents and procedures for their clinical practice. This article provides a background to use in evaluating data and selecting studies that provide the most rigorous clinical support for safety and effectiveness.

  1. Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gee, Glendon W.; Ward, Anderson L.


    Studies were initiated at the Hanford Site to evaluate the process controlling the transport of fluids in the vadose zone and to develop a reliable database upon which vadose-zone transport models can be calibrated. These models are needed to evaluate contaminant migration through the vadose zone to underlying groundwaters at Hanford. A study site that had previously been extensively characterized using geophysical monitoring techniques was selected in the 200 E Area. Techniques used previously included neutron probe for water content, spectral gamma logging for radionuclide tracers, and gamma scattering for wet bulk density. Building on the characterization efforts of the past 20 years, the site was instrumented to facilitate the comparison of nine vadose-zone characterization methods: advanced tensiometers, neutron probe, electrical resistance tomography (ERT), high-resolution resistivity (HRR), electromagnetic induction imaging (EMI), cross-borehole radar (XBR), and cross-borehole seismic (XBS). Soil coring was used to obtain soil samples for analyzing ionic and isotopic tracers.

  2. Geometrical thermodynamics and P-V criticality of the black holes with power-law Maxwell field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendi, S.H.; Panah, B.E. [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Panahiyan, S. [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahid Beheshti University, Physics Department, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Talezadeh, M.S. [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    We study the thermodynamical structure of Einstein black holes in the presence of power Maxwell invariant nonlinear electrodynamics for two different cases. The behavior of temperature and conditions regarding the stability of these black holes are investigated. Since the language of geometry is an effective method in general relativity, we concentrate on the geometrical thermodynamics to build a phase space for studying thermodynamical properties of these black holes. In addition, taking into account the denominator of the heat capacity, we use the proportionality between cosmological constant and thermodynamical pressure to extract the critical values for these black holes. Besides, the effects of the variation of different parameters on the thermodynamical structure of these black holes are investigated. Furthermore, some thermodynamical properties such as the volume expansion coefficient, speed of sound, and isothermal compressibility coefficient are calculated and some remarks regarding these quantities are given. (orig.)

  3. Studying plasmid horizontal transfer in situ: a critical review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Søren Johannes; Bailey, Mark; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg


    This review deals with the prospective, experimental documentation of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and its role in real-time, local adaptation. We have focused on plasmids and their function as an accessory and/or adaptive gene pool. Studies of the extent of HGT in natural environments have...

  4. Pandemrix™ and narcolepsy: A critical appraisal of the observational studies. (United States)

    Verstraeten, Thomas; Cohet, Catherine; Dos Santos, Gaël; Ferreira, Germano Lc; Bollaerts, Kaatje; Bauchau, Vincent; Shinde, Vivek


    A link between Pandemrix™ (AS03-adjuvanted H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine, GSK Vaccines, Belgium) and narcolepsy was first suspected in 2010 in Sweden and Finland following a number of reports in children and adolescents. Initial scepticism about the reported association faded as additional countries reported similar findings, leading several regulatory authorities to restrict the use of Pandemrix™. The authors acknowledge that currently available data suggest an increased risk of narcolepsy following vaccination with Pandemrix™; however, from an epidemiologist's perspective, significant methodological limitations of the studies have not been fully addressed and raise questions about the reported risk estimates. We review the most important biases and confounders that potentially occurred in 12 European studies of the observed association between Pandemrix™ and narcolepsy, and call for further analyses and debate.

  5. Parents as Critical Influence: Insights from Five Different Studies


    Dorie, Brianna L.; Jones, Tamecia R.; Pollock, Meagan C; Cardella, Monica


    Parents play a number of roles in engineering education: they can motivate children’s interest in engineering in early childhood, as well as later when their child is in the process of selecting a major at college, they can provide support in learning engineering concepts and thinking skills, and can serve as role models if they themselves are engineers. Several empirical studies have shown that parents play a significant role in the occupational aspiration and career goal development of thei...

  6. The Relationship between Global Competence and Language Learning Motivation: An Empirical Study in Critical Language Classrooms (United States)

    Semaan, Gaby; Yamazaki, Kasumi


    This article examines the relationship between global competence and second language learning motivation in critical language classrooms. Data were collected from 137 participants who were studying critical languages (Arabic, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Persian) at two universities on the East and West Coasts of the United States, using a 30-item…

  7. A Case Study of an EFL Teacher's Critical Literacy Teaching in a Reading Class in Taiwan (United States)

    Ko, Mei-Yun


    This qualitative case study describes in detail a college teacher's experience in teaching critical literacy to English major students in Taiwan. A qualitative analysis of the data collected from classroom observation, class discussion and interviews shows that the teacher struck a balance between language skills teaching and critical literacy…

  8. A Critical Thinking Benchmark for a Department of Agricultural Education and Studies (United States)

    Perry, Dustin K.; Retallick, Michael S.; Paulsen, Thomas H.


    Due to an ever changing world where technology seemingly provides endless answers, today's higher education students must master a new skill set reflecting an emphasis on critical thinking, problem solving, and communications. The purpose of this study was to establish a departmental benchmark for critical thinking abilities of students majoring…

  9. Integrating Direct and Inquiry-Based Instruction in the Teaching of Critical Thinking: An Intervention Study (United States)

    Ku, Kelly Y. L.; Ho, Irene T.; Hau, Kit-Tai; Lai, Eva C. M.


    Critical thinking is a unifying goal of modern education. While past research has mostly examined the efficacy of a single instructional approach to teaching critical thinking, recent literature has begun discussing mixed teaching approaches. The present study examines three modes of instruction, featuring the direct instruction approach and the…

  10. Maternal criticism and adolescent depressive and generalized anxiety disorder symptoms : A 6-year longitudinal community study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelemans, S.A.; Hale III, W.W.; Branje, S.T.J.; Hawk, S.T.; Meeus, W.H.J.


    This 6-year longitudinal study examined the direction of effects (i.e., parent effects, child effects, or reciprocal effects) between maternal criticism and adolescent depressive and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) symptoms, including adolescents’ perceptions of criticism as a potential mediator.

  11. Integrating Critical Thinking Instruction and Assessment into Online University Courses: An Action Research Study (United States)

    Mason Heinrichs, Kim R.


    Universities claim that improved critical thinking ability is an educational outcome for their graduates, but they seldom create a path for students to achieve that outcome. In this practitioner action research study, the author created a job aid, entitled "Critical Thinking as a Differentiator for Distinguished Performance," to help…

  12. Art as Critical Public Pedagogy: A Qualitative Study of Luis Camnitzer and His Conceptual Art (United States)

    Zorrilla, Ana; Tisdell, Elizabeth J.


    This qualitative study explored the connection between art and adult education for critical consciousness from the perspective and work of conceptual artist, Luis Camnitzer. The theoretical framework is grounded in the critical public pedagogy literature. Data collection methods included interviews with conceptual artist Luis Camnitzer and with…

  13. Developing Critical Thinking in E-Learning Environment: Kuwait University as a Case Study (United States)

    Al-Fadhli, Salah; Khalfan, Abdulwahed


    This article investigated the impact of using e-learning models' with the principles of constructivism to enhance the critical thinking skills of students in higher education institutions. The study examines the effectiveness of e-learning model in enhancing critical thinking of students at university level. This effectiveness is measured by a…

  14. Delirium epidemiology in critical care (DECCA): an international study. (United States)

    Salluh, Jorge I; Soares, Márcio; Teles, José M; Ceraso, Daniel; Raimondi, Nestor; Nava, Victor S; Blasquez, Patrícia; Ugarte, Sebastian; Ibanez-Guzman, Carlos; Centeno, José V; Laca, Manuel; Grecco, Gustavo; Jimenez, Edgar; Árias-Rivera, Susana; Duenas, Carmelo; Rocha, Marcelo G


    Delirium is a frequent source of morbidity in intensive care units (ICUs). Most data on its epidemiology is from single-center studies. Our aim was to conduct a multicenter study to evaluate the epidemiology of delirium in the ICU. A 1-day point-prevalence study was undertaken in 104 ICUs from 11 countries in South and North America and Spain. In total, 975 patients were screened, and 497 fulfilled inclusion criteria and were enrolled (median age, 62 years; 52.5% men; 16.7% and 19.9% for ICU and hospital mortality); 64% were admitted to the ICU because of medical causes, and sepsis was the main diagnosis (n = 76; 15.3%). In total, 265 patients were sedated with the Richmond agitation and sedation scale (RASS) deeper than -3, and only 232 (46.6%) patients could be evaluated with the confusion-assessment method for the ICU. The prevalence of delirium was 32.3%. Compared with patients without delirium, those with the diagnosis of delirium had a greater severity of illness at admission, demonstrated by higher sequential organ-failure assessment (SOFA (P = 0.004)) and simplified acute physiology score 3 (SAPS3) scores (P < 0.0001). Delirium was associated with increased ICU (20% versus 5.7%; P = 0.002) and hospital mortality (24 versus 8.3%; P = 0.0017), and longer ICU (P < 0.0001) and hospital length of stay (LOS) (22 (11 to 40) versus 7 (4 to 18) days; P < 0.0001). Previous use of midazolam (P = 0.009) was more frequent in patients with delirium. On multivariate analysis, delirium was independently associated with increased ICU mortality (OR = 3.14 (1.26 to 7.86); CI, 95%) and hospital mortality (OR = 2.5 (1.1 to 5.7); CI, 95%). In this 1-day international study, delirium was frequent and associated with increased mortality and ICU LOS. The main modifiable risk factors associated with the diagnosis of delirium were the use of invasive devices and sedatives (midazolam).

  15. Field Studies Measuring the aerosolization of Endotoxin ... (United States)

    Endotoxin is a component of the cell walls of Gram-negative bacteria and is known to be present in biosolids. Endotoxins have been shown to be a potent stimulator of the innate immune response causing airway irritation and shortness of breath. Class B biosolids are routinely applied to agricultural lands in the US to enhance soil properties and can be used as an alternative to chemical fertilizers. This study investigated the aerosolized endotoxin produced during the land application of Class B biosolids from various wastewater treatment plants on agricultural land and a concrete surface at two sites in Colorado, USA. Aerosolized endotoxin was captured using HiVol sampler fitted with glass fiber filter, polycarbonate filter cassette (both open and closed), and BioSampler impinger air samplers. Endotoxins were also measured in the bulk biosolids to allow for correlating bulk biosolids concentrations with aerosol emission rates. Endotoxin concentrations in biosolids, impinger solutions, and filter extracts were determined using the kinetic Limulus amebocyte lysate assay. Aerosolized endotoxin concentration was detected from all sites with levels ranging from 0.5 to 642 EU/m3. The four types of sampling apparatus were compared and the HiVol and open-faced cassette samplers used produced higher TWA measurements (EU/m3) than the impinger and closed cassette samplers. Ambient wind speed at the sites was found to be the variable best describing the results wit

  16. The Study of Critical Thinking skills of Seventh Grade Hmong Hilltribe Students in Tak Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kritsana Lohakarok


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to study critical thinking skills of Hmong hilltribe students who were studying in seventh grade, in Tak province of Thailand. The research instrument used in this study was the critical thinking skills test developed by researcher. The test was a multiple-choice test which composed of 30 items with 30 total scores including three compositions of critical thinking skills ; 1 problem defining 2 decision making and data processing and 3 making conclusion. The participant in this study were 30 Hmong hilltribe students using purposive sampling who were studying in seventh grade in academic year 2015. The findings of the study revealed that the mean score of critical thinking skills of Hmong hilltribe students equaled 13.07. The maximum score was 20. The minimum score was 7 with the standard deviation 3.59. Moreover, the levels of critical thinking skills presented that 13.33% (n=4 of these students had critical thinking skills in a fair level, 23.33% (n=7 in a poor level and 63.33% (n=19 in a very poor level. In addition, considering separately in each composition of critical thinking skills, the results found that 60.24% of students got the right answers in decision making and data processing, 34.44% in problem defining and 25.67% in making conclusion, respectively.

  17. Criticism of Levantine Rock Art studies from a bibliometric perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berrocal, María Cruz


    Full Text Available A historiographic analysis of Levantine rock art studies from their origins to the present using a bibliometric study is presented. The research is based on a bibliographic data base integrated by 521 records (notes, reports, papers, chapters of books and monographs and 235 authors. Three periods (1907-1960, 1960-1980, 1980-1995 have been defined on the basis of the production, themes and characteristics of the authors. The institutionalization of Spanish archaeology, and the partiality and localism of current research are stressed. The huge activity of local scholars is remarkable in the first period. In the second one the number of authors and they monopolise a large part of the research. The foreign contribution disappears, and female researchers appear Finally, in the third period the percentage of publications increases and the descentralization of the study of Levantine rock art takes place. The independent authors as well as researchers assigned to regional administrations prevail over the academic researchers. The most relevant conclusion of this study is the persistence of iconography and simple description as the main aims of research on Levantine rock art during the entire century.

    Presentamos un análisis historiográfico de la investigación del arte levantino desde su comienzo hasta nuestros días, a través de un estudio bibliométrico basado en una muestra de 521 registros (notas, comunicaciones en congresos, artículos, capítulos de libros y monografías y 235 autores, que consideramos suficientemente representativa. Hemos definido tres períodos (1907-1960, 1960-1980, 1980-1995 a partir de la producción, la temática y las características de autor. Hacemos hincapié en la institucionalización de la arqueología española, el personalismo y el actual localismo de la investigación. La primera etapa destaca por la gran actividad de eruditos locales, mientras que en la segunda el número de autores se reduce

  18. Human fertility studies under field conditions. Introduction. (United States)

    Harrison, G A


    Human fertility is part of biological anthropology embracing human population biology devoted to the analysis of the nature, caused, origin, and development of human variation at molecular, cellular, and whole body levels. The successful outcome of human fertility depends on the interactions of biochemical, physiological, and psychological processes whose disturbance results in slight variations in behavior and even total infertility. The Hutterites in the US have the highest average fertility with over 11 live births/women. Hunter-gatherer groups rarely have more than 4 children/woman. The case of a woman who gave birth to 67 children was recorded. Total infertility often occurs even in noncontracepting societies. The most important factor that determines the character of genetic variation within the human species seems to be comparative population growth, as this was the factor determining which populations spread and which became extinct. The study of the determinants of female fertility has attracted attention recently because pregnancy and motherhood affect daily life, and in turn, reproduction is also affected by daily life. Lactational amenorrhea plays a vital role in child spacing, but the mechanism of breast feeding is complex with factors of duration, frequency, milk production, and suckling frequency interwoven. Female reproduction comprises whole body function, nutrition, body composition (the recent debate on fat stores affecting the onset of fertility), physical work, and mental health all influencing the endocrinological state. Heavy physical labor and intensive training by sportswomen can result in amenorrhea. Beta-endorphins also play a role in lactational amenorrhea along with nutrition and body composition. Infectious and venereal diseases particularly affect fertility, yet genetics protect the placenta against falciparum malaria in sickle-cell trait women.

  19. A two phase study to revise the Australian Practice Standards for Specialist Critical Care Nurses. (United States)

    Gill, Fenella J; Kendrick, Tina; Davies, Hugh; Greenwood, Melanie


    Observational work to develop the ACCCN Competency Standards was undertaken more than 20 years ago. Since then the landscape of critical care nursing as a specialty has changed and it is not known if the Competency Standards reflected contemporary practice. To revise the ACCCN Competency Standards for Specialist Critical Care Nurses to ensure they continue to meet the needs of critical care nurses and reflect current practice. A two-phased project was undertaken. In Phase I focus groups were held in all states. Thematic analysis was conducted using two techniques. The standards were revised based on the main themes. Phase II consisted of an eDelphi technique. A national panel of critical care nurses responded to three survey rounds using a 7 point likert-type scale to indicate their level of agreement with the revised standards. A 70% agreement level for each statement was determined a priori. Phase I: 12 focus groups (79 participants) were conducted. Phase II: A panel of specialist critical care nurses (research, management, clinical practice and education) responded to round 1 (n=64), round 2 (n=56), and round 3 (n=40). Fifteen practice standards with elements and performance criteria were grouped into four domains (professional practice, provision and coordination of care, critical thinking and analysis, collaboration and leadership). The revised Practice Standards for Specialist Critical Care Nurses build upon and are additional to the Nursing & Midwifery Board of Australia National Competency Standards for Registered Nurses. The standards reflect contemporary critical care nurse practices using an expanded range of technologies to care for complex critically ill patients across the lifespan in diverse settings. The national study has resulted in the 3rd edition of the Practice Standards for Specialist Critical Care Nurses. There was input from stakeholders and agreement that the revised standards capture contemporary Australian critical care nursing practice

  20. Nurse educators' perceptions of critical thinking in developing countries: Ghana as a case study. (United States)

    Boso, Christian Makafui; Gross, Janet J


    The ability to critically evaluate information for the purpose of rendering health care is a prerequisite for modern nurses in a complex and ever-changing health care environment. The nurse educators' perceptions influence the utilization of critical thinking strategies in the classroom. The purpose of this study was to assess nursing faculty's perceptions of critical thinking. Using a questionnaire 106 nurse educators from two types of nursing educational program self-reported their perceptions. Data were collected from November 2013 to March 2014. Results were presented using frequencies, percentages, and t-test. The findings revealed that majority (95.3%) of nurse educators could not provide definitions that captured both affective and cognitive aspects of critical thinking. However, the majority of nurse educators had positive perceptions of critical thinking. Nurse educators in universities had more positive perceptions of critical thinking than those in the nurses' training colleges (P=0.007). The results suggested that the current nursing programs are not preparing nurses with the necessary critical thinking skills for the complex health care environment. Professional development programs in critical thinking should be instituted for nurse educators to assist them in developing appropriate teaching strategies to foster students' acquisition of critical thinking skills.

  1. Nurse educators’ perceptions of critical thinking in developing countries: Ghana as a case study (United States)

    Boso, Christian Makafui; Gross, Janet J


    The ability to critically evaluate information for the purpose of rendering health care is a prerequisite for modern nurses in a complex and ever-changing health care environment. The nurse educators’ perceptions influence the utilization of critical thinking strategies in the classroom. The purpose of this study was to assess nursing faculty’s perceptions of critical thinking. Using a questionnaire 106 nurse educators from two types of nursing educational program self-reported their perceptions. Data were collected from November 2013 to March 2014. Results were presented using frequencies, percentages, and t-test. The findings revealed that majority (95.3%) of nurse educators could not provide definitions that captured both affective and cognitive aspects of critical thinking. However, the majority of nurse educators had positive perceptions of critical thinking. Nurse educators in universities had more positive perceptions of critical thinking than those in the nurses’ training colleges (P=0.007). The results suggested that the current nursing programs are not preparing nurses with the necessary critical thinking skills for the complex health care environment. Professional development programs in critical thinking should be instituted for nurse educators to assist them in developing appropriate teaching strategies to foster students’ acquisition of critical thinking skills. PMID:26379453

  2. Reactor physics studies in the GCFR Phase III critical assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morman, J A [ed.


    The third phase of the gas cooled fast reactor (GCFR) program, ZPR-9 Assembly 30, is based on a multi-zoned core of PuO/sub 2/-UO/sub 2/ with radial and axial blankets of UO/sub 2/. Studies performed in this assembly will be compared to the previous phases of the GCFR program and will help to define parameters in this power-flattened demonstration plant-type core. Measurements in the Phase III program included small sample reactivity worths of various materials, central reaction rates and reaction rate distributions, absorption-to-fission ratios and the central point conversion ratio and the worth of steam entry into a small central zone. The reactivity change associated with the construction of a central pin zone in the core and axial blanket was measured. Reaction rate and steam entry measurements were repeated in the pin environment. Standard analysis methods using ENDF/B-IV data are described and the results are compared to measurements performed during the program.

  3. Study of Electromagnetic Fields on Cellular Systems Study of Electromagnetic Fields on Cellular Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Solorio-Meza


    Full Text Available Durante las últimas décadas, el interés por explicar el efecto de la radiación no ionizante, como es el caso de los campos electromagnéticos (CEM sobre sistemas celulares ha aumentado considerablemente. En este artículo se describe la interacción que existe entre los CEM y sistemas biológicos. Se discute el efecto de la estimulación electromagnética a diferentes frecuencias e intensidades en cultivos celulares. Resultados preliminares al estimular células de neuroblastomas SK-NSH con campos electromagnéticos de extra baja frecuencia (CEM-EBF, CEM que van del rango de 3 a 30 Hz, indican que se induce un estrés celularque se refleja en variaciones en la expresión de proteínas respecto al grupo de células no estimuladas. En particular, la expresión de las proteínas muestra que los CEM-EBF producen cambios en las proteínas presentes en condiciones normales o basales en las células, es decir, aparecen nuevas proteínas o existe un aumento en la cantidad de ellas.In the last decades the interest to study the effect of non-ionizing radiation, such as the electromagnetic fields (EMF on cellular systems has increased. In this article the interaction between EMF and biological systems is described. An analysis of the effect of the electromagnetic stimulation at different frequencies and intensities on cell cultures is performed. Preliminary results show that the stimulation with extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields (ELF-EMF, EMF from 3 to 30 Hz, on the cellular line of neuroblastomaSK-NSH induces cellular stress. This is reflected by a variation in the proteins expression in comparison with the group of cells no stimulated. In particular, the proteins expression shows that the ELF-EMF produce changes in the current proteins in normal or basal conditionsin the cells, that is, new proteins appear or there is evidence of an increasing in theamount of them.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Надія Бреславець


    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the theoretical analysis of skills formation and to the use of critical thinking technique when studying a foreign language at a higher educational establishment. The essence, stages and phases of critical thinking technique have been highlighted, methods of its usage have been grounded. The process of investigation has revealed that introduction of critical thinking technique skills facilitates the increase of foreign language study effectiveness, livens up the work of the students aimed at achieving their personal goals of studies, calls the teachers to rethink the essence of the updated educational process.

  5. Study of variables affecting critical value notification in a laboratory catering to tertiary care hospital. (United States)

    Agarwal, Rachna; Chhillar, Neelam; Tripathi, Chandra B


    During post-analytical phase, critical value notification to responsible caregiver in a timely manner has potential to improve patient safety which requires cooperative efforts between laboratory personnel and caregivers. It is widely accepted by hospital accreditors that ineffective notification can lead to diagnostic errors that potentially harm patients and are preventable. The objective of the study was to assess the variables affecting critical value notification, their role in affecting it's quality and approaches to improve it. In the present study 1,187 critical values were analysed in the Clinical Chemistry Laboratory catering to tertiary care hospital for neuropsychiatric diseases. During 25 months of study period, we evaluated critical value notification with respect to clinical care area, caregiver to whom it was notified and timeliness of notification. During the study period (25 months), the laboratory obtained 1,279 critical values in clinical chemistry. The analytes most commonly notified were sodium and potassium (20.97 & 20.8 % of total critical results). Analysis of critical value notification versus area of care showed that critical value notification was high in ICU and emergency area followed by inpatients and 64.61 % critical values were notified between 30 and 120 min after receiving the samples. It was found that failure to notify the responsible caregiver in timely manner represent an important patient safety issue and may lead to diagnostic errors. The major area of concern are notification of critical value for outpatient samples, incompleteness of test requisition forms regarding illegible writing, lack of information of treating physician and location of test ordering and difficulty in contacting the responsible caregiver.

  6. Effects of magnetic order on the superconducting length scales and critical fields in single crystal ErNi2B2C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammel, P.L.; Barber, B.P.; Ramirez, A.P.


    The flux line form factor in small angle neutron scattering and transport data determines the superconducting length scares and critical fields in single crystal ErNi2B2C. For H parallel to c, the coherence length xi increases and the penetration depth lambda decreases when crossing T-N = 6.0 K...

  7. 2D quantum field theories away from criticality: Finite-size scaling, the C-theorem and the S-matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavromatos, N.E. (Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Theoretical Physics Hertford Coll., Oxford (UK)); Miramontes, J.L.; Sanchez de Santos, J.M. (Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Dept. de Particulas Elementales)


    Issues concerning the behavior of renormalizable 2D quantum field theories away from criticality are addressed. Connection of Zamolodchikov's c-function with the generating functional of connected correlators is established using a finite-size scaling approach. (orig.).

