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Sample records for cristata ectopically expressing

  1. Widespread ectopic expression of olfactory receptor genes

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    Yanai Itai

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Olfactory receptors (ORs are the largest gene family in the human genome. Although they are expected to be expressed specifically in olfactory tissues, some ectopic expression has been reported, with special emphasis on sperm and testis. The present study systematically explores the expression patterns of OR genes in a large number of tissues and assesses the potential functional implication of such ectopic expression. Results We analyzed the expression of hundreds of human and mouse OR transcripts, via EST and microarray data, in several dozens of human and mouse tissues. Different tissues had specific, relatively small OR gene subsets which had particularly high expression levels. In testis, average expression was not particularly high, and very few highly expressed genes were found, none corresponding to ORs previously implicated in sperm chemotaxis. Higher expression levels were more common for genes with a non-OR genomic neighbor. Importantly, no correlation in expression levels was detected for human-mouse orthologous pairs. Also, no significant difference in expression levels was seen between intact and pseudogenized ORs, except for the pseudogenes of subfamily 7E which has undergone a human-specific expansion. Conclusion The OR superfamily as a whole, show widespread, locus-dependent and heterogeneous expression, in agreement with a neutral or near neutral evolutionary model for transcription control. These results cannot reject the possibility that small OR subsets might play functional roles in different tissues, however considerable care should be exerted when offering a functional interpretation for ectopic OR expression based only on transcription information.

  2. E2F1-mediated human POMC expression in ectopic Cushing's syndrome.

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    Araki, Takako; Liu, Ning-Ai; Tone, Yukiko; Cuevas-Ramos, Daniel; Heltsley, Roy; Tone, Masahide; Melmed, Shlomo

    2016-11-01

    Cushing's syndrome is caused by excessive adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion derived from pituitary corticotroph tumors (Cushing disease) or from non-pituitary tumors (ectopic Cushing's syndrome). Hypercortisolemic features of ectopic Cushing's syndrome are severe, and no definitive treatment for paraneoplastic ACTH excess is available. We aimed to identify subcellular therapeutic targets by elucidating transcriptional regulation of the human ACTH precursor POMC (proopiomelanocortin) and ACTH production in non-pituitary tumor cells and in cell lines derived from patients with ectopic Cushing's syndrome. We show that ectopic hPOMC transcription proceeds independently of pituitary-specific Tpit/Pitx1 and demonstrate a novel E2F1-mediated transcriptional mechanism regulating hPOMC We identify an E2F1 cluster binding to the proximal hPOMC promoter region (-42 to +68), with DNA-binding activity determined by the phosphorylation at Ser-337. hPOMC mRNA expression in cancer cells was upregulated (up to 40-fold) by the co-expression of E2F1 and its heterodimer partner DP1. Direct and indirect inhibitors of E2F1 activity suppressed hPOMC gene expression and ACTH by modifying E2F1 DNA-binding activity in ectopic Cushing's cell lines and primary tumor cells, and also suppressed paraneoplastic ACTH and cortisol levels in xenografted mice. E2F1-mediated hPOMC transcription is a potential target for suppressing ACTH production in ectopic Cushing's syndrome. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  3. Ectopic ERK Expression Induces Phenotypic Conversion of C10 Cells and Alters DNA Methyltransferase Expression

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    Sontag, Ryan L.; Weber, Thomas J.

    2012-05-04

    In some model systems constitutive extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) activation is sufficient to promote an oncogenic phenotype. Here we investigate whether constitutive ERK expression influences phenotypic conversion in murine C10 type II alveolar epithelial cells. C10 cells were stably transduced with an ERK1-green fluorescent protein (ERK1-GFP) chimera or empty vector and ectopic ERK expression was associated with the acquisition of soft agar focus-forming potential in late passage, but not early passage cells. Late passage ERK1-GFP cells exhibited a significant increase in the expression of DNA methyl transferases (DNMT1 and 3b) and a marked increase in sensitivity to 5-azacytidine (5-azaC)-mediated toxicity, relative to early passage ERK1-GFP cells and vector controls. The expression of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A (XPA) and DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) were significantly increased in late passage cells, suggesting enhanced DNA damage recognition and repair activity which we interpret as a reflection of genomic instability. Phospho-ERK levels were dramatically decreased in late passage ERK1-GFP cells, relative to early passage and vector controls, and phospho-ERK levels were restored by treatment with sodium orthovanadate, indicating a role for phosphatase activity in this response. Collectively these observations suggest that ectopic ERK expression promotes phenotypic conversion of C10 cells that is associated with latent effects on epigenetic programming and phosphatase activities.

  4. Ectopic expression of Msx2 in mammalian myotubes recapitulates aspects of amphibian muscle dedifferentiation

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    Atilgan Yilmaz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to urodele amphibians and teleost fish, mammals lack the regenerative responses to replace large body parts. Amphibian and fish regeneration uses dedifferentiation, i.e., reversal of differentiated state, as a means to produce progenitor cells to eventually replace damaged tissues. Therefore, induced activation of dedifferentiation responses in mammalian tissues holds an immense promise for regenerative medicine. Here we demonstrate that ectopic expression of Msx2 in cultured mouse myotubes recapitulates several aspects of amphibian muscle dedifferentiation. We found that MSX2, but not MSX1, leads to cellularization of myotubes and downregulates the expression of myotube markers, such as MHC, MRF4 and myogenin. RNA sequencing of myotubes ectopically expressing Msx2 showed downregulation of over 500 myotube-enriched transcripts and upregulation of over 300 myoblast-enriched transcripts. MSX2 selectively downregulated expression of Ptgs2 and Ptger4, two members of the prostaglandin pathway with important roles in myoblast fusion during muscle differentiation. Ectopic expression of Msx2, as well as Msx1, induced partial cell cycle re-entry of myotubes by upregulating CyclinD1 expression but failed to initiate S-phase. Finally, MSX2-induced dedifferentiation in mouse myotubes could be recapitulated by a pharmacological treatment with trichostatin A (TSA, bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4 and fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1. Together, these observations indicate that MSX2 is a major driver of dedifferentiation in mammalian muscle cells.

  5. Cannonball lung metastases as a presenting feature of ectopic hCG expression

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    Rong-Hsin Yang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cannonball metastases refer to well-defined spherical nodules scattered over both lungs, being a classical presentation of hematogenous tumor spreading. Striking progression of lung metastases without established primary malignancy can raise a diagnostic challenge. We herein report three cases with cannonball metastases at initial presentation. Two patients ended up having a choriocarcinoma but no awareness of the presence of primary tumors, and the third had abrupt lung metastases of endometrial cancer while she was being asymptomatic. Relentless progression was illustrated by clinical and radiographic changes. Ectopic expression of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG would seemingly go some way responsible for fulminant cancer spreading associated with poor prognosis in our patients. The goal of this presentation is to raise awareness of ectopic hCG expression in patients presenting with similar astonishing scenarios.

  6. Increased expression of resistin in ectopic endometrial tissue of women with endometriosis.

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    Oh, Yoon Kyung; Ha, Young Ran; Yi, Kyong Wook; Park, Hyun Tae; Shin, Jung-Ho; Kim, Tak; Hur, Jun-Young

    2017-11-01

    Inflammation is a key process in the establishment and progression of endometriosis. Resistin, an adipocytokine, has biological properties linked to immunologic functions, but its role in endometriosis is unclear. Resistin gene expression was examined in eutopic and ectopic endometrial tissues from women with (n=25) or without (n=25) endometriosis. Resistin mRNA and protein levels were determined in endometrial tissue using quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR and Western blotting, following adipokine profiling arrays. Resistin protein was detected in human endometrial tissues using an adipokine array test. Resistin mRNA and protein levels were significantly higher in ectopic endometrial tissue of patients with endometriosis than in normal eutopic endometrial tissue. Our results indicate that resistin is differentially expressed in endometrial tissues from women with endometriosis and imply a role for resistin in endometriosis-associated pelvic inflammation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Genome-wide expressions in autologous eutopic and ectopic endometrium of fertile women with endometriosis

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    Khan, Meraj A; Sengupta, Jayasree; Mittal, Suneeta; Ghosh, Debabrata

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background In order to obtain a lead of the pathophysiology of endometriosis, genome-wide expressional analyses of eutopic and ectopic endometrium have earlier been reported, however, the effects of stages of severity and phases of menstrual cycle on expressional profiles have not been examined. The effect of genetic heterogeneity and fertility history on transcriptional activity was also not considered. In the present study, a genome-wide expression analysis of autologous, paired eu...

  8. Ectopic expression of the erythrocyte band 3 anion exchange protein, using a new avian retrovirus vector

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    Fuerstenberg, S; Beug, H; Introna, M

    1990-01-01

    into protein. Using the Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase gene cloned into the vector as a test construct, expression of enzyme activity could be detected in 90 to 95% of transfected target cells and in 80 to 85% of subsequently infected cells. In addition, a cDNA encoding the avian erythrocyte band 3 anion...... exchange protein has been expressed from the vector in both chicken embryo fibroblasts and QT6 cells and appears to function as an active, plasma membrane-based anion transporter. The ectopic expression of band 3 protein provides a visual marker for vector function in these cells....

  9. Ectopic expression of dentin sialoprotein during amelogenesis hardens bulk enamel.

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    White, Shane N; Paine, Michael L; Ngan, Amanda Y W; Miklus, Vetea G; Luo, Wen; Wang, HongJun; Snead, Malcolm L

    2007-02-23

    Dentin sialophosphpoprotein (Dspp) is transiently expressed in the early stage of secretory ameloblasts. The secretion of ameloblast-derived Dspp is short-lived, correlates to the establishment of the dentinoenamel junction (DEJ), and is consistent with Dspp having a role in producing the specialized first-formed harder enamel adjacent to the DEJ. Crack diffusion by branching and dissipation within this specialized first-formed enamel close to the DEJ prevents catastrophic interfacial damage and tooth failure. Once Dspp is secreted, it is subjected to proteolytic cleavage that results in two distinct proteins referred to as dentin sialoprotein (Dsp) and dentin phosphoprotein (Dpp). The purpose of this study was to investigate the biological and mechanical contribution of Dsp and Dpp to enamel formation. Transgenic mice were engineered to overexpress either Dsp or Dpp in their enamel organs. The mechanical properties (hardness and toughness) of the mature enamel of transgenic mice were compared with genetically matched and age-matched nontransgenic animals. Dsp and Dpp contributions to enamel formation greatly differed. The inclusion of Dsp in bulk enamel significantly and uniformly increased enamel hardness (20%), whereas the inclusion of Dpp weakened the bulk enamel. Thus, Dsp appears to make a unique contribution to the physical properties of the DEJ. Dsp transgenic animals have been engineered with superior enamel mechanical properties.

  10. ABI3 ectopic expression reduces in vitro and in vivo cell growth properties while inducing senescence

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    Riggins Gregory J

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mounting evidence has indicated that ABI3 (ABI family member 3 function as a tumor suppressor gene, although the molecular mechanism by which ABI3 acts remains largely unknown. Methods The present study investigated ABI3 expression in a large panel of benign and malignant thyroid tumors and explored a correlation between the expression of ABI3 and its potential partner ABI3-binding protein (ABI3BP. We next explored the biological effects of ABI3 ectopic expression in thyroid and colon carcinoma cell lines, in which its expression was reduced or absent. Results We not only observed that ABI3 expression is reduced or lost in most carcinomas but also that there is a positive correlation between ABI3 and ABI3BP expression. Ectopic expression of ABI3 was sufficient to lead to a lower transforming activity, reduced tumor in vitro growth properties, suppressed in vitro anchorage-independent growth and in vivo tumor formation while, cellular senescence increased. These responses were accompanied by the up-regulation of the cell cycle inhibitor p21 WAF1 and reduced ERK phosphorylation and E2F1 expression. Conclusions Our result links ABI3 to the pathogenesis and progression of some cancers and suggests that ABI3 or its pathway might have interest as therapeutic target. These results also suggest that the pathways through which ABI3 works should be further characterized.

  11. Genome-wide expressions in autologous eutopic and ectopic endometrium of fertile women with endometriosis.

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    Khan, Meraj A; Sengupta, Jayasree; Mittal, Suneeta; Ghosh, Debabrata

    2012-09-24

    In order to obtain a lead of the pathophysiology of endometriosis, genome-wide expressional analyses of eutopic and ectopic endometrium have earlier been reported, however, the effects of stages of severity and phases of menstrual cycle on expressional profiles have not been examined. The effect of genetic heterogeneity and fertility history on transcriptional activity was also not considered. In the present study, a genome-wide expression analysis of autologous, paired eutopic and ectopic endometrial samples obtained from fertile women (n=18) suffering from moderate (stage 3; n=8) or severe (stage 4; n=10) ovarian endometriosis during proliferative (n=13) and secretory (n=5) phases of menstrual cycle was performed. Individual pure RNA samples were subjected to Agilent's Whole Human Genome 44K microarray experiments. Microarray data were validated (Pcopy numbers by performing real time RT-PCR of seven (7) arbitrarily selected genes in all samples. The data obtained were subjected to differential expression (DE) and differential co-expression (DC) analyses followed by networks and enrichment analysis, and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA). The reproducibility of prediction based on GSEA implementation of DC results was assessed by examining the relative expressions of twenty eight (28) selected genes in RNA samples obtained from fresh pool of eutopic and ectopic samples from confirmed ovarian endometriosis patients with stages 3 and 4 (n=4/each) during proliferative and secretory (n=4/each) phases. Higher clustering effect of pairing (cluster distance, cd=0.1) in samples from same individuals on expressional arrays among eutopic and ectopic samples was observed as compared to that of clinical stages of severity (cd=0.5) and phases of menstrual cycle (cd=0.6). Post hoc analysis revealed anomaly in the expressional profiles of several genes associated with immunological, neuracrine and endocrine functions and gynecological cancers however with no overt oncogenic

  12. Ectopic expression of DLK1 protein in skeletal muscle of padumnal heterozygotes causes the callipyge phenotype

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    Davis, Erica; Jensen, Charlotte Harken; Farnir, Frédéric

    2004-01-01

    profile causes the callipyge muscular hypertrophy has remained unclear. Herein, we demonstrate that the callipyge phenotype is perfectly correlated with ectopic expression of DLK1 protein in hypertrophied muscle of +(MAT)/CLPG(PAT) sheep. We demonstrate the causality of this association by inducing...... a generalized muscular hypertrophy in transgenic mice that express DLK1 in skeletal muscle. The absence of DLK1 protein in skeletal muscle of CLPG/CLPG animals, despite the presence of DLK1 mRNA, supports a trans inhibition mediated by noncoding RNAs expressed from the maternal allele.......The callipyge (CLPG) phenotype is an inherited skeletal muscle hypertrophy described in sheep. It is characterized by an unusual mode of inheritance ("polar overdominance") in which only heterozygous individuals having received the CLPG mutation from their father (+(MAT)/CLPG(PAT)) express...

  13. Genome-wide expressions in autologous eutopic and ectopic endometrium of fertile women with endometriosis

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    Khan Meraj A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to obtain a lead of the pathophysiology of endometriosis, genome-wide expressional analyses of eutopic and ectopic endometrium have earlier been reported, however, the effects of stages of severity and phases of menstrual cycle on expressional profiles have not been examined. The effect of genetic heterogeneity and fertility history on transcriptional activity was also not considered. In the present study, a genome-wide expression analysis of autologous, paired eutopic and ectopic endometrial samples obtained from fertile women (n = 18 suffering from moderate (stage 3; n = 8 or severe (stage 4; n = 10 ovarian endometriosis during proliferative (n = 13 and secretory (n = 5 phases of menstrual cycle was performed. Methods Individual pure RNA samples were subjected to Agilent’s Whole Human Genome 44K microarray experiments. Microarray data were validated (P  Results Higher clustering effect of pairing (cluster distance, cd = 0.1 in samples from same individuals on expressional arrays among eutopic and ectopic samples was observed as compared to that of clinical stages of severity (cd = 0.5 and phases of menstrual cycle (cd = 0.6. Post hoc analysis revealed anomaly in the expressional profiles of several genes associated with immunological, neuracrine and endocrine functions and gynecological cancers however with no overt oncogenic potential in endometriotic tissue. Dys-regulation of three (CLOCK, ESR1, and MYC major transcription factors appeared to be significant causative factors in the pathogenesis of ovarian endometriosis. A novel cohort of twenty-eight (28 genes representing potential marker for ovarian endometriosis in fertile women was discovered. Conclusions Dysfunctional expression of immuno-neuro-endocrine behaviour in endometrium appeared critical to endometriosis. Although no overt oncogenic potential was evident, several genes associated with gynecological cancers were

  14. The ectopic expression of Pax4 in the mouse pancreas converts progenitor cells into alpha and subsequently beta cells

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    Collombat, Patrick; Xu, Xiaobo; Ravassard, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    We have previously reported that the loss of Arx and/or Pax4 gene activity leads to a shift in the fate of the different endocrine cell subtypes in the mouse pancreas, without affecting the total endocrine cell numbers. Here, we conditionally and ectopically express Pax4 using different cell......-specific promoters and demonstrate that Pax4 forces endocrine precursor cells, as well as mature alpha cells, to adopt a beta cell destiny. This results in a glucagon deficiency that provokes a compensatory and continuous glucagon+ cell neogenesis requiring the re-expression of the proendocrine gene Ngn3. However......, the newly formed alpha cells fail to correct the hypoglucagonemia since they subsequently acquire a beta cell phenotype upon Pax4 ectopic expression. Notably, this cycle of neogenesis and redifferentiation caused by ectopic expression of Pax4 in alpha cells is capable of restoring a functional beta cell...

  15. Ectopic Expression of Testis Germ Cell Proteins in Cancer and Its Potential Role in Genomic Instability

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    Aaraby Yoheswaran Nielsen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Genomic instability is a hallmark of human cancer and an enabling factor for the genetic alterations that drive cancer development. The processes involved in genomic instability resemble those of meiosis, where genetic material is interchanged between homologous chromosomes. In most types of human cancer, epigenetic changes, including hypomethylation of gene promoters, lead to the ectopic expression of a large number of proteins normally restricted to the germ cells of the testis. Due to the similarities between meiosis and genomic instability, it has been proposed that activation of meiotic programs may drive genomic instability in cancer cells. Some germ cell proteins with ectopic expression in cancer cells indeed seem to promote genomic instability, while others reduce polyploidy and maintain mitotic fidelity. Furthermore, oncogenic germ cell proteins may indirectly contribute to genomic instability through induction of replication stress, similar to classic oncogenes. Thus, current evidence suggests that testis germ cell proteins are implicated in cancer development by regulating genomic instability during tumorigenesis, and these proteins therefore represent promising targets for novel therapeutic strategies.

  16. Ectopic expression of the calcium-binding protein parvalbumin in mouse liver endothelial cells

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    Castillo, M B; Berchtold, M W; Rülicke, T

    1997-01-01

    To elucidate the physiological role of the Ca2+ binding protein parvalbumin, we have generated transgenic mice carrying the full-length complementary DNA (cDNA) of rat parvalbumin under the control of the heavy-metal inducible metallothionein IIA promoter. Immunohistochemical and biochemical...... methods have been used to detect the presence of ectopic parvalbumin expression in different tissues. Here we show the expression of parvalbumin in endothelial cells lining the liver sinusoids in situ and after isolation in vitro. The hemodynamic effects of endothelin 1, a peptide hormone mediating potent...... vasoconstriction via calcium signalling, were investigated in the mouse liver perfused in situ. Vasoconstriction, thought to be mediated by the Ito cell, was not affected in the transgenic animals, whereas microvascular exchange, probed with the multiple indicator dilution technique, was markedly decreased...

  17. PRDM1 expression on the epithelial component but not on ectopic lymphoid tissues of Warthin tumour.

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    Wang, Y; Zhou, J; Zhang, Y; Wang, L; Liu, Y; Fan, L; Zhu, J; Xu, X; Huang, G; Li, X; Xun, W

    2015-05-01

    To determine the role of PRDM1, a key molecule for modulating the immune cells, in Warthin tumour (WT) pathogenesis. Forty paraffin-embedded parotid tissues of patients (mean age: 62.08 ± 11.90) with WT were retrieved from the pathology archives of Qindu Hospital from January 2012 to December 2012. The PRDM1 expression was investigated in a cohort of WT by immunohistochemistry. PRDM1 was expressed only on the epithelial component but not on ectopic lymphoid tissue of the tumour. Statistically, PRDM1 expression rates between WT glandular epithelial cells (40/40 cases) and the tumour-adjacent tissues (0/9 cases), and WT germinal centres (0/34 cases) and tonsil tissues (10/10 cases) were significantly different (P < 0.001), respectively. The PRDM1 expression appeared to play an essential role in WT pathogenesis. A better understanding of it might give options for revealing possible novel management strategies. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. The Regulation of Nitric Oxide Synthase Isoform Expression in Mouse and Human Fallopian Tubes: Potential Insights for Ectopic Pregnancy

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    Junting Hu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is highly unstable and has a half-life of seconds in buffer solutions. It is synthesized by NO-synthase (NOS, which has been found to exist in the following three isoforms: neuro nitric oxide synthase (nNOS, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS. NOS activity is localized in the reproductive tracts of many species, although direct evidence for NOS isoforms in the Fallopian tubes of mice is still lacking. In the present study, we investigated the expression and regulation of NOS isoforms in the mouse and human Fallopian tubes during the estrous and menstrual cycles, respectively. We also measured isoform expression in humans with ectopic pregnancy and in mice treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Our results confirmed the presence of different NOS isoforms in the mouse and human Fallopian tubes during different stages of the estrous and menstrual cycles and showed that iNOS expression increased in the Fallopian tubes of women with ectopic pregnancy and in LPS-treated mice. Elevated iNOS activity might influence ovulation, cilia beats, contractility, and embryo transportation in such a manner as to increase the risk of ectopic pregnancy. This study has provided morphological and molecular evidence that NOS isoforms are present and active in the human and mouse Fallopian tubes and suggests that iNOS might play an important role in both the reproductive cycle and infection-induced ectopic pregnancies.

  19. Epigenetically induced ectopic expression of UNCX impairs the proliferation and differentiation of myeloid cells.

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    Daniele, Giulia; Simonetti, Giorgia; Fusilli, Caterina; Iacobucci, Ilaria; Lonoce, Angelo; Palazzo, Antonio; Lomiento, Mariana; Mammoli, Fabiana; Marsano, Renè Massimiliano; Marasco, Elena; Mantovani, Vilma; Quentmeier, Hilmar; Drexler, Hans G; Ding, Jie; Palumbo, Orazio; Carella, Massimo; Nadarajah, Niroshan; Perricone, Margherita; Ottaviani, Emanuela; Baldazzi, Carmen; Testoni, Nicoletta; Papayannidis, Cristina; Ferrari, Sergio; Mazza, Tommaso; Martinelli, Giovanni; Storlazzi, Clelia Tiziana

    2017-07-01

    We here describe a leukemogenic role of the homeobox gene UNCX , activated by epigenetic modifications in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We found the ectopic activation of UNCX in a leukemia patient harboring a t(7;10)(p22;p14) translocation, in 22 of 61 of additional cases [a total of 23 positive patients out of 62 (37.1%)], and in 6 of 75 (8%) of AML cell lines. UNCX is embedded within a low-methylation region (canyon) and encodes for a transcription factor involved in somitogenesis and neurogenesis, with specific expression in the eye, brain, and kidney. UNCX expression turned out to be associated, and significantly correlated, with DNA methylation increase at its canyon borders based on data in our patients and in archived data of patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas. UNCX -positive and -negative patients displayed significant differences in their gene expression profiles. An enrichment of genes involved in cell proliferation and differentiation, such as MAP2K1 and CCNA1 , was revealed. Similar results were obtained in UNCX -transduced CD34 + cells, associated with low proliferation and differentiation arrest. Accordingly, we showed that UNCX expression characterizes leukemia cells at their early stage of differentiation, mainly M2 and M3 subtypes carrying wild-type NPM1 We also observed that UNCX expression significantly associates with an increased frequency of acute promyelocytic leukemia with PML-RARA and AML with t(8;21)(q22;q22.1); RUNX1-RUNX1T1 classes, according to the World Health Organization disease classification. In summary, our findings suggest a novel leukemogenic role of UNCX , associated with epigenetic modifications and with impaired cell proliferation and differentiation in AML. Copyright© 2017 Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  20. Ectopic expression of specific GA2 oxidase mutants promotes yield and stress tolerance in rice.

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    Lo, Shuen-Fang; Ho, Tuan-Hua David; Liu, Yi-Lun; Jiang, Mirng-Jier; Hsieh, Kun-Ting; Chen, Ku-Ting; Yu, Lin-Chih; Lee, Miin-Huey; Chen, Chi-Yu; Huang, Tzu-Pi; Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi; Chen, Liang-Jwu; Yu, Su-May

    2017-07-01

    A major challenge of modern agricultural biotechnology is the optimization of plant architecture for enhanced productivity, stress tolerance and water use efficiency (WUE). To optimize plant height and tillering that directly link to grain yield in cereals and are known to be tightly regulated by gibberellins (GAs), we attenuated the endogenous levels of GAs in rice via its degradation. GA 2-oxidase (GA2ox) is a key enzyme that inactivates endogenous GAs and their precursors. We identified three conserved domains in a unique class of C 20 GA2ox, GA2ox6, which is known to regulate the architecture and function of rice plants. We mutated nine specific amino acids in these conserved domains and observed a gradient of effects on plant height. Ectopic expression of some of these GA2ox6 mutants moderately lowered GA levels and reprogrammed transcriptional networks, leading to reduced plant height, more productive tillers, expanded root system, higher WUE and photosynthesis rate, and elevated abiotic and biotic stress tolerance in transgenic rice. Combinations of these beneficial traits conferred not only drought and disease tolerance but also increased grain yield by 10-30% in field trials. Our studies hold the promise of manipulating GA levels to substantially improve plant architecture, stress tolerance and grain yield in rice and possibly in other major crops. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. The ectopic expression of Pax4 in the mouse pancreas converts progenitor cells into alpha and subsequently beta cells.

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    Collombat, Patrick; Xu, Xiaobo; Ravassard, Philippe; Sosa-Pineda, Beatriz; Dussaud, Sébastien; Billestrup, Nils; Madsen, Ole D; Serup, Palle; Heimberg, Harry; Mansouri, Ahmed

    2009-08-07

    We have previously reported that the loss of Arx and/or Pax4 gene activity leads to a shift in the fate of the different endocrine cell subtypes in the mouse pancreas, without affecting the total endocrine cell numbers. Here, we conditionally and ectopically express Pax4 using different cell-specific promoters and demonstrate that Pax4 forces endocrine precursor cells, as well as mature alpha cells, to adopt a beta cell destiny. This results in a glucagon deficiency that provokes a compensatory and continuous glucagon+ cell neogenesis requiring the re-expression of the proendocrine gene Ngn3. However, the newly formed alpha cells fail to correct the hypoglucagonemia since they subsequently acquire a beta cell phenotype upon Pax4 ectopic expression. Notably, this cycle of neogenesis and redifferentiation caused by ectopic expression of Pax4 in alpha cells is capable of restoring a functional beta cell mass and curing diabetes in animals that have been chemically depleted of beta cells.

  2. Ectopic Pregnancy

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    ... woman is pregnant. If you have an ectopic pregnancy, the fertilized egg grows in the wrong place, ... tubes. The result is usually a miscarriage. Ectopic pregnancy can be a medical emergency if it ruptures. ...

  3. Ectopic expression of the agouti gene in transgenic mice causes obesity, features of type II diabetes, and yellow fur

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    Klebig, M.L.; Woychik, R.P. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wilkinson, J.E. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Geisler, J.G. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)]|[Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-05-23

    Mice that carry the lethal yellow (A{sup y}) or viable yellow (A{sup vy}) mutation, two dominant mutations of the agouti (a) gene in mouse chromosome 2, exhibit a phenotype that includes yellow fur, marked obesity, a form of type II diabetes associated with insulin resistance, and an increased susceptibility to tumor development. Molecular analyses of these and several other dominant {open_quotes}obese yellow{close_quotes} a-locus mutations suggested that ectopic expression of the normal agouti protein gives rise to this complex pleiotropic phenotype. We have now tested this hypothesis directly by generating transgenic mice that ectopically express an agouti cDNA clone encoding the normal agouti protein in all tissues examined. Transgenic mice of both sexes have yellow fur, become obese, and develop hyperinsulinemia. In addition, male transgenic mice develop hyperglycemia by 12-20 weeks of age. These results demonstrate conclusively that the ectopic agouti expression is responsible for most, if not all, of the phenotypic traits of the dominant, obese yellow mutants. 42 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Ectopic Pregnancy

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    ... caused by blood loss) lower back pain What Causes an Ectopic Pregnancy? An ectopic pregnancy usually happens because a fertilized ... protect against sexually transmitted infections (STDs) that can cause PID. If ... about the pregnancy being ectopic, talk to your doctor — it's important ...

  5. Restrictions in cell cycle progression of adult vestibular supporting cells in response to ectopic cyclin D1 expression.

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    Heidi Loponen

    Full Text Available Sensory hair cells and supporting cells of the mammalian inner ear are quiescent cells, which do not regenerate. In contrast, non-mammalian supporting cells have the ability to re-enter the cell cycle and produce replacement hair cells. Earlier studies have demonstrated cyclin D1 expression in the developing mouse supporting cells and its downregulation along maturation. In explant cultures of the mouse utricle, we have here focused on the cell cycle control mechanisms and proliferative potential of adult supporting cells. These cells were forced into the cell cycle through adenoviral-mediated cyclin D1 overexpression. Ectopic cyclin D1 triggered robust cell cycle re-entry of supporting cells, accompanied by changes in p27(Kip1 and p21(Cip1 expressions. Main part of cell cycle reactivated supporting cells were DNA damaged and arrested at the G2/M boundary. Only small numbers of mitotic supporting cells and rare cells with signs of two successive replications were found. Ectopic cyclin D1-triggered cell cycle reactivation did not lead to hyperplasia of the sensory epithelium. In addition, a part of ectopic cyclin D1 was sequestered in the cytoplasm, reflecting its ineffective nuclear import. Combined, our data reveal intrinsic barriers that limit proliferative capacity of utricular supporting cells.

  6. Restrictions in cell cycle progression of adult vestibular supporting cells in response to ectopic cyclin D1 expression.

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    Loponen, Heidi; Ylikoski, Jukka; Albrecht, Jeffrey H; Pirvola, Ulla

    2011-01-01

    Sensory hair cells and supporting cells of the mammalian inner ear are quiescent cells, which do not regenerate. In contrast, non-mammalian supporting cells have the ability to re-enter the cell cycle and produce replacement hair cells. Earlier studies have demonstrated cyclin D1 expression in the developing mouse supporting cells and its downregulation along maturation. In explant cultures of the mouse utricle, we have here focused on the cell cycle control mechanisms and proliferative potential of adult supporting cells. These cells were forced into the cell cycle through adenoviral-mediated cyclin D1 overexpression. Ectopic cyclin D1 triggered robust cell cycle re-entry of supporting cells, accompanied by changes in p27(Kip1) and p21(Cip1) expressions. Main part of cell cycle reactivated supporting cells were DNA damaged and arrested at the G2/M boundary. Only small numbers of mitotic supporting cells and rare cells with signs of two successive replications were found. Ectopic cyclin D1-triggered cell cycle reactivation did not lead to hyperplasia of the sensory epithelium. In addition, a part of ectopic cyclin D1 was sequestered in the cytoplasm, reflecting its ineffective nuclear import. Combined, our data reveal intrinsic barriers that limit proliferative capacity of utricular supporting cells.

  7. Alteration of Nrf2 and Glutamate Cysteine Ligase expression contribute to lesions growth and fibrogenesis in ectopic endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcellin, L; Santulli, P; Chouzenoux, S; Cerles, O; Nicco, C; Dousset, B; Pallardy, M; Kerdine-Römer, S; Just, P A; Chapron, C; Batteux, F

    2017-09-01

    The redox-sensitive nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (NRF2) controls endogenous antioxidant enzymes' transcription and protects against oxidative damage which is triggered by inflammation and known to favor progression of endometriosis. Glutamate Cysteine Ligase (GCL), a target gene of NRF2, is the first enzyme in the synthesis cascade of glutathione, an important endogenous antioxidant. Sixty-one patients, with thorough surgical examination of the abdominopelvic cavity, were recruited for the study: 31 with histologically-proven endometriosis and 30 disease-free women taken as controls. Expressions of NRF2 and GCL were investigated by quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry in eutopic and ectopic endometria from endometriosis-affected women and in endometrium of disease-free women. Ex vivo stromal and epithelial cells were extracted and purified from endometrial and endometriotic biopsies to explore expression of NRF2 and GCL in both stromal and epithelial compartments by western blot. Finally, in order to strengthen the role of NRF2 in endometriosis pathogenesis, we evaluated the drop of NRF2 expression in a mouse model of endometriosis using NRF2 knockout (NRF2 -/- ) mice. The mRNA levels of NRF2 and GCL were significantly lower in ectopic endometria of endometriosis-affected women compared to eutopic endometria of disease-free women. The immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the decreased expression of both NRF2 and GCL in ectopic endometriotic tissues compared to eutopic endometria of endometriosis-affected and disease-free women. Immunoblotting revealed a significant decreased of NRF2 and GCL expression in epithelial and stroma cells from ectopic lesions of endometriosis-affected women compared to eutopic endometria from controls. Using a murine model of endometriosis, NRF2 -/- implants were more fibrotic compared to wild-type with an increased weight and volume. These findings indicate that expression of the transcription factor NRF2 and its

  8. Phytoremediation potential of Arabidopsis thaliana, expressing ectopically a vacuolar proton pump, for the industrial waste phosphogypsum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoudi, Habib; Maatar, Yafa; Brini, Faïçal; Fourati, Amine; Ammar, Najoua; Masmoudi, Khaled

    2013-01-01

    transgenic A. thaliana lines were more Cd-tolerant than the WT plants. These results suggested that ectopic expression of a vacuolar proton pump in A. thaliana plants can lead to various biotechnological applications including the phytoremediation of industrial wastes.

  9. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents and biological activities of Cachrys cristata DC. extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matejić Jelena S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The total phenolic/flavonoid contents and antioxidant potential of the methanol, ethyl-acetate, acetone and water extracts obtained from the aerial parts and fruits of Cachrys cristata DC.(Apiaceae were compared. The total phenolic contents of the tested extracts were determined using Folin-Ciocalteu’s reagent. The amounts per g of dry plant extract of gallic acid (GA and quercetin (Qu ranged between 22.60-166.97 mg, and 8.91-46.02 mg, respectively. The antioxidant activity, expressed as IC50, ranged from 1.784-17.621 mg/mL and from 1.01-3.42 mg L(+-ascorbic acid (Vitamin C/g when tested with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and ABTS, respectively. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was investigated by the microwell dilution assay, for the most common human gastrointestinal pathogenic bacterial strains: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, Salmonella enteritidis ATCC 13076, Bacillus cereus ATCC 10876, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC15313, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and yeast Candida albicans ATCC 10231. The results indicate that C. cristata can be regarded as a potential source of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173029

  10. Inflammation Intensity-dependent Expression of Osteoinductive Wnt Proteins is Critical for Ectopic New Bone Formation in Ankylosing Spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Wang, Jianru; Zhan, Zhongping; Li, Sibei; Zheng, Zhaomin; Wang, Taiping; Zhang, Kuibo; Pan, Hehai; Li, Zemin; Zhang, Nu; Liu, Hui

    2018-02-26

    To investigate the molecular mechanism underlying the inflammation- related ectopic new bone formation in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Spinal tissues and sera were collected from patients or normal volunteers to detect the expression of Wnt proteins. An in vitro cell culture system mimicking the local inflammatory microenvironment of bone-forming sites was established to study the relationship between inflammation and Wnt expression, the regulatory mechanism of inflammation-induced Wnt expression and the role of Wnt signaling in new bone formation. A modified collagen-induced arthritis (mCIA) and a proteoglycan -induced spondylitis (PGIS) animal model were used to confirm the key findings in vivo. The levels of osteoinductive Wnt proteins were obviously increased in the sera and spinal ligament tissues of patients with AS. Only constitutive low-intensity TNF-α stimulation, but not short-term or high-intensity TNF-α stimulation, induced persistent expression of osteoinductive Wnt proteins and subsequent bone formation through NF-κB (p65) and JNK/AP-1 (c-Jun) signaling pathways. Furthermore, inhibition of either Wnt/β-catenin or Wnt/PKCδ pathway significantly suppressed new bone formation. The increased expression of Wnt proteins was confirmed in both mCIA and PGIS models. A kyphotic and ankylosing phenotype of the spine was observed during long-term observation in mCIA model. Inhibition of either Wnt/β-catenin or Wnt/PKCδ signaling pathway significantly reduced the incidence and severity of this phenotype. Inflammation intensity-dependent expression of osteoinductive Wnt proteins is a key link between inflammation and ectopic new bone formation in AS. Activation of both canonical Wnt/β-catenin and noncanonical Wnt/PKCδ pathways is required for inflammation-induced new bone formation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Ectopic expression of Msx-2 in posterior limb bud mesoderm impairs limb morphogenesis while inducing BMP-4 expression, inhibiting cell proliferation, and promoting apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, D; Lichtler, A C; Pan, Z Z; Dealy, C N; Upholt, W B; Kosher, R A

    1998-05-01

    During early stages of chick limb development, the homeobox-containing gene Msx-2 is expressed in the mesoderm at the anterior margin of the limb bud and in a discrete group of mesodermal cells at the midproximal posterior margin. These domains of Msx-2 expression roughly demarcate the anterior and posterior boundaries of the progress zone, the highly proliferating posterior mesodermal cells underneath the apical ectodermal ridge (AER) that give rise to the skeletal elements of the limb and associated structures. Later in development as the AER loses its activity, Msx-2 expression expands into the distal mesoderm and subsequently into the interdigital mesenchyme which demarcates the developing digits. The domains of Msx-2 expression exhibit considerably less proliferation than the cells of the progress zone and also encompass several regions of programmed cell death including the anterior and posterior necrotic zones and interdigital mesenchyme. We have thus suggested that Msx-2 may be in a regulatory network that delimits the progress zone by suppressing the morphogenesis of the regions of the limb mesoderm in which it is highly expressed. In the present study we show that ectopic expression of Msx-2 via a retroviral expression vector in the posterior mesoderm of the progress zone from the time of initial formation of the limb bud severely impairs limb morphogenesis. Msx-2-infected limbs are typically very narrow along the anteroposterior axis, are occasionally truncated, and exhibit alterations in the pattern of formation of skeletal elements, indicating that as a consequence of ectopic Msx-2 expression the morphogenesis of large portions of the posterior mesoderm has been suppressed. We further show that Msx-2 impairs limb morphogenesis by reducing cell proliferation and promoting apoptosis in the regions of the posterior mesoderm in which it is ectopically expressed. The domains of ectopic Msx-2 expression in the posterior mesoderm also exhibit ectopic

  12. Ectopic High Expression of E2-EPF Ubiquitin Carrier Protein Indicates a More Unfavorable Prognosis in Brain Glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Zhao, Fangbo; Zhang, Shujun; Song, Yichun

    2017-04-01

    Ubiquitination of proteins meant for elimination is a primary method of eukaryotic cellular protein degradation. The ubiquitin carrier protein E2-EPF is a key degradation enzyme that is highly expressed in many tumors. However, its expression and prognostic significance in brain glioma are still unclear. The aim of this study was to reveal how the level of E2-EPF relates to prognosis in brain glioma. Thirty low-grade and 30 high-grade brain glioma samples were divided into two tissue microarrays each. Levels of E2-EPF protein were examined by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze the level of E2-EPF in 60 glioma and 3 normal brain tissue samples. The relationship between E2-EPF levels and prognosis was analyzed by Kaplan-Meier survival curves. E2-EPF levels were low in normal brain tissue samples but high in glioma nuclei. E2-EPF levels gradually increased as glioma grade increased (p EPF levels in high-grade glioma were significantly higher than in low-grade glioma (p EPF levels was shorter than in patients with low expression (p EPF was significantly shorter than patients with only nuclear E2-EPF (p EPF levels, especially ectopic, are associated with higher grade glioma and shorter survival. E2-EPF levels may play a key role in predicting the prognosis for patients with brain glioma.

  13. Isolation and culture of Celosia cristata L cell suspension protoplasts

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    Retno Mastuti

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Developmental competence of Celosia cristata L. cell suspension-derived protoplasts was investigated. The protoplasts were isolatedfrom 3- to 9-d old cultures in enzyme solution containing 2% (w/v Cellulase YC and 0.5% (w/v Macerozyme R-10 which was dissolvedin washing solution (0.4 M mannitol and 10 mM CaCl2 at pH 5.6 for 3 hours. The highest number of viable protoplasts was releasedfrom 5-d old culture of a homogenous cell suspension. Subsequently, three kinds of protoplast culture media were simultaneously examinedwith four kinds of concentration of gelling agent. Culturing the protoplasts on KM8p medium solidified with 1.2% agarose significantlyenhanced plating efficiency as well as microcolony formation. Afterwards, the microcalli actively proliferated into friable watery calluswhen they were subcultured on MS medium supplemented with 0.3 mg/l 2,4-D and 1.0 mg/l kinetin. Although the plant regenerationfrom the protoplasts-derived calli has not yet been obtained, the reproducible developmental step from protoplasts to callus in thisstudy may facilitate the establishment of somatic hybridization using C. cristata as one parent.

  14. Modulating ectopic gene expression levels by using retroviral vectors equipped with synthetic promoters

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Joshua P.; Peacock, Ryan W. S.; Lawhorn, Ingrid E. B.; Wang, Clifford L.

    2011-01-01

    The human cytomegalovirus and elongation factor 1α promoters are constitutive promoters commonly employed by mammalian expression vectors. These promoters generally produce high levels of expression in many types of cells and tissues. To generate a library of synthetic promoters capable of generating a range of low, intermediate, and high expression levels, the TATA and CAAT box elements of these promoters were mutated. Other promoter variants were also generated by random mutagenesis. Evalua...

  15. Modulating ectopic gene expression levels by using retroviral vectors equipped with synthetic promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Joshua P; Peacock, Ryan W S; Lawhorn, Ingrid E B; Wang, Clifford L

    2011-12-01

    The human cytomegalovirus and elongation factor 1α promoters are constitutive promoters commonly employed by mammalian expression vectors. These promoters generally produce high levels of expression in many types of cells and tissues. To generate a library of synthetic promoters capable of generating a range of low, intermediate, and high expression levels, the TATA and CAAT box elements of these promoters were mutated. Other promoter variants were also generated by random mutagenesis. Evaluation using plasmid vectors integrated at a single site in the genome revealed that these various synthetic promoters were capable of expression levels spanning a 40-fold range. Retroviral vectors were equipped with the synthetic promoters and evaluated for their ability to reproduce the graded expression demonstrated by plasmid integration. A vector with a self-inactivating long terminal repeat could neither reproduce the full range of expression levels nor produce stable expression. Using a second vector design, the different synthetic promoters enabled stable expression over a broad range of expression levels in different cell lines. The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11693-011-9089-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

  16. Ectopic expression of Ptf1a induces spinal defects, urogenital defects, and anorectal malformations in Danforth's short tail mice.

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    Kei Semba

    Full Text Available Danforth's short tail (Sd is a semidominant mutation on mouse chromosome 2, characterized by spinal defects, urogenital defects, and anorectal malformations. However, the gene responsible for the Sd phenotype was unknown. In this study, we identified the molecular basis of the Sd mutation. By positional cloning, we identified the insertion of an early transposon in the Sd candidate locus approximately 12-kb upstream of Ptf1a. We found that insertion of the transposon caused overexpression of three neighboring genes, Gm13344, Gm13336, and Ptf1a, in Sd mutant embryos and that the Sd phenotype was not caused by disruption of an as-yet-unknown gene in the candidate locus. Using multiple knockout and knock-in mouse models, we demonstrated that misexpression of Ptf1a, but not of Gm13344 or Gm13336, in the notochord, hindgut, cloaca, and mesonephros was sufficient to replicate the Sd phenotype. The ectopic expression of Ptf1a in the caudal embryo resulted in attenuated expression of Cdx2 and its downstream target genes T, Wnt3a, and Cyp26a1; we conclude that this is the molecular basis of the Sd phenotype. Analysis of Sd mutant mice will provide insight into the development of the spinal column, anus, and kidney.

  17. Ectopic expression of soybean gmsbh1 confers aba sensitivity during seed germination and early seedling establishment in transgenic arabidopsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, Y.; Zhou, Y.; Huang, S.; Chen, M.; Huang, L.; Ma, H.

    2017-01-01

    The class I KNOX homeobox transcription factors are known to play an important role in maintenance of plant phenotype, especially leaves and flowers. In this study, a soybean KNOX I homeobox transcription factor, GmSBH1, was analyzed and confirmed to play important roles in the process of seed germination and developing. Real time quantitative PCR assay showed that the transcript level of GmSBH1 in soybean seedlings was modulated by plant hormones, such as IAA, GA, MeJA and ABA.Yeast one-hybrid assay showed that GmSBH1 could bind to the ABRE cis-element. Overexpression of GmSBH1 in Arabidopsis resulted in the abnormal phenotype of flowers and siliques. In GmSBH1 transgenic lines, both seed germination and seedlings growth showed hypersensitive to ABA. Moreover, the expression of ABA-responsive genes, such as ABI3 and ABI5, were increased in the transgenic line seedlings. Taken together, ectopic expression of GmSBH1 could alter the morphology and confer ABA sensitivity during seed germination and early seedling growth in transgenic Arabidopsis. (author)

  18. Ectopic Cdx2 expression in murine esophagus models an intermediate stage in the emergence of Barrett's esophagus.

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    Jianping Kong

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Barrett's esophagus (BE is an intestinal metaplasia that occurs in the setting of chronic acid and bile reflux and is associated with a risk for adenocarcinoma. Expression of intestine-specific transcription factors in the esophagus likely contributes to metaplasia development. Our objective was to explore the effects of an intestine-specific transcription factor when expressed in the mouse esophageal epithelium. Transgenic mice were derived in which the transcription factor Cdx2 is expressed in squamous epithelium using the murine Keratin-14 gene promoter. Effects of the transgene upon cell proliferation and differentiation, gene expression, and barrier integrity were explored. K14-Cdx2 mice express the Cdx2 transgene in esophageal squamous tissues. Cdx2 expression was associated with reduced basal epithelial cell proliferation and altered cell morphology. Ultrastructurally two changes were noted. Cdx2 expression was associated with dilated space between the basal cells and diminished cell-cell adhesion caused by reduced Desmocollin-3 mRNA and protein expression. This compromised epithelial barrier function, as the measured trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER of the K14-Cdx2 epithelium was significantly reduced compared to controls (1189 Ohm*cm(2 ±343.5 to 508 Ohm*cm(2±92.48, p = 0.0532. Secondly, basal cells with features of a transitional cell type, intermediate between keratinocytes and columnar Barrett's epithelial cells, were observed. These cells had reduced keratin bundles and increased endoplasmic reticulum levels, suggesting the adoption of secretory-cell features. Moreover, at the ultrastructural level they resembled "Distinctive" cells associated with multilayered epithelium. Treatment of the K14-Cdx2 mice with 5'-Azacytidine elicited expression of BE-associated genes including Cdx1, Krt18, and Slc26a3/Dra, suggesting the phenotype could be advanced under certain conditions. We conclude that ectopic Cdx2 expression in

  19. Endogenous and ectopic expression of telomere regulating genes in chicken embryonic fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michailidis, Georgios; Saretzki, Gabriele; Hall, Judith

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we compared the endogenous expression of genes encoding telomere regulating proteins in cultured chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEFs) and 10-day-old chicken embryos. CEFs maintained in vitro senesced and senescence was accompanied by reduced telomere length, telomerase activity, and expression of the chicken (c) TRF1 gene. There was no change in TRF2 gene expression although the major TRF2 transcript identified in 10-day-old chicken embryos encoded a truncated TRF2 protein (TRF2'), containing an N-terminal dimerisation domain but lacking a myb-related DNA binding domain and nuclear localisation signal. Senescence of the CEFs in vitro was associated with the loss of the TRF2' transcript, indicative of a novel function for the encoded protein. Senescence was also coupled with decreased expression of RAD51, but increased RAD52 expression. These data support that RAD51 independent recombination mechanisms do not function in vitro to maintain chicken telomeres. To attempt to rescue the CEFs from replicative senescence, we stably transfected passage 3 CEFs with the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) catalytic subunit. While hTERT expression was detected in the stable transfectants neither telomerase activity nor the stabilisation of telomere length was observed, and the transfectant cells senesced at the same passage number as the untransfected cells. These data indicate that the human TERT is incompatible with the avian telomere maintenance apparatus and suggest the functioning of a species specific telomere system in the avian

  20. Ectopic Expression of Pumpkin NAC Transcription Factor CmNAC1 Improves Multiple Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Arabidopsis

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    Haishun Cao

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Drought, cold and salinity are the major environmental stresses that limit agricultural productivity. NAC transcription factors regulate the stress response in plants. Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata is an important cucurbit vegetable crop and it has strong resistance to abiotic stress; however, the biological functions of stress-related NAC genes in this crop are largely unknown. This study reports the function of CmNAC1, a stress-responsive pumpkin NAC domain protein. The CmNAC1-GFP fusion protein was transiently expressed in tobacco leaves for subcellular localization analysis, and we found that CmNAC1 is localized in the nucleus. Transactivation assay in yeast cells revealed that CmNAC1 functions as a transcription activator, and its transactivation domain is located in the C-terminus. CmNAC1 was ubiquitously expressed in different organs, and its transcript was induced by salinity, cold, dehydration, H2O2, and abscisic acid (ABA treatment. Furthermore, the ectopic expression (EE of CmNAC1 in Arabidopsis led to ABA hypersensitivity and enhanced tolerance to salinity, drought and cold stress. In addition, five ABA-responsive elements were enriched in CmNAC1 promoter. The CmNAC1-EE plants exhibited different root architecture, leaf morphology, and significantly high concentration of ABA compared with WT Arabidopsis under normal conditions. Our results indicated that CmNAC1 is a critical factor in ABA signaling pathways and it can be utilized in transgenic breeding to improve the abiotic stress tolerance of crops.

  1. DOG1-like genes in cereals: investigation of their function by means of ectopic expression in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashikawa, Ikuo; Abe, Fumitaka; Nakamura, Shingo

    2013-07-01

    The Arabidopsis gene DOG1 (AtDOG1) functions in seed dormancy and in sugar signaling. Little is known about the structural and functional features of plant genes homologous to AtDOG1, except for one type (clade 1) of Triticeae AtDOG1-like genes, which was previously demonstrated to be functionally orthologous to AtDOG1. Here, through phylogenetic, structural, and functional analyses of cereal AtDOG1-like genes, we characterized their features: these genes exist as a gene family that can be classified into five distinct clades (1-5). Of these, AtDOG1-like genes in clades 1-4 have a similar architecture to AtDOG1: they encode proteins with three conserved regions. In contrast, the clade 5 genes are distinct; their encoded proteins lack these conserved regions, but harbor domains that interact with DNA. Ectopic expression of the cereal AtDOG1-like genes of clades 2-4 in Arabidopsis demonstrated that like the clade 1 genes, they performed the same function as AtDOG1. The correlation between the depth of seed dormancy and the efficiency of sugar signaling in transgenic Arabidopsis conferred by genes in clades 1-4 suggests a close link in the underlying mechanisms between the seed dormancy and sugar signaling functions of AtDOG1. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ectopic expression of PTTG1/securin promotes tumorigenesis in human embryonic kidney cells

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    Malik Mohammed T

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pituitary tumor transforming gene1 (PTTG1 is a novel oncogene that is expressed in most tumors. It encodes a protein that is primarily involved in the regulation of sister chromatid separation during cell division. The oncogenic potential of PTTG1 has been well characterized in the mouse, particularly mouse fibroblast (NIH3T3 cells, in which it induces cell proliferation, promotes tumor formation and angiogenesis. Human tumorigenesis is a complex and a multistep process often requiring concordant expression of a number of genes. Also due to differences between rodent and human cell biology it is difficult to extrapolate results from mouse models to humans. To determine if PTTG1 functions similarly as an oncogene in humans, we have characterized its effects on human embryonic kidney (HEK293 cells. Results We report that introduction of human PTTG1 into HEK293 cells through transfection with PTTG1 cDNA resulted in increased cell proliferation, anchorage-independent growth in soft agar, and formation of tumors after subcutaneous injection of nu/nu mice. Pathologic analysis revealed that these tumors were poorly differentiated. Both analysis of HEK293 cells transiently transfected with PTTG1 cDNA and analysis of tumors developed on injection of HEK293 cells that had been stably transfected with PTTG1 cDNA indicated significantly higher levels of secretion and expression of bFGF, VEGF and IL-8 compared to HEK293 cells transfected with pcDNA3.1 vector or uninvolved tissues collected from the mice. Mutation of the proline-rich motifs at the C-terminal of PTTG1 abolished its oncogenic properties. Mice injected with this mutated PTTG1 either did not form tumors or formed very small tumors. Taken together our results suggest that PTTG1 is a human oncogene that possesses the ability to promote tumorigenesis in human cells at least in part through the regulation of expression or secretion of bFGF, VEGF and IL-8. Conclusions Our results

  3. Ectopic expression of a WRKY homolog from Glycine soja alters flowering time in Arabidopsis.

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    Xiao Luo

    Full Text Available Flowering is a critical event in the life cycle of plants; the WRKY-type transcription factors are reported to be involved in many developmental processes sunch as trichome development and epicuticular wax loading, but whether they are involved in flowering time regulation is still unknown. Within this study, we provide clear evidence that GsWRKY20, a member of WRKY gene family from wild soybean, is involved in controlling plant flowering time. Expression of GsWRKY20 was abundant in the shoot tips and inflorescence meristems of wild soybean. Phenotypic analysis showed that GsWRKY20 over-expression lines flowered earlier than the wild-type plants under all conditions: long-day and short-day photoperiods, vernalization, or exogenous GA3 application, indicating that GsWRKY20 may mainly be involved in an autonomous flowering pathway. Further analyses by qRT-PCR and microarray suggests that GsWRKY20 accelerating plant flowering might primarily be through the regulation of flowering-related genes (i.e., FLC, FT, SOC1 and CO and floral meristem identity genes (i.e., AP1, SEP3, AP3, PI and AG. Our results provide the evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of manipulating GsWRKY20 for altering plant flowering time.

  4. Ectopic Expression of JcWRKY Confers Enhanced Resistance in Transgenic Tobacco Against Macrophomina phaseolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Parinita; Patel, Khantika; Agarwal, Pradeep K

    2018-04-01

    Plants possess an innate immune system comprising of a complex network of closely regulated defense responses involving differential gene expression mediated by transcription factors (TFs). The WRKYs comprise of an important plant-specific TF family, which is involved in regulation of biotic and abiotic defenses. The overexpression of JcWRKY resulted in improved resistance in transgenic tobacco against Macrophomina phaseolina. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and its detoxification through antioxidative system in the transgenics facilitates defense against Macrophomina. The enhanced catalase activity on Macrophomina infection limits the spread of infection. The transcript expression of antioxidative enzymes gene (CAT and SOD) and salicylic acid (SA) biosynthetic gene ICS1 showed upregulation during Macrophomina infection and combinatorial stress. The enhanced transcript of pathogenesis-related genes PR-1 indicates the accumulation of SA during different stresses. The PR-2 and PR-5 highlight the activation of defense responses comprising of activation of hydrolytic cleavage of glucanases and thaumatin-like proteins causing disruption of fungal cells. The ROS homeostasis in coordination with signaling molecules regulate the defense responses and inhibit fungal growth.

  5. Ectopic Expression of a WRKY Homolog from Glycine soja Alters Flowering Time in Arabidopsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Baohui; Zhu, Dan; Bai, Xi; Cai, Hua; Ji, Wei; Cao, Lei; Wu, Jing; Wang, Mingchao; Ding, Xiaodong; Zhu, Yanming

    2013-01-01

    Flowering is a critical event in the life cycle of plants; the WRKY-type transcription factors are reported to be involved in many developmental processes sunch as trichome development and epicuticular wax loading, but whether they are involved in flowering time regulation is still unknown. Within this study, we provide clear evidence that GsWRKY20, a member of WRKY gene family from wild soybean, is involved in controlling plant flowering time. Expression of GsWRKY20 was abundant in the shoot tips and inflorescence meristems of wild soybean. Phenotypic analysis showed that GsWRKY20 over-expression lines flowered earlier than the wild-type plants under all conditions: long-day and short-day photoperiods, vernalization, or exogenous GA3 application, indicating that GsWRKY20 may mainly be involved in an autonomous flowering pathway. Further analyses by qRT-PCR and microarray suggests that GsWRKY20 accelerating plant flowering might primarily be through the regulation of flowering-related genes (i.e., FLC, FT, SOC1 and CO) and floral meristem identity genes (i.e., AP1, SEP3, AP3, PI and AG). Our results provide the evidence demonstrating the effectiveness of manipulating GsWRKY20 for altering plant flowering time. PMID:23991184

  6. Ectopic phytocystatin expression increases nodule numbers and influences the responses of soybean (Glycine max) to nitrogen deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quain, Marian D; Makgopa, Matome E; Cooper, James W; Kunert, Karl J; Foyer, Christine H

    2015-04-01

    Cysteine proteases and cystatins have many functions that remain poorly characterised, particularly in crop plants. We therefore investigated the responses of these proteins to nitrogen deficiency in wild-type soybeans and in two independent transgenic soybean lines (OCI-1 and OCI-2) that express the rice cystatin, oryzacystatin-I (OCI). Plants were grown for four weeks under either a high (5 mM) nitrate (HN) regime or in the absence of added nitrate (LN) in the absence or presence of symbiotic rhizobial bacteria. Under the LN regime all lines showed similar classic symptoms of nitrogen deficiency including lower shoot biomass and leaf chlorophyll. However, the LN-induced decreases in leaf protein and increases in root protein tended to be smaller in the OCI-1 and OCI-2 lines than in the wild type. When LN-plants were grown with rhizobia, OCI-1 and OCI-2 roots had significantly more crown nodules than wild-type plants. The growth nitrogen regime had a significant effect on the abundance of transcripts encoding vacuolar processing enzymes (VPEs), LN-dependent increases in VPE2 and VPE3 transcripts in all lines. However, the LN-dependent increases of VPE2 and VPE3 transcripts were significantly lower in the leaves of OCI-1 and OCI-2 plants than in the wild type. These results show that nitrogen availability regulates the leaf and root cysteine protease, VPE and cystatin transcript profiles in a manner that is in some cases influenced by ectopic OCI expression. Moreover, the OCI-dependent inhibition of papain-like cysteine proteases favours increased nodulation and enhanced tolerance to nitrogen limitation, as shown by the smaller LN-dependent decreases in leaf protein observed in the OCI-1 and OCI-2 plants relative to the wild type. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ectopic Expression of O Antigen in Bordetella pertussis by a Novel Genomic Integration System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigaki, Keisuke; Shinzawa, Naoaki; Nishikawa, Sayaka; Suzuki, Koichiro; Fukui-Miyazaki, Aya; Horiguchi, Yasuhiko

    2018-01-01

    We describe a novel genome integration system that enables the introduction of DNA fragments as large as 50 kbp into the chromosomes of recipient bacteria. This system, named BPI, comprises a bacterial artificial chromosome vector and phage-derived gene integration machinery. We introduced the wbm locus of Bordetella bronchiseptica , which is required for O antigen biosynthesis, into the chromosome of B. pertussis , which intrinsically lacks O antigen, using the BPI system. After the introduction of the wbm locus, B. pertussis presented an additional substance in the lipooligosaccharide fraction that was specifically recognized by the anti- B. bronchiseptica antibody but not the anti- B. pertussis antibody, indicating that B. pertussis expressed O antigen corresponding to that of B. bronchiseptica . O antigen-expressing B. pertussis was less sensitive to the bactericidal effects of serum and polymyxin B than the isogenic parental strain. In addition, an in vivo competitive infection assay showed that O antigen-expressing B. pertussis dominantly colonized the mouse respiratory tract over the parental strain. These results indicate that the BPI system provides a means to alter the phenotypes of bacteria by introducing large exogenous DNA fragments. IMPORTANCE Some bacterial phenotypes emerge through the cooperative functions of a number of genes residing within a large genetic locus. To transfer the phenotype of one bacterium to another, a means to introduce the large genetic locus into the recipient bacterium is needed. Therefore, we developed a novel system by combining the advantages of a bacterial artificial chromosome vector and phage-derived gene integration machinery. In this study, we succeeded for the first time in introducing a gene locus involved in O antigen biosynthesis of Bordetella bronchiseptica into the chromosome of B. pertussis , which intrinsically lacks O antigen, and using this system we analyzed phenotypic alterations in the resultant

  8. Clinical value of detection of HPL-expressing intermediate trophoblasts in abortion or curettage-obtained specimens for diagnosis of intrauterine or ectopic pregnancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xiaomei; Wang Yuping; Wang Lisha; Yang Jingxiu; Gao Xueyan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of detection of HPL-expressing intermediate trophoblasts in endometrial specimens for diagnosis of intrauterine and ectopic pregnancies. Methods: The examined specimens included: (1) Group I, 35 specimens with suspected intermediate trophoblast in decidua (2) Group II, 30 specimens with decidua-like plump endometrial stroma cells and/ or A-S phenomena in glandular epithelium (3) 30 specimens from proven intrauterine pregnancies serving as controls. Histochemistry (SP method) was used for HPL detection in all these specimens. Results: In the 30 proven intrauterine pregnancies, decidua and villa were present in all the specimens. Only 24 of the 30 were found to be HPL(+) with 6 HPL negatives (20%). In Group I , 28 of the 35 specimens were found to be HPL(+) and all of 28 were from intrauterine pregnancies: Of the 7 HPL negative cases, 5 were later confirmed as with ectopic pregnancy, the remaining 2 were with intrauterine pregnancy. In Group II, 22 of 30 specimens were HPL(+) and all were from intrauterine pregnancy. Of the 8 HPL negative cases, 6 were later confirmed as with ectopic pregnancy and 2 were with intrauterine pregnancy. Combining the data from Group I and II, we could see that in the total 15 HPL negative cases, 11 were with ectopic pregnancy (11/15=73.3%) and 4 were with intrauterine pregnancy (4/15=26.7%). Conclusion: In specimens of intrauterine contents, demonstration of HPL (+) cells could be regarded as confirmative evidence of intrauterine pregnancy. However, the reverse did not hold true. Many of the HPL negative specimens were from intrauterine pregnancies (in this study 4/15 or 26.7%). Therefore, in HPL negative cases, there was a high possibility of ectopic pregnancy but further examinations were required to ascertain the diagnosis. (authors)

  9. A retrotransposon insertion in the 5' regulatory domain of Ptf1a results in ectopic gene expression and multiple congenital defects in Danforth's short tail mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Lugani

    Full Text Available Danforth's short tail mutant (Sd mouse, first described in 1930, is a classic spontaneous mutant exhibiting defects of the axial skeleton, hindgut, and urogenital system. We used meiotic mapping in 1,497 segregants to localize the mutation to a 42.8-kb intergenic segment on chromosome 2. Resequencing of this region identified an 8.5-kb early retrotransposon (ETn insertion within the highly conserved regulatory sequences upstream of Pancreas Specific Transcription Factor, 1a (Ptf1a. This mutation resulted in up to tenfold increased expression of Ptf1a as compared to wild-type embryos at E9.5 but no detectable changes in the expression levels of other neighboring genes. At E9.5, Sd mutants exhibit ectopic Ptf1a expression in embryonic progenitors of every organ that will manifest a developmental defect: the notochord, the hindgut, and the mesonephric ducts. Moreover, at E 8.5, Sd mutant mice exhibit ectopic Ptf1a expression in the lateral plate mesoderm, tail bud mesenchyme, and in the notochord, preceding the onset of visible defects such as notochord degeneration. The Sd heterozygote phenotype was not ameliorated by Ptf1a haploinsufficiency, further suggesting that the developmental defects result from ectopic expression of Ptf1a. These data identify disruption of the spatio-temporal pattern of Ptf1a expression as the unifying mechanism underlying the multiple congenital defects in Danforth's short tail mouse. This striking example of an enhancer mutation resulting in profound developmental defects suggests that disruption of conserved regulatory elements may also contribute to human malformation syndromes.

  10. Bivalent promoter marks and a latent enhancer may prime the leukaemia oncogene LMO1 for ectopic expression in T-cell leukaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oram, S H; Thoms, J; Sive, J I; Calero-Nieto, F J; Kinston, S J; Schütte, J; Knezevic, K; Lock, R B; Pimanda, J E; Göttgens, B

    2013-06-01

    LMO1 is a transcriptional regulator and a T-acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (T-ALL) oncogene. Although first identified in association with a chromosomal translocation in T-ALL, the ectopic expression of LMO1 occurs far more frequently in the absence of any known mutation involving its locus. Given that LMO1 is barely expressed in any haematopoietic lineage, and activation of transcriptional drivers in leukaemic cells is not well described, we investigated the regulation of this gene in normal haematopoietic and leukaemic cells. We show that LMO1 has two promoters that drive reporter gene expression in transgenic mice to neural tissues known to express endogenous LMO1. The LMO1 promoters display bivalent histone marks in multiple blood lineages including T-cells, and a 3' flanking region at LMO1 +57 contains a transcriptional enhancer that is active in developing blood cells in transgenic mouse embryos. The LMO1 promoters become activated in T-ALL together with the 3' enhancer, which is bound in primary T-ALL cells by SCL/TAL1 and GATA3. Taken together, our results show that LMO1 is poised for expression in normal progenitors, where activation of SCL/TAL1 together with a breakdown of epigenetic repression of LMO1 regulatory elements induces ectopic LMO1 expression that contributes to the development and maintenance of T-ALL.

  11. Ectopic Expression of Xylella fastidiosa rpfF Conferring Production of Diffusible Signal Factor in Transgenic Tobacco and Citrus Alters Pathogen Behavior and Reduces Disease Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caserta, R; Souza-Neto, R R; Takita, M A; Lindow, S E; De Souza, A A

    2017-11-01

    The pathogenicity of Xylella fastidiosa is associated with its ability to colonize the xylem of host plants. Expression of genes contributing to xylem colonization are suppressed, while those necessary for insect vector acquisition are increased with increasing concentrations of diffusible signal factor (DSF), whose production is dependent on RpfF. We previously demonstrated that transgenic citrus plants ectopically expressing rpfF from a citrus strain of X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca exhibited less susceptibility to Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri, another pathogen whose virulence is modulated by DSF accumulation. Here, we demonstrate that ectopic expression of rpfF in both transgenic tobacco and sweet orange also confers a reduction in disease severity incited by X. fastidiosa and reduces its colonization of those plants. Decreased disease severity in the transgenic plants was generally associated with increased expression of genes conferring adhesiveness to the pathogen and decreased expression of genes necessary for active motility, accounting for the reduced population sizes achieved in the plants, apparently by limiting pathogen dispersal through the plant. Plant-derived DSF signal molecules in a host plant can, therefore, be exploited to interfere with more than one pathogen whose virulence is controlled by DSF signaling.

  12. Ectopic expression of Arabidopsis broad-spectrum resistance gene RPW8.2 improves the resistance to powdery mildew in grapevine (Vitis vinifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yang; Li, Yajuan; Hou, Fengjuan; Wan, Dongyan; Cheng, Yuan; Han, Yongtao; Gao, Yurong; Liu, Jie; Guo, Ye; Xiao, Shunyuan; Wang, Yuejin; Wen, Ying-Qiang

    2018-02-01

    Powdery mildew is the most economically important disease of cultivated grapevines worldwide. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis broad-spectrum disease resistance gene RPW8.2 could improve resistance to powdery mildew in Vitis vinifera cv. Thompson Seedless. The RPW8.2-YFP fusion gene was stably expressed in grapevines from either the constitutive 35S promoter or the native promoter (NP) of RPW8.2. The grapevine shoots and plantlets transgenic for 35S::RPW8.2-YFP showed reduced rooting and reduced growth at later development stages in the absence of any pathogens. Infection tests with an adapted grapevine powdery mildew isolate En NAFU1 showed that hyphal growth and sporulation were significantly restricted in transgenic grapevines expressing either of the two constructs. The resistance appeared to be attributable to the ectopic expression of RPW8.2, and associated with the enhanced encasement of the haustorial complex (EHC) and onsite accumulation of H 2 O 2 . In addition, the RPW8.2-YFP fusion protein showed focal accumulation around the fungal penetration sites. Transcriptome analysis revealed that ectopic expression of RPW8.2 in grapevines not only significantly enhanced salicylic acid-dependent defense signaling, but also altered expression of other phytohormone-associated genes. Taken together, our results indicate that RPW8.2 could be utilized as a transgene for improving resistance against powdery mildew in grapevines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Ectopic Expression of Homeobox Gene NKX2-1 in Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma Is Mediated by Aberrant Chromatin Modifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Stefan; Ehrentraut, Stefan; Tomasch, Jürgen; Quentmeier, Hilmar; Meyer, Corinna; Kaufmann, Maren; Drexler, Hans G.; MacLeod, Roderick A. F.

    2013-01-01

    Homeobox genes encode transcription factors ubiquitously involved in basic developmental processes, deregulation of which promotes cell transformation in multiple cancers including hematopoietic malignancies. In particular, NKL-family homeobox genes TLX1, TLX3 and NKX2-5 are ectopically activated by chromosomal rearrangements in T-cell neoplasias. Here, using transcriptional microarray profiling and RQ-PCR we identified ectopic expression of NKL-family member NKX2-1, in a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cell line SU-DHL-5. Moreover, in silico analysis demonstrated NKX2-1 overexpression in 5% of examined DLBCL patient samples. NKX2-1 is physiologically expressed in lung and thyroid tissues where it regulates differentiation. Chromosomal and genomic analyses excluded rearrangements at the NKX2-1 locus in SU-DHL-5, implying alternative activation. Comparative expression profiling implicated several candidate genes in NKX2-1 regulation, variously encoding transcription factors, chromatin modifiers and signaling components. Accordingly, siRNA-mediated knockdown and overexpression studies confirmed involvement of transcription factor HEY1, histone methyltransferase MLL and ubiquitinated histone H2B in NKX2-1 deregulation. Chromosomal aberrations targeting MLL at 11q23 and the histone gene cluster HIST1 at 6p22 which we observed in SU-DHL-5 may, therefore, represent fundamental mutations mediating an aberrant chromatin structure at NKX2-1. Taken together, we identified ectopic expression of NKX2-1 in DLBCL cells, representing the central player in an oncogenic regulative network compromising B-cell differentiation. Thus, our data extend the paradigm of NKL homeobox gene deregulation in lymphoid malignancies. PMID:23637834

  14. Progression of motor axon dysfunction and ectopic Na(v)1.8 expression in a mouse model of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease 1B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosberg, Mette R.; Alvarez Herrero, Susana; Klein, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Mice heterozygously deficient for the myelin protein P0 gene (P0+/-) develop a slowly progressing neuropathy modeling demyelinating Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT1B). The aim of the study was to investigate the long-term progression of motor dysfunction in P0+/- mice at 3, 7, 12 and 20months...... pharmacologic block of NaV1.8 in P0+/-. Mathematical modeling indicated an association of altered passive cable properties with a depolarizing shift in resting membrane potential and increase in the persistent Na(+) current in P0+/-. Our data suggest that ectopic NaV1.8 expression precipitates depolarizing...

  15. Ectopic corticotroph syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penezić Zorana

    2004-01-01

    located nuclei. Stromal tissue was scanty, and mitotic figures were infrequent. Tumor cells were immunoreactive for synaptophysin, neuron-specific enolase, and ACTH. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged on glucocorticoid supplementation. Signs of Cushing's syndrome were in regression, and patient remained normotensive and normoglycaemic without therapy. DISCUSSION A multitude of normal nonpituitary cells from different organs and tissues have been shown to express the POMC gene from which ACTH is derived. The tumors most commonly associated the ectopic ACTH syndrome arise from neuroendocrine tissues, APUD cells. POMC gene expression in non-pituitary cells differs from that in pituitary cells both qualitatively and quantitatively [8], Aggressive tumors, like small cell cancer of the lung (SCCL preferentially release intact POMC, whereas carcinoids rather overprocess the precursor, releasing ACTH and smaller peptides like CLIP. Some tumors associated with ectopic ACTH syndrome express other markers of neuroendocrine differentiation like two specific prohormone convertases (PCs. Assessment of vasopressin (V3 receptor gene expression in ACTH-producing nonpituitary tumors revealed bronchial carcinoid as a particular subset of tumors where both V3 receptor and POMC gene may be expressed in pattern indistinguishable from that in corticotroph adenoma [9]. In most, but not all, patients with ectopic ACTH syndrome, cortisol is unresponsive to high-dose dexamethason suppression test, what is used as diagnostic tool. It is not clear if the primary resistance resulted from structural abnormality of the native glucocorticoid receptor (GR, a low level of expression, or some intrinsic property of the cell line [9]. It appears that ectopic ACTH syndrome is made of two different entities. When it is because of highly differentiated tumors, with highest level of pituitary-like POMC mRNA, expressing PCs, high level of V3 receptors and GR, like bronchial

  16. mRNA-binding protein TIA-1 reduces cytokine expression in human endometrial stromal cells and is down-regulated in ectopic endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karalok, Hakan Mete; Aydin, Ebru; Saglam, Ozlen; Torun, Aysenur; Guzeloglu-Kayisli, Ozlem; Lalioti, Maria D; Kristiansson, Helena; Duke, Cindy M P; Choe, Gina; Flannery, Clare; Kallen, Caleb B; Seli, Emre

    2014-12-01

    Cytokines and growth factors play important roles in endometrial function and the pathogenesis of endometriosis. mRNAs encoding cytokines and growth factors undergo rapid turnover; primarily mediated by adenosine- and uridine-rich elements (AREs) located in their 3'-untranslated regions. T-cell intracellular antigen (TIA-1), an mRNA-binding protein, binds to AREs in target transcripts, leading to decreased gene expression. The purpose of this article was to determine whether TIA-1 plays a role in the regulation of endometrial cytokine and growth factor expression during the normal menstrual cycle and whether TIA-1 expression is altered in women with endometriosis. Eutopic endometrial tissue obtained from women without endometriosis (n = 30) and eutopic and ectopic endometrial tissues from women with endometriosis (n = 17) were immunostained for TIA-1. Staining intensities were evaluated by histological scores (HSCOREs). The regulation of endometrial TIA-1 expression by immune factors and steroid hormones was studied by treating primary cultured human endometrial stromal cells (HESCs) with vehicle, lipopolysaccharide, TNF-α, IL-6, estradiol, or progesterone, followed by protein blot analyses. HESCs were engineered to over- or underexpress TIA-1 to test whether TIA-1 regulates IL-6 or TNF-α expression in these cells. We found that TIA-1 is expressed in endometrial stromal and glandular cells throughout the menstrual cycle and that this expression is significantly higher in the perimenstrual phase. In women with endometriosis, TIA-1 expression in eutopic and ectopic endometrium was reduced compared with TIA-1 expression in eutopic endometrium of unaffected control women. Lipopolysaccharide and TNF-α increased TIA-1 expression in HESCs in vitro, whereas IL-6 or steroid hormones had no effect. In HESCs, down-regulation of TIA-1 resulted in elevated IL-6 and TNF-α expression, whereas TIA-1 overexpression resulted in decreased IL-6 and TNF-α expression. Endometrial

  17. Neuropilin-1 Is Expressed on Lymphoid Tissue Residing LTi-like Group 3 Innate Lymphoid Cells and Associated with Ectopic Lymphoid Aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikhagaie, Medya Mara; Björklund, Åsa K; Mjösberg, Jenny; Erjefält, Jonas S; Cornelissen, Anne S; Ros, Xavier Romero; Bal, Suzanne M; Koning, Jasper J; Mebius, Reina E; Mori, Michiko; Bruchard, Melanie; Blom, Bianca; Spits, Hergen

    2017-02-14

    Here, we characterize a subset of ILC3s that express Neuropilin1 (NRP1) and are present in lymphoid tissues, but not in the peripheral blood or skin. NRP1 + group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) display in vitro lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) activity. In agreement with this, NRP1 + ILC3s are mainly located in proximity to high endothelial venules (HEVs) and express cell surface molecules involved in lymphocyte migration in secondary lymphoid tissues via HEVs. NRP1 was also expressed on mouse fetal LTi cells, indicating that NRP1 is a conserved marker for LTi cells. Human NRP1 + ILC3s are primed cells because they express CD45RO and produce higher amounts of cytokines than NRP1 - cells, which express CD45RA. The NRP1 ligand vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) served as a chemotactic factor for NRP1 + ILC3s. NRP1 + ILC3s are present in lung tissues from smokers and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, suggesting a role in angiogenesis and/or the initiation of ectopic pulmonary lymphoid aggregates. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Ectopic expression of MPF2-like protein WSA206 leads to arrest in silique and seed development in heterologous host

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    MPF2-like genes belonging to STMADS11 clade of MADS-box transcription factors are mostly involved in calyx inflation, floral reversion and fertility. However their role in fertility remained enigmatic. In this study we transformed WSA206 gene paralog - originated through genome duplication in a Solanaceous plant Withaniasomnifera - ectopically in a heterologous host Arabidopsis thaliana. Interesting phenotypes in floral organs and fruits were observed. Overexpression of WSA206 leads to arrest in silique development. The siliques were compressed and size was drastically reduced from 34mm to 3mm. Along with siliques, the seed development was also suppressed as revealed by shriveling of seeds and reduction in seed number. In extreme cases the siliques were devoid of any seeds. In cases where seeds developed, these were impaired in viability. Besides, the transgenic Arabidopsis also exhibited exorbitant growth of calyx to an extent that it resembled inflated calyx in Solanaceae. The calyx remained persistent and encapsulated the under-developed siliques containing non-viable seeds inside. Thus, fertility and sepal development are tightly coupled traits that are controlled by WSA206 paralog in heterologous system. (author)

  19. Expression of natural killer cell activity with CD107a on ectopic endometrium in woman with endometriosis compared with non-endometriosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubis, H. P.; Aldiansyah, D.; Siregar, H. S.; Rivany, R.; Hariadi, T. S.

    2018-03-01

    Some factors have an important role in endometriosis pathogenesis; there is an immune cell that plays an important role in endometrial cells that have reflux. Woman with endometriosis experienced the cellular immune disorder. It is suspected that decrease of NK cell in the peritoneal fluid caused by its qualitative defect with CD107a expression as the best marker. The aim of this study was to compare expression of NK Cell activity with CD107a between awoman with endometriosis and non-endometriosis. A case-control study from March until July 2015 in Haji Adam Malik General Hospital. The case group was ectopic endometrial tissue block paraffin and control group was normal endometrial tissue block paraffin. This study included 23 patients in endometriosis group and control group respectively. A majority proportion of CD107a expression in endometriosis group was +1 (16 patients (69.6%)), while the control group was +3 (9 patients (39.1%)). Expression of NK cell activity with CD107a in patients with endometriosis was lower than the control group (pendometriosis.

  20. Ectopic hTERT expression extends the life span of human CD4(+) helper and regulatory T-cell clones and confers resistance to oxidative stress-induced apoptosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luiten, Rosalie M.; Péne, Jérome; Yssel, Hans; Spits, Hergen

    2003-01-01

    Human somatic cells have a limited life span in vitro. Upon aging and with each cell division, shortening of telomeres occurs, which eventually will lead to cell cycle arrest. Ectopic hTERT expression has been shown to extend the life span of human T cells by preventing this telomere erosion. In the

  1. Ectopic Expression of Hrf1 Enhances Bacterial Resistance via Regulation of Diterpene Phytoalexins, Silicon and Reactive Oxygen Species Burst in Rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Weigong; Yang, Jie; Okada, Kazunori; Yamane, Hisakazu; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Guang; Wang, Dong; Xiao, Shanshan; Chang, Shanshan; Qian, Guoliang; Liu, Fengquan

    2012-01-01

    Harpin proteins as elicitor derived from plant gram negative bacteria such as Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), Erwinia amylovora induce disease resistance in plants by activating multiple defense responses. However, it is unclear whether phytoalexin production and ROS burst are involved in the disease resistance conferred by the expression of the harpinXoo protein in rice. In this article, ectopic expression of hrf1 in rice enhanced resistance to bacterial blight. Accompanying with the activation of genes related to the phytoalexin biosynthesis pathway in hrf1-transformed rice, phytoalexins quickly and consistently accumulated concurrent with the limitation of bacterial growth rate. Moreover, the hrf1-transformed rice showed an increased ability for ROS scavenging and decreased hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration. Furthermore, the localization and relative quantification of silicon deposition in rice leaves was detected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). Finally, the transcript levels of defense response genes increased in transformed rice. These results show a correlation between Xoo resistance and phytoalexin production, H2O2, silicon deposition and defense gene expression in hrf1-transformed rice. These data are significant because they provide evidence for a better understanding the role of defense responses in the incompatible interaction between bacterial disease and hrf1-transformed plants. These data also supply an opportunity for generating nonspecific resistance to pathogens. PMID:22970151

  2. Ectopic expression of Hrf1 enhances bacterial resistance via regulation of diterpene phytoalexins, silicon and reactive oxygen species burst in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqi Li

    Full Text Available Harpin proteins as elicitor derived from plant gram negative bacteria such as Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo, Erwinia amylovora induce disease resistance in plants by activating multiple defense responses. However, it is unclear whether phytoalexin production and ROS burst are involved in the disease resistance conferred by the expression of the harpin(Xoo protein in rice. In this article, ectopic expression of hrf1 in rice enhanced resistance to bacterial blight. Accompanying with the activation of genes related to the phytoalexin biosynthesis pathway in hrf1-transformed rice, phytoalexins quickly and consistently accumulated concurrent with the limitation of bacterial growth rate. Moreover, the hrf1-transformed rice showed an increased ability for ROS scavenging and decreased hydrogen peroxide (H(2O(2 concentration. Furthermore, the localization and relative quantification of silicon deposition in rice leaves was detected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS. Finally, the transcript levels of defense response genes increased in transformed rice. These results show a correlation between Xoo resistance and phytoalexin production, H(2O(2, silicon deposition and defense gene expression in hrf1-transformed rice. These data are significant because they provide evidence for a better understanding the role of defense responses in the incompatible interaction between bacterial disease and hrf1-transformed plants. These data also supply an opportunity for generating nonspecific resistance to pathogens.

  3. Ectopic expression of miR-34a enhances radiosensitivity of non-small cell lung cancer cells, partly by suppressing the LyGDI signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Weiming; Xu Yaxiang; Dong Yujin; Cao Lili; Tong Jian; Zhou Xinwen

    2013-01-01

    miR-34a is transcriptionally induced by the tumor suppressor gene p53, which is often downregulated in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). To address whether the downstream signal of miR-34a is sufficient to induce apoptosis and to alter cellular radiosensitivity, a chemical synthetic miR-34a mimic was delivered into A549 and H1299 cells, with or without co-treatment of γ-irradiation. Results showed that ectopic expression of miR-34a induced dose-dependent cell growth inhibition and apoptosis in a p53-independent manner in both NSCLC cell lines. Interestingly, LyGDI was discovered as a new target gene of miR-34a, and downregulation of LyGDI promoted Rac1 activation and membrane translocation, resulting in cell apoptosis. Furthermore, restoration of miR-34a indirectly reduced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. Taken together, these results demonstrate that restoration of miR-34a expression enhances radiation-induced apoptosis, partly by suppressing the LyGDI signaling pathway, and miR-34a could possibly be used as a radiosensitizer for non-small cell lung cancer therapy. (author)

  4. Ectopically expressing MdPIP1;3, an aquaporin gene, increased fruit size and enhanced drought tolerance of transgenic tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Li, Qing-Tian; Lei, Qiong; Feng, Chao; Zheng, Xiaodong; Zhou, Fangfang; Li, Lingzi; Liu, Xuan; Wang, Zhi; Kong, Jin

    2017-12-19

    Water deficit severely reduces apple growth and production, is detrimental to fruit quality and size. This problem is exacerbated as global warming is implicated in producing more severe drought stress. Thus water-efficiency has becomes the major target for apple breeding. A desired apple tree can absorb and transport water efficiently, which not only confers improved drought tolerance, but also guarantees fruit size for higher income returns. Aquaporins, as water channels, control water transportation across membranes and can regulate water flow by changing their amount and activity. The exploration of molecular mechanism of water efficiency and the gene wealth will pave a way for molecular breeding of drought tolerant apple tree. In the current study, we screened out a drought inducible aquaporin gene MdPIP1;3, which specifically enhanced its expression during fruit expansion in 'Fuji' apple (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. Red Fuji). It localized on plasma membranes and belonged to PIP1 subfamily. The tolerance to drought stress enhanced in transgenic tomato plants ectopically expressing MdPIP1;3, showing that the rate of losing water in isolated transgenic leaves was slower than wild type, and stomata of transgenic plants closed sensitively to respond to drought compared with wild type. Besides, length and diameter of transgenic tomato fruits increased faster than wild type, and in final, fruit sizes and fresh weights of transgenic tomatoes were bigger than wild type. Specially, in cell levels, fruit cell size from transgenic tomatoes was larger than wild type, showing that cell number per mm 2 in transgenic fruits was less than wild type. Altogether, ectopically expressing MdPIP1;3 enhanced drought tolerance of transgenic tomatoes partially via reduced water loss controlled by stomata closure in leaves. In addition, the transgenic tomato fruits are larger and heavier with larger cells via more efficient water transportation across membranes. Our research will

  5. Ectopic Expression of the Grape Hyacinth (Muscari armeniacum R2R3-MYB Transcription Factor Gene, MaAN2, Induces Anthocyanin Accumulation in Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaili Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthocyanins are responsible for the different colors of ornamental plants. Grape hyacinth (Muscari armeniacum, a monocot plant with bulbous flowers, is popular for its fascinating blue color. In the present study, we functionally characterized an R2R3-MYB transcription factor gene MaAN2 from M. armeniacum. Our results indicated that MaAN2 participates in controlling anthocyanin biosynthesis. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis suggested that MaAN2 belonged to the R2R3-MYB family AN2 subgroup. The anthocyanin accumulation of grape hyacinth flowers was positively correlated with the expression of MaAN2. And the transcriptional expression of MaAN2 was also consistent with that of M. armeniacum dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (MaDFR and M. armeniacum anthocyanidin synthase (MaANS in flowers. A dual luciferase transient expression assay indicated that when MaAN2 was co-inflitrated with Arabidopsis thaliana TRANSPARENT TESTA8 (AtTT8, it strongly activated the promoters of MaDFR and MaANS, but not the promoters of M. armeniacum chalcone synthase (MaCHS, M. armeniacum chalcone isomerase (MaCHI, and M. armeniacum flavanone 3-hydroxylase (MaF3H. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay confirmed that MaAN2 interacted with AtTT8 in vivo. The ectopic expression of MaAN2 in Nicotiana tabacum resulted in obvious red coloration of the leaves and much redder flowers. Almost all anthocyanin biosynthetic genes were remarkably upregulated in the leaves and flowers of the transgenic tobacco, and NtAn1a and NtAn1b (two basic helix–loop–helix anthocyanin regulatory genes were highly expressed in the transformed leaves, compared to the empty vector transformants. Collectively, our results suggest that MaAN2 plays a role in anthocyanin biosynthesis.

  6. Development of Transgenic Cloned Pig Models of Skin Inflammation by DNA Transposon-Directed Ectopic Expression of Human β1 and α2 Integrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staunstrup, Nicklas Heine; Madsen, Johannes; Primo, Maria Nascimento; Li, Juan; Liu, Ying; Kragh, Peter M.; Li, Rong; Schmidt, Mette; Purup, Stig; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik; Svensson, Lars; Petersen, Thomas K.; Callesen, Henrik; Bolund, Lars; Mikkelsen, Jacob Giehm

    2012-01-01

    Integrins constitute a superfamily of transmembrane signaling receptors that play pivotal roles in cutaneous homeostasis by modulating cell growth and differentiation as well as inflammatory responses in the skin. Subrabasal expression of integrins α2 and/or β1 entails hyperproliferation and aberrant differentiation of keratinocytes and leads to dermal and epidermal influx of activated T-cells. The anatomical and physiological similarities between porcine and human skin make the pig a suitable model for human skin diseases. In efforts to generate a porcine model of cutaneous inflammation, we employed the Sleeping Beauty DNA transposon system for production of transgenic cloned Göttingen minipigs expressing human β1 or α2 integrin under the control of a promoter specific for subrabasal keratinocytes. Using pools of transgenic donor fibroblasts, cloning by somatic cell nuclear transfer was utilized to produce reconstructed embryos that were subsequently transferred to surrogate sows. The resulting pigs were all transgenic and harbored from one to six transgene integrants. Molecular analyses on skin biopsies and cultured keratinocytes showed ectopic expression of the human integrins and localization within the keratinocyte plasma membrane. Markers of perturbed skin homeostasis, including activation of the MAPK pathway, increased expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1α, and enhanced expression of the transcription factor c-Fos, were identified in keratinocytes from β1 and α2 integrin-transgenic minipigs, suggesting the induction of a chronic inflammatory phenotype in the skin. Notably, cellular dysregulation obtained by overexpression of either β1 or α2 integrin occurred through different cellular signaling pathways. Our findings mark the creation of the first cloned pig models with molecular markers of skin inflammation. Despite the absence of an overt psoriatic phenotype, these animals may possess increased susceptibility to severe skin damage

  7. Ectopic expression of a polyalanine expansion mutant of poly(A)-binding protein N1 in muscle cells in culture inhibits myogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Qishan; Bag, Jnanankur

    2006-01-01

    Oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD) is an adult-onset dominant genetic disease caused by the expansion of a GCG trinucleotide repeat that encodes the polyalanine tract at the N-terminus of the nuclear poly(A)-binding protein (PABPN1). Presence of intranuclear inclusions (INIs) containing PABPN1 aggregates in the skeletal muscles is the hallmark of OPMD. Here, we show that ectopic expression of the mutant PABPN1 produced INIs in a muscle cell culture model and reduced expression of several muscle-specific proteins including α-actin, slow troponin C, muscle creatine kinase, and two myogenic transcription factors, myogenin and MyoD. However, the levels of two upstream regulators of the MyoD gene, the Myf-5 and Pax3/7, were not affected, but both proteins co-localized with the PABPN1 aggregates in the mutant PABPN1 overexpressing cells. In these cells, although myogenin and MyoD levels were reduced, these two transcription factors did not co-localize with the mutant PABPN1 aggregates. Therefore, sequestration of Myf5 and Pax3/7 by the mutant PABPN1 aggregates was a specific effect on these factors. Our results suggest that trapping of these two important myogenic determinants may interfere with an early step in myogenesis

  8. Ectopic expression of human mTOR increases viability, robustness, cell size, proliferation, and antibody production of chinese hamster ovary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreesen, Imke A J; Fussenegger, Martin

    2011-04-01

    Engineering of mammalian production cell lines to improve titer and quality of biopharmaceuticals is a top priority of the biopharmaceutical manufacturing industry providing protein therapeutics to patients worldwide. While many engineering strategies have been successful in the past decade they were often based on the over-expression of a single transgene and therefore limited to addressing a single bottleneck in the cell's production capacity. We provide evidence that ectopic expression of the global metabolic sensor and processing protein mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), simultaneously improves key bioprocess-relevant characteristics of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell-derived production cell lines such as cell growth (increased cell size and protein content), proliferation (increased cell-cycle progression), viability (decreased apoptosis), robustness (decreased sensitivity to sub-optimal growth factor and oxygen supplies) and specific productivity of secreted human glycoproteins. Cultivation of mTOR-transgenic CHO-derived cell lines engineered for secretion of a therapeutic IgG resulted in antibody titers of up to 50 pg/cell/day, which represents a four-fold increase compared to the parental production cell line. mTOR-based engineering of mammalian production cell lines may therefore have a promising future in biopharmaceutical manufacturing of human therapeutic proteins. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Ectopic expression of Arabidopsis ABC transporter MRP7 modifies cadmium root-to-shoot transport and accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojas, Sylwia; Hennig, Jacek; Plaza, Sonia; Geisler, Markus; Siemianowski, Oskar; Sklodowska, Aleksandra; Ruszczynska, Anna; Bulska, Ewa; Antosiewicz, Danuta M.

    2009-01-01

    Arabidopsis MRPs/ABCCs have been shown to remove various organic and inorganic substrates from the cytosol to other subcellular compartments. Here we first demonstrate that heterologous expression of AtMRP7 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum var. Xanthi) modifies cadmium accumulation, distribution and tolerance. Arabidopsis MRP7 was localized both in the tonoplast and in the plasma membrane when expressed in tobacco. Its overexpression increased tobacco Cd-tolerance and resulted in enhanced cadmium concentration in leaf vacuoles, indicating more efficient detoxification by means of vacuolar storage. Heterologous AtMRP7 expression also led to more efficient retention of Cd in roots, suggesting a contribution to the control of cadmium root-to-shoot translocation. The results underscore the use of AtMRP7 in plant genetic engineering to modify the heavy-metal accumulation pattern for a broad range of applications. - AtMRP7 expression in tobacco enhances Cd-tolerance and increases Cd storage in vacuoles

  10. A Complex Structural Variation on Chromosome 27 Leads to the Ectopic Expression of HOXB8 and the Muffs and Beard Phenotype in Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanqiang; Luo, Chenglong; Liu, Ranran; Qu, Hao; Shu, Dingming; Wen, Jie; Crooijmans, Richard P. M. A.; Zhao, Yiqiang; Hu, Xiaoxiang; Li, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Muffs and beard (Mb) is a phenotype in chickens where groups of elongated feathers gather from both sides of the face (muffs) and below the beak (beard). It is an autosomal, incomplete dominant phenotype encoded by the Muffs and beard (Mb) locus. Here we use genome-wide association (GWA) analysis, linkage analysis, Identity-by-Descent (IBD) mapping, array-CGH, genome re-sequencing and expression analysis to show that the Mb allele causing the Mb phenotype is a derived allele where a complex structural variation (SV) on GGA27 leads to an altered expression of the gene HOXB8. This Mb allele was shown to be completely associated with the Mb phenotype in nine other independent Mb chicken breeds. The Mb allele differs from the wild-type mb allele by three duplications, one in tandem and two that are translocated to that of the tandem repeat around 1.70 Mb on GGA27. The duplications contain total seven annotated genes and their expression was tested during distinct stages of Mb morphogenesis. A continuous high ectopic expression of HOXB8 was found in the facial skin of Mb chickens, strongly suggesting that HOXB8 directs this regional feather-development. In conclusion, our results provide an interesting example of how genomic structural rearrangements alter the regulation of genes leading to novel phenotypes. Further, it again illustrates the value of utilizing derived phenotypes in domestic animals to dissect the genetic basis of developmental traits, herein providing novel insights into the likely role of HOXB8 in feather development and differentiation. PMID:27253709

  11. Ectopic expression of AID in a non-B cell line triggers A:T and G:C point mutations in non-replicating episomal vectors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihana Jovanic

    Full Text Available Somatic hypermutation (SHM of immunoglobulin genes is currently viewed as a two step process initiated by the deamination of deoxycytidine (C to deoxyuridine (U, catalysed by the activation induced deaminase (AID. Phase 1 mutations arise from DNA replication across the uracil residue or the abasic site, generated by the uracil-DNA glycosylase, yielding transitions or transversions at G:C pairs. Phase 2 mutations result from the recognition of the U:G mismatch by the Msh2/Msh6 complex (MutS Homologue, followed by the excision of the mismatched nucleotide and the repair, by the low fidelity DNA polymerase eta, of the gap generated by the exonuclease I. These mutations are mainly focused at A:T pairs. Whereas in activated B cells both G:C and A:T pairs are equally targeted, ectopic expression of AID was shown to trigger only G:C mutations on a stably integrated reporter gene. Here we show that when using non-replicative episomal vectors containing a GFP gene, inactivated by the introduction of stop codons at various positions, a high level of EGFP positive cells was obtained after transient expression in Jurkat cells constitutively expressing AID. We show that mutations at G:C and A:T pairs are produced. EGFP positive cells are obtained in the absence of vector replication demonstrating that the mutations are dependent only on the mismatch repair (MMR pathway. This implies that the generation of phase 1 mutations is not a prerequisite for the expression of phase 2 mutations.

  12. Ectopic Expression of α6 and δ GABAA Receptor Subunits in Hilar Somatostatin Neurons Increases Tonic Inhibition and Alters Network Activity in the Dentate Gyrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiaoping; Peng, Zechun; Zhang, Nianhui; Cetina, Yliana; Huang, Christine S.; Wallner, Martin; Otis, Thomas S.

    2015-01-01

    The role of GABAA receptor (GABAAR)-mediated tonic inhibition in interneurons remains unclear and may vary among subgroups. Somatostatin (SOM) interneurons in the hilus of the dentate gyrus show negligible expression of nonsynaptic GABAAR subunits and very low tonic inhibition. To determine the effects of ectopic expression of tonic GABAAR subtypes in these neurons, Cre-dependent viral vectors were used to express GFP-tagged GABAAR subunits (α6 and δ) selectively in hilar SOM neurons in SOM-Cre mice. In single-transfected animals, immunohistochemistry demonstrated strong expression of either the α6 or δ subunit; in cotransfected animals, both subunits were consistently expressed in the same neurons. Electrophysiology revealed a robust increase of tonic current, with progressively larger increases following transfection of δ, α6, and α6/δ subunits, respectively, indicating formation of functional receptors in all conditions and likely coassembly of the subunits in the same receptor following cotransfection. An in vitro model of repetitive bursting was used to determine the effects of increased tonic inhibition in hilar SOM interneurons on circuit activity in the dentate gyrus. Upon cotransfection, the frequency of GABAAR-mediated bursting in granule cells was reduced, consistent with a reduction in synchronous firing among hilar SOM interneurons. Moreover, in vivo studies of Fos expression demonstrated reduced activation of α6/δ-cotransfected neurons following acute seizure induction by pentylenetetrazole. The findings demonstrate that increasing tonic inhibition in hilar SOM interneurons can alter dentate gyrus circuit activity during strong stimulation and suggest that tonic inhibition of interneurons could play a role in regulating excessive synchrony within the network. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In contrast to many hippocampal interneurons, somatostatin (SOM) neurons in the hilus of the dentate gyrus have very low levels of nonsynaptic GABAARs and exhibit

  13. Ectopic expression of protein kinase C-β sensitizes head and neck squamous cell carcinoma to diterpene esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ryan A; D'Souza, Marjorie M A; Pierce, Carly J; Korica, Natasa; Wallwork, Ben; Parsons, Peter G; Panizza, Benedict; Boyle, Glen M

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of specific Protein kinase C (PKC) isoform re-expression in solid malignancies, particularly head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell lines, and the impact this may have on treatment with known activators of PKC. The constitutive expression of PKC isoforms were determined in six head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cell lines. Cytotoxicity of the prototypic phorbol ester, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and the novel diterpene ester PEP005 was established. Viral transduction to re-express PKCβ isoforms in two of these cell lines was performed, and its effect on the sensitivity to the compounds was quantified. Tongue and hypopharyngeal SCC cell lines were resistant to both TPA and PEP005, with the concentration required to inhibit growth by 50% (IC50) being >1,000 ng/ml. CAL-27 (tongue SCC) and FaDu (hypopharyngeal SCC) cell lines re-expressing PKCβI and -βII isoforms demonstrated IC50 of 1-5 ng/ml with TPA or PEP005. Re-expression of PKCβ in head and neck SCC cell lines leads to cells one thousand-times more sensitive to the cytotoxic effects of phorbol or diterpene esters in culture. This highlights the importance of the isoform in tumor progression and presents the potential benefit of these compounds in malignancies expressing the protein, and in combination therapy. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  14. Ectopic expression of AtPAD4 broadens resistance of soybean to soybean cyst and root-knot nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Reham M; MacDonald, Margaret H; Brewer, Eric P; Bauchan, Gary R; Kim, Kyung-Hwan; Matthews, Benjamin F

    2013-04-25

    The gene encoding PAD4 (PHYTOALEXIN-DEFICIENT4) is required in Arabidopsis for expression of several genes involved in the defense response to Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola. AtPAD4 (Arabidopsis thaliana PAD4) encodes a lipase-like protein that plays a regulatory role mediating salicylic acid signaling. We expressed the gene encoding AtPAD4 in soybean roots of composite plants to test the ability of AtPAD4 to deter plant parasitic nematode development. The transformed roots were challenged with two different plant parasitic nematode genera represented by soybean cyst nematode (SCN; Heterodera glycines) and root-knot nematode (RKN; Meloidogyne incognita). Expression of AtPAD4 in soybean roots decreased the number of mature SCN females 35 days after inoculation by 68 percent. Similarly, soybean roots expressing AtPAD4 exhibited 77 percent fewer galls when challenged with RKN. Our experiments show that AtPAD4 can be used in an economically important crop, soybean, to provide a measure of resistance to two different genera of nematodes.

  15. Improving the secretory capacity of Chinese hamster ovary cells by ectopic expression of effector genes: Lessons learned and future directions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Gram; Pristovsek, Nusa; Kildegaard, Helene Faustrup

    2017-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the preferred cell factory for the production of therapeutic glycoproteins. Although efforts primarily within bioprocess optimization have led to increased product titers of recombinant proteins (r-proteins) expressed in CHO cells, post-transcriptional bottle...

  16. Copper and ectopic expression of the Arabidopsis transport protein COPT1 alter iron homeostasis in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés-Bordería, Amparo; Andrés, Fernando; Garcia-Molina, Antoni; Perea-García, Ana; Domingo, Concha; Puig, Sergi; Peñarrubia, Lola

    2017-09-01

    Copper deficiency and excess differentially affect iron homeostasis in rice and overexpression of the Arabidopsis high-affinity copper transporter COPT1 slightly increases endogenous iron concentration in rice grains. Higher plants have developed sophisticated mechanisms to efficiently acquire and use micronutrients such as copper and iron. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction between both metals remain poorly understood. In the present work, we study the effects produced on iron homeostasis by a wide range of copper concentrations in the growth media and by altered copper transport in Oryza sativa plants. Gene expression profiles in rice seedlings grown under copper excess show an altered expression of genes involved in iron homeostasis compared to standard control conditions. Thus, ferritin OsFER2 and ferredoxin OsFd1 mRNAs are down-regulated whereas the transcriptional iron regulator OsIRO2 and the nicotianamine synthase OsNAS2 mRNAs rise under copper excess. As expected, the expression of OsCOPT1, which encodes a high-affinity copper transport protein, as well as other copper-deficiency markers are down-regulated by copper. Furthermore, we show that Arabidopsis COPT1 overexpression (C1 OE ) in rice causes root shortening in high copper conditions and under iron deficiency. C1 OE rice plants modify the expression of the putative iron-sensing factors OsHRZ1 and OsHRZ2 and enhance the expression of OsIRO2 under copper excess, which suggests a role of copper transport in iron signaling. Importantly, the C1 OE rice plants grown on soil contain higher endogenous iron concentration than wild-type plants in both brown and white grains. Collectively, these results highlight the effects of rice copper status on iron homeostasis, which should be considered to obtain crops with optimized nutrient concentrations in edible parts.

  17. Ectopic expression of Kxhkn5 in the viviparous species Kalanchoe × Houghtonii induces a novel pattern of epiphyll development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura, Marina; Borghi, Cristina; Regis, Cristina; Cassetti, Arianna; Allavena, Andrea

    2013-02-01

    KxhKN5 (class 1 KNOX gene) was cloned from Kalanchoe × houghtonii with strong tendency to form epiphylls on leaves. KxhKN5 appear to be homologue of BP of A. thaliana on the basis of phylogeny, expression and phenotype analysis. Beside the modification of several plant and leaf traits, the appearance of epiphylls was drastically reduced by both the silencing and the over-expression of KxhKN5 in most of the generated clones. In silenced clones, epiphyll production followed the morphogenetic pathway of the WT plants: somatic embryos outbreak in the centre of each leaf-pedestal, grown in the notch between leaf indentations and were supported by a suspensor. The connection between the epiphyll and the mother plant did not include any vasculature and as a result, the epiphylls dropped easily from the mother plant. The most represented category of over expressor clones, disclosed a novel pattern of epiphyll development: the leaf-pedestals were absent and single bud outbreaks in each leaf notch. Buds developed into shoots which remained attached to the maternal plant by a strong vascular connection. The leaves supporting shoots, produced a thickened midrib and veins, and their lamina ceased expanding. Finally, the leaf/shoot structure resembles a lateral branch. The ectopic expression of KxhKN5 in K. × houghtonii induces a process comparable to the alternation of leaf and shoot formation in other species and support the idea, that it is the variation in shared molecular and developmental processes which produces the growth of specific structures.

  18. The ectopic expression of a pectin methyl esterase inhibitor increases pectin methyl esterification and limits fungal diseases in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpi, Chiara; Janni, Michela; Lionetti, Vincenzo; Bellincampi, Daniela; Favaron, Francesco; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2011-09-01

    Cell wall pectin methyl esterification can influence plant resistance because highly methyl-esterified pectin can be less susceptible to the hydrolysis by pectic enzymes such as fungal endopolygalacturonases (PG). Pectin is secreted into the cell wall in a highly methyl-esterified form and, here, is de-methyl esterified by pectin methyl esterase (PME). The activity of PME is controlled by specific protein inhibitors called PMEI; consequently, an increased inhibition of PME by PMEI might modify the pectin methyl esterification. In order to test the possibility of improving wheat resistance by modifying the methyl esterification of pectin cell wall, we have produced durum wheat transgenic lines expressing the PMEI from Actinidia chinensis (AcPMEI). The expression of AcPMEI endows wheat with a reduced endogenous PME activity, and transgenic lines expressing a high level of the inhibitor showed a significant increase in the degree of methyl esterification. These lines showed a significant reduction of disease symptoms caused by the fungal pathogens Bipolaris sorokiniana or Fusarium graminearum. This increased resistance was related to the impaired ability of these fungal pathogens to grow on methyl-esterified pectin and to a reduced activity of the fungal PG to hydrolyze methyl-esterified pectin. In addition to their importance for wheat improvement, these results highlight the primary role of pectin despite its low content in the wheat cell wall.

  19. Ectopic expression of the HAM59 gene causes homeotic transformations of reproductive organs in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulga, O A; Neskorodov, Ya B; Shchennikova, A V; Gaponenko, A K; Skryabin, K G

    2015-01-01

    The function of the HAM59 MADS-box gene in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) was studied to clarify homeotic C activity in the Asteraceae plant family. For the first time, transgenic sunflower plants with a modified pattern of HAM59 expression were obtained. It was shown that the HAM59 MADS-box transcription factor did mediate C activity in sunflower. In particular, it participated in termination of the floral meristem, repression of the cadastral function of A-activity, and together with other C-type sunflower protein HAM45-in the specification of the identity of stamens and pistils.

  20. Psoriasiform skin disease in transgenic pigs with high-copy ectopic expression of human integrins α2 and β1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staunstrup, Nicklas Heine; Stenderup, Karin; Mortensen, Sidsel; Primo, Maria Nascimento; Steiniche, Torben; Liu, Ying; Li, Rong; Schmidt, Mette; Purup, Stig; Dagnæs-Hansen, Frederik; Schrøder, Lisbeth Dahl; Svensson, Lars; Petersen, Thomas Kongstad; Callesen, Henrik; Bolund, Lars

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Psoriasis is a complex human-specific disease characterized by perturbed keratinocyte proliferation and a pro-inflammatory environment in the skin. Porcine skin architecture and immunity are very similar to that in humans, rendering the pig a suitable animal model for studying the biology and treatment of psoriasis. Expression of integrins, which is normally confined to the basal layer of the epidermis, is maintained in suprabasal keratinocytes in psoriatic skin, modulating proliferation and differentiation as well as leukocyte infiltration. Here, we generated minipigs co-expressing integrins α2 and β1 in suprabasal epidermal layers. Integrin-transgenic minipigs born into the project displayed skin phenotypes that correlated with the number of inserted transgenes. Molecular analyses were in good concordance with histological observations of psoriatic hallmarks, including hypogranulosis and T-lymphocyte infiltration. These findings mark the first creation of minipigs with a psoriasiform phenotype resembling human psoriasis and demonstrate that integrin signaling plays a key role in psoriasis pathology. PMID:28679670

  1. Ectopic expression of X-linked lymphocyte-regulated protein pM1 renders tumor cells resistant to antitumor immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Tae Heung; Noh, Kyung Hee; Kim, Jin Hee; Bae, Hyun Cheol; Lin, Ken Y; Monie, Archana; Pai, Sara I; Hung, Chien-Fu; Wu, T-C; Kim, Tae Woo

    2010-04-15

    Tumor immune escape is a major obstacle in cancer immunotherapy, but the mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. We have previously developed an immune evasion tumor model using an in vivo immune selection strategy and revealed Akt-mediated immune resistance to antitumor immunity induced by various cancer immunotherapeutic agents. In the current study, we used microarray gene analysis to identify an Akt-activating candidate molecule overexpressed in immune-resistant tumors compared with parental tumors. X-linked lymphocyte-regulated protein pM1 (XLR) gene was the most upregulated in immune-resistant tumors compared with parental tumor cells. Furthermore, the retroviral transduction of XLR in parental tumor cells led to activation of Akt, resulting in upregulation of antiapoptotic proteins and the induction of immune resistance phenotype in parental tumor cells. In addition, we found that transduction of parental tumor cells with other homologous genes from the mouse XLR family, such as synaptonemal complex protein 3 (SCP3) and XLR-related, meiosis-regulated protein (XMR) and its human counterpart of SCP3 (hSCP3), also led to activation of Akt, resulting in the upregulation of antiapoptotic proteins and induction of immune resistance phenotype. Importantly, characterization of a panel of human cervical cancers revealed relatively higher expression levels of hSCP3 in human cervical cancer tissue compared with normal cervical tissue. Thus, our data indicate that ectopic expression of XLR and its homologues in tumor cells represents a potentially important mechanism for tumor immune evasion and serves as a promising molecular target for cancer immunotherapy. (c) 2010 AACR.