  8. Evolution of Quantum Fluctuations Near the Quantum Critical Point of the Transverse Field Ising Chain System CoNb_{2}O_{6}

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. W. Kinross


    Full Text Available The transverse field Ising chain model is ideally suited for testing the fundamental ideas of quantum phase transitions because its well-known T=0 ground state can be extrapolated to finite temperatures. Nonetheless, the lack of appropriate model materials hindered the past effort to test the theoretical predictions. Here, we map the evolution of quantum fluctuations in the transverse field Ising chain based on nuclear magnetic resonance measurements of CoNb_{2}O_{6}, and we demonstrate the finite-temperature effects on quantum criticality for the first time. From the temperature dependence of the ^{93}Nb longitudinal relaxation rate 1/T_{1}, we identify the renormalized classical, quantum critical, and quantum disordered scaling regimes in the temperature (T vs transverse magnetic field (h_{⊥} phase diagram. Precisely at the critical field h_{⊥}^{c}=5.25±0.15  T, we observe a power-law behavior, 1/T_{1}∼T^{−3/4}, as predicted by quantum critical scaling. Our parameter-free comparison between the data and theory reveals that quantum fluctuations persist up to as high as T∼0.4J, where the intrachain exchange interaction J is the only energy scale of the problem.

  9. Systematic study of the Grüneisen ratio near quantum critical points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Küchler, P. Gegenwart, C. Geibel and F. Steglich


    Full Text Available At any pressure-sensitive quantum critical point (QCP, the volume thermal expansion coefficient is more singular than the specific heat. Consequently, the resulting critical Grüneisen ratio Γcr~βcr/Ccr, where βcr and Ccr denote the thermal expansion and specific heat after subtraction of non-critical background contributions, diverges. The related critical exponent epsilon in Γcr~T−epsilon can be used to characterize the nature of the underlying quantum critical fluctuations. We have performed a comparative study on various heavy fermion (HF systems close to antiferromagnetic QCPs. In particular, we have studied (i CeIn3−xSnx, (ii CeNi2Ge2, (iii YbRh2(Si0.95Ge0.052, as well as (iv CeCu5.8Ag0.2, all of which show a divergent Grüneisen ratio. For the two former systems the critical exponent epsilon=1 is compatible with the predictions of the well-established Hertz–Millis–Moriya theory for three-dimensional extended quantum critical fluctuations. By contrast, for the two latter systems epsilon<1 is found to be incompatible with "conventional" quantum criticality. Our results thus suggest the existence of at least two different classes of QCPs in HF systems.

  10. Phase-field crystal study of grain-boundary premelting (United States)

    Mellenthin, Jesper; Karma, Alain; Plapp, Mathis


    We study the phenomenon of grain-boundary premelting for temperatures below the melting point in the phase-field crystal model of a pure material with hexagonal ordering in two dimensions. We investigate the structures of symmetric tilt boundaries as a function of misorientation θ for two different inclinations and compute in the grand canonical ensemble the “disjoining potential” V(w) that describes the fundamental interaction between crystal-melt interfaces as a function of the premelted layer width w , which is defined here in terms of the excess mass of the grain boundary via a Gibbs construction. The results reveal qualitatively different behaviors for high-angle grain boundaries that are uniformly wetted, with w diverging logarithmically as the melting point is approached from below, and low-angle boundaries that are punctuated by liquid pools surrounding dislocations, separated by solid bridges. The latter persist over a superheated range of temperature. This qualitative difference between high- and low-angle boundaries is reflected in the w dependence of the disjoining potential that is purely repulsive [ V'(w)<0 for all w ] for misorientations larger than a critical angle θc , but switches from repulsive at small w to attractive at large w for θ<θc . In the latter case, V(w) has a minimum that corresponds to a premelted boundary of finite width at the melting point. Furthermore, we find that the standard wetting condition γgb(θc)=2γsl gives a much too low estimate of θc when a low-temperature value of the grain-boundary energy γgb is used. In contrast, a reasonable lower-bound estimate can be obtained if γgb is extrapolated to the melting point, taking into account both the elastic softening of the material at high homologous temperature and local melting around dislocations.

  11. Cold cathode rf guns based study on field emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangkun Li


    Full Text Available Recently cold cathodes based on field emission have drawn attention and been considered to drive accelerators and free electron lasers, due to the progress in field emitter arrays and planar emitters like diamond films. In this paper, we reviewed the characteristics of field emission in rf fields. Simulations of S-band rf guns consisting of a cathode cell and a full cell were done. We showed that a shorter cathode cell with a length of 0.25–0.3 of λ/2 is in favor of obtaining both low emittance and low energy spread bunches when the amplitude of electric field on the cathode surface ranges from 60 to 80  MV/m. A single cell test cavity has been installed to study field emission of diamond films and the measured beam current showed a good agreement with theoretical calculations.

  12. Disability Studies as an academic field: reflections on its development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blume, S.; Hiddinga, A.


    Serious attempts are now being made to develop disability studies as an academic field in the Netherlands. On the one hand, the field will have to establish its place in the division of academic labor. On the other hand it will need to safeguard its relevance for, and connections with, the

  13. Apprenticeships, Collaboration and Scientific Discovery in Academic Field Studies (United States)

    Madden, Derek Scott; Grayson, Diane J.; Madden, Erinn H.; Milewski, Antoni V.; Snyder, Cathy Ann


    Teachers may use apprenticeships and collaboration as instructional strategies that help students to make authentic scientific discoveries as they work as amateur researchers in academic field studies. This concept was examined with 643 students, ages 14-72, who became proficient at field research through cognitive apprenticeships with the…

  14. ArcGIS studies and field relationships of Paleoproterozoic mafic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Google Earth Image and cross-cutting field relationships of distinct Paleoproterozoic mafic dykes from south of Devarakonda area in the Eastern Dharwar Craton has been studied to establish relative emplace- ment ages. The Devarakonda, covering an area of ∼700 km2, shows spectacular cross-cutting field rela- tionships ...

  15. A Critical Appraisal of Quantitative Studies of Protein Degradation in the Framework of Cellular Proteostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Alvarez-Castelao


    Full Text Available Protein homeostasis, proteostasis, is essential to understand cell function. Protein degradation is a crucial component of the proteostatic mechanisms of the cell. Experiments on protein degradation are nowadays present in many investigations in the field of molecular and cell biology. In the present paper, we focus on the different experimental approaches to study protein degradation and present a critical appraisal of the results derived from steady-state and kinetic experiments using detection of unlabelled and labelled protein methodologies with a proteostatic perspective. This perspective allows pinpointing the limitations in interpretation of results and the need of further experiments and/or controls to establish “definitive evidence” for the role of protein degradation in the proteostasis of a given protein or the entire proteome. We also provide a spreadsheet for simple calculations of mRNA and protein decays for mimicking different experimental conditions and a checklist for the analysis of experiments dealing with protein degradation studies that may be useful for researchers interested in the area of protein turnover.

  16. Identifying and measuring individual engagement in critical thinking in online discussions: An exploratory case study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheryl Perkins; Elizabeth Murphy


      This paper reports on an exploratory case study involving the development of a model for identifying and measuring individual engagement in critical thinking in an online asynchronous discussion (OAD...

  17. Electric Toyland and the Structures of Power: An Analysis of Critical Studies on Children as Consumers. (United States)

    Alexander, Alison; Morrison, Margaret A.


    Examines the three major critical works that have documented the role of children in a consumer culture and the specific role of advertising in the creation of that culture. Discusses perspectives from political economy, textual analysis, and cultural studies. (SR)

  18. Recovering the Power Inside: A Qualitative Study of Critical Reading in an Iranian University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue-san Ghahremani Ghajar


    Full Text Available A fundamental goal of critical literacy approaches is to bring a change and empower students as critical agents and subjects of decision making. Students are expected to do more than simply accumulate information; they are encouraged to challenge their ‘taken for granted’ belief structures and transform themselves as well as their immediate social environment. In this article, we present a qualitative enquiry in a university reading course based on critical literacy. We explored how learners reflected on their individual/community and word/world concerns through critical understanding of texts and how they challenged and shattered their ‘taken for granted’ beliefs and started to transform into critical agents of voice and position. The data consists of 400 concept maps, called webs, and personal journals by fifty undergraduate English literature students at an Iranian University, as well as oral and written interviews. The data was qualitatively analyzed in search of themes that could illustrate students’ early thinking structures and their empowerment and transformations into subjects of decisions. The study revealed that, through webbing words/worlds and critically challenging texts, students took the opportunity to approach the knowledge and information presented to them analytically and critically. On this basis, we discuss how students were able to gain the power of critiquing, freeing their thoughts, finding and expressing their voice and position, discovering personal meanings in texts and contexts, cooperating and participating, and understanding learning for meaning through the critical act of reading.

  19. Knowledge mobilized by a critical thinking process deployed by nursing students in practical care situations: a qualitative study. (United States)

    Lechasseur, Kathleen; Lazure, Ginette; Guilbert, Louise


    This paper is a report of a qualitative study of mobilization of knowledge within the critical thinking process deployed by female undergraduate nursing students in practical care situations. Holistic practice is based on variety of knowledge mobilized by a critical thinking process. Novices and, more specifically, students experience many difficulties in this regard. Therefore, a better understanding of the knowledge they mobilize in their practice is important for nurse educators. A qualitative study, guided by grounded theory, was carried out. Sixteen nursing students, registered in an undergraduate programme in an Eastern Canadian university, were recruited. Descriptions of practical care situations were obtained through explicitation interviews in 2007. A sociodemographic questionnaire, semi-structured interviews and field notes were also used. Data were analysed using an approach based on grounded theory. An additional stage of analysis involved data condensation. Various types of knowledge guide nursing students' practice. These include intrapersonal, interpersonal, perceptual, moral/ethical, experiential, practical, scientific and contextual knowledge. The mobilization of these types of knowledge is only possible when the process of critical thinking has attained a higher level, giving rise to a new knowledge that we have termed combinational constructive knowledge rather than aesthetic knowledge. Clarification of the types of knowledge guiding the practice of student nurses and of the role of critical thinking in their mobilization could lead to innovative educational strategies. The findings provide guidance for the revision and development of both academic and clinical training programmes. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Satellite magnetic field measurements: Applications in studying the deep Earth (United States)

    Constable, Catherine G.; Constable, Steven C.

    Following a 20 years hiatus, there are several magnetometry satellites in near-Earth orbit providing a global view of the geomagnetic field and how it changes. The measured magnetic field is an admixture of all field sources, among which one must identify the contributions of interest, namely (1) the field generated in Earth's core, and (2) the fields induced in Earth's mantle by external magnetic variations used in studies of electrical conductivity. Models of the core field can be downward continued to the core surface under the assumption that Earth's mantle is a source free region with zero electrical conductivity. Additional assumptions are invoked to estimate the fluid flow at the core surface. New satellite measurements provide an unprecedented view of changes in the core over the past 20 years; further measurements will clarify the temporal spectrum of the secular variation. Secular changes are coupled to changes in length of day, and recent modeling of torsional oscillations in the core can provide an explanation for the abrupt changes in the field known as geomagnetic jerks. Mantle induction studies require a comprehensive approach to magnetic field modeling. Unwanted internal field contributions are removed to yield time series of external variations and their induced counterparts: improved modeling, combined with the increased data accuracy, and longer term magnetic measurements make conductivity studies feasible. One-dimensional global conductivity responses have been estimated under strong assumptions about the structure of the source field. Ongoing improvements to this work will take account of more complicated source-field structure, three-dimensional Earth structure, and spatio-temporal aliasing due to satellite motion. Modeling of three-dimensional near surface conductivity structure, and the use of time-domain rather than frequency-domain techniques to estimate the 3-D Earth response are needed. Progress could be furthered by future magnetometer

  1. Reseña: Critical Studies on Corporate Responsibility, Governance and Sustainability, Vol. 4 y 6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Zicari


    Full Text Available Corporate Social Irresponsibility: A Challenging Concept. Series: Critical Studies on Corporate Responsibility, Governance and Sustainability, Vol. 4. Ralph Tench, William Sun and Brian Jones, 2012, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 315 pages. Communicating Corporate Social Responsibility Perspectives and Practice. Series: Critical Studies on Corporate Responsibility, Governance and Sustainability, Vol. 6. Ralph Tench, William Sun and Brian Jones, 2014, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 456 pages

  2. Exploration of the factors that influence nutritional recovery following critical illness : a mixed methods study


    Merriweather, Judith Lorna


    Survivors of critical illness suffer from a range of problems affecting physical, psychological and social well-being (Needham et al 2011). Weakness, fatigue and malnutrition are highly prevalent during the months following a critical illness. Few studies have systematically and comprehensively explored the factors that influence nutritional recovery or ways to overcome them. The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive understanding of the factors influencing nutrition...

  3. Experimental Study of Thermal Field Evolution in the Short-Impending Stage Before Earthquakes (United States)

    Ren, Yaqiong; Ma, Jin; Liu, Peixun; Chen, Shunyun


    Phenomena at critical points are vital for identifying the short-impending stage prior to earthquakes. The peak stress is a critical point when stress is converted from predominantly accumulation to predominantly release. We call the duration between the peak stress and instability "the meta-instability stage", which refers to the short-impending stage of earthquakes. The meta-instability stage consists of a steady releasing quasi-static stage and an accelerated releasing quasi-dynamic stage. The turning point of the above two stages is the remaining critical point. To identify the two critical points in the field, it is necessary to study the characteristic phenomena of various physical fields in the meta-instability stage in the laboratory, and the strain and displacement variations were studied. Considering that stress and relative displacement can be detected by thermal variations and peculiarities in the full-field observations, we employed a cooled thermal infrared imaging system to record thermal variations in the meta-instability stage of stick slip events generated along a simulated, precut planer strike slip fault in a granodiorite block on a horizontally bilateral servo-controlled press machine. The experimental results demonstrate the following: (1) a large area of decreasing temperatures in wall rocks and increasing temperatures in sporadic sections of the fault indicate entrance into the meta-instability stage. (2) The rapid expansion of regions of increasing temperatures on the fault and the enhancement of temperature increase amplitude correspond to the turning point from the quasi-static stage to the quasi-dynamic stage. Our results reveal thermal indicators for the critical points prior to earthquakes that provide clues for identifying the short-impending stage of earthquakes.

  4. Magnetic field exposure assessment in a case-control study of childhood leukemia. (United States)

    Kleinerman, R A; Linet, M S; Hatch, E E; Wacholder, S; Tarone, R E; Severson, R K; Kaune, W T; Friedman, D R; Haines, C M; Muirhead, C R; Boice, J D; Robison, L L


    Epidemiologic evaluation of the relation between magnetic field exposures and cancer depends critically on study design, particularly the methods used for exposure assessment. We incorporated a complex magnetic field exposure assessment protocol into a large incident case-control study of childhood leukemia. We measured residential magnetic fields using a standard protocol in current and former homes of 638 cases and 620 controls and determined wire codes for 414 case-control pairs. We chose a time-weighted average of magnetic field measurements in each eligible home, weighted by the time the subject lived in each home as the main exposure metric for each subject. We found that 24-hour bedroom magnetic field measurements adequately characterize children's residential exposure and that measuring other rooms contributes only slightly to the estimate of average residential exposure to magnetic fields. Front door measured fields provide useful exposure information when interior measurements are missing. If feasible, measuring multiple homes in which the subject has resided is preferable to measuring a single home. A similar distribution of wire codes for controls agreeing or refusing to participate in our study implies that risk estimates derived from wire code data will not be influenced by response bias.

  5. Astronaut Neil Armstrong studies rock samples during geological field trip (United States)


    Astronaut Neil Armstrong, commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission, studies rock samples during a geological field trip to the Quitman Mountains area near the Fort Quitman ruins in far west Texas.

  6. The TITAN reversed-field-pinch fusion reactor study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This paper on titan plasma engineering contains papers on the following topics: reversed-field pinch as a fusion reactor; parametric systems studies; magnetics; burning-plasma simulations; plasma transient operations; current drive; and physics issues for compact RFP reactors.

  7. Critical Pedagogy in Health Education (United States)

    Matthews, Catherine


    Objective: This review investigated how the three-phase model of critical pedagogy, based on the writings of Paulo Freire, can be put into practice in health education. Design: The study considers literature related to the fields of health education, health promotion and critical pedagogy. Setting: The study is a scholarly review completed as part…

  8. Nurse educators' perceptions of critical thinking in developing countries: Ghana as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boso CM


    Full Text Available Christian Makafui Boso,1 Janet J Gross2,31School of Nursing and Midwifery, College of Health Science and Allied Sciences, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana; 2Morehead State University, Morehead, KY, USA; 3School of Nursing and Midwifery, University of Cape Coast, Cape Coast, GhanaAbstract: The ability to critically evaluate information for the purpose of rendering health care is a prerequisite for modern nurses in a complex and ever-changing health care environment. The nurse educators’ perceptions influence the utilization of critical thinking strategies in the classroom. The purpose of this study was to assess nursing faculty’s perceptions of critical thinking. Using a questionnaire 106 nurse educators from two types of nursing educational program self-reported their perceptions. Data were collected from November 2013 to March 2014. Results were presented using frequencies, percentages, and t-test. The findings revealed that majority (95.3% of nurse educators could not provide definitions that captured both affective and cognitive aspects of critical thinking. However, the majority of nurse educators had positive perceptions of critical thinking. Nurse educators in universities had more positive perceptions of critical thinking than those in the nurses’ training colleges (P=0.007. The results suggested that the current nursing programs are not preparing nurses with the necessary critical thinking skills for the complex health care environment. Professional development programs in critical thinking should be instituted for nurse educators to assist them in developing appropriate teaching strategies to foster students' acquisition of critical thinking skills.Keywords: nurse educators, critical thinking, perceptions, Ghana, developing countries

  9. Malaysian Rural ESL Students Critical Thinking Literacy Level: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurshila Umar Baki


    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been much interest in the development of thinking skills in the education circles in Malaysia. Nevertheless, more effort needs to be placed on providing skills in developing the critical thinking literacy level of English as a second language (ESL secondary school students, and its implication on the practice of teaching and learning. This is especially so for rural secondary school students.  This paper presents findings of a preliminary case study which analyzes the critical thinking literacy level of twenty students of a rural secondary school in Malaysia as measured by the Cornell Critical Thinking Test (CCTTX. Overall, the findings show that students struggled to answer the critical thinking questions posed in the CCTTX.  The analysis point to the fact that students encountered problems with questions on ‘judging what is assumed in an argument’ section of the standardized critical thinking test. Interview responses from students revealed that they found the 71-item-test challenging to answer. Despite the national education agenda to develop world-class thinkers, our study suggests that there appears to be a lack in exposure to thinking-based activities in Malaysian classrooms Keywords: Rural ESL secondary school students, critical thinking, Cornell Critical Thinking Test

  10. Critical thinking instruction and technology enhanced learning from the student perspective: A mixed methods research study. (United States)

    Swart, Ruth


    Critical thinking is acclaimed as a valuable asset for graduates from higher education programs. Technology has advanced in quantity and quality; recognized as a requirement of 21st century learners. A mixed methods research study was undertaken, examining undergraduate nursing student engagement with critical thinking instruction, platformed on two technology-enhanced learning environments: a classroom response system face-to-face in-class and an online discussion forum out-of-class. The Community of Inquiry framed the study capturing constructivist collaborative inquiry to support learning, and facilitate critical thinking capability. Inclusion of quantitative and qualitative data sources aimed to gather a comprehensive understanding of students' development of critical thinking and engagement with technology-enhanced learning. The findings from the students' perspectives were positive toward the inclusion of technology-enhanced learning, and use in supporting their development of critical thinking. Students considered the use of two forms of technology beneficial in meeting different needs and preferences, offering varied means to actively participate in learning. They valued critical thinking instruction being intentionally aligned with subject-specific content facilitating understanding, application, and relevance of course material. While the findings are limited to student participants, the instructional strategies and technology-enhanced learning identified as beneficial can inform course design for the development of critical thinking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Conformal block study and bounding OPE in conformal field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Yvernay, Pierre


    During the past few years, the re-emergence of conformal bootstrap as a numerical tool to solve conformal field theory allowed more precise estimation of several presumed conformal field theory among which we could cite the 3D Ising model. This work intends to provide insight on conformal blocks which are elementary objects in the conformal bootstrap approach. These are considered in Euclidian space where we study fields of all equal dimension. This study allows us to improve bounds derived in \\cite{OPEconv}.

  12. Aristoteles - An ESA mission to study the earth's gravity field (United States)

    Lambeck, K.

    In preparing for its first Solid-Earth Program, ESA has studied a satellite concept for a mission dedicated to the precise determination of the earth's geopotential (gravitational and magnetic) fields. Data from such a mission are expected to make substantial contributions to a number of research and applications fields in solid-earth geophysics, oceanography and global-change monitoring. The impact of a high-resolution gravity-field mission on studies of the various earth-science problems is assessed. The current state of our knowledge in this area is discussed and the ability of low-orbit satellite gradiometry to contribute to their solution is demonstrated.

  13. Joining Forces: European Periodical Studies as a New Research Field


    Van Remoortel, Marianne; Ewins, Kristin; Koffeman, Maaike; Philpotts, Matthew


    In recent decades, periodical studies have burgeoned into a vibrant field of research. Increasing numbers of scholars working in disciplines across the humanities — literary studies, history, art history, gender studies, media studies, legal history, to name a few — are exploring the press as a key site for cultural production, public debate and the dissemination of knowledge. [...

  14. ELF electric and magnetic fields: Pacific Northwest Laboratory studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, L.E.


    Studies have been conducted at Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, to examine extremely-low-frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields for possible biological effects in animals. Three areas of investigation are reported here: (1) studies on the nervous system, including behavior and neuroendocrine function, (2) experiments on cancer development in animals, and (3) measurements of currents and electric fields induced in animal models by exposure to external magnetic fields. In behavioral experiments, rats have been shown to be responsive to ELF electric field exposure. Furthermore, experimental data indicate that short-term memory may be affected in albino rats exposed to combined ELF and static magnetic fields. Neuroendocrine studies have been conducted to demonstrate an apparent stress-related response in rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields. Nighttime pineal melatonin levels have been shown to be significantly depressed in animals exposed to either electric or magnetic fields. A number of animal tumor models are currently under investigation to examine possible relationships between ELF exposure and carcinogenesis. Finally, theoretical and experimental measurements have been performed which form the basis for animals and human exposure comparisons.

  15. 'n Kritiese evaluasie van Colin Brown se studie: Miracles and the critical mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Vledder


    Full Text Available A critical evaluation of Colin Brown's study: Miracles and the critical mind As a historical survey of the viewpoints regarding miracles throughout the ages. Miracles and the critical mind of Colin Brown can be highly recommended as a reference work. In this lies its value. Brown has an interesting viewpoint. He states that miracles can only be interpreted when asked what the evangelists themselves meant by it in their Gospels. But to my mind. Brown does not successfully show that miracles enable us to make sense of the Gospels as history. The reason is that he cannot conclusively prove that miracles are historical facts, and thus the Gospels are history as well. Miracles should be accepted by faith. In this respect he stands fully in an age-old tradition, and as such does not contribute much new towards the debate about miracles. To follow is a critical evaluation of the abovementioned study.

  16. Proposal for the risk management implementation phase in oil field development project by adding value on the refurbishment of critical equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Abdul


    Full Text Available Refurbishment process is a conceptual stage in product life cycle. It is utilized in existing equipment in the field by adding value to recondition and repaired equipment. The main interest of this paper is to implement and design risk management implementation phase in oil field development project on the refurbishment of critical equipment in oil and gas industry. This paper is provided base on research and experiences in risk management and learned from practical team in industry which matched by an application in oil field development project in refurbishment of critical equipment. A framework of implementation phase for risk management in oil field development project in refurbishment critical equipment were reviewed and added value on communication skills of the project team to the stakeholder and organization, which support to external body and vice-versa. Risk management framework can be used for reference of refurbishment process with simply process and developed with same concept for the next wide development project in industry.

  17. Maternal criticism and adolescent depressive and generalized anxiety disorder symptoms: a 6-year longitudinal community study. (United States)

    Nelemans, Stefanie A; Hale, William W; Branje, Susan J T; Hawk, Skyler T; Meeus, Wim H J


    This 6-year longitudinal study examined the direction of effects (i.e., parent effects, child effects, or reciprocal effects) between maternal criticism and adolescent depressive and Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) symptoms, including adolescents' perceptions of criticism as a potential mediator. Consistent with recent empirical findings on associations between parenting and adolescent internalizing symptoms, we hypothesized stronger child effects than parent effects. A community sample of 497 adolescents (M age = 13.03 at T1, 57 % boys) reported annually on their depressive and GAD symptoms as well as their perceptions of parental criticism. Their mothers (M age = 44.41 at T1) also reported annually on their own critical behavior toward their adolescent. As expected, cross-lagged panel models demonstrated stronger child effects (i.e., adolescent psychopathology predicting maternal criticism) than parent effects (i.e., maternal criticism predicting adolescent psychopathology) for both adolescent depressive and GAD symptoms, including adolescent perceived criticism as a significant mediator. Our results emphasize the importance of considering (1) potential bidirectional influences over time, contrary to a focus on parent effects on adolescent mental health, as well as (2) adolescent perceptions of parenting as an important potential mediator in associations between aspects of the parent-adolescent relationship and adolescent internalizing psychopathological symptoms.