  2. Ectopic Terpene Synthase Expression Enhances Sesquiterpene Emission in Nicotiana attenuata without Altering Defense or Development of Transgenic Plants or Neighbors1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuman, Meredith C.; Palmer-Young, Evan C.; Schmidt, Axel; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Baldwin, Ian T.

    2014-01-01

    Sesquiterpenoids, with approximately 5,000 structures, are the most diverse class of plant volatiles with manifold hypothesized functions in defense, stress tolerance, and signaling between and within plants. These hypotheses have often been tested by transforming plants with sesquiterpene synthases expressed behind the constitutively active 35S promoter, which may have physiological costs measured as inhibited growth and reduced reproduction or may require augmentation of substrate pools to achieve enhanced emission, complicating the interpretation of data from affected transgenic lines. Here, we expressed maize (Zea mays) terpene synthase10 (ZmTPS10), which produces (E)-α-bergamotene and (E)-β-farnesene, or a point mutant ZmTPS10M, which produces primarily (E)-β-farnesene, under control of the 35S promoter in the ecological model plant Nicotiana attenuata. Transgenic N. attenuata plants had specifically enhanced emission of target sesquiterpene(s) with no changes detected in their emission of any other volatiles. Treatment with herbivore or jasmonate elicitors induces emission of (E)-α-bergamotene in wild-type plants and also tended to increase emission of (E)-α-bergamotene and (E)-β-farnesene in transgenics. However, transgenics did not differ from the wild type in defense signaling or chemistry and did not alter defense chemistry in neighboring wild-type plants. These data are inconsistent with within-plant and between-plant signaling functions of (E)-β-farnesene and (E)-α-bergamotene in N. attenuata. Ectopic sesquiterpene emission was apparently not costly for transgenics, which were similar to wild-type plants in their growth and reproduction, even when forced to compete for common resources. These transgenics would be well suited for field experiments to investigate indirect ecological effects of sesquiterpenes for a wild plant in its native habitat. PMID:25187528

  3. Human Cytomegalovirus Nuclear Egress Proteins Ectopically Expressed in the Heterologous Environment of Plant Cells are Strictly Targeted to the Nuclear Envelope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Christian E; Link, Katrin; Wagner, Sabrina; Milbradt, Jens; Marschall, Manfred; Sonnewald, Uwe

    2016-03-10

    In all eukaryotic cells, the nucleus forms a prominent cellular compartment containing the cell's nuclear genome. Although structurally similar, animal and plant nuclei differ substantially in details of their architecture. One example is the nuclear lamina, a layer of tightly interconnected filament proteins (lamins) underlying the nuclear envelope of metazoans. So far no orthologous lamin genes could be detected in plant genomes and putative lamin-like proteins are only poorly described in plants. To probe for potentially conserved features of metazoan and plant nuclear envelopes, we ectopically expressed the core nuclear egress proteins of human cytomegalovirus pUL50 and pUL53 in plant cells. pUL50 localizes to the inner envelope of metazoan nuclei and recruits the nuclear localized pUL53 to it, forming heterodimers. Upon expression in plant cells, a very similar localization pattern of both proteins could be determined. Notably, pUL50 is specifically targeted to the plant nuclear envelope in a rim-like fashion, a location to which coexpressed pUL53 becomes strictly corecruited from its initial nucleoplasmic distribution. Using pUL50 as bait in a yeast two-hybrid screening, the cytoplasmic re-initiation supporting protein RISP could be identified. Interaction of pUL50 and RISP could be confirmed by coexpression and coimmunoprecipitation in mammalian cells and by confocal laser scanning microscopy in plant cells, demonstrating partial pUL50-RISP colocalization in areas of the nuclear rim and other intracellular compartments. Thus, our study provides strong evidence for conserved structural features of plant and metazoan nuclear envelops and identifies RISP as a potential pUL50-interacting plant protein.

  4. Ectopic expression of Jatropha curcas APETALA1 (JcAP1) caused early flowering in Arabidopsis, but not in Jatropha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mingyong; Tao, Yan-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Jatropha curcas is a promising feedstock for biofuel production because Jatropha oil is highly suitable for the production of biodiesel and bio-jet fuels. However, Jatropha exhibits a low seed yield as a result of unreliable and poor flowering. APETALA1 (AP1) is a floral meristem and organ identity gene in higher plants. The flower meristem identity genes of Jatropha have not yet been identified or characterized. To better understand the genetic control of flowering in Jatropha, an AP1 homolog (JcAP1) was isolated from Jatropha. An amino acid sequence analysis of JcAP1 revealed a high similarity to the AP1 proteins of other perennial plants. JcAP1 was expressed in inflorescence buds, flower buds, sepals and petals. The highest expression level was observed during the early developmental stage of the flower buds. The overexpression of JcAP1 using the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter resulted in extremely early flowering and abnormal flowers in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Several flowering genes downstream of AP1 were up-regulated in the JcAP1-overexpressing transgenic plant lines. Furthermore, JcAP1 overexpression rescued the phenotype caused by the Arabidopsis AP1 loss-of-function mutant ap1-11. Therefore, JcAP1 is an ortholog of AtAP1, which plays a similar role in the regulation of flowering in Arabidopsis. However, the overexpression of JcAP1 in Jatropha using the same promoter resulted in little variation in the flowering time and floral organs, indicating that JcAP1 may be insufficient to regulate flowering by itself in Jatropha. This study helps to elucidate the function of JcAP1 and contributes to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of flower development in Jatropha. PMID:27168978

  5. Generating autologous hematopoietic cells from human-induced pluripotent stem cells through ectopic expression of transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yongsung; Broxmeyer, Hal E; Lee, Man Ryul

    2017-07-01

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a successful treatment modality for patients with malignant and nonmalignant disorders, usually when no other treatment option is available. The cells supporting long-term reconstitution after HCT are the hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), which can be limited in numbers. Moreover, finding an appropriate human leukocyte antigen-matched donor can be problematic. If HSCs can be stably produced in large numbers from autologous or allogeneic cell sources, it would benefit HCT. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) established from patients' own somatic cells can be differentiated into hematopoietic cells in vitro. This review will highlight recent methods for regulating human (h) iPSC production of HSCs and more mature blood cells. Advancements in transcription factor-mediated regulation of the developmental stages of in-vivo hematopoietic lineage commitment have begun to provide an understanding of the molecular mechanism of hematopoiesis. Such studies involve not only directed differentiation in which transcription factors, specifically expressed in hematopoietic lineage-specific cells, are overexpressed in iPSCs, but also direct conversion in which transcription factors are introduced into patient-derived somatic cells which are dedifferentiated to hematopoietic cells. As iPSCs derived from patients suffering from genetically mutated diseases would express the same mutated genetic information, CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing has been utilized to differentiate genetically corrected iPSCs into normal hematopoietic cells. IPSCs provide a model for molecular understanding of disease, and also may function as a cell population for therapy. Efficient differentiation of patient-specific iPSCs into HSCs and progenitor cells is a potential means to overcome limitations of such cells for HCT, as well as for providing in-vitro drug screening templates as tissue-on-a-chip models.

  6. Ectopic expression of phloem motor protein pea forisome PsSEO-F1 enhances salinity stress tolerance in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Vineet Kumar; Raikwar, Shailendra; Tuteja, Renu; Tuteja, Narendra

    2016-05-01

    PsSEOF-1 binds to calcium and its expression is upregulated by salinity treatment. PsSEOF - 1 -overexpressing transgenic tobacco showed enhanced salinity stress tolerance by maintaining cellular ion homeostasis and modulating ROS-scavenging pathway. Calcium (Ca(2+)) plays important role in growth, development and stress tolerance in plants. Cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis is achieved by the collective action of channels, pumps, antiporters and by Ca(2+) chelators present in the cell like calcium-binding proteins. Forisomes are ATP-independent mechanically active motor proteins known to function in wound sealing of injured sieve elements of phloem tissue. The Ca(2+)-binding activity of forisome and its role in abiotic stress signaling were largely unknown. Here we report the Ca(2+)-binding activity of pea forisome (PsSEO-F1) and its novel function in promoting salinity tolerance in transgenic tobacco. Native PsSEO-F1 promoter positively responded in salinity stress as confirmed using GUS reporter. Overexpression of PsSEO-F1 tobacco plants confers salinity tolerance by alleviating ionic toxicity and increased ROS scavenging activity which probably results in reduced membrane damage and improved yield under salinity stress. Evaluation of several physiological indices shows an increase in relative water content, electrolyte leakage, proline accumulation and chlorophyll content in transgenic lines as compared with null-segregant control. Expression of several genes involved in cellular homeostasis is perturbed by PsSEO-F1 overexpression. These findings suggest that PsSEO-F1 provides salinity tolerance through cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis which in turn modulates ROS machinery providing indirect link between Ca(2+) and ROS signaling under salinity-induced perturbation. PsSEO-F1 most likely functions in salinity stress tolerance by improving antioxidant machinery and mitigating ion toxicity in transgenic lines. This finding should make an important contribution in our better

  7. Ectopic expression of Jatropha curcas APETALA1 (JcAP1 caused early flowering in Arabidopsis, but not in Jatropha

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    Mingyong Tang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas is a promising feedstock for biofuel production because Jatropha oil is highly suitable for the production of biodiesel and bio-jet fuels. However, Jatropha exhibits a low seed yield as a result of unreliable and poor flowering. APETALA1 (AP1 is a floral meristem and organ identity gene in higher plants. The flower meristem identity genes of Jatropha have not yet been identified or characterized. To better understand the genetic control of flowering in Jatropha, an AP1 homolog (JcAP1 was isolated from Jatropha. An amino acid sequence analysis of JcAP1 revealed a high similarity to the AP1 proteins of other perennial plants. JcAP1 was expressed in inflorescence buds, flower buds, sepals and petals. The highest expression level was observed during the early developmental stage of the flower buds. The overexpression of JcAP1 using the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV 35S promoter resulted in extremely early flowering and abnormal flowers in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Several flowering genes downstream of AP1 were up-regulated in the JcAP1-overexpressing transgenic plant lines. Furthermore, JcAP1 overexpression rescued the phenotype caused by the Arabidopsis AP1 loss-of-function mutant ap1-11. Therefore, JcAP1 is an ortholog of AtAP1, which plays a similar role in the regulation of flowering in Arabidopsis. However, the overexpression of JcAP1 in Jatropha using the same promoter resulted in little variation in the flowering time and floral organs, indicating that JcAP1 may be insufficient to regulate flowering by itself in Jatropha. This study helps to elucidate the function of JcAP1 and contributes to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of flower development in Jatropha.

  8. Improvement of enzymatic saccharification yield in Arabidopsis thaliana by ectopic expression of the rice SUB1A-1 transcription factor

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    Lizeth Núñez-López

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Saccharification of polysaccharides releases monosaccharides that can be used by ethanol-producing microorganisms in biofuel production. To improve plant biomass as a raw material for saccharification, factors controlling the accumulation and structure of carbohydrates must be identified. Rice SUB1A-1 is a transcription factor that represses the turnover of starch and postpones energy-consuming growth processes under submergence stress. Arabidopsis was employed to test if heterologous expression of SUB1A-1 or SUB1C-1 (a related gene can be used to improve saccharification. Cellulolytic and amylolytic enzymatic treatments confirmed that SUB1A-1 transgenics had better saccharification yield than wild-type (Col-0, mainly from accumulated starch. This improved saccharification yield was developmentally controlled; when compared to Col-0, young transgenic vegetative plants yielded 200–300% more glucose, adult vegetative plants yielded 40–90% more glucose and plants in reproductive stage had no difference in yield. We measured photosynthetic parameters, starch granule microstructure, and transcript abundance of genes involved in starch degradation (SEX4, GWD1, juvenile transition (SPL3-5 and meristematic identity (FUL, SOC1 but found no differences to Col-0, indicating that starch accumulation may be controlled by down-regulation of CONSTANS and FLOWERING LOCUS T by SUB1A-1 as previously reported. SUB1A-1 transgenics also offered less resistance to deformation than wild-type concomitant to up-regulation of AtEXP2 expansin and BGL2 glucan-1,3,-beta-glucosidase. We conclude that heterologous SUB1A-1 expression can improve saccharification yield and softness, two traits needed in bioethanol production.

  9. Primary Intraorbital Ectopic Meningioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Tetsuo; Nishizawa, Shigeru; Sugiyama, Kenji; Yokota, Noki; Ohta, Seiji; Uemura, Kenichi; Hinokuma, Kaoru; Inenaga, Chikanori

    1999-01-01

    We report a case of intraorbital meningioma. Operative findings and histopathological examination revealed the tumoc to be meningothelial meningloma and to be located entirely outside the optic dura. This case demonstrates the occurrence of primary intraorbital ectopic meningioma, and the tumor was removed through a modified Dolenc approach. The primary intraorbital ectopic meningioma is discussed and the surgical approach to the orbital apex region is reviewed. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2Figure 4Figure 5 PMID:17171081

  10. Ectopic expression of a horseradish peroxidase enhances growth rate and increases oxidative stress resistance in hybrid aspen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaoka, Akiyoshi; Matsunaga, Etsuko; Endo, Saori; Kondo, Shinkichi; Yoshida, Kazuya; Shinmyo, Atsuhiko; Ebinuma, Hiroyasu

    2003-07-01

    We previously demonstrated that overexpression of the horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) peroxidase prxC1a gene stimulated the growth rate of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants. Here, the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S::prxC1a construct was introduced into hybrid aspen (Populus sieboldii x Populus grandidentata). The growth rate of these transformed hybrid aspen plants was substantially increased under greenhouse conditions. The average stem length of transformed plants was 25% greater than that of control plants. There was no other obvious phenotypic difference between the transformed and control plants. Fast-growing transformed hybrid aspen showed high levels of expression of prxC1a and had elevated peroxidase activities toward guaiacol and ascorbate. However, there was no increase of the endogenous class I ascorbate peroxidase activities in the transformed plants by separate assay and activity staining of native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Furthermore, calli derived from the transformed hybrid aspen grew faster than those from control plants and were resistant to the oxidative stress imposed by hydrogen peroxide. Therefore, enhanced peroxidase activity affects plant growth rate and oxidative stress resistance.

  11. Ectopic Expression of the Coleus R2R3 MYB-Type Proanthocyanidin Regulator Gene SsMYB3 Alters the Flower Color in Transgenic Tobacco.

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    Qinlong Zhu

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins (PAs play an important role in plant disease defense and have beneficial effects on human health. We isolated and characterized a novel R2R3 MYB-type PA-regulator SsMYB3 from a well-known ornamental plant, coleus (Solenostemon scutellarioides, to study the molecular regulation of PAs and to engineer PAs biosynthesis. The expression level of SsMYB3 was correlated with condensed tannins contents in various coleus tissues and was induced by wounding and light. A complementation test in the Arabidopsis tt2 mutant showed that SsMYB3 could restore the PA-deficient seed coat phenotype and activated expression of the PA-specific gene ANR and two related genes, DFR and ANS. In yeast two-hybrid assays, SsMYB3 interacted with the Arabidopsis AtTT8 and AtTTG1 to reform the ternary transcriptional complex, and also interacted with two tobacco bHLH proteins (NtAn1a and NtJAF13-1 and a WD40 protein, NtAn11-1. Ectopic overexpression of SsMYB3 in transgenic tobacco led to almost-white flowers by greatly reducing anthocyanin levels and enhancing accumulation of condensed tannins. This overexpression of SsMYB3 upregulated the key PA genes (NtLAR and NtANR and late anthocyanin structural genes (NtDFR and NtANS, but downregulated the expression of the final anthocyanin gene NtUFGT. The formative SsMYB3-complex represses anthocyanin accumulation by directly suppressing the expression of the final anthocyanin structural gene NtUFGT, through competitive inhibition or destabilization of the endogenous NtAn2-complex formation. These results suggested that SsMYB3 may form a transcription activation complex to regulate PA biosynthesis in the Arabidopsis tt2 mutant and transgenic tobacco. Our findings suggest that SsMYB3 is involved in the regulation of PA biosynthesis in coleus and has the potential as a molecular tool for manipulating biosynthesis of PAs in fruits and other crops using metabolic engineering.

  12. Leaf-Like Sepals Induced by Ectopic Expression of a SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP)-Like MADS-Box Gene from the Basal Eudicot Epimedium sagittatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhineng; Zeng, Shaohua; Li, Yanbang; Li, Mingyang; Souer, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Epimedium L. (Berberidaceae, Ranales), a perennial traditional Chinese medicinal herb, has become a new popular landscape plant for ground cover and pot culture in many countries based on its excellent ornamental characteristics and, distinctive and diverse floral morphology. However, little is known about the molecular genetics of flower development in Epimedium sagittatum. Here, we describe the characterization of EsSVP that encodes a protein sharing 68, 54, and 35% similarity with SVP, AGAMOUS-like 24 (AGL24) and SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1) in Arabidopsis, respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) indicated that EsSVP transcripts were principally found in petiole and leaf tissues, with little expression in roots and flowers and no in fruits. The highest EsSVP expression was observed in leaves. The flowering time of 35S::EsSVP in most Arabidopsis thaliana and in all petunia plants was not affected in both photoperiod conditions, but 35S::EsSVP 5# and 35S::EsSVP 1# Arabidopsis lines induced late and early flowering under long day (LD, 14 h light/10 h dark) and short day (SD, 10 h light/14 h dark) conditions, respectively. The 35S::EsSVP Arabidopsis produced extra secondary inflorescence or floral meristems in the axils of the leaf-like sepals with excrescent trichomes, and leaf-like sepals not able to enclose the inner three whorls completely. Moreover, almost all transgenic Arabidopsis plants showed persistent sepals around the completely matured fruits. Upon ectopic expression of 35S::EsSVP in Petunia W115, sepals were enlarged, sometimes to the size of leaves; corollas were greenish and did not fully open. These results suggest that EsSVP is involved in inflorescence meristem identity and flowering time regulation in some conditions. Although, the SVP homologs might have suffered functional diversification among diverse species between core and basal eudicots, the protein functions are conserved between Arabidopsis/Petunia and Epimedium

  13. Leaf-like sepals induced by ectopic expression of a SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP-like MADS-box gene from the basal eudicot Epimedium sagittatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhineng Li

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Epimedium L. (Berberidaceae, Ranales, a perennial traditional Chinese medicinal herb, has become a new popular landscape plant for ground cover and pot culture in many countries based on its excellent ornamental characteristics and, distinctive and diverse floral morphology. However, little is known about the molecular genetics of flower development in Epimedium sagittatum. Here, we describe the characterization of EsSVP that encodes a protein sharing 68%, 54% and 35% similarity with SVP, AGAMOUS-like 24 (AGL24 and SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1 in Arabidopsis, respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR indicated that EsSVP transcripts were principally found in petiole and leaf tissues, with little expression in roots and flowers and no in fruits. The highest EsSVP expression was observed in leaves. The flowering time of 35S::EsSVP in most Arabidopsis thaliana and in all petunia plants was not affected in both photoperiod conditions, but 35S::EsSVP 5# and 35S::EsSVP 1# Arabidopsis lines induced late and early flowering under long day (LD, 14 hr light/10 hr dark and short day (SD, 10 hr light/14 hr dark conditions, respectively. The 35S::EsSVP Arabidopsis produced extra secondary inflorescence or floral meristems in the axils of the leaf-like sepals with excrescent trichomes, and leaf-like sepals not able to enclose the inner three whorls completely. Moreover, almost all transgenic Arabidopsis plants showed persistent sepals around the completely matured fruits. Upon ectopic expression of 35S::EsSVP in Petunia W115, sepals were enlarged, sometimes to the size of leaves; corollas were greenish and did not fully open. These results suggest that EsSVP is involved in inflorescence meristem identity and flowering time regulation in some conditions. Although the SVP homologs might have suffered functional diversification among diverse species between core and basal eudicots, the protein functions are conserved between Arabidopsis

  14. Suspected ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeber, Beata E; Barnhart, Kurt T

    2006-02-01

    Women who present with pain and bleeding in the first trimester are at risk for ectopic pregnancy, a life-threatening condition. Conditions that predispose a woman to ectopic pregnancy are damaged fallopian tubes from prior tubal surgery or previous pelvic infection, smoking, and conception using assisted reproduction. Many women without risk factors can develop an ectopic pregnancy. A diagnostic algorithm that includes the use of transvaginal ultrasonography, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) concentrations, and, sometimes, uterine curettage can definitively diagnose women at risk in a timely manner. The absence of an intrauterine pregnancy above an established cut point of hCG is consistent with an abnormal pregnancy but does not distinguish a miscarriage from an ectopic pregnancy. When the initial hCG value is low, serial hCG values can be used to determine whether a gestation is potentially viable or spontaneously resolving. The minimal rise in hCG for a viable pregnancy is 53% in 2 days. The minimal decline of a spontaneous abortion is 21-35% in 2 days, depending on the initial level. A rise or fall in serial hCG values that is slower than this is suggestive of an ectopic pregnancy. Women diagnosed with an unruptured ectopic pregnancy are potential candidates for medical management with methotrexate. Intramuscular injection with methotrexate can be used to safely treat an ectopic pregnancy with success rates, tubal patency rates, and future fertility that are similar to those obtained with conservative surgery. Success rates using methotrexate are inversely rated to baseline hCG values and are higher using "multidose" compared with "single-dose" regimens. Surgical treatment may be conservative or definitive and should be attempted in most cases via laparoscopy.

  15. Ectopic phytocystatin expression leads to enhanced drought stress tolerance in soybean (Glycine max) and Arabidopsis thaliana through effects on strigolactone pathways and can also result in improved seed traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quain, Marian D; Makgopa, Matome E; Márquez-García, Belén; Comadira, Gloria; Fernandez-Garcia, Nieves; Olmos, Enrique; Schnaubelt, Daniel; Kunert, Karl J; Foyer, Christine H

    2014-09-01

    Ectopic cystatin expression has long been used in plant pest management, but the cysteine protease, targets of these inhibitors, might also have important functions in the control of plant lifespan and stress tolerance that remain poorly characterized. We therefore characterized the effects of expression of the rice cystatin, oryzacystatin-I (OCI), on the growth, development and stress tolerance of crop (soybean) and model (Arabidopsis thaliana) plants. Ectopic OCI expression in soybean enhanced shoot branching and leaf chlorophyll accumulation at later stages of vegetative development and enhanced seed protein contents and decreased the abundance of mRNAs encoding strigolactone synthesis enzymes. The OCI-expressing A. thaliana showed a slow-growth phenotype, with increased leaf numbers and enhanced shoot branching at flowering. The OCI-dependent inhibition of cysteine proteases enhanced drought tolerance in soybean and A. thaliana, photosynthetic CO2 assimilation being much less sensitive to drought-induced inhibition in the OCI-expressing soybean lines. Ectopic OCI expression or treatment with the cysteine protease inhibitor E64 increased lateral root densities in A. thaliana. E64 treatment also increased lateral root densities in the max2-1 mutants that are defective in strigolactone signalling, but not in the max3-9 mutants that are defective in strigolactone synthesis. Taken together, these data provide evidence that OCI-inhibited cysteine proteases participate in the control of growth and stress tolerance through effects on strigolactones. We conclude that cysteine proteases are important targets for manipulation of plant growth, development and stress tolerance, and also seed quality traits. © 2014 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Ectopic Lignification in the Flax lignified bast fiber1 Mutant Stem Is Associated with Tissue-Specific Modifications in Gene Expression and Cell Wall Composition[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chantreau, Maxime; Portelette, Antoine; Dauwe, Rebecca; Kiyoto, Shingo; Crônier, David; Morreel, Kris; Arribat, Sandrine; Neutelings, Godfrey; Chabi, Malika; Boerjan, Wout; Yoshinaga, Arata; Mesnard, François; Grec, Sebastien; Chabbert, Brigitte; Hawkins, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Histochemical screening of a flax ethyl methanesulfonate population led to the identification of 93 independent M2 mutant families showing ectopic lignification in the secondary cell wall of stem bast fibers. We named this core collection the Linum usitatissimum (flax) lbf mutants for lignified bast fibers and believe that this population represents a novel biological resource for investigating how bast fiber plants regulate lignin biosynthesis. As a proof of concept, we characterized the lbf1 mutant and showed that the lignin content increased by 350% in outer stem tissues containing bast fibers but was unchanged in inner stem tissues containing xylem. Chemical and NMR analyses indicated that bast fiber ectopic lignin was highly condensed and rich in G-units. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry profiling showed large modifications in the oligolignol pool of lbf1 inner- and outer-stem tissues that could be related to ectopic lignification. Immunological and chemical analyses revealed that lbf1 mutants also showed changes to other cell wall polymers. Whole-genome transcriptomics suggested that ectopic lignification of flax bast fibers could be caused by increased transcript accumulation of (1) the cinnamoyl-CoA reductase, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase, and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase monolignol biosynthesis genes, (2) several lignin-associated peroxidase genes, and (3) genes coding for respiratory burst oxidase homolog NADPH-oxidases necessary to increase H2O2 supply. PMID:25381351

  17. Isospora bocamontensis (Protozoa: Apicomplexa in captive yellow cardinal Gubernatrix cristata (Passeriformes: Emberezidae Isospora bocamontensis (Protozoa: Apicomplexa em cardeais-amarelo Gubernatrix cristata (Passeriformes: Emberezidae mantidos em cativeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Quinto Pereira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The yellow cardinal (Gubernatrix cristata is a passerine found in southern Brazil, especially along the border with Uruguay and Argentina. It is an endangered species and its population is decreasing. Among the parasites that affect passerines, the genus Isospora is the most easily found in both captive and free-living birds. This parasite commonly causes injury to the intestinal tissue and could occasionally affect other organs. In this work we examined the occurrence of coccidiosis in captive yellow cardinals and its association with factors such as sex, use of parasiticides, type of enclosure, contact with feces, type of food and cleaning frequency. We collected fecal samples of 45 yellow cardinals, healthy and kept in captivity, in late afternoon at the end of the reproductive period. The examination showed parasitic infection by Isospora bocamontensis in 44.5% of the birds. This infection is not influenced by the sex of birds, but is significantly affected by the type of enclosure, contact with the feces, use of parasiticides, type of food and cleaning frequency. The results indicate that to keep yellow cardinals captive, these factors must be observed.O cardeal-amarelo (Gubernatrix cristata é um pássaro que ocorre no sul do Brasil, principalmente na fronteira com Uruguai e Argentina. É uma ave ameaçada de extinção e sua população está decrescendo. Dentre, os parasitas que afetam a ordem Passeriformes, o gênero Isospora está entre o mais encontrado, tanto em aves de cativeiro quanto em aves de vida-livre. Comumente causam injúrias no tecido intestinal, podendo ocasionalmente afetar outros órgãos. Neste trabalho examinamos a ocorrência de coccidiose em cardeais mantidos em cativeiro e verificamos sua associação com fatores como sexo, uso de produtos parasiticidas, tipo de recinto, contato com fezes, tipo de alimentação e frequência de limpeza. Foram coletadas amostras de fezes, ao entardecer, de 45 cardeais-amarelos, h

  18. Ruptured Ectopic Pregnancy

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    Valentina Park

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 21-year-old female presented with sudden onset suprapubic abdominal pain associated with dysuria. The patient also experienced near syncope during bowel movements three times three days ago without falling or losing consciousness. She denied fever, nausea, and vomiting. She stated that she was five weeks pregnant by last menstrual period. She had an ultrasound a few weeks before that showed no intrauterine pregnancy, but she had not followed up for additional testing. Significant findings: The patient’s serum beta-hCG was 5,637 mIU/mL. The transvaginal ultrasound showed an empty uterus with free fluid posteriorly in the pelvis and Pouch of Douglas (00:00. A 4.5 cm heterogeneous mass was visible in the left adnexa concerning for an ectopic pregnancy (00:10. Discussion: Ectopic pregnancies are a leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality, as well as decreased fertility.1,2 Differentiating between an ectopic pregnancy and a normal early pregnancy may be difficult, since ultrasound and quantitative beta-hCG may show inconclusive results.3,4 Patients who have used fertility treatment may further complicate the picture because they are at risk for heterotypic pregnancies.5 Ectopic pregnancies most commonly implant in the fallopian tube, but may alternatively implant in the ovary, cervix, abdomen, or uterine cornua.4 Ultrasonography may show an empty uterus, adnexal mass, pelvic free fluid, or an extra-uterine gestational sac, yolk sac, and/or embryo.6 Treatment options for ectopic pregnancy include surgery or methotrexate.2,4 Some patients may be candidates for close outpatient surveillance if the diagnosis is unclear or in very limited cases for early, non-ruptured ectopic pregnancies.2,4

  19. Transcriptome Analysis Identifies Key Metabolic Changes in the Hooded Seal (Cystophora cristata Brain in Response to Hypoxia and Reoxygenation.

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    Mariana Leivas Müller Hoff

    Full Text Available The brain of diving mammals tolerates low oxygen conditions better than the brain of most terrestrial mammals. Previously, it has been demonstrated that the neurons in brain slices of the hooded seal (Cystophora cristata withstand hypoxia longer than those of mouse, and also tolerate reduced glucose supply and high lactate concentrations. This tolerance appears to be accompanied by a shift in the oxidative energy metabolism to the astrocytes in the seal while in terrestrial mammals the aerobic energy production mainly takes place in neurons. Here, we used RNA-Seq to compare the effect of hypoxia and reoxygenation in vitro on brain slices from the visual cortex of hooded seals. We saw no general reduction of gene expression, suggesting that the response to hypoxia and reoxygenation is an actively regulated process. The treatments caused the preferential upregulation of genes related to inflammation, as found before e.g. in stroke studies using mammalian models. Gene ontology and KEGG pathway analyses showed a downregulation of genes involved in ion transport and other neuronal processes, indicative for a neuronal shutdown in response to a shortage of O2 supply. These differences may be interpreted in terms of an energy saving strategy in the seal's brain. We specifically analyzed the regulation of genes involved in energy metabolism. Hypoxia and reoxygenation caused a similar response, with upregulation of genes involved in glucose metabolism and downregulation of the components of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. We also observed upregulation of the monocarboxylate transporter Mct4, suggesting increased lactate efflux. Together, these data indicate that the seal brain responds to the hypoxic challenge by a relative increase in the anaerobic energy metabolism.

  20. Ectopic Expression of CsCTR1, a Cucumber CTR-Like Gene, Attenuates Constitutive Ethylene Signaling in an Arabidopsis ctr1-1 Mutant and Expression Pattern Analysis of CsCTR1 in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus

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    Beibei Bie

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The gaseous plant hormone ethylene regulates many aspects of plant growth, development and responses to the environment. Constitutive triple response 1 (CTR1 is a central regulator involved in the ethylene signal transduction pathway. To obtain a better understanding of this particular pathway in cucumber, the cDNA-encoding CTR1 (designated CsCTR1 was isolated from cucumber. A sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses revealed that CsCTR1 has a high degree of homology with other plant CTR1 proteins. The ectopic expression of CsCTR1 in the Arabidopsis ctr1-1 mutant attenuates constitutive ethylene signaling of this mutant, suggesting that CsCTR1 indeed performs its function as negative regulator of the ethylene signaling pathway. CsCTR1 is constitutively expressed in all of the examined cucumber organs, including roots, stems, leaves, shoot apices, mature male and female flowers, as well as young fruits. CsCTR1 expression gradually declined during male flower development and increased during female flower development. Additionally, our results indicate that CsCTR1 can be induced in the roots, leaves and shoot apices by external ethylene. In conclusion, this study provides a basis for further studies on the role of CTR1 in the biological processes of cucumber and on the molecular mechanism of the cucumber ethylene signaling pathway.

  1. Ectopic ovarian pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachdev, P.S.; Jatoi, N.; Memon, R.A.; Sachdev, C.S.

    2003-01-01

    A case of ectopic ovarian pregnancy is presented occurring in a 24 years old woman after natural conception. The clinical diagnosis was ruptured tubal pregnancy. Gross findings were suggestive of ruptured corpus luteum cyst on exploration. The histopathological examination of specimen brought forward the diagnosis of ovarian pregnancy. (author)

  2. Three Dinophyceae from Clipperton Island lagoon (eastern Pacific Ocean), including a description of Peridiniopsis cristata var. tubulifera var. nov.

    OpenAIRE

    Coute, Alain; Perrette, Catherine; Chomerat, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    Clipperton Island is a small French coral atoll in the eastern Pacific Ocean, which has been rarely investigated because of its remote location and difficult access. There is little scientific information on this ecosystem and only a few microalgae have been reported from the lagoon. To date, only one dinoflagellate taxon, Peridiniopsis cristata, is known to inhabit the lagoon. During an expedition in 2005 to study the lagoon and the surrounding oceanic waters of Clipperton Island, a further ...

  3. Experimental variation of the level and the ratio of angiogenic and osteogenic signaling affects the spatiotemporal expression of bone-specific markers and organization of bone formation in ectopic sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Norman; Goldstein, Jan; Kauffmann, Phillip; Epple, Matthias; Schliephake, Henning

    2018-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the ratio of angiogenic and osteogenic signaling affects ectopic bone formation when delivered in different amounts. Porous composite PDLLA/CaCO 3 scaffolds were loaded with rhBMP2 and rhVEGF in different dosage combinations and implanted into the gluteal muscles of 120 adult male Wistar rats. Bone formation and expression of alkaline phosphatase and Runx2 were quantified by histomorphometry. Spatial distribution across the scaffolds was assessed by using a grid that discriminated between the periphery and center of the scaffolds. The evaluation showed that the combined delivery of bone morphogenetic protein BMP2 and VEGF in different dosage combinations did not enhance the overall quantity of ectopic bone formation compared to the delivery of BMP2 alone. The addition of VEGF generally upregulated Runx2 after 4 weeks, which may have retarded terminal osteogenic differentiation. However, slow combined delivery of 1.5-2.0 μg BMP2 combined with 50 ng VEGF165 over a period of 5 weeks supported a more even distribution of bone formation across the implanted scaffolds whereas higher amounts of VEGF did not elicit this effect. The findings suggest that structural organization rather than the quantity of ectopic bone formation is affected by the dosage and the ratio of BMP2 and VEGF levels at the observed intervals. The development of carriers for dual growth factor delivery has to take into account the necessity to carefully balance the ratio of growth release.

  4. Functional conservation and divergence of four ginger AP1/AGL9 MADS-box genes revealed by analysis of their expression and protein-protein interaction, and ectopic expression of AhFUL gene in Arabidopsis.

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    Xiumei Li

    Full Text Available Alpinia genus are known generally as ginger-lilies for showy flowers in the ginger family, Zingiberaceae, and their floral morphology diverges from typical monocotyledon flowers. However, little is known about the functions of ginger MADS-box genes in floral identity. In this study, four AP1/AGL9 MADS-box genes were cloned from Alpinia hainanensis, and protein-protein interactions (PPIs and roles of the four genes in floral homeotic conversion and in floral evolution are surveyed for the first time. AhFUL is clustered to the AP1 lineage, AhSEP4 and AhSEP3b to the SEP lineage, and AhAGL6-like to the AGL6 lineage. The four genes showed conserved and divergent expression patterns, and their encoded proteins were localized in the nucleus. Seven combinations of PPI (AhFUL-AhSEP4, AhFUL-AhAGL6-like, AhFUL-AhSEP3b, AhSEP4-AhAGL6-like, AhSEP4-AhSEP3b, AhAGL6-like-AhSEP3b, and AhSEP3b-AhSEP3b were detected, and the PPI patterns in the AP1/AGL9 lineage revealed that five of the 10 possible combinations are conserved and three are variable, while conclusions cannot yet be made regarding the other two. Ectopic expression of AhFUL in Arabidopsis thaliana led to early flowering and floral organ homeotic conversion to sepal-like or leaf-like. Therefore, we conclude that the four A. hainanensis AP1/AGL9 genes show functional conservation and divergence in the floral identity from other MADS-box genes.

  5. Secondary abdominal appendicular ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nama, Vivek; Gyampoh, Bright; Karoshi, Mahantesh; McRae, Reynold; Opemuyi, Isaac

    2007-01-01

    Although the case fatality rate for ectopic pregnancies has decreased to 0.08% in industrialized countries, it still represents 3.8% of maternal mortality in the United States alone. In developing countries, the case fatality rate varies from 3% to 27%. Laparoscopic management of tubal pregnancies is now the standard form of treatment where this technology is available. Abdominal pregnancies are rare, and secondary implantation of tubal ectopic pregnancies is the most common cause of abdominal gestations. We present an interesting case of secondary implantation of a tubal ectopic pregnancy to highlight the appendix as a possible secondary implantation site after a tubal ectopic pregnancy.

  6. Isospora bocamontensis (Protozoa: Apicomplexa in captive yellow cardinal Gubernatrix cristata (Passeriformes: Emberezidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Quinto Pereira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The yellow cardinal (Gubernatrix cristata is a passerine found in southern Brazil, especially along the border with Uruguay and Argentina. It is an endangered species and its population is decreasing. Among the parasites that affect passerines, the genus Isospora is the most easily found in both captive and free-living birds. This parasite commonly causes injury to the intestinal tissue and could occasionally affect other organs. In this work we examined the occurrence of coccidiosis in captive yellow cardinals and its association with factors such as sex, use of parasiticides, type of enclosure, contact with feces, type of food and cleaning frequency. We collected fecal samples of 45 yellow cardinals, healthy and kept in captivity, in late afternoon at the end of the reproductive period. The examination showed parasitic infection by Isospora bocamontensis in 44.5% of the birds. This infection is not influenced by the sex of birds, but is significantly affected by the type of enclosure, contact with the feces, use of parasiticides, type of food and cleaning frequency. The results indicate that to keep yellow cardinals captive, these factors must be observed.

  7. Plant Regeneration and Cellular Behaviour Studies in Celosia cristata Grown In Vivo and In Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Rosna Mat; Wafa, Sharifah Nurashikin

    2012-01-01

    Tissue culture studies of Celosia cristata were established from various explants and the effects of various hormones on morphogenesis of this species were examined. It was found that complete plant regeneration occurred at highest percentage on MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/L NAA and 1.5 mg/L BAP, with the best response showed by shoot explants. In vitro flowering was observed on MS basal medium after six weeks. The occurrence of somaclonal variation and changes in cellular behavior from in vivo and in vitro grown plants were investigated through cytological studies and image analysis. It was observed that Mitotic Index (MI), mean chromosome numbers, and mean nuclear to cell area ratio of in vitro root meristem cells were slightly higher compared to in vivo values. However, in vitro plants produced lower mean cell areas but higher nuclear areas when compared to in vivo plants. Thus, no occurrence of somaclonal variation was detected, and this was supported by morphological features of the in vitro plants. PMID:22593677

  8. Reproductive features of the eastern mole (Scalopus aquaticus) and star-nose mole (Condylura cristata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, J M; Mock, O B; Nagdas, S K; Winfrey, V P; Olson, G E

    1999-11-01

    Since moles are closely related to shrews, the gametes and reproductive tracts of the star-nose mole (Condylura cristata) and the eastern mole (Scalopus aquaticus) were examined to gain further insight into unusual reproductive traits of the Soricidae. Moles display many of these soricid traits, but with some important differences. The cumulus oophorus of Scalopus, ovulated about 16 h after hCG injection, was largely dispersed by hyaluronidase and, though quite dense, was nevertheless more similar to that of higher mammals than to the compact 'ball of the soricid cumulus. Within the female tract in these moles, approximately 85% of the length of the oviduct comprises a narrow ampulla with numerous differentiated crypts that, in shrews, house spermatozoa. However, in contrast to shrews, moles produce considerably larger numbers of spermatozoa, which challenges the proposal that, in shrews, oviductal sperm crypts specifically permit lower sperm production by the males. In the sperm head of these two moles, the acrosome displays the long rostrum that is typical of other Insectivora, and the perforatorium has the barbs by which soricid spermatozoa probably bind to the zona pellucida. Perhaps allied to this, immunoblots indicated that the immunoreactive acrosomal matrix of Scalopus spermatozoa is simpler than the polypeptide complex of the bovine and hamster acrosomal matrix.

  9. Primary ectopic frontotemporal extradural craniopharyngioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Pourkhalili

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of primary ectopic frontotemporal extradural craniopharyngioma. Primary ectopic craniopharyngiomas are very rare and have been reported involving the fourth ventricle, infrasellar region, lateral ventricle, temporal area, cerebellopontine angle, clivus, corpus callosum, and prepontine cistern. There was just 1 case of craniopharyngioma previously presented in the literature, with nearly same location as the presenting case.

  10. Ocorrência do gafanhoto-do-coqueiro Eutropidacris cristata (orthoptera: acrididae atacando plantas de eucalipto em Minas Gerais Coconut tree grashopper, Eutropidacris cristata (orthoptera: acrididae feeding on eucalyptus trees in Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Zanetti

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os danos causados pelo gafanhoto-do-coqueiro Eutropidacris cristata (Orthoptera: Acrididae em plantas de eucalipto, no município de Curvelo, Minas Gerais, Brasil, em junho de 2001. As amostragens foram realizadas, contando-se o número total de plantas por linha e o de plantas atacadas por classe de desfolha de 10%, a cada dez linhas de plantio, em cinco talhões de eucalipto com sinais de ataque desse gafanhoto. Calculou-se a porcentagem de desfolha por talhão e por planta de eucalipto. A porcentagem de desfolha por planta na área atacada foi de 3,70%, variando de 0,84 a 7,93%, enquanto a de plantas atacadas por talhão foi de 4,80%, variando de 1,88 a 11,54%. Os danos causados por E. cristata não justificaram medidas de controle, mas foram feitas avaliações para acompanhar a evolução do ataque desse inseto, cujas populações reduziram-se a níveis inexpressivos após 30 dias de sua constatação nesse plantio de eucalipto.Damage caused by the coconut tree grasshopper, Eutropidacris cristata (Orthoptera: Acrididae was evaluated in an eucalyptus plantation in Curvelo, Minas Gerais, Brazil, in June 2001. Samplings were obtained by counting the number of plants per line and the number of defoliated plants in classes of 10% in 10 planting lines of five blocks of an eucalyptus plantation. Mean percentage of defoliation per plant in the area attacked by this pest was 3.70%, varying from 0.84 to 7.93%, while the number of plants attacked by eucalyptus block was 4.80%, varying from 1.88 to 11.54%. Damage by E. cristata did not justify control measures. Evaluation of this insect showed that its population was reduced to inexpressive numbers 30 days after it was found in this eucalyptus plantation.

  11. Ectopic Expression of the Wild Grape WRKY Transcription Factor VqWRKY52 in Arabidopsis thaliana Enhances Resistance to the Biotrophic Pathogen Powdery Mildew But Not to the Necrotrophic Pathogen Botrytis cinerea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianhang; Guo, Rongrong; Tu, Mingxing; Wang, Dejun; Guo, Chunlei; Wan, Ran; Li, Zhi; Wang, Xiping

    2017-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors are known to play important roles in plant responses to biotic stresses. We previously showed that the expression of the WRKY gene, VqWRKY52 , from Chinese wild Vitis quinquangularis was strongly induced 24 h post inoculation with powdery mildew. In this study, we analyzed the expression levels of VqWRKY52 following treatment with the defense related hormones salicylic acid (SA) and methyl jasmonate, revealing that VqWRKY52 was strongly induced by SA but not JA. We characterized the VqWRKY52 gene, which encodes a WRKY III gene family member, and found that ectopic expression in Arabidopsis thaliana enhanced resistance to powdery mildew and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, but increased susceptibility to Botrytis cinerea , compared with wild type (WT) plants. The transgenic A. thaliana lines displayed strong cell death induced by the biotrophic powdery mildew pathogen, the hemibiotrophic P. syringe pathogen and the necrotrophic pathogen B. cinerea . In addition, the relative expression levels of various defense-related genes were compared between the transgenic A. thaliana lines and WT plants following the infection by different pathogens. Collectively, the results indicated that VqWRKY52 plays essential roles in the SA dependent signal transduction pathway and that it can enhance the hypersensitive response cell death triggered by microbial pathogens.

  12. Ectopic expression of anti-HIV-1 shRNAs protects CD8{sup +} T cells modified with CD4ζ CAR from HIV-1 infection and alleviates impairment of cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamata, Masakazu, E-mail: masa3k@ucla.edu [Division of Hematology-Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kim, Patrick Y. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ng, Hwee L. [Division of Infectious Diseases, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Ringpis, Gene-Errol E.; Kranz, Emiko; Chan, Joshua; O' Connor, Sean [Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Yang, Otto O. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Division of Infectious Diseases, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); UCLA AIDS Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States); AIDS Healthcare Foundation, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Chen, Irvin S.Y. [Division of Hematology-Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); UCLA AIDS Institute, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-07-31

    Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are artificially engineered receptors that confer a desired specificity to immune effector T cells. As an HIV-1-specific CAR, CD4ζ CAR has been extensively tested in vitro as well as in clinical trials. T cells modified with this CAR mediated highly potent anti-HIV-1 activities in vitro and were well-tolerated in vivo, but exerted limited effects on viral load and reservoir size due to poor survival and/or functionality of the transduced cells in patients. We hypothesize that ectopic expression of CD4ζ on CD8{sup +} T cells renders them susceptible to HIV-1 infection, resulting in poor survival of those cells. To test this possibility, highly purified CD8{sup +} T cells were genetically modified with a CD4ζ-encoding lentiviral vector and infected with HIV-1. CD8{sup +} T cells were vulnerable to HIV-1 infection upon expression of CD4ζ as evidenced by elevated levels of p24{sup Gag} in cells and culture supernatants. Concurrently, the number of CD4ζ-modified CD8{sup +} T cells was reduced relative to control cells upon HIV-1 infection. To protect these cells from HIV-1 infection, we co-expressed two anti-HIV-1 shRNAs previously developed by our group together with CD4ζ. This combination vector was able to suppress HIV-1 infection without impairing HIV-1-dependent effector activities of CD4ζ. In addition, the number of CD4ζ-modified CD8{sup +} T cells maintained similar levels to that of the control even under HIV-1 infection. These results suggest that protecting CD4ζ-modified CD8{sup +} T cells from HIV-1 infection is required for prolonged HIV-1-specific immune surveillance. - Highlights: • Ectopic expression of CD4ζ CAR in CD8{sup +} T cells renders them susceptible to HIV-1 infection. • Co-expression of two anti-HIV-1 shRNAs protects CD4ζ CAR-modified CD8{sup +} T cells from HIV-1 infection. • Protecting CD4ζ CAR-modified CD8{sup +} T cells from HIV-1 infection suppresses its cytopathic effect.

  13. Ectopic expression of anti-HIV-1 shRNAs protects CD8+ T cells modified with CD4ζ CAR from HIV-1 infection and alleviates impairment of cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamata, Masakazu; Kim, Patrick Y.; Ng, Hwee L.; Ringpis, Gene-Errol E.; Kranz, Emiko; Chan, Joshua; O'Connor, Sean; Yang, Otto O.; Chen, Irvin S.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) are artificially engineered receptors that confer a desired specificity to immune effector T cells. As an HIV-1-specific CAR, CD4ζ CAR has been extensively tested in vitro as well as in clinical trials. T cells modified with this CAR mediated highly potent anti-HIV-1 activities in vitro and were well-tolerated in vivo, but exerted limited effects on viral load and reservoir size due to poor survival and/or functionality of the transduced cells in patients. We hypothesize that ectopic expression of CD4ζ on CD8 + T cells renders them susceptible to HIV-1 infection, resulting in poor survival of those cells. To test this possibility, highly purified CD8 + T cells were genetically modified with a CD4ζ-encoding lentiviral vector and infected with HIV-1. CD8 + T cells were vulnerable to HIV-1 infection upon expression of CD4ζ as evidenced by elevated levels of p24 Gag in cells and culture supernatants. Concurrently, the number of CD4ζ-modified CD8 + T cells was reduced relative to control cells upon HIV-1 infection. To protect these cells from HIV-1 infection, we co-expressed two anti-HIV-1 shRNAs previously developed by our group together with CD4ζ. This combination vector was able to suppress HIV-1 infection without impairing HIV-1-dependent effector activities of CD4ζ. In addition, the number of CD4ζ-modified CD8 + T cells maintained similar levels to that of the control even under HIV-1 infection. These results suggest that protecting CD4ζ-modified CD8 + T cells from HIV-1 infection is required for prolonged HIV-1-specific immune surveillance. - Highlights: • Ectopic expression of CD4ζ CAR in CD8 + T cells renders them susceptible to HIV-1 infection. • Co-expression of two anti-HIV-1 shRNAs protects CD4ζ CAR-modified CD8 + T cells from HIV-1 infection. • Protecting CD4ζ CAR-modified CD8 + T cells from HIV-1 infection suppresses its cytopathic effect

  14. Isolated petrous apex ectopic craniopharyngioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius July

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary ectopic craniopharyngioma is a rare entity. Isolated petrous apex bone location has not been reported previously. This study reports a case of 26-year-old male with right abducent nerve palsy. CT and MRI imaging reveal right petrous apex cystic lesion. No sellar or suprasellar region involvement was found. Endoscopic endonasal transphenoid approach has been successfully performed. Histopathology examination confirms the diagnosis of adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma. So far, it’s probably the first case report of primary ectopic craniopharyngioma isolated in the petrous apex. This case report supports the premise that primary ectopic craniopharyngioma is a multifactorial process that starts with an error from migrated embryological cells.

  15. Fixação esquelética externa em fratura tarsometatársica de seriema (Cariama cristata: relato de caso External skeletal fixation in tarsumetatarsus fracture of red-legged seriema (Cariama cristata: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.B.J. Torres

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Uma seriema (Cariama cristata adulta foi atendida com histórico de traumatismo por tentativa de captura. A ave apresentava dificuldade de apoio do membro pélvico direito, dor à manipulação e fratura exposta do osso tarsometatarso. Optou-se pelo tratamento cirúrgico com redução fechada, utilizando-se fixador esquelético externo tipo II, com barra de conexão acrílica. A técnica cirúrgica utilizada foi satisfatória para o tratamento da fratura, possibilitando reparação óssea e retorno funcional do membro 60 dias após a cirurgia.An adult red-legged seriema (Cariama cristata was referred for examination with history of trauma by capture. The physical examination revealed lameness in the right pelvic limb, sensibility to touch and open fracture of tarsumetatarsus. The treatment was done with surgical closed reduction using a external skeletal fixator type II with acrylic connecting bar. The surgical technique applied was satisfactory for the treatment of the fracture of tarsumetatarsus, since there was bone healing and functional return of the limb at 60 days after surgery.

  16. Ectopic lingual thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amani, Mohammed El Amine; Benabadji, Nadjia; Benzian, Zakaria; Amani, Souad

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid ectopy is characterized by the presence of thyroid tissue outside its normal position resulting from a defect of the thyroid diverticulum migration from the base of the tongue until its final pre-tracheal position. One case is presented in a 12-year-old girl patient who consults for a failure to thrive estimated at less than three standard deviations (SD). Bone age was estimated at 8 years late compared to chronological age. The hormonal assessment showed hypothyroidism with negative thyroid antibodies. Cervical ultrasound was revealed thyroid parenchyma pre-dominantly left in place while sweeping the area under chin showed a nodular formation of the base of the tongue. Thyroid scan with technetium 99 m showed a selective uptake of radiotracer in sublingual position. Cervical computed tomography revealed a posterior median sublingual mass spontaneously hyperdense and enhancing sharply after injection of contrast. Treatment with thyroxine allowed obtaining euthyroidism. This case asks us to be careful before aetiological diagnosis of hypothyroidism in children, because although this is rare, the presence of a thyroid parenchyma up to the cervical ultrasound does not eliminate the presence of ectopic tissue

  17. Ectopic ureterocele and ectopic ureter in pediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lloret, M. T.; Ricart, V.; Muro, M. D.; Perez, D.; Martinez, I.; Brugger, S.; Romero, M. J.; Cortina, H.

    2000-01-01

    To describe the radiological findings associated with ectopic ureterocele and ectopic ureter in pediatric patients. To assess the role of ultrasound (US), serial micturating cystourethrography (SM-CU) and intravenous urography (IVU) in the diagnosis of these two entities. The authors performed a retrospective study of 132 patients, 73 with ectopic ureterocele and 59 with ectopic ureter. The imaging studies used were US, SMCU, IVU and methods to determine renal function (diuretic renography and renal scintigraphy). The findings were confirmed during surgery in every case. The most common radiological findings in ectopic ureterocele were renal duplication (86,3%). vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) to the lower half of the kidney (46.6%), dilatation of the lower pole of the kidney (38.4%) and contralateral duplication (30.1%). In boys, the ectopic ureter entered via bladder neck and posterior urethra (73.7%) or into seminal vesicles (15.8%); in girls, it went to vagina (32.5%), bladder neck (30%) or urethra (22.5%). Renal duplication was associated in 64.4%, with VUR to the ectopic ureter in 21% while there was a single renal system in 35.6%, with VUR to the ectopic ureter in 57.1% and contralateral renal agenesis in 19%. Eighteen patients (13.6%) presented a single, dy plastic, nonfunctioning renal system (6 cases of ureterocele and 12 of ectopic ureter). Knowledge of the embryological development of ureteral duplication is essential for the understanding of these two entities and helps to differentiate between them, thus facilitating a sometimes complicated diagnosis. Ectopic ureters and ureteroceles accompanied by a single, dysplastic renal system are associated with a greater incidence of congenital anomalies and a higher rate of complications than the duplicate systems. A prenatal US examination enables early diagnosis. The anatomical information provided by US is, on occasion, more valuable than that resulting from IVU or SMCU, However, IVU is indispensable in girls

  18. ECTOPIC ureters misdiagnosed as ureterocele

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bader, I.; Akhter, N.; Anwar-ul-Haq; Chaudhary, A.; Khan, N.Z.

    2004-01-01

    Ectopic ureters may be difficult to diagnose unless there is high index of suspicion. Examination for continuous dribbling may be difficult in infants who are still using diapers. We are reporting a case of ectopic ureter which was erroneously diagnosed as ureterocele on a cystourethrogram. Further investigations for accurate diagnosis and emerging abnormalities during the course of management are presented in this case report. Review of literature to high- light the various forms of investigations and management are also presented. (author)

  19. Mutations in the FHA-domain of ectopically expressed NBS1 lead to radiosensitization and to no increase in somatic mutation rates via a partial suppression of homologous recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Maki; Funyu, Yumi; Ebara, Shunsuke

    2014-01-01

    Ionizing radiation induces DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Mammalian cells repair DSBs through multiple pathways, and the repair pathway that is utilized may affect cellular radiation sensitivity. In this study, we examined effects on cellular radiosensitivity resulting from functional alterations in homologous recombination (HR). HR was inhibited by overexpression of the forkhead-associated (FHA) domain-mutated NBS1 (G27D/R28D: FHA-2D) protein in HeLa cells or in hamster cells carrying a human X-chromosome. Cells expressing FHA-2D presented partially (but significantly) HR-deficient phenotypes, which were assayed by the reduction of gene conversion frequencies measured with a reporter assay, a decrease in radiation-induced Mre11 foci formation, and hypersensitivity to camptothecin treatments. Interestingly, ectopic expression of FHA-2D did not increase the frequency of radiation-induced somatic mutations at the HPRT locus, suggesting that a partial reduction of HR efficiency has only a slight effect on genomic stability. The expression of FHA-2D rendered the exponentially growing cell population slightly (but significantly) more sensitive to ionizing radiation. This radiosensitization effect due to the expression of FHA-2D was enhanced when the cells were irradiated with split doses delivered at 24-h intervals. Furthermore, enhancement of radiation sensitivity by split dose irradiation was not seen in contact-inhibited G0/G1 populations, even though the cells expressed FHA-2D. These results suggest that the FHA domain of NBS1 might be an effective molecular target that can be used to induce radiosensitization using low molecular weight chemicals, and that partial inhibition of HR might improve the effectiveness of cancer radiotherapy. (author)

  20. Ectopic overexpression of castor bean LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2 in Arabidopsis triggers the expression of genes that encode regulators of seed maturation and oil body proteins in vegetative tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Uk Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2 gene plays critically important regulatory roles during both early and late embryonic development. Here, we report the identification of the LEC2 gene from the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis, and characterize the effects of its overexpression on gene regulation and lipid metabolism in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. LEC2 exists as a single-copy gene in castor bean, is expressed predominantly in embryos, and encodes a protein with a conserved B3 domain, but different N- and C-terminal domains to those found in LEC2 from Arabidopsis. Ectopic overexpression of LEC2 from castor bean under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV 35S promoter in Arabidopsis plants induces the accumulation of transcripts that encodes five major transcription factors (the LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1, LEAFY COTYLEDON1-LIKE (L1L, FUSCA3 (FUS3, and ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3 transcripts for seed maturation, and WRINKELED1 (WRI1 transcripts for fatty acid biosynthesis, as well as OLEOSIN transcripts for the formation of oil bodies in vegetative tissues. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants that express the LEC2 gene from castor bean show a range of dose-dependent morphological phenotypes and effects on the expression of LEC2-regulated genes during seedling establishment and vegetative growth. Expression of castor bean LEC2 in Arabidopsis increased the expression of fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1 and induced the accumulation of triacylglycerols, especially those containing the seed-specific fatty acid, eicosenoic acid (20:1Δ11, in vegetative tissues.

  1. Ectopic overexpression of castor bean LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) in Arabidopsis triggers the expression of genes that encode regulators of seed maturation and oil body proteins in vegetative tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Uk; Jung, Su-Jin; Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; Kim, Eun Ha; Lee, Sang-Min; Roh, Kyung Hee; Kim, Jong-Bum

    2013-01-01

    The LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) gene plays critically important regulatory roles during both early and late embryonic development. Here, we report the identification of the LEC2 gene from the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis), and characterize the effects of its overexpression on gene regulation and lipid metabolism in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. LEC2 exists as a single-copy gene in castor bean, is expressed predominantly in embryos, and encodes a protein with a conserved B3 domain, but different N- and C-terminal domains to those found in LEC2 from Arabidopsis. Ectopic overexpression of LEC2 from castor bean under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter in Arabidopsis plants induces the accumulation of transcripts that encodes five major transcription factors (the LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1), LEAFY COTYLEDON1-LIKE (L1L), FUSCA3 (FUS3), and ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3) transcripts for seed maturation, and WRINKELED1 (WRI1) transcripts for fatty acid biosynthesis), as well as OLEOSIN transcripts for the formation of oil bodies in vegetative tissues. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants that express the LEC2 gene from castor bean show a range of dose-dependent morphological phenotypes and effects on the expression of LEC2-regulated genes during seedling establishment and vegetative growth. Expression of castor bean LEC2 in Arabidopsis increased the expression of fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1) and induced the accumulation of triacylglycerols, especially those containing the seed-specific fatty acid, eicosenoic acid (20:1(Δ11)), in vegetative tissues.

  2. Ectopic overexpression of castor bean LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) in Arabidopsis triggers the expression of genes that encode regulators of seed maturation and oil body proteins in vegetative tissues☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Uk; Jung, Su-Jin; Lee, Kyeong-Ryeol; Kim, Eun Ha; Lee, Sang-Min; Roh, Kyung Hee; Kim, Jong-Bum

    2013-01-01

    The LEAFY COTYLEDON2 (LEC2) gene plays critically important regulatory roles during both early and late embryonic development. Here, we report the identification of the LEC2 gene from the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis), and characterize the effects of its overexpression on gene regulation and lipid metabolism in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. LEC2 exists as a single-copy gene in castor bean, is expressed predominantly in embryos, and encodes a protein with a conserved B3 domain, but different N- and C-terminal domains to those found in LEC2 from Arabidopsis. Ectopic overexpression of LEC2 from castor bean under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter in Arabidopsis plants induces the accumulation of transcripts that encodes five major transcription factors (the LEAFY COTYLEDON1 (LEC1), LEAFY COTYLEDON1-LIKE (L1L), FUSCA3 (FUS3), and ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE 3 (ABI3) transcripts for seed maturation, and WRINKELED1 (WRI1) transcripts for fatty acid biosynthesis), as well as OLEOSIN transcripts for the formation of oil bodies in vegetative tissues. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants that express the LEC2 gene from castor bean show a range of dose-dependent morphological phenotypes and effects on the expression of LEC2-regulated genes during seedling establishment and vegetative growth. Expression of castor bean LEC2 in Arabidopsis increased the expression of fatty acid elongase 1 (FAE1) and induced the accumulation of triacylglycerols, especially those containing the seed-specific fatty acid, eicosenoic acid (20:1Δ11), in vegetative tissues. PMID:24363987

  3. Ectopic expression and knocking-down of LINE-1 mRNA in human mesenchymal stem cells: impact on in vitro osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation

    KAUST Repository

    Atinbayeva, Nazerke

    2018-01-01

    on the acquisition of a terminally differentiated phenotype. In contrast, soon after MSCs commitment into pre-osteoblasts, L1 retrotransposable elements increase their expression and actively transpose. Inhibition of retrotransposition and knock down of L1 m

  4. Ectopic expression of aquaporin-5 in noncancerous epithelial MDCK cells changes cellular morphology and actin fiber formation without inducing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Helene H; Holst, Mikkel R; Login, Frédéric H; Morgen, Jeanette J; Nejsum, Lene N

    2018-06-01

    Aquaporin-5 (AQP5) is a plasma membrane water channel mainly expressed in secretory glands. Increased expression of AQP5 is observed in multiple cancers, including breast cancer, where high expression correlates with the degree of metastasis and poor prognosis. Moreover, studies in cancer cells have suggested that AQP5 activates Ras signaling, drives morphological changes, and in particular increased invasiveness. To design intervention strategies, it is of utmost importance to characterize and dissect the cell biological changes induced by altered AQP5 expression. To isolate the effect of AQP5 overexpression from the cancer background, AQP5 was overexpressed in normal epithelial MDCK cells which have no endogenous AQP5 expression. AQP5 overexpression promoted actin stress fiber formation and lamellipodia dynamics. Moreover, AQP5 decreased cell circularity. Phosphorylation of AQP5 on serine 156 in the second intracellular loop has been shown to activate the Ras pathway. When serine 156 was mutated to alanine to mimic the nonphosphorylated state, the decrease in cell circularity was reversed, indicating that the AQP5-Ras axis is involved in the effect on cell shape. Interestingly, the cellular changes mediated by AQP5 were not associated with induction of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Thus, AQP5 may contribute to cancer by altering cellular morphology and actin organization, which increase the metastatic potential.

  5. Ectopic AP4 expression induces cellular senescence via activation of p53 in long-term confluent retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yiping; Wong, Matthew Man-Kin; Zhang, Xiaojian; Chiu, Sung-Kay

    2015-11-15

    When cells are grown to confluence, cell-cell contact inhibition occurs and drives the cells to enter reversible quiescence rather than senescence. Confluent retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells exhibiting contact inhibition was used as a model in this study to examine the role of overexpression of transcription factor AP4, a highly expressed transcription factor in many types of cancer, in these cells during long-term culture. We generated stable inducible RPE cell clones expressing AP4 or AP4 without the DNA binding domain (DN-AP4) and observed that, when cultured for 24 days, RPE cells with a high level of AP4 exhibit a large, flattened morphology and even cease proliferating; these changes were not observed in DN-AP4-expressing cells or non-induced cells. In addition, AP4-expressing cells exhibited senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity and the senescence-associated secretory phenotype. We demonstrated that the induced cellular senescence was mediated by enhanced p53 expression and that AP4 regulates the p53 gene by binding directly to two of the three E-boxes present on the promoter of the p53 gene. Moreover, we showed that serum is essential for AP4 in inducing p53-associated cellular senescence. Collectively, we showed that overexpression of AP4 mediates cellular senescence involving in activation of p53 in long-term post-confluent RPE cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Ectopic expression of ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme gene from wild rice, OgUBC1, confers resistance against UV-B radiation and Botrytis infection in Arabidopsis thaliana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, En Hee; Pak, Jung Hun; Kim, Mi Jin; Kim, Hye Jeong; Shin, Sang Hyun; Lee, Jai Heon; Kim, Doh Hoon; Oh, Ju Sung; Oh, Boung-Jun; Jung, Ho Won; Chung, Young Soo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We isolated a novel E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme from leaves of wild rice plants. ► The OgUBC1 was highly expressed in leaves treated with SA and UV-B radiation. ► The recombinant OgUBC1 has an enzymatic activity of E2 in vitro. ► The OgUBC1 could protect disruption of plant cells by UV-B radiation. ► OgUBC1 confers disease resistance and UV-B tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. -- Abstract: A previously unidentified gene encoding ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme was isolated from leaves of wild rice plant treated with wounding and microbe-associated molecular patterns. The OgUBC1 gene was composed of 148 amino acids and contained a typical active site and 21 ubiquitin thioester intermediate interaction residues and 4 E3 interaction residues. Both exogenous application of salicylic acid and UV-B irradiation triggered expression of OgUBC1 in leaves of wild rice. Recombinant OgUBC1 proteins bound to ubiquitins in vitro, proposing that the protein might act as E2 enzyme in planta. Heterologous expression of the OgUBC1 in Arabidopsis thaliana protected plants from cellular damage caused by an excess of UV-B radiation. A stable expression of chalcone synthase gene was detected in leaves of OgUBC1-expressing Arabidopsis, resulting in producing higher amounts of anthocyanin than those in wild-type Col-0 plants. Additionally, both pathogenesis-related gene1 and 5 were transcribed in the transgenic Arabidopsis in the absence of pathogen infection. The OgUBC1-expressing plants were resistant to the infection of Botrytis cinerea. Taken together, we suggested that the OgUBC1 is involved in ubiquitination process important for cellular response against biotic and abiotic stresses in plants.

  7. Ectopic expression of ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme gene from wild rice, OgUBC1, confers resistance against UV-B radiation and Botrytis infection in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, En Hee; Pak, Jung Hun; Kim, Mi Jin; Kim, Hye Jeong [Department of Genetic Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Sang Hyun [National Crop Experiment Station, Rural Development Administration, Suwon 441-100 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jai Heon; Kim, Doh Hoon; Oh, Ju Sung [Department of Genetic Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Boung-Jun [BioControl Center, Jeonnam 516-942 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Ho Won, E-mail: hwjung@dau.ac.kr [Department of Genetic Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Young Soo, E-mail: chungys@dau.ac.kr [Department of Genetic Engineering, Dong-A University, Busan 604-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We isolated a novel E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme from leaves of wild rice plants. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The OgUBC1 was highly expressed in leaves treated with SA and UV-B radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The recombinant OgUBC1 has an enzymatic activity of E2 in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The OgUBC1 could protect disruption of plant cells by UV-B radiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OgUBC1 confers disease resistance and UV-B tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. -- Abstract: A previously unidentified gene encoding ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme was isolated from leaves of wild rice plant treated with wounding and microbe-associated molecular patterns. The OgUBC1 gene was composed of 148 amino acids and contained a typical active site and 21 ubiquitin thioester intermediate interaction residues and 4 E3 interaction residues. Both exogenous application of salicylic acid and UV-B irradiation triggered expression of OgUBC1 in leaves of wild rice. Recombinant OgUBC1 proteins bound to ubiquitins in vitro, proposing that the protein might act as E2 enzyme in planta. Heterologous expression of the OgUBC1 in Arabidopsis thaliana protected plants from cellular damage caused by an excess of UV-B radiation. A stable expression of chalcone synthase gene was detected in leaves of OgUBC1-expressing Arabidopsis, resulting in producing higher amounts of anthocyanin than those in wild-type Col-0 plants. Additionally, both pathogenesis-related gene1 and 5 were transcribed in the transgenic Arabidopsis in the absence of pathogen infection. The OgUBC1-expressing plants were resistant to the infection of Botrytis cinerea. Taken together, we suggested that the OgUBC1 is involved in ubiquitination process important for cellular response against biotic and abiotic stresses in plants.

  8. Postprandial heat increment does not substitute for active thermogenesis in cold-challenged star-nosed moles (Condylura cristata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, K L; McIntyre, I W; MacArthur, R A

    2000-01-01

    The postprandial increase in metabolic rate associated with consuming, assimilating and excreting a meal is often termed the heat increment of feeding (HIF). The metabolic heat production of star-nosed moles, Condylura cristata, held at thermoneutrality was monitored for 4 h following a single 10 min session of feeding on a ration consisting of 0 g (controls), 3.5 g or 10 g of earthworms. Coefficients for metabolizable energy digestibility and digesta passage rate of earthworms fed to C. cristata were also determined. We then tested whether feeding-induced thermogenesis substitutes partially or completely for thermoregulatory heat production in these animals exposed to sub-thermoneutral air temperatures (9-24 degrees C). A single feeding on earthworms had both short- and long-term effects on the metabolic rate and respiratory exchange ratio of C. cristata. The observed short-term (0-65 min) rise in metabolic rate, assumed to be associated primarily with the physical costs of nutrient digestion, absorption and excretion, was similar to the calculated mean retention time (66.7+/-7.8 min; mean +/- s.e. m., N=5) of this species. This component of the HIF represented 2.9 % of the food energy ingested by moles fed a single 3.5 g (13.21 kJ) meal of earthworms and 1.4 % of the food energy ingested by moles fed a single 7.5 g (28.09 kJ) meal of earthworms. At all test temperatures, resting metabolic rate typically remained above fasting levels for 1-4 h following ingestion of the high-protein earthworm diet. This protracted rise in metabolic rate, presumably associated with the biochemical costs of amino acid oxidation/gluconeogenesis and ureagenesis, averaged 12.8 % of the metabolizable energy and 8.7 % of the gross energy intake. Despite the potential thermoregulatory benefit, we found no evidence that biochemical HIF substitutes for facultative thermogenesis in star-nosed moles exposed to low air temperatures.

  9. Enhanced expression of the stemness-related factors OCT4, SOX15 and TWIST1 in ectopic endometrium of endometriosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Proestling

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current evidence suggests that endometrial-derived stem cells, spilled in the peritoneal cavity via retrograde menstruation, are key players in the establishment of endometriotic lesions. The aim of this study was to determine the presence and distribution of the stemness-related factors OCT4, SOX15, TWIST1 and DCAMLK1 in women with and without endometriosis. Methods Immunohistochemical analysis was used to determine stromal and epithelial expression of OCT4, SOX15, TWIST1 and DCAMLK1 in endometriosis patient (EP endometrium (n = 69 and endometriotic tissue (n = 90 and in control endometrium (n = 50. Quantitative Real-Time PCR of OCT4, SOX15 TWIST1 and DCAMLK1 was performed in paired samples of EP endometrium and endometriotic tissue. Co-immunofluorescence staining was performed for OCT4 and SOX15. For statistical analyses we used unpaired t-test, Fisher combination test and Spearman test. For paired analyses, paired t-test and McNemar test were used. Results We detected a significant correlation between the expression of the established stem cell marker OCT4 and the stemness-related markers SOX15 (p < 0.001 and TWIST1 (p = 0.002 but not DCAMLK1. We showed a colocalization of SOX15 and OCT4 in epithelial and stromal cells of endometriotic tissue by coimmunofluorescence. A concordant expression of OCT4 and SOX15 in the same sample was observed in epithelial cells of the endometriotic tissue (71.7%. The expression of stemness-related factors was not associated with proliferative or secretory phase of the menstrual cycle in endometriosis patients but was found to be differentially expressed during the menstrual cycle in the control group. Increased expression of epithelial OCT4, SOX15 and TWIST1 was detected in endometriotic tissue compared to EP endometrium in paired (p = 0.021, p < 0.001 and p < 0.001 and unpaired analysis (p = 0.040, p < 0.001 and p = 0.001. Conclusion Our findings

  10. ChIP-on-chip analysis identifies IL-22 as direct target gene of ectopically expressed FOXP3 transcription factor in human T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeron Andreas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transcription factor (TF forkhead box P3 (FOXP3 is constitutively expressed at high levels in naturally occurring CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (nTregs. It is not only the most accepted marker for that cell population but is also considered lineage determinative. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP of TFs in combination with genomic tiling microarray analysis (ChIP-on-chip has been shown to be an appropriate tool for identifying FOXP3 transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs on a genome-wide scale. In combination with microarray expression analysis, the ChIP-on-chip technique allows identification of direct FOXP3 target genes. Results ChIP-on-chip analysis of the human FOXP3 expressed in resting and PMA/ionomycin–stimulated Jurkat T cells revealed several thousand putative FOXP3 binding sites and demonstrated the importance of intronic regions for FOXP3 binding. The analysis of expression data showed that the stimulation-dependent down-regulation of IL-22 was correlated with direct FOXP3 binding in the IL-22 promoter region. This association was confirmed by real-time PCR analysis of ChIP-DNA. The corresponding ChIP-region also contained a matching FOXP3 consensus sequence. Conclusions Knowledge of the general distribution patterns of FOXP3 TFBSs in the human genome under resting and activated conditions will contribute to a better understanding of this TF and its influence on direct target genes, as well as its importance for the phenotype and function of Tregs. Moreover, FOXP3-dependent repression of Th17-related IL-22 may be relevant to an understanding of the phenomenon of Treg/Th17 cell plasticity.

  11. Ectopic expression of GA 2-oxidase 6 from rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) causes dwarfism, late flowering and enhanced chlorophyll accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jindong; Liao, Xiaoying; He, Reqing; Zhong, Ming; Feng, Panpan; Li, Xinmei; Tang, Dongying; Liu, Xuanming; Zhao, Xiaoying

    2017-02-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are endogenous hormones that play an important role in higher plant growth and development. GA2-oxidase (GA2ox) promotes catabolism and inactivation of bioactive GAs or their precursors. In this study, we identified the GA2-oxidase gene, BnGA2ox6, and found it to be highly expressed in the silique and flower. Overexpression of BnGA2ox6 in Arabidopsis resulted in GA-deficiency symptoms, including inhibited elongation of the hypocotyl and stem, delayed seed germination, and late flowering. BnGA2ox6 overexpression reduced silique growth, but had no effect on seed development. Additionally, BnGA2ox6 overexpression enhanced chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll accumulation, and downregulated mRNA expression levels of the CHL1 and RCCR genes, which are involved in the chlorophyll degradation. These findings suggest that BnGA2ox6 regulates plant hight, silique development, flowering and chlorophyll accumulation in transgenic Arabidopsis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Unveiling an ancient biological invasion: molecular analysis of an old European alien, the crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sbordoni Valerio

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Biological invasions can be considered one of the main threats to biodiversity, and the recognition of common ecological and evolutionary features among invaders can help developing a predictive framework to control further invasions. In particular, the analysis of successful invasive species and of their autochthonous source populations by means of genetic, phylogeographic and demographic tools can provide novel insights into the study of biological invasion patterns. Today, long-term dynamics of biological invasions are still poorly understood and need further investigations. Moreover, distribution and molecular data on native populations could contribute to the recognition of common evolutionary features of successful aliens. Results We analyzed 2,195 mitochondrial base pairs, including Cytochrome b, Control Region and rRNA 12S, in 161 Italian and 27 African specimens and assessed the ancient invasive origin of Italian crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata populations from Tunisia. Molecular coalescent-based Bayesian analyses proposed the Roman Age as a putative timeframe of introduction and suggested a retention of genetic diversity during the early phases of colonization. The characterization of the native African genetic background revealed the existence of two differentiated clades: a Mediterranean group and a Sub-Saharan one. Both standard population genetic and advanced molecular demography tools (Bayesian Skyline Plot did not evidence a clear genetic signature of the expected increase in population size after introduction. Along with the genetic diversity retention during the bottlenecked steps of introduction, this finding could be better described by hypothesizing a multi-invasion event. Conclusion Evidences of the ancient anthropogenic invasive origin of the Italian Hystrix cristata populations were clearly shown and the native African genetic background was preliminary described. A more complex pattern than a

  13. Unveiling an ancient biological invasion: molecular analysis of an old European alien, the crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucchi, Emiliano; Sbordoni, Valerio

    2009-05-18

    Biological invasions can be considered one of the main threats to biodiversity, and the recognition of common ecological and evolutionary features among invaders can help developing a predictive framework to control further invasions. In particular, the analysis of successful invasive species and of their autochthonous source populations by means of genetic, phylogeographic and demographic tools can provide novel insights into the study of biological invasion patterns. Today, long-term dynamics of biological invasions are still poorly understood and need further investigations. Moreover, distribution and molecular data on native populations could contribute to the recognition of common evolutionary features of successful aliens. We analyzed 2,195 mitochondrial base pairs, including Cytochrome b, Control Region and rRNA 12S, in 161 Italian and 27 African specimens and assessed the ancient invasive origin of Italian crested porcupine (Hystrix cristata) populations from Tunisia. Molecular coalescent-based Bayesian analyses proposed the Roman Age as a putative timeframe of introduction and suggested a retention of genetic diversity during the early phases of colonization. The characterization of the native African genetic background revealed the existence of two differentiated clades: a Mediterranean group and a Sub-Saharan one. Both standard population genetic and advanced molecular demography tools (Bayesian Skyline Plot) did not evidence a clear genetic signature of the expected increase in population size after introduction. Along with the genetic diversity retention during the bottlenecked steps of introduction, this finding could be better described by hypothesizing a multi-invasion event. Evidences of the ancient anthropogenic invasive origin of the Italian Hystrix cristata populations were clearly shown and the native African genetic background was preliminary described. A more complex pattern than a simple demographic exponential growth from a single propagule

  14. [Ectopic breast fibroadenoma. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senatore, G; Zanotti, S; Cambrini, P; Montroni, I; Pellegrini, A; Montanari, E; Santini, D; Taffurelli, M

    2010-03-01

    Among the rare anomalies of the breast development, polythelia is the most common, between 1% and 5% of women and men present supernumerary nipples. Polymastia, usually presenting as ectopic breast tissue without areola-nipple complex, is seen mostly along the milk line, extending from the axilla to the pubic region. Ectopic breast tissue is functionally analogous to mammary gland and it is subjected to the same alterations and diseases, whether benign or malignant, that affect normal breast tissue. We report the case of a 21 years-old female evaluated by the medical staff after founding a solid nodular mass by suspect axillary lymphadenopathy. Differential diagnosis with lymphoma is the major problem in these cases. The mass was removed and the intraoperative histological examination showed fibroadenoma in axillary supernumerary breast. Presence of ectopic breast tissue is a rare condition; development of benign mass or malignant degeneration is possible, but it is very unusual. In case of polymastia diagnosis is simple; in case of isolated nodule, without local inflammation or infection, there are greater difficulties. Ultrasonography is diagnostic in case of breast fibroadenoma, but it might be inadequate in ectopic localizations owing to the shortage of mammary tissue around the mass. Preoperative diagnosis is important to plan an adequate surgical treatment; lumpectomy is indicated in case of benign tissue; in case of malignancy, therapy is based on the standard treatment used for breast cancer (surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy).

  15. The ectopic posterior pituitary gland

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-11-04

    Nov 4, 2013 ... crinology with short stature, delayed bone age and biochemical features suggestive of hypo pituitarism. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain demonstrated a flattened anterior pituitary gland within the sella, associated with absence of the infundibular stalk and an ectopic posterior pituitary gland (Fig.

  16. Interventions for tubal ectopic pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hajenius, P. J.; Mol, B. W.; Bossuyt, P. M.; Ankum, W. M.; van der Veen, F.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy can now often be made by non-invasive methods due to sensitive pregnancy tests (in urine and serum) and high resolution transvaginal sonography, which have been integrated in diagnostic algorithms. These algorithms, in combination with the increased

  17. Interventions for tubal ectopic pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hajenius, P. J.; Mol, F.; Mol, B. W. J.; Bossuyt, P. M. M.; Ankum, W. M.; van der Veen, F.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment options for tubal ectopic pregnancy are; (1) surgery, e.g. salpingectomy or salpingo(s)tomy, either performed laparoscopically or by open surgery; (2) medical treatment, with a variety of drugs, that can be administered systemically and/or locally by various routes and (3)

  18. The Flexibility of Ectopic Lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Loher

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In addition to the subcutaneous and the visceral fat tissue, lipids can also be stored in non-adipose tissue such as in hepatocytes (intrahepatocellular lipids; IHCL, skeletal (intramyocellular lipids; IMCL or cardiac muscle cells (intracardiomyocellular lipids; ICCL. Ectopic lipids are flexible fuel stores that can be depleted by physical exercise and repleted by diet. They are related to obesity and insulin resistance. Quantification of IMCL was initially performed invasively, using muscle biopsies with biochemical and/or histological analysis. 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS is now a validated method that allows for not only quantifying IMCL non-invasively and repeatedly, but also assessing IHCL and ICCL. This review summarizes the current available knowledge on the flexibility of ectopic lipids. The available evidence suggests a complex interplay between quantitative and qualitative diet, fat availability (fat mass, insulin action, and physical exercise, all important factors that influence the flexibility of ectopic lipids. Furthermore, the time frame of the intervention on these parameters (short-term vs. long-term appears to be critical. Consequently, standardization of physical activity and diet are critical when assessing ectopic lipids in predefined clinical situations.

  19. Ectopic expression and knocking-down of LINE-1 mRNA in human mesenchymal stem cells: impact on in vitro osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation

    KAUST Repository

    Atinbayeva, Nazerke

    2018-05-01

    There are two classes of transposable elements: DNA transposons and retrotransposons. DNA transposons spread in the genome by “cut and paste” mechanism. In contrast, retrotransposons use copy and paste strategy involving RNA and retrotranscriptase mediated mechanism; these include long interspersed nuclear elements-1 (LINE-1, L1) and short interspersed nuclear elements (SINE). In mammals, in order to maintain genome integrity both types of transposons are tightly repressed. However, some copies of retrotransposons are still active in germ cells contributing to natural variation. Surprisingly, recent reports indicate that also somatic cells support L1 reactivation in early development, in particular in the brain leading to mosaicism. However, whether L1 retrotransposition is a part of other cell lineage developmental programs and its functional significance in the context of cell differentiation remain to be elucidated. To address this question, I investigated whether L1 retrotransposition was occurring during in vitro osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Interestingly, clinical observations have revealed loss of bone density in HIV-infected individuals treated with nucleoside analogs that inhibit HIV retrotranscriptase, as well as the endogenous one encoded by L1s. This observation made us to hypothesize that transposable elements played a positive role in post-natal bone homeostasis. I found that while adipogenesis is “retrotransposition free”, osteogenic differentiation is a “retrotransposition-prone” process and its inhibition blocks its genetic program. Indeed, L1 DNA content does not change during adipogenic differentiation and that of retrotranscriptase does not have any effect on the acquisition of a terminally differentiated phenotype. In contrast, soon after MSCs commitment into pre-osteoblasts, L1 retrotransposable elements increase their expression and actively transpose

  20. Sustained Release of Prostaglandin E2 in Fibroblasts Expressing Ectopically Cyclooxygenase 2 Impairs P2Y-Dependent Ca2+-Mobilization

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    María Pimentel-Santillana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The nucleotide uridine trisphosphate (UTP released to the extracellular milieu acts as a signaling molecule via activation of specific pyrimidine receptors (P2Y. P2Y receptors are G protein-coupled receptors expressed in many cell types. These receptors mediate several cell responses and they are involved in intracellular calcium mobilization. We investigated the role of the prostanoid PGE2 in P2Y signaling in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs, since these cells are involved in different ontogenic and physiopathological processes, among them is tissue repair following proinflammatory activation. Interestingly, Ca2+-mobilization induced by UTP-dependent P2Y activation was reduced by PGE2 when this prostanoid was produced by MEFs transfected with COX-2 or when PGE2 was added exogenously to the culture medium. This Ca2+-mobilization was important for the activation of different metabolic pathways in fibroblasts. Moreover, inhibition of COX-2 with selective coxibs prevented UTP-dependent P2Y activation in these cells. The inhibition of P2Y responses by PGE2 involves the activation of PKCs and PKD, a response that can be suppressed after pharmacological inhibition of these protein kinases. In addition to this, PGE2 reduces the fibroblast migration induced by P2Y-agonists such as UTP. Taken together, these data demonstrate that PGE2 is involved in the regulation of P2Y signaling in these cells.

  1. The dwarf phenotype in GH240B mice, haploinsufficient for the autism candidate gene Neurobeachin, is caused by ectopic expression of recombinant human growth hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuytens, Kim; Tuand, Krizia; Fu, Quili; Stijnen, Pieter; Pruniau, Vincent; Meulemans, Sandra; Vankelecom, Hugo; Creemers, John W M

    2014-01-01

    Two knockout mouse models for the autism candidate gene Neurobeachin (Nbea) have been generated independently. Although both models have similar phenotypes, one striking difference is the dwarf phenotype observed in the heterozygous configuration of the GH240B model that is generated by the serendipitous insertion of a promoterless human growth hormone (hGH) genomic fragment in the Nbea gene. In order to elucidate this discrepancy, the dwarfism present in this Nbea mouse model was investigated in detail. The growth deficiency in Nbea+/- mice coincided with an increased percentage of fat mass and a decrease in bone mineral density. Low but detectable levels of hGH were detected in the pituitary and hypothalamus of Nbea+/- mice but not in liver, hippocampus nor in serum. As a consequence, several members of the mouse growth hormone (mGH) signaling cascade showed altered mRNA levels, including a reduction in growth hormone-releasing hormone mRNA in the hypothalamus. Moreover, somatotrope cells were less numerous in the pituitary of Nbea+/- mice and both contained and secreted significantly less mGH resulting in reduced levels of circulating insulin-like growth factor 1. These findings demonstrate that the random integration of the hGH transgene in this mouse model has not only inactivated Nbea but has also resulted in the tissue-specific expression of hGH causing a negative feedback loop, mGH hyposecretion and dwarfism.

  2. The dwarf phenotype in GH240B mice, haploinsufficient for the autism candidate gene Neurobeachin, is caused by ectopic expression of recombinant human growth hormone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Nuytens

    Full Text Available Two knockout mouse models for the autism candidate gene Neurobeachin (Nbea have been generated independently. Although both models have similar phenotypes, one striking difference is the dwarf phenotype observed in the heterozygous configuration of the GH240B model that is generated by the serendipitous insertion of a promoterless human growth hormone (hGH genomic fragment in the Nbea gene. In order to elucidate this discrepancy, the dwarfism present in this Nbea mouse model was investigated in detail. The growth deficiency in Nbea+/- mice coincided with an increased percentage of fat mass and a decrease in bone mineral density. Low but detectable levels of hGH were detected in the pituitary and hypothalamus of Nbea+/- mice but not in liver, hippocampus nor in serum. As a consequence, several members of the mouse growth hormone (mGH signaling cascade showed altered mRNA levels, including a reduction in growth hormone-releasing hormone mRNA in the hypothalamus. Moreover, somatotrope cells were less numerous in the pituitary of Nbea+/- mice and both contained and secreted significantly less mGH resulting in reduced levels of circulating insulin-like growth factor 1. These findings demonstrate that the random integration of the hGH transgene in this mouse model has not only inactivated Nbea but has also resulted in the tissue-specific expression of hGH causing a negative feedback loop, mGH hyposecretion and dwarfism.

  3. Ectopic expression of Capsicum-specific cell wall protein Capsicum annuum senescence-delaying 1 (CaSD1) delays senescence and induces trichome formation in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Eunyoung; Yeom, Seon-In; Jo, Sunghwan; Jeong, Heejin; Kang, Byoung-Cheorl; Choi, Doil

    2012-04-01

    Secreted proteins are known to have multiple roles in plant development, metabolism, and stress response. In a previous study to understand the roles of secreted proteins, Capsicum annuum secreted proteins (CaS) were isolated by yeast secretion trap. Among the secreted proteins, we further characterized Capsicum annuum senescence-delaying 1 (CaSD1), a gene encoding a novel secreted protein that is present only in the genus Capsicum. The deduced CaSD1 contains multiple repeats of the amino acid sequence KPPIHNHKPTDYDRS. Interestingly, the number of repeats varied among cultivars and species in the Capsicum genus. CaSD1 is constitutively expressed in roots, and Agrobacterium-mediated transient overexpression of CaSD1 in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves resulted in delayed senescence with a dramatically increased number of trichomes and enlarged epidermal cells. Furthermore, senescence- and cell division-related genes were differentially regulated by CaSD1-overexpressing plants. These observations imply that the pepper-specific cell wall protein CaSD1 plays roles in plant growth and development by regulating cell division and differentiation.

  4. Ectopic expression of wheat expansin gene TaEXPA2 improved the salt tolerance of transgenic tobacco by regulating Na+ /K+ and antioxidant competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanhui; Han, Yangyang; Kong, Xiangzhu; Kang, Hanhan; Ren, Yuanqing; Wang, Wei

    2017-02-01

    High salinity is one of the most serious environmental stresses that limit crop growth. Expansins are cell wall proteins that regulate plant development and abiotic stress tolerance by mediating cell wall expansion. We studied the function of a wheat expansin gene, TaEXPA2, in salt stress tolerance by overexpressing it in tobacco. Overexpression of TaEXPA2 enhanced the salt stress tolerance of transgenic tobacco plants as indicated by the presence of higher germination rates, longer root length, more lateral roots, higher survival rates and more green leaves under salt stress than in the wild type (WT). Further, when leaf disks of WT plants were incubated in cell wall protein extracts from the transgenic tobacco plants, their chlorophyll content was higher under salt stress, and this improvement from TaEXPA2 overexpression in transgenic tobacco was inhibited by TaEXPA2 protein antibody. The water status of transgenic tobacco plants was improved, perhaps by the accumulation of osmolytes such as proline and soluble sugar. TaEXPA2-overexpressing tobacco lines exhibited lower Na + but higher K + accumulation than WT plants. Antioxidant competence increased in the transgenic plants because of the increased activity of antioxidant enzymes. TaEXPA2 protein abundance in wheat was induced by NaCl, and ABA signaling was involved. Gene expression regulation was involved in the enhanced salt stress tolerance of the TaEXPA2 transgenic plants. Our results suggest that TaEXPA2 overexpression confers salt stress tolerance on the transgenic plants, and this is associated with improved water status, Na + /K + homeostasis, and antioxidant competence. ABA signaling participates in TaEXPA2-regulated salt stress tolerance. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  5. Ectopic expression of TaOEP16-2-5B, a wheat plastid outer envelope protein gene, enhances heat and drought stress tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Xinshan; Geng, Xiaoli; Liu, Kelu; Wang, Fei; Liu, Zhenshan; Zhang, Liyuan; Zhao, Yue; Tian, Xuejun; Hu, Zhaorong; Yao, Yingyin; Ni, Zhongfu; Xin, Mingming; Sun, Qixin; Peng, Huiru

    2017-05-01

    Abiotic stresses, such as heat and drought, are major environmental factors restricting crop productivity and quality worldwide. A plastid outer envelope protein gene, TaOEP16-2, was identified from our previous transcriptome analysis [1,2]. In this study, the isolation and functional characterization of the TaOEP16-2 gene was reported. Three homoeologous sequences of TaOEP16-2 were isolated from hexaploid wheat, which were localized on the chromosomes 5A, 5B and 5D, respectively. These three homoeologues exhibited different expression patterns under heat stress conditions, TaOEP16-2-5B was the dominant one, and TaOEP16-2-5B was selected for further analysis. Compared with wild type (WT) plants, transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing the TaOEP16-2-5B gene exhibited enhanced tolerance to heat stress, which was supported by improved survival rate, strengthened cell membrane stability and increased sucrose content. It was also found that TaOEP16-2 was induced by drought stress and involved in drought stress tolerance. TaOEP16-2-5B has the same function in ABA-controlled seed germination as AtOEP16-2. Our results suggest that TaOEP16-2-5B plays an important role in heat and drought stress tolerance, and could be utilized in transgenic breeding of wheat and other crop plants. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Ectopic expression of MdSPDS1 in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck reduces canker susceptibility: involvement of H2O2 production and transcriptional alteration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enormous work has shown that polyamines are involved in a variety of physiological processes, but information is scarce on the potential of modifying disease response through genetic transformation of a polyamine biosynthetic gene. Results In the present work, an apple spermidine synthase gene (MdSPDS1 was introduced into sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck 'Anliucheng' via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of embryogenic calluses. Two transgenic lines (TG4 and TG9 varied in the transgene expression and cellular endogenous polyamine contents. Pinprick inoculation demonstrated that the transgenic lines were less susceptible to Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac, the causal agent of citrus canker, than the wild type plants (WT. In addition, our data showed that upon Xac attack TG9 had significantly higher free spermine (Spm and polyamine oxidase (PAO activity when compared with the WT, concurrent with an apparent hypersensitive response and the accumulation of more H2O2. Pretreatment of TG9 leaves with guazatine acetate, an inhibitor of PAO, repressed PAO activity and reduced H2O2 accumulation, leading to more conspicuous disease symptoms than the controls when both were challenged with Xac. Moreover, mRNA levels of most of the defense-related genes involved in synthesis of pathogenesis-related protein and jasmonic acid were upregulated in TG9 than in the WT regardless of Xac infection. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that overexpression of the MdSPDS1 gene prominently lowered the sensitivity of the transgenic plants to canker. This may be, at least partially, correlated with the generation of more H2O2 due to increased production of polyamines and enhanced PAO-mediated catabolism, triggering hypersensitive response or activation of defense-related genes.

  7. Ectopic expression of MdSPDS1 in sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) reduces canker susceptibility: involvement of H₂O₂ production and transcriptional alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xing-Zheng; Chen, Chuan-Wu; Wang, Yin; Liu, Ji-Hong; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2011-03-28

    Enormous work has shown that polyamines are involved in a variety of physiological processes, but information is scarce on the potential of modifying disease response through genetic transformation of a polyamine biosynthetic gene. In the present work, an apple spermidine synthase gene (MdSPDS1) was introduced into sweet orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck 'Anliucheng') via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of embryogenic calluses. Two transgenic lines (TG4 and TG9) varied in the transgene expression and cellular endogenous polyamine contents. Pinprick inoculation demonstrated that the transgenic lines were less susceptible to Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac), the causal agent of citrus canker, than the wild type plants (WT). In addition, our data showed that upon Xac attack TG9 had significantly higher free spermine (Spm) and polyamine oxidase (PAO) activity when compared with the WT, concurrent with an apparent hypersensitive response and the accumulation of more H₂O₂. Pretreatment of TG9 leaves with guazatine acetate, an inhibitor of PAO, repressed PAO activity and reduced H₂O₂ accumulation, leading to more conspicuous disease symptoms than the controls when both were challenged with Xac. Moreover, mRNA levels of most of the defense-related genes involved in synthesis of pathogenesis-related protein and jasmonic acid were upregulated in TG9 than in the WT regardless of Xac infection. Our results demonstrated that overexpression of the MdSPDS1 gene prominently lowered the sensitivity of the transgenic plants to canker. This may be, at least partially, correlated with the generation of more H₂O₂ due to increased production of polyamines and enhanced PAO-mediated catabolism, triggering hypersensitive response or activation of defense-related genes.

  8. Arabidopsis thaliana Contains Both Ni2+ and Zn2+ Dependent Glyoxalase I Enzymes and Ectopic Expression of the Latter Contributes More towards Abiotic Stress Tolerance in E. coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muskan Jain

    Full Text Available The glyoxalase pathway is ubiquitously found in all the organisms ranging from prokaryotes to eukaryotes. It acts as a major pathway for detoxification of methylglyoxal (MG, which deleteriously affects the biological system in stress conditions. The first important enzyme of this system is Glyoxalase I (GLYI. It is a metalloenzyme which requires divalent metal ions for its activity. This divalent metal ion can be either Zn2+ as found in most of eukaryotes or Ni2+ as seen in prokaryotes. In the present study, we have found three active GLYI enzymes (AtGLYI2, AtGLYI3 and AtGLYI6 belonging to different metal activation classes coexisting in Arabidopsis thaliana. These enzymes have been found to efficiently complement the GLYI yeast mutants. These three enzymes have been characterized in terms of their activity, metal dependency, kinetic parameters and their role in conferring tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses in E. coli and yeast. AtGLYI2 was found to be Zn2+ dependent whereas AtGLYI3 and AtGLYI6 were Ni2+ dependent. Enzyme activity of Zn2+ dependent enzyme, AtGLYI2, was observed to be exceptionally high (~250-670 fold as compared to Ni2+ dependent enzymes, AtGLYI3 and AtGLYI6. The activity of these GLYI enzymes correlated well to their role in stress tolerance. Heterologous expression of these enzymes in E. coli led to better tolerance against various stress conditions. This is the first report of a higher eukaryotic species having multiple active GLYI enzymes belonging to different metal activation classes.

  9. Mechanisms of Ectopic Gene Conversion

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    P.J. Hastings

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Gene conversion (conversion, the unidirectional transfer of DNA sequence information, occurs as a byproduct of recombinational repair of broken or damaged DNA molecules. Whereas excision repair processes replace damaged DNA by copying the complementary sequence from the undamaged strand of duplex DNA, recombinational mechanisms copy similar sequence, usually in another molecule, to replace the damaged sequence. In mitotic cells the other molecule is usually a sister chromatid, and the repair does not lead to genetic change. Less often a homologous chromosome or homologous sequence in an ectopic position is used. Conversion results from repair in two ways. First, if there was a double-strand gap at the site of a break, homologous sequence will be used as the template for synthesis to fill the gap, thus transferring sequence information in both strands. Second, recombinational repair uses complementary base pairing, and the heteroduplex molecule so formed is a source of conversion, both as heteroduplex and when donor (undamaged template information is retained after correction of mismatched bases in heteroduplex. There are mechanisms that favour the use of sister molecules that must fail before ectopic homology can be used. Meiotic recombination events lead to the formation of crossovers required in meiosis for orderly segregation of pairs of homologous chromosomes. These events result from recombinational repair of programmed double-strand breaks, but in contrast with mitotic recombination, meiotic recombinational events occur predominantly between homologous chromosomes, so that transfer of sequence differences by conversion is very frequent. Transient recombination events that do not form crossovers form both between homologous chromosomes and between regions of ectopic homology, and leave their mark in the occurrence of frequent non-crossover conversion, including ectopic conversion.

  10. Ectopic intra-abdominal fascioliasis

    OpenAIRE

    ÖNGÖREN, Ali Ulvi

    2009-01-01

    Human fascioliasis, caused by Fasciola hepatica, is emerging as an important chronic zoonotic disease in many areas of the world, including Turkey. It primarily involves the liver and may also cause severe damage in the tissue. Herein we report on a patient with ectopic intra-abdominal fascioliasis that presented to our clinic with abdominal pain and distention. Physical and radiological examination as well as an exploratory laparotomy revealed a 10 × 10-cm mass in the splenic flexura of the ...

  11. Immortalization of Human Fetal Hepatocyte by Ectopic Expression of Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase, Human Papilloma Virus (E7) and Simian Virus 40 Large T (SV40 T) Antigen Towards Bioartificial Liver Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Shibashish; Bader, Augustinus

    2014-09-01

    Generation of genetically stable and non-tumoric immortalization cell line from primary cells would be enormously useful for research and therapeutic purposes, but progress towards this goal has so far been limited. It is now universal acceptance that immortalization of human fetal hepatocytes based on recent advances of telomerase biology and oncogene, lead to unlimited population doubling could be the possible source for bioartificial liver device. Immortalization of human fetal hepatocytes cell line by ectopic expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), human papilloma virus gene (E7) and simian virus 40 large T (SV40 T) antigens is main goal of present study. We used an inducible system containing human telomerase and E7, both of which are cloned into responder constructs controlled by doxycycline transactivator. We characterized the immortalized human fetal hepatocyte cells by analysis of green fluorescent cells (GFP) positive cells using flow cytometry (FACs) cell sorting and morphology, proliferative rate and antigen expression by immunohistochemical analysis. In addition to we analysized lactate formation, glucose consumption, albumin secretion and urea production of immortalized human fetal hepatocyte cells. After 25 attempts for transfection of adult primary hepatocytes by human telomerase and E7 to immortalize them, none of the transfection systems resulted in the production of a stable, proliferating cell line. Although the transfection efficiency was more than 70% on the first day, the vast majority of the transfected hepatocytes lost their signal within the first 5-7 days. The remaining transfected hepatocytes persisted for 2-4 weeks and divided one or two times without forming a clone. After 10 attempts of transfection human fetal hepatocytes using the same transfection system, we obtained one stable human fetal hepatocytes cell line which was able albumin secretion urea production and glucose consumption. We established a

  12. Ectopic expression of Crambe abyssinica lysophosphatidic acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-21

    Jun 21, 2010 ... lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase in transgenic rapeseed increases its oil .... pathway [fatty acid desaturase-2 (BnFAD2, AY577313), fatty acid desaturase-3 ..... Acyltransferases from basic science to modified seed oils.

  13. Effect of Swarna Jibanti (Coelogyne cristata Lindley) in alleviation of chronic fatigue syndrome in aged Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Achintya; Sur, Tapas Kumar; Upadhyay, Sachhidananda; Bhattacharyya, Dipankar; Hazra, Jayram

    2017-11-01

    Swarna Jibanti scientifically known as Coelogyne cristata Lindley (Orchidaceae), an orchid mentioned in Ayurvedic medicine is used to promote healthy life span. The present work was planned to study the efficacy of hydro-alcoholic extract of pseudobulbs of C.cristata (CCE) to assess its role on chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) induced behavioural and biochemical changes in aged Wistar rats compared to Panax ginseng (PG), a prototype anti-stress agent. CFS was induced by forced swimming for consecutive 21 days for fixed duration (15 min sessions). The criteria of CFS due to fatigue were counted using locomotor activity, depression and anxiety through automated photactometer, immobility time and plus maze activity respectively. Acute toxicity study of CCE (upto 2 g/kg, Limit test) was also performed. For CFS, animals were divided into five groups, naive control, control, CCE treated (25 mg/kg b.w., 250 mg/kg b.w.) and standard PG treated (100 mg/kg b.w.) groups. All drugs were given orally for consecutive 21 days along with CFS. After assessing behavioural parameters, all animals were sacrificed at day 21 and in vivo antioxidant potential of CCE was determined by lipid peroxides, nitrite, catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in brain tissue. CCE was found to be non-toxic. CCE treated aged rats significantly improved (p < 0.001) the spontaneous locomotor movement with respect to control rats, while, decreased the mobility period or depression score. In CFS, CCE also enhanced the time spent (p < 0.001) in open arms while reducing the time spent in closed arm as compared to CFS control, indicating lowering anxiety score. Moreover, marked diminution in lipid peroxidation, nitrite and SOD level was exhibited after CCE treatment and significantly enhanced catalase level significantly (p < 0.01) with respect to CFS control. PG also showed similar actions. The results confirmed the potential therapeutic actions of CCE against experimentally induced CFS in

  14. Brucella pinnipedialis hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) strain in the mouse model with concurrent exposure to PCB 153.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nymo, Ingebjørg H; das Neves, Carlos G; Tryland, Morten; Bårdsen, Bård-Jørgen; Santos, Renato Lima; Turchetti, Andreia Pereira; Janczak, Andrew M; Djønne, Berit; Lie, Elisabeth; Berg, Vidar; Godfroid, Jacques

    2014-05-01

    Brucellosis, a worldwide zoonosis, is linked to reproductive problems in primary hosts. A high proportion of Brucella-positive hooded seals (Cystophora cristata) have been detected in the declined Northeast Atlantic stock. High concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have also been discovered in top predators in the Arctic, including the hooded seal, PCB 153 being most abundant. The aim of this study was to assess the pathogenicity of Brucella pinnipedialis hooded seal strain in the mouse model and to evaluate the outcome of Brucella spp. infection after exposure of mice to PCB 153. BALB/c mice were infected with B. pinnipedialis hooded seal strain or Brucella suis 1330, and half from each group was exposed to PCB 153 through the diet. B. pinnipedialis showed a reduced pathogenicity in the mouse model as compared to B. suis 1330. Exposure to PCB 153 affected neither the immunological parameters, nor the outcome of the infection. Altogether this indicates that it is unlikely that B. pinnipedialis contribute to the decline of hooded seals in the Northeast Atlantic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ruptured Cornual Monochorionic Monoamniotic Twin Ectopic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A high index of suspicion for ectopic pregnancy in women of reproductive age who presented with history of amenorrhea and lower abdominal pains could prove useful in making a diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy. The usefulness of ultrasonography has also been demonstrated. Key Words: Monochorionic monoamniotic, ...

  16. Ectopic pancreas with pseudocyst and pseudoaneurysm formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surov, A.; Hainz, M.; Hinz, L.; Holzhausen, H.-J.; Finke, R.; Spielmann, R.-P.; Kunze, C.

    2009-01-01

    Ectopic pancreas is a rare congenital anomaly. It is usually asymptomatic, or presents with non specific gastrointestinal symptoms. We describe here a case of ectopic pancreas in the gastric antrum, with pseudocyst and pseudoaneurysm formation. This entity has not been reported previously in the literature.

  17. Ectopic pancreas in a giant mediastinal cyst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Wilson W.; van Boven, Wim Jan; Jurhill, Roy R.; Bonta, Peter I.; Annema, Jouke T.; de Mol, Bas A.

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic pancreas located in the mediastium is an extremely rare anomaly. We present a case of an ectopic pancreas located in a giant mediastinal cyst in an 18-year-old man. He presented with symptoms of dyspnea due to external compression of the cyst on the left main bronchus. Complete surgical

  18. Minimally Invasive Management of Ectopic Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitiello, Gerardo A; Cavnar, Michael J; Hajdu, Cristina; Khaykis, Inessa; Newman, Elliot; Melis, Marcovalerio; Pachter, H Leon; Cohen, Steven M

    2017-03-01

    The management of ectopic pancreas is not well defined. This study aims to determine the prevalence of symptomatic ectopic pancreas and identify those who may benefit from treatment, with a particular focus on robotically assisted surgical management. Our institutional pathology database was queried to identify a cohort of ectopic pancreas specimens. Additional clinical data regarding clinical symptomatology, diagnostic studies, and treatment were obtained through chart review. Nineteen cases of ectopic pancreas were found incidentally during surgery for another condition or found incidentally in a pathologic specimen (65.5%). Eleven patients (37.9%) reported prior symptoms, notably abdominal pain and/or gastrointestinal bleeding. The most common locations for ectopic pancreas were the duodenum and small bowel (31% and 27.6%, respectively). Three out of 29 cases (10.3%) had no symptoms, but had evidence of preneoplastic changes on pathology, while one harbored pancreatic cancer. Over the years, treatment of ectopic pancreas has shifted from open to laparoscopic and more recently to robotic surgery. Our experience is in line with existing evidence supporting surgical treatment of symptomatic or complicated ectopic pancreas. In the current era, minimally invasive and robotic surgery can be used safely and successfully for treatment of ectopic pancreas.

  19. Localization of Presynaptic Plasticity Mechanisms Enables Functional Independence of Synaptic and Ectopic Transmission in the Cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine L. Dobson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the cerebellar molecular layer parallel fibre terminals release glutamate from both the active zone and from extrasynaptic “ectopic” sites. Ectopic release mediates transmission to the Bergmann glia that ensheathe the synapse, activating Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors and glutamate transporters. Parallel fibre terminals exhibit several forms of presynaptic plasticity, including cAMP-dependent long-term potentiation and endocannabinoid-dependent long-term depression, but it is not known whether these presynaptic forms of long-term plasticity also influence ectopic transmission to Bergmann glia. Stimulation of parallel fibre inputs at 16 Hz evoked LTP of synaptic transmission, but LTD of ectopic transmission. Pharmacological activation of adenylyl cyclase by forskolin caused LTP at Purkinje neurons, but only transient potentiation at Bergmann glia, reinforcing the concept that ectopic sites lack the capacity to express sustained cAMP-dependent potentiation. Activation of mGluR1 caused depression of synaptic transmission via retrograde endocannabinoid signalling but had no significant effect at ectopic sites. In contrast, activation of NMDA receptors suppressed both synaptic and ectopic transmission. The results suggest that the signalling mechanisms for presynaptic LTP and retrograde depression by endocannabinoids are restricted to the active zone at parallel fibre synapses, allowing independent modulation of synaptic transmission to Purkinje neurons and ectopic transmission to Bergmann glia.