  18. Diminished adrenal sensitivity to endogenous and exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone in critical illness: a prospective cohort study


    de Jong, Margriet FC; Molenaar, Nienke; Beishuizen, Albertus; Groeneveld, AB Johan


    textabstractIntroduction: Adrenal dysfunction may represent critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI), as evidenced by a diminished cortisol response to exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), but this concept and its clinical significance remain highly controversial. We studied the adrenal response to exogenous ACTH as a function of the endogenous cortisol-to-ACTH ratio, a measure of adrenal sensitivity, and of clinical variables, during critical illness and recover...

  19. Critical success factors for the creation of an innovative sustainable recycling project: a case study


    Isak Kruglianskas; Fabrizio Giovannini


    The objective of this work is to show the critical success factors for the creation of a sustainable recycling process that involves the coordination of several economic and social agents. This was done trough an exploratory study of an exceptional case that brought gains to all the stakeholders, especially to society. This work highlights the barriers found, how they were overcome and extract evidences over which are the critical success factors, that are the following: high administration s...

  20. Critical care admission of South African (SA surgical patients: Results of the SA Surgical Outcomes Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Lee Skinner


    Full Text Available Background. Appropriate critical care admissions are an important component of surgical care. However, there are few data describing postoperative critical care admission in resource-limited low- and middle-income countries. Objective. To describe the demographics, organ failures, organ support and outcomes of non-cardiac surgical patients admitted to critical care units in South Africa (SA. Methods. The SA Surgical Outcomes Study (SASOS was a 7-day national, multicentre, prospective, observational cohort study of all patients ≥16 years of age undergoing inpatient non-cardiac surgery between 19 and 26 May 2014 at 50 government-funded hospitals. All patients admitted to critical care units during this study were included for analysis. Results. Of the 3 927 SASOS patients, 255 (6.5% were admitted to critical care units; of these admissions, 144 (56.5% were planned, and 111 (43.5% unplanned. The incidence of confirmed or strongly suspected infection at the time of admission was 35.4%, with a significantly higher incidence in unplanned admissions (49.1 v. 24.8%, p<0.001. Unplanned admission cases were more frequently hypovolaemic, had septic shock, and required significantly more inotropic, ventilatory and renal support in the first 48 hours after admission. Overall mortality was 22.4%, with unplanned admissions having a significantly longer critical care length of stay and overall mortality (33.3 v. 13.9%, p<0.001. Conclusion. The outcome of patients admitted to public sector critical care units in SA is strongly associated with unplanned admissions. Adequate ‘high care-dependency units’ for postoperative care of elective surgical patients could potentially decrease the burden on critical care resources in SA by 23%. This study was registered on (NCT02141867.

  1. Critical and Griffiths-McCoy singularities in quantum Ising spin glasses on d-dimensional hypercubic lattices: A series expansion study. (United States)

    Singh, R R P; Young, A P


    We study the ±J transverse-field Ising spin-glass model at zero temperature on d-dimensional hypercubic lattices and in the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick (SK) model, by series expansions around the strong-field limit. In the SK model and in high dimensions our calculated critical properties are in excellent agreement with the exact mean-field results, surprisingly even down to dimension d=6, which is below the upper critical dimension of d=8. In contrast, at lower dimensions we find a rich singular behavior consisting of critical and Griffiths-McCoy singularities. The divergence of the equal-time structure factor allows us to locate the critical coupling where the correlation length diverges, implying the onset of a thermodynamic phase transition. We find that the spin-glass susceptibility as well as various power moments of the local susceptibility become singular in the paramagnetic phase before the critical point. Griffiths-McCoy singularities are very strong in two dimensions but decrease rapidly as the dimension increases. We present evidence that high enough powers of the local susceptibility may become singular at the pure-system critical point.

  2. Magnetic field effects on humans: epidemiological study design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budinger, T.F.; Wong, P.; Yen, C.K.


    This report presents details of the study design and methods for a retrospective epidemiological study on the health effects, if any, of stationary and alternating magnetic fields produced by man-made devices such as cyclotrons, controlled thermonuclear reactors (CTR), high voltage-high current transmission lines, magnetohydrodynamic devices (MHD), energy storage systems, and isotope separation facilities. The magnetic fields to which the workers can be exposed are as high as 10,000 gauss and the anticipated increase in magnetic fields associated with the environment and transmission lines near these devices is a few times the natural earth magnetic field. Thus the objectives include acquisition of low exposure data which can be used to evaluate any risks to the population incidentally exposed to environmental increases in magnetic fields, as well as an acquisition of high exposure data to be used in determining allowable exposure standards for the technical personnel working at CTR and MHD facilities. From the present status of knowledge on biological effects of magnetic fields, it is not possible to extrapolate or rationally conclude maximum permissible exposure levels for magnetic device workers and the population at large. There are no known previous studies of the effects of long-term exposure to magnetic fields involving large samples and matched controls. Thus this human epidemiological study was commenced in 1977 in parallel with experimental studies on biological and medical effects of magnetic fields being conducted by Dr. T. Tenforde and co-workers at LBL, by investigators at Battelle Northwest, and smaller projects at a number of laboratories around the world. The data base for the exposed population is comprised of approximately 1,000 cyclotron and bubble chamber workers.

  3. Sonic boom startle effects : report of a field study. (United States)


    The study reports the results of a sonic boom field study conducted in Sweden during October 1972. Ten female subjects were tested indoors on each of six days. Two age groups were studied: 20-35 and 50-65 years. Fighter aircraft flying at various hei...

  4. Effects of Stress on Critical Care Nurses: A National Cross-Sectional Study. (United States)

    Vahedian-Azimi, Amir; Hajiesmaeili, Mohammadreza; Kangasniemi, Mari; Fornés-Vives, Joana; Hunsucker, Rita L; Rahimibashar, Farshid; Pourhoseingholi, Mohammad A; Farrokhvar, Leily; Miller, Andrew C


    Health care is a demanding field, with a high level of responsibility and exposure to emotional and physical danger. High levels of stress may result in depression, anxiety, burnout syndrome, and in extreme cases, post-traumatic stress disorder. The aim of this study was to determine which personal, professional, and organizational variables are associated with greater perceived stress among critical care nurses for purposes of developing integrative solutions to decrease stress in the future. We conducted a correlation research survey using a cross-sectional design and an in-person survey method. The questionnaire consisted of 2 parts: (1) socioeconomic, professional, and institutional variables and (2) work stressors. Surveys were conducted between January 1, 2011, and December 1, 2015. Multistage cluster random sampling was utilized for data collection. Inclusion criteria were (1) age ≥18 years, (2) registered nurse, (3) works in the intensive care unit (ICU), and (4) willing and able to complete the survey. We surveyed 21 767 ICU nurses in Iran and found that male sex, lower levels of peer collaboration, working with a supervisor in the unit, nurse-patient ratios, and working in a surgical ICU were positively associated with greater stress levels. Increasing age and married status were negatively associated with stress. Intensive care unit type (semi-closed vs open), ICU bed number, shift time, working on holidays, education level, and demographic factors including body mass index, and number of children were not significantly associated with stress levels. As the largest study of its kind, these findings support those found in various European, North, and South American studies. Efforts to decrease workplace stress of ICU nurses by focusing on facilitating peer collaboration, improving resource availability, and staffing ratios are likely to show the greatest impact on stress levels.

  5. Concept mapping in a critical care orientation program: a pilot study to develop critical thinking and decision-making skills in novice nurses. (United States)

    Wahl, Stacy E; Thompson, Anita M


    Newly graduated registered nurses who were hired into a critical care intensive care unit showed a lack of critical thinking skills to inform their clinical decision-making abilities. This study evaluated the effectiveness of concept mapping as a teaching tool to improve critical thinking and clinical decision-making skills in novice nurses. A self-evaluation tool was administered before and after the learning intervention. The 25-item tool measured five key indicators of the development of critical thinking skills: problem recognition, clinical decision-making, prioritization, clinical implementation, and reflection. Statistically significant improvements were seen in 10 items encompassing all five indicators. Concept maps are an effective tool for educators to use in assisting novice nurses to develop their critical thinking and clinical decision-making skills. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Commercial drivers' health: a naturalistic study of body mass index, fatigue, and involvement in safety-critical events. (United States)

    Wiegand, Douglas M; Hanowski, Richard J; McDonald, Shelby E


    To explore the relation of commercial truck drivers' body mass indexex (BMI) to fatigued driving episodes and involvement in safety-critical events. One hundred and three professional truck drivers participated in a long-term naturalistic (on-road) driving study whereby vehicle motion data as well as video of the driver and driving environment were gathered continuously. This data set was analyzed to identify safety-critical events as well as fatigued driving episodes using two independent measures of fatigue. Odds ratio analyses were then performed to explore the relative risk of driving while fatigued and involvement in safety-critical events based on driver's BMI classification (obese versus non-obese). Results indicated that of the 103 participating truck drivers, 53.4 percent were obese based on BMI. Odds ratio calculations revealed that obese individuals were between 1.22 (CI = 1.03-1.45) and 1.69 times (CI = 1.32-2.18) more likely than non-obese individuals to be rated as fatigued based on the two measures of fatigue. Other analyses showed that obese individuals were at 1.37 times (CI = 1.19-1.59) greater risk for involvement in a safety-critical event than non-obese individuals. Finally, one of the fatigue measures showed that obese individuals were 1.99 times (CI = 1.02-3.88) more likely than non-obese individuals to be fatigued while involved in an at-fault safety-critical incident. The results of this study support other research in the field of health and well-being that indicate a link between obesity and fatigue, which is a major safety issue surrounding commercial motor vehicle operations given the long hours these drivers spend on the road.

  7. Prediction of critical illness in elderly outpatients using elder risk assessment: a population-based study (United States)

    Biehl, Michelle; Takahashi, Paul Y; Cha, Stephen S; Chaudhry, Rajeev; Gajic, Ognjen; Thorsteinsdottir, Bjorg


    Rationale Identifying patients at high risk of critical illness is necessary for the development and testing of strategies to prevent critical illness. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between high elder risk assessment (ERA) score and critical illness requiring intensive care and to see if the ERA can be used as a prediction tool to identify elderly patients at the primary care visit who are at high risk of critical illness. Methods A population-based historical cohort study was conducted in elderly patients (age >65 years) identified at the time of primary care visit in Rochester, MN, USA. Predictors including age, previous hospital days, and comorbid health conditions were identified from routine administrative data available in the electronic medical record. The main outcome was critical illness, defined as sepsis, need for mechanical ventilation, or death within 2 years of initial visit. Patients with an ERA score of 16 were considered to be at high risk. The discrimination of the ERA score was assessed using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Results Of the 13,457 eligible patients, 9,872 gave consent for medical record review and had full information on intensive care unit utilization. The mean age was 75.8 years (standard deviation ±7.6 years), and 58% were female, 94% were Caucasian, 62% were married, and 13% were living in nursing homes. In the overall group, 417 patients (4.2%) suffered from critical illness. In the 1,134 patients with ERA >16, 154 (14%) suffered from critical illness. An ERA score ≥16 predicted critical illness (odds ratio 6.35; 95% confidence interval 3.51–11.48). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.75, which indicated good discrimination. Conclusion A simple model based on easily obtainable administrative data predicted critical illness in the next 2 years in elderly outpatients with up to 14% of the highest risk population suffering from critical illness

  8. Dark field X-ray microscopy for studies of recrystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahl, Sonja Rosenlund; Simons, Hugh; Jakobsen, Anders Clemen


    We present the recently developed technique of Dark Field X-Ray Microscopy that utilizes the diffraction of hard X-rays from individual grains or subgrains at the (sub)micrometre- scale embedded within mm-sized samples. By magnifying the diffracted signal, 3D mapping of orientations and strains...... external influences. The capabilities of Dark Field X- Ray Microscopy are illustrated by examples from an ongoing study of recrystallization of 50% cold-rolled Al1050 specimens....

  9. Training of Critical Thinking Skills in Teacher Candidates and Placebo Effect: A Quasi-Experimental Study (United States)

    Demirbag, Betul; Unisen, Ali; Yesilyurt, Abdullah


    Problem Statement: In recent years many different studies have examined critical thinking disposition; however, these studies focus on investigating the variables that are related to this subject. There are actually few empirical studies in the literature. It is clear that there is a need for experimental research in order to comprehend the…

  10. A Longitudinal Study of Enhancing Critical Thinking and Reading Comprehension in Title I Classrooms (United States)

    VanTassel-Baska, Joyce; Bracken, Bruce; Feng, Annie; Brown, Elissa


    A longitudinal study of student growth gains was conducted in Title I schools to assess growth in reading comprehension and critical thinking. Results suggested that all students benefited from the intervention of Project Athena units of study designed for high-ability learners. In addition, the study suggested that the comparison curriculum also…

  11. EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY IN PRACTICE Research and Practical Case Studies from the Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reviewed by Ozden SAHIN-IZMIRLI


    Full Text Available The book starts with an explanation of the reason why the terms found in the book are sometimes used in place of each other. The editors stated that when technological tools are used to establish an effective and productive study process in education, the concept of learning technology is used instead of educational technology. The editors of the book considers the field as complex and vague in terms of the fact that the meanings of the concepts are close to each other in the field of educational technology and that the field provides an opportunity for inter-disciplinary studies. However, according to the editors, this vagueness and complexity shows the superiority of the field. This superiority is explained with the fact that the field of educational technology requires upper-level skills of problem solving and critical thinking and that it presents a multi-dimensional and inter-disciplinary study field. The book was edited by Wanjira Kinuthia and Steward Marshall. Wanjira Kinuthia, an assistant professor at Georgia State University, works in the Department of Middle-Secondary Education and Instructional Technology. Steward Marshall, a professor at the University of the West Indies, is the director of the Distance Education Centre. The book includes five sections and 21 chapters. These sections are “Materials, Methods, and Modalities”, “Technology Implementation and Integration Issues”, “Student Engagement and Learning”, “Building Capacity”, “Using Technology for Performance Improvement and Productivity Enhancement”.

  12. Application of methods of critical thinking in the information education: Case study of the Czech University of Life Sciences


    Paulová, Kristýna


    This thesis is focused on use of the critical thinking techniques into the courses of information education. The study describes links and relations among the critical thinking as one part of constructivist teaching and information, critical and reading literacy. A literature review of the thesis also includes description of programme for critical thinking development called "Reading and Writing for Critical Thinking". A finding and methodology section is divided into two parts. First one ana...

  13. How Diversity Matters in the US Science and Engineering Workforce: A Critical Review Considering Integration in Teams, Fields, and Organizational Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurel Smith-Doerr


    Full Text Available How the race and gender diversity of team members is related to innovative science and technology outcomes is debated in the scholarly literature. Some studies find diversity is linked to creativity and productivity, other studies find that diversity has no effect or even negative effects on team outcomes. Based on a critical review of the literature, this paper explains the seemingly contradictory findings through careful attention to the organizational contexts of team diversity. We distinguish between representational diversity and full integration of minority scientists. Representational diversity, where organizations have workforces that match the pool of degree recipients in relevant fields, is a necessary but not sufficient condition for diversity to yield benefits. Full integration of minority scientists (i.e., including women and people of color in an interaction context that allows for more level information exchange, unimpeded by the asymmetrical power relationships that are common across many scientific organizations, is when the full potential for diversity to have innovative outcomes is realized. Under conditions of equitable and integrated work environments, diversity leads to creativity, innovation, productivity, and positive reputational (status effects. Thus, effective policies for diversity in science and engineering must also address integration in the organizational contexts in which diverse teams are embedded.

  14. A theory of the strain-dependent critical field in Nb3Sn, based on anharmonic phonon generation

    CERN Document Server

    Valentinis, D F; Bordini, B; Rossi, L


    We propose a theory to explain the strain dependence of the critical properties in A15 superconductors. Starting from the strong-coupling formula for the critical temperature, and assuming that the strain sensitivity stems mostly from the electron-phonon alpha F-2 function, we link the strain dependence of the critical properties to a widening of alpha F-2. This widening is attributed to the nonlinear generation of phonons, which takes place in the anharmonic deformation potential induced by the strain. Based on the theory of sum- and difference-frequency wave generation in nonlinear media, we obtain an explicit connection between the widening of alpha F-2 and the anharmonic energy. The resulting model is fit to experimental datasets for Nb3Sn, and the anharmonic energy extracted from the fits is compared with first-principles calculations.

  15. NATO Advanced Study Institute on Atoms in Strong Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Charles; Nayfeh, Munir


    This book collects the lectures given at the NATO Advanced Study Institute on "Atoms in Strong Fields", which took place on the island of Kos, Greece, during the two weeks of October 9-21,1988. The designation "strong field" applies here to an external electromagnetic field that is sufficiently strong to cause highly nonlinear alterations in atomic or molecular struc­ ture and dynamics. The specific topics treated in this volume fall into two general cater­ gories, which are those for which strong field effects can be studied in detail in terrestrial laboratories: the dynamics of excited states in static or quasi-static electric and magnetic fields; and the interaction of atoms and molecules with intense laser radiation. In both areas there exist promising opportunities for research of a fundamental nature. An electric field of even a few volts per centimeter can be very strong on the atom­ ic scale, if it acts upon a weakly bound state. The study of Rydberg states with high reso­ lution laser spectroscop...

  16. Phase diagrams of diblock copolymers in electric fields: a self-consistent field theory study. (United States)

    Wu, Ji; Wang, Xianghong; Ji, Yongyun; He, Linli; Li, Shiben


    We investigated the phase diagrams of diblock copolymers in external electrostatic fields by using real-space self-consistent field theory. The lamella, cylinder, sphere, and ellipsoid structures were observed and analyzed by their segment distributions, which were arranged to two types of phase diagrams to examine the phase behavior in weak and strong electric fields. One type was constructed on the basis of Flory-Huggins interaction parameter and volume fraction. We identified an ellipsoid structure with a body-centered cuboid arrangement as a stable phase and discussed the shift of phase boundaries in the electric fields. The other type of phase diagrams was established on the basis of the dielectric constants of two blocks in the electric fields. We then determined the regions of ellipsoid phase in the phase diagrams to examine the influence of dielectric constants on the phase transition between ellipsoidal and hexagonally packed cylinder phases. A general agreement was obtained by comparing our results with those described in previous experimental and theoretical studies.

  17. Critical properties at the field-induced Bose-Einstein condensation on NiCl2-4SC(NH2)2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengupta, Pinaki [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Al-hassenieh, Khaled A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jaime, Macelo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Paduan-filho, Armando [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    We report new magnetization measurements on the spin-gap compound NiCl{sub 2}-4SC(NH{sub 2}){sub 2} at the low-field boundary of the magnetic field induced ordering. The critical density of the magnetization is analyzed in terms of a Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of bosonic quasiparticles. The analysis of the magnetization at the transition leads to the conclusion for the preservation of the U(1) symmetry, as required for BEC. The experimental data are well described by quantum Monte Carlo simulations.

  18. Cellular studies and interaction mechanisms of extremely low frequency fields (United States)

    Liburdy, Robert P.


    Worldwide interest in the biological effects of ELF (extremely low frequency, regulators, scientists and engineers, and, importantly, an increasing number of individuals in the general public are interested in this health issue. The goal of research at the cellular level is to identify cellular responses to ELF fields, to develop a dose threshold for such interactions, and with such information to formulate and test appropriate interaction mechanisms. This review is selective and will discuss the most recent cellular studies directed at these goals which relate to power line, sinusoidal ELF fields. In these studies an interaction site at the cell membrane is by consensus a likely candidate, since changes in ion transport, ligand-receptor events such as antibody binding, and G protein activation have been reported. These changes strongly indicate that signal transduction (ST) can be influenced. Also, ELF fields are reported to influence enzyme activation, gene expression, protein synthesis, and cell proliferation, which are triggered by earlier ST events at the cell membrane. The concept of ELF fields altering early cell membrane events and thereby influencing intracellular cell function via the ST cascade is perhaps the most plausible biological framework currently being investigated for understanding ELF effects on cells. For example, the consequence of an increase due to ELF fields in mitogenesis, the final endpoint of the ST cascade, is an overall increase in the probability of mutagenesis and consequently cancer, according to the Ames epigenetic model of carcinogenesis. Consistent with this epigenetic mechanism and the ST pathway to carcinogenesis is recent evidence that ELF fields can alter breast cancer cell proliferation and can act as a copromoter in vitro. The most important dosimetric question being addressed currently is whether the electric (E) or the magnetic (B) field, or if combinations of static B and time-varying B fields represent an exposure

  19. Field-Induced Quantum Critical Point and Nodal Superconductivity in the Heavy-Fermion Superconductor Ce_{2}PdIn_{8}

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Dong


    Full Text Available The in-plane resistivity ρ and thermal conductivity κ of the heavy-fermion superconductor Ce_{2}PdIn_{8} single crystals were measured down to 50 mK. A field-induced quantum critical point, occurring at the upper critical field H_{c2}, is demonstrated from the ρ(T∼T near H_{c2} and ρ(T∼T^{2} when further increasing the field. The large residual linear term κ_{0}/T at zero field and the rapid increase of κ(H/T at low field give evidence for nodal superconductivity in Ce_{2}PdIn_{8}. The jump of κ(H/T near H_{c2} suggests a first-order-like phase transition at low temperature. These results mimic the features of the famous CeCoIn_{5} superconductor, implying that Ce_{2}PdIn_{8} may be another interesting compound to investigate for the interplay between magnetism and superconductivity.

  20. Safety as a criterion for quality: the critical nursing situation index in paediatric critical care, an observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Neef, Marjorie; Bos, Albert P.; Tol, Dirk


    INTRODUCTION: The Critical Nursing Situation Index (CNSI) identifies deviations from safe practice as laid down in guidelines, using an observational approach. The CNSI contains a list of predefined items that stem from nursing protocols and guidelines. Deviation from these may lead to adverse

  1. Lateral critical current distribution and self-field profile of Bi-2223/Ag conductors: measurements and calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demencik, E.; Usak, P.; Polak, M.; Piel, H.; Dhalle, Marc M.J.


    The lateral current distribution and the magnetic self-field induced by a transport current were measured independently in three multifilament Bi-2223/Ag tapes with qualitatively different filament layouts. The current and field data from these two experiments, magnetic knife and scanning Hall

  2. Critical challenges in ERP implementation: A qualitative case study in the Canadian oil and gas industry (United States)

    Menon, Sreekumar A.

    This exploratory qualitative single-case study examines critical challenges encountered during ERP implementation based on individual perspectives in four project roles: senior leaders, project managers, project team members, and business users, all specifically in Canadian oil and gas industry. Data was collected by interviewing participants belonging to these categories, and by analyzing project documentation about ERP implementation. The organization for the case study was a leading multinational oil and gas company having a substantial presence in the energy sector in Canada. The study results were aligned with the six management questions regarding critical challenges in ERP: (a) circumstances to implement ERP, (b) benefits and process improvements achieved, (c) best practices implemented, (d) critical challenges encountered, (e) strategies and mitigating actions used, and (f) recommendations to improve future ERP implementations. The study results highlight six key findings. First, the study provided valid circumstances for implementing ERP systems. Second, the study underscored the importance of benefits and process improvements in ERP implementation. Third, the study highlighted that adoption of best practices is crucial for ERP Implementation. Fourth, the study found that critical challenges are encountered in ERP Implementation and are significant during ERP implementation. Fifth, the study found that strategies and mitigating actions can overcome challenges in ERP implementation. Finally, the study provided ten major recommendations on how to improve future ERP implementations.