  20. Localization of ectopic gastric mucosa by scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Alonzo, W.A. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    When gastric mucosal tissue occurs outside of the confines of the stomach, it is termed ectopic or heterotopic. Ectopic gastric mucosa may be found within Meckel's diverticulum, duplications of the alimentary tract, and Barrett's esophagus. In addition, a surgeon may inadvertently leave behind antral gastric mucosa while performing a partial gastrectomy for peptic ulcer disease (i.e., retained gastric antrum). It is important to detect the presence and location of ectopic mucosa because acid and pepsin secretion may cause ulceration in the adjacent tissue resulting in serious complications. The only currently available specific diagnostic technique for detecting ectopic gastric mucosa is pertechnetate Tc 99m (TcO 4- ) scintigraphy. This chapter reviews the functional anatomy of gastric mucosa, the mechanism of TcO 4 - localization, the various entities containing ectopic gastric mucosa, and the methods and results of TcO 4 - scanning for these disorders

  1. Ovarian Ectopic Pregnancy: a Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Lotfian

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Ovarian pregnancy is an uncommon form of ectopic pregnancy which usually diagnosed so late. The aim of this study is to report a case of ovarian ectopic pregnancy Case presentation: A 19 years old woman, with a history of polycystic ovary, first pregnancy, gestation age 9 weeks and 4 days, visited the doctor. She was complaining of severe abdomen pain and vaginal spotting and she was bedridden because of threatened miscarriage. She had discharged from hospital with progesterone suppository prescription. Requesting a transvaginal ultrasound and heterogeneous echogenic mass (size18×8/5 was shown near the left ovary. It was shown as ectopic pregnancy. The patient was hospitalized by ectopic pregnancy in ovary diagnosis and she was treated by methotrexate. Conclusion: In pregnant women that complain of bleeding and spotting in early pregnancy, in addition to threatened abortion, ectopic pregnancy should exist even in the absence of clinical symptoms, should be considered.

  2. Moral absolutism and ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczor, C

    2001-02-01

    If one accepts a version of absolutism that excludes the intentional killing of any innocent human person from conception to natural death, ectopic pregnancy poses vexing difficulties. Given that the embryonic life almost certainly will die anyway, how can one retain one's moral principle and yet adequately respond to a situation that gravely threatens the life of the mother and her future fertility? The four options of treatment most often discussed in the literature are non-intervention, salpingectomy (removal of tube with embryo), salpingostomy (removal of embryo alone), and use of methotrexate (MXT). In this essay, I review these four options and introduce a fifth (the milking technique). In order to assess these options in terms of the absolutism mentioned, it will also be necessary to discuss various accounts of the intention/foresight distinction. I conclude that salpingectomy, salpingostomy, and the milking technique are compatible with absolutist presuppositions, but not the use of methotrexate.

  3. The role of glycogen, glucose and lactate in neuronal activity during hypoxia in the hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech-Damal, N U; Geiseler, S J; Hoff, M L M; Schliep, R; Ramirez, J-M; Folkow, L P; Burmester, T

    2014-09-05

    The brains of diving mammals are repeatedly exposed to hypoxic conditions during diving. Brain neurons of the hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) have been shown to be more hypoxia tolerant than those of mice, but the underlying mechanisms are not clear. Here we investigated the roles of different metabolic substrates for maintenance of neuronal activity and integrity, by comparing the in vitro spontaneous neuronal activity of brain slices from layer V of the visual cortex of hooded seals with those in mice (Mus musculus). Studies were conducted by manipulating the composition of the artificial cerebrospinal fluid (aCSF), containing either 10 mM glucose, or 20 mM lactate, or no external carbohydrate supply (aglycemia). Normoxic, hypoxic and ischemic conditions were applied. The lack of glucose or the application of lactate in the aCSF containing no glucose had little effect on the neuronal activity of seal neurons in either normoxia or hypoxia, while neurons from mice survived in hypoxia only few minutes regardless of the composition of the aCSF. We propose that seal neurons have higher intrinsic energy stores. Indeed, we found about three times higher glycogen stores in the seal brain (∼4.1 ng per μg total protein in the seal cerebrum) than in the mouse brain. Notably, in aCSF containing no glucose, seal neurons can tolerate 20 mM lactate while in mouse neuronal activity vanished after few minutes even in normoxia. This can be considered as an adaptation to long dives, during which lactate accumulates in the blood. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Transvaginal sonographic findings of the ectopic pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Soon Ae; Youn, Chang Seon; Han, Sei Yul; Cho, Joo Youn; Chang, Sang Sik; Cha, Kwang Yul; Cha, Kyung Sub [Cha Women' s Hospital, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-08-15

    Transvaginal(TV) sonography uses high-frequency transducer and allows access to the uterus and adnexa, provides better resolution and more accurate diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy. To determine the value and the utility of TV sonography for a suspected ectopic pregnancy, we studied 56 women during 4 months from January to April 1989. Of 56 patients 46 had an surgically confirmed ectopic pregnancy, 5 had not an ectopic pregnancy and 5 had not follow up. TV sonography provides definite sonographic diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy including an extrauterine gestational sac 34 cases(74%), extrauterine embryo 9 caes(19.7%), hematosalpinx 10 cases(21.7%). Overall adnexal mass was detected in 38 cases(82.6%) at initial TV sonography and in 44 cases(95.6%) at follow up TV sonography. Additional findings were uterine decidual reaction 19 cases(41.3%), pseudo G-sac 4 cases(8.7%), cul-de-sac fluid 42 cases(91.2%). Follow-up TV sonography showed newly developed or growing adnexal mass in 8 among 9 cases. False positive 5 cases were two ovarian cysts, one incomplete abortion, two parametrial thickening due to previous ectopic pregnancy and salpingectomy. TV sonography may improve the govality of patient management by early diagnosis and early surgical treatment, so may preserve fertility. In conclusion, we may suggest that TV sonography is an integral part of diagnostic modality in suspected ectopic pregnancy.

  5. Transvaginal sonographic findings of the ectopic pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Soon Ae; Youn, Chang Seon; Han, Sei Yul; Cho, Joo Youn; Chang, Sang Sik; Cha, Kwang Yul; Cha, Kyung Sub

    1989-01-01

    Transvaginal(TV) sonography uses high-frequency transducer and allows access to the uterus and adnexa, provides better resolution and more accurate diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy. To determine the value and the utility of TV sonography for a suspected ectopic pregnancy, we studied 56 women during 4 months from January to April 1989. Of 56 patients 46 had an surgically confirmed ectopic pregnancy, 5 had not an ectopic pregnancy and 5 had not follow up. TV sonography provides definite sonographic diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy including an extrauterine gestational sac 34 cases(74%), extrauterine embryo 9 caes(19.7%), hematosalpinx 10 cases(21.7%). Overall adnexal mass was detected in 38 cases(82.6%) at initial TV sonography and in 44 cases(95.6%) at follow up TV sonography. Additional findings were uterine decidual reaction 19 cases(41.3%), pseudo G-sac 4 cases(8.7%), cul-de-sac fluid 42 cases(91.2%). Follow-up TV sonography showed newly developed or growing adnexal mass in 8 among 9 cases. False positive 5 cases were two ovarian cysts, one incomplete abortion, two parametrial thickening due to previous ectopic pregnancy and salpingectomy. TV sonography may improve the govality of patient management by early diagnosis and early surgical treatment, so may preserve fertility. In conclusion, we may suggest that TV sonography is an integral part of diagnostic modality in suspected ectopic pregnancy

  6. The functional significance of the spinose keel structure of benthic foraminifera: inferences from Miliolina cristata Millett, 1898 (Miliolida) from northeast Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitriţa Dumitriu, Simina; Dubicka, Zofia; Ionesi, Viorel

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents Miocene (lower Sarmatian) benthic foraminifera from the FH3P1 Rădăuţi Core section from the northwestern part of the Moldavian Platform, Romania. Based on foraminiferal assemblages we infer sediments were deposited in shallow-water, including marine-marginal environments, of varying salinities from brackish to normal marine with some short and rather small sea-level changes. Moreover, we describe for the first time in the Moldavian Platform a very rare species, Miliolina cristata Millett, which presents a characteristic spinose keel. Based on a detailed study of the test morphology and its variability, observed in picked material as well as in thin sections, we discuss some palaeoecological aspects of these foraminifera. M. cristata probably does not constitute a distinctive species, but it is more probable that some miliolid taxa developed such an exoskeletal feature in response to new environmental conditions, such as more turbulent water. Accordingly, our study would support the thesis that one of the functions of the benthic foraminiferal spines is to stabilize foraminiferal tests found in sandy substrates from high-energy environments.

  7. Ectopic cervical thymoma in a patient with Myasthenia gravis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Hung

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ectopic cervical thymoma is rare and is often misdiagnosed as a thyroid tumor or other malignancy. Ectopic thymic tissue can be found along the entire thymic descent path during embryogenesis. However, a thymoma arising from such ectopic thymic tissue is extremely rare. Herein we report a patient with ectopic cervical thymoma and myasthenia gravis (MG and discuss the management.

  8. Ectopic Axillary Breast during Systemic Lupus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besma Ben Dhaou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many breast changes may occur in systemic lupus erythematosus. We report a 41-year-old woman with lupus who presented three years after the onset of lupus an ectopic mammary gland confirmed by histological study.

  9. MR features of ectopic pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamai, Ken; Togashi, Kaori; Koyama, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy (EP), in which a fertilized ovum implants outside the uterine cavity, is the leading cause of pregnancy-related death in the first trimester. EP is usually suspected by a positive pregnancy test and an empty uterus on transvaginal sonography (TVS). Although TVS is the initial modality of choice, it may occasionally fail to demonstrate the implantation site. When TVS findings are indeterminate, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may provide better delineation of the focus of EP owing to its excellent tissue contrast. The key MRI features of EP include gestational sac (GS)-like structures that typically appear as a cystic sac-like structure, frequently associated with surrounding acute hematoma of distinct low intensity on T2-weighted images. In tubal pregnancy, an enhanced tubal wall on postcontrast images may be another diagnostic finding. Ruptured EP is inevitably associated with acute hematoma outside these structures. In intrauterine EP, recognition of the relationship between GS-like structure and the myometrium can aid in differentiating from normal pregnancy. Diagnostic pitfalls include heterotopic pregnancy, decidual changes in endometrial cyst and theca lutein cysts mimicking GS-like structures. Knowledge of a spectrum of clinical and MRI features of EP is essential for establishing an accurate diagnosis and determining appropriate management. (orig.)

  10. Cornual ectopic pregnancy; Report of three cases

    OpenAIRE

    espitia de la hoz, Franklin jose

    2014-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy is the implantation of the fertilized ovum outside the uterine cavity,its main location is in the tube. Non tubal forms include: the cornual pregnancy, ovarianpregnancy, abdominal pregnancy, cervical pregnancy, intraligamentary pregnancy andpregnancy in a rudimentary uterine horn. Three cases of cornual ectopic pregnancyare described. Surgical management, with wedge resection via laparotomy trophoblast,without resorting to hysterectomy was performed, correlating histopatholo...

  11. Dual ectopic thyroid associated with thyroid hemiagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shigenori; Masuda, Teruyuki; Ishimori, Masatoshi

    2018-01-01

    We report a case of a 15-year-old girl with a midline neck mass that was first noted 2 or 3 years previously. She had been treated with levothyroxine (L-T4) for congenital hypothyroidism until 11 years of age. Ultrasonography revealed an atrophic right thyroid (1.0 × 1.6 × 2.6 cm in size) and a mass (2.3 × 1.0 × 3.5 cm in size) in the upper part of the neck. No left lobe of the thyroid was detected. On further evaluation, Tc-99m pertechnetate thyroid scintigraphy and CT showed ectopic thyroid tissue in the lingual region and infrahyoid region. Thus, she was diagnosed as having dual ectopic thyroid and thyroid hemiagenesis. The atrophic right thyroid was thought be non-functional. Treatment with L-T4 was started to reduce the size of the dual ectopic thyroid tissue. This may be the first reported case of dual ectopic thyroid associated with hemiagenesis detected only by ultrasonography. Ultrasonography can confirm the presence or absence of orthotopic thyroid tissue in patients with ectopic thyroid.The cause of congenital hypothyroidism should be examined.Clinical manifestation of ectopic thyroid may appear when the treatment with L-T4 is discontinued.Annual follow-up is needed in all children when their thyroid hormone replacement is stopped.

  12. ACTH overexpressing pituitary hyperplasia in a patient with ectopic ACTH-syndrome due to carcinoid of the lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Konstantinovna Dzeranova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic ACTH-syndrome is the most diagnostically challenging  variant of endogenous hypercortisolism. Particularly difficult differential diagnosis of this syndrome is from Cushing's disease (CD, as currently there is no single test sufficiently accurate to differentiate accurately ectopic ACTH production from the pituitary. The main functional tests are based on the fact that the vast majority of ectopic ACTH production is autonomous and suppresses one from pituitary. But in some cases this is not observed, and then the data obtained all necessary laboratory and instrumental research evidence in favor of central genesis of CD in a patient with ACTH ectopic secretion, which can lead to inappropriate treatment. If you confirm the ectopic ACTH-syndrome, it may take quite a long time of searching for the pathological focus, as there is no sufficiently precise imaging and diagnostic method for determining the localization of ectopic source of ACTH production. Thus, the differential diagnosis of ACTH-dependent hypercortisolism and localization of the ectopic tumor is the cornerstone of early and radical treatment of patients. We present a difficult clinical case of a patient having a pituitary hyperplasia with excessive ACTH expression with primary ectopic ACTH syndrome caused by lung carcinoid.

  13. Presenza di Istrice Hystrix cristata negli argini fluviali: problematiche ed esperienze in provincia di Perugia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Convito

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A seguito di danneggiamento di argini fluviali da parte dell?Istrice Hystrix cristata, si è richiesto al Ministero dell?Ambiente il necessario parere alla cattura e traslocazione della specie da tutti i reticoli fluviali in cui si sono avute segnalazioni. Tra novembre 2001 e ottobre 2002 sono state organizzate tre campagne di contenimento nelle seguenti aree: A Alto Tevere umbro; B Lago Trasimeno; C Valle Umbra. Inizialmente sono state adoperate trappole-galleria per Nutria (N, poi integrate o sostituite con modelli appositamente realizzati per Istrice (Is. A danno: otto sistemi di cunicoli in 618 m di argine a ridosso di coltivazioni; periodo d?intervento: 12/XI-19/XII 2001; operatori: n. 2; trappole: n. 10-N; esca: mais, poi mela; notti trappola totale: n. 168; risultato cattura: n. 2 istrici (3,15 ind./mese e n. 1 Nutria (Myocastor coypus; B danno: tre sistemi di cunicoli in 1.540 m di argine pensile; periodo d?intervento: 01/II-17/III 2002; operatori: n. 2; trappole utilizzate: n. 10-Is ?ghigliottina? + n. 1- Is ?modificata?; esca: mela, poi granaglie; notti trappola totale.: n. 224; risultato cattura: n. 7 istrici (4,03 ind./mese e n. 6 nutrie; C danno: oltre venti sistemi di cunicoli in 21.050 m di argini pensili; periodo intervento: 25/VI-25/X 2002; operatori: n.1; trappole: n. 7-Is ?modificate? + n. 9-N; esca: granaglie; notti trappola tot.: n. 641; risultato cattura: n. 1 Istrice (0,4 ind./mese e n. 1 Gatto domestico. Catturando 3-4 ind./mese, si è riusciti a difendere argini ?sensibili? dalla minaccia degli istrici. Determinante è risultato il traslocamento di animali adulti, più legati dei giovani ad un particolare sito e restii pertanto ad abbandonarlo anche se disturbati. Dalle aree A e B sono stati spostati rispettivamente due e tre adulti e, anche se la specie è ancora presente, i punti ?critici? di tali corsi d?acqua non hanno presentato altri problemi. I risultati migliori (sito B si sono ottenuti con l

  14. ANALYSIS OF RISK FACTORS ECTOPIC PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Santoso

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ectopic pregnancy is a pregnancy with extrauterine implantation. This situation is gynecologic emergency that contributes to maternal mortality. Therefore, early recognition, based on identification of the causes of ectopic pregnancy risk factors, is needed. Methods: The design descriptive observational. The samples were pregnant women who had ectopic pregnancy at Maternity Room, Emergency Unit, Dr. Soetomo Hospital, Surabaya, from 1 July 2008 to 1 July 2010. Sampling technique was total sampling using medical records. Result: Patients with ectopic pregnancy were 99 individuals out of 2090 pregnant women who searched for treatment in Dr. Soetomo Hospital. However, only 29 patients were accompanied with traceable risk factors. Discussion:. Most ectopic pregnancies were in the age group of 26-30 years, comprising 32 patients (32.32%, then in age groups of 31–35 years as many as 25 patients (25.25%, 18 patients in age group 21–25 years (18.18%, 17 patients in age group 36–40 years (17.17%, 4 patients in age group 41 years and more (4.04%, and the least was in age group of 16–20 years with 3 patients (3.03%. A total of 12 patients with ectopic pregnancy (41.38% had experience of abortion and 6 patients (20.69% each in groups of patients with ectopic pregnancy who used family planning, in those who used family planning as well as ectopic pregnancy patients with history of surgery. There were 2 patients (6.90% of the group of patients ectopic pregnancy who had history of surgery and history of abortion. The incidence rate of ectopic pregnancy was 4.73%, mostly in the second gravidity (34.34%, whereas the nulliparous have the highest prevalence of 39.39%. Acquired risk factors, i.e. history of operations was 10.34%, patients with family planning 20.69%, patients with history of abortion 41.38%, patients with history of abortion and operation 6.90% patients with family and history of abortion was 20.69%.

  15. Embryonic miRNA profiles of normal and ectopic pregnancies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Dominguez

    Full Text Available Our objective was to investigate the miRNA profile of embryonic tissues in ectopic pregnancies (EPs and controlled abortions (voluntary termination of pregnancy; VTOP. Twenty-three patients suffering from tubal EP and twenty-nine patients with a normal ongoing pregnancy scheduled for a VTOP were recruited. Embryonic tissue samples were analyzed by miRNA microarray and further validated by real time PCR. Microarray studies showed that four miRNAs were differentially downregulated (hsa-mir-196b, hsa-mir-30a, hsa-mir-873, and hsa-mir-337-3p and three upregulated (hsa-mir-1288, hsa-mir-451, and hsa-mir-223 in EP compared to control tissue samples. Hsa-miR-196, hsa-miR-223, and hsa-miR-451 were further validated by real time PCR in a wider population of EP and control samples. We also performed a computational analysis to identify the gene targets and pathways which might be modulated by these three differentially expressed miRNAs. The most significant pathways found were the mucin type O-glycan biosynthesis and the ECM-receptor-interaction pathways. We also checked that the dysregulation of these three miRNAs was able to alter the expression of the gene targets in the embryonic tissues included in these pathways such as GALNT13 and ITGA2 genes. In conclusion, analysis of miRNAs in ectopic and eutopic embryonic tissues shows different expression patterns that could modify pathways which are critical for correct implantation, providing new insights into the understanding of ectopic implantation in humans.

  16. An unusual case of ectopic ACTH syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willhauck, M J; Pöpperl, G; Rachinger, W; Giese, A; Auernhammer, C J; Spitzweg, C

    2012-02-01

    Ectopic ACTH-syndrome is a rare cause of Cushing's disease. Despite extensive diagnostic procedures the source of ACTH secretion often remains occult. This case describes a 45-year old woman with an ectopic Cushing's syndrome. Extensive imaging procedures including CT scan of chest and abdomen, octreotide scan and MRI of the chest and pituitary did not reveal the source of ACTH secretion. In consideration of an occult source of ACTH secretion we started a therapeutic trial with cabergoline (0.5 mg/d), a dopamine receptor agonist, which has been shown to be effective in ectopic Cushing's syndrome. 2 months after cabergoline treatment had been initiated, ACTH and cortisol levels normalized in association with significant improvement of the clinical symptoms. During follow-up a [(68)Ga-DOTA-dPhe(1), Tyr(3)]-octreotate ([(68)Ga-DOTA]-TATE) PET-CT was performed revealing a somatostatin receptor positive lesion in the right sphenoidal sinus suggesting the source of ACTH secretion. The patient was cured by transnasal resection of the polypoid lesion, which was immunohistochemically characterized as an ACTH-positive neuroendocrine tumor. This case report demonstrates the management of ectopic ACTH-syndrome by molecularly -targeted therapy with dopamine receptor -agonists as well as improved detection of the ectopic ACTH source by novel imaging modalities, such as [(68)Ga-DOTA]-TATE PET specifically targeting somatostatin receptor subtype-2 with high affinity. © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Surgical treatment for ectopic atrial tachycardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffigna, A; Vigano, M; Pagani, F; Salerno, G

    1992-08-01

    Atrial tachycardia is an infrequent but potentially dangerous arrhythmia which often determines cardiac enlargement. Surgical ablation of the arrhythmia is effective and safe, provided a careful atrial mapping is performed and the surgical technique is tailored to the individual focus location. Eight patients underwent surgical ablation of ectopic atrial tachycardia between 1977 and 1990. Different techniques were adopted for each patient according to the anatomical location of the focus and possibly associated arrhythmias. Whenever possible, a closed heart procedure was chosen. In 1 patient a double focal origin was found and treated by separate procedures. In 1 patient with ostium secundum atrial septal defect and atrial flutter, surgical isolation of the right appendage and the ectopic focus was performed. In all patients ectopic atrial tachycardia was ablated with maintenance of the sinoatrial and atrioventricular nodal function as well as internodal conduction. In follow-up up to December 1991, no recurrency was recorded.

  18. [Management of ectopic pregnancy in Conakry, Guinea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, T; Diallo, Y; Toure, A; Diallo, F B; Balde, A A; Hyjazi, Y; Diallo, M S

    2009-12-01

    Ectopic pregnancy is one of the most frequent hemorrhagic emergencies encountered in gynecology and obstetrics. The purpose of this 16-month descriptive prospective study at the Ignace Deen Gynecology-Obstetric clinic at Conakry University Hospital in Guinea was to assess diagnostic techniques and therapeutic attitudes regarding ectopic pregnancy in a low-resource setting. The frequency of ectopic pregnancy was 1.4%. Mean patient age was 28.9 years. Ectopic pregnancy was often observed at the second or third pregnancy (47.1%) in women who were giving birth for the second or third time (36.0%) and had a history of sexually transmitted infections (88.2%) or abortions (43.1%). Most women had no schooling (60.8 %), were poor and lived in a marital home (86.3%). Presenting symptoms included the classic triad of amenorrhea (98.0%), abdominopelvic pain (92.2%), and vaginal bleeding (62.7%). Definitive diagnosis was achieved by ultrasound examination in 76.6% of cases and by puncture of the Douglas pouch in 84%. The most frequent site of ectopic pregnancy was the ampulla of the uterine tube (66.9%). Abdominal and ovarian pregnancy was observed in 3 and 4 of the 51 cases respectively. Surgical management was performed in all cases. The most frequent procedure was salpingectomy (80.3%). Proper treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STI), start-up of post-abortion care facilities, and provision of information during early consultation at the first signs of pregnancy would help reduce the frequency and improve the prognosis of ectopic pregnancy.

  19. Treatment of ectopic first permanent molar teeth.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hennessy, Joe

    2012-11-01

    Ectopic eruption of the first permanent molar is a relatively common occurence in the developing dentition. A range of treatment options are available to the clinician provided that diagnosis is made early. Non-treatment can result in premature exfoliation of the second primary molar, space loss and impaction of the second premolar. This paper will describe the management of ectopic first permanent molars, using clinical examples to illustrate the available treatment options. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This paper is relevant to every general dental practitioner who treats patients in mixed dentition.

  20. Simple ectopic kidney in three dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jiyoung; Lee, Heechun; Lee, Youngwon; Choi, Hojung

    2012-10-01

    Simple ectopic kidney was diagnosed in three dogs by means of radiography and ultrasonography. A 2-year-old castrated male Schnauzer, a 13-year-old female Schnauzer and a 9-year-old male Jindo were referred with vomiting, hematuria and ocular discharge, respectively. In all three dogs, oval-shaped masses with soft tissue density were observed in the mid to caudal abdomen bilaterally or unilaterally, and kidney silhouettes were not identified at the proper anatomic places on abdominal radiographs. Ultrasonography confirmed the masses were malpositioned kidney. The ectopic kidneys had relatively small size, irregular shape and short ureter but showed normal function on excretory urography.

  1. Treatment of ectopic first permanent molar teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Joe; Al-Awadhi, E A; Dwyer, Lian O; Leith, Rona

    2012-11-01

    Ectopic eruption of the first permanent molar is a relatively common occurence in the developing dentition. A range of treatment options are available to the clinician provided that diagnosis is made early. Non-treatment can result in premature exfoliation of the second primary molar, space loss and impaction of the second premolar. This paper will describe the management of ectopic first permanent molars, using clinical examples to illustrate the available treatment options. This paper is relevant to every general dental practitioner who treats patients in mixed dentition.

  2. PRL-3 Is Involved in Estrogen- and IL-6-Induced Migration of Endometrial Stromal Cells From Ectopic Endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Shifan; Zhou, Yefang; Fang, Xiaoling; She, Xiaoling; Wu, Yilin; Wu, Xianqing

    2016-05-24

    To investigate the role of phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 (PRL-3) in the 17β-estradiol (E2)- and interleukin 6 (IL-6)-induced migration of endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) from ectopic endometrium. Ectopic endometrial tissues were collected from patients with endometriosis, and PRL-3 expression in ectopic and eutopic endometrium was examined by immunohistochemistry. Endometrial stromal cells isolated from ectopic endometrium were treated with E2, progesterone (P), IL-6, or sodium orthovanadate (Sov) to inhibit PRL-3. Total RNA and protein were extracted from ESCs after treatment for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analyses. Cell migration was assessed using a scratch wound assay. Phosphatase of regenerating liver 3 protein was highly expressed in the endometrial glandular cells (EGCs) and ESCs in ectopic endometrium, whereas its weak expression was observed only in EGCs in eutopic endometrium. Both E2 and IL-6 treatment significantly increased PRL-3 messenger RNA and protein expression, and P treatment significantly inhibited PRL-3 expression. However, E2-induced PRL-3 expression in ESCs from ectopic endometrium was significantly blocked by IL-6 antibody. Moreover, E2- and IL-6-enhanced cell migration was completely abrogated by Sov treatment. Furthermore, Sov treatment could significantly promote PTEN expression but inhibit E2- and IL-6-induced p-AKT activation. Phosphatase of regenerating liver 3 plays a key role in the E2- and IL-6-induced migration of ESCs from ectopic endometrium, a process that is involved in the PTEN-AKT signaling pathway. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Cervical Ectopic Pregnancy in Resource Deprived Areas: A Rare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-02

    Jun 2, 2016 ... Cervical ectopic pregnancy is a rare, life threatening form of ectopic pregnancy ... cervical, resource deprived areas, difficult diagnosis, management ... drome, prior instrumentation or therapeutic abortion .... CONCLUSION.

  4. Splenic rupture masquerading ruptured ectopic pregnancy | Kigbu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The classical triad of presentation of delayed menses, irregular vaginal bleeding and abdominal pain may not be encountered at all! Overwhelming features of abdominal pain, amenorrhea, pallor, abdominal tenderness, shifting dullness with positive pregnancy test gave a clinical diagnosis of ruptured ectopic pregnancy.

  5. Perineal Ectopic Testis in an Adult

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in an ectopic site outside the scrotum; such as the perineum, pubic region, dorsum of the penis, femoral region, anterior abdominal wall and the contralateral scrotum. Management is orchidopexy through an inguinal crease incision as the length of the spermatic cord is normal. We report a 26 year old man with a left perineal ...

  6. Ectopic gastric mucosa in the duodenal bulb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnell, H.; Oehler, G.; Schulz, A.; Rau, W.S.; Giessen Univ.; Giessen Univ.

    1989-01-01

    The radiological and clinical findings of 12 patients with ectopic gastric mucosa in the duodenal bulb are presented. This is a defined disease with characteristic radiological features: multiple small nodular defects of the contrast medium of 1-3 mm diameter. Histology shows complete heterotopia. Pathogenesis and clinical significance are discussed with reference to the literature on this subject. (orig.) [de

  7. Ectopic decidual reaction mimicking inguinal lymphoma on ultrasound

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, C.; Prangsgaard, Tina; Lorentzen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    Ectopic decidual reaction has been described in various intraperitoneal locations. We present a case of unusual ectopic decidual reaction in the groin mimicking inguinal lymphoma on ultrasound in a pregnant woman. This case contributes evidence illustrating the variability of the clinical...... presentation of ectopic decidual reaction....

  8. Ectopic decidual reaction mimicking irritable bowel syndrome: a case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Salehgargari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic decidualization with gross involvement of the peritoneum is one of the rare findings in pregnant women particularly when ectopic decidualization disseminated as an asymptomatic intra-abdominal nodule. We present here a case of an ectopic decidualization in a 33-year-old pregnant woman with symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome during pregnancy.

  9. Ectopic ureterocele and ectopic ureter in pediatric patients; Ureterocele ectopico y ectopia ureteral en pacientes pediatricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloret, M. T.; Ricart, V.; Muro, M. D.; Perez, D.; Martinez, I.; Brugger, S.; Romero, M. J.; Cortina, H. [hospital General Universitario La Fe. Valencia (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    To describe the radiological findings associated with ectopic ureterocele and ectopic ureter in pediatric patients. To assess the role of ultrasound (US), serial micturating cystourethrography (SM-CU) and intravenous urography (IVU) in the diagnosis of these two entities. The authors performed a retrospective study of 132 patients, 73 with ectopic ureterocele and 59 with ectopic ureter. The imaging studies used were US, SMCU, IVU and methods to determine renal function (diuretic renography and renal scintigraphy). The findings were confirmed during surgery in every case. The most common radiological findings in ectopic ureterocele were renal duplication (86,3%). vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) to the lower half of the kidney (46.6%), dilatation of the lower pole of the kidney (38.4%) and contralateral duplication (30.1%). In boys, the ectopic ureter entered via bladder neck and posterior urethra (73.7%) or into seminal vesicles (15.8%); in girls, it went to vagina (32.5%), bladder neck (30%) or urethra (22.5%). Renal duplication was associated in 64.4%, with VUR to the ectopic ureter in 21% while there was a single renal system in 35.6%, with VUR to the ectopic ureter in 57.1% and contralateral renal agenesis in 19%. Eighteen patients (13.6%) presented a single, dy plastic, nonfunctioning renal system (6 cases of ureterocele and 12 of ectopic ureter). Knowledge of the embryological development of ureteral duplication is essential for the understanding of these two entities and helps to differentiate between them, thus facilitating a sometimes complicated diagnosis. Ectopic ureters and ureteroceles accompanied by a single, dysplastic renal system are associated with a greater incidence of congenital anomalies and a higher rate of complications than the duplicate systems. A prenatal US examination enables early diagnosis. The anatomical information provided by US is, on occasion, more valuable than that resulting from IVU or SMCU, However, IVU is indispensable in girls

  10. Ectopic Varices in Colonic Stoma: MDCT Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jae Woong; Lee, Chang Hee; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Park, Cheol Min; Kim, Jin Yong [Guro Hospital of Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    We describe the 2D reformatted and 3D volume rendered images by MDCT in a patient with an episode of acute bleeding from the colonic stoma. This case indicates that the 2D reformatted and 3D volume rendered images are useful to detect this rare complication of portal hypertension, and they help to tailor adequate treatment for the patients with bleeding from stomal varices. Ectopic varices are an uncommon cause of gastrointestinal hemorrhage, but they account for up to 5% of all variceal bleedings (1). Bleeding from stomal varices has been reported in up to 20% of the patients suffering with chronic liver failure with permanent stoma (2). However, the diagnosis of stomal varices is difficult because bleeding from stoma may also be associated with lower gastrointestinal bleeding. To the best of our knowledge, the 2D reformatted and 3D volume rendered images by MDCT for visualization of ectopic stomal varices have not been previously reported in the medical literature.

  11. Ectopic ureterocele in the male infant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekloef, O.; Loehr, G.; Ringertz, H.; Thomasson, B.

    1978-01-01

    An account is given of a series of ectopic ureterocele present in 14 male infants. The malformation is found to be more complex than in the female. The ipsilateral renal function is severely impaired or abolished and obstruction to the bladder outflow common. Associated dilatation and elongation of the posterior urethra during micturition may result in a valvelike appearance. Eversion of the male ureterocele is common and possible mechanisms to account for this event are discussed. (Auth.)

  12. Ectopic hepatocellular carcinoma in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, I R; Limpus, K; Thompson, K G; Owen, M C; Worth, A J

    2005-12-01

    A 14-year-old neutered male Bearded Collie was presented with a history of recurrent, intermittent urinary incontinence of 7 years duration. A large, firm, non-painful mass was found in the mid-abdominal region on palpation. Ultrasonography of the mass revealed a compartmentalised structure with mixed echogenicity, and which did not appear to be associated with any of the abdominal organs. Ultrasound-guided fine needle aspirates contained several clusters of epithelial cells with cytological features of hepatocytes. At exploratory laparotomy, the mass was found in the gastrosplenic ligament within the greater omentum. PATHOLOGICAL FINDINGS AND DIAGNOSIS: Histopathologically, the mass consisted of sheets of hepatocytes, but without the characteristic hepatic architecture. The cells showed moderate variation in nuclear size and were sometimes binucleate. A diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the mesentery was made. The presence of ectopic hepatic tissue has been reported rarely in man and cats, but not in the dog. Neoplastic transformation of ectopic hepatic tissue is seen in man. This is the first report of the presentation, clinical findings and treatment of a dog with ectopic HCC.

  13. CT diagnosis of abdominal ectopic pheochromocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuping; Zhao Zhiying

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the value of CT in diagnosis of abdominal ectopic pheochromocytoma. Methods: CT findings of 5 cases surgically and pathologically proved with ectopic pheochromocytoma were retrospectively analyzed. Results: Soft tissue mass with light asymmetry enhancement was found between the abdominal aorta and the inferior vena ca-va in one case. 1 case was completely cystic with light enhancement of the cystwall located in front of the left side of the abdominal aorta. 1 case of large solid mass occurred between the renal hilum and the tail of pancreas, with irregular shape, unclear boundary, central necrosis, calcification and obviously enhancement at the solid part. 2 cases showed as oval soft lump with even density, moderate strengthening located before the abdominal aorta. Paroxysmal hypertension occurred in 3 cases and didn't in 2 cases. Hypertension happened in 1 case during the operation because of stimulation. Blood pressure appeared in 1 case during and after operation. Blood and urinary catecholamine increased significantly in 4 cases. Conclusion: Ectopic pheochromocytoma mainly located surround the abdominal aorta with diverse CT performance. It is helpful for diagnosing when finding a lesion locates at the specified sites combined with typical clinical presentation. CT can not only depict small tumor, but also can show the relationship with surrounding structure, and it provides important information for the operation and prognosis. (authors)

  14. Zoonotic ectopic fascioliasis: review and discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashed, Amr A; Khalil, Hazem H M; Morsy, Ayman T A

    2010-12-01

    Ectopic fascioliasis (EF) has direct and indirect effects on both humans and animals. The phenomenon of EF was individual cases in the period from 1950 up to the end of last century. From the period of 2000 up to 2006, plenty of researches were on EF in the developed and undeveloped countries. Nineteen EF cases infected with the immature and few with the mature worms were 13 females and 6 males. Three cases of lymphatic, pleural and breast fascioliasis reached the adults and laid their eggs in a lymph node in the cervical region pleural cavity and breast tissues. Until recent, knowledge about the ectopic fascioliasis pathway is little. Fasciola hepatica was the commonest species in most cases. The effect of fascioliasis might be direct to liver as ectopic foci or indirect on other organs due to the metabolites and secretory excretory products. All ages and both sexes were EF infected. Watercress topped the list of water plants born encysted metacercariae followed by lettuce, mint, and alfalfa. Nearly 24 million Egyptians at risk and about 800,000 were infected. On the global scale, about 180 million are at risk of infection.

  15. Ectopic germinal center and megalin defect in primary Sjogren syndrome with renal Fanconi syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Wen, Yubing; Zhou, Mengyu; Shi, Xiaoxiao; Jiang, Lanping; Li, Mingxi; Yu, Yang; Li, Xuemei; Li, Xuewang; Zhang, Wen; Lundquist, Andrew L; Chen, Limeng

    2017-06-02

    This study reports the clinical and pathological features of 12 cases of primary Sjogren syndrome (pSS) with renal involvement presenting with proximal tubular dysfunction in a single center, and investigates the possible correlation of ectopic germinal center formation and megalin/cubilin down-expression. Clinical and pathological records were reviewed. Immunohistochemistry was carried out to detect megalin, cubilin, CD21 and IL-17 expression. Patients presented with different degrees of proximal renal tubule lesion and decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Renal biopsy revealed tubulointerstitial nephritis, with tubular epithelial cell degeneration, tubular atrophy, interstitial inflammation and focal fibrosis. Immunohistochemistry revealed decreased expression of megalin and cubilin, two important multiligand protein receptors on the brush border of proximal tubular epithelial cells. IL-17 secreted by Th17 subtype effector T cells was diffusely detected in the renal proximal tubule, with a negative correlation of IL-17 and megalin expression. In addition, ectopic germinal centers characterized by CD21 + follicular dendritic cells were present in the renal interstitium. In patients with a decreased eGFR, treatment with 4 weeks of glucocorticoid therapy resulted in an improved eGFR in 75% of patients. We report 12 cases of pSS characterized by Fanconi syndrome. The decreased megalin and cubilin expression may contribute to the proximal tubular reabsorption defect, possibly secondary to Th17 infiltration and formation of ectopic germinal centers.

  16. Characterization and Ectopic Expression of CoWRI1, an AP2/EREBP Domain-Containing Transcription Factor from Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) Endosperm, Changes the Seeds Oil Content in Transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana and Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, RuHao; Ye, Rongjian; Gao, Lingchao; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Rui; Mao, Ting; Zheng, Yusheng; Li, Dongdong; Lin, Yongjun

    2017-01-01

    Coconut ( Cocos nucifera L.) is a key tropical crop and a member of the monocotyledonous family Arecaceae ( Palmaceae ). Few genes and related metabolic processes involved in coconut endosperm development have been investigated. In this study, a new member of the WRI1 gene family was isolated from coconut endosperm and was named CoWRI1 . Its transcriptional activities and interactions with the acetyl-CoA carboxylase ( BCCP2 ) promoter of CoWRI1 were confirmed by the yeast two-hybrid and yeast one-hybrid approaches, respectively. Functional characterization was carried out through seed-specific expression in Arabidopsis and endosperm-specific expression in rice. In transgenic Arabidopsis , high over-expressions of CoWRI1 in seven independent T2 lines were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. The relative mRNA accumulation of genes encoding enzymes involved in either fatty acid biosynthesis or triacylglycerols assembly (BCCP2, KASI, MAT, ENR, FATA, and GPDH) were also assayed in mature seeds. Furthermore, lipid and fatty acids C16:0 and C18:0 significantly increased. In two homozygous T2 transgenic rice lines (G5 and G2), different CoWRI1 expression levels were detected, but no CoWRI1 transcripts were detected in the wild type. Analyses of the seed oil content, starch content, and total protein content indicated that the two T2 transgenic lines showed a significant increase ( P oil content. The transgenic lines also showed a significant increase in starch content, whereas total protein content decreased significantly. Further analysis of the fatty acid composition revealed that palmitic acid (C16:0) and linolenic acid (C18:3) increased significantly in the seeds of the transgenic rice lines, but oleic acid (C18:1) levels significantly declined.

  17. Dual ectopic thyroid: A case report with review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, A.; Seam, R. K.; Gupta, M.; Raj Sharma, D.; Bhardwaj, P.

    2011-01-01

    The ectopic thyroid gland is a rare entity which is mostly found along the line of descent of the thyroid gland. Most of the patients present with midline swelling and usually seek medical attention. Dual ectopic thyroid gland is even rarer. The clinical examination and different imaging modalities establish its diagnosis. Radionuclide studies are highly sensitive and specific in demonstrating the functional tissues in patients with ectopic thyroid, thereby guiding further management. The authors reported a case of ectopic thyroid gland in a girl with midline neck swelling initially, subsequently lost to follow-up. She again presented with enlarged swelling after a period of three years with dual ectopic thyroid in the neck region on thyroid scan. Thyroid scintigraphy demonstrated that progression in the size of ectopic glands was due to neglect in treatment.

  18. Clinicopathological Features and Treatment of Ectopic Varices with Portal Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Sato

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bleeding from ectopic varices, which is rare in patients with portal hypertension, is generally massive and life-threatening. Forty-three patients were hospitalized in our ward for gastrointestinal bleeding from ectopic varices. The frequency of ectopic varices was 43/1218 (3.5% among portal hypertensive patients in our ward. The locations of the ectopic varices were rectal in thirty-two, duodenal in three, intestinal in two, vesical in three, stomal in one, and colonic in two patients. Endoscopic or interventional radiologic treatment was performed successfully for ectopic varices. Hemorrhage from ectopic varices should be kept in mind in patients with portal hypertension presenting with lower gastrointestinal bleeding.

  19. Ectopic recurrence of craniopharyngioma: Reporting three new cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Shrestha, David; Shi, Xiang-En; Zhou, Zhongqing; Qi, Xueling; Qian, Hai

    2015-04-01

    Ectopic recurrence of craniopharyngioma is extremely rare following transcranial procedures of primary tumour. Here we describe 3 new cases of ectopic recurrence along the surgical route after transcranial gross total resection of primary tumour. All 3 cases are male adults--2 of them had papillary-type tumour with the other being adamantinomatous. All ectopic tumours were safely resected via repeated craniotomy. Long-term surveillance of patients with resected craniopharyngioma is essential.

  20. Ectopic Neurohypophysis in Patient with Pituitary Dwarfism: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    İlhan Kılınç; Deniz Gökalp; Cihan Akgül Özmen

    2008-01-01

    Ectopic neurohypophysis is an anomaly of the Pituitary gland whichmay be associated with short stature due to Growth hormone deficiency.MRI is the modality of choice in diagnosing this condition. We present acase of pituitary dwarfism and ectopic neurohypophysis with clinical andradiological findings. 21 year-old male admitted with short stature. Allhormones, except prolactin, of anterior hypophysis were low. Bright spotwas ectopically located at level of median eminence on enhanced MRI ofhyp...

  1. Biomarkers for Ectopic Pregnancy and Pregnancy of Unknown Location

    OpenAIRE

    Senapati, Suneeta; Barnhart, Kurt T.

    2013-01-01

    Early pregnancy failure is the most common complication of pregnancy, and 1–2% of all pregnancies will be ectopic. As one of the leading causes of maternal morbidity and mortality, diagnosing ectopic pregnancy and determining the fate of a pregnancy of unknown location are of great clinical concern. Several serum and plasma biomarkers for ectopic pregnancy have been investigated independently and in combination. The following is a review of the state of biomarker discovery and development for...

  2. Inclination of the infraorbital canal studied on dry skulls expresses the maxillary growth pattern: a new contribution to the understanding of change in inclination of ectopic canines during puberty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caspersen, Louise M; Christensen, Ib J; Kjær, Inger

    2009-01-01

    Objective. The purpose of this study was to analyze the correlation between direction of the infraorbital canal and maxillary width on frontal radiographs of dry human skulls. Material and methods. Forty-two symmetrical, dry human skulls (late adolescence and adult) with no dental or skeletal...... anomalies. Frontal radiographs were taken of each skull placed in the Frankfort horizontal plane, with a radiopaque marker in the infraorbital canal. The maxillary transversal growth pattern was expressed as the infraorbital transversal angle (IOt) formed between a line through the contour of the bilateral...

  3. Treatment of Ectopic Mandibular Second Permanent Molar with Elastic Separators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic eruption is a developmental disturbance in which the tooth fails to follow its normal eruption pathway. Ectopic eruption of the second molar is relatively rare. This paper presents the case of thirteen-year-old male with an ectopic mandibular second permanent molar. The condition was corrected with surgical exposure and placement of elastic separators. This case report lays emphasis on the practice of basic methods to obtain acceptable results rather than extensive surgical or orthodontic corrections. It is advised that ectopic teeth should not be neglected especially when it concerns developing caries and malocclusion.

  4. Endotracheal ectopic parathyroid adenoma mimicking asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Akif Özgül

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary benign tumors of the trachea are uncommon. These tumors may cause tracheal occlusion and lead to a misdiagnosis of asthma. Ectopic parathyroid adenoma (EPA can be seen anywhere between the mandibular angle and the mediastinum. The distal part of the trachea is a rare location for EPA, and EPA obstructing the endotracheal lumen has not been reported in the literature. We herein describe a 52-year-old female with a several-year history of asthma treatment who presented with progressive dyspnea. Computed tomography revealed a mass that was obstructing the tracheal lumen. Total mass excision was performed via endobronchial treatment, and pathologic examination revealed EPA.

  5. Ruptured ectopic pregnancy diagnosed with computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalak, Maciej; Żurada, Anna; Biernacki, Maciej; Zygmunt, Kozielec

    2010-01-01

    The rupture of ectopic pregnancy (EP) still remains the primary and direct cause of death in the first trimester of pregnancy. Ultrasonography is known to be a modality of choice in EP diagnostics. We found a severe discrepancy between the frequency of ectopic pregnancies (EP) and the number of available computed tomography (CT) examinations. A 29-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency department with a history of abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting and collapse. Sonographic findings of a suspected EP were unclear. Moreover, not all features of intrauterine pregnancy were present. Due to the patient’s life-threatening condition, an emergency multi-slice CT with MPR and VRT reconstructions was performed, revealing symptoms of a ruptured EP. In the right adnexal area, a well-vascularized, solid-cystic abnormal mass lesion was found. Intraperitoneal hemorrhage was confirmed intraoperatively, and the right fallopian tube with a tubal EP was resected. In the surgery in situ, as well as in the pathological examination of the tumor mass, a human embryo of approximately 1.5 cm in length (beginning of the 8 th week of gestation) was found. Although ultrasonography still remains the first-line imaging examination in EP diagnostics, sometimes the findings of suspected EPs are unclear and not sufficient. The rupture of EP, with serious bleeding and symptoms of shock, may require an emergent pelvic and abdominal CT inspection. A clear correlation was found between the macroscopic CT images and the intraoperatively sampled material

  6. Cell cycle stage-specific differential expression of topoisomerase I in tobacco BY-2 cells and its ectopic overexpression and knockdown unravels its crucial role in plant morphogenesis and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Badri Nath; Mudgil, Yashwanti; John, Riffat; Achary, V Mohan Murali; Tripathy, Manas Kumar; Sopory, Sudhir K; Reddy, Malireddy K; Kaul, Tanushri

    2015-11-01

    DNA topoisomerases catalyze the inter-conversion of different topological forms of DNA. Cell cycle coupled differential accumulation of topoisomerase I (Topo I) revealed biphasic expression maximum at S-phase and M/G1-phase of cultured synchronized tobacco BY-2 cells. This suggested its active role in resolving topological constrains during DNA replication (S-phase) and chromosome decondensation (M/G1 phase). Immuno-localization revealed high concentrations of Topo I in nucleolus. Propidium iodide staining and Br-UTP incorporation patterns revealed direct correlation between immunofluorescence intensity and rRNA transcription activity within nucleolus. Immuno-stained chromosomes during metaphase and anaphase suggested possible role of Topo I in resolving topological constrains during mitotic chromosome condensation. Inhibitor studies showed that in comparison to Topo I, Topo II was essential in resolving topological constrains during chromosome condensation. Probably, Topo II substituted Topo I functioning to certain extent during chromosome condensation, but not vice-versa. Transgenic Topo I tobacco lines revealed morphological abnormalities and highlighted its crucial role in plant morphogenesis and development. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Clinical and Ultrasonic Study of Clinically Suspected Ectopic Pregnancy: Laying Emphasis on 15 proven Ectopic Pregnancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byun, Myung Ho; Chung, Yung Sun [Chonnam National University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Ectopic preganacies are unsuccessful pregnancies that result from implantation of fertilized ovum occurring in an aberrant area. Aside from an emergency case, the early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy is very difficult particularly in a case with insidious onset and mild clinical manifestations. Early diagnosis not only reduces the danger, but also simplifies the management of ectopic pregnancy. Ultrasonography has been an indispensable diagnostic tool in Obstetrics and Gynecology. In the authors' experience, clinical suspected ectopic pregnancy was one of the common indications for performing ultrasonography. Since Kobayashi at al. reported the appearances of ectopic pregnancy utilizing bistable B-scan ultrasonography, the ultrasonic findings of ectopic pregnancy have been reported by many authors. But, its accuracy and reliability in the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy are still open to controversy. The authors studied 65 cases of clinically suspected ectopic pregnancy with Picker 80 L gray scale ultrasonography from Aug. 1982 to June. 1983. There were 29 confirmed cases, of which 15 were proved to have ectopic pregnancy and 14 were proved to have diseases other than ectopic pregnancy by surgical and histopathological study or by laparoscopy and follow up study. 29 confirmed cases were reviewed. The results were as follows: 1. Among 15 ectopic pregnancies, there were 12 ampullary pregnancies, 2 isthmic pregnancies and 1 interstitial pregnancy. Among 14 cases of no ectopic pregnancy, there were 5 intrauterine pregnancies, 3 myoma uteri, 2 P.I.D., and 1 case of dermoid cyst, cystic teratoma, H-mole and tubal hematoma due to previous tuball ligation, respectively. 2. The age distribution of ectopic pregnancy was from 22 to 41 years. The common clinical manifestations of ectopic pregnancy were lower abdominal pain (73.3%), vaginal spotting or bleeding (73.3%) and amenorrhea (66.7%). 3. Positive result of urine immunologic pregnancy test was 28.6% in ectopic

  8. The Clinical and Ultrasonic Study of Clinically Suspected Ectopic Pregnancy: Laying Emphasis on 15 proven Ectopic Pregnancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, Myung Ho; Chung, Yung Sun

    2010-01-01

    Ectopic preganacies are unsuccessful pregnancies that result from implantation of fertilized ovum occurring in an aberrant area. Aside from an emergency case, the early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy is very difficult particularly in a case with insidious onset and mild clinical manifestations. Early diagnosis not only reduces the danger, but also simplifies the management of ectopic pregnancy. Ultrasonography has been an indispensable diagnostic tool in Obstetrics and Gynecology. In the authors' experience, clinical suspected ectopic pregnancy was one of the common indications for performing ultrasonography. Since Kobayashi at al. reported the appearances of ectopic pregnancy utilizing bistable B-scan ultrasonography, the ultrasonic findings of ectopic pregnancy have been reported by many authors. But, its accuracy and reliability in the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy are still open to controversy. The authors studied 65 cases of clinically suspected ectopic pregnancy with Picker 80 L gray scale ultrasonography from Aug. 1982 to June. 1983. There were 29 confirmed cases, of which 15 were proved to have ectopic pregnancy and 14 were proved to have diseases other than ectopic pregnancy by surgical and histopathological study or by laparoscopy and follow up study. 29 confirmed cases were reviewed. The results were as follows: 1. Among 15 ectopic pregnancies, there were 12 ampullary pregnancies, 2 isthmic pregnancies and 1 interstitial pregnancy. Among 14 cases of no ectopic pregnancy, there were 5 intrauterine pregnancies, 3 myoma uteri, 2 P.I.D., and 1 case of dermoid cyst, cystic teratoma, H-mole and tubal hematoma due to previous tuball ligation, respectively. 2. The age distribution of ectopic pregnancy was from 22 to 41 years. The common clinical manifestations of ectopic pregnancy were lower abdominal pain (73.3%), vaginal spotting or bleeding (73.3%) and amenorrhea (66.7%). 3. Positive result of urine immunologic pregnancy test was 28.6% in ectopic pregnancy

  9. Ectopic pancreas causing partial gastric outlet obstruction: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ectopic pancreas causing partial gastric outlet obstruction: a case report and review of literature. ... Nigerian Journal of Surgery ... Gastric outlet obstruction resulting from ectopic pancreas in an adult is the first of its kind in our center; we, therefore, present this case to describe the challenges faced with diagnosis, treatment, ...

  10. Non-invasive diagnosis and management of ectopic pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Mello, N.M.

    2013-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis begins with a focus on non-invasive diagnostic methods for ectopic pregnancy. The heterogeneity found in studies on diagnostic tests for ectopic pregnancy has led to an international recommendation on uniform definitions of early pregnancy complications. Hereafter,

  11. Retrospective review of the medical management of ectopic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    condition is ranked among the top direct obstetric causes ... In Europe and North America, the incidence of ectopic pregnan- ... The reason for tubal implantation in an ectopic pregnancy is ... from assisted reproductive technologies, a pregnancy with current use of an intrauterine contraceptive device, and cigarette smoking.

  12. Ultrasonographic findings in 14 dogs with ectopic ureter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, C.R.; Gregory, S.P.

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate ultrasonography as an alternative to contrast radiographyfor diagnosis of ectopic ureter in dogs, ultrasonography of the urinary tract was performed prospectively in a series of urinary incontinent dogs anesthetized for contrast radiography, Fourteen dogs had ectopic ureter based ore surgical, necropsy or unequivocal contrast radiographic findings, There were eight females and six males of a variety of breeds; five were Labrador retrievers, Mean (range) age at the time ofdiagnosis was 1.2 (0.2-4) years for females and 3.5 (0.3-5) for males(p < 0.05). Ectopic ureters were unilateral in five dogs (2 left; 3 right) find bilateral in nine dogs. Both ultrasound images and contrastradiographs were positive for 21 (91%) ectopic ureters; the same two ectopic ureters were not defected using either modality, The termination of each of the five normal ureters was visible on ultrasound images; two (40%) were visible on radiographs, Other ultrasonographic findings included dilatation of the ectopic ureter and/or ipsilateral renal pelvis ill ten (43%) instances, evidence of pyelonephritis in two dogs(with enlargement of the contralateral kidney in one dog), and urethral diverticuli in one dog, Ultrasonography is a practical diagnostic Best for ectopic ureter in clogs. In this series these was close correlation between the ultrasonographic and contrast radiographic findings for each ectopic meter, but ultrasonography enabled more accurate determination of normal ureteral anatomy

  13. Inferior ectopic pupil and typical ocular coloboma in RCS rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Naho; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Narama, Isao; Matsuura, Tetsuro

    2011-08-01

    Ocular coloboma is sometimes accompanied by corectopia in humans and therefore ectopic pupil may indicate ocular coloboma in experimental animals. The RCS strain of rats has a low incidence of microphthalmia. We found that inferior ectopic pupil is associated exclusively with small-sized eyes in this strain. The objective of the current study was to evaluate whether inferior ectopic pupil is associated with iridal coloboma and other types of ocular coloboma in RCS rats. Both eyes of RCS rats were examined clinically, and those with inferior ectopic pupils underwent morphologic and morphometric examinations. In a prenatal study, coronal serial sections of eyeballs from fetuses at gestational day 16.5 were examined by using light microscopy. Ectopic pupils in RCS rats were found exclusively in an inferior position, where the iris was shortened. Fundic examination revealed severe chorioretinal coloboma in all cases of inferior ectopic pupil. The morphologic characteristics closely resembled those of chorioretinal coloboma in humans. Histopathologic examination of primordia showed incomplete closure of the optic fissure in 4 eyeballs of RCS fetuses. Neither F(1) rats nor N(2) (progeny of RCS × BN matings) displayed any ocular anomalies, including ectopic pupils. The RCS strain is a suitable model for human ocular coloboma, and inferior ectopic pupil appears to be a strong indicator of ocular coloboma.

  14. Ectopic Pregnancy in Lagos State University Teaching Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We set out to determine the socio-demographic factors,pattern of presentation and management of ectopic pregnancy in a University Teaching Hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. A retrospective descriptive analysis of all cases of ectopic pregnancy over a 2-year period was carried out. The case notes were retrieved from the ...

  15. Ectopic pregnancy experience in a tertiary health facility in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Ectopic pregnancy is a life-threatening gynecological emergency, and a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in Nigeria. Objective: To determine the incidence, clinical presentation, risk factors and management outcomes of ectopic pregnancies in a tertiary health facility. Methods: A retrospective ...

  16. Risk factors and outcomes of ectopic pregnancies at Aminu Kano ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine the incidence, risk factors, clinical presentation, morbidity and mortality of ectopic pregnancies at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital. Methods: It is a retrospective study of patients with ectopic pregnancies treated at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital (AKTH), Nigeria, from 1st January, 2005 to 31st ...

  17. Association of anti-Chlamydia antibodies with ectopic pregnancy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Ectopic pregnancy remains a major public health problem especially in many developing countries where it is a significant contributor to pregnancy related morbidity and mortality. Objective: To determine the association between prior Chlamydia trachomatis infection and the risk of ectopic pregnancy. Methods: ...

  18. Impact of ectopic pregnancy for reproductive prognosis in next generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kårhus, Line Lund; Egerup, Pia; Skovlund, Charlotte Wessel

    2014-01-01

    The impact of an ectopic pregnancy in the next generation is unknown. Our aim was to compare reproductive outcomes in daughters of women with and without ectopic pregnancy. Designed as a historical prospective controlled cohort study with data collected in four Danish registries from 1977-2009, w...

  19. Anterior abdominal wall ectopic testes: A report of two cases ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Undescended testis (UDT) is a common anomaly of the male reproductive system affecting about 2% to 4% of male infants more commonly preterms. If the testis remains in the line of normal descent, it is classified as an UDT. If it is not in the line of normal descent, it is termed an ectopic testis. Common sites of ectopic testes ...

  20. Ectopic Pancreas Causing Partial Gastric Outlet Obstruction: A Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ectopic pancreas is a rare cause of gastric outlet obstruction, perhaps rarer still among Africans. Although the entity is known, the diagnostic challenges are enormous, especially in the poor‑resource environment. Gastric outlet obstruction resulting from ectopic pancreas in an adult is the first of its kind in our center;.

  1. A Comparative Morphometric Analysis of Three Cranial Nerves in Two Phocids: The Hooded Seal (Cystophora cristata) and the Harbor Seal (Phoca vitulina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlert, Dennis; Kröger, Jürgen; Witt, Martin; Schmitt, Oliver; Wree, Andreas; Czech-Damal, Nicole; Siebert, Ursula; Folkow, Lars; Hanke, Frederike D

    2016-03-01

    While our knowledge about the senses of pinnipeds has increased over the last decades almost nothing is known about the organization of the neuroanatomical pathways. In a first approach to this field of research, we assessed the total number of myelinated axons of three cranial nerves (CNs) in the harbor (Phoca vitulina, Pv) and hooded seal (Cystophora cristata, Cc). Axons were counted in semithin sections of the nerves embedded in Epon and stained with toluidine blue. In both species, the highest axon number was found within the optic nerve (Pv 187,000 ± 8,000 axons, Cc 481,600 ± 1,300 axons). Generally, considering absolute axon numbers, far more axons were counted within the optic and trigmenial nerve (Pv 136,700 ± 2,500 axons, Cc 179,300 ± 6,900 axons) in hooded in comparison to harbor seals. The axon counts of the vestibulocochlear nerve are nearly identical for both species (Pv 87,100 ± 8,100 axons, Cc 86,600 ± 2,700 axons). However, when comparing cell density, the cell density is almost equal for all nerves for both species except for the optic nerve in which cell density was particularly higher than in the other nerves and higher in hooded in comparison to harbor seals. We here present the first comparative analysis of three CNs in two phocid seals. While the CNs of these closely related species share some general characteristics, pronounced differences in axon numbers/densities are apparent. These differences seem to reflect differences in e.g. size, habitat, and/or functional significance of the innervated sensory systems. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Persistent ectopic pregnancy after milking procedure: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semra Kayataş

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic pregnancy is the settlement of the pregnancy product at any site other than the endometrium. The incidence of ectopic pregnancy have increased in the last 20 years. Increased frequency and early diagnosis has led to conservative treatment methods to become more favorable. Follow-up, medical management and surgical managements are considered as conservative methods. As salpingostomy is the most common conservative surgical method, milking is considered as an alternative conservative surgical method. The most important complication of the conservative surgery is the persistence of ectopic pregnancy because of the residual trophoblastic tissue. Since the prediction of the persistent ectopic pregnancy is difficult after the conservative surgery, β-HCG follow up is so important for early diagnosis. In this case report we have discussed the case of the patient who admitted to our clinic with persistent ectopic pregnancy with acute abdomen, after the treatment with milking procedure whom than treated by salpingectomy procedure.

  3. Role of ultrasound in detection of ectopic pregnancy: our experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshin, H.; Khan, M.N.; Jadun, C.K.; Tanveer-ul-Jaq

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To determine the efficacy of ultrasound in detection of ectopic pregnancy. Design: It was an observational and prospective study. The study was conducted from January, 2000 in the Radiology Department of the Agha Khan University Hospital, Karachi. Subjects and Methods: Four hundred patients were referred for sonography with a query of ectopic pregnancy. Most of the patients had clinical symptoms of vaginal bleeding and lower abdominal pain with history of missed periods. For the evaluation biphasic ultrasound was performed that included suprapubic and trans vaginal ultrasound. After analyzing internal architecture prospective sonographic diagnosis was made. Results: The most common site of ectopic pregnancy was fallopian tubes. Positive diagnosis was made in 96.3% cases and negative diagnosis in 4.7% cases in our study. Conclusion: Efficacy of ultrasound was found to be 96.4% in the detection of ectopic pregnancy and hence plays a very important role in early diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy. (author)

  4. A self-excising Cre recombinase allows efficient recombination of multiple ectopic heterospecific lox sites in transgenic tobacco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlynarova, L.; Nap, J.P.H.

    2003-01-01

    To study the impact of different DNA configurations on the stability of transgene expression, a variant of the cre gene was developed. This variant allows for the highly efficient in planta removal of its own loxP-flanked coding sequence as well as other DNAs flanked by ectopic heterospecific lox

  5. Bilateral cervical ectopic thymic nodules with accessory thyroid tissue and an ectopic parathyroid in the neck region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wea-Lung Lin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Some remnants of thymic tissue may be deposited along the pathway of the descent of the neck during embryologic development of the thymus. Ectopic thymic tissue is usually deposited along the pathway from the mandibular angle to the manubrium of the sternum. Most reported cases of an ectopic thymus occurred in children, and cases are less common in adults. We report a 26-year-old woman, who was incidentally found to have 2 neck nodules on the posterior side of the bilateral upper pole of the thyroid gland while undergoing a subtotal thyroidectomy. The left-side neck nodule showed accessory thyroid follicles intermixed with ectopic thymic tissue, and the right-side neck nodule was ectopic parathyroid tissue together with ectopic thymic tissue.

  6. Induction of ectopic taste buds by SHH reveals the competency and plasticity of adult lingual epithelium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, David; Seidel, Kerstin; Salcedo, Ernesto; Ahn, Christina; de Sauvage, Frederic J.; Klein, Ophir D.; Barlow, Linda A.

    2014-01-01

    Taste buds are assemblies of elongated epithelial cells, which are innervated by gustatory nerves that transmit taste information to the brain stem. Taste cells are continuously renewed throughout life via proliferation of epithelial progenitors, but the molecular regulation of this process remains unknown. During embryogenesis, sonic hedgehog (SHH) negatively regulates taste bud patterning, such that inhibition of SHH causes the formation of more and larger taste bud primordia, including in regions of the tongue normally devoid of taste buds. Here, using a Cre-lox system to drive constitutive expression of SHH, we identify the effects of SHH on the lingual epithelium of adult mice. We show that misexpression of SHH transforms lingual epithelial cell fate, such that daughter cells of lingual epithelial progenitors form cell type-replete, onion-shaped taste buds, rather than non-taste, pseudostratified epithelium. These SHH-induced ectopic taste buds are found in regions of the adult tongue previously thought incapable of generating taste organs. The ectopic buds are composed of all taste cell types, including support cells and detectors of sweet, bitter, umami, salt and sour, and recapitulate the molecular differentiation process of endogenous taste buds. In contrast to the well-established nerve dependence of endogenous taste buds, however, ectopic taste buds form independently of both gustatory and somatosensory innervation. As innervation is required for SHH expression by endogenous taste buds, our data suggest that SHH can replace the need for innervation to drive the entire program of taste bud differentiation. PMID:24993944

  7. Risk Factors For Ectopic Pregnancy : A Case Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshmukh J.S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: Which are the risk factors for ectopic pregnancy . Objective: To study the strength of association between hypothesised risk factors and ectopic pregnancy. Study design: Unmatched case- control study. Setting: Government Medical College, Hospital, Nagpur. Participants: 133 cases of ectopic pregnancy and equal number of controls (non pregnant women admitted to study hospital. Study variables : Pelvic inflammatory diseases, sexually transmitted diseases, IUD use at conception , past use of IUD, prior ectopic pregnancy, OC pills use at the time of conception, past use of OC pills, induced abortion, spontaneous abortion, infertility and pelvic and abdominal surgery. Statistical analysis: Odds ratios & their 95% CI, Pearson’s chi square test, unconditional logistic regression analysis and population attributable risk proportion. Results : Use of IUD at conception, prior ectopic pregnancy , pelvic inflammatory disease, sexually transmitted diseases, infertility, OC pills use at the time of conception, past use of IUD and induced abortion were found to be significantly associated with ectopic pregnancy. Conclusion: Identification of these risk factors for etopic pregnancy shall help in early detection and appropriate management in an individual case and it may help in devising a comprehensive preventive strategy for ectopic pregnancy

  8. Enhanced epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and upregulated MYC in ectopic lesions contribute independently to endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proestling, Katharina; Birner, Peter; Gamperl, Susanne; Nirtl, Nadine; Marton, Erika; Yerlikaya, Gülen; Wenzl, Rene; Streubel, Berthold; Husslein, Heinrich

    2015-07-22

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a process in which epithelial cells lose polarity and cell-to-cell contacts and acquire the migratory and invasive abilities of mesenchymal cells. These abilities are thought to be prerequisites for the establishment of endometriotic lesions. A hallmark of EMT is the functional loss of E-cadherin (CDH1) expression in epithelial cells. TWIST1, a transcription factor that represses E-cadherin transcription, is among the EMT inducers. SNAIL, a zinc-finger transcription factor, and its close relative SLUG have similar properties to TWIST1 and are thus also EMT inducers. MYC, which is upregulated by estrogens in the uterus by an estrogen response cis-acting element (ERE) in its promoter, is associated with proliferation in endometriosis. The role of EMT and proliferation in the pathogenesis of endometriosis was evaluated by analyzing TWIST1, CDH1 and MYC expression. CDH1, TWIST1, SNAIL and SLUG mRNA expression was analyzed by qRT-PCR from 47 controls and 74 patients with endometriosis. Approximately 42 ectopic and 62 eutopic endometrial tissues, of which 30 were matched samples, were collected during the same surgical procedure. We evaluated TWIST1 and MYC protein expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in the epithelial and stromal tissue of 69 eutopic and 90 ectopic endometrium samples, of which 49 matched samples were analyzed from the same patient. Concordant expression of TWIST1/SNAIL/SLUG and CDH1 but also of TWIST1 and MYC was analyzed. We found that TWIST1, SNAIL and SLUG are overexpressed (p < 0.001, p = 0.016 and p < 0.001) in endometriosis, while CDH1 expression was concordantly reduced in these samples (p < 0.001). Similar to TWIST1, the epithelial expression of MYC was also significantly enhanced in ectopic endometrium compared to eutopic tissues (p = 0.008). We found exclusive expression of either TWIST1 or MYC in the same samples (p = 0.003). Epithelial TWIST1 is overexpressed in

  9. Ectopic Neurohypophysis in Patient with Pituitary Dwarfism: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlhan Kılınç

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic neurohypophysis is an anomaly of the Pituitary gland whichmay be associated with short stature due to Growth hormone deficiency.MRI is the modality of choice in diagnosing this condition. We present acase of pituitary dwarfism and ectopic neurohypophysis with clinical andradiological findings. 21 year-old male admitted with short stature. Allhormones, except prolactin, of anterior hypophysis were low. Bright spotwas ectopically located at level of median eminence on enhanced MRI ofhypophysis and stalk of hypophysis was not observed. Ectopicneurohypophysis may be present with pituitary dwarfism. Cranial MRI maybe useful to investigate related pathologies in such cases.

  10. Twenty cases of ectopic thyroid gland detected by thyroid scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Teisuke; Kubo, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Shozo

    1988-01-01

    20 cases of ectopic thyroid gland were detected out of 5,261 thyroid scintigraphy from 1973. Except for 1 case, all cases were female. Considering of thyroid function, 11 cases were euthyroid and rest of 9 cases were hypothyroid function. Clinical symptom of hypothyroid cases were mainly retarded linear growth and high value of serum TSH and in case of euthyroid cases were sublingual tumor and fullness or tightness in throat. Thyroid scintigraphy is very useful to diagnose the sublingual tumor whether it is ectopic thyroid gland or not. In case of congenital hypothyroidism children, ectopic thyroid gland causing hypothyroidism is definitely diagnosed by thyroid scintigraphy. (author)

  11. Papillary carcinoma in median aberrant thyroid (ectopic) - case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebbar K, Ashwin; K, Shashidhar; Deshmane, Vijaya Laxmi; Kumar, Veerendra; Arjunan, Ravi

    2014-06-01

    Median ectopic thyroid may be encountered anywhere from the foramen caecum to the diaphragm. Non lingual median aberrant thyroid (incomplete descent) usually found in the infrahyoid region and malignant transformation in this ectopic thyroid tissue is very rare. We report an extremely rare case of papillary carcinoma in non lingual median aberrant thyroid in a 25-year-old female. The differentiation between a carcinoma arising in the median ectopic thyroid tissue and a metastatic papillary carcinoma from an occult primary in the main thyroid gland is also discussed.

  12. Levels of non-essential elements in muscle from harp seal (Phagophilus groenlandicus) and hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) caught in the Greenland Sea area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunborg, Linn Anne; Graff, Ingvild Eide; Froyland, Livar; Julshamn, Kare

    2006-01-01

    The non-essential elements, arsenic, cadmium, mercury and lead, inevitably accumulate in marine top predators such as seals. The concentration of these elements and the essential element selenium, due to its proposed protective properties against mercury toxicity in marine mammals, were measured in muscle, liver and kidney from reproductive active females of harp seal (Phagophilus groenlandicus) and hooded seal (Cystophora cristata) caught in the drift ice between Iceland and East Greenland. Arsenic levels were below 1 μg/g w.w. in all analysed samples, and were therefore low compared to other seafood products. The concentrations of arsenic found in the present study were comparable to the results reported in a similar study from 1985. Mean concentrations of total mercury in muscle from the present study were higher than levels in other seafood products. The levels of total mercury from the present study showed a tendency of lower levels in all tissue samples compared to the study from 1985. Methyl mercury displayed a trend of a lower ratio of methyl mercury to total mercury as the concentration of total mercury increased, indicating a demethylation of methyl mercury at high total mercury concentrations (e.g. mercury in liver of hooded seal). The concentration ratio of methyl mercury to total mercury in muscle samples was more than 75%, with total mercury concentration less than 0.5 μg/g w.w., whereas the ratio for liver was as low as 0.2% with a total mercury concentration of 128 μg/g w.w. The molar concentration ratios of selenium to mercury showed that selenium was present in a molar surplus to mercury in all tissues with low mercury concentration. However, there seemed to be a general mobilisation of selenium in liver and kidney tissues of harp seal and hooded seal, whereas an extraordinary mobilisation seemed to take place at hepatic mercury concentrations exceeding 50 μg/g w.w. The mean concentrations of lead in muscles in the present study were higher

  13. Ectopic pituitary adenoma presenting as midline nasopharyngeal mass.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ali, R

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Ectopic pituitary adenomas are extremely rare. We report a case of ectopic pituitary adenoma in the midline of the nasopharynx. This adenoma probably arose from the pharyngeal remnant of Rathke\\'s pouch. METHODS: We discuss a case of a lady who presented to our unit with 2 months history of dryness and sensation of lump in her throat and a long standing history of hypothyroidism. Examination of nasopharynx revealed a smooth and fluctuant midline mass. CT scan of nose and paranasal sinuses confirmed the midline mass with small defect communicating with the sphenoid sinus. An initial diagnosis of Thornwaldt\\'s cyst was made and she underwent upper aerodigestive tract endoscopy and marsupialization of the mass. Histopathological examination revealed ectopic pituitary adenoma. CONCLUSION: Ectopic pituitary adenoma is an important differential diagnosis for a midline nasopharyngeal mass. It is recommended that prior to surgical resection of midline nasopharyngeal mass biopsy is taken and MRI is performed.

  14. Ectopic pregnancy experience in a tertiary health facility in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Celestine

    Methods: A retrospective study of all cases of ectopic pregnancies managed at the University of Port. Harcourt .... study was obtained from the ethics committee of the hospital. .... Business woman. 54. 15.7 .... Dewhurst`s Textbook of Obstetrics.

  15. Ectopic third molar in maxillary sinus: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Sinha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic tooth eruption in a non-dental area is a rare entity, and is most common in oral cavity. There have been a few case reports of teeth erupting in mandibular condyle, chin, palate, coronoid process, and maxillary sinus. Ectopic tooth in the maxillary sinus are found incidentally on routine radiological examination, same time they can be symptomatic and associated with pathologies usually dentigerous cyst or odontogenic keratocyst. Facial pain, purulent rhinorrhoea, epistaxis, headache, swelling, and epiphora-related naso-lacrimal duct obstruction can also be seen. By Caldwell-Luc procedure the ectopic teeth within the maxillary sinus are often removed. In this study, a case of ectopic maxillary third molar tooth on right maxillary sinus is presented.

  16. Dentigerous Cyst Associated with Ectopic Canine and a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ankylosis, cystic or neoplastic lesion or trauma may be the local factors ... After clinical and radiographic examination, a provisional diagnosis of ... bone along with the impacted teeth (permanent ectopic canine ... [7] Panoramic radiograph and ...

  17. Modern Technologies In Ectopic Pregnancy Diagnostics On Hospital Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Kaushanskaya

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present research provides analysis of results of preoperative examination of 680 patients with ectopic pregnancy depending on the range of surgical treatment. It has been shown that in case of progressive ectopic pregnancy the diagnostic significance of concentrations of human chorionic gonadotropin, transvaginal examination and laparos-copy depends on the duration of pregnancy. When the term of ectopic pregnancy is 3-4 weeks monitoring of p chorionic gonadotropin in blood serum (99.5%, transvaginal examination (58% and laparoscopy (78.5% are more informative. When the term of ectopic pregnancy is more than 4 weeks there is a high diagnostic value of monitoring p-subunit of chorionic gonadotropin (99.5%, transvaginal examination (68% and laparoscopy (99,5%. The research has proved that pregnancy period of 3-4 weeks is optimal for laparoscopy and other operations

  18. Ectopic pregnancy: current clinical trends, a fifteen year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weekes, L R

    1981-09-01

    This paper reviews the clinical recognition, diagnosis, and management of ectopic pregnancy at the Queen of Angels Hospital for the past 15 years. The incidence of ectopic pregnancy to deliveries is 1:195. Pain is the cardinal symptom of ectopic pregnancy, and amenorrhea of some degree was present in all cases. Pelvic inflammatory disease is a factor in the development of tubal pregnancy in some women. A careful history and thorough physical examination are important in making a careful diagnosis. The only laboratory procedures which are of any value are the blood type and the Rh determination. While examination of endometrial tissue obtained by biopsy or curettage has proved useful in ectopic pregnancy diagnosis, it is not totally decisive. Culdocentesis has proved to be the diagnostic procedure of the greatest value in recognizing intraperitoneal hemorrhage and it increases the correct preoperative diagnosis from 65-70% to 95%. Laparoscopy is useful when the physician is in doubt about the nature of the problem and it has produced an increase in the number of ectopic pregnancies diagnosed. Ultrasound is another useful tool in confirming a diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy; its accuracy ranges from 70-92%. A newly developed pregnancy test is more sensitive than conventional pregnancy tests and would be positive for pregnancy. Women who have had a previous ectopic pregnancy have a higher subsequent incidence of persistent infertility, recurrent ectopic pregnancy, and pregnancy wastage; the risk of another ectopic pregnancy increases 30-50 fold. While extopic pregnancy does recur, it is true that about 1/3 of those women do have successful pregnancies. Where previous induced abortion has occurred, there is a 10-fold increased risk of ectopic pregnancy. Women who become pregnant accidentally with an IUD in place have a greater likelihood of experiencing an extrauterine pregnancy. Abdominal pregnancy is often encountered as an aborting ectopic pregnancy during the 1st

  19. Repair of osteochondral defects in rabbits with ectopically produced cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emans, PJ; Hulsbosch, M; Wetzels, GMR; Bulstra, SK; Kuijer, R

    2005-01-01

    Cartilage has poor regenerative capacity. Donor site morbidity and interference with joint homeostasis should be considered when applying the autologous chondrocyte transplantation technique. The use of ectopically produced cartilage, derived from periosteum, might be a novel method to heal

  20. Dysfunctional ectopic thyroid gland: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stokić Edita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Lingual thyroid gland is a rare anomaly of thyroid gland development, occurring more frequently in females. If it causes local symptomatology such as dysphagia, dysphonia or dyspnea it is diagnosed in childhood, however, if it is asymptomatic it is usually diagnosed in adulthood. Case Outline. We present a 23-year-old female patient in whom we diagnosed lingual thyroid gland coincidentally during diagnostic procedures of a concomitant disease. The application of 131I scintigraphy showed an oval field of intensive accumulation of radio markers in the zone of medial face line, around tongue base, with the absence of thyroid gland in its physiological position. Functional testing proved primary hypothyroidism and we started the application of substitution therapy. The application of levothyroxine resulted in reaching euthyroid state and the reduction of thyroid gland size. Conclusion. We present a very rare anomaly of the thyroid gland, and so far there have been no clear attitudes about further treatment. The general condition of the patient, age, the size of ectopic thyroid gland and the existence of local symptomatology or complications represent the factors that have influence on the choice of treatment method.

  1. Ectopic pregnancy in women with recurrent miscarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticconi, Carlo; Capogna, Maria V; Martelli, Federica; Borelli, Barbara; Bruno, Valentina; Ergasti, Raffaella; Sorge, Roberto; Piccione, Emilio; Pietropolli, Adalgisa

    2018-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible association between recurrent miscarriage (RM) and ectopic pregnancy (EP). In this case-control retrospective study, the clinical cards of women followed as outpatients in the RM and low-risk pregnancy offices of the Obstetrics and Gynecology Unit at the Policlinico Tor Vergata University Hospital were carefully reviewed for the occurrence of EP. Overall, 598 women with RM and 2043 normal women without RM (controls) were included in the study. Among these women, 4974 pregnancies were analyzed, in which 2028 miscarriages occurred. The EP rate (3.51%) was significantly higher in RM than in control women (1.51%) [odds ratio = 2.31 (95% confidence interval: 2.3-2.4)]; it was particularly high in women with primary RM (5.11%). However, when EP rates were calculated not by women but by overall pregnancies, no differences could be found between RM and control women. In control women, the absence of a miscarriage in the reproductive history was associated with a lower rate of EP. Women with RM, particularly primary RM, are at increased risk of EP. This increased risk seems to be dependent on the high number of pregnancies occurring in women with RM rather than to specific characteristics of these women. © 2018 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  2. Magnetic resonance urography in duplex kidney with ectopic ureteral insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conjeevaram Rajendrarao Thambidorai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a report on the use of magnetic resonance urography (MRU in a 6-year-old girl who presented with urinary incontinence. She had a left duplex kidney with poorly functioning upper moiety and ectopic insertion of the dilated upper pole ureter. MRU has been shown to be superior to conventional imaging techniques in delineating poorly functioning moieties of duplex kidneys and ectopic ureters.

  3. p38 phosphorylation in medullary microglia mediates ectopic orofacial inflammatory pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyomoto, Masaaki; Shinoda, Masamichi; Honda, Kuniya; Nakaya, Yuka; Dezawa, Ko; Katagiri, Ayano; Kamakura, Satoshi; Inoue, Tomio; Iwata, Koichi

    2015-08-12

    Orofacial inflammatory pain is likely to accompany referred pain in uninflamed orofacial structures. The ectopic pain precludes precise diagnosis and makes treatment problematic, because the underlying mechanism is not well understood. Using the established ectopic orofacial pain model induced by complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) injection into trapezius muscle, we analyzed the possible role of p38 phosphorylation in activated microglia in ectopic orofacial pain. Mechanical allodynia in the lateral facial skin was induced following trapezius muscle inflammation, which accompanied microglial activation with p38 phosphorylation and hyperexcitability of wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons in the trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis (Vc). Intra-cisterna successive administration of a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase selective inhibitor, SB203580, suppressed microglial activation and its phosphorylation of p38. Moreover, SB203580 administration completely suppressed mechanical allodynia in the lateral facial skin and enhanced WDR neuronal excitability in Vc. Microglial interleukin-1β over-expression in Vc was induced by trapezius muscle inflammation, which was significantly suppressed by SB203580 administration. These findings indicate that microglia, activated via p38 phosphorylation, play a pivotal role in WDR neuronal hyperexcitability, which accounts for the mechanical hypersensitivity in the lateral facial skin associated with trapezius muscle inflammation.

  4. Endosonographic Features of Histologically Proven Gastric Ectopic Pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Wei Chou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric ectopic pancreas is an uncommon developmental anomaly and its histological diagnosis is usually difficult by using a conventional biopsy forceps. In the literature, most cases of gastric ectopic pancreas were usually diagnosed by gross pattern during endoscopic examination or features of endoscopic ultrasound. In contrast, this disease was seldom diagnosed by histology in clinical practice. Although the typical endoscopic ultrasonographic features of ectopic pancreas include heterogeneous echogenicity, indistinct borders, and a location within 2 or more layers, it can also exhibit hypoechoic homogeneous echogenicity and a distinct border within the fourth sonographic layer (muscularis propria similar to the endoscopic ultrasonographic features of gastrointestinal stromal tumors. In our study, we found that 53% of gastric ectopic pancreas originated within the fourth sonographic layer, demonstrating hypoechoic, homogeneous echogenicity, and distinct borders. Therefore, recognizing endoscopic ultrasonographic features, combining with deep biopsy, endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration/core needle biopsy can prevent conducting unnecessary resection. Surgical resection is the mainstay treatment for symptomatic gastric ectopic pancreas, but endoscopic resection using endoscopic mucosal resection or endoscopic submucosal dissection technique provides an alternative method of removing superficial-type and deep-type gastric ectopic pancreas.

  5. Ectopic lymphoid structures support ongoing production of class-switched autoantibodies in rheumatoid synovium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humby, Frances; Bombardieri, Michele; Manzo, Antonio; Kelly, Stephen; Blades, Mark C; Kirkham, Bruce; Spencer, Jo; Pitzalis, Costantino

    2009-01-13

    Follicular structures resembling germinal centres (GCs) that are characterized by follicular dendritic cell (FDC) networks have long been recognized in chronically inflamed tissues in autoimmune diseases, including the synovium of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, it is debated whether these ectopic structures promote autoimmunity and chronic inflammation driving the production of pathogenic autoantibodies. Anti-citrullinated protein/peptide antibodies (ACPA) are highly specific markers of RA, predict a poor prognosis, and have been suggested to be pathogenic. Therefore, the main study objectives were to determine whether ectopic lymphoid structures in RA synovium: (i) express activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), the enzyme required for somatic hypermutation and class-switch recombination (CSR) of Ig genes; (ii) support ongoing CSR and ACPA production; and (iii) remain functional in a RA/severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) chimera model devoid of new immune cell influx into the synovium. Using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and quantitative Taqman real-time PCR (QT-PCR) in synovial tissue from 55 patients with RA, we demonstrated that FDC+ structures invariably expressed AID with a distribution resembling secondary lymphoid organs. Further, AID+/CD21+ follicular structures were surrounded by ACPA+/CD138+ plasma cells, as demonstrated by immune reactivity to citrullinated fibrinogen. Moreover, we identified a novel subset of synovial AID+/CD20+ B cells outside GCs resembling interfollicular large B cells. In order to gain direct functional evidence that AID+ structures support CSR and in situ manufacturing of class-switched ACPA, 34 SCID mice were transplanted with RA synovium and humanely killed at 4 wk for harvesting of transplants and sera. Persistent expression of AID and Igamma-Cmu circular transcripts (identifying ongoing IgM-IgG class-switching) was observed in synovial grafts expressing FDCs/CD21L. Furthermore, synovial mRNA levels of AID were

  6. Ectopic Pelvic Kidney With Urinary Tract Infection Presenting as Lower Abdominal Pain in a Child

    OpenAIRE

    Chung-Ching Lu; You-Lin Tain; Kwok-Wan Yeung; Mao-Meng Tiao

    2011-01-01

    Ectopic pelvic kidney is a rare developmental anomaly. Ectopic pelvic kidney can present without the characteristic symptoms associated with the urinary tract pathology. Ectopic pelvic kidney is usually unknown, and nonspecific vague abdominal comfort maybe the only symptom. Early detection and recognition of an ectopic kidney can prevent long-term complications. We report a 3-year-5-month-old girl with ectopic pelvic kidney who experienced intermittent episodes of lower abdominal pain for ab...

  7. Endometrial cysteine-rich secretory protein 3 is inhibited by human chorionic gonadotrophin, and is increased in the decidua of tubal ectopic pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horne, A W; Duncan, W C; King, A E

    2009-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy (EP) remains a considerable cause of morbidity and occasional mortality. Currently, there is no reliable test to differentiate ectopic from intrauterine gestation. We have previously used array technology to demonstrate that differences in gene expression in decidualized...... was inversely proportional to serum hCG concentrations (P caused a reduction in CRISP-3 expression (P pregnancy of unknown...... gestation-matched women undergoing surgical termination of pregnancy (n = 8), evacuation of uterus for miscarriage (n = 6) and surgery for EP (n = 11) was subjected to quantitative RT-PCR, morphological assessment, immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Sera were analysed for progesterone and human...

  8. Nerve-independent and ectopically additional induction of taste buds in organ culture of fetal tongues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Kotaro; Tomooka, Yasuhiro

    2016-10-01

    An improved organ culture system allowed to observe morphogenesis of mouse lingual papillae and taste buds relatively for longer period, in which fetal tongues were analyzed for 6 d. Taste cells were defined as eosinophobic epithelial cells expressing CK8 and Sox2 within lingual epithelium. Addition of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta inhibitor CHIR99021 induced many taste cells and buds in non-gustatory and gustatory stratified lingual epithelium. The present study clearly demonstrated induction of taste cells and buds ectopically and without innervation.

  9. Ectopic pregnancy: a life-threatening gynecological emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawani OL

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Osaheni L Lawani, Okechukwu B Anozie, Paul O Ezeonu Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Federal Teaching Hospital, Abakaliki, Nigeria Background: Ectopic pregnancy is a life-threatening gynecological emergency, and a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in Nigeria. Objective: The aim of this work was to determine and evaluate the incidence, clinical presentation, risk factors, and management outcomes of ectopic pregnancies at Ebonyi State University Teaching Hospital (EBSUTH in Abakaliki. Methods: This was a retrospective, descriptive study of ectopic pregnancies managed in EBSUTH during the study period (June 1, 2002 to May 31, 2012. The medical records of the patients managed for ectopic pregnancy as well as the total birth record and gynecological admission records during the period under review were retrieved, and data were collected with the aid of data-entry forms designed for this purpose. There were 4,610 gynecological admissions and 9,828 deliveries, with 215 cases of ectopic pregnancies. A total of 205 cases were suitable for analysis after excluding cases with incomplete records. The relevant data collected were analyzed with SPSS version 15.0 for Windows. Results: Ectopic pregnancy constituted 4.5% of all gynecological admissions, and its incidence was 2.1%. The mean age of the patients was 27 ± 2 years, 196 of 205 (95.6% had ruptured ectopic pregnancies, and the remaining nine (4.4% were unruptured. The commonest (166 of 205, 80.0% clinical presentation was abdominal pain, and the commonest (105 of 205, 51.2% identified risk factor was a previous history of induced abortion. Three deaths were recorded, giving a case-fatality rate of 1.4% (three of 205. Conclusion: Ectopic pregnancy is a recognized cause of maternal morbidity and mortality and has remained a reproductive health challenge to Nigerian women, as well as a threat to efforts in achieving the UN's Millennium Development Goal 5 in sub-Saharan Africa

  10. Ectopic pregnancy after two times tubal ligation: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Keypour

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tubal sterilization is the permanent and effective contraception method. This can be performed at any time, but at least half are performed in conjunction with cesarean or vaginal delivery and are termed puerperal. The most complication after tubal ligation is ectopic pregnancy. Ectopic pregnancy is the leading cause of maternal death in first trimester.Case presentation: We present a 33 years old woman gravida5, para4, all normal vaginal delivery, presented with complaints of delayed menstrual period, pelvic pain and spotting. She underwent tubal ligation for two times. For the first time she had puerperal Pomeroy tubal sterilization after third child delivery. Intra uterine pregnancy occurred three years later. One day after vaginal delivery of fourth child, she underwent post partum tubal ligation with the Parkland method. Tubal pregnancy occurred nine months later. Physical examination identified acute abdomen. Pelvic ultrasound showed no gestational sac in uterine cavity. The sac with fetal pole was in right adnexa. Beta-HCG was 2840mIU/ml. She underwent laparotomy. Surgical management included salpingectomy with cornual resection in both sides. The surgery identified Ectopic pregnancy.Conclusion: Any symptoms of pregnancy in a woman after tubal ligation must be investigated; an ectopic pregnancy should be excluded. Ectopic pregnancy must be considered, in any woman with lower abdominal pain, missed period and vaginal bleed-ing. Conception after tubal sterilization can be explained by fistula formation and re-canalization of fallopian tube.

  11. Ectopic Pregnancy After Plan B Emergency Contraceptive Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Brianne Jo; Layman, Kerri

    2016-04-01

    Pregnancy outcomes after emergency contraceptive use has been debated over time, but review of the literature includes mechanisms by which these medications may increase the chance of an ectopic pregnancy. Such cases are infrequently reported, and many emergency providers may not readily consider this possibility when treating patients. This is a case presentation of ectopic pregnancy in a patient who had recently used Plan B (levonorgestrel) emergency contraceptive. She presented with abdominal pain and vaginal spotting, and was evaluated by serum testing and pelvic ultrasound. She was discovered to have a right adnexal pregnancy. She was treated initially with methotrexate, though she ultimately required surgery for definitive treatment. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: This case report aims to bring a unique clinical case to the attention of emergency providers. The goal is to review research on the topic of levonorgestrel use and the incidence of ectopic pregnancies. The mechanism of action of this emergency contraceptive is addressed, and though no definite causal relationship is known between levonorgestrel and ectopic pregnancies, there is a pharmacologic explanation for how this event may occur after use of this medication. Ultimately, the emergency provider will be reminded of the importance of educating the patient on the possible outcomes after its use, including failure of an emergency contraceptive and the potential of ectopic pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ectopic Pregnancy and Emergency Contraceptive Pills: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleland, Kelly; Raymond, Elizabeth; Trussell, James; Cheng, Linan; Zhu, Haoping

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the existing data to estimate the rate of ectopic pregnancy among emergency contraceptive pill treatment failures. Data Sources Our initial reference list was generated from a 2008 Cochrane review of emergency contraception. In August 2009, we searched Biosys Previews, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Medline, Global Health Database, Health Source: Popline, and Wanfang Data (a Chinese database). Methods of Study Selection This study included data from 136 studies which followed a defined population of women treated one time with emergency contraceptive pills (either mifepristone or levonorgestrel), and in which the number and location of pregnancies were ascertained. Results Data from each article were abstracted independently by two reviewers. In the studies of mifepristone, 3 out of 494 (0.6%) pregnancies were ectopic; in the levonorgestrel studies, 3 out of 307 (1%) were ectopic. Conclusion The rate of ectopic pregnancy when treatment with emergency contraceptive pills fails does not exceed the rate observed in the general population. Since emergency contraceptive pills are effective in lowering the risk of pregnancy, their use should reduce the chance that an act of intercourse will result in ectopic pregnancy. PMID:20502299

  13. RECURRENT CORNUAL ECTOPIC PREGNANCY – A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velayudam DA, Radha Bai Prabhu T, Dipenty Devi L, Meenalochani P, Isha Gutgutia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cornual ectopic gestation is one of the causes of “Maternal near miss” cases. In the modern era of IVF treatments and better imaging techniques, more number of cases of cornual ectopic pregnancies is being diagnosed and treated both by conservative and radical methods. Here, we report a case of a recurrent cornual ectopic pregnancy in the early second trimester, which was managed by hysterectomy due to uncontrolled haemorrhage. Thirty five year old Mrs. S, Gravida 4, para2, with one previous ectopic pregnancy presented to the obstetric casualty with acute abdominal pain at 15 weeks +2 days of gestation. On vaginal examination, there was right fornicial fullness and both the fornices were tender. Cervical motion tenderness was also present. On review of her previous records, dating scan done at 8 to 9 weeks showed normal intrauterine pregnancy. An emergency scan was carried out which revealed an empty uterine cavity with gestational sac measuring 3.6×4.4×4.6 cms seen outside the uterus just above the fundus with absent cardiac activity. There was evidence of haemoperitoneum, therefore she was diagnosed with recurrent ruptured ectopic pregnancy.

  14. Synchronous Ectopic Pancreases in the Cardia and Antrum of the Stomach: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yie, Mi yeon; Kim, Min Jeong; Lee, In Jae; Yang, Dae Hyun; Jun, Sun Young; Min, Kwang seon [Hallym University Medical Center, Anyang (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Kyung Mi [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    Ectopic pancreas is most commonly found in the antrum of the stomach, duodenum, or proximal jejunum. Rarely ectopic pancreas in the proximal stomach has been reported. Moreover, the coexistence of two ectopic pancreases at gastric cardia and antrum in a patient has not been reported. Ectopic pancreas usually appears as a submucosal mass, and it is difficult to differentiate between ectopic pancreas and other common submucosal tumors, such as a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) or leiomyoma. Here, we present a case of the coexistence of two ectopic pancreases at cardia and antrum of the stomach in a 60-year-old man, which was preoperatively misdiagnosed as GIST

  15. Synchronous Ectopic Pancreases in the Cardia and Antrum of the Stomach: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yie, Mi yeon; Kim, Min Jeong; Lee, In Jae; Yang, Dae Hyun; Jun, Sun Young; Min, Kwang seon; Jang, Kyung Mi

    2010-01-01

    Ectopic pancreas is most commonly found in the antrum of the stomach, duodenum, or proximal jejunum. Rarely ectopic pancreas in the proximal stomach has been reported. Moreover, the coexistence of two ectopic pancreases at gastric cardia and antrum in a patient has not been reported. Ectopic pancreas usually appears as a submucosal mass, and it is difficult to differentiate between ectopic pancreas and other common submucosal tumors, such as a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) or leiomyoma. Here, we present a case of the coexistence of two ectopic pancreases at cardia and antrum of the stomach in a 60-year-old man, which was preoperatively misdiagnosed as GIST

  16. Evidence-based management of non-tubal ectopic pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alalade, Aderemi Olaoluwa; Smith, Fredrick John Ennis; Kendall, Charlotte Emma; Odejinmi, Funlayo

    2017-11-01

    Recent advances in ultrasonography and the use of other modalities including magnetic resonance imaging scans have led to the early and more accurate diagnosis of non-tubal ectopic pregnancies (NTE). As a result, the management of these pregnancies has evolved. This article addresses the management options currently available for NTE. While surgical management remains the mainstay of treatment for ovarian, abdominal and cornual ectopics, there is growing evidence that some of these can be managed medically. Many authors have utilised a combination of medical and surgical approaches in the management of cervical and caesarean section (CS) scar ectopic pregnancies with good outcome. The availability of dedicated early pregnancy units has further improved diagnosis and more importantly the follow-up care for these patients. The rarity of cases and the difficulty of ethically organising randomised trials for NTE remain a problem in formulating consistent pathways for optimum management of women with NTE.

  17. Spontaneous unilateral Twin Ectopic Pregnancy: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    هادی اریا منش

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim & Objective: Twin pregnancy in the tube is a few and due to more frequent use of ovulatory medicine and increased maternal mortality rate. In this article, we report a case of  untitled twin ectopic pregnancy. Case study: The pregnant women was a 28 year-old  to had  a  history infertility, PCOD, Abortion and cortege,   too have one 5 years girl by CS and  Mild cramp pain in both abdominal lower quadrants and metroreghia . That have not treatment by projection. The ultra-sonography showed a twin pregnancy uterus with a moderate amount of fluid in pelvic cavity was seen. And do salpanjectimy surgery. Conclusion:  We report one Untitled Spontaneous Twin Ectopic Pregnancy,  is necessary any pregnant woman with  positive BhCG and metrorhoghia must be considered for Ectopic pregnancy. To decrease maternal mortality rate. Key words:

  18. Induction of ectopic taste buds by SHH reveals the competency and plasticity of adult lingual epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, David; Seidel, Kerstin; Salcedo, Ernesto; Ahn, Christina; de Sauvage, Frederic J; Klein, Ophir D; Barlow, Linda A

    2014-08-01

    Taste buds are assemblies of elongated epithelial cells, which are innervated by gustatory nerves that transmit taste information to the brain stem. Taste cells are continuously renewed throughout life via proliferation of epithelial progenitors, but the molecular regulation of this process remains unknown. During embryogenesis, sonic hedgehog (SHH) negatively regulates taste bud patterning, such that inhibition of SHH causes the formation of more and larger taste bud primordia, including in regions of the tongue normally devoid of taste buds. Here, using a Cre-lox system to drive constitutive expression of SHH, we identify the effects of SHH on the lingual epithelium of adult mice. We show that misexpression of SHH transforms lingual epithelial cell fate, such that daughter cells of lingual epithelial progenitors form cell type-replete, onion-shaped taste buds, rather than non-taste, pseudostratified epithelium. These SHH-induced ectopic taste buds are found in regions of the adult tongue previously thought incapable of generating taste organs. The ectopic buds are composed of all taste cell types, including support cells and detectors of sweet, bitter, umami, salt and sour, and recapitulate the molecular differentiation process of endogenous taste buds. In contrast to the well-established nerve dependence of endogenous taste buds, however, ectopic taste buds form independently of both gustatory and somatosensory innervation. As innervation is required for SHH expression by endogenous taste buds, our data suggest that SHH can replace the need for innervation to drive the entire program of taste bud differentiation. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Laparoscopic Surgery for the Treatment of Ectopic Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulusi B ZEYNELOGLU

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the outcomes of laparoscopic surgery for the treatment of ectopic pregnancy Design: 43 women with ectopic pregnancy who underwent laparoscopic surgery in our department between 1996 and 2005 were included in this study.\tSetting: Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medicine, Baskent University, Ankara Patients: 43 women with ectopic pregnancy who underwent laparoscopic surgery Interventions: Laparoscopic surgery was performed the treatment of ectopic pregnancy Main Outcome Measures: Patients characteristics such as age, parity, gestational age at the time of diagnosis, symptoms, preoperative and postoperative serum _-hCG and hemoglobin levels, sonographic findings, type of laparoscopic surgery, blood transfusion, additional treatments, endometrial sampling and postoperative fertility status were recorded. The size and the location of myomas were obtained from the surgeon’s findings in the operative note. Preoperative and postoperative hemoglobin values, change in hemoglobin values, hemorrhage, blood transfusion, postoperative fewer, duration of operation and length of postoperative hospital stay were the main outcomes. RESULTS: Forty-three women with ectopic pregnancy who underwent laparoscopic surgery were included in this study. Patients were submitted usually with pelvic pain and abnormal vaginal bleeding. Adnexal mass and hemoperitoneum were seen by sonographic evaluation. Ampuller pregnancy was the most common. Most of patients had conservative surgery and 38% of patients underwent salpingectomy. 12 patient had blood transfusion and two ones underwent re-laparoscopy. After treatment 5 intrauterine pregnancies were occurred. Endometrial samplings usually defined as decidual en Aria stella reactions. Serum _-hCG levels were in normal range at the end of the month after the laparoscopy. CONCLUSION: In conclusion according to these findings, laparoscopic surgery remains the definitive and universal

  20. Ectopic Intratracheal Thyroid: A Rare Cause of Airway Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waheed Rahman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic intratracheal thyroid tissue (EITT is a rare abnormality with only limited cases reported so far. The presenting symptoms can be very similar to those of bronchial asthma. We discuss the case of a 29-year-old man with subglottic ectopic thyroid, with a history of thyroid surgery for goiter, which has been managed with laser-assisted endoscopic approach. We have also included presenting symptoms, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of EITT. We aim to include EITT in the differentials of airway obstruction, particularly in those patients who have goiter or previous thyroid surgeries.

  1. MDCT findings of right circumaortic renal vein with ectopic kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Min Kyun; Ku, Young Mi; Chun, Chang Woo; Lee, Su Lim

    2013-01-01

    Anomalies of renal vasculature combined with ectopic kidneys were found on a multi-detector CT scan. Knowledge of renal vascular variation is very important for surgical exploration, radiologic intervention and staging for urologic cancer. We present an extremely rare case of a right circumaortic renal vein combined with a right ectopic kidney. The right kidney was located at the level between the third and fifth lumbar vertebra. The right circumaortic renal vein crossed the aorta and returned to the inferior vena cava behind the aorta.

  2. A case of ectopic intraabdominal fascioliasis presented with acute abdomen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanir, Gönül; Karaman, Ayşe; Tüfekçı, Sehra Birgül; Erdoğan, Duygu; Tuygun, Nilden; Ozkan, Ayşegül Taylan

    2011-06-01

    Human fascioliasis with Fasciola species occurs worldwide and is most common among rural people who tend sheep and eat uncooked water vegetables, particularly watercress. The natural history of the acute phase begins with ingestion of metacercariae encysted on various kinds of aquatic vegetation such as watercress. Fascioliasis primarily involves the liver, bile ducts, gallbladder, and occasionally ectopic sites. We describe herein a case of ectopic fascioliasis. This uncommon form of disease was peritonitis; both visceral and parietal peritoneal layers were affected with the formation of multiple nodules and ascites.

  3. Ectopic norrin induces growth of ocular capillaries and restores normal retinal angiogenesis in Norrie disease mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlmann, Andreas; Scholz, Michael; Goldwich, Andreas; Chauhan, Bharesh K; Hudl, Kristiane; Ohlmann, Anne V; Zrenner, Eberhart; Berger, Wolfgang; Cvekl, Ales; Seeliger, Mathias W; Tamm, Ernst R

    2005-02-16

    Norrie disease is an X-linked retinal dysplasia that presents with congenital blindness, sensorineural deafness, and mental retardation. Norrin, the protein product of the Norrie disease gene (NDP), is a secreted protein of unknown biochemical function. Norrie disease (Ndp(y/-)) mutant mice that are deficient in norrin develop blindness, show a distinct failure in retinal angiogenesis, and completely lack the deep capillary layers of the retina. We show here that the transgenic expression of ectopic norrin under control of a lens-specific promoter restores the formation of a normal retinal vascular network in Ndp(y/-) mutant mice. The improvement in structure correlates with restoration of neuronal function in the retina. In addition, lenses of transgenic mice with ectopic expression of norrin show significantly more capillaries in the hyaloid vasculature that surrounds the lens during development. In vitro, lenses of transgenic mice in coculture with microvascular endothelial cells induce proliferation of the cells. Transgenic mice with ectopic expression of norrin show more bromodeoxyuridine-labeled retinal progenitor cells at embryonic day 14.5 and thicker retinas at postnatal life than wild-type littermates, indicating a putative direct neurotrophic effect of norrin. These data provide direct evidence that norrin induces growth of ocular capillaries and that pharmacologic modulation of norrin might be used for treatment of the vascular abnormalities associated with Norrie disease or other vascular disorders of the retina.

  4. Transcriptome analysis of ectopic chloroplast development in green curd cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Xiangjun

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chloroplasts are the green plastids where photosynthesis takes place. The biogenesis of chloroplasts requires the coordinate expression of both nuclear and chloroplast genes and is regulated by developmental and environmental signals. Despite extensive studies of this process, the genetic basis and the regulatory control of chloroplast biogenesis and development remain to be elucidated. Results Green cauliflower mutant causes ectopic development of chloroplasts in the curd tissue of the plant, turning the otherwise white curd green. To investigate the transcriptional control of chloroplast development, we compared gene expression between green and white curds using the RNA-seq approach. Deep sequencing produced over 15 million reads with lengths of 86 base pairs from each cDNA library. A total of 7,155 genes were found to exhibit at least 3-fold changes in expression between green and white curds. These included light-regulated genes, genes encoding chloroplast constituents, and genes involved in chlorophyll biosynthesis. Moreover, we discovered that the cauliflower ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (BoHY5 was expressed higher in green curds than white curds and that 2616 HY5-targeted genes, including 1600 up-regulated genes and 1016 down-regulated genes, were differently expressed in green in comparison to white curd tissue. All these 1600 up-regulated genes were HY5-targeted genes in the light. Conclusions The genome-wide profiling of gene expression by RNA-seq in green curds led to the identification of large numbers of genes associated with chloroplast development, and suggested the role of regulatory genes in the high hierarchy of light signaling pathways in mediating the ectopic chloroplast development in the green curd cauliflower mutant.

  5. Transcriptome analysis of ectopic chloroplast development in green curd cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiangjun; Fei, Zhangjun; Thannhauser, Theodore W; Li, Li

    2011-11-23

    Chloroplasts are the green plastids where photosynthesis takes place. The biogenesis of chloroplasts requires the coordinate expression of both nuclear and chloroplast genes and is regulated by developmental and environmental signals. Despite extensive studies of this process, the genetic basis and the regulatory control of chloroplast biogenesis and development remain to be elucidated. Green cauliflower mutant causes ectopic development of chloroplasts in the curd tissue of the plant, turning the otherwise white curd green. To investigate the transcriptional control of chloroplast development, we compared gene expression between green and white curds using the RNA-seq approach. Deep sequencing produced over 15 million reads with lengths of 86 base pairs from each cDNA library. A total of 7,155 genes were found to exhibit at least 3-fold changes in expression between green and white curds. These included light-regulated genes, genes encoding chloroplast constituents, and genes involved in chlorophyll biosynthesis. Moreover, we discovered that the cauliflower ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL5 (BoHY5) was expressed higher in green curds than white curds and that 2616 HY5-targeted genes, including 1600 up-regulated genes and 1016 down-regulated genes, were differently expressed in green in comparison to white curd tissue. All these 1600 up-regulated genes were HY5-targeted genes in the light. The genome-wide profiling of gene expression by RNA-seq in green curds led to the identification of large numbers of genes associated with chloroplast development, and suggested the role of regulatory genes in the high hierarchy of light signaling pathways in mediating the ectopic chloroplast development in the green curd cauliflower mutant.

  6. Combined VEGF and LMP-1 delivery enhances osteoprogenitor cell differentiation and ectopic bone formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuli; Cui, Fuai; Madhu, Vedavathi; Dighe, Abhijit S; Balian, Gary; Cui, Quanjun

    2011-02-01

    A novel strategy to enhance bone repair is to combine angiogenic factors and osteogenic factors. We combined vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and LIM mineralization protein-1 (LMP-1) by using an internal ribosome entry site to link the genes within a single plasmid. We then evaluated the effects on osteoblastic differentiation in vitro and ectopic bone formation in vivo with a subcutaneously placed PLAGA scaffold loaded with a cloned mouse osteoprogenitor cell line, D1, transfected with plasmids containing VEGF and LMP-1 genes. The cells expressing both genes elevated mRNA expression of RunX2 and β-catenin and alkaline phosphatase activity compared to cells from other groups. In vivo, X-ray and micro-CT analysis of the retrieved implants revealed more ectopic bone formation at 2 and 3 weeks but not at 4 weeks compared to other groups. The results indicate that the combination of the therapeutic growth factors potentiates cell differentiation and may promote osteogenesis.

  7. Bilateral tubal ectopic pregnancies: A report of two cases | Eze ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bilateral tubal ectopic pregnancies are rare occurrences. Two recently managed cases are discussed. The first was a single, sexually active 23-year-old nullipara with family history of twinning who presented with eight weeks amenorrhea, positive pregnancy test, lower abdominal discomfort and other clinical and ultrasound ...

  8. Ectopic Splenic Tissue in the Testis: A Case Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ectopic SplENic tiSSUE iN thE tEStiS associated with bilateral cryptorchidism and hypospadias4. Brasch et al. reported a case involving the right testis5. Ultrasonography, scintigraphy (with technetium-99m) and single positron emission computerized tomography are considered the best diagnostic tools for this condition2,3.

  9. Early Ectopic Recurrence of Craniopharyngioma in the Cerebellopontine Angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdi, Mohamad-Motaz Al; Krauss, Joachim K; Nakamura, Makoto; Brandis, Almuth; Hong, Bujung

    2018-01-01

    Ectopic recurrence of craniopharyngioma in the cerebellopontine angle after surgical resection of a suprasellar craniopharyngioma is rare. Thus, only 5 cases were reported with a delay ranging between 4 and 26 years after removal of the primary tumor. We report a unique case of ectopic recurrence of craniopharyngioma in the cerebellopontine angle, which occurred at only 4 months after surgical resection of the primary tumor. A 24-year-old man underwent resection of a suprasellar craniopharyngioma via a right pterional approach four months earlier. During follow-up, cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a round homogeneous contrast-enhancing tumor in the right cerebellopontine angle with neither relation to the internal auditory canal nor to the dura mater. After microsurgical resection, histopathological findings revealed ectopic recurrence of craniopharyngioma with similar tumors like the primary tumor. Although infrequent, craniopharyngioma may disseminate via the cerebrospinal fluid during surgical resection and grow in an ectopic place. Early follow-up and MRI scan following resection of a craniopharyngioma is recommended.

  10. Retrospective review of the medical management of ectopic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Medical management of ectopic pregnancies is a safe and effective management option, as proven by international data, but at Tygerberg Hospital the safety of this treatment modality cannot be guaranteed because of poor follow-up. Improvement in patient selection with consideration of predictors of success and thorough ...