  3. Design verification enhancement of field programmable gate array-based safety-critical I&C system of nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Ibrahim [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyung Hee University, 1732 Deogyeong-daero, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 17104 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jaecheon, E-mail: [Department of Nuclear Power Plant Engineering, KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, 658-91 Haemaji-ro, Seosang-myeon, Ulju-gun, Ulsan 45014 (Korea, Republic of); Heo, Gyunyoung [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kyung Hee University, 1732 Deogyeong-daero, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 17104 (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: • An enhanced, systematic and integrated design verification approach is proposed for V&V of FPGA-based I&C system of NPP. • RPS bistable fixed setpoint trip algorithm is designed, analyzed, verified and discussed using the proposed approaches. • The application of integrated verification approach simultaneously verified the entire design modules. • The applicability of the proposed V&V facilitated the design verification processes. - Abstract: Safety-critical instrumentation and control (I&C) system in nuclear power plant (NPP) implemented on programmable logic controllers (PLCs) plays a vital role in safe operation of the plant. The challenges such as fast obsolescence, the vulnerability to cyber-attack, and other related issues of software systems have currently led to the consideration of field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) as an alternative to PLCs because of their advantages and hardware related benefits. However, safety analysis for FPGA-based I&C systems, and verification and validation (V&V) assessments still remain important issues to be resolved, which are now become a global research point of interests. In this work, we proposed a systematic design and verification strategies from start to ready-to-use in form of model-based approaches for FPGA-based reactor protection system (RPS) that can lead to the enhancement of the design verification and validation processes. The proposed methodology stages are requirement analysis, enhanced functional flow block diagram (EFFBD) models, finite state machine with data path (FSMD) models, hardware description language (HDL) code development, and design verifications. The design verification stage includes unit test – Very high speed integrated circuit Hardware Description Language (VHDL) test and modified condition decision coverage (MC/DC) test, module test – MATLAB/Simulink Co-simulation test, and integration test – FPGA hardware test beds. To prove the adequacy of the proposed

  4. Bernard Shaw’s reconfiguration of dramatic genres as force-fields in socio-cultural and new aesthetic criticism


    Nforbin, Gerald


    This study examines George Bernhard Shaw’s uses and transformations of dramatic genres with a view to exploring the functions of genres, regarding in particular his socio-cultural and aesthetic criticisms. The aim is to demonstrate that the transformatory use of genres can serve strong socio-critical and revolutionary aesthetic purposes. The study argues that Shaw continually experimented with dramatic forms, but his real target was their political and cultural dimensions. For Shaw, the best ...

  5. Assessing Critical Thinking Outcomes of Dental Hygiene Students Utilizing Virtual Patient Simulation: A Mixed Methods Study. (United States)

    Allaire, Joanna L


    Dental hygiene educators must determine which educational practices best promote critical thinking, a quality necessary to translate knowledge into sound clinical decision making. The aim of this small pilot study was to determine whether virtual patient simulation had an effect on the critical thinking of dental hygiene students. A pretest-posttest design using the Health Science Reasoning Test was used to evaluate the critical thinking skills of senior dental hygiene students at The University of Texas School of Dentistry at Houston Dental Hygiene Program before and after their experience with computer-based patient simulation cases. Additional survey questions sought to identify the students' perceptions of whether the experience had helped develop their critical thinking skills and improved their ability to provide competent patient care. A convenience sample of 31 senior dental hygiene students completed both the pretest and posttest (81.5% of total students in that class); 30 senior dental hygiene students completed the survey on perceptions of the simulation (78.9% response rate). Although the results did not show a significant increase in mean scores, the students reported feeling that the use of virtual patients was an effective teaching method to promote critical thinking, problem-solving, and confidence in the clinical realm. The results of this pilot study may have implications to support the use of virtual patient simulations in dental hygiene education. Future research could include a larger controlled study to validate findings from this study.

  6. HVAC systems in a field laboratory for indoor climate study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lei; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Olesen, Bjarne W.


    convectors. The field lab was designed for experimental research, education and demonstration of ventilation and air-conditioning principals with special focus on studying the impact of different air distribution and heating/cooling methods on human comfort and health. The system can also be used for testing...... under realistic conditions the performance of air processing units (e.g. a special air handling unit, an air cleaning devices, etc.) including their energy consumption and human response. The field lab can accommodate up to 50 occupants and supply 750 L/s of conditioned outdoor fresh air...... with the controlled room temperature in the range from 10 to 35 °C and relative humidity in the range from 15 to 80 %. The field lab can be used to test the performance of each system included in the field lab as well as the combined performance of two or more systems....

  7. mxCSM: A 100-slit, 6-wavelength wide-field coronal spectropolarimeter for the study of the dynamics and the magnetic fields of the solar corona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haosheng eLin


    Full Text Available remendous progress has been made in the field of observational coronal magnetometry in the first decade of the 21st century. With the successful construction of the Coronal Multichannel Magnetometer (CoMP instrument, observations of the linear polarization of the coronal emission lines (CELs, which carry information about the azimuthal direction of the coronal magnetic fields, are now routinely available. However, reliable and regular measurements of the circular polarization signals of the CELs remain illusive. The CEL circular polarization signals allow us to infer the magnetic field strength in the corona, and is critically important {bf of} our understanding of the solar corona. Current telescopes and instrument can only measure the coronal magnetic field strength over a small field of view. Furthermore, the observations require very long integration time that preclude the study of dynamic events even when only a small field of view is required. This paper describes a new instrument concept that employees large-scale multiplexing technology to enhance the efficiency of current coronal spectropolarimeter by more than two orders of magnitude. This will allow for the instrument to increase of the integration time at each spatial location by the same factor, while also achieving a large field of view coverage. We will present the conceptual design of a 100-slit coronal spectropolarimeter that can observe six coronal emission lines simultaneously. Instruments based on this concept will allow us to study the evolution of the coronal magnetic field even with coronagraphs with modest aperture.

  8. Self-Critical Thinking and Overgeneralization in Depression and Eating Disorders: An Experimental Study. (United States)

    Thew, Graham R; Gregory, James D; Roberts, Kate; Rimes, Katharine A


    Self-critical thinking is common across psychological disorders. This study hypothesized that it may play an important role in 'overgeneralization', the process of drawing general implications from an isolated negative experience. To explore the impact of two experimental tasks designed to elicit self-critical thoughts on the endorsement of general negative self-views of clinical and non-clinical populations. Three groups (depression, eating disorders and non-clinical controls), completed standardized questionnaires and the two tasks. Participants rated their self-critical thinking and general negative self-beliefs before and after each task. Following a failure experience, both clinical groups showed a greater increase in general negative self-views compared with controls, indicating greater overgeneralization. Both habitual and increases in state self-critical thinking were associated with overgeneralization while negative perfectionism was not. Overgeneralization was more strongly associated with post-task reduced mood than self-criticism. Self-critical thinking may be an important factor in the process of overgeneralization, and the increase in general negative self-views may be particularly crucial for lowering of mood.

  9. Preparation for Social Service Leadership: Field Work and Virtual Organizations that Promote Critical Thinking in Administration Practice (United States)

    Williams-Gray, Brenda


    This article examines how to prepare professional social workers for real-world nonprofit leadership roles. A pilot course assignment that incorporates a quasi-organization fieldwork simulation developed by the author is described. Development and application of critical thinking skills are reviewed, the course objective is explained, and methods…

  10. "The Soccer Field, It Has Dirt": A Critical Analysis of Teacher Learners in Contact with Emergent Multilingual Students (United States)

    Catalano, Theresa; Reeves, Jenelle R.; Wessels, Stephanie


    In today's globalized world, superdiversity and global migration have led to an increased focus on emergent multilingual students and how schools can best serve them. The authors explore how teacher learners in an undergraduate course on emergent multilinguals in a mid-sized university in the Midwest critically reflect on their learning in a…

  11. A comparative study of varying doses of enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis in critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robinson, Sian; Zincuk, Aleksander; Larsen, Ulla Lei


    for general ward patients. Studies conducted in orthopaedic patients demonstrated a statistically significant relationship between anti-Xa levels and wound haematoma and thrombosis. Corresponding levels for critically ill patients may well be higher, but have never been validated in large studies. METHODS: 80......INTRODUCTION: Critically ill patients are predisposed to venous thromboembolism. We hypothesized that higher doses of enoxaparin would improve thromboprophylaxis without increasing the risk of bleeding. Peak anti-factor Xa (anti-Xa) levels of 0.1- 0.4 IU/ml, reflect adequate thromboprophylaxis...... critically ill patients weighing 50 - 90 kilograms were randomised in a double-blinded study to receive subcutaneous (sc) enoxaparin: 40 mg once daily (QD), 30 mg twice daily (BID), 40mg BID, or 1mg/kg QD, each administered for three days. Anti-Xa activity was measured at baseline, and daily at 4, 12, 16...

  12. Critical appraisal of diagnostic studies in nuclear medicine; Evidenzbasierte Bewertung von Diagnosestudien in der Nuklearmedizin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marienhagen, J.; Eilles, C. [Klinikum der Universitaet Regensburg (Germany). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin


    The conceptual ideas of evidence based critical appraisal of diagnostic studies are described in this survey. In this context special attention is given to biases in study design such as verification- as well as information-bias limiting the validity of diagnostic studies. The practice of critical appraisal is demonstrated in an application to an example of a nuclear medicine scenario. The impact of evidence based medicine on nuclear medicine as a diagnostic discipline is discussed in detail. (orig.) [German] Die vorliegende Uebersichtsarbeit stellt das Konzept der evidenzbasierten kritischen Bewertung (critical appraisal) von Diagnosestudien vor. Hierbei wird insbesondere auf moegliche Verzerrungen im Studiendesign (z.B. Verifikations-, Informationsbias) eingegangen, die ihre Validitaet entscheidend in Frage stellen. Am Beispiel eines typischen Szenarios wird die Anwendung der ausfuehrlich diskutierten EbM-Kriterien gezeigt. Die moegliche Bedeutung der evidenzbasierten Medizin (EbM) fuer die Nuklearmedizin als diagnostisches Fach wird diskutiert. (orig.)

  13. Neuroscientific Studies of Mathematical Thinking and Learning: A Critical Look from a Mathematics Education Viewpoint (United States)

    Verschaffel, Lieven; Lehtinen, Erno; Van Dooren, Wim


    In this commentary we take a critical look at the various studies being reported in this issue about the relationship between cognitive neuroscience and mathematics, from a mathematics education viewpoint. After a discussion of the individual contributions, which we have grouped into three categories--namely neuroscientific studies of (a)…

  14. A Study on the Link between Moral Judgment Competences and Critical Thinking Skills (United States)

    Samanci, Nilay Keskin


    Although many studies have established a direct link between moral judgment competences and critical thinking skills, none has been found to reveal the nature of the link between these two skills in the national and international literature. The present study looked at biology and primary education teacher candidates' moral judgment and critical…

  15. Reading for Democracy: Preparing Middle-Grades Social Studies Teachers to Teach Critical Literacy (United States)

    Reidel, Michelle; Draper, Christine A.


    The role of literacy instruction--and more specifically the ability to read critically--in democratic and Social Studies education has not been fully or explicitly explored. This gap is also strikingly evident in the reluctance of many Social Studies teachers to incorporate reading instruction into their practice. In this paper we describe our…

  16. Virtuous Subjects: A Critical Analysis of the Affective Substance of Social Studies Education (United States)

    Helmsing, Mark


    This essay invites social studies educators to consider critical theoretical insights related to affect, emotions, and feelings from what has been termed "the affective turn" in social sciences and humanities scholarship. Developments in theorizing affect and recent research in social studies education are related to affective elements…

  17. Back to OZ? Rethinking the Literary in a Critical Study of Reading (United States)

    Hicks, Deborah


    Drawing on data gathered during a fourteen-month study of reading practices among poor and working-class girls, this essay explores the challenges of creating a responsive and critical reading pedagogy across boundaries of class. Set largely in a summer and after-school reading program for pre-teen girls, the study addressed the question of how a…

  18. A Study of Ideational Metafunction in Joseph Conrad's "Heart of Darkness": A Critical Discourse Analysis (United States)

    Alaei, Mahya; Ahangari, Saeideh


    The linguistic study of literature or critical analysis of literary discourse is no different from any other textual description; it is not a new branch or a new level or a new kind of linguistics but the application of existing theories and methods (Halliday, 2002). This study intends to determine how ideology or opinion is expressed in Joseph…

  19. Liberal Studies in Hong Kong: A New Perspective on Critical Thinking through Group Work (United States)

    Fung, Dennis; Howe, Christine


    This article reports research that is contextualised within reforms of secondary education in Hong Kong and the reintroduction of Liberal Studies, which jointly emphasise the need for a learning environment that facilitates the practice of group work and the development of critical thinking. A study is described that explores the relevance of…

  20. Group Work and the Learning of Critical Thinking in the Hong Kong Secondary Liberal Studies Curriculum (United States)

    Fung, Dennis; Howe, Christine


    This article reports the findings of a one-year longitudinal study that investigated the impact of group work on the development of students' critical thinking in Hong Kong secondary schools. It explores whether the participation of teachers in a group-based teaching intervention adapted from an earlier study conducted in the United Kingdom (UK)…

  1. Critical Literacy as an Approach to Literary Study in the Multicultural, High-School Classroom (United States)

    Locke, Terry; Cleary, Alison


    As an approach to literary study, critical literacy is not a widespread practice in New Zealand secondary schools. This article draws on a major project on teaching literature in the multicultural classroom that take place over two years in 2008-2009. In it we report on a case study where a Year 13 English teacher designed and tested a novel…

  2. Whole-Home Dehumidifiers: Field-Monitoring Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, Tom; Willem, Henry; Ni, Chun Chun; Stratton, Hannah; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Johnson, Russell


    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) initiated a WHD field-metering study to expand current knowledge of and obtain data on WHD operation and energy consumption in real-world applications. The field study collected real-time data on WHD energy consumption, along with information regarding housing characteristics, consumer behavior, and various outdoor conditions expected to affect WHD performance and efficiency. Although the metering study collected similar data regarding air conditioner operation, this report discusses only WHDs. The primary objectives of the LBNL field-metering study are to (1) expand knowledge of the configurations, energy consumption profiles, consumer patterns of use (e.g., relative humidity [RH] settings), and environmental parameters of whole-home dehumidification systems; and (2) develop distributions of hours of dehumidifier operation in four operating modes: off, standby, fan-only, and compressor (also called dehumidification mode). Profiling energy consumption entails documenting the power consumption, duration of power consumption in different modes, condensate generation, and properties of output air of an installed system under field conditions of varying inlet air temperature and RH, as well as system configuration. This profiling provides a more detailed and deeper understanding of WHD operation and its complexities. This report describes LBNL’s whole-home dehumidification field-metering study conducted at four homes in Wisconsin and Florida. The initial phase of the WHD field-metering study was conducted on one home in Madison, Wisconsin, from June to December of 2013. During a second phase, three Florida homes were metered from June to October of 2014. This report presents and examines data from the Wisconsin site and from the three Florida sites.

  3. From Field to Laboratory: A New Database Approach for Linking Microbial Field Ecology with Laboratory Studies (United States)

    Bebout, Leslie; Keller, R.; Miller, S.; Jahnke, L.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)


    The Ames Exobiology Culture Collection Database (AECC-DB) has been developed as a collaboration between microbial ecologists and information technology specialists. It allows for extensive web-based archiving of information regarding field samples to document microbial co-habitation of specific ecosystem micro-environments. Documentation and archiving continues as pure cultures are isolated, metabolic properties determined, and DNA extracted and sequenced. In this way metabolic properties and molecular sequences are clearly linked back to specific isolates and the location of those microbes in the ecosystem of origin. Use of this database system presents a significant advancement over traditional bookkeeping wherein there is generally little or no information regarding the environments from which microorganisms were isolated. Generally there is only a general ecosystem designation (i.e., hot-spring). However within each of these there are a myriad of microenvironments with very different properties and determining exactly where (which microenvironment) a given microbe comes from is critical in designing appropriate isolation media and interpreting physiological properties. We are currently using the database to aid in the isolation of a large number of cyanobacterial species and will present results by PI's and students demonstrating the utility of this new approach.

  4. Critical behaviour of the 3D XY-model a Monte Carlo study

    CERN Document Server

    Gottlob, Aloysius P.


    We present the results of a study of the three-dimensional $XY$-model on a simple cubic lattice using the single cluster updating algorithm combined with improved estimators. We have measured the susceptibility and the correlation length for various couplings in the high temperature phase on lattices of size up to $L=112$. At the transition temperature we studied the fourth-order cumulant and other cumulant-like quantities on lattices of size up to $L=64$. From our numerical data we obtain for the critical coupling $\\coup_c=0.45420(2)$, and for the static critical exponents $\\gamma /\

  5. EssayCritic. A Pilot Study of a Computer Supported Essay Critiquing System


    Otnes, Jan Are


    This predominantly qualitative case study has been concerned with the use of a student essay critiquing system, named EssayCritic, in a collaborative setting with 26 students aged 16-17, at a Norwegian high school. It was done in close co-operation between InterMedia at the University of Oslo, Norway and Hong Kong Baptist University, Hong Kong. The goal has been to study how EssayCritic can help students writing essays in general, and the effect of collaboration in pairs, particularly. EssayC...

  6. Competencies of Track and Field coaches. An Exploratory Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Tripolitsioti


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to construct a questionnaire to identify the knowledge and skills needed by track and field coaches in Greece to perform their role. Following standard procedures, an instrument with 42 items was constructed. Three hundred and forty nine Greek track and field coaches, who have been working 15+-2.8 y in the first and second division, aged 45+-4.4 y, participated in the study and rated the items of the questionnaire according to a Likert scale. Exploratory factor analysis revealed five factors comprising 22 competency statements: a field management techniques (7 items, b sport science (5 items, c injury prevention/crisis management (3 items; d biology (3 items; and e field training (4 items. The internal validity revealed a Cronbach’s alpha factor of 0.894 with subscales ranging from 0.657 to 0.886. Results also showed that demonstrating an understanding of specific inherent risks of sport activity and an understanding of psychology were the top rated competencies, while preparing a budget proposal and utilizing effective office procedures to handle registrations, reports, notices, etc., were the lower rated competencies. It is concluded that the questionnaire developed in this study is a reliable and valid instrument to measure the competencies of track and field coaches in Greece.

  7. Is there a broader role for independent mental capacity advocates in critical care? An exploratory study. (United States)

    Chatfield, Doris A; Lee, Sue; Cowley, Jakki; Kitzinger, Celia; Kitzinger, Jenny; Menon, David K


    This research explores the current and potential future role of independent mental capacity advocates (IMCAs) in critical care. The Mental Capacity Act (MCA) of 2005 introduced IMCAs as advocates for patients without anyone to represent their best interests, but research suggests that this role is not well understood or implemented. No existing research explores the role of IMCAs in critical care or their potential use when families are judged 'appropriate to act' on the patient's behalf. It is suggested that families may not be best placed to advocate for their sick family member when they themselves are in a state of shock. To investigate existing levels of knowledge and awareness of the MCA and understanding of the role of IMCAs in critical care as a prelude to considering whether the role of IMCAs might usefully be extended. The concept of 'IMCA clinics' is introduced and explored. A small-scale qualitative study using thematic analysis of 15 interviews across two NHS sites and a survey of IMCA services were undertaken. Some knowledge of the MCA was evident across both study sites, but training on MCA remains unsatisfactory, with confusion about the role of IMCAs and when they should become involved. Overall, participants felt that the broader involvement of IMCAs on a regular basis within critical care could be useful. There was evidence of good practice when instructing IMCAs, but further work needs to be conducted to ensure that critical care staff are informed about the referral process. It was clear that expanding the role of an advocate warrants further investigation. Further training on the role of IMCAs within critical care is required, and good practice examples should be shared with other units to improve referral rates to the IMCA service and ensure that vulnerable patients are properly represented. © 2017 British Association of Critical Care Nurses.

  8. A program to study the Earth's magnetic field (United States)

    GP President-Elect Ron Merrill has appointed a steering committee to develop a new initiative for a program to study the earth's magnetic field. In addition to Merrill, who will serve as chair, and Kenneth Verosub (University of California, Davis) who will be vice-chair, the committee includes George Backus (Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif.), Ned Benton (University of Colorado, Boulder), Rob Coe (University of California, Santa Cruz), and Dennis Kent (Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Palisades, N.Y.). The objective of the new program would be to develop a better description of the behavior of the geomagnetic field on all time scales and to use this description to increase our understanding of the physical processes that govern the generation of the geomagnetic field. The program would have three areas of emphasis: the present and recent field and its secular variation, the paleo-field and its variation on various time scales, and the core processes that produce the field.

  9. Critical care nurses' perception of nursing error and its causes: a qualitative study. (United States)

    Valiee, Sina; Peyrovi, Hamid; Nasrabadi, Alireza Nikbakht


    Nurses' perceptions of nursing error could affect their professional practice. The aim of the study was to explore critical care nurses' perceptions of nursing error and its causes. This was a qualitative study in which 12 critical care nurses were recruited through purposive sampling. The data were collected via in-depth interviews and analyzed through qualitative content analysis method (Elo & Kyngäs, 2008). Nursing error was deemed as an unavoidable issue which consisted of the lack of congruence with standards, doing extra-nursing tasks and giving care against the agreed-upon routines. Five categories emerged as the causes of error: individual reasons, work pressure, caring blindly, the uniqueness of caring environment and the lack of coordination among health care team members. The perception of nursing error is sort of unique; hence, managers should provide support for critical care nurses and pave the way for the prevention of errors.

  10. Temperature dependence of the critical current of the superconducting microladder in zero magnetic field: Theory and experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, H.J. (Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of California, Davis, Davis, California 95616 (USA)); Buisson, O.; Pannetier, B. (Centre de Recherches sur les Tres Basses Temperature, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Boite Postale 166X, 38042 Grenoble CEDEX, France (FR))


    The largest supercurrent which can be injected into a superconducting microladder was calculated as a function of nodal spacing {ital scrL} and temperature for zero magnetic flux using (i) exact solutions of the Ginzburg-Landau equation in terms of Jacobian elliptic functions and (ii) approximate solutions in terms of hyperbolic functions. The agreement is good for {ital scrL}/{xi}({ital T}){lt}3, where {xi}({ital T}) is the temperature-dependent coherence length. Since solution (ii) is much simpler than solution (i), it is of considerable value when calculating critical currents of micronets with nodal spacings comparable to {xi}({ital T}). We find that the temperature-dependent critical current deviates significantly from the classical 3/2 power law of the Ginzburg-Landau theory. Preliminary experiments on a submicrometer ladder confirm such deviations.

  11. Field emission study of MWCNT/conducting polymer nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvi, M.A., E-mail: [Department of Physics, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah-21589 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Ghamdi, A.A. [Department of Physics, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah-21589 (Saudi Arabia); Husain, M. [Department of Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi-110025 (India)


    MWCNTs/Polypyrrole nanocomposites were synthesized by solution mixing method. These synthesized nanocomposites were studied carefully by Raman Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy measurements. The field emission study of MWCNTs/Polypyrrole nanocomposites were performed in diode arrangement under vacuum of the order of 10{sup −5} Torr. The emission current under exploration depends on applied voltage. The prepared nanocomposites depict low turn-on field at 1.4 V/μm that reaches to a maximum emission current density 0.020 mA/cm{sup 2} at 2.4 V/µm, which is calculated from the graph of current density (J) against the applied electric field (E) and from Fowler–Nordheim (F–N) plot.

  12. Evaluation of bioaccumulation using in vivo laboratory and field studies. (United States)

    Weisbrod, Annie V; Woodburn, Kent B; Koelmans, Albert A; Parkerton, Thomas F; McElroy, Anne E; Borgå, Katrine


    A primary consideration in the evaluation of chemicals is the potential for substances to be absorbed and retained in an organism's tissues (i.e., bioaccumulated) at concentrations sufficient to pose health concerns. Substances that exhibit properties that enable biomagnification in the food chain (i.e., amplification of tissue concentrations at successive trophic levels) are of particular concern due to the elevated long-term exposures these substances pose to higher trophic organisms, including humans. Historically, biomarkers of in vivo chemical exposure (e.g., eggshell thinning, bill deformities) retrospectively led to the identification of such compounds, which were later categorized as persistent organic pollutants. Today, multiple bioaccumulation metrics are available to quantitatively assess the bioaccumulation potential of new and existing chemicals and identify substances that, upon or before environmental release, may be characterized as persistent organic pollutants. This paper reviews the various in vivo measurement approaches that can be used to assess the bioaccumulation of chemicals in aquatic or terrestrial species using laboratory-exposed, field-deployed, or collected organisms. Important issues associated with laboratory measurements of bioaccumulation include appropriate test species selection, test chemical dosing methods, exposure duration, and chemical and statistical analyses. Measuring bioaccumulation at a particular field site requires consideration of which test species to use and whether to examine natural populations or to use field-deployed populations. Both laboratory and field methods also require reliable determination of chemical concentrations in exposure media of interest (i.e., water, sediment, food or prey, etc.), accumulated body residues, or both. The advantages and disadvantages of various laboratory and field bioaccumulation metrics for assessing biomagnification potential in aquatic or terrestrial food chains are discussed

  13. Constructing the 'gender-specific body': A critical discourse analysis of publications in the field of gender-specific medicine. (United States)

    Annandale, Ellen; Hammarström, Anne


    Gender-specific medicine, a new and increasingly influential ethos within medical research and practice, has received little critical attention to date. The objective of this article is to critically examine the attributes of gender-specific medicine as imparted by its advocates. Through a critical discourse analysis of its two leading academic journals, we identify five interrelated discourses: of male/female difference; of hegemonic biology; of men's disadvantages; of biological and social reductionism; and of the fragmented body. Together these comprise a master discourse of the 'gender-specific body'. The discourse of the 'gender-specific body' is discussed in relation to the current neoliberal political agenda which frames healthcare as a market good and locates health and illness in individual bodies rather than in the wider social arrangements of society. We argue that the 'gender-specific body' threatens not only to turn back the clock to a vision of the biological body as fixed and determinate, but to extend this ever deeper into the social imagination. Lost in the process is any meaningful sense of the human body as a relatively open system which develops in interaction with its social world. We propose that, as it gains momentum, the 'gender-specific body' is likely progressively to circumscribe our thinking about the health of women and men in potentially problematic ways.

  14. Talking about persons--thinking about patients: An ethnographic study in critical care. (United States)

    McLean, Chris; Coombs, Maureen; Gobbi, Mary


    Nursing involves caring for the 'whole person' and it is considered inappropriate for nurses to think or talk about patients in objectifying or dehumanising ways. Objectifying discourses can dominate within the arena of critical care, and critical care nurses can experience moral distress as they struggle to think about patients as persons. No previous study has examined the role played by 'impersonal' talk in the delivery of nursing care. This paper reports a study which examined the relationship between nursing practice and the way(s) in which critical care nurses think and talk about patients. The study objectives were to (1) identify and characterise the ways in which critical care nurses think and talk about patients; and (2) describe patterns of nursing practice associated with these different ways of thinking. An ethnographic study was undertaken within one critical care unit in the United Kingdom. Data were collected over 8 months through 92h of participant observation and 13 interviews. Seven critical care nurses participated in the study. Data analysis adopted the perspective of linguistic ethnography. Analysis of these data led to the identification of seven Discourses, each of which was characterised by a particular way of talking about patients, a particular way of thinking about patients, and a particular pattern of practice. Four of these seven Discourses were of particular significance because participants characterised it as 'impersonal' to think and talk about patients as 'routine work', as a 'body', as '(un)stable' or as a 'medical case'. Although participants frequently offered apologies or excuses for doing so, these 'impersonal' ways of thinking and talking were associated with practice that was essential to delivering safe effective care. Critical care practice requires nurses to think and talk about patients in many different ways, yet nurses are socialised to an ideal that they should always think and talk about patients as whole persons

  15. Prediction of critical illness in elderly outpatients using elder risk assessment: a population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biehl M


    Full Text Available Michelle Biehl,1 Paul Y Takahashi,2 Stephen S Cha,3 Rajeev Chaudhry,2 Ognjen Gajic,1 Bjorg Thorsteinsdottir2 1Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, 2Division of Primary Care Internal Medicine, 3Health Sciences Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA Rationale: Identifying patients at high risk of critical illness is necessary for the development and testing of strategies to prevent critical illness. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between high elder risk assessment (ERA score and critical illness requiring intensive care and to see if the ERA can be used as a prediction tool to identify elderly patients at the primary care visit who are at high risk of critical illness. Methods: A population-based historical cohort study was conducted in elderly patients (age >65 years identified at the time of primary care visit in Rochester, MN, USA. Predictors including age, previous hospital days, and comorbid health conditions were identified from routine administrative data available in the electronic medical record. The main outcome was critical illness, defined as sepsis, need for mechanical ventilation, or death within 2 years of initial visit. Patients with an ERA score of 16 were considered to be at high risk. The discrimination of the ERA score was assessed using area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. Results: Of the 13,457 eligible patients, 9,872 gave consent for medical record review and had full information on intensive care unit utilization. The mean age was 75.8 years (standard deviation ±7.6 years, and 58% were female, 94% were Caucasian, 62% were married, and 13% were living in nursing homes. In the overall group, 417 patients (4.2% suffered from critical illness. In the 1,134 patients with ERA >16, 154 (14% suffered from critical illness. An ERA score ≥16 predicted critical illness (odds ratio 6.35; 95% confidence interval 3.51–11.48. The area under the

  16. Emergency nurses' perceptions of sedation management practices for critically ill intubated patients: a qualitative study. (United States)

    Varndell, Wayne; Fry, Margaret; Elliott, Doug


    The aim of this study was to explore factors influencing practices in assessing, titrating and managing sedation for the critically ill intubated patients, from the perspective of emergency nurses. The number of critically ill patients presenting to Australian public Emergency Departments has increased by over 30% since 1980. Emergency nurses are increasingly relied upon to manage sedation of critically ill intubated patients. There is little evidence within international literature relating to how emergency nurses accomplish this. Descriptive qualitative study. A purposive sample of 15 experienced emergency nurses participated in semi-structured face-to-face interviews. Transcribed data were analysed using thematic analysis. The qualitative analysis yielded five themes: becoming the resuscitation nurse; becoming confident as the resuscitation nurse; communicating about sedation; visual cues and the vanishing act. The safety and quality of sedation experienced by critically ill intubated patients in ED was the responsibility of emergency nurses, yet uncertainties and barriers were evident. Patient continuity of care, including optimisation of comfort relies upon the knowledge, skills and expertise of the emergency nurse allocated to the resuscitation area. For most nurses transitioning into the resuscitation nurse role, it represents the first time they will have had contact with patients with highly complex needs and sedation. The use of self-directed clinical workbooks and supervised clinical practice alone may be insufficient to adequately prepare nurses for the spectrum of critically ill sedated patients managed in the resuscitation area; a situation made worse in the presence of poor team communication. The findings of this study should assist in the development of policy and formal education of emergency nurses transitioning into the resuscitation area and the management of continuous intravenous sedation to critically ill mechanically ventilated patients is

  17. Noise Studies on Injected-Beam Crossed-Field Devices. (United States)


    numerous experimental and theoretical studies. A large contribution to the understanding was made I by Van Duzer , Whinnery, and co-workers of the...Conference, Amsterdam, Netherlands, pp. 8-31, 1970. 10. T. Van Duzer , J. Whinnery, "Noise in Electron Beams", Crossed-Field Microwave Devices (E. Okress, ed

  18. Astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin study rock samples during field trip (United States)


    Astronaut Neil Armstrong, commander of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission, and Astronaut Edwin Aldrin, Lunar module pilot for Apollo 11, study rock samples during a geological field trip to the Quitman Mountains area near the Fort Quitman ruins in far west Texas.

  19. Affirmative Action in Nine Large Companies: A Field Study. (United States)

    Vernon-Gerstenfeld, Susan; Burke, Edmund


    The authors describe the findings of a field study of affirmative action programs in companies in a variety of industries. The distinction between equal employment opportunity and affirmative action is addressed. Methods used to train managers in implementing affirmative action are examined. Also explores employee development, community…

  20. Always connected: a longitudinal field study of mobile communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, O.; Ben Allouch, Soumaya


    Twenty-five novice users of a new mobile communication device were closely tracked for a period of three months. The results of this longitudinal field study show that people’s motivations for using mobile communication technology are initially influenced more strongly by their perceptions about the

  1. ArcGIS studies and field relationships of Paleoproterozoic mafic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Therefore, relative age relationships of distinct mafic dykes have been established for the study area using cross-cutting field relationships and GIS techniques, which shows slightly different picture than other parts of the Eastern Dharwar Craton. It is suggested that NE–SW trending mafic dykes are youngest in age ...

  2. Comparison of different force fields for the study of disaccharides (United States)

    Eighteen empirical force fields and the semi-empirical quantum method PM3CARB-1 were compared for studying ß-cellobiose, a-maltose, and a-galabiose [a-D-Galp-(1'4)-a-D-Galp]. For each disaccharide, the energies of 54 conformers with differing hydroxymethyl, hydroxyl and glycosidic linkage orientatio...

  3. Personality and Field of Study Choice in University (United States)

    Humburg, Martin


    This paper demonstrates that the Big five personality traits (openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and emotional stability) measured at age 14 can be linked to field of study choice in university at around age 19. While personality matters less than cognitive skills, such as math ability and verbal ability, for…

  4. Which Is More Consequential: Fields of Study or Institutional Selectivity? (United States)

    Ma, Yingyi; Savas, Gokhan


    The persisting gender pay gap favoring men among college graduates is a puzzle given women's remarkable success in postsecondary education. This article examines income disparities among recent college graduates by intersecting gender and social class and evaluating the relative importance of fields of study and institutional selectivity.…

  5. Field Research Studying Whales in an Undergraduate Animal Behavior Laboratory (United States)

    MacLaren, R. David; Schulte, Dianna; Kennedy, Jen


    This work describes a new field research laboratory in an undergraduate animal behavior course involving the study of whale behavior, ecology and conservation in partnership with a non-profit research organization--the Blue Ocean Society for Marine Conservation (BOS). The project involves two weeks of training and five weekend trips on whale watch…

  6. Enhanced Field Emission Studies on Niobium Surfaces Relevant to High Field Superconducting Radio-Frequency Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Tong [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States)


    Enhanced field emission (EFE) presents the main impediment to higher acceleration gradients in superconducting niobium (Nb) radiofrequency cavities for particle accelerators. The strength, number and sources of EFE sites strongly depend on surface preparation and handling. The main objective of this thesis project is to systematically investigate the sources of EFE from Nb, to evaluate the best available surface preparation techniques with respect to resulting field emission, and to establish an optimized process to minimize or eliminate EFE. To achieve these goals, a scanning field emission microscope (SFEM) was designed and built as an extension to an existing commercial scanning electron microscope (SEM). In the SFEM chamber of ultra high vacuum, a sample is moved laterally in a raster pattern under a high voltage anode tip for EFE detection and localization. The sample is then transferred under vacuum to the SEM chamber equipped with an energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometer for individual emitting site characterization. Compared to other systems built for similar purposes, this apparatus has low cost and maintenance, high operational flexibility, considerably bigger scan area, as well as reliable performance. EFE sources from planar Nb have been studied after various surface preparation, including chemical etching and electropolishing, combined with ultrasonic or high-pressure water rinse. Emitters have been identified, analyzed and the preparation process has been examined and improved based on EFE results. As a result, field-emission-free or near field-emission-free surfaces at ~140 MV/m have been consistently achieved with the above techniques. Characterization on the remaining emitters leads to the conclusion that no evidence of intrinsic emitters, i.e., no fundamental electric field limit induced by EFE, has been observed up to ~140 MV/m. Chemically etched and electropolished Nb are compared and no significant difference is observed up to ~140 MV/m. To

  7. Impact of a 2-Day Critical Care Ultrasound Course during Fellowship Training: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vi Am Dinh


    Full Text Available Objectives. Despite the increasing utilization of point-of-care critical care ultrasonography (CCUS, standards establishing competency for its use are lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a 2-day CCUS course implementation on ultrasound-naïve critical care medicine (CCM fellows. Methods. Prospective evaluation of the impact of a two-day CCUS course on eight CCM fellows’ attitudes, proficiency, and use of CCUS. Ultrasound competency on multiple organ systems was assessed including abdominal, pulmonary, vascular, and cardiac systems. Subjects served as self-controls and were assessed just prior to, within 1 week after, and 3 months after the course. Results. There was a significant improvement in CCM fellows’ written test scores, image acquisition ability, and pathologic image interpretation 1 week after the course and it was retained 3 months after the course. Fellows also had self-reported increased confidence and usage of CCUS applications after the course. Conclusions. Implementation of a 2-day critical care ultrasound course covering general CCUS and basic critical care echocardiography using a combination of didactics, live models, and ultrasound simulators is effective in improving critical care fellows’ proficiency and confidence with ultrasound use in both the short- and long-term settings.

  8. Architect Critical Challenges as a Project Manager in Construction Projects: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Yadollahi


    Full Text Available All construction professionals such as civil, mechanical, and electrical engineers, quantity surveyors, and architects have important roles in the construction process. Among these, architects are frequently appointed as a project manager (PM. The role of a PM will drive the success of the projects implementation. Therefore, the capability of an architect as a PM (ArPM is critical in reducing challenges encountered. Accordingly, the identification of these challenges is an important task in selecting an appropriate ArPM. The aim of this study is to identify the most critical challenges faced by an ArPM for construction projects. The data were collected through questionnaires and interviews with architects and professionals in the Malaysian construction industry. Because of the fuzziness and uncertainty of subjective responses, Fuzzy Set Ttheory is applied to identify critical challenges. A total of 65 questionnaires were distributed and 36 questionnaires were returned. The results revealed that the critical challenges faced by an ArPM are “poor planning,” “unfamiliar technology,” “unfamiliarity with green buildings and materials,” “inappropriate scheduling,” and “poor workmanship.” All critical challenges were then categorized into six main groups including technical, managerial, personal skills, contractual, psychological, and financial.

  9. Impact of a 2-Day Critical Care Ultrasound Course during Fellowship Training: A Pilot Study. (United States)

    Dinh, Vi Am; Giri, Paresh C; Rathinavel, Inimai; Nguyen, Emilie; Hecht, David; Dorotta, Ihab; Nguyen, H Bryant; Chrissian, Ara A


    Objectives. Despite the increasing utilization of point-of-care critical care ultrasonography (CCUS), standards establishing competency for its use are lacking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a 2-day CCUS course implementation on ultrasound-naïve critical care medicine (CCM) fellows. Methods. Prospective evaluation of the impact of a two-day CCUS course on eight CCM fellows' attitudes, proficiency, and use of CCUS. Ultrasound competency on multiple organ systems was assessed including abdominal, pulmonary, vascular, and cardiac systems. Subjects served as self-controls and were assessed just prior to, within 1 week after, and 3 months after the course. Results. There was a significant improvement in CCM fellows' written test scores, image acquisition ability, and pathologic image interpretation 1 week after the course and it was retained 3 months after the course. Fellows also had self-reported increased confidence and usage of CCUS applications after the course. Conclusions. Implementation of a 2-day critical care ultrasound course covering general CCUS and basic critical care echocardiography using a combination of didactics, live models, and ultrasound simulators is effective in improving critical care fellows' proficiency and confidence with ultrasound use in both the short- and long-term settings.

  10. Using the case study teaching method to promote college students' critical thinking skills (United States)

    Terry, David Richard


    The purpose of this study was to examine general and domain-specific critical thinking skills in college students, particularly ways in which these skills might be increased through the use of the case study method of teaching. General critical thinking skills were measured using the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA) Short Form, a forty-item paper-and-pencil test designed to measure important abilities involved in critical thinking, including inference, recognition of assumptions, deduction, interpretation, and evaluation of arguments. The ability to identify claims and support those claims with evidence is also an important aspect of critical thinking. I developed a new instrument, the Claim and Evidence Assessment Tool (CEAT), to measure these skills in a domain-specific manner. Forty undergraduate students in a general science course for non-science majors at a small two-year college in the northeastern United States experienced positive changes in general critical thinking according to results obtained using the Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA). In addition, the students showed cumulative improvement in their ability to identify claims and evidence, as measured by the Claim and Evidence Assessment Tool (CEAT). Mean score on the WGCTA improved from 22.15 +/- 4.59 to 23.48 +/- 4.24 (out of 40), and the mean CEAT score increased from 14.98 +/- 3.28 to 16.20 +/- 3.08 (out of 24). These increases were modest but statistically and educationally significant. No differences in claim and evidence identification were found between students who learned about specific biology topics using the case study method of instruction and those who were engaged in more traditional instruction, and the students' ability to identify claims and evidence and their factual knowledge showed little if any correlation. The results of this research were inconclusive regarding whether or not the case study teaching method promotes college students' general or

  11. Critical success factors for the creation of an innovative sustainable recycling project: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isak Kruglianskas


    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to show the critical success factors for the creation of a sustainable recycling process that involves the coordination of several economic and social agents. This was done trough an exploratory study of an exceptional case that brought gains to all the stakeholders, especially to society. This work highlights the barriers found, how they were overcome and extract evidences over which are the critical success factors, that are the following: high administration strategic vision and commitment, an adequate reverse logistics structure and a business structure that guarantees economic results and their adequate distribution.

  12. Simulation platform developed to study and identify critical cases in a future smart grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihet-Popa, Lucian; Zong, Yi; You, Shi


    simulation and planning tools, with a particular objective on the challenges faced by the introduction of Smart Grid technologies. Another important issue of the paper is to identify critical load cases, as well as the voltage variations with the highest potential, able to implement the grid model......This paper proposes a simulation platform developed to study and identify critical cases in a Smart Grid. A distribution network with different Distributed Energy Resources (DER) components, connected along the feeders, is analyzed, having the objective to identify limitations of existing...

  13. Zero-field-cooled/field-cooled magnetization study of Dendrimer model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arejdal, M., E-mail: [Laboratory of Magnetism and Physics of High Energies, Department of Physics, L.M.P.H.E (URAC-12), Faculty of Sciences, Mohammed V University, Rabat (Morocco); Bahmad, L. [Laboratory of Magnetism and Physics of High Energies, Department of Physics, L.M.P.H.E (URAC-12), Faculty of Sciences, Mohammed V University, Rabat (Morocco); Benyoussef, A. [Hassan II Academy of Science and Technology, Rabat (Morocco)


    Being motivated by Dendrimer model with mixed spins σ=3 and S=7/2, we investigated the magnetic nanoparticle system in this study. We analyzed and discussed the ground-state phase diagrams and the stable phases. Then, we elaborated and explained the magnetic properties of the system by using Monte Carlo Simulations (MCS) in the framework of the Ising model. In this way, we determined the blocking temperature, which is deduced through studying the partial-total magnetization and susceptibility as a function of the temperature, and we established the effects of both the exchange coupling interaction and the crystal field on the hysteresis loop.

  14. The Use of Interrupted Case Studies to Enhance Critical Thinking Skills in Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy K. White


    Full Text Available There has been a dramatic increase in the availability of case studies for use in the biology classroom, and perceptions of the effectiveness of case-study-based learning are overwhelmingly positive. Here we report the results of a study in which we evaluated the ability of interrupted case studies to improve critical thinking in the context of experimental design and the conventions of data interpretation. Students were assessed using further case studies designed to evaluate their ability to recognize and articulate problematic approaches to these elements of experimentation. Our work reveals that case studies have broad utility in the classroom. In addition to demonstrating a small but statistically significant increase in the number of students capable of critically evaluating selected aspects of experimental design, we also observed increased student engagement and documented widespread misconceptions regarding the conventions of data acquisition and analysis.

  15. The Use of Interrupted Case Studies to Enhance Critical Thinking Skills in Biology (United States)

    White, Tracy K.; Whitaker, Paul; Gonya, Terri; Hein, Richard; Kroening, Dubear; Lee, Kevin; Lee, Laura; Lukowiak, Andrea; Hayes, Elizabeth


    There has been a dramatic increase in the availability of case studies for use in the biology classroom, and perceptions of the effectiveness of case-study-based learning are overwhelmingly positive. Here we report the results of a study in which we evaluated the ability of interrupted case studies to improve critical thinking in the context of experimental design and the conventions of data interpretation. Students were assessed using further case studies designed to evaluate their ability to recognize and articulate problematic approaches to these elements of experimentation. Our work reveals that case studies have broad utility in the classroom. In addition to demonstrating a small but statistically significant increase in the number of students capable of critically evaluating selected aspects of experimental design, we also observed increased student engagement and documented widespread misconceptions regarding the conventions of data acquisition and analysis. PMID:23653687

  16. Transforming Teaching and Learning in ELT through Critical Pedagogy: An International Study (United States)

    Jeyaraj, Joanna Joseph; Harland, Tony


    In this study, the voices of academics who use critical pedagogy in English language teaching have been brought together to shed light on how this practice transforms teaching and learning. Data were collected through semistructured interviews with academics from Canada, Hong Kong, Korea, Malaysia, New Zealand, United Kingdom, United States, and…

  17. Developing Critical Understanding in HRM Students: Using Innovative Teaching Methods to Encourage Deep Approaches to Study (United States)

    Butler, Michael J. R.; Reddy, Peter


    Purpose: This paper aims to focus on developing critical understanding in human resource management (HRM) students in Aston Business School, UK. The paper reveals that innovative teaching methods encourage deep approaches to study, an indicator of students reaching their own understanding of material and ideas. This improves student employability…

  18. Red mud as secondary source for critical raw materials - extraction study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ujaczki, Éva; Zimmermann, Yannick S.; Gasser, Christoph A.; Molnár, Mónika; Feigl, Viktória; Lenz, Markus


    BACKGROUND: Red mud is a by-product of alumina extraction from bauxite by the Bayer process produced in the billion tons scale worldwide. Red muds, or more generally bauxite residues, are regarded as waste, but may potentially be valuable sources of critical raw materials (CRM). In the present study

  19. A Study of Critical Literacy Work with Beginning English Language Learners: An Integrated Approach (United States)

    Lau, Sunny Man-Chu


    This article reports some main findings of a year-long participatory action research study of critical literacy (CL) practices with middle school recent immigrant English language learners (ELLs) in Ontario, Canada. The CL program followed an integrated instructional model informed by Cummins' (2001) "Academic Expertise Framework" and…

  20. A Critical-Stylistic Study Of Mind Style And Characterisation In Buchi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although much research has gone into Buchi Emecheta's literary art, hardly has any statements being made about the situation of mind style in her works. This study, however, considers the critical –stylistic value of mind style in the characterisation of Nnu Ego in Emecheta's The Joys of Motherhood. It reveals the author's ...

  1. Career Education Programming in Three Diverse High Schools: A Critical Psychology--Case Study Research Approach (United States)

    Ali, Saba Rasheed; Yang, Ling-Yan; Button, Christopher J.; McCoy, Thomasin T. H.


    From a critical psychology perspective, Prilleltensky and Nelson advocate for research that has explicit focus on social change and can allow for full participation and empowerment of those under study. The current article describes the collaborative development, implementation, and evaluation of a career education program within three ethnically…

  2. Writing Shapes Thinking: Investigative Study of Preservice Teachers Reading, Writing to Learn, and Critical Thinking (United States)

    Sanchez, Bernice; Lewis, Katie D.


    Teacher Preparation Programs must work towards not only preparing preservice teachers to have knowledge of classroom pedagogy but also must expand preservice teachers understanding of content knowledge as well as to develop higher-order thinking which includes thinking critically. This mixed methods study examined how writing shapes thinking and…

  3. Critical Evaluation as an Aid to Improved Report Writing: A Case Study (United States)

    Walker, Mirabelle; Williams, Judith


    Report writing is an important employability skill for Engineers and Technologists, and this case study describes how a Technology degree module took a novel approach to developing students' report writing skills. Students learned how to use a criterion-referenced critical evaluation framework for reports and other technological documents. They…

  4. Popular Culture in the Classroom: Teaching and Researching Critical Media Literacy. Literacy Studies Series. (United States)

    Alvermann, Donna E.; Moon, Jennifer S.; Hagood, Margaret C.

    Written for teachers, researchers, and theorists who have grown up in a world radically different from that of the students they teach and study, this book addresses the importance of developing within children and adolescents a critical awareness of the social, political, and economic messages emanating from the different forms of popular…

  5. Research Review: A Critical Review of Studies on the Developmental Trajectories of Antisocial Behavior in Females (United States)

    Fontaine, Nathalie; Carbonneau, Rene; Vitaro, Frank; Barker, Edward D.; Tremblay, Richard E.


    Background: Knowledge on the onset and the development of antisocial behavior in females is limited, because most of the research in this domain is based on males. Methods: We critically reviewed 46 empirical studies that examined developmental trajectories of antisocial behavior in females, notably to help determine whether or not an…

  6. An Exploratory Study on the Application of Conceptual Knowledge and Critical Thinking to Technological Issues (United States)

    Yu, Kuang-Chao; Lin, Kuen-Yi; Fan, Szu-Chun


    This study explored how senior high school students apply their conceptual knowledge, consisting of theoretical and system knowledge, to think critically when confronted with technological issues. We employed a curriculum on the history of communication technology to teach students about basic concepts in communication technology and to cultivate…

  7. The English in Public Elementary Schools Program of a Mexican State: A Critical, Exploratory Study (United States)

    Perales Escudero, Moises Damian; Reyes Cruz, Maria del Rosario; Loyo, Griselda Murrieta


    The quality of English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) instruction in elementary schools worldwide is an issue of concern for language policy and planning (LPP) scholars, as are examinations of power and ideologies operating in policy creation and implementation. This critical, exploratory study blends these two strands of inquiry by examining…

  8. Body mass index is associated with hospital mortality in critically ill patients: an observational cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pickkers, P.; Keizer, N. de; Dusseljee, J.; Weerheijm, D.; Hoeven, J.G. van der; Peek, N.