  11. Ectopic ACTH syndrome: a clinical challenge | Tsabedze | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A patient was managed in our endocrinology unit with ectopic Cushing's syndrome from an adrenocorticotropic hormoneproducing neuroendocrine carcinoma of the anal canal. There was limited response to standard therapy, which made it difficult to correct the electrolyte and metabolic derangements associated with the ...

  12. Damage-induced ectopic recombination in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupiec, M; Steinlauf, R

    1997-06-09

    Mitotic recombination in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is induced when cells are irradiated with UV or X-rays, reflecting the efficient repair of damage by recombinational repair mechanisms. We have used multiply marked haploid strains that allow the simultaneous detection of several types of ectopic recombination events. We show that inter-chromosomal ectopic conversion of lys2 heteroalleles and, to a lesser extent, direct repeat recombination (DRR) between non-tandem repeats, are increased by DNA-damaging agents; in contrast, ectopic recombination of the naturally occurring Ty element is not induced. We have tested several hypotheses that could explain the preferential lack of induction of Ty recombination by DNA-damaging agents. We have found that the lack of induction cannot be explained by a cell cycle control or by an effect of the mating-type genes. We also found no role for the flanking long terminal repeats (LTRs) of the Ty in preventing the induction. Ectopic conversion, DRR, and forward mutation of artificial repeats show different kinetics of induction at various positions of the cell cycle, reflecting different mechanisms of recombination. We discuss the mechanistic and evolutionary aspects of these results.

  13. Junctional ectopic tachycardia following repair of congenital heart ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Postoperative junctional ectopic tachycardia (JET) is a rare and transient phenomenon occurring after repair of congenital heart defects. Report on this arrhythmia in the subregion is rare. We set out to determine the incidence of this arrhythmia and review the treatment and outcomes of treatment in our centre.

  14. Cervical ectopic pregnancy: Mersilene tape in surgical management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2 Division of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Mediclinic Hospital, Nelspruit, Mpumalanga, South Africa. Corresponding author: A A ... case of cerv ical ectopic pregnancy that was managed using cervical cerclage with Mersilene tape as an interven tion to reduce intraoperative haemorrhage during evacuation. Case report.

  15. Transvaginal echography in the diagnose of the ectopic pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betancourt, Claudia; Rivera, Humberto

    1993-01-01

    The ultrasound findings in 21 patients with confirmed ectopic pregnancy were reviewed. The inclusion criteria were those of anatomopathologic confirmation of this diagnosis. All patients were examined with trans-vaginal ultrasound. The most important echographic finding was and an adnexial mass, of mix nature, associated with fluid at the posterior cul-de-sac, in 86% of our patients

  16. Primary Follicular Carcinoma Arising in Ectopic Thyroid Tissue of the Lateral Neck: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Se Won; Park, Dong Woo; Kim, Soo Yeon; Hahm, Chang Kok; Lee, Young Jun; Lee, Seung Ro; Pyo, Ju Yeon; Oh, Young Ha; Park, Yong Wook [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Guri Hospital, Guri (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    Ectopic thyroid tissue in the lateral neck is an uncommon congenital anomaly, and the occurrence of primary follicular carcinoma in this ectopic thyroid tissue is very rare. We report here on such a case of follicular carcinoma arising in ectopic thyroid tissue of the left lateral neck without any evidence of primary carcinoma in the original thyroid gland

  17. Primary Follicular Carcinoma Arising in Ectopic Thyroid Tissue of the Lateral Neck: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Se Won; Park, Dong Woo; Kim, Soo Yeon; Hahm, Chang Kok; Lee, Young Jun; Lee, Seung Ro; Pyo, Ju Yeon; Oh, Young Ha; Park, Yong Wook

    2010-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid tissue in the lateral neck is an uncommon congenital anomaly, and the occurrence of primary follicular carcinoma in this ectopic thyroid tissue is very rare. We report here on such a case of follicular carcinoma arising in ectopic thyroid tissue of the left lateral neck without any evidence of primary carcinoma in the original thyroid gland

  18. Risk factors for ectopic pregnancy in Germany: a retrospective study of 100,197 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob, Louis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The goal of this study was to identify potential risk factors for ectopic pregnancy in women followed in German gynecological practices.Methods: The present study included pregnant women diagnosed with ectopic pregnancy and pregnant women without ectopic pregnancy followed in 262 gynecological practices between January 2012 and December 2016. The effects of demographic and clinical variables on the risk of developing ectopic pregnancy were estimated using a multivariate logistic regression model. Results: This study included 3,003 women with ectopic pregnancy and 97,194 women without ectopic pregnancy. The mean age was 31.4 years (SD=5.9 years in ectopic pregnancy patients and 31.1 years (SD=5.6 years in non-ectopic pregnancy patients. Women aged 36–40 (OR=1.12 and 41–45 years (OR=1.46 were at a higher risk of ectopic pregnancy than women aged 31–35 years. Prior ectopic pregnancy was strongly associated with a risk of recurring ectopic pregnancy (OR=8.17. Prior genital surgery (OR=2.67, endometriosis (OR=1.51, and eight other gynecological diseases were also positively associated with ectopic pregnancy (ORs ranging from 1.19 to 2.06. Finally, there was a 1.80-fold increase in women previously diagnosed with psychiatric disorders.Conclusions: Prior ectopic pregnancy and prior genital surgery were strongly associated with ectopic pregnancy in women followed in German gynecological practices. Psychiatric diseases had an additional impact on the risk of ectopic pregnancy.

  19. Orthodontic management of buccally erupted ectopic canine with two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avesh Sachan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic canine teeth develop displaced from their normal position. Any permanent tooth can be ectopic, and the cause may be both genetic and environmental. Orthodontic treatment is justified because ectopic canine teeth can migrate in the jaw bone and may damage the adjacent teeth roots and bone. Orthodontic treatment is also justifiable for aesthetic reasons. Diagnosis and treatment of ectopically erupting permanent maxillary canines requires timely management by the orthodontist. Internal or external root resorption of teeth adjacent to the ectopic canine is the most common sequel. Malocclusion with severe crowding is difficult to treat without extraction. Non-extraction treatment of ectopic canines can compromise the patient′s profile. This article represents two cases of extraction treatment approach for buccally displaced or ectopic canine in a patient with severe crowding in the mandibular arch.

  20. Ectopic lymphoid structures support ongoing production of class-switched autoantibodies in rheumatoid synovium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frances Humby

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular structures resembling germinal centres (GCs that are characterized by follicular dendritic cell (FDC networks have long been recognized in chronically inflamed tissues in autoimmune diseases, including the synovium of rheumatoid arthritis (RA. However, it is debated whether these ectopic structures promote autoimmunity and chronic inflammation driving the production of pathogenic autoantibodies. Anti-citrullinated protein/peptide antibodies (ACPA are highly specific markers of RA, predict a poor prognosis, and have been suggested to be pathogenic. Therefore, the main study objectives were to determine whether ectopic lymphoid structures in RA synovium: (i express activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID, the enzyme required for somatic hypermutation and class-switch recombination (CSR of Ig genes; (ii support ongoing CSR and ACPA production; and (iii remain functional in a RA/severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID chimera model devoid of new immune cell influx into the synovium.Using immunohistochemistry (IHC and quantitative Taqman real-time PCR (QT-PCR in synovial tissue from 55 patients with RA, we demonstrated that FDC+ structures invariably expressed AID with a distribution resembling secondary lymphoid organs. Further, AID+/CD21+ follicular structures were surrounded by ACPA+/CD138+ plasma cells, as demonstrated by immune reactivity to citrullinated fibrinogen. Moreover, we identified a novel subset of synovial AID+/CD20+ B cells outside GCs resembling interfollicular large B cells. In order to gain direct functional evidence that AID+ structures support CSR and in situ manufacturing of class-switched ACPA, 34 SCID mice were transplanted with RA synovium and humanely killed at 4 wk for harvesting of transplants and sera. Persistent expression of AID and Igamma-Cmu circular transcripts (identifying ongoing IgM-IgG class-switching was observed in synovial grafts expressing FDCs/CD21L. Furthermore, synovial mRNA levels of AID

  1. Management of an Unusual Ectopic Eruption of Maxillary Canine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aileni, Kaladhar Reddy; Rachala, Madhukar Reddy; Prathima, Chintakunta Reddy; Naveen, Pitalla Kumar; Soujanya, Donthula

    2017-05-01

    Transposition of teeth is a rare condition, with a prevalence of 0.3-0.4% in general population. They are more commonly observed in females, and may occur unilaterally/bilaterally with greater frequency of left side occurrence in unilateral transposition cases. A 17-year-old female patient reported with the chief complaint of unaesthetic smile. On clinical examination the patient was diagnosed with Angle's class I malocclusion with an ectopically erupted maxillary left canine labial to the left central incisor with retained deciduous canine. The treatment plan decided was to extract the retained deciduous canine, level and align the ectopic canine using an R-loop. The treatment for the patient was finished in 14 months and was retained using a fixed lingual retainer in the upper and lower arches.

  2. Selective Uterine Artery Embolization for Management of Interstitial Ectopic Pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Seung Boo; Lee, Sang Jin; Joe, Hwan Sung; Goo, Dong Erk; Chang, Yun Woo; Kim, Dong Hun

    2007-01-01

    Interstitial pregnancy is defined as any gestation that develops in the uterine portion of the fallopian tubes lateral to the round ligament. Interstitial pregnancies account for 2-4% of all ectopic pregnancies and have been reported to have an associated 2% to 2.5% maternal mortality rate. The traditional treatment for interstitial pregnancy using surgical cornual resection may cause infertility or uterine rupture in subsequent pregnancies. Recently, the early identification of intact interstitial pregnancy has been made possible in many cases with high resolution transvaginal ultrasound as well as more sensitive assays for betahuman chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG). The treatment includes: hysteroscopic transcervical currettage, local and systemic methotrexate (MTX) therapy and prostaglandin or potassium chloride injection of the ectopic mass under sonographic guidance. We describe a case of successful treatment of interstitial pregnancy using uterine artery embolization, after failure of methotrexate treatment

  3. Ectopic lymphocytic thyroiditis: A case report and treatment options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irami Araujo-Filho

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The presence of ectopic thyroid tissue is a rare entity. Non-gland migration occurs during the early stages of embryogenesis to the normal cervical location. Thus, ectopic tissue is lodged, in general, in the path of the thyroglossal duct in the middle line of the neck. The most common location is in the lingual zone, being the lingual thyroid. This, in most cases, will be asymptomatic. However, it is able to manifest itself with symptoms of dysphagia, dysphonia, obstruction of the upper airways or hemorrhage at any moment between childhood and adulthood. This article is a review of this disease, targeting mainly conduct, still very controversial in the literature. [Arch Clin Exp Surg 2017; 6(4.000: 221-227

  4. Selective Uterine Artery Embolization for Management of Interstitial Ectopic Pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Seung Boo; Lee, Sang Jin; Joe, Hwan Sung; Goo, Dong Erk; Chang, Yun Woo [Soonchunhyang University Gumi Hospital, Gumi (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Hun [Chosun University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Interstitial pregnancy is defined as any gestation that develops in the uterine portion of the fallopian tubes lateral to the round ligament. Interstitial pregnancies account for 2-4% of all ectopic pregnancies and have been reported to have an associated 2% to 2.5% maternal mortality rate. The traditional treatment for interstitial pregnancy using surgical cornual resection may cause infertility or uterine rupture in subsequent pregnancies. Recently, the early identification of intact interstitial pregnancy has been made possible in many cases with high resolution transvaginal ultrasound as well as more sensitive assays for betahuman chorionic gonadotropin ({beta}-hCG). The treatment includes: hysteroscopic transcervical currettage, local and systemic methotrexate (MTX) therapy and prostaglandin or potassium chloride injection of the ectopic mass under sonographic guidance. We describe a case of successful treatment of interstitial pregnancy using uterine artery embolization, after failure of methotrexate treatment.

  5. Three cases of ectopic sphenoid sinus pituitary adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobeff, Ernest Jan; Wiśniewski, Karol; Papierz, Wielisław; Stefańczyk, Ludomir; Jaskólski, Dariusz Jan

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Ectopic sphenoid sinus pituitary adenoma is a rare tumour originating from embryologic remnants of Rathke's pouch. Although it is considered a clinically benign neoplasm, necrosis is encountered in 25% of cases and it can invade adjacent bone structures. Aims: To establish clinical, radiological and histopathological features of ectopic sphenoid sinus pituitary adenoma. Material and methods: Analysis of three cases: two females and one man, aged 61-70. Results: One patient presented with a unilateral hearing loss, the other two with headache and vertigo. They all suffered from type 2 diabetes mellitus. Neurological examination revealed no abnormality. Radiological imaging showed a sphenoid sinus space-occupying soft-tissue lesion with bone erosion in 2 cases and empty sella in 2 patients whereas one had a normal pituitary gland. All were operated on via the transnasal approach. Total resection was achieved in one patient and subtotal in two; in two cases we observed intact sellar dura and in one intact sellar floor. Histopathology showed immunoreactivity for synaptophysin in all cases and cytokeratin in two. The Ki-67 index was less than 2%. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated growth hormone cells in all cases whereas prolactin and adrenocorticotropin in two. The patients were discharged home in good condition with no neurological deficits. Conclusions: Ectopic sphenoid sinus pituitary adenoma should always be considered in differential diagnosis of sphenoid sinus lesion in the elderly, especially in coexistence with empty sella or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Since ectopic sphenoid sinus pituitary adenoma is a benign lesion, surgical removal is an effective treatment. .

  6. Mediastinum Ectopic Parathyroid Adenoma Localized by Sestamibi-SPECT and

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazilu, C.; Mititelu, R.; Ghita, S.; Rimbu, A.; Marinescu, G.; Mazilu, A.; Codorean, I.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Objective: Localizing of ectopic parathyroid adenomas, mainly of those located at large distal from cervical anterior region is very difficult by imaging methods, due to reduced number of specific imaging features. Material and Method: We present the case of a patient with hyper functional parathyroid tissue located in anterior mediastinum, detected by using nuclear medicine techniques (planar imaging and 99-m-Tc-Sestamibi) and CT with contrast agent. Results and discussions: Parathyroid scintigraphic imaging with metabolic radiotracer (99-m-Tc-Sestamibi) have shown normal uptake in thyroid area but shown a focal area with increased uptake in anterior mediastinum, on early and late planar images, transverse, sagittal and coronal SPECT images and on 3D reconstruction, suggesting the presence of ectopic parathyroid adenoma, which correlated with symptoms and laboratory analysis (high-modified values of PTH, Urinary Ca, Normal serum Ca). Thyroid ultrasonography normal aspect. CT native and with contrast agent showed remnant thymic tissue (?), pre-aortic anterior mediastinum nodule; normal thyroid aspect. Correlating this data was established the diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism due to mediastinum ectopic parathyroid adenoma. Surgical intervention showed intra thymic nodular process, well-defined, with 1 cm diameter in right thymic lobe. Thymectomy was realized. AP exam confirmed diagnosis of parathyroid adenoma. Post surgical determination of serum, urinary and PTH showed normalization of these values. Conclusions: In assessing parathyroid adenomas, mainly with ectopic location, combination of morphologic and functional techniques allows an accurate location of these processes, ensuring a correct diagnosis, adequate therapeutical management and optimal long-term prognosis for patient. (author)

  7. Three cases of ectopic sphenoid sinus pituitary adenoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Jan Bobeff

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Ectopic sphenoid sinus pituitary adenoma is a rare tumour originating from embryologic remnants of Rathke’s pouch. Although it is considered a clinically benign neoplasm, necrosis is encountered in 25% of cases and it can invade adjacent bone structures. Aims : To establish clinical, radiological and histopathological features of ectopic sphenoid sinus pituitary adenoma. Material and methods: Analysis of three cases: two females and one man, aged 61-70. Results : One patient presented with a unilateral hearing loss, the other two with headache and vertigo. They all suffered from type 2 diabetes mellitus. Neurological examination revealed no abnormality. Radiological imaging showed a sphenoid sinus space-occupying soft-tissue lesion with bone erosion in 2 cases and empty sella in 2 patients whereas one had a normal pituitary gland. All were operated on via the transnasal approach. Total resection was achieved in one patient and subtotal in two; in two cases we observed intact sellar dura and in one intact sellar floor. Histopathology showed immunoreactivity for synaptophysin in all cases and cytokeratin in two. The Ki-67 index was less than 2%. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated growth hormone cells in all cases whereas prolactin and adrenocorticotropin in two. The patients were discharged home in good condition with no neurological deficits. Conclusions : Ectopic sphenoid sinus pituitary adenoma should always be considered in differential diagnosis of sphenoid sinus lesion in the elderly, especially in coexistence with empty sella or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Since ectopic sphenoid sinus pituitary adenoma is a benign lesion, surgical removal is an effective treatment.

  8. Ectopic pregnancy with tubal rupture: an analysis of 80 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashfaq, S.; Aziz, S.; Hasan, M.; Sultan, S.; Irfan, S.M.

    2017-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy (EP) is a major problem in obstetrics as there is evidence of increasing incidence throughout the world. It is an important cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. In Pakistan, the care seeking behaviour among female is limited that makes female vulnerable to die due to complication of ectopic pregnancy. The aim of this study is to determine the frequency of tubal rupture in ectopic pregnancy in Pakistani patients. Method: In this cross-sectional study data pertaining to age, gestational age, parity and duration of presenting symptoms were collected and analysed. Result: 80 patients were diagnosed to have ectopic pregnancy. The frequency of tubal rupture was 91.25%. It is encountered significantly more often in women with age of 26 years. More tubal rupture is found in patient with low parity, in which the frequency of tubal rupture is up to 100% and decrease up to 78.6% with increasing parity up to four. Furthermore, it is noted that increase in gestational age from 8 weeks to 10 weeks caused an increase in frequency of tubal rupture from 80 to 100% respectively. It is also noted that earlier the patient presents the lesser is the frequency of tubal rupture, as compared to late presentation beyond 3-4 days which make frequency up to 95%. Conclusion: Tubal rupture is still common cause of maternal morbidity and mortality, and is still a major challenge in gynaecological practice. Creating awareness amongst midwives and GPs regarding early diagnosis can contribute to decrease the mortality, morbidity and fertility loss related to EP. (author)

  9. Transcatheter Embolotherapy with N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate for Ectopic Varices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Kim, Hyo-Cheol, E-mail: angiointervention@gmail.com; Jae, Hwan Jun, E-mail: jaemdphd@gmail.com; Jung, Hyun-Seok; Hur, Saebeom; Lee, Myungsu; Chung, Jin Wook [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    PurposeTo address technical feasibility and clinical outcome of transcatheter embolotherapy with N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for bleeding ectopic varices.MethodsThe institutional review board approved this retrospective study and waived informed consent. From January 2004 to June 2013, a total of 12 consecutive patients received transcatheter embolotherapy using NBCA for bleeding ectopic varices in our institute. Clinical and radiologic features of the endovascular procedures were comprehensively reviewed.ResultsPreprocedural computed tomography images revealed ectopic varices in the jejunum (n = 7), stoma (n = 2), rectum (n = 2), and duodenum (n = 1). The 12 procedures consisted of solitary embolotherapy (n = 8) and embolotherapy with portal decompression (main portal vein stenting in 3, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in 1). With regard to vascular access, percutaneous transhepatic access (n = 7), transsplenic access (n = 4), and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt tract (n = 1) were used. There was no failure in either the embolotherapy or the vascular accesses (technical success rate, 100 %). Two patients died within 1 month from the procedure from preexisting fatal medical conditions. Only one patient, with a large varix that had been partially embolized by using coils and NBCA, underwent rebleeding 5.5 months after the procedure. The patient was retreated with NBCA and did not undergo any bleeding afterward for a follow-up period of 2.5 months. The remaining nine patients did not experience rebleeding during the follow-up periods (range 1.5–33.2 months).ConclusionTranscatheter embolotherapy using NBCA can be a useful option for bleeding ectopic varices.

  10. Fibroadenoma in axilla: another manifestation of ectopic breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwary, Satyendra K; Kumar, Puneet; Khanna, Ajay Kumar

    2015-04-26

    Fibroadenoma of an accessory breast is a rare disease. The clinical significance lies in the fact that a number of cystic, inflammatory, neoplastic diseases similar to those of a normal breast have been reported in accessory breasts as well. Vigilant self-assessment and complete clinical examination are always encouraged to detect earliest malignancy in the axilla. We report two cases of ectopic breast fibroadenoma with the relevant literature. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  11. The association between smoking and ectopic pregnancy: why nicotine is BAD for your fallopian tube.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew W Horne

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have shown that cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for tubal ectopic pregnancy but the reason for this remains unclear. Here, we set out to determine the effect of smoking on Fallopian tube gene expression. An oviductal epithelial cell line (OE-E6/E7 and explants of human Fallopian tubes from non-pregnant women (n = 6 were exposed to physiologically relevant concentrations of cotinine, the principle metabolite of nicotine, and changes in gene expression analyzed using the Illumina Human HT-12 array. Cotinine sensitive genes identified through this process were then localized and quantified in Fallopian tube biopsies from non-pregnant smokers (n = 10 and non-smokers (n = 11 using immunohistochemistry and TaqMan RT-PCR. The principle cotinine induced change in gene expression detected by the array analysis in both explants and the cell line was significant down regulation (P<0.05 of the pro-apoptotic gene BAD. We therefore assessed the effect of smoking on cell turnover in retrospectively collected human samples. Consistent with the array data, smoking was associated with decreased levels of BAD transcript (P<0.01 and increased levels of BCL2 transcript (P<0.05 in Fallopian tube biopsies. BAD and BCL2 specific immunolabelling was localized to Fallopian tube epithelium. Although no other significant differences in levels of apoptosis or cell cycle associated proteins were observed, smoking was associated with significant changes in the morphology of the Fallopian tube epithelium (P<0.05. These results suggest that smoking may alter tubal epithelial cell turnover and is associated with structural, as well as functional, changes that may contribute to the development of ectopic pregnancy.

  12. Follicular adenoma in ectopic thyroid. A case-report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consalvo, Vincenzo; Barbieri, Gerarda; Rossetti, Amalia Rosaria Rita; Romano, Mafalda; Contieri, Rosaria; Tramontano, Salvatore; Rescigno, Carmela; Infranzi, Massimo; Lombardi, Domenico

    2017-01-01

    The term ectopic thyroid refers to the presence of thyroid tissue located far from its usual anatomic placement and with no vascular connection to the main gland. The presence of swelling in atypical locations is diagnostically differentiated from other pathologies like pleomorphic adenoma or carcinoma, inflammatory lesions like sialadenitis, neurogenic tumors, paraganglioma, fibrolipoma and lymphadenopaties of diverse etiologies. Here we present the case of a submandibular ectopic thyroid in a 67year old woman. She came to our attention for a left submandibular swelling. The anamnesis did not show related pathologies, as well as blood tests. Diagnostic image studies and a FNAC were performed. The mass was surgically removed and histopatology showed a follicular adenoma in the contest of the capsulated lesion. It is important to not underestimate these types of lesions and procede with hematochemical, instrumental tests and above all surgery that can eliminate any diagnostic uncertainty and on the whole be therapeutic. It should not be forgotten that ectopic thyroid tissue can be a site for adenoma or papillary carcinoma and thus any watch and wait strategy should be avoided. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Multiple Ectopic Hepatocellular Carcinomas Arising in the Abdominal Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Miyake

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a very rare clinical entity that is defined as HCC arising from extrahepatic liver tissue. This report presents a case of ectopic multiple HCC arising in the abdominal cavity. A 42-year-old otherwise healthy male presented with liver dysfunction at a general health checkup. Both HCV antibody and hepatitis B surface antigen were negative. Laboratory examination showed elevations in serum alpha-fetoprotein and PIVKA-II. Ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed multiple nodular lesions in the abdominal cavity with ascites without a possible primary tumor. Exploratory laparoscopy was performed, which revealed bloody ascites and multiple brown nodular tumors measuring approximately 10 mm in size that were disseminated on the perineum and mesentery. A postoperative PET-CT scan was performed but it did not reveal any evidence of a tumor in the liver. The tumors resected from the peritoneum were diagnosed as HCC. The present case of HCC was thought to have possibly developed from ectopic liver on the peritoneum or mesentery.

  14. A Challenging Case of an Ectopic Cushing Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Menezes Nunes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchopulmonary carcinoids are rare pulmonary neoplasms although they account for most cases of ectopic ACTH syndromes. When feasible, the mainstay treatment is surgical resection of the tumor. We report the case of a 52-year-old woman with signs and symptoms suggestive of hypercortisolism for 12 months, admitted to our department because of community acquired pneumonia. Blood hormone analysis showed increased levels of ACTH and urinary free cortisol and nonsuppressibility to high- and low-dose dexamethasone tests. Pituitary MRI showed no lesion and no central-to-peripheral ACTH gradient was present in bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling. CRH stimulation test suggested an ectopic ACTH source. Thoracic CT scan revealed a nodular region measuring 12 mm located in the inferior lingular lobule of the left superior lung with negative uptake by 18-FDG-PET scan and negative SRS. The patient was successfully treated with an atypical lung resection and histology revealed an atypical bronchial carcinoid tumor with positive ACTH immunoreactivity. This was an interesting case because the patient was admitted due to pneumonia that may have been associated with her untreated and chronic hypercortisolism and a challenging case of ectopic ACTH syndrome due to conflicting results on the diagnostic exams.

  15. Acute Abdomen in Interstitial Ectopic Pregnancy, An Emergency Laparoscopic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Picardo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present case report demonstrates a laparoscopic approach to treat interstitial cornual pregnancy in emergency. Interstitial ectopic pregnancy develops in the uterine portion of the fallopian tube which accounts for 2–4% of all ectopic pregnancies and has the potential to cause life-threatening hemorrhage at rupture. The mortality rate for a woman diagnosed with such a pregnancy is 2–2.5%. Diagnosis of interstitial pregnancy is made by ultrasound. In this case a 32 year-old woman, Gravida 0 Parity 0 Living 0 Ectopic 1, presented to the emergency obstetrical room complaining acute abdominal pain. There was a history of 10 weeks of pregnancy but no pelvic ultrasound scan was performed before the access. A transvaginal ultrasound scan immediately performed demonstrated a gestational sac with viable fetus in the right interstitial region. Moreover there was an ultrasound evidence of hemoperitoneum. She was transferred to the operating room and an emergency laparoscopy surgery was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged two days after the surgery. Interstitial pregnancies present a difficult management problem with no absolute standard of care in literature. Laparoscopic technique is under study with favorable results. For our personal point of view a treatment via laparoscopy could be performed both in elective and in emergency cases.

  16. A rare malformation of urinary system: Right ectopic thoracic kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musab Ilgi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An ectopic kidney is a common developmental anomaly of the urinary system. However, the thoracic kidney (TK is the rarest state form of an aberrant kidney. The aim of this case report is defining the symptoms in TK diagnosis and constructing a treatment model will promote the best outcomes. These patients come to the physician with the various symptoms, and they could be diagnosed incidentally. In our case, we describe 40 years female patient with severe respiratory problems and upper back pain. In the pulmonary clinic, suspected mass was diagnosed with chest X-ray, and computerized tomography detected nontraumatic nonhernia associated, a truly ectopic TK. Moreover, the thoracic surgeon and urologist team decided to exploration and reconstructed the right ectopic kidney. The 1st month of the control of patient symptoms was disappeared. Overall, TK should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of thoracic tumors. Surgical exploration and reconstruction should be thought in patients who have severe respiratory symptoms.

  17. Management Strategies for Aggressive Cushing's Syndrome: From Macroadenomas to Ectopics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozza, Carlotta; Graziadio, Chiara; Giannetta, Elisa; Lenzi, Andrea; Isidori, Andrea M.

    2012-01-01

    Cushing's syndrome (CS) is a rare but severe clinical condition represented by an excessive endogenous cortisol secretion and hence excess circulating free cortisol, characterized by loss of the normal feedback regulation and circadian rhythm of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis due to inappropriate secretion of ACTH from a pituitary tumor (Cushing's disease, CD) or an ectopic source (ectopic ACTH secretion, EAS). The remaining causes (20%) are ACTH independent. As soon as the diagnosis is established, the therapeutic goal is the removal of the tumor. Whenever surgery is not curative, management of patients with CS requires a major effort to control hypercortisolemia and associated symptoms. A multidisciplinary approach that includes endocrinologists, neurosurgeons, oncologists, and radiotherapists should be adopted. This paper will focus on traditional and novel medical therapy for aggressive ACTH-dependent CS. Several drugs are able to reduce cortisol levels. Their mechanism of action involves blocking adrenal steroidogenesis (ketoconazole, metyrapone, aminoglutethimide, mitotane, etomidate) or inhibiting the peripheral action of cortisol through blocking its receptors (mifepristone “RU-486”). Other drugs include centrally acting agents (dopamine agonists, somatostatin receptor agonists, retinoic acid, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ “PPAR-γ” ligands) and novel chemotherapeutic agents (temozolomide and tyrosine kinase inhibitors) which have a significant activity against aggressive pituitary or ectopic tumors. PMID:22934113

  18. Severe Cushing's syndrome and bilateral pulmonary nodules: beyond ectopic ACTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares Bello, Carlos; van der Poest Clement, Emma; Feelders, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Cushing's syndrome is a rare disease that results from prolonged exposure to supraphysiological levels of glucocorticoids. Severe and rapidly progressive cases are often, but not exclusively, attributable to ectopic ACTH secretion. Extreme hypercortisolism usually has florid metabolic consequences and is associated with an increased infectious and thrombotic risk. The authors report on a case of a 51-year-old male that presented with severe Cushing's syndrome secondary to an ACTH-secreting pituitary macroadenoma, whose diagnostic workup was affected by concurrent subclinical multifocal pulmonary infectious nodules. The case is noteworthy for the atypically severe presentation of Cushing's disease, and it should remind the clinician of the possible infectious and thrombotic complications associated with Cushing's syndrome. Severe Cushing's syndrome is not always caused by ectopic ACTH secretion.Hypercortisolism is a state of immunosuppression, being associated with an increased risk for opportunistic infections.Infectious pulmonary infiltrates may lead to imaging diagnostic dilemmas when investigating a suspected ectopic ACTH secretion.Cushing's syndrome carries an increased thromboembolic risk that may even persist after successful surgical management.Antibiotic and venous thromboembolism prophylaxis should be considered in every patient with severe Cushing's syndrome.

  19. Management Strategies for Aggressive Cushing's Syndrome: From Macroadenomas to Ectopics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlotta Pozza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cushing’s syndrome (CS is a rare but severe clinical condition represented by an excessive endogenous cortisol secretion and hence excess circulating free cortisol, characterized by loss of the normal feedback regulation and circadian rhythm of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis due to inappropriate secretion of ACTH from a pituitary tumor (Cushing’s disease, CD or an ectopic source (ectopic ACTH secretion, EAS. The remaining causes (20% are ACTH independent. As soon as the diagnosis is established, the therapeutic goal is the removal of the tumor. Whenever surgery is not curative, management of patients with CS requires a major effort to control hypercortisolemia and associated symptoms. A multidisciplinary approach that includes endocrinologists, neurosurgeons, oncologists, and radiotherapists should be adopted. This paper will focus on traditional and novel medical therapy for aggressive ACTH-dependent CS. Several drugs are able to reduce cortisol levels. Their mechanism of action involves blocking adrenal steroidogenesis (ketoconazole, metyrapone, aminoglutethimide, mitotane, etomidate or inhibiting the peripheral action of cortisol through blocking its receptors (mifepristone “RU-486”. Other drugs include centrally acting agents (dopamine agonists, somatostatin receptor agonists, retinoic acid, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ “PPAR-γ” ligands and novel chemotherapeutic agents (temozolomide and tyrosine kinase inhibitors which have a significant activity against aggressive pituitary or ectopic tumors.

  20. Hyperthyroidism caused by an ectopic thyrotropin-secreting tumor of the nasopharynx: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Anli; Xia, Weibo; Qi, Fang; Jin, Zimeng; Yang, Di; Zhang, Zhuhua; Li, Fang; Xing, Xiaoping; Lian, Xiaolan

    2013-09-01

    Ectopic thyrotropin (TSH)-secreting tumors are extremely rare. To our knowledge, only three cases have previously been reported so far, but the tumors were not studied ultrastructurally and in vitro. We present a case that was extensively examined to gain deeper insights in terms of the histopathological features and hormonal secretion profile of the tumor. A 49-year-old female complained of nasal obstruction for 15 years and thyrotoxicosis for one and a half years. Except for a high basal TSH with concomitantly elevated free tri-iodothyronine (FT3) and free thyroxine (FT4) levels, her pituitary hormone profile yielded normal results. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a 2 cm × 2 cm mass in the nasopharynx, which showed an increased tracer uptake on octreotide scintigraphy. Preoperative treatment with octreotide effectively reduced serum TSH, FT3, and FT4 to normal levels. The mass was endoscopically removed via an endonasal approach. Immunophenotyping and hormone determination of cultured cells confirmed that the mass was a plurihormonal TSH-/growth hormone (GH)-/prolactin (PRL)-producing adenoma. Co-expression of TSH and GH was found in most cells. Electron microscopy showed that the adenoma was formed by a single cell type, with secretory granules of small size. In vitro studies demonstrated that octreotide reduced both TSH and GH secretion. We report an ectopic TSH-secreting tumor, which had plurihormonal secretion in vitro, including TSH, GH, and PRL. Histologically, it mimicked a TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma. Octreotide was useful in the diagnosis and treatment of this ectopic TSH-secreting tumor. Ectopic TSH-secreting tumors are extremely rare. In terms of hormone secretion profile, histological characteristics, and response to octreotide, they are similar to pituitary TSH-secreting adenomas, suggesting that they are of identical cell origin.

  1. Dominant Suppression of β1 Integrin by Ectopic CD98-ICD Inhibits Hepatocellular Carcinoma Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Wu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is currently the third most common cause of cancer-related death in the Asia-Pacific region. Our previous work showed that knockdown of CD98 significantly inhibits malignant HCC cell phenotypes in vitro and in vivo. The level of CD98 in the membrane is tightly regulated to mediate complex processes associated with cell–cell communication and intracellular signaling. In addition, the intracellular domain of CD98 (CD98-ICD seems to be of vital importance for recycling CD98 to the membrane after it is endocytosed. The intracellular and transmembrane domains of CD98 associate with β-integrins (primarily β1 but also β3, and this association is essential for CD98 mediation of integrin-like signaling and complements dominant suppression of β1-integrin. We speculated that isolated CD98-ICD would similarly suppress β1-integrin activation and inhibit the malignant behaviors of cancer cells. In particular, the exact role of CD98-ICD has not been studied independently in HCC. In this study, we found that ectopic expression of CD98-ICD inhibited the malignant phenotypes of HCC cells, and the mechanism possibly involves β1-integrin suppression. Moreover, the expression levels of CD98, β1-integrin-A (the activated form of β1-integrin and Ki-67 were significantly increased in HCC tissues relative to those of normal liver tissues. Therefore, our preliminary study indicates that ectopic CD98-ICD has an inhibitory role in the malignant development of HCC, and shows that CD98-ICD acts as a dominant negative mutant of CD98 that attenuates β1-integrin activation. CD98-ICD may emerge as a promising candidate for antitumor treatment.

  2. Ectopic olfactory neuroblastoma: report of four cases and a review of the literature.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wormald, R

    2011-04-01

    Our objective is to present a short series of four rare cases of ectopic olfactory neuroblastoma. Our methods present four case reports of ectopic olfactory neuroblastoma and a review of the literature for management and treatment of this disease. The results indicate short case series reports of ectopic olfactory neuroblastoma arising from the anterior ethmoidal sinuses, the nasopharynx, the lateral nasal wall and the floor of the nose. The discussion focuses on likely origins of ectopic olfactory neuroblastoma, its clinical features and management. We conclude that ectopic olfactory neuroblastoma is a rare disease. Treatment principles are the same for non-ectopic disease and guided by extension into adjacent structures such as the orbit or anterior cranial fossa and usually involves surgery with or without adjuvant radiotherapy.

  3. Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang-Xia Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The miR-15/107 family comprises a group of 10 paralogous microRNAs (miRNAs, sharing a 5′ AGCAGC sequence. These miRNAs have overlapping targets. In order to characterize the expression of miR-15/107 family miRNAs, we employed customized TaqMan Low-Density micro-fluid PCR-array to investigate the expression of miR-15/107 family members, and other selected miRNAs, in 11 human tissues obtained at autopsy including the cerebral cortex, frontal cortex, primary visual cortex, thalamus, heart, lung, liver, kidney, spleen, stomach and skeletal muscle. miR-103, miR-195 and miR-497 were expressed at similar levels across various tissues, whereas miR-107 is enriched in brain samples. We also examined the expression patterns of evolutionarily conserved miR-15/107 miRNAs in three distinct primary rat brain cell preparations (enriched for cortical neurons, astrocytes and microglia, respectively. In primary cultures of rat brain cells, several members of the miR-15/107 family are enriched in neurons compared to other cell types in the central nervous system (CNS. In addition to mature miRNAs, we also examined the expression of precursors (pri-miRNAs. Our data suggested a generally poor correlation between the expression of mature miRNAs and their precursors. In summary, we provide a detailed study of the tissue and cell type-specific expression profile of this highly expressed and phylogenetically conserved family of miRNA genes.

  4. MR imaging in children with ectopic pituitary gland and anterior hypopituitarism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patkar D

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Posterior pituitary ectopia refers to an absent normal posterior pituitary bright spot within the sella with ectopic bright signal at another site (such as the median eminence on a weighted magnetic resonance. We describe two children with idiopathic anterior hypopituitarism who showed an ectopic posterior pituitary and absent pituitary stalk on imaging. We emphasize the association of the absent pituitary stalk in ectopic pituitary gland and low growth hormone levels.

  5. MR imaging in children with ectopic pituitary gland and anterior hypopituitarism.

    OpenAIRE

    Patkar D; Patankar T; Krishnan A; Prasad S; Shah J; Limdi J

    1999-01-01

    Posterior pituitary ectopia refers to an absent normal posterior pituitary bright spot within the sella with ectopic bright signal at another site (such as the median eminence) on a weighted magnetic resonance. We describe two children with idiopathic anterior hypopituitarism who showed an ectopic posterior pituitary and absent pituitary stalk on imaging. We emphasize the association of the absent pituitary stalk in ectopic pituitary gland and low growth hormone levels.

  6. Ectopic decidua of the greater omentum: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biserka Pigac

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic decidua is defined as extrauterine deposits of decidual stromal cells. It occurs in 85-100% of pregnancies. Focal sites can be present in various locations, yet a peritoneal location is rare. A 24- year- old woman underwent a cesarean section in 39th week of her first pregnancy, during which adhesions of the omentum to the fundus, entire left side of the uterus, and a part of the right front abdominal wall were found. An operative specimen was taken for a pathohistological analysis under the assumption of being fibrous adhesive tissue. The analysis revealed ectopic decidual tissue composed of large, polygonal cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm, and large nuclei with conspicuous nucleoli infiltrated with mature fatty cells and lymphocytes. Strong staining for vimentin was observed in the decidual cell cytoplasm and for a progesterone- receptor in the cell nuclei, medium staining was detected for S-100, and negative staining for CK 5/ 6, HMB-45, desmin, smooth muscle actin, estrogen and androgen- receptors. We present this case in order to educate clinicians and pathologists about the phenomenon of ectopic deciduosis. Although it can exist as asymptomatic condition, we point out the importance of considering this condition since it can result in serious pathology, like intraperitoneal hemorrhage and labour obstruction, if remains unrecognized. Another pitfall is possible confusion of this entity with other conditions. A resemblance to adhesions of the omentum and malignant neoplastic lesions, like squamous cell and metastatic carcinoma, metastatic melanoma, malignant decidual mesothelioma, metastatic mucin -producing adenocarcinoma, can be deceiving. These obstacles may present a pitfall to clinicians and pathologists, with a negative impact on patient treatment and outcome.

  7. Ectopic Fat and Insulin Resistance: Pathophysiology and Effect of Diet and Lifestyle Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Snel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The storage of triglyceride (TG droplets in nonadipose tissues is called ectopic fat storage. Ectopic fat is associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Not the triglycerides per se but the accumulation of intermediates of lipid metabolism in organs, such as the liver, skeletal muscle, and heart seem to disrupt metabolic processes and impair organ function. We describe the mechanisms of ectopic fat depositions in the liver, skeletal muscle, and in and around the heart and the consequences for each organs function. In addition, we systematically reviewed the literature for the effects of diet-induced weight loss and exercise on ectopic fat depositions.

  8. Fibrocystic disease of vulvar ectopic breast tissue. Case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baykal, C; Tulunay, G; Usubutun, A; Küçükali, T; Ozer, S; Demir, O F

    2004-01-01

    Mammary glands located in the vulvar region have been named as ectopic breast tissue or anogenital mammary glands by different authors. Literature on pathologies of ectopic breast tissue located in the vulvar region is rare. Most of the reports are about the malignancies arising from this ectopic tissue. We report a case of fibrocystic disease of the mammary glands in the vulva in a 25-year-old pregnant woman. Her disease was exaggerated during pregnancy. Ectopic breast tissue in the vulva is a rare entity and fibrocystic disease of this tissue has rarely been reported in the English literature. Copyright (c) 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Ectopic eruption of maxillary central incisor through abnormally thickened labial frenum: An unusual presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Gugnani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic eruption is a deviation from the normal eruption pattern, making the tooth erupt out of its normal position, and possibly causing resorption of adjacent primary teeth. A wide range of etiological factors may be responsible for ectopic eruption of the teeth, so their management depends on the correction of the established etiological factor. The present case report describes an unusual case of ectopically erupted central incisor encased within an abnormally thickened labial frenum, which was treated by orthodontic repositioning of the ectopically erupting tooth after frenectomy.

  10. Ectopic prostatic tissue in the rectum: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seol, Myung Jin; Noh, Kyung Hee; Jeon, Doo Sung; Lee, Kwang Min [Presbyterian Medical Center, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    Ectopic prostatic tissue (EPT) outside the male genitourinary tract is an unusual finding, and it is very rarely found in the rectum or around the peri-rectal region. In addition, the radiologic features of EPT are seldom reported. Also, it is difficult to differentiate EPT found in the rectal subepithelium from the other types of subepithelial tumors. We present here a unique case of EPT found in the retrorectal region, along with the radiologic findings of transrectal ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging with their pathologic correlations.

  11. An Ectopic Case of Tunga spp. Infection in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maco, Vicente; Maco, Vicente P.; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Tungiasis is a neglected ectoparasitism of impoverished areas in South America and sub-Saharan Africa. The sand flea Tunga spp. preferably infests the soles and the periungueal and interdigital regions of the feet. Ectopic tungiasis is rare, even in highly endemic areas. We describe a case of an indigenous patient in Peru who presented with a nodular lesion in the extensor aspect of the knee and whose biopsy was compatible with Tunga spp. This is the first documented case of knee tungiasis in an endemic country. The historical, clinical, histological, and current epidemiological aspects of tungiasis in Peru are discussed here. PMID:20519602

  12. Cystic adventitial degeneration: ectopic ganglia from adjacent joint capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortmann, J; Widmer, M K; Gretener, S; Do, D D; Willenberg, T; Daliri, A; Baumgartner, I

    2009-11-01

    Cystic adventitial degeneration is a rare non-atherosclerotic cause of peripheral arterial occlusive disease, mainly seen in young men without other evidence of vascular disease. Diagnosis will be established by clinical findings and by ultrasound or angiography and can be treated by excision or enucleation of the affected arterial segment or by percutaneous ultrasound-guided aspiration. However, the etiology of adventitial cysts remains unknown. We report a case of cystic adventitial degeneration showing a connection between the joint capsule and the adventitial cyst, supporting the theory that cystic adventitial degeneration may represent ectopic ganglia from adjacent joint capsules.

  13. Congenital bilateral perisylvian syndrome with pituitary hypoplasia and ectopic neurohypophysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yekeler, Ensar; Genchellac, Hakan; Dursun, Memduh; Acunas, Gulden [Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Istanbul (Turkey); Ozmen, Meral [Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Department of Paediatric Neurology, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2004-11-01

    Congenital bilateral perisylvian syndrome (CBPS) is a congenital neurological syndrome characterized by pseudobulbar palsy, cognitive deficits and bilateral perisylvian abnormalities observed on imaging. The described abnormality in CBPS is polymicrogyria located in the frontal, parietal, and/or occipital lobes. A few syndromes or abnormalities associated with this syndrome have been documented. Pituitary abnormalities are rare disorders. Association of CBPS with pituitary abnormalities has not been reported previously. In this case, a combination of bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria with pituitary hypoplasia and ectopic neurohypophysis, caused by a possible single common insult, is presented. (orig.)

  14. Congenital bilateral perisylvian syndrome with pituitary hypoplasia and ectopic neurohypophysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yekeler, Ensar; Genchellac, Hakan; Dursun, Memduh; Acunas, Gulden; Ozmen, Meral

    2004-01-01

    Congenital bilateral perisylvian syndrome (CBPS) is a congenital neurological syndrome characterized by pseudobulbar palsy, cognitive deficits and bilateral perisylvian abnormalities observed on imaging. The described abnormality in CBPS is polymicrogyria located in the frontal, parietal, and/or occipital lobes. A few syndromes or abnormalities associated with this syndrome have been documented. Pituitary abnormalities are rare disorders. Association of CBPS with pituitary abnormalities has not been reported previously. In this case, a combination of bilateral perisylvian polymicrogyria with pituitary hypoplasia and ectopic neurohypophysis, caused by a possible single common insult, is presented. (orig.)

  15. Interventional ovarian tube catheterization in treating tubal ectopic pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Yi; Xiong Linhui; Du Pianqin; Chen Jiabin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the feasibility and curative effect of treating tubal pregnancy through the fallopian tube with interventional catheterization decrease the difficulty of the procedure and shorten the consuming time. Methods: Applying the method of interventional catheterization of fallopian tube and injecting 0.5 mg atropine at the cervix beforehand, then 70 mg MTX was administered into the fallopian tube. Results: 113 patients were successfully recovered with health except one without any adversary complication. Conclusions: The interventional fallopian tube catheterization for treating ectopic pregnancy is a simple, safe, minitraumatic, quick and effective method. (authors)

  16. Cushing-type ectopic pituitary adenoma with unusual pathologic features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristopher T. Kimmell, MD

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic pituitary adenomas comprise, by varying reports, approximately 1-2% of all pituitary adenomas. They are often located in the nasopharyngeal region associated with the pharyngeal pituitary. The location and pathologic features of these masses make them atypical when compared with intrasellar pituitary adenomas. A 54-year-old man presented with vertebral compression fracture and physical stigmata of Cushing’s disease. Biochemical testing confirmed hypercortisolemia responsive to high dose dexamethasone suppression. MRI of the head demonstrated an enhancing mass in the posterior aspect of the sphenoid sinus not involving the sella turcica. Endoscopic biopsy followed by resection confirmed this mass to be a pituitary adenoma with unusual pathologic features. Most notably, the tumor cells demonstrated large, eosinophilic, vacuolated cytoplasm. Immunohistochemical profile of the tumor was typical of an ACTH secreting tumor, notably with positivity for ACTH. The patient did well from his surgery. Post-operatively his serum cortisol level normalized and he remains in chemical remission one year after surgery. Ectopic pituitary adenomas are an unusual manifestation of hormonally active pituitary neoplastic disease. Their atypical clinical presentations, location, and pathologic features can make them a diagnostic challenge. Clinicians should be aware of these entities, especially when considering differential diagnosis for a mass in the sphenoid sinus and nasopharyngeal region.

  17. A Case of Ectopic Parathyroid Adenoma at an Unexpected Location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil ibrahim Tasci

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic parathyroid tissue can be seen at any location from the mandibula to the mediastinum. The main problem in parathyroid surgery are determination of these ectopic parathyroid tissues' location and their resection. About 1-2% of patients with hyperparathyroidism have a deep mediastinal located parathyroid and transsternal or transthoracic approach should have to be employed most of the time. A 63-year-old female patient, presenting with widespread joint pain and fatigue complaints going on for about a year, was diagnosed with parathyroid adenoma in the mediastinal area as shown by the results of analyses conducted upon the detection of high levels of calcium and parathormone. Accordingly she was taken into surgery with a cervical incision and adenoma in a posterior localization in the carotid artery sheath on the upper mediastinum was seen. The patient, whose calcium, phosphor, and parathormone levels returned to normal levels following the surgery, was discharged with no problems on post-op day 2. Consequently, parathyroid is a tissue whose atypical localization is quite frequent. Nevertheless, atypical localized parathyroid surgeries can be performed by experienced surgeons without having to resort to a secondary procedure with minimally invasive methods with the contribution of localization studies before and/or during the procedure. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(Suppl 1: 127-130

  18. Ectopic osteoid and bone formation by three calcium-phosphate ceramics in rats, rabbits and dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Liao; Zhang, B.; Bao, Chongyun; Habibovic, Pamela; Hu, J.; Zhang, Xingdong

    2014-01-01

    Calcium phosphate ceramics with specific physicochemical properties have been shown to induce de novo bone formation upon ectopic implantation in a number of animal models. In this study we explored the influence of physicochemical properties as well as the animal species on material-induced ectopic

  19. Immunohistological demonstration of intermediate trophoblast in the diagnosis of uterine versus ectopic pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Marcussen, N; Daugaard, H O

    1991-01-01

    . The histological presence and distribution of hPL was investigated in endometrial curettings from 90 patients studied retrospectively (47 had ectopic pregnancies, 14 miscarriages, and 29 legal abortions), and a consecutive, prospective series of 50 patients (40 had miscarriages and 10 had ectopic pregnancies...

  20. Management of paroxysmal ectopic atrial tachycardia with long sinus pauses in a teenager

    OpenAIRE

    Seshadri Balaji

    2015-01-01

    Sinus pauses in the setting of supraventricular tachycardia is rare in children. We describe an asymptomatic teen with irregular heart rate detected during an incidental exam who was found to have short runs of a slow ectopic atrial tachycardia on electrocardiogram and prolonged sinus pauses on routine ambulatory ECG. Successful catheter ablation of the ectopic atrial tachycardia led to resolution of the sinus pauses.

  1. Diagnosis of Unilateral Single System Ectopic Ureter in Girls in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The ectopic ureter frequently drains an ectopic dysplastic or hypoplastic kidney. The present study aims at defining the role of MRU in establishing the diagnosis of this anomaly. Patients and Methods: Between February 1996 and March 2000, 11 girls presented or were referred to our department for management ...

  2. Orthodontic treatment of a stubborn palatally ectopic canine: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Musfir, Tumadher M; Morris, David O

    2014-03-01

    This is a case report that highlights a different treatment approach in dealing with palatally ectopic canines. The modified transpalatal arch with an 'active' arm was used to align a palatally ectopic canine with 'push' mechanics after the initial use of more conventional 'pull' mechanics (piggy-back archwire technique) had failed.

  3. MRI Findings of Coexistence of Ectopic Neurohypophysis, Corpus Callosum Dysgenesis, and Periventricular Neuronal Heterotopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Arslan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic neurohypophysis is a pituitary gland abnormality, which can accompany growth hormone deficiency associated with dwarfism. Here we present magnetic resonance imaging (MRI findings of a rare case of ectopic neurohypophysis, corpus callosum dysgenesis, and periventricular neuronal heterotopia coexisting, with a review of the literature.

  4. Fibroadenoma of ectopic breast tissue of the axilla in an adolescent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ectopic breast tissue (EBT) is a well-described entity in the English literature. However, fibroadenoma of the ectopic breast is a rare entity. We present a case of a 13-year-old adolescent girl with a subcutaneous mass in the right axilla that was pathologically identical to fibroadenoma seen in the EBT. To our knowledge, this ...

  5. Detection of chromosome abnormalities by quantitative fluorescent PCR in ectopic pregnancies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goddijn, Mariette; van Stralen, Marja; Schuring-Blom, Heleen; Redeker, Bert; van Leeuwen, Liesbeth; Repping, Sjoerd; Leschot, Nico; van der Veen, Fulco

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the potential value of quantitative fluorescent polymerase chain reaction (QF-PCR) in the detection of chromosome abnormalities in ectopic pregnancies. Methods: Seventy chorionic villi samples of ectopic pregnancies were studied by QF-PCR. Primers for chromosomes 16, 21, X and

  6. 42 CFR 136a.55 - Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies. Federal funds are available for drugs or devices... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies. 136a.55 Section 136a.55 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  7. 42 CFR 136.55 - Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies. Federal funds are available for drugs or devices to... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies. 136.55 Section 136.55 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  8. 42 CFR 441.207 - Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... APPLICABLE TO SPECIFIC SERVICES Abortions § 441.207 Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies. 441.207 Section 441.207 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF...

  9. Imaging examinations and diagnosis of children's ectopic uretal aperture (with a review of 68 cases)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai Jiankun; Liu Liwei

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the imaging findings and examination methods of ectopic uretal aperture in children. Methods: The clinical data, imaging methods and findings of 68 cases with ectopic uretal aperture were analyzed retrospectively. Results: In 44 cases ectopic uretal aperture were associated with duplex kidneys (DK), and in 24 cases ectopic uretal aperture were associated with dysplasia of kidneys. IVU could display direct or indirect signs of DK in all cases. While it could hardly display dysplastic kidney and ectopic uretal aperture. CT scans were performed in 8 patients, in which DK, dysplastic kidney and the draining ureters could be evaluated. Conclusion: Definitive diagnosis is made in most cases with the integrating the clinical information and IVU findings. However, CT scan is recommended in a few cases

  10. Clinical Significance of Monitoring Serum β-HCG in the Conservative Treatment of Ectopic Pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xue

    2010-01-01

    To explore the clinical value of the serum β-HCG (human chorionic gonadotrophin) in the conservative treatment of ectopic pregnancy, the serum β-HCG levels in 118 patients with ectopic pregnancy were measured with RIA. The results showed that the serum β-HCG levels in patients with successful conservative treatment of ectopic pregnancy were all less than 200mIU/mL. The patients require a surgical treatment to reach <200mIU/mL serum β-HCG concentration were only 26.3%. There was significant difference between two groups (P<0.01). The monitoring of serum β-HCG was very useful in the diagnosis, the choice of treatment measures and the evaluation of conservative treatment effect of ectopic pregnancy. In the course of treatment of ectopic pregnancy, serum β-HCG is a good marker in determining the success or failure of treatment. (authors)

  11. A Rare Case of Chronic Ectopic Pregnancy Presenting as Large Hematosalpinx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavi Nacharaju

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic pregnancy is defined as implantation and subsequent development of an embryo outside the uterine lining. It has wide range of presentation from acute hemoperitoneum to chronic ectopic pregnancy. This is an unusual case of chronic ectopic pregnancy with large hematosalpinx without classical symptoms. A 22-year-old South Indian woman reported to the outpatient clinic with irregular spotting for a duration of 2 months which was not associated with pain. There was no preceding amenorrhea and previous menstrual cycles were regular. Clinically, the patient was hemodynamically stable but severely anemic. The abdomen was soft on palpation, cervical movements were not tender, and human chorionic gonadotropin was absent in the urine. Ultrasound revealed a complex adnexal mass. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed a large hematosalpinx. Laparoscopic left salpingectomy was conducted and histopathology confirmed ectopic pregnancy. Ectopic pregnancy presents diagnostic dilemmas in the absence of classical symptoms. MRI and laparoscopy are important tools in such a diagnostic dilemma.