    OBJECTIVE: Obesity is associated with a variety of diseases, which results in a decreased overall life expectancy. Nevertheless, some studies suggest that being overweight may reduce hospital mortality of certain patient groups, referred to as obesity paradox. Conflicting results for critically ill

  9. Target attainment with continuous dosing of piperacillin/tazobactam in critical illness : A prospective observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardema, Heleen; Nannan Panday, Prashant; Wessels, Mireille; van Hateren, Kay; Dieperink, Willem; Kosterink, Jos G W; Alffenaar, Jan-Willem; Zijlstra, Jan G

    Optimal dosing of β-lactam antibiotics in critically ill patients is a challenge given the unpredictable pharmacokinetic profile of this patient population. Several studies have shown intermittent dosing to often yield inadequate drug concentrations. Continuous dosing is an attractive alternative

  10. A Retrospective study of Pressure ulcers in critically ill patients in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Critically ill patients are at increased risk of developing pressure ulcers because of the presence of confounding factors such as reduced mobility, poor nutrition, reduced tissue perfusion, neurologic deficits, faecal or urinary incontinence. This study determined the prevalence and risk factors for the development ...

  11. Enhancing Undergraduate Critical Reading Skills in Neuroscience Using Instructor-Developed Study Guides (United States)

    Moraru, Andreea; LeBoutillier, Janelle C.


    This study proposes an innovative instructional method for enhancing critical reading skills. Students enrolled in an undergraduate neuroscience course offered at the University of Toronto Scarborough reported that they often experience difficulty in analyzing and interpreting empirical and review journal articles. Our research focuses on student…

  12. The Optimal Dose of Midazolam for Promoting Sleep in Critically Ill Patients: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Joong Kim


    CONCLUSIONS: The appropriate quantity of sleep in critically ill patients was achieved with a continuous infusion of 0.02-0.03 mg/kg/h midazolam. However, the quality of sleep was poor. Further study is required for the promotion of quality sleep in such patients.

  13. The perception of intuition in clinical practice by Iranian critical care nurses: a phenomenological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassani P


    Full Text Available Parkhide Hassani,1 Alireza Abdi,1 Rostam Jalali,2 Nader Salari3 1Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 2Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran; 3Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran Background: Intuition as a way of learning in nursing is applied to decision making and judgment in complicated clinical situations. Several studies have been conducted on intuition in clinical settings, but comprehension of this concept is unclear. Moreover, there is a lack of information about intuition in critical care nurses caring for more seriously ill patients. This study aimed to explore Iranian critical care nurses’ understanding of intuition in clinical practice. Methods: In a descriptive–phenomenological study, 12 nurses employed in critical care units of the hospitals affiliated to Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences were purposively recruited to the study. A semistructured interview was administered, and then written verbatim. The data were managed by MAXQDA 10 software, and qualitative analysis was undertaken using the seven-stage approach of Colaizzi. Results: Of the 12 nurses who participated in the study, 7 (58.3% were female and married, and 10 (88.3% held a bachelor's degree in nursing. The mean and standard deviations of participants' age, job experience, and critical care experience were 36.66±7.01, 13.75±6.82, and 7.66±3.36 years, respectively. Four main themes and eleven sub-themes were elicited from the qualitative analysis; the main themes including “Understanding intuition as a feeling”, “Understanding intuition as a thought”, “Understanding intuition as receiving signs”, and “Understanding intuition as an alarm”. Because they have trust in their own intuition, the nurses made further assessments and paid more

  14. Extracting the field-effect mobilities of random semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube networks: A critical comparison of methods (United States)

    Schießl, Stefan P.; Rother, Marcel; Lüttgens, Jan; Zaumseil, Jana


    The field-effect mobility is an important figure of merit for semiconductors such as random networks of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). However, owing to their network properties and quantum capacitance, the standard models for field-effect transistors cannot be applied without modifications. Several different methods are used to determine the mobility with often very different results. We fabricated and characterized field-effect transistors with different polymer-sorted, semiconducting SWNT network densities ranging from low (≈6 μm-1) to densely packed quasi-monolayers (≈26 μm-1) with a maximum on-conductance of 0.24 μS μm-1 and compared four different techniques to evaluate the field-effect mobility. We demonstrate the limits and requirements for each method with regard to device layout and carrier accumulation. We find that techniques that take into account the measured capacitance on the active device give the most reliable mobility values. Finally, we compare our experimental results to a random-resistor-network model.

  15. Crossover from mean field to three-dimensional ising critical behavior in a three-component microemulsion system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seto, H.; Schwahn, D.; Nagao, M.


    in terms of the asymptotic crossover expression calculated by Belyakov ct al. The data are found exclusively in the crossover region between the universality class of three-dimensional Ising and mean field regimes. The Ginzburg number is found to be between one and two orders of magnitude less than...

  16. DCC Case Study: Wide Field Astronomy Unit (WFAU)


    Donnelly, Martin


    Case study on the Wide Field Astronomy Unit (WFAU), Edinburgh. Outlines data curation issues with which WFAU is involved, with an emphasis on interoperability. Particular regard is given to the transfer and reuse of data collected from disparate sources. The case study also covers other factors influencing data curation, including methodological development, standards and legal issues, evaluation, and human factors. A technical appendix outlines the technologies used i...

  17. Critical Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Ralph K.; Olsen, Stig Irving


    Manipulation and mistakes in LCA studies are as old as the tool itself, and so is its critical review. Besides preventing misuse and unsupported claims, critical review may also help identifying mistakes and more justifiable assumptions as well as generally improve the quality of a study. It thus...

  18. Critical Muralism (United States)

    Rosette, Arturo


    This study focuses on the development and practices of Critical Muralists--community-educator-artist-leader-activists--and situates these specifically in relation to the Mexican mural tradition of los Tres Grandes and in relation to the history of public art more generally. The study examines how Critical Muralists address artistic and…

  19. Conflict management styles among Iranian critical care nursing staff: a cross-sectional study. (United States)

    Ahanchian, Mohammad Reza; Emami Zeydi, Amir; Armat, Mohammad Reza


    Conflict among nurses has been recognized as an extremely important issue within health care settings throughout the world. Identifying the conflict management style would be a key strategy for conflict management. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of conflict management styles and its related factors among Iranian critical care nursing staff. In a descriptive cross-sectional study, a total of 149 critical care nurses who worked in the critical care units of 4 teaching hospitals in Sari (Iran) were evaluated. A 2-part self-reported questionnaire including personal information and Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory II was used for data collection. Although Iranian critical care nurses used all 5 conflict management styles to manage conflict with their peers, the collaborating style was the most prevalent conflict management style used by them, followed by compromising, accommodating, avoiding, and competing. Male gender was a predictor for both compromising and competing styles, whereas position and shift time were significant predictors for compromising and competing styles, respectively. Based on the results of this study, nurse managers need to take these factors into account in designing programs to help nurses constructively manage unavoidable conflicts in health care setting.

  20. Seeing beyond monitors-Critical care nurses' multiple skills in patient observation: Descriptive qualitative study. (United States)

    Alastalo, Mika; Salminen, Leena; Lakanmaa, Riitta-Liisa; Leino-Kilpi, Helena


    The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive description of multiple skills in patient observation in critical care nursing. Data from semi-structured interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Experienced critical care nurses (n=20) from three intensive care units in two university hospitals in Finland. Patient observation skills consist of: information gaining skills, information processing skills, decision-making skills and co-operation skills. The first three skills are integrated in the patient observation process, in which gaining information is a prerequisite for processing information that precedes making decisions. Co-operation has a special role as it occurs throughout the process. This study provided a comprehensive description of patient observation skills related to the three-phased patient observation process. The findings contribute to clarifying this part of the competence. The description of patient observation skills may be applied in both clinical practice and education as it may serve as a framework for orientation, ensuring clinical skills and designing learning environments. Based on this study, patient observation skills can be recommended to be included in critical care nursing education, orientation and as a part of critical care nurses' competence evaluation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dependency and self-criticism in post-partum depression and anxiety: a case control study. (United States)

    Vliegen, Nicole; Luyten, Patrick


    This study investigates the role of self-criticism and dependency in inpatient post-partum depressed women (n = 55) and non-depressed controls (n = 37) as well as the relationship between both personality dimensions and severity of depression and anxiety. As expected, mothers with post-partum depression showed not only increased levels of depression but also anxiety compared with non-depressed mothers. Furthermore, they had significantly higher levels of self-criticism, but not of dependency. In the post-partum depressed mothers, both personality dimensions were positively associated with severity of depression. However, in non-depressed mothers, self-criticism was positively associated with depression, while there was an inverse relationship between dependency and severity of depression. In both samples, self-criticism, but not dependency, was related to state anxiety. The cross-sectional nature of this study limits the ability to draw causal conclusions. The study was based on self-report and conducted in relatively small samples.

  2. Critical magnetic fields of superconducting aluminum-substituted Ba{sub 8}Si{sub 42}Al{sub 4} clathrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yang, E-mail:; Garcia, Jose; Lu, Kejie; Shafiq, Basir [School of Engineering, University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico 00681-9000 (United States); Franco, Giovanni; Lu, Junqiang [Department of Physics, University of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez, Puerto Rico 00681 (United States); Rong, Bo [Communications Research Centre (CRC), Industry Canada, 3701 Carling Avenue, Box 11490, Station H, Ottawa, Ontario K2H 8S2 (Canada); Chen, Ning; Liu, Yang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Liu, Lihua; Song, Bensheng; Wei, Yuping [Department of Physics, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China); Johnson, Shardai S.; Luo, Zhiping [Department of Chemistry and Physics, Fayetteville State University, Fayetteville, North Carolina 28301 (United States); Feng, Zhaosheng [Department of Mathematics, University of Texas-Pan American, Edinburg, Texas 78541 (United States)


    In recent years, efforts have been made to explore the superconductivity of clathrates containing crystalline frameworks of group-IV elements. The superconducting silicon clathrate is unusual in that the structure is dominated by strong sp{sup 3} covalent bonds between silicon atoms, rather than the metallic bonding that is more typical of traditional superconductors. This paper reports on critical magnetic fields of superconducting Al-substituted silicon clathrates, which were investigated by transport, ac susceptibility, and dc magnetization measurements in magnetic fields up to 90 kOe. For the sample Ba{sub 8}Si{sub 42}Al{sub 4}, the critical magnetic fields were measured to be H{sub C1} = 40.2 Oe and H{sub C2} = 66.4 kOe. The London penetration depth of 4360 Å and the coherence length 70 Å were obtained, whereas the estimated Ginzburg–Landau parameter of κ = 62 revealed that Ba{sub 8}Si{sub 42}Al{sub 4} is a strong type-II superconductor.

  3. Specific heats and thermodynamic critical fields in Zn-doped YBa2Cu3O(7-x) according to an induced-pairing model (United States)

    Eagles, D. M.


    Electronic specific heats and thermodynamic critical fields are calculated in a mean-field version of an induced-pairing model for superconductivity, and compared with results of Loram et al. (1990) on YBa2(Cu(1-y)Zn(y))3O(7-x). This model involves induction of pairing of holes in a wideband by strongly bound electronlike pairs. It is assumed that the planar hole concentration for no Zn addition is close to, but slightly higher than, that for the maximum Tc, and that it increases by 0.015 per planar Cu ion for each increase of y by 0.01. Parameters of the model are taken to be the same as in a previous publication in which energy gaps were discussed, except that an effective hybridization parameter is adjusted for each Zn concentration to give agreement with the observed Tc. Results are presented for y = 0.0, 0.01, and 0.03. The agreement with experiment is good for thermodynamic critical fields, and is fair for specific heats. For specimens with larger y, with relatively low T(c)s, it is argued that the model should be supplemented to include effects of a BCS-type interaction amongst the wideband carriers.

  4. Critical Media Literacy in Pedagogy and in Practice: A Descriptive Study of Teacher Education Instructors and Their Students (United States)

    Funk, Steven Seth


    This qualitative study explored the exchange between post-secondary Critical Media Literacy instructors and their students, describing their understandings of Critical Media Literacy, as well as their pedagogical struggles, within the context of a teacher education program. The data suggested that the UCLA instructors understood Critical Media…

  5. Critical Thinking Handbook: 6th-9th Grades. A Guide for Remodelling Lesson Plans in Language Arts, Social Studies, & Science. (United States)

    Paul, Richard; And Others

    This handbook designed for teachers of sixth through ninth grades, has two objectives: (1) to make the concept of critical thinking and the principles that underlie it clear; and (2) to show how critical thinking can be taught in language arts, social studies, and science. The introduction presents the reader with the concepts of critical thinking…

  6. Field-Based Radiographic Imaging of Marine Megafauna: Marine Iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A. Lewbart


    Full Text Available Effective conservation of marine megafauna requires a thorough understanding of the ecology, physiology, population dynamics, and health of vulnerable species. Assessing the health of large, mobile marine animals poses particular challenges, in part because the subjects are difficult to capture and restrain, and in part because standard laboratory and diagnostic tools are difficult to apply in a field setting. Radiography is a critically important diagnostic tool used routinely by veterinarians, but it has seldom been possible to image live marine vertebrates in the field. As a first step toward assessing the feasibility of incorporating radiography into studies of vulnerable species in remote locations, we used portable radiographic equipment to acquire the first digital internal images of living marine iguanas, Amblyrhynchus cristatus, an iconic lizard endemic only to the Galápagos Islands of Ecuador. The radiographic machinery was powered by batteries and performed well on a rocky beach environment of an uninhabited island, despite high heat and humidity. The accuracy of radiographic measurements was validated by computing a snout-vent length (SVL using bone dimensions and comparing this to standard measurements of SVL made externally with a tape measure. These results demonstrate the feasibility of using radiography to study animals in remote sites, a technique that may prove useful for a variety of physiological, ecological, and biomechanical studies in which reliable measurements of skeletal and soft-tissue dimensions must be acquired under challenging field conditions. Refinements are discussed that will help the technology reach its full potential in field studies.

  7. ISLAMIC ETHICS IN THE FIELD OF POLITICS: Response and Critical Review of Nahdlatul Ulama and Muhammadiyah of Jambi Province Against the Implementation of Direct Elections (2005-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maulana Yusuf


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the impacts of election and the critical evaluations of NU and Muhammadiyah of Jambi against the direct elections during 2005-2015.This research uses field data collection techniques such as interviews and documentation. The Data obtained are analyzed by using hermeneutical and fenomenalogal analysis. The research found that the direct elections have negative impact on the people. Therefore, the NU and Muhammadiyah have considered to review and to provide critical notes; (i The organizers of the elections must be objective, trustworthy, fair, and transparent. (ii Voters should use their rights responsibly and avoid money politics, (iii The candidates of the regional leaders must compete fairly, and be ready and gentleman whether they lose or win, (iv All parties must avoid black campaign and character assassination to other competitors, (v All parties must follow the rules of the election consistently and put religious (Islamic values and public norms as guidance.

  8. Urban Dispersion Program Overview and MID05 Field Study Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allwine, K Jerry; Flaherty, Julia E.


    The Urban Dispersion Program (UDP) was a 4-year project (2004–2007) funded by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security with additional support from the Defense Threat Reduction Agency. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) also contributed to UDP through funding a human-exposure component of the New York City (NYC) field studies in addition to supporting an EPA scientist in conducting modeling studies of NYC. The primary goal of UDP was to improve the scientific understanding of the flow and diffusion of airborne contaminants through and around the deep street canyons of NYC. The overall UDP project manager and lead scientist was Dr. Jerry Allwine of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. UDP had several accomplishments that included conducting two tracer and meteorological field studies in Midtown Manhattan.

  9. Acute and critical care nurses' perceptions of palliative care competencies: a pilot study. (United States)

    White, Kenneth R; Roczen, Marisa L; Coyne, Patrick J; Wiencek, Clareen


    Competency development among acute and critical care nurses has focused primarily on the provision of life-sustaining care and less on the care of patients who fail to respond to life-prolonging treatments. Examining nurses' beliefs, perceptions, and experiences with patients' palliative care needs may improve continuing education programs, practice resources, educational curricula, and professional nursing practice. Survey methodology was used to conduct this pilot study. Forty-nine nurses completed a 33-item survey instrument in 2012. Respondents consisted of nurses attending a critical care continuing education event and graduate nursing students in an acute care nurse practitioner program. Statistical tests were used to examine differences in perceived importance of core competencies in palliative care. Findings from this study demonstrate variation in palliative care knowledge and perceived relative importance of core competencies needed in palliative care practice. This study provides preliminary data about knowledge differences among different nursing groups and a foundation for further study. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Evaluation of Critical Infrastructure in the Event of Earthquake: A Case Study of Delhi (United States)

    prasad, Suraj


    With changing paradigms of disaster preparedness, the safety and security of critical infrastructure in the event of a geo-hazard has become increasingly important. In a developing and densely populated country like India, which is vulnerable to many different geo-hazards, a lack of clear policy directive regarding safety of such infrastructure could be especially damaging both in terms of life and property. The problem is most acute in India's mega cities, where inefficient infrastructure means that facilities like transportation, communication, and electricity generation are obsolete and vulnerable to sudden disruptions. The present study takes the case of the National Capital Territory of Delhi and attempts to examine the critical infrastructures of the city in the event of an earthquake. Delhi lies in a very active seismic zone with various faults in and around the city. The Government of India has classified Delhi in Zone 4 (High Risk Zone) based on past and expected seismic activities in the Indo-Gangetic Plains. With a population of over 20 Million in the Urban Agglomeration of Delhi, any major earthquake in an already overstretched infrastructure could have a devastating impact. This study will test the critical infrastructures of the city in terms of their disaster preparedness and suggest ways and measures to increase the same. Keywords: Geo-hazards, Critical Infrastructure, vulnerable, Earthquakes, Delhi

  11. M-OSCE as a method to measure dental hygiene students' critical thinking: a pilot study. (United States)

    McComas, Martha J; Wright, Rebecca A; Mann, Nancy K; Cooper, Mary D; Jacks, Mary E


    Educators in all academic disciplines have been encouraged to utilize assessment strategies to evaluate students' critical thinking. The purpose of this study was to assess the viability of the modified objective structured clinical examination (m-OSCE) to evaluate critical thinking in dental hygiene education. This evaluation utilized a convenience sample of senior dental hygiene students. Students participated in the m-OSCE in which portions of a patient case were revealed at four stations. The exam consisted of multiple-choice questions intended to measure students' ability to utilize critical thinking skills. Additionally, there was one fill-in-the-blank question and a treatment plan that was completed at the fifth station. The results of this study revealed that the m-OSCE did not reliably measure dental hygiene students' critical thinking. Statistical analysis found no satisfactory reliability within the multiple-choice questions and moderately reliable results within the treatment planning portion of the examination. In addition, the item analysis found gaps in students' abilities to transfer clinical evidence/data to basic biomedical knowledge as demonstrated through the multiple-choice questioning results. This outcome warrants further investigation of the utility of the m-OSCE, with a focus on modifications to the evaluation questions, grading rubric, and patient case.

  12. Irreversibility line and magnetic field dependence of the critical current in superconducting MgB sub 2 bulk samples

    CERN Document Server

    Gioacchino, D D; Tripodi, P; Grimaldi, G


    The third harmonic components of the ac susceptibility of MgB sub 2 bulk samples have been measured as a function of applied magnetic fields, together with standard magnetization cycles. The irreversibility line (IL) of the magnetic field has been extracted from the onset of the third harmonic components. Using a (1 - t) supalpha glass/liquid best fit where alpha 1.27 IL shows a coherent length xi divergence with exponent nu = 0.63, which indicates a 3D behaviour. Moreover, using the numerical solution of the non-linear magnetic diffusion equation, considering the creep model in a 3D vortex glass, a good description of the vortex dynamics has been obtained. The behaviour of the magnetization amplitude (approx Hz) and the ac susceptibility signals (kHz), at different applied magnetic fields, 3.5 T < H sub d sub c < 4.5 T, and at the reduced temperature 0.86 < t < 0.93 (T = 22 K), shows that the superconducting dynamic response of vortices in the MgB sub 2 samples is not evidently dependent on the f...

  13. Systematic reviews and meta-analysis of preclinical studies: why perform them and how to appraise them critically. (United States)

    Sena, Emily S; Currie, Gillian L; McCann, Sarah K; Macleod, Malcolm R; Howells, David W


    The use of systematic review and meta-analysis of preclinical studies has become more common, including those of studies describing the modeling of cerebrovascular diseases. Empirical evidence suggests that too many preclinical experiments lack methodological rigor, and this leads to inflated treatment effects. The aim of this review is to describe the concepts of systematic review and meta-analysis and consider how these tools may be used to provide empirical evidence to spur the field to improve the rigor of the conduct and reporting of preclinical research akin to their use in improving the conduct and reporting of randomized controlled trials in clinical research. As with other research domains, systematic reviews are subject to bias. Therefore, we have also suggested guidance for their conduct, reporting, and critical appraisal.

  14. A novel field emission microscopy method to study field emission characteristics of freestanding carbon nanotube arrays (United States)

    Li, Yunhan; Sun, Yonghai; Jaffray, David A.; Yeow, John T. W.


    Field emission (FE) uniformity and the mechanism of emitter failure of freestanding carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays have not been well studied due to the difficulty of observing and quantifying FE performance of each emitter in CNT arrays. Herein a field emission microscopy (FEM) method based on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) thin film is proposed to study the FE uniformity and CNT emitter failure of freestanding CNT arrays. FE uniformity of freestanding CNT arrays and different levels of FE current contributions from each emitter in the arrays are recorded and visualized. FEM patterns on the PMMA thin film contain the details of the CNT emitter tip shape and whether multiple CNT emitters occur at an emission site. Observation of real-time FE performance and the CNT emitter failure process in freestanding CNT arrays are successfully achieved using a microscopic camera. High emission currents through CNT emitters causes Joule heating and light emission followed by an explosion of the CNTs. The proposed approach is capable of resolving the major challenge of building the relationship between FE performance and CNT morphologies, which can significantly facilitate the study of FE non-uniformity, the emitter failure mechanism and the development of stable and reliable FE devices in practical applications.

  15. Quality of pharmacokinetic studies in critically ill patients receiving continuous renal replacement therapy. (United States)

    Vaara, S; Pettila, V; Kaukonen, K-M


    Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is the preferred renal replacement therapy modality in the critically ill. We aimed to reveal the literature on the pharmacokinetic studies in critically ill patients receiving CRRT with special reference to quality assessment of these studies and the CRRT dose. We conducted a systematic review by searching the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane databases to December 2009 and bibliographies of relevant review articles. We included original studies reporting from critically ill adult subjects receiving CRRT because of acute kidney injury with a special emphasis on drug pharmacokinetics. We used the minimum reporting criteria for CRRT studies by Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI) and, second, the Downs and Black checklist to assess the quality of the studies. We calculated the CRRT dose per study. We included pharmacokinetic parameters, residual renal function, and recommendations on drug dosing. Of 182 publications, 95 were considered relevant and 49 met the inclusion criteria. The median [interquartile range (IQR)] number of reported criteria by ADQI was 7.0 (5.0-8.0) of 12. The median (IQR) Downs and Black quality score was 15 (14-16) of 32. None of the publications reported CRRT dose directly. The median (IQR) weighted CRRT dose was 23.7 (18.8-27.9) ml/kg/h. More attention should be paid both to standardizing the CRRT dose and reporting of the CRRT parameters in pharmacokinetic studies. The general quality of the studies during CRRT in the critically ill was only moderate and would be greatly improved by reports in concordant with the ADQI recommendations. © 2011 The Authors Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica © 2011 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation.





    The construction industry is characterized as one with a poor safety culture globally. To achieve better site safety performance, emphasis has been placed on implementing effective safety programs. The main aim of this paper is to identify the Critical Success Factors that influencing safety program performance in Malaysian construction projects. In order to accomplish the aim of this study, the following objective was taken into consideration which is to study the factors contributing to the...

  17. Mediators of Meaning: a Critically Reflexive Study of the Encoding of Irish Advertising


    Kelly, Aidan


    This thesis explores the socially constructed process through which advertising agencies and practitioners encode advertisements. It draws from an interdisciplinary theoretical framework, and the study is positioned within the critical marketing studies literature. The literature review explores the relationship between advertising and the theory of ideology, the interaction between advertising and the cultural world and the role of advertising agencies as “cultural intermediaries” within con...

  18. Validation Study of Energy Requirements in Critically Ill, Obese Cancer Patients. (United States)

    Tajchman, Sharla K; Tucker, Anne M; Cardenas-Turanzas, Marylou; Nates, Joseph L


    Current guidelines from the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition and the Society of Critical Care Medicine (ASPEN/SCCM) regarding caloric requirements and the provision of nutrition support in critically ill, obese adults may not be suitable for similar patients with cancer. We sought to determine whether the current guidelines accurately estimate the energy requirements, as measured by indirect calorimetry (IC), of critically ill, obese cancer patients. This was a retrospective validation study of critically ill, obese cancer patients from March 1, 2007, to July 31, 2010. All patients ≥18 years of age with a body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m(2) who underwent IC were included. We compared the measured energy expenditure (MEE) against the upper limit of the recommended guideline (25 kcal/kg of ideal body weight [IBW]) and MEE between medical and surgical patients in the intensive care unit. Thirty-three patients were included in this study. Mean MEE (28.7 ± 5.2 kcal/kg IBW) was significantly higher than 25 kcal/kg IBW (P nutrition requirements greater than the current guideline recommendations. No significant differences in MEE between medical and surgical patients in the ICU were observed. Critically ill, obese cancer patients require more calories than the current guidelines recommend, likely due to malignancy-associated metabolic variations. Our results demonstrate the need for IC studies to determine the energy requirements in these patients and for reassessment of the current recommendations. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  19. Analytical study of a Kerr-Sen black hole and a charged massive scalar field (United States)

    Bernard, Canisius


    It is reported that Kerr-Newman and Kerr-Sen black holes are unstable to perturbations of charged massive scalar field. In this paper, we study analytically the complex frequencies which characterize charged massive scalar fields in a near-extremal Kerr-Sen black hole. For near-extremal Kerr-Sen black holes and for charged massive scalar fields in the eikonal large-mass M ≫μ regime, where M is the mass of the black hole, and μ is the mass of the charged scalar field, we have obtained a simple expression for the dimensionless ratio ωI/(ωR-ωc) , where ωI and ωR are, respectively, the imaginary and real parts of the frequency of the modes, and ωc is the critical frequency for the onset of super-radiance. We have also found our expression is consistent with the result of Hod [Phys. Rev. D 94, 044036 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevD.94.044036] for the case of a near-extremal Kerr-Newman black hole and the result of Zouros and Eardly [Ann. Phys. (N.Y.) 118, 139 (1979), 10.1016/0003-4916(79)90237-9] for the case of neutral scalar fields in the background of a near-extremal Kerr black hole.

  20. Lower critical fields in an ellipsoid-shaped YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 6. 95] single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, R.; Dosanjh, P.; Bonn, D.A.; Hardy, W.N. (Department of Physics, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, V6T1Z1 (Canada)); Berlinsky, A.J. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8S4M1 (Canada))


    The lower critical fields of YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 6.95] have been determined by magnetization [ital M]([ital H]) measurements using an ellipsoidal-shaped crystal and a thin platelet for [bold H][parallel][ital c] and [bold H][perpendicular][ital c], respectively. Careful data analysis rules out the effects of surface barriers. The data show a linear temperature dependence of [ital H][sub [ital c]1] below about 0.5[ital T][sub [ital c

  1. Feasibility study of fast neutron energy spectrometer using magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamagishi, Hideshi; Ara, Katsuyuki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment


    A feasibility study of a fast neutron energy spectrometer (NES) using magnetic field was performed for development of a spectrometer having a measuring range of 3 decades and a covered energy range of 8 decades. The NES that is a kind of proton recoil spectrometer consists of a proton radiator, a magnet and a screen to detect protons. The pass of each charge particle flying into the magnetic field is deflected with a certain angle depending on the velocity of the particle, and it reaches the screen of charged particle detection after passing through the magnetic field. The energy of the particle is measured from the position on the screen at which the particle collide with. In this paper, optimization of the magnet geometry and the magnetic field intensity of the NES are discussed. The NES that is designed with the optimized geometry provides the measuring range of 3 decades with an energy measuring error of less than {+-}9%. A neutron energy range of 9 decades from 0.1 (eV) to 100 (MeV) is covered by adjusting the magnetic flux density. (author)

  2. Squids in the Study of Cerebral Magnetic Field (United States)

    Romani, G. L.; Narici, L.

    The following sections are included: * INTRODUCTION * HISTORICAL OVERVIEW * NEUROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND AMBIENT NOISE * DETECTORS * Room temperature sensors * SQUIDs * DETECTION COILS * Magnetometers * Gradiometers * Balancing * Planar gradiometers * Choice of the gradiometer parameters * MODELING * Current pattern due to neural excitations * Action potentials and postsynaptic currents * The current dipole model * Neural population and detected fields * Spherically bounded medium * SPATIAL CONFIGURATION OF THE SENSORS * SOURCE LOCALIZATION * Localization procedure * Experimental accuracy and reproducibility * SIGNAL PROCESSING * Analog Filtering * Bandpass filters * Line rejection filters * DATA ANALYSIS * Analysis of evoked/event-related responses * Simple average * Selected average * Recursive techniques * Similarity analysis * Analysis of spontaneous activity * Mapping and localization * EXAMPLES OF NEUROMAGNETIC STUDIES * Neuromagnetic measurements * Studies on the normal brain * Clinical applications * Epilepsy * Tinnitus * CONCLUSIONS * ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS * REFERENCES

  3. Culture Studies in the Field of International Business Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Verner; Li, Xin; Jakobsen, Michael

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the status of culture studies within the field of international business research, and to examine how two main paradigms – essentialism and social constructivism – relate to the discourse in this field. We analyze the main points of the two...... in this paper. Practical implications: We encourage practitioners to learn how to switch, both sequentially and spatially, between the two paradigms of culture (fundamentally incommensurable though they are). This involves taking a “both/or” approach to the two paradigms. Originality/Value: We show...... competing paradigms of culture studies as both necessary and yet as incompatible. Research limitations: Future research should help to improve the conceptual clarity with which the relationship between the two paradigms is portrayed here, thereby enhancing the empirical rigor of the argument we make...

  4. Intermittent pneumatic compression in intractable critical ischemia of lower limb - a pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feuerhake, Ingrid Luise; Henneberg, Eskild Winther; Høgh, Annette Langager

    Posters på "Forskningens Dag" 1. Intermittent pneumatic compression in intractable critical ischemia of the lower limb - a pilot study Feuerhake IL1 , Henneberg E1 , Høgh A1 1 Department of Vascular Surgery, Viborg Regional Hospital Aim: Patients with chronic ischemic wounds or rest pain in the l......Posters på "Forskningens Dag" 1. Intermittent pneumatic compression in intractable critical ischemia of the lower limb - a pilot study Feuerhake IL1 , Henneberg E1 , Høgh A1 1 Department of Vascular Surgery, Viborg Regional Hospital Aim: Patients with chronic ischemic wounds or rest pain...... in the lower extremity (CLI), without the possibility for vascular reconstruction, represent a high selected patient population with high comorbidity and mortality. The aim of this case-study was to investigate the use of intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) among these patients, as a tool to lower pain...

  5. The hamster cheek pouch model for field cancerization studies. (United States)

    Monti-Hughes, Andrea; Aromando, Romina F; Pérez, Miguel A; Schwint, Amanda E; Itoiz, Maria E


    External carcinogens, such as tobacco and alcohol, induce molecular changes in large areas of oral mucosa, which increase the risk of malignant transformation. This condition, known as 'field cancerization', can be detected in biopsy specimens using histochemical techniques, even before histological alterations are identified. The efficacy of these histochemical techniques as biomarkers of early cancerization must be demonstrated in appropriate models. The hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model, universally employed in biological studies and in studies for the prevention and treatment of oral cancer, is also an excellent model of field cancerization. The carcinogen is applied in solution to the surface of the mucosa and induces alterations that recapitulate the stages of cancerization in human oral mucosa. We have demonstrated that the following can be used for the early detection of cancerized tissue: silver staining of nucleolar organizer regions; the Feulgen reaction to stain DNA followed by ploidy analysis; immunohistochemical analysis of fibroblast growth factor-2, immunohistochemical labeling of proliferating cells to demonstrate an increase of epithelial cell proliferation in the absence of inflammation; and changes in markers of angiogenesis (i.e. those indicating vascular endothelial growth factor activity, endothelial cell proliferation and vascular density). The hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer was also proposed and validated by our group for boron neutron capture therapy studies for the treatment of oral cancer. Clinical trials of this novel treatment modality have been performed and are underway for certain tumor types and localizations. Having demonstrated the efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy to control tumors in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model, we adapted the model for the long-term study of field cancerized tissue. We demonstrated the inhibitory effect of boron neutron capture therapy on tumor development in field

  6. A Study of Coaxial Rotor Performance and Flow Field Characteristics (United States)


    Inc. Ames, Iowa, USA ABSTRACT As a precursor to studying the acoustics of a coaxial rotor system, the aerodynamics and flow field of a coaxial rotor... aerodynamics model, was used to predict coaxial rotor performance in hover and forward flight. RotUNS steady hover calculations showed improved performance...small unmanned aerial vehicles ( UAVs ) market. As with all rotorcraft, the rotor noise generated by a coaxial rotor system must be mitigated to minimize

  7. Nutritional care after critical illness: a qualitative study of patients' experiences. (United States)

    Merriweather, J L; Salisbury, L G; Walsh, T S; Smith, P


    The present qualitative study aimed to explore the factors influencing nutritional recovery in patients after critical illness and to develop a model of care to improve current management of nutrition for this patient group. Patients were recruited into the study on discharge from a general intensive care unit (ICU) of a large teaching hospital in central Scotland. Semi-structured interviews were carried out after discharge from the ICU, weekly for the duration of their ward stay, and at 3 months post ICU discharge. Observations of ward practice were undertaken thrice weekly for the duration of the ward stay. Seventeen patients were recruited into the study and, using a grounded theory approach, 'inter-related system breakdowns during the nutritional recovery process' emerged as the overarching core category that influenced patients' experiences of eating after critical illness. This encompassed the categories, 'experiencing a dysfunctional body', 'experiencing socio-cultural changes in relation to eating' and 'encountering nutritional care delivery failures'. The findings from the present study provide a unique contribution to knowledge by offering important insights into patients' experiences of eating after critical illness. The study has identified numerous nutritional problems and raises questions about the efficacy of current nutritional management in this patient group. Adopting a more individualised approach to nutritional care could ameliorate the nutritional issues experienced by post ICU patients. This will be evaluated in future work. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  8. On the temperature dependence of the sound attenuation maximum as a function of frequency and magnetic field in a spin-1 Ising model near the critical region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdem, Riza; Keskin, Mustafa


    Using the lowest approximation of the cluster variation method and Onsager theory, calculations of the sound attenuation ({alpha}) near the critical point in a spin-1 Ising model were performed at different frequencies ({omega}) and different magnetic field values (H) simultaneously and the shift in temperature of the attenuation maximum ({delta}T) was detected. It is found that the attenuation 'peaked' at higher temperatures with decreasing frequency and increasing field values, obeying an approximately exponential function in {omega}-{delta}T plots and linear function in H-{delta}T plots. 'Closed loops' are also observed in the {alpha}-{alpha} plots. These results are in qualitative agreement with the measurements of the ultrasound attenuation near the Neel point in magnetic insulators.

  9. On the temperature dependence of the sound attenuation maximum as a function of frequency and magnetic field in a spin-1 Ising model near the critical region (United States)

    Erdem, Rıza; Keskin, Mustafa


    Using the lowest approximation of the cluster variation method and Onsager theory, calculations of the sound attenuation ( α) near the critical point in a spin-1 Ising model were performed at different frequencies ( ω) and different magnetic field values ( H) simultaneously and the shift in temperature of the attenuation maximum (Δ T) was detected. It is found that the attenuation ‘peaked’ at higher temperatures with decreasing frequency and increasing field values, obeying an approximately exponential function in ω-Δ T plots and linear function in H-Δ T plots. ‘Closed loops’ are also observed in the α- α plots. These results are in qualitative agreement with the measurements of the ultrasound attenuation near the Néel point in magnetic insulators.

  10. Criticism of drinking as informal social control: a study in 18 countries. (United States)

    Joosten, Jan; Knibbe, Ronald A; Derickx, Mieke; Selin, Klara Hradilova; Holmila, Marja


    The focus of this paper is on informal control of drinking, indicated by criticism of people in the social network on someone's alcohol consumption. It studies country and gender differences in the extent drinkers suffering from typical symptoms of heavy or prolonged alcohol use report informal control from others (reactive informal control), and country and gender differences in the extent comments on someone's drinking are (also) directed at those who do not suffer from these symptoms (pro-active informal control). The data come from eighteen general population surveys, selected from an integrated dataset on drinking and drinking-related factors including more than 35 countries. The criteria for inclusion were that data for both men and women were available and that at least 3 items about symptoms of severe physiological consequences and about criticism of drinking had valid responses. The results show that men suffering from typical symptoms of heavy or prolonged alcohol use are more likely to be criticized than equivalent women (reactive control). Irrespective of gender, reactive informal control is more prevalent in poorer countries and in countries with a high proportion of abstainers. Concerning pro-active control, among women a larger part of criticism appeared to be directed at those who (as yet) do not suffer from symptoms typical for heavy or prolonged alcohol use. There is a lot of variation between countries in pro-active informal control. This variation is only weakly related to prosperity of a country but not to its proportion of abstainers.

  11. [Participatory education and the development of critical reading in teachers theoretical texts. Multicenter study]. (United States)

    Leyva-González, Félix Arturo; Leo-Amador, Guillermo Enrique; Viniegra-Velázquez, Leonardo; Degollado-Bardales, Lilia; Zavala-Arenas, Jesús Arturo; González-Cobos, Roberto Palemón; Valencia-Sánchez, Jesús Salvador; Leyva-Salas, César Arturo; Angulo-Bernal, Sonia Elizabeth; Gómez-Arteaga, Gress Marissell


    Determine what the relationship between participation in classroom of students attending courses at the Educational Research and Teacher Education (CIEFD's) and the development of proficiency in critical reading of theoretical texts in education. Intervention study, multicenter students (medical specialist) level Diploma in teaching methodology (DMDN) 1 and 2 (n=46 n=29) of the six CIEFD's (DF Siglo XXI, Mexico City La Raza, Nuevo Leon, Sonora, Puebla and Veracruz), period: March to August 2007 and a Masters in education (n=9, generation 2007-2008). Two instruments were constructed that evaluated the participation variables and critical reading of theoretical texts in education, conceptual validity; content and reliability were assessed by experts in education research. The educational intervention was in the form of seminars (three times a week in DMDN 1 and twice weekly in DMDN 2 and Masters). Participation was assessed halfway through the course and on completion, critical reading at the beginning as well as the end. Statistically significant associations were observed in DMDN 1 (four Centers) and the Masters, but not DMDN 2. In this investigation some of the theoretical proposals of the participatory education were recreated, starting from the analysis of our results. In some centers and in the masters, strengthening participation in this educational intervention is related to the development of critical reading of theoretical texts in education.

  12. Canine parvovirus in vaccinated dogs: a field study. (United States)

    Miranda, C; Thompson, G


    The authors report a field study that investigated the canine parvovirus (CPV) strains present in dogs that developed the disease after being vaccinated. Faecal samples of 78 dogs that have been vaccinated against CPV and later presented with clinical signs suspected of parvovirus infection were used. Fifty (64.1 per cent) samples tested positive by PCR for CPV. No CPV vaccine type was detected. The disease by CPV-2b occurred in older and female dogs when compared with that by CPV-2c. The clinical signs presented by infected dogs were similar when any of both variants were involved. In most cases of disease, the resulting infection by field variants occurred shortly after CPV vaccination. Two dogs that had been subjected to a complete vaccination schedule and presented with clinical signs after 10 days of vaccination, had the CPV-2c variant associated. The phylogenetic studies showed a close relationship of the isolates in vaccinated dogs to European field strains. Despite the limited sample size in this study, the findings point to the significance of the continuous molecular typing of the virus as a tool to monitor the prevalent circulating CPV strains and access the efficacy of current vaccines. Adjustments on the vaccine types to be used may have to be evaluated again according to each epidemiological situation in order to achieve the dog's optimal immune protection against CPV.

  13. Geography Teacher Candidates' Experiences of Field Study in Western Anatolia: A Qualitative Study (United States)

    Balci, Ali


    The aim of this study is to establish expectations of 5th grade students from Marmara University's Department of Geography Teaching on geographical field study in Western Anatolia. For this reason, a field study trip was organized to Western Anatolia. A survey, which was consisted of open-ended questions, was prepared by experts and it was…

  14. A critical evaluation of an asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation system for colloidal size characterization of natural organic matter. (United States)

    Zhou, Zhengzhen; Guo, Laodong


    Colloidal retention characteristics, recovery and size distribution of model macromolecules and natural dissolved organic matter (DOM) were systematically examined using an asymmetrical flow field-flow fractionation (AFlFFF) system under various membrane size cutoffs and carrier solutions. Polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) standards with known molecular weights (MW) were used to determine their permeation and recovery rates by membranes with different nominal MW cutoffs (NMWCO) within the AFlFFF system. Based on a ≥90% recovery rate for PSS standards by the AFlFFF system, the actual NMWCOs were determined to be 1.9 kDa for the 0.3 kDa membrane, 2.7 kDa for the 1 kDa membrane, and 33 kDa for the 10 kDa membrane, respectively. After membrane calibration, natural DOM samples were analyzed with the AFlFFF system to determine their colloidal size distribution and the influence from membrane NMWCOs and carrier solutions. Size partitioning of DOM samples showed a predominant colloidal size fraction in the buffer seemed to provide the highest recovery and optimal separation of DOM. Rigorous calibration with macromolecular standards and optimization of system conditions are a prerequisite for quantifying colloidal size distribution using the flow field-flow fractionation technique. In addition, the coupling of AFlFFF with fluorescence EEMs could provide new insights into DOM heterogeneity in different colloidal size fractions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The safety of field tubal sterilization: a cohort study. (United States)

    Siswosudarmo, R


    A cohort study on female sterilization has been carried out to compare the safety of field-based procedures with hospital-based procedures. A total of 217 women were recruited, consisting of 103 field-based and 114 hospital-based acceptors. Married and healthy women 20-45 years of age, having at least two living children, not obese, no history of major abdominal surgery, no signs of acute pelvic inflammatory disease, and no contraindication to ketamin were included in the study. Women with severe pelvic adhesions encountered during surgery were excluded from the study. The ambulatory procedure was used for all acceptors except those who were sterilized in hospital immediately after delivery. They were asked to come to th Sarjito Hospital (hospital-based) or Puskesmas (primary health care center or field-based), after fasting the night before. Ketamin, 50-100 mg, was used intravenously for general anesthesia. Minilaparotomy followed by the Pomeroy method was used for standard female tubal sterilization. Tetracycline, 3 x 500 mg was given for five days prophylactically. Follow-up was carried out one and six weeks after the day of operation. Data were processed with an IBM-compatible PC, using version 3.0 SPSS program. Students t-test, chi-square test and relative risk (95% confidence limit (CL)) were used for statistical analysis. Both groups were comparable in terms of age, parity, body weight, and body height. The duration of operation in the field was somewhat longer than that in the hospital, i.e. 24.58 vs 21.14 minutes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. A field scale study of nZVI Mobility (United States)

    O'Carroll, D. M.; Kocur, C. M.; Chowdhury, A.; Weber, K.; Boparai, H. K.; Krol, M. M.; Sakulchaicharoen, N.; Sleep, B. E.; Austrins, L.; Peace, C.


    Nanometals have received significant attention in recent years due to their ability to rapidly destroy numerous priority source zone contaminants in controlled laboratory studies. This has led to great optimism about the potential of nanometal injection for insitu remediation. However, rapid nanometal settling, reportedly due to the ferromagnetic attractive forces between particles causing agglomeration, and poor mobility have limited widespread application of this technology. In literature studies different methods have been proposed to counteract attractive forces between nanometal particles (e.g., polymers providing steric and electrostatic repulsive forces), thus limiting agglomeration and preventing rapid settling. Although laboratory characterization of these particles confirm that these methods yield nanoscale particles that are stable and readily reactive for extended periods of time under laboratory conditions, several important uncertainties remain. The laboratory procedures for synthesizing stabilized nZVI are quite involved and labour intensive, with limited scale-up of the synthesis procedure to the field described in the literature. Furthermore, it is unclear if these nanometal particles would be of high quality and mobile in the field. In this study, these questions were addressed by scaling up laboratory synthesis techniques to produce 1000 litres of nanometal suspension at 1 g/L on site. The suspension was injected into a contaminated zone containing various chlorinated solvents. Detailed characterization of the field site before, during and after the field trial suggested that the injected nanoparticles travelled in excess of 1 m at normalized concentrations in excess of 50% and would therefore be available for contaminant destruction in the target source zone. This presentation will also discuss detailed characterization (e.g., TEM, zero valent iron content) of injected nanometals and those captured at the monitoring wells.

  17. Application of theory-based evaluation for the critical analysis of national biofuel policy: A case study in Malaysia. (United States)

    Abdul-Manan, Amir F N; Baharuddin, Azizan; Chang, Lee Wei


    Theory-based evaluation (TBE) is an effectiveness assessment technique that critically analyses the theory underlying an intervention. Whilst its use has been widely reported in the area of social programmes, it is less applied in the field of energy and climate change policy evaluations. This paper reports a recent study that has evaluated the effectiveness of the national biofuel policy (NBP) for the transport sector in Malaysia by adapting a TBE approach. Three evaluation criteria were derived from the official goals of the NBP, those are (i) improve sustainability and environmental friendliness, (ii) reduce fossil fuel dependency, and (iii) enhance stakeholders' welfare. The policy theory underlying the NBP has been reconstructed through critical examination of the policy and regulatory documents followed by a rigorous appraisal of the causal link within the policy theory through the application of scientific knowledge. This study has identified several weaknesses in the policy framework that may engender the policy to be ineffective. Experiences with the use of a TBE approach for policy evaluations are also shared in this report. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Metamorphic Testing Integer Overflow Faults of Mission Critical Program: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanwei Hui


    Full Text Available For mission critical programs, integer overflow is one of the most dangerous faults. Different testing methods provide several effective ways to detect the defect. However, it is hard to validate the testing outputs, because the oracle of testing is not always available or too expensive to get, unless the program throws an exception obviously. In the present study, the authors conduct a case study, where the authors apply a metamorphic testing (MT method to detect the integer overflow defect and alleviate the oracle problem in testing critical program of Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS. Experimental results show that, in revealing typical integer mutations, compared with traditional safety property testing method, MT with a novel symbolic metamorphic relation is more effective than the traditional method in some cases.

  19. The effect of positive balance on the outcomes of critically ill noncardiac postsurgical patients: a retrospective cohort study. (United States)

    Shim, Hong Jin; Jang, Ji Young; Lee, Seung Hwan; Lee, Jae Gil


    Fluid balance remains a highly controversial topic in the critical care field, and no consensus has been reached about the fluid levels required by critically ill surgical patients. In this study, we investigated the relationship between fluid balance and in-hospital mortality in critically ill surgical patients. The medical records of adult patients managed in a surgical intensive care unit (ICU) for more than 48 hours after surgery from January 2010 to February 2011 were reviewed retrospectively. Abstracted data included body weights, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scores, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores, fluid therapy values (intake, output, and balance) during the ICU stay, type of operation, length of stay in the ICU and hospital, and in-hospital mortality. A total of 148 patients were enrolled. The in-hospital mortality rate was 20.8%, and the median length of stay in the ICU and hospital were 5.0 and 24 days, respectively. The median daily fluid balance over the first 3 postoperative days was positive 11.2 mL/kg. Fluid balances in the ICU were 19.2, 15.0, and -0.6 mL kg(-1) d(-1), respectively, during the first 3 days vs SOFA scores (6.8, 6.3, and 6.5). Comparing the nonsurvival group with the survival group, the univariate analysis showed that age (P = .05), APACHE II score (P fluid balances were not significantly associated with mortality. However, in critically ill patients whose APACHE II scores were greater than 20, the nonsurvivor group showed a significant tendency toward a positive balance compared with the survivor group on the second and third days of ICU stay. Nevertheless, the SOFA scores showed no difference between nonsurvivor and survivors during the initial 2 postoperative days. In critically ill noncardiac postsurgical patients whose APAHCE II scores were greater than 20, a positive balance in the ICU can be associated with mortality risk. To determine the direct effect of positive fluid balance



    Jürgensen, Jan Henning; Scheutz Godin, Axel; Hilber, Patrik


    Over the past decade, the health index has become an increasingly popular asset management tool in utilities. The health index as a condition indicator can improve the decision making process. However, it also has challenges which need to be considered during development and implementation. This paper addresses the advantages and disadvantages of the health index as a condition indicator in a critical discussion. Moreover, a case study is presented where a health index is calculated for three...