  12. Ectopic cross-talk between thyroid and retinoic acid signaling: A possible etiology for spinal neural tube defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huili; Bai, Baoling; Zhang, Qin; Bao, Yihua; Guo, Jin; Chen, Shuyuan; Miao, Chunyue; Liu, Xiaozhen; Zhang, Ting

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have highlighted the connections between neural tube defects (NTDs) and both thyroid hormones (TH) and vitamin A. However, whether the two hormonal signaling pathways interact in NTDs has remained unclear. We measured the expression levels of TH signaling genes in human fetuses with spinal NTDs associated with maternal hyperthyroidism as well as levels of retinoic acid (RA) signaling genes in mouse fetuses exposed to an overdose of RA using NanoString or real-time PCR on spinal cord tissues. Interactions between the two signaling pathways were detected by ChIP assays. The data revealed attenuated DIO2/DIO3 switching in fetuses with NTDs born to hyperthyroid mothers. The promoters of the RA signaling genes CRABP1 and RARB were ectopically occupied by increased RXRG and RXRB but displayed decreased levels of inhibitory histone modifications, suggesting that elevated TH signaling abnormally stimulates RA signaling genes. Conversely, in the mouse model, the observed decrease in Dio3 expression could be explained by increased levels of inhibitory histone modifications in the Dio3 promoter region, suggesting that overactive RA signaling may ectopically derepress TH signaling. This study thus raises in vivo a possible abnormal cross-promotion between two different hormonal signals through their common RXRs and the subsequent recruitment of histone modifications, prompting further investigation into their involvement in the etiology of spinal NTDs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Laparoscopy-Assisted Billroth I Gastrectomy for Ectopic Pancreas in the Prepyloric Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueh-Tsung Lee

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic pancreatic tissue is an uncommon developmental anomaly. The condition mostly occurs in the gastrointestinal tract and is usually asymptomatic. It rarely causes symptoms of inflammation, bleeding and perforation, and has potential for malignant change. Though it is an uncommon condition, cases of ectopic pancreas have been reported worldwide. Preoperative diagnosis of ectopic pancreas is challenging because of its nonspecific symptoms and signs. Owing to the revolution of minimally invasive surgery, submucosal tumors of the stomach can be resected by laparoscopic techniques. We have earlier reported on a case of ectopic pancreas in the stomach treated by robotics-assisted laparoscopic wedge resection. Herein, we report a case of ectopic pancreas in the prepyloric region of the stomach. A 44-year-old female presented with a two-week history of epigastralgia with radiation to the back. She received endoscopy check-up which disclosed a mass in the stomach. By endoscopic findings, a submucosal lesion in the prepyloric region with umbilical folding on the mucosa was identified. The umbilical folding on the mucosa hint the orifice of the duct of ectopic pancreas into the gastric mucosa suggestive of ectopic pancreas. Contrast-enhanced abdominal computed tomography showed a 5 cm cystic mass with heterogeneous content. To sum it up, the patient was diagnosed as ectopic pancreas in the stomach. She underwent laparoscopy-assisted antrectomy with Billroth I anastomosis (excision of the antrum and prepyloric region with reconstruction of gastrointestinal continuity by gastroduodenostomy and had an uneventful hospitalization course. The histopathology of the resected tumor demonstrated ectopic pancreatic tissue in the gastric wall. To the best of our knowledge, excision of gastric ectopic pancreas using laparoscopy-assisted antrectomy with Billroth I anastomosis has never been reported in the literature.

  14. Ectopic application of recombinant BMP-2 and BMP-4 can change patterning of developing chick facial primordia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, A J; Francis-West, P H

    1997-01-01

    The facial primordia initially consist of buds of undifferentiated mesenchyme, which give rise to a variety of tissues including cartilage, muscle and nerve. These must be arranged in a precise spatial order for correct function. The signals that control facial outgrowth and patterning are largely unknown. The bone morphogenetic proteins Bmp-2 and Bmp-4 are expressed in discrete regions at the distal tips of the early facial primordia suggesting possible roles for BMP-2 and BMP-4 during chick facial development. We show that expression of Bmp-4 and Bmp-2 is correlated with the expression of Msx-1 and Msx-2 and that ectopic application of BMP-2 and BMP-4 can activate Msx-1 and Msx-2 gene expression in the developing facial primordia. We correlate this activation of gene expression with changes in skeletal development. For example, activation of Msx-1 gene expression across the distal tip of the mandibular primordium is associated with an extension of Fgf-4 expression in the epithelium and bifurcation of Meckel's cartilage. In the maxillary primordium, extension of the normal domain of Msx-1 gene expression is correlated with extended epithelial expression of shh and bifurcation of the palatine bone. We also show that application of BMP-2 can increase cell proliferation of the mandibular primordia. Our data suggest that BMP-2 and BMP-4 are part of a signalling cascade that controls outgrowth and patterning of the facial primordia.

  15. EXPRESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancelin, C.; Le, P.; DeSaint-Quentin, S.; Villatte, N.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents EXPRESS, an expert system developed for the automation of reliability studies. The first part consists in the description of the method for static thermohydraulic systems. In this step, the authors define the knowledge representation based on the two inference engines - ALOUETTE and LCR developed by EDF. They explain all the process to construct a fault tree from a topological and functional description of the system. Numerous examples are exhibited in illustration of the method. This is followed by the lessons derived from the studies performed on some safety systems of the PALUEL nuclear plant. The development of the same approach for electric power systems is described, insisting on the difference resulting from the sequential nature of these systems. Finally, they show the main advantages identified during the studies

  16. Ectopic pregnancy in a Caesarean section scar: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Niziurski

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Implantation of a pregnancy in a scar after Caesarean section is one of the rarest locations of ectopic pregnancies. A diagnosis and/or treatment which is too late may lead to a uterine rupture, the necessity to remove the uterus and a significant increase in morbidity among mothers. The study presents a diagnostically difficult case of a 29-year-old woman, who was diagnosed with pregnancy in its seventh week, located in a scar after a Caesarean section, with highly increased values of human chorionic gonadotropin (β-HCG concentration in blood serum. The pregnancy was removed and the wound was stitched during laparotomy, without a need to remove the uterus.

  17. Ectopic fat accumulation in patients with COPD: an ECLIPSE substudy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin M

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mickaël Martin,1 Natalie Almeras,1 Jean-Pierre Després,1 Harvey O Coxson,2 George R Washko,3 Isabelle Vivodtzev,4 Emiel FM Wouters,5 Erica Rutten,6 Michelle C Williams,7 John T Murchison,8 William MacNee,7 Don D Sin,2 François Maltais1 On behalf of the Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints (ECLIPSE Study Group 1Research Centre, Institut universitaire de cardiologie et de pneumologie de Québec, Université Laval, Québec, QC, 2Department of Radiology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 3Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 4Hypoxia Pathophysiology Laboratory, Grenoble University Hospital, Grenoble, France; 5Department of Respiratory Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht, 6Research and Development, CIRO, Horn, the Netherlands; 7Department of Respiratory Medicine, University of Edinburgh, 8Department of Radiology, Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK Background: Obesity is increasingly associated with COPD, but little is known about the prevalence of ectopic fat accumulation in COPD and whether this can possibly be associated with poor clinical outcomes and comorbidities. The Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints (ECLIPSE substudy tested the hypothesis that COPD is associated with increased ectopic fat accumulation and that this would be associated with COPD-related outcomes and comorbidities.Methods: Computed tomography (CT images of the thorax obtained in ECLIPSE were used to quantify ectopic fat accumulation at L2–L3 (eg, cross-sectional area [CSA] of visceral adipose tissue [VAT] and muscle tissue [MT] attenuation, a reflection of muscle fat infiltration and CSA of MT. A dose–response relationship between CSA of VAT, MT attenuation and CSA of MT and COPD-related outcomes (6-minute walking distance [6MWD], exacerbation rate, quality of life, and forced

  18. Imaging in covert ectopic ACTH secretion: a CT pictorial review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sookur, Paul A.; Sahdev, Anju; Rockall, Andrea G.; Reznek, Rodney H. [St Bartholomew' s Hospital, Department of Academic Radiology, Dominion House, London (United Kingdom); Isidori, Andrea M. [Sapienza University of Rome, Department of Medical Pathophysiology, Rome (Italy); Monson, John P.; Grossman, Ashley B. [St Bartholomew' s Hospital, Department of Endocrinology, London (United Kingdom)

    2009-05-15

    The syndrome of ectopic adrenocorticotrophin secretion (EAS) is rare and is due to excess adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) production from a nonpituitary tumour. These tumours can be covert, where the tumours are not readily apparent, and very small making them challenging to image. It is clinically and biochemically difficult to distinguish between covert EAS and Cushing's disease. The first-line investigation in locating the source of ACTH production is computed tomography (CT). The aim of this pictorial review is to illustrate the likely covert sites and related imaging findings. We review the CT appearances of tumours resulting in covert EAS and the associated literature. The most common tumours were bronchial carcinoid tumours, which appear as small, well-defined, round or ovoid pulmonary lesions. Rarer causes included thymic carcinoids, gastrointestinal carcinoids and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours. Awareness of the imaging characteristics will aid identification of the source of ACTH production and allow potentially curative surgical resection. (orig.)

  19. FAM20A Gene Mutation: Amelogenesis or Ectopic Mineralization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilhem Lignon

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective:FAM20A gene mutations result in enamel renal syndrome (ERS associated with amelogenesis imperfecta (AI, nephrocalcinosis, gingival fibromatosis, and impaired tooth eruption. FAM20A would control the phosphorylation of enamel peptides and thus enamel mineralization. Here, we characterized the structure and chemical composition of unerupted tooth enamel from ERS patients and healthy subjects.Methods: Tooth sections were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD, and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF.Results: SEM revealed that prisms were restricted to the inner-most enamel zones. The bulk of the mineralized matter covering the crown was formed by layers with varying electron-densities organized into lamellae and micronodules. Tissue porosity progressively increased at the periphery, ending with loose and unfused nanonodules also observed in the adjoining soft tissues. Thus, the enamel layer covering the dentin in all ERS patients (except a limited layer of enamel at the dentino-enamel junction displayed an ultrastructural globular pattern similar to one observed in ectopic mineralization of soft tissue, notably in the gingiva of Fam20a knockout mice. XRD analysis confirmed the existence of alterations in crystallinity and composition (vs. sound enamel. XRF identified lower levels of calcium and phosphorus in ERS enamel. Finally, EDS confirmed the reduced amount of calcium in ERS enamel, which appeared similar to dentin.Conclusion: This study suggests that, after an initial normal start to amelogenesis, the bulk of the tissue covering coronal dentin would be formed by different mechanisms based on nano- to micro-nodule aggregation. This evocated ectopic mineralization process is known to intervene in several soft tissues in FAM20A gene mutant.

  20. FAM20A Gene Mutation: Amelogenesis or Ectopic Mineralization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignon, Guilhem; Beres, Fleur; Quentric, Mickael; Rouzière, Stephan; Weil, Raphael; De La Dure-Molla, Muriel; Naveau, Adrien; Kozyraki, Renata; Dessombz, Arnaud; Berdal, Ariane

    2017-01-01

    Background and objective: FAM20A gene mutations result in enamel renal syndrome (ERS) associated with amelogenesis imperfecta (AI), nephrocalcinosis, gingival fibromatosis, and impaired tooth eruption. FAM20A would control the phosphorylation of enamel peptides and thus enamel mineralization. Here, we characterized the structure and chemical composition of unerupted tooth enamel from ERS patients and healthy subjects. Methods: Tooth sections were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF). Results: SEM revealed that prisms were restricted to the inner-most enamel zones. The bulk of the mineralized matter covering the crown was formed by layers with varying electron-densities organized into lamellae and micronodules. Tissue porosity progressively increased at the periphery, ending with loose and unfused nanonodules also observed in the adjoining soft tissues. Thus, the enamel layer covering the dentin in all ERS patients (except a limited layer of enamel at the dentino-enamel junction) displayed an ultrastructural globular pattern similar to one observed in ectopic mineralization of soft tissue, notably in the gingiva of Fam20a knockout mice. XRD analysis confirmed the existence of alterations in crystallinity and composition (vs. sound enamel). XRF identified lower levels of calcium and phosphorus in ERS enamel. Finally, EDS confirmed the reduced amount of calcium in ERS enamel, which appeared similar to dentin. Conclusion: This study suggests that, after an initial normal start to amelogenesis, the bulk of the tissue covering coronal dentin would be formed by different mechanisms based on nano- to micro-nodule aggregation. This evocated ectopic mineralization process is known to intervene in several soft tissues in FAM20A gene mutant.

  1. Quantitative proteomic analysis of human lung tumor xenografts treated with the ectopic ATP synthase inhibitor citreoviridin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Hsuan Wu

    Full Text Available ATP synthase is present on the plasma membrane of several types of cancer cells. Citreoviridin, an ATP synthase inhibitor, selectively suppresses the proliferation and growth of lung cancer without affecting normal cells. However, the global effects of targeting ectopic ATP synthase in vivo have not been well defined. In this study, we performed quantitative proteomic analysis using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ and provided a comprehensive insight into the complicated regulation by citreoviridin in a lung cancer xenograft model. With high reproducibility of the quantitation, we obtained quantitative proteomic profiling with 2,659 proteins identified. Bioinformatics analysis of the 141 differentially expressed proteins selected by their relative abundance revealed that citreoviridin induces alterations in the expression of glucose metabolism-related enzymes in lung cancer. The up-regulation of enzymes involved in gluconeogenesis and storage of glucose indicated that citreoviridin may reduce the glycolytic intermediates for macromolecule synthesis and inhibit cell proliferation. Using comprehensive proteomics, the results identify metabolic aspects that help explain the antitumorigenic effect of citreoviridin in lung cancer, which may lead to a better understanding of the links between metabolism and tumorigenesis in cancer therapy.

  2. Evidence for the ectopic synthesis of melanin in human adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randhawa, Manpreet; Huff, Tom; Valencia, Julio C; Younossi, Zobair; Chandhoke, Vikas; Hearing, Vincent J; Baranova, Ancha

    2009-03-01

    Melanin is a common pigment in animals. In humans, melanin is produced in melanocytes, in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, in the inner ear, and in the central nervous system. Previously, we noted that human adipose tissue expresses several melanogenesis-related genes. In the current study, we confirmed the expression of melanogenesis-related mRNAs and proteins in human adipose tissue using real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical staining. TYR mRNA signals were also detected by in situ hybridization in visceral adipocytes. The presence of melanin in human adipose tissue was revealed both by Fontana-Masson staining and by permanganate degradation of melanin coupled with liquid chromatography/ultraviolet/mass spectrometry determination of the pyrrole-2,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (PTCA) derivative of melanin. We also compared melanogenic activities in adipose tissues and in other human tissues using the L-[U-(14)C] tyrosine assay. A marked heterogeneity in the melanogenic activities of individual adipose tissue extracts was noted. We hypothesize that the ectopic synthesis of melanin in obese adipose may serve as a compensatory mechanism that uses its anti-inflammatory and its oxidative damage-absorbing properties. In conclusion, our study demonstrates for the first time that the melanin biosynthesis pathway is functional in adipose tissue.

  3. POST STERILISATION ECTOPIC PREGNANCY IN A TERTIARY CARE CENTRE IN NORTH KERALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusumam Vilangot Nhalil

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND To study the proportion of ectopic pregnancies with a history of female sterilisation and to assess the risk factors associated with post sterilisation ectopic pregnancy. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. Cases of ectopic pregnancy that were admitted in Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Kozhikode, from February 2014 to July 2015 are included in the study. Details of patient were collected and they were examined in person. Investigations were recorded and clinical findings were noted. Later outcome of cases was also recorded. Data from the study was coded and entered in MS Excel and analysed with SPSS software. RESULTS There were 372 cases of ectopic pregnancies, of which 51 had history of female sterilisation. Ectopic tubal pregnancies after tubal sterilisation accounted for 13.7% of all the ectopic pregnancies in this study. 45% cases occurred in patients less than 30 years. More than 75% cases of ectopic pregnancy in the study presented at less than 7 weeks. Abdominal pain was the main symptom with which they presented. Out of the 51 cases, more than 80% patients had undergone sterilisation by modified Pomeroy’s technique while 17.6% cases had undergone laparoscopic sterilisation. 98% of the patients had their sterilisation done before 30 years of age. 64.7% cases had undergone sterilisation from a secondary care centre while 35.5% had it from a tertiary care centre. In the present study, more than half of the cases presented (as ectopic pregnancy within 5 years after sterilisation. 15% cases had history of pelvic inflammatory disease. Bilateral near total salpingectomy was done in all cases. CONCLUSION In the present study, it is observed that ectopic pregnancies following female sterilisation are not rare. It constituted 13.7% cases of ectopic pregnancies. There may be a delay in diagnosis as there is a history of sterilisation. Absence of amenorrhoea does not rule out ectopic. Most of

  4. Risk of Ectopic Pregnancy in Women With Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Silva, Punyanganie S; Hansen, Helene H; Wehberg, Sonja

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Few data are available on adverse events of pregnancy in women with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), such as ectopic pregnancy. We assessed the risk of an ectopic pregnancy in pregnancies of women in Denmark with IBD compared with those without IBD over a 22-year period. We...... also examined the disease-specific risks of ectopic pregnancies in pregnancies of women with ulcerative colitis (UC) or Crohn's disease (CD) who underwent IBD-related surgical procedures. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of all women of child-bearing age (ages, 15-50 y) registered...

  5. Ectopic ureter associated with uterine didelphys and obstructed hemivagina: preoperative diagnosis by MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhen J.; Daldrup-Link, Heike; Coakley, Fergus V.; Yeh, Benjamin M. [University of California, San Francisco (United States). Department of Radiology

    2010-03-15

    Uterine didelphys with obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal anomalies is a rare congenital malformation of the female urogenital tract. While the urinary anomalies almost always involve renal agenesis, we report a rare case of a 17-year-old girl with the malformation associated with ectopic ureteral insertion into the obstructed hemivagina, which was diagnosed preoperatively by MR imaging. To the best of our knowledge, preoperative MR imaging diagnosis of the ectopic ureter associated with this syndrome has not been previously reported. Accurate preoperative diagnosis of ectopic ureteral insertion associated with this syndrome is important for surgical planning. (orig.)

  6. Fibroadenoma in an ectopic vulvar breast gland: a common neoplasm in an uncommon site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayadi-Kaddour, A; Khadhar, A; Mlika, M; Braham, E; Ismail, O; Zegal, D; El Mezni, F

    2014-03-01

    Ectopic breast tissue is defined as glands located outside of the breast. It can be found anywhere along the milk line extending from the axilla to the groin, and can occur in the vulva. Ectopic breast tissue should be excised because it may develop benign or malignant pathologic processes. Less than 40 cases of fibroadenoma in the vulva have been reported in the literature. We report a case of a 37-year-old woman presenting a solitary vulvar mass. The mass was excised completely, and histology demonstrated an ectopic breast fibroadenoma. This is one of the few reports on the benign pathologies of vulvar mammary glands.

  7. Ectopic intestinal glands after segmental small bowel irradiation in the cat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, C.A.; Eriksson, B.; Johnsson, L.

    1983-01-01

    Following segmental irradiation of the small bowel, 5 of 64 cats demonstrated ectopic intestinal glands in the submucosal tissue. In addition, one of these 5 cats had foci of abnormal glands in the muscularis mucosae. In 2 of the 5 animals, cellular polymorphism, nucleolar irregularity and loss of cellular polarity were present in irradiation-induced ectopic intestinal glands. The review of the literature indicates that intestinal irradiation may induce intestinal adenocarcinomas with metastatic growth. The possibility that ectopic intestinal glands are precancerous lesions in the irradiated cat is discussed. (Auth.)

  8. Ectopic ureter associated with uterine didelphys and obstructed hemivagina: preoperative diagnosis by MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhen J.; Daldrup-Link, Heike; Coakley, Fergus V.; Yeh, Benjamin M.

    2010-01-01

    Uterine didelphys with obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal anomalies is a rare congenital malformation of the female urogenital tract. While the urinary anomalies almost always involve renal agenesis, we report a rare case of a 17-year-old girl with the malformation associated with ectopic ureteral insertion into the obstructed hemivagina, which was diagnosed preoperatively by MR imaging. To the best of our knowledge, preoperative MR imaging diagnosis of the ectopic ureter associated with this syndrome has not been previously reported. Accurate preoperative diagnosis of ectopic ureteral insertion associated with this syndrome is important for surgical planning. (orig.)

  9. Point-of-care Ultrasound for the Diagnosis of Ectopic Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Farhat

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 31-year-old female presented to the Emergency Department by ambulance with severe abdominal pain and presyncope. On exam, the patient was hypotensive with suprapubic tenderness. Though the patient denied being pregnant, her labs showed a beta human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG of 38,000 mIU/ml. A bedside transabdominal pelvic ultrasound revealed an ectopic pregnancy and the patient was taken to the operating room for an emergent right salpingectomy. Significant findings: The transabdominal pelvic ultrasound shows an empty uterus (annotated with free fluid and a right sided extrauterine gestational sac representing an ectopic pregnancy (red arrow. Discussion: Ectopic pregnancy is the leading cause of mortality in the first trimester of pregnancy making prompt diagnosis critical.1 Risk factors including history of previous ectopic pregnancy,2 pelvic inflammatory disease,2 increased age,3 and smoking4 can raise suspicion of an ectopic pregnancy. However, the absence of risk factors does not exclude ectopic pregnancy from the differential. Any sexually active female with abdominal pain following a period of amenorrhea should be suspected of an ectopic until proven otherwise. One third of all pregnant women experience abdominal pain and/or vaginal bleeding and 9% of women with an ectopic are asymptomatic. Thus, history alone is insufficient to make the diagnosis.5 In early pregnancy, ectopic pregnancies share the same symptoms as normal pregnancies, including a missed menstrual period, fatigue, and nausea. The first classical signs of an ectopic pregnancy are vaginal bleeding, dizziness, and lower abdominal and/or pelvic pain usually 6 to 8 weeks after a missed menstrual period.5 A meta-analysis of studies on pelvic ultrasonography demonstrated a sensitivity of 99.3% and a negative predictive value of 99.6% for diagnosing ectopic pregnancy and therefore should be utilized as a first-line diagnostic tool for emergency

  10. Case Report of Ectopic Liver on Gallbladder Serosa with a Brief Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnu R. Mani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This case describes an intraoperative incidental finding and surgical removal of ectopic liver tissue attached to the gallbladder during a standard laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis. These anomalies are rare, with interesting associations and possible clinically relevant complications. The details of the case, along with a brief literature review of embryology, common ectopic sites, and associations/complications, are presented in this paper. Since laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a very common procedure, it is important to increase vigilance of ectopic liver tissues during surgeries to minimize complications and provide optimal management.

  11. An activated form of UFO alters leaf development and produces ectopic floral and inflorescence meristems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Risseeuw

    Full Text Available Plants are unique in their ability to continuously produce new meristems and organ primordia. In Arabidopsis, the transcription factor LEAFY (LFY functions as a master regulator of a gene network that is important for floral meristem and organ specification. UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO is a co-activator of LEAFY and is required for proper activation of APETALA3 in the floral meristem during the specification of stamens and petals. The ufo mutants display defects in other parts of the flower and the inflorescence, suggestive of additional roles. Here we show that the normal determinacy of the developing Arabidopsis leaves is affected by the expression of a gain-of-function UFO fusion protein with the VP16 transcriptional activator domain. In these lines, the rosette and cauline leaf primordia exhibit reiterated serration, and upon flowering produce ectopic meristems that develop into flowers, bract leaves and inflorescences. These striking phenotypes reveal that developing leaves maintain the competency to initiate flower and inflorescence programs. Furthermore, the gain-of-function phenotypes are dependent on LFY and the SEPALLATA (SEP MADS-box transcription factors, indicative of their functional interactions with UFO. The findings of this study also suggest that UFO promotes the establishment of the lateral meristems and primordia in the peripheral zone of the apical and floral meristems by enhancing the activity of LFY. These novel phenotypes along with the mutant phenotypes of UFO orthologs in other plant species suggest a broader function for UFO in plants.

  12. An activated form of UFO alters leaf development and produces ectopic floral and inflorescence meristems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risseeuw, Eddy; Venglat, Prakash; Xiang, Daoquan; Komendant, Kristina; Daskalchuk, Tim; Babic, Vivijan; Crosby, William; Datla, Raju

    2013-01-01

    Plants are unique in their ability to continuously produce new meristems and organ primordia. In Arabidopsis, the transcription factor LEAFY (LFY) functions as a master regulator of a gene network that is important for floral meristem and organ specification. UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) is a co-activator of LEAFY and is required for proper activation of APETALA3 in the floral meristem during the specification of stamens and petals. The ufo mutants display defects in other parts of the flower and the inflorescence, suggestive of additional roles. Here we show that the normal determinacy of the developing Arabidopsis leaves is affected by the expression of a gain-of-function UFO fusion protein with the VP16 transcriptional activator domain. In these lines, the rosette and cauline leaf primordia exhibit reiterated serration, and upon flowering produce ectopic meristems that develop into flowers, bract leaves and inflorescences. These striking phenotypes reveal that developing leaves maintain the competency to initiate flower and inflorescence programs. Furthermore, the gain-of-function phenotypes are dependent on LFY and the SEPALLATA (SEP) MADS-box transcription factors, indicative of their functional interactions with UFO. The findings of this study also suggest that UFO promotes the establishment of the lateral meristems and primordia in the peripheral zone of the apical and floral meristems by enhancing the activity of LFY. These novel phenotypes along with the mutant phenotypes of UFO orthologs in other plant species suggest a broader function for UFO in plants.

  13. National clinical guidelines for management of the palatally ectopic maxillary canine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, J; Burden, D; McSherry, P; Morris, D; Allen, M

    2012-08-01

    This review summarises updated clinical guidelines produced by the Clinical Standards Committee of the Faculty of Dental Surgery, Royal College of Surgeons of England (FDSRCS). This guideline on the management of the palatally ectopic maxillary canine illustrates the information contained in the recently updated online version. The timely recognition of ectopic canines is important for the overall management of the dentition. This review illustrates five management strategies for ectopic permanent canines: interceptive treatment by extraction of the deciduous canine, surgical exposure and orthodontic alignment, surgical removal of the palatally ectopic permanent canine, auto-transplantation and no active treatment/leave and observe. The current available evidence for each of these management options has been evaluated and awarded a grade used by the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network.

  14. B lymphocyte autoimmunity in rheumatoid synovitis is independent of ectopic lymphoid neogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cantaert, Tineke; Kolln, Johanna; Timmer, Trieneke; van der Pouw Kraan, Tineke C.; Vandooren, Bernard; Thurlings, Rogier M.; Cañete, Juan D.; Catrina, Anca I.; Out, Theo; Verweij, Cor L.; Zhang, Yiping; Tak, Paul P.; Baeten, Dominique

    2008-01-01

    B lymphocyte autoimmunity plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. The local production of autoantibodies and the presence of ectopic lymphoid neogenesis in the rheumatoid synovium suggest that these dedicated microenvironments resembling canonical lymphoid follicles may

  15. Ectopic Intrathoracic Hepatic Tissue and Accessory Lung Lobe Aplasia in a Dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lande, Rachel; Dvorak, Laura; Gardiner, David W; Bahr, Anne

    2015-01-01

    A 6 yr old male Yorkshire terrier was presented for an ~6 yr history of progressive cough and dyspnea. Thoracic radiographs revealed a 6 cm diameter mass within the right caudal thorax. Thoracic ultrasound identified an intrathoracic mass ultrasonographically consistent with liver tissue and a chronic diaphragmatic hernia was suspected. Exploratory laparotomy was performed, but no evidence of a diaphragmatic hernia was identified. Thoracic exploration identified abnormal lung parenchyma. The accessory lung lobe was removed using a stapling devise near its base. The consolidated mass had the gross appearance of liver and was histologically identified as ectopic hepatic tissue. Ectopic hepatic tissue, unlike ectopic splenic and pancreatic tissue, is rare and generally has a subdiaphragmatic distribution. This solitary case report demonstrates that ectopic intrathoracic hepatic tissue should be considered a differential diagnosis for a caudal mediastinal mass.

  16. Gastric Metastasis of Ectopic Breast Cancer Mimicking Axillary Metastasis of Primary Gastric Cancer

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    Selami Ilgaz Kayılıoğlu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic breast tissue has the ability to undergo all the pathological changes of the normal breast, including breast cancer. Gastrointestinal metastasis of breast cancer is rarely observed and it is very difficult to differentiate gastric metastases from primary gastric cancer. We present a case of 52-year-old female, who suffered from abdominal pain. Physical examination showed a palpable mass in the left anterior axilla and computerized tomography revealed gastric wall thickening with linitis plastica. When gastroscopic biopsy showed no signs of malignancy, excisional biopsy was performed in the left axilla. Histological examination revealed invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast, consistent with ectopic breast cancer. Further gastroscopic submucosal biopsies and immunohistochemical studies revealed gastric metastases of invasive lobular carcinoma. Axillary ectopic breast tissue carcinomas can mimic axillary lymphadenopathies. Additionally, gastric metastasis of breast cancer is an uncommon but possible condition. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of ectopic breast cancer with gastric metastasis.

  17. incidence of ectopic pregnancy in calabar, nigeria: two halves of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Reports of a rising incidence of ectopic pregnancy (EP) in the country and beyond prompted ... O. Udofia, Dept. of Psychiatry, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria .... on reproductive performance among EP patients.

  18. Laparoscopic assisted percutaneous nephrolithotomy in chronic kidney disease patients with ectopic pelvic kidney

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    Sujata K Patwardhan

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Although laparoscopic assisted PCNL is an option in the management of patients with stone disease in ectopic pelvic kidney, prolonged time for healing of tract may increase postoperative morbidity in these patients with impaired renal function.

  19. Mechanisms underlying ectopic persistent tooth-pulp pain following pulpal inflammation.

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    Shingo Matsuura

    Full Text Available In order to clarify the peripheral mechanisms of ectopic persistent pain in a tooth pulp following pulpal inflammation of an adjacent tooth, masseter muscle activity, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (pERK and TRPV1 immunohistochemistries and satellite cell activation using glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP immunohistochemistry in the trigeminal ganglion (TG were studied in the rats with molar tooth-pulp inflammation. And, Fluorogold (FG and DiI were also used in a neuronal tracing study to analyze if some TG neurons innervate more than one tooth pulp. Complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA or saline was applied into the upper first molar tooth pulp (M1 in pentobarbital-anesthetized rats, and capsaicin was applied into the upper second molar tooth pulp (M2 on day 3 after the CFA or saline application. Mean EMG activity elicited in the masseter muscle by capsaicin application to M2 was significantly larger in M1 CFA-applied rats compared with M1 vehicle-applied rats. The mean number of pERK-immunoreactive (IR TG cells was significantly larger in M1 CFA-applied rats compared with M1 vehicle-applied rats. Application of the satellite cell inhibitor fluorocitrate (FC into TG caused a significant depression of capsaicin-induced masseter muscle activity and a significant reduction of satellite cell activation. The number of TRPV1-IR TG cells innervating M2 was significantly larger in M1 CFA-applied rats compared with M1 vehicle-applied rats, and that was decreased following FC injection into TG. Furthermore, 6% of TG neurons innervating M1 and/or M2 innervated both M1 and M2. These findings suggest that satellite cell activation following tooth pulp inflammation and innervation of multiple tooth pulps by single TG neurons may be involved in the enhancement of the activity of TG neurons innervating adjacent non-inflamed teeth that also show enhancement of TRPV1 expression in TG neurons, resulting in the ectopic persistent tooth

  20. Fermentation performance optimization in an ectopic fermentation system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaotong; Geng, Bing; Zhu, Changxiong; Li, Hongna; He, Buwei; Guo, Hui

    2018-07-01

    Ectopic fermentation systems (EFSs) were developed for wastewater treatment. Previous studies have investigated the ability of thermophilic bacteria to improve fermentation performance in EFS. Continuing this research, we evaluated EFS performance using principle component analysis and investigated the addition of different proportions of cow dung. Viable bacteria communities were clustered and identified using BOX-AIR-based repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR and 16S rDNA analysis. The results revealed optimal conditions for the padding were maize straw inoculated with thermophilic bacteria. Adding 20% cow dung yielded the best pH values (6.94-8.56), higher temperatures, increased wastewater absorption, improved litter quality, and greater microbial quantities. The viable bacteria groups were enriched by the addition of thermophilic consortium, and exogenous strains G21, G14, G4-1, and CR-15 were detected in fermentation process. The proportion of Bacillus species in treatment groups reached 70.37% after fermentation, demonstrating that thermophilic bacteria, especially Bacillus, have an important role in EFS, supporting previous predictions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Ectopic Opening of the Common Bile Duct into the Duodenal Bulb: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Seong Su; Park, Soo Youn [Catholic University St. Vincent' s Hospital, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-15

    An ectopic opening of the common bile duct into the duodenal bulb is a very rare congenital malformation of the bile duct, which may cause a recurrent duodenal ulcer or biliary diseases including choledocholithiasis or cholangitis. ERCP plays major role in the diagnosis of this biliary malformation. We report a case of an ectopic opening of the common bile duct into the duodenal bulb, which was detected on the upper gastrointestinal series.

  2. Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome presenting as hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis and hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor C Abdulla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH syndrome is an uncommon cause of hypercortisolism, which should be considered in patients with hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis and hypertension in the context of lung neoplasm. We report a 60-year-old male patient with severe hypertension, metabolic alkalosis, and hypokalemia as the initial manifestations of an ACTH-secreting small cell lung carcinoma. Ectopic Cushing's syndrome should always be ruled out in patients with severe hypertension and hypokalemia.

  3. Vitamin K supplementation increases vitamin K tissue levels but fails to counteract ectopic calcification in a mouse model for pseudoxanthoma elasticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgels, Theo G M F; Waarsing, Jan H; Herfs, Marjolein; Versteeg, Daniëlle; Schoensiegel, Frank; Sato, Toshiro; Schlingemann, Reinier O; Ivandic, Boris; Vermeer, Cees; Schurgers, Leon J; Bergen, Arthur A B

    2011-11-01

    Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is an autosomal recessive disorder in which calcification of connective tissue leads to pathology in skin, eye and blood vessels. PXE is caused by mutations in ABCC6. High expression of this transporter in the basolateral hepatocyte membrane suggests that it secretes an as-yet elusive factor into the circulation which prevents ectopic calcification. Utilizing our Abcc6 (-/-) mouse model for PXE, we tested the hypothesis that this factor is vitamin K (precursor) (Borst et al. 2008, Cell Cycle). For 3 months, Abcc6 (-/-) and wild-type mice were put on diets containing either the minimum dose of vitamin K required for normal blood coagulation or a dose that was 100 times higher. Vitamin K was supplied as menaquinone-7 (MK-7). Ectopic calcification was monitored in vivo by monthly micro-CT scans of the snout, as the PXE mouse model develops a characteristic connective tissue mineralization at the base of the whiskers. In addition, calcification of kidney arteries was measured by histology. Results show that supplemental MK-7 had no effect on ectopic calcification in Abcc6 ( -/- ) mice. MK-7 supplementation increased vitamin K levels (in skin, heart and brain) in wild-type and in Abcc6 (-/-) mice. Vitamin K tissue levels did not depend on Abcc6 genotype. In conclusion, dietary MK-7 supplementation increased vitamin K tissue levels in the PXE mouse model but failed to counteract ectopic calcification. Hence, we obtained no support for the hypothesis that Abcc6 transports vitamin K and that PXE can be cured by increasing tissue levels of vitamin K.

  4. Ectopic Liver Tissue Formation in Rats with Induced Liver Fibrosis

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    Bauyrzhan Umbayev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The possible alternative approach to whole-organ transplantation is a cell-based therapy, which can also be used as a "bridge" to liver transplantation.  However, morphological and functional changes in the liver of patients suffering from chronic liver fibrosis and cirrhosis restrict the effectiveness of direct cell transplantation. Therefore, extra hepatic sites for cell transplantation, including the spleen, pancreas, peritoneal cavity, and subrenal capsule, could be a useful therapeutic approach for compensation of liver functions. However, a method of transplantation of hepatocytes into ectopic sites is needed to improve hepatocyte engraftment. Previously published data has demonstrated that mouse lymph nodes can support the engraftment and proliferation of hepatocytes as ES and rescue Fah mice from lethal liver failure. Thus, the aim of the study was to evaluate the engraftment of i.p. injected allogeneic hepatocytes into extra hepatic sites in albino rats with chemically induced liver fibrosis (LF. Materials and methods: Albino rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: (1 intact group (n = 18; (2 rats with induced LF (n = 18; (3 rats with induced LF and transplanted with hepatocytes (n = 18; (4 as a control, rats were treated with cyclosporine A only (n = 18. In order to prevent an immune response, groups 2 and 3 were subjected to immunosuppression by cyclosporine A (25 mg/kg per day. LF was induced using N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA, i.p., 10 mg/kg, three times a week for 4 weeks and confirmed by histological analysis of the liver samples. Hepatocytes transplantation (HT was performed two days after NDMA exposure cessation by i.p. injection of 5×106 freshly isolated allogeneic hepatocytes. Liver function was assessed by quantifying blood biochemical parameters (ALT, AST, GGT, total protein, bilirubin, and albumin at 1 week, 1 month, and 2 months after hepatocytes transplantation (HT. To confirm a hepatocytes

  5. Genome-wide DNA methylation profiling in cultured eutopic and ectopic endometrial stromal cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiaki Yamagata

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterize the genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of isolated endometrial stromal cells obtained from eutopic endometria with (euESCa and without endometriosis (euESCb and ovarian endometrial cysts (choESC. Three samples were analyzed in each group. The infinium methylation array identified more hypermethylated and hypomethylated CpGs in choESC than in euESCa, and only a few genes were methylated differently in euESCa and euESCb. A functional analysis revealed that signal transduction, developmental processes, immunity, etc. were different in choESC and euESCa. A clustering analysis and a principal component analysis performed based on the methylation levels segregated choESC from euESC, while euESCa and euESCb were identical. A transcriptome analysis was then conducted and the results were compared with those of the DNA methylation analysis. Interestingly, the hierarchical clustering and principal component analyses showed that choESC were segregated from euESCa and euESCb in the DNA methylation analysis, while no segregation was recognized in the transcriptome analysis. The mRNA expression levels of the epigenetic modification enzymes, including DNA methyltransferases, obtained from the specimens were not significantly different between the groups. Some of the differentially methylated and/or expressed genes (NR5A1, STAR, STRA6 and HSD17B2, which are related with steroidogenesis, were validated by independent methods in a larger number of samples. Our findings indicate that different DNA methylation profiles exist in ectopic ESC, highlighting the benefits of genome wide DNA methylation analyses over transcriptome analyses in clarifying the development and characterization of endometriosis.

  6. Ectopic origin of bronchial arteries: assessment with multidetector helical CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, Ieneke J.C.; Remy-Jardin, Martine; Menchini, Laura; Teisseire, Antoine; Khalil, Chadi; Remy, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine non-invasively the frequency of ectopic bronchial arteries (BA) (i.e., bronchial arteries originating at a level of the descending aorta other than T5-T6 or from any aortic collateral vessel) on multidetector-row CT angiograms (CTA) obtained in patients with hemoptysis. Over a 5-year period (2000-2005), 251 consecutive patients with hemoptysis underwent multidetector-row CT angiography of the thorax. From this population, 37 patients were excluded because of a suboptimal CTA examination (n = 19), the presence of extensive mediastinal disease (n = 15) or severe chest deformation (n = 3) precluding any precise analysis of the bronchial arteries at CTA. Our final study group included 214 patients who underwent a thin-collimated CT angiogram (contrast agent: 300 to 350 mg/ml) on a 4- (n = 56), 16- (n = 119) and 64- (n = 39) detector-row scanner. The site of origin and distribution of bronchial arteries were analyzed on transverse CT scans, maximum intensity projections and volume-rendered images. The site of the ostium of a bronchial artery was coded as orthotopic when the artery originated from the descending aorta between the levels of the fifth and sixth thoracic vertebrae; all other bronchial arteries were considered ectopic. From the studied population, 137 (64%) patients had only orthotopic bronchial arteries, whereas 77 patients (36%) had at least one bronchial artery of ectopic origin. A total of 147 ectopic arteries were depicted, originating as common bronchial trunks (n = 23; 19%) or isolated right or left bronchial arteries (n = 101; 81%). The most frequent sites of origin of the 124 ostiums were the concavity of the aortic arch (92/124; 74%), the subclavian artery (13/124; 10.5%) and the descending aorta (10/124; 8.5%). The isolated ectopic bronchial arteries supplied the ipsilateral lung in all but three cases. Bronchial artery embolization was indicated in 26 patients. On the basis of CTA information, (1

  7. Clinical course of ectopic pregnancy: A single-center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aqueela Ayaz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective was to highlight the frequency, clinical profile, and predisposing factors of ectopic pregnancy (EP in a general hospital. Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was conducted at the Obstetrics and Gynaecology department of Hera General hospital, Makkah, Saudi Arabia, from July 1, 2009 to December 29, 2010. Data were collected on chief medical complaints, sociodemographic characteristics, past obstetrics and gynecological history, management done, and outcome of management. Data were analyzed using Microsoft Office Excel (version 2007. Results: Out of total 7564 pregnancies, 44 (0.58% patients were diagnosed as EP. Out of 44, 22 (50% patients presented within 24 h of onset of symptoms. Mean age was 28 ± 7 years. Multigravida were predominant in 25 (57%, and 21 (48% had gestational age of 6-8 weeks at the time of presentation; the common presenting features were amenorrhea (41, 93.2%, abdominal pain (39, 88.6%, and tenderness (38, 86%. Previous pelvic surgery (13, 29.5%, infertility treatment (11, 25%, and pelvic inflammatory disease (10, 22.7% were the common predisposing factors. Twenty-five (57% presented with ruptured EP and were operated within 24 h, and the remaining were kept under observation till further diagnosis. After confirming the diagnosis, 12/19 underwent laparoscopy, whereas 7/19 received medical treatment. Surgery confirmed fallopian tube pregnancies in 35 (94.5%. No mortality was observed. Conclusion: Previous pelvic surgeries were the major etiological factor for EP. Other factors were infertility treatment and pelvic inflammatory disease. The most common site of EP was fallopian tubes.

  8. Morphometry of Hilar Ectopic Granule Cells in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Joseph P.; McCloskey, Daniel P.; Scharfman, Helen E.

    2014-01-01

    Granule cell (GC) neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) does not always proceed normally. After severe seizures (e.g., status epilepticus [SE]) and some other conditions, newborn GCs appear in the hilus. Hilar ectopic GCs (EGCs) can potentially provide insight into the effects of abnormal location and seizures on GC development. Additionally, hilar EGCs that develop after SE may contribute to epileptogenesis and cognitive impairments that follow SE. Thus, it is critical to understand how EGCs differ from normal GCs. Relatively little morphometric information is available on EGCs, especially those restricted to the hilus. This study quantitatively analyzed the structural morphology of hilar EGCs from adult male rats several months after pilocarpineinduced SE, when they are considered to have chronic epilepsy. Hilar EGCs were physiologically identified in slices, intracellularly labeled, processed for light microscopic reconstruction, and compared to GC layer GCs, from both the same post-SE tissue and the NeuroMorpho database (normal GCs). Consistently, hilar EGC and GC layer GCs had similar dendritic lengths and field sizes, and identifiable apical dendrites. However, hilar EGC dendrites were topologically more complex, with more branch points and tortuous dendritic paths. Three-dimensional analysis revealed that, remarkably, hilar EGC dendrites often extended along the longitudinal DG axis, suggesting increased capacity for septotemporal integration. Axonal reconstruction demonstrated that hilar EGCs contributed to mossy fiber sprouting. This combination of preserved and aberrant morphological features, potentially supporting convergent afferent input to EGCs and broad, divergent efferent output, could help explain why the hilar EGC population could impair DG function. PMID:21344409

  9. Accumulation of Kv7.2 channels in putative ectopic transduction zones of mice nerve-end neuromas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lopez-García Jose A

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Modulation of M-type currents has been proposed as a new strategy for the treatment of neuropathic pain due to their role in regulating neuronal excitability. Using electrophysiological techniques we showed previously that the opening of Kv7 channels with retigabine, blocked ectopic discharges from axotomized fibers but did not alter transduction at intact skin afferents. We hypothesized that after nerve damage, accumulation of Kv7 channels in afferent fibers may increase M-type currents which then acquired a more important role at regulating fiber excitability. Findings In this study, we used an immunohistochemical approach to examine patterns of expression of Kv7.2 channels in afferent fibers after axotomy and compared them to patterns of expression of voltage gated Na+ channels (Nav which are key electrogenic elements in peripheral axons known to accumulate in experimental and human neuromas. Axotomy induced an enlargement and narrowing of the nodes of Ranvier at the proximal end of the neuroma together with a dramatic demyelination and loss of structure at its distal end in which naked accumulations of Nav were present. In addition, axotomy also induced accumulations of Kv7.2 that co-localized with those of Nav channels. Conclusions Whilst Nav channels are mandatory for initiation of action potentials, (i.e. responsible for the generation/propagation of ectopic discharges an increased accumulation of Kv7.2 channels after axotomy may represent a homeostatic compensation to over excitability in axotomized fibers, opening a window for a peripheral action of M-current modulators under conditions of neuropathy.

  10. Ectopic pregnancy morbidity and mortality in low-income women, 2004-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stulberg, D B; Cain, L; Dahlquist, I H; Lauderdale, D S

    2016-03-01

    Does the risk of adverse outcomes at the time of ectopic pregnancy vary by race/ethnicity among women receiving Medicaid, the public health insurance program for low-income people in the USA? Among Medicaid beneficiaries with ectopic pregnancy, 11% experienced at least one complication, and women from all racial/ethnic minority groups were significantly more likely than whites to experience complications. In this population of Medicaid recipients, African American women are significantly more likely than whites to experience ectopic pregnancy, but the risk of adverse outcomes has not previously been assessed. We conducted a cross-sectional observational study of all women (n = 19 135 106) ages 15-44 enrolled in Medicaid for any amount of time during 2004-2008 who lived in one of the following 14 US states: Arizona; California; Colorado; Florida; Illinois; Indiana; Iowa; Louisiana; Massachusetts; Michigan; Minnesota; Mississippi; New York; and Texas. We analyzed Medicaid claims records for inpatient and outpatient encounters and identified ectopic pregnancies with a principal diagnosis code for ectopic pregnancy from 2004-2008. We calculated the ectopic pregnancy complication rate as the number of ectopic pregnancies with at least one complication (blood transfusion, hysterectomy, any sterilization, or length-of-stay (LOS) > 2 days) divided by the total number of ectopic pregnancies. We used Poisson regression to assess the risk of ectopic pregnancy complication by race/ethnicity. Secondary outcomes were each individual complication, and ectopic pregnancy-related death. We calculated the ectopic pregnancy mortality ratio as the number of deaths divided by live births. Ectopic pregnancy-associated complications occurred in 11% of cases. Controlling for age and state, the risk of any complication was significantly higher among women who were black (incidence risk ratio [IRR] 1.47, 95% CI 1.43-1.53, P American Indian/Alaskan Native (IRR 1.34 95% CI 1.16-1.55, P white

  11. Frequency of ectopic pregnancy in a medical centre, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, S.; Wafi, B.A.; Swadi, H.A.

    2011-01-01

    To asses the frequency of ectopic pregnancy and to evaluate the relevance of the risk factors in a Medical Center, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). This retrospective study was done in Royal Commission Medical Centre, Yanbu Industrial City, KSA over a period of four years, where the medical records of patients with the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy were reviewed. Data was collected on initial presentation, chief medical complaints, socio demographic characteristics, past obstetrics and gynaecological history, history of previous surgeries (tubal, ovarian and/or uterine), history of infertility and use of ovulation induction and history of contraception was obtained. A total of 66 cases were included in the study. Results: The frequency of ectopic pregnancy was 0.58% .Mean age was 30 +- 4 years. Multiparous women were found to be more prone to ectopic pregnancy (64%).Most frequent gestational age was 6-8 weeks. Majority (37.8%) of the patients had previous medical induced or spontaneous abortion. 18% had previous pelvic surgery, 15% used different treatments for infertility including ovulation induction, Intrauterine Insemination (IUI), and In vitro Fertilization (IVF) and 9% of patients had history of ectopic pregnancy, 4.5% of patients had Intrautrine Contraceptive Device (IUCD) in situ. 3% of patients had uterine fibroids. Conclusion: Study has found that previous abortions are major etiological factor for ectopic pregnancy. Further more the other factors were IUCD use, previous pelvic surgeries, infertility, previous ectopic and induced conception cycles which may be the result of a previous pelvic infection that may cause tubal sequelae. (author)

  12. Long-term effectiveness of surgical treatment of ectopic atrial tachycardia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prager, N A; Cox, J L; Lindsay, B D; Ferguson, T B; Osborn, J L; Cain, M E

    1993-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the long-term clinical outcome of patients with ectopic atrial tachycardias treated surgically. Ectopic atrial tachycardia is an uncommon arrhythmia that can be symptomatic and is associated with the development of a cardiomyopathy. Management strategies are not well defined because of the paucity of data on the long-term effectiveness of pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic therapies. The long-term clinical impact of medical and surgical therapy was determined in 15 consecutive patients with ectopic atrial tachycardia. All 15 patients were initially treated with antiarrhythmic drugs (mean 5.7 +/- 2.2 drugs/patient). An effective drug regimen was identified in only 5 (33%) of the 15 patients; the remaining 10 patients were treated surgically. In each, individualized surgical procedures were guided by computer-assisted intraoperative mapping, with atrial plaques comprising up to 156 electrodes. Focal ablation was performed in four patients and atrial isolation procedures in six. The 10 patients treated surgically were followed up a mean of 4 +/- 3.2 years. Ectopic atrial tachycardia recurred in one patient. A permanent pacemaker was implanted in two patients, one of whom also required reoperation for constrictive pericarditis. There were no operative deaths. Ectopic atrial tachycardia recurred in three (60%) of the five patients discharged on antiarrhythmic drug therapy during a mean follow-up interval of 6.4 +/- 4.3 years. There was one nonarrhythmic death. Map-guided surgery demonstrated long-term efficacy in abolishing symptoms in 9 of the 10 patients with ectopic atrial tachycardia. Results demonstrate that surgery is effective for patients with ectopic atrial tachycardias who are not easily treated with antiarrhythmic drugs.

  13. Localization of endocardial ectopic activity by means of noninvasive endocardial surface current density reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai Dakun; Liu Chenguang; Eggen, Michael D; He Bin [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Minnesota, MN (United States); Iaizzo, Paul A, E-mail: binhe@umn.edu [Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota, MN (United States)

    2011-07-07

    Localization of the source of cardiac ectopic activity has direct clinical benefits for determining the location of the corresponding ectopic focus. In this study, a recently developed current-density (CD)-based localization approach was experimentally evaluated in noninvasively localizing the origin of the cardiac ectopic activity from body-surface potential maps (BSPMs) in a well-controlled experimental setting. The cardiac ectopic activities were induced in four well-controlled intact pigs by single-site pacing at various sites within the left ventricle (LV). In each pacing study, the origin of the induced ectopic activity was localized by reconstructing the CD distribution on the endocardial surface of the LV from the measured BSPMs and compared with the estimated single moving dipole (SMD) solution and precise pacing site (PS). Over the 60 analyzed beats corresponding to ten pacing sites (six for each), the mean and standard deviation of the distance between the locations of maximum CD value and the corresponding PSs were 16.9 mm and 4.6 mm, respectively. In comparison, the averaged distance between the SMD locations and the corresponding PSs was slightly larger (18.4 {+-} 3.4 mm). The obtained CD distribution of activated sources extending from the stimulus site also showed high consistency with the endocardial potential maps estimated by a minimally invasive endocardial mapping system. The present experimental results suggest that the CD method is able to locate the approximate site of the origin of a cardiac ectopic activity, and that the distribution of the CD can portray the propagation of early activation of an ectopic beat.

  14. Endoscopic Urinary Diversion As Initial Management of Symptomatic Obstructive Ectopic Ureter in Infants

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    Ruben Ortiz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available AimDefinitive surgery of ectopic ureter in infants is challenging. We propose an endoscopic urinary diversion (EUD as a novel surgical technique in the initial management of symptomatic obstructive ectopic ureter.Patients and methodsSixteen obstructive ectopic ureters (14 patients were initially treated by EUD between 2006 and 2015. All patients had urinary tract dilatation worsening at preoperative US scans and at least two febrile urinary tract infection (UTI or urinary sepsis despite antibiotic prophylaxis. Ectopic ureter was confirmed by cystoscopy. When ectopic meatus was not found, EUD consisted in the creation of a transurethral neo-orifice (TUNO performed by needle puncturing of the ureterovesical wall, under fluoroscopic and ultrasound control. If ectopic meatus was identified in the posterior urethra, “intravesicalization procedure” was done opening the urethral–ureteral wall to create a new ureteral outlet into the bladder.ResultsEUD was done at a median age of 3.5 months (0.5–7 with median follow-up of 48 months (24–136. TUNO was performed in six patients and “intravesicalization” in eight patients. Significant differences were observed in ureteral diameter and anteroposterior pelvis diameter before and after endoscopic treatment (p < 0.005. Initial renal function was preserved in all cases. Postoperative complications were UTI in four patients and TUNO stenosis in one patient, treated by endoscopic balloon dilation. Definitive treatment was further individualized in each patient after 1 year of life.ConclusionEUD is a feasible and safe less-invasive technique in the initial management of symptomatic obstructive ectopic ureter. It allows an adequate ureteral drainage preserving renal function until definitive repair if necessary and does not invalidate other surgical options in case of failure or future definitive treatments.

  15. Ectopic posterior pituitary high signal in preoperative and postoperative macroadenomas: dynamic MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Takahiro; Miki, Yukio; Takahashi, Jun A.; Kanagaki, Mitsunori; Yamamoto, Akira; Fushimi, Yasutaka; Okada, Tsutomu; Haque, Tabassum Laz; Hashimoto, Nobuo; Konishi, Junji; Togashi, Kaori

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: In patients with macroadenoma, posterior pituitary high signal (PPHS) on T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is sometimes observed