  1. Tar Creek study, Sargent oil field, Santa Clara County, California (United States)

    Wagner, David L.; Fedasko, Bill; Carnahan, J.R.; Brunetti, Ross; Magoon, Leslie B.; Lillis, Paul G.; Lorenson, T.D.; Stanley, Richard G.


    Field work in the Tar Creek area of Sargent oil field was performed June 26 to 28, 2000. The Santa Clara County study area is located in Sections, 30, 31, and 32, Township 11 South, Range 4 East, M.D.B&M; and in Sections 25 and 36, Township 11 South, Range 3 East, M.D.B.&M., north and south of Tar Creek, west of Highway 101. The work was a cooperative effort of the California Department of Conservation's Division of Oil, Gas, and Geothermal Resources (DOGGR), California Geological Survey (CGS), and the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The purpose of the project was to map the stratigraphy and geologic structure (David Wagner, CGS); sample oil for age dating (Les Magoon, USGS); and search for undocumented wells plus conduct a GPS survey of the area (Bill Fedasko, J.P. Carnahan, and Ross Brunetti, DOGGR)

  2. Reservoir engineering studies of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field (United States)

    Goyal, K. P.; Lippmann, M. J.; Tsang, C. F.


    Reservoir engineering studies of the Cerro Prieto geothermal field began in 1978 under a five-year cooperative agreement between the US Department of Energy and the Comision Federal de Electricidad de Mexico, with the ultimate objective of simulating the reservoir to forecast its production capacity, energy longevity, and recharge capability under various production and injection scenarios. During the fiscal year 1981, attempts were made to collect information on the evolution history of the field since exploitation began; the information is to be used later to validate the reservoir model. To this end, wellhead production data were analyzed for heat and mass flow and also for changes in reservoir pressures, temperatures, and saturations for the period from March 1973 to November 1980.

  3. Alkaline flood prediction studies, Ranger VII pilot, Wilmington Field, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayer, E.H.; Breit, V.S.


    The paper discusses: (1) The design of a simulator to model alkaline displacement mechanisms and the current state-of-the-art understanding of in-situ caustic consumption. (2) Assimilation of laboratory core flood and rock consumption data. Use of this data in 1-D and 2-D limited area simulations, and a 3-D model of the entire pilot project. (3) Simulation studies of alkaline flood behavior in a small 2-D area of the field for various concentrations, slug sizes, long term consumption functions and two relative permeability adjustment mechanisms. (4) Scale up of 2-D simulation results, and their use in a 271 acre 1.097 x 10/sup 6/m/sup 2/), 7 layered 3-D model of the pilot. (5) Comparison of 3-D simulator results with initial field alkaline flood performance. (6) Recommended additional application of the simulator methods developed in this pilot and in other alkaline floods. 10 refs.

  4. A Study of the Flow Field Surrounding Interacting Line Fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Maynard


    Full Text Available The interaction of converging fires often leads to significant changes in fire behavior, including increased flame length, angle, and intensity. In this paper, the fluid mechanics of two adjacent line fires are studied both theoretically and experimentally. A simple potential flow model is used to explain the tilting of interacting flames towards each other, which results from a momentum imbalance triggered by fire geometry. The model was validated by measuring the velocity field surrounding stationary alcohol pool fires. The flow field was seeded with high-contrast colored smoke, and the motion of smoke structures was analyzed using a cross-correlation optical flow technique. The measured velocities and flame angles are found to compare reasonably with the predicted values, and an analogy between merging fires and wind-blown flames is proposed.

  5. Women Emoloyees’ Perceptions About Their Managers: A Field Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail BAKAN


    Full Text Available The leadership style of people in managerial positions has a significant impact on employee behavior and attitudes towards business. Therefore, finding out the perceptions of employees regarding their managers’ leadership style will guide to managers to display successful management. There are several distinctions in the literature as to the type of leadership. In this study, first the concept and types of leadership determined and then the autocratic, democratic and free reign leadership styles will be explained. In the second part of the study a field research, to measure the perceptions of women workers about their managers’ leadership style, will be included in the textile industry as leading sector in Kahramanmaras.

  6. Rewiring the gustatory system: specificity between nerve and taste bud field is critical for normal salt discrimination. (United States)

    Spector, Alan C; Blonde, Ginger; Garcea, Mircea; Jiang, Enshe


    Forty years have passed since it was demonstrated that a cross-regenerated gustatory nerve in the rat tongue adopts the stimulus-response properties of the taste receptor field it cross-reinnervates. Nevertheless, the functional consequences of channeling peripheral taste signals through inappropriate central circuits remain relatively unexplored. Here we tested whether histologically confirmed cross-regeneration of the chorda tympani nerve (CT) into the posterior tongue in the absence of the glossopharyngeal nerve (GL) (CT-PostTongue) or cross-regeneration of the GL into the anterior tongue in the absence of the CT (GL-AntTongue) would maintain presurgically trained performance in an operant NaCl vs. KCl taste discrimination task in rats. Before surgery all groups were averaging over 90% accuracy. Oral amiloride treatment dropped performance to virtually chance levels. During the first week after surgery, sham-operated rats, GL-transected rats, and rats with regenerated CTs displayed highly competent discrimination performance. In contrast, CT-transected rats were severely impaired (59% accuracy). Both the CT-PostTongue and the GL-AntTongue groups were impaired to a similar degree as CT-transected rats. These initially impaired groups improved their performance over the weeks of postsurgical testing, suggesting that the rats were capable of relearning the task with discriminable signals in the remaining taste nerves. This relearned performance was dependent on input from amiloride-sensitive receptors likely in the palate. Overall, these results suggest that normal competence in a salt discrimination task is dependent on the taste receptor field origin of the input as well as the specific nerve transmitting the signals to its associated circuits in the brain. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Magnetization as a critical defining parameter for strand in precision dipole applications implications for field error and F-J stability

    CERN Document Server

    Collings, E W; Lee, E


    In hadron accelerators, between low energy particle injection and beam accumulation, the guiding dipoles are ramped at some rate dB/dt. Both at injection and during ramping the static and dynamic magnetizations of the magnet windings introduce multipolar distortions into the beam-line field. Dynamic magnetization, controllable by cable design, is estimated and used to provide a criterion against which to evaluate the allowable magnitude of static (persistent-current) magnetization, M, from a field-quality standpoint. The it is of NbTi and advanced Nb/sub 3/Sn conductors are compared and with regard to the latter the question of flux-jump stability is explored. A magnetization criterion for such stability is presented and compared to experiment. It is noted that since Delta M is proportional to critical current density, J/sub c/, and the strand's effective filament diameter, d/sub eff/, the latter has frequently been specified as a critical parameter, although it will need to be re-specified with every increas...

  8. Effects of propofol on sleep quality in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients: a physiological study. (United States)

    Kondili, Eumorfia; Alexopoulou, Christina; Xirouchaki, Nectaria; Georgopoulos, Dimitris


    To access the effect of propofol administration on sleep quality in critically ill patients ventilated on assisted modes. This was a randomized crossover physiological study conducted in an adult ICU at a tertiary hospital. Two nights' polysomnography was performed in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients with and without propofol infusion, while respiratory variables were continuously recorded. Arterial blood gasses were measured in the beginning and at the end of the study. The rate of propofol infusion was adjusted to maintain a sedation level of 3 on the Ramsay scale. Sleep architecture was analyzed manually using predetermined criteria. Patient-ventilator asynchrony was evaluated breath by breath using the flow-time and airway pressure-time waveforms. Twelve patients were studied. Respiratory variables, patient-ventilator asynchrony, and arterial blood gasses did not differ between experimental conditions. With or without propofol all patients demonstrated abnormal sleep architecture, expressed by lack of sequential progression through sleep stages and their abnormal distribution. Sleep efficiency, sleep fragmentation, and sleep stage distribution (1, 2, and slow wave) did not differ with or without propofol. Compared to without propofol, both the number of patients exhibiting REM sleep (p = 0.02) and the percentage of REM sleep (p = 0.04) decreased significantly with propofol. In critically ill patients ventilated on assisted modes, propofol administration to achieve the recommended level of sedation suppresses the REM sleep stage and further worsens the poor sleep quality of these patients.

  9. A Posteriori Study of a DNS Database Describing Super critical Binary-Species Mixing (United States)

    Bellan, Josette; Taskinoglu, Ezgi


    Currently, the modeling of supercritical-pressure flows through Large Eddy Simulation (LES) uses models derived for atmospheric-pressure flows. Those atmospheric-pressure flows do not exhibit the particularities of high densitygradient magnitude features observed both in experiments and simulations of supercritical-pressure flows in the case of two species mixing. To assess whether the current LES modeling is appropriate and if found not appropriate to propose higher-fidelity models, a LES a posteriori study has been conducted for a mixing layer that initially contains different species in the lower and upper streams, and where the initial pressure is larger than the critical pressure of either species. An initially-imposed vorticity perturbation promotes roll-up and a double pairing of four initial span-wise vortices into an ultimate vortex that reaches a transitional state. The LES equations consist of the differential conservation equations coupled with a real-gas equation of state, and the equation set uses transport properties depending on the thermodynamic variables. Unlike all LES models to date, the differential equations contain, additional to the subgrid scale (SGS) fluxes, a new SGS term that is a pressure correction in the momentum equation. This additional term results from filtering of Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) equations, and represents the gradient of the difference between the filtered pressure and the pressure computed from the filtered flow field. A previous a priori analysis, using a DNS database for the same configuration, found this term to be of leading order in the momentum equation, a fact traced to the existence of high-densitygradient magnitude regions that populated the entire flow; in the study, models were proposed for the SGS fluxes as well as this new term. In the present study, the previously proposed constantcoefficient SGS-flux models of the a priori investigation are tested a posteriori in LES, devoid of or including, the

  10. A comparative study between transport and criticality safety indexes for fissile uranium nuclearly pure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moraes da Silva, T. de; Sordi, G.M.A.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN/CNEN (Brazil)]. e-mail:


    The international and national standards determine that during the transport of radioactive materials the package to be sent should be identified by labels of risks specifying content, activity and the transport index. The result of the monitoring of the package to 1 meter identifies the transport index, TI, which represents the dose rate to 1 meter of this. The transport index is, by definition, a number that represents a gamma radiation that crosses the superficial layer the radioactive material of the package to 1 meter of distance. For the fissile radioactive material that is the one in which a neutron causes the division of the atom, the international standards specify criticality safety index CSI, which is related with the safe mass of the fissile element. In this work it was determined the respective safe mass for each considered enrichment for the compounds of uranium oxides UO{sub 2}, U{sub 3}O{sub 8} and U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}. In the study of CSI it was observed that the value 50 of the expression 50/N being N the number of packages be transported in subcriticality conditions it represents a fifth part of the safe mass of the element uranium or 9% of the smallest mass critical for a transport not under exclusive use. As conclusion of the accomplished study was observed that the transport index starting from 7% of enrichment doesn't present contribution and that criticality safety index is always greater than the transport index. Therefore what the standards demand to specify, the largest value between both indexes, was clearly identified in this study as being the criticality safety index. (Author)

  11. Upper critical magnetic field of LnO{}_{0.5}F{}_{0.5}BiS2 (Ln = La, Nd) superconductors at ambient and high pressure (United States)

    Fang, Y.; Wolowiec, C. T.; Breindel, A. J.; Yazici, D.; Ho, P.-C.; Maple, M. B.


    The upper critical fields H c2 of polycrystalline samples of LnO{}0.5F{}0.5BiS2 (Ln = La, Nd) at ambient pressure (tetragonal structure) and high pressure (HP) (monoclinic structure) have been investigated via electrical resistivity measurements at various magnetic fields up to 8.5 T. The H c2(T) curves for all the samples show an uncharacteristic concave upward curvature at temperatures below T c , which cannot be described by the conventional one-band Werthamer-Helfand-Hohenberg theory. For the LaO{}0.5F{}0.5BiS2 sample under HP, as temperature is decreased, the upper critical field H onset, estimated from the onset of the superconducting transitions, increases slowly between 4.9 and 5.8 T compared with the slope of H onset(T) below 4.9 T and above 5.8 T. This anomalous behavior reveals a remarkable similarity in superconductivity between LaO{}0.5F{}0.5BiS2 samples measured under HP and synthesized under HP, although the crystal structures of the two samples were reported to be different. A reasonable explanation is that local atomic environment, which can be tuned by applying external pressure, is essential to the enhancement of T c for BiS2-based superconductors. On the other hand, such anomalous behavior is very subtle in the case of NdO{}0.5F{}0.5BiS2 under HP, suggesting that the anisotropy of the upper critical field in the ab-plane and the possible lattice deformation induced by external pressure is weak. This explains why the pressure-induced enhancement of T c for NdO{}0.5F{}0.5BiS2 is not as large as that for LaO{}0.5F{}0.5BiS2.

  12. Nucleated red blood cells, critical illness survivors and postdischarge outcomes: a cohort study. (United States)

    Purtle, Steven W; Horkan, Clare M; Moromizato, Takuhiro; Gibbons, Fiona K; Christopher, Kenneth B


    Little is known about risk factors associated with out-of-hospital outcomes in survivors of critical illness. We hypothesized that the presence of nucleated red blood cells in patients who survived critical care would be associated with adverse outcomes following hospital discharge. We performed a two-center observational cohort study of patients treated in medical and surgical intensive care units in Boston, Massachusetts. All data were obtained from the Research Patient Data Registry at Partners HealthCare. We studied 2878 patients, age ≥ 18 years, who received critical care between 2011 and 2015 and survived hospitalization. The exposure of interest was nucleated red blood cells occurring from 2 days prior to 7 days after critical care initiation. The primary outcome was mortality in the 90 days following hospital discharge. Secondary outcome was unplanned 30-day hospital readmission. Adjusted odds ratios were estimated by multivariable logistic regression models with inclusion of covariate terms thought to plausibly interact with both nucleated red blood cells and outcome. Adjustment included age, race (white versus nonwhite), gender, Deyo-Charlson Index, patient type (medical versus surgical), sepsis and acute organ failure. In patients who received critical care and survived hospitalization, the absolute risk of 90-day postdischarge mortality was 5.9%, 11.7%, 15.8% and 21.9% in patients with 0/μl, 1-100/μl, 101-200/μl and more than 200/μl nucleated red blood cells respectively. Nucleated red blood cells were a robust predictor of postdischarge mortality and remained so following multivariable adjustment. The fully adjusted odds of 90-day postdischarge mortality in patients with 1-100/μl, 101-200/μl and more than 200/μl nucleated red blood cells were 1.77 (95% CI, 1.23-2.54), 2.51 (95% CI, 1.36-4.62) and 3.72 (95% CI, 2.16-6.39) respectively, relative to patients without nucleated red blood cells. Further, the presence of nucleated red blood

  13. Cryogenic apparatus for study of near-field heat transfer. (United States)

    Kralik, T; Hanzelka, P; Musilova, V; Srnka, A; Zobac, M


    For bodies spaced in vacuum at distances shorter than the wavelength of the thermal radiation, radiative heat transfer substantially increases due to the contribution of evanescent electromagnetic waves. Experimental data on heat transfer in near-field regime are scarce. We have designed a cryogenic apparatus for the study of heat transfer over microscopic distances between metallic and non-metallic surfaces. Using a mechanical positioning system, a planeparallel gap between the samples, concentric disks, each 35 mm in diameter, is set and varied from 10(0) to 10(3) μm. The heat transferred from the hot (10 - 100 K) to the cold sample (∼5 K) sinks into a liquid helium bath through a thermal resistor, serving as a heat flux meter. Transferred heat power within ∼2 nW∕cm(2) and ∼30 μW∕cm(2) is derived from the temperature drop along the thermal resistor. For tungsten samples, the distance of the near-field effect onset was inversely proportional to temperature and the heat power increase was observed up to three orders of magnitude greater than the power of far-field radiative heat transfer.

  14. Study of the performance of Micromegas detectors in magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; The ATLAS collaboration


    Resistive Micromegas (Micro MEsh Gaseous Structure) detectors have been chosen by the ATLAS collaboration at LHC for the high luminosity upgrade due to their capability to maintain full efficiency and high spatial resolution at high rates. Operation in the Inner Muon Station of the high-rapidity region, the so called New Small Wheel (NSW) requires also these performances to be maintained in magnetic fields up to about 0.3 T. The response of Micromegas chambers is affected by the magnetic field where the deflection of the drift electrons is described by the Lorentz angle, resulting in a bias in the reconstructed position. Several test-beam campaigns have been performed to test the behaviour of small size resistive micromegas prototypes (10x10cm2) in magnetic fields up to 1 T using high momentum muon and hadron beams at CERN. These studies are performed in order to validate the capability to operate these chambers to get unbiased tracks in the NSW conditions. Measurements of the Lorentz angle and drift velocity...

  15. Study of the performance of Micromegas detectors in magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Sampsonidis, Dimos; The ATLAS collaboration


    Resistive Micromegas (Micro MEsh Gaseous Structure) detectors have been chosen by the ATLAS collaboration at LHC for the high luminosity upgrade due to their capability to maintain full efficiency and high spatial resolution at high rates. Operation in the Inner Muon Station of the high-rapidity region, the so called New Small Wheel (NSW) requires also these performances to be maintened in magnetic fields up to about 0.3 T. The response of Micromegas chambers is affected by the magnetic field where the deflection of the drift electrons is described by the Lorentz angle, resulting in a bias in the reconstructed position. Several test-beam campaigns have been performed to test the behaviour of small size resistive micromegas prototypes (10x10cm2) in magnetic fields up to 1 T using high momentum muon and hadron beams at CERN. These studies are performed in order to validate the capability to operate these chambers to get unbiased tracks in the NSW conditions. Measurements of the Lorentz angle and drift velocity ...

  16. Feng shui And Emotional Response in the Critical care Environment (FARCE) study. (United States)

    Charles, R; Glover, S; Bauchmüller, K; Wood, D


    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between nursing staff emotions and their surrounding environment, using the ancient system of feng shui. Two orientations of critical care bed spaces (wind and water groups, respectively) were mapped using a western bagua. Energy or 'chi' scores for nine emotions were calculated based on the positive or negative flow of chi in each of the two groups. During a two-week period, nursing staff were allocated to work in a bed space in either the wind or water groups; nursing staff who were not allocated to a study bed space acted as a control group. Participating nursing staff completed a questionnaire, ranking nine emotional states and their overall inner harmony, using a 11-point chi scale. In total, 108 questionnaires were completed. Critical bed space orientation according to feng shui principles was not related to nurse-reported chi scores or inner harmony (p > 0.05 for all measurements). There was also poor correlation between the bagua-predicted and reported chi scores for both the wind and water groups (R2  = 0.338 and 0.093, respectively). The use of feng shui to guide the layout of critical care bed spaces does not improve the emotional well-being of nursing staff. © 2017 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  17. Field studies in architectural acoustics using Tablet PCs (United States)

    Boye, Daniel


    Core requirements for the sciences within the liberal arts curriculum challenge students to become directly involved in scientific study. These requirements seek to develop scientifically literate leaders and members of society. Formal laboratory periods are not usually associated with these courses. Thus, conceptual discovery and quantitative experimentation must take place outside of the classroom. Physics 115: Musical Technology at Davidson College is such a course and contains a section dealing with architectural acoustics. Field studies in the past have been an awkward and cumbersome activity, especially for non-science majors. The emerging technology of Tablet PCs overcomes many of the problems of mobile data acquisition and analysis, and allows the students to determine the locations of the rooms to be studied. The impulse method for determining reverberation time is used and compared with calculations based on room size and absorption media. The use of Tablet PCs and the publicly available freeware Audacity in field studies investigating architectural acoustics will be discussed. [Work supported in part by the Associated Colleges of the South through their Technology Fellowship program.

  18. A biophysically detailed model of neocortical local field potentials predicts the critical role of active membrane currents. (United States)

    Reimann, Michael W; Anastassiou, Costas A; Perin, Rodrigo; Hill, Sean L; Markram, Henry; Koch, Christof


    Brain activity generates extracellular voltage fluctuations recorded as local field potentials (LFPs). It is known that the relevant microvariables, the ionic currents across membranes, jointly generate the macrovariables, the extracellular voltage, but neither the detailed biophysical knowledge nor the required computational power have been available to model these processes. We simulated the LFP in a model of the rodent neocortical column composed of >12,000 reconstructed, multicompartmental, and spiking cortical layer 4 and 5 pyramidal neurons and basket cells, including five million dendritic and somatic compartments with voltage- and ion-dependent currents, realistic connectivity, and probabilistic AMPA, NMDA, and GABA synapses. We found that, depending on a number of factors, the LFP reflects local and cross-layer processing. Active currents dominate the generation of LFPs, not synaptic ones. Spike-related currents impact the LFP not only at higher frequencies but below 50 Hz. This work calls for re-evaluating the genesis of LFPs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The 2D-3D crossover and anisotropy of upper critical fields in Nb and NbN superconducting thin films (United States)

    Joshi, Lalit M.; Verma, Apoorva; Rout, P. K.; Kaur, Mandeep; Gupta, Anurag; Budhani, R. C.


    The upper critical field (Bc2) of superconducting thin films of Nb (film thickness d = 40 nm) and NbN (d = 10, 50 and 100 nm) have been measured and analyzed as a function of temperature (T = 1.8-15 K) in both parallel and perpendicular magnetic field (B = 0-7 T) directions with respect to the film plane. Dimensional crossover from 2D to 3D is observed for all the thin films except for the 10 nm thick NbN film which exhibits only 2D behavior in the measured T and B range. Further, the upper critical fields were found to be anisotropic in case of both Nb and NbN films. However, the anisotropy shows different behavior in all the four samples. In case of Nb, below the 2D-3D crossover temperature, the Bc2∥(T) is higher than Bc2⊥(T) and both curves branch away further from each other. On the other hand, in case of NbN (50 and 100 nm), there is a reversal of anisotropy, i.e., in the 2D region Bc2∥(T) > Bc2⊥(T) and in the 3D region at some temperature Bc2⊥(T) > Bc2∥(T) . In the NbN films with increasing thickness, the 2D region shrinks and 3D region expands, and the 2D-3D crossover and anisotropy reversal characteristic temperatures shift toward Tc. These observations are quantitatively explained using the Ginzburg-Landau theoretical approach after Schneider and Locquet (Physica C, 179 (1991) 125).

  20. Evidence of altered cortisol metabolism in critically ill patients: a prospective study. (United States)

    Venkatesh, Bala; Cohen, Jeremy; Hickman, Ingrid; Nisbet, Janelle; Thomas, Peter; Ward, Gregory; Hall, Jonathan; Prins, John


    Changes in cortisol metabolism due to altered activity of the enzyme 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11beta-HSD) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension, obesity and the metabolic syndrome. No published data exist on the activity of this enzyme in critical illness. To investigate cortisol metabolism in critically ill patients utilising plasma cortisol: cortisone ratio as an index of 11beta-HSD activity. Tertiary level intensive care unit. Three cohorts of critically ill patients: sepsis (n = 13); multitrauma (n = 20); and burns (n = 19). Serial plasma cortisol: cortisone ratios. Plasma total cortisol cortisone ratios were determined serially after admission to the intensive care unit. As compared with controls, the plasma cortisol:cortisone ratio was significantly elevated in the sepsis and trauma cohorts on day 1 (22 +/- 9, p = 0.01, and 23 +/- 19, p = 0.0003, respectively) and remained elevated over the study period. Such a relationship was not demonstrable in burns. The ratio was significantly correlated with APACHE II (r = 0.77, p = 0.0008) and Simplified Acute Physiology Score (r = 0.7, p = 0.003) only on day 7 and only in the burns cohort. There were no significant correlations observed between total plasma cortisol or cortisone and sickness severity in the sepsis and trauma cohorts. In critically ill patients, there is evidence of altered cortisol metabolism due to an increase in 11beta-HSD activity as demonstrated by an elevation of plasma cortisol: cortisone ratios. Further studies with larger sample sizes specifically designed to examine altered tissue 11beta-HSD activity and its clinical significance and correlation with outcome are warranted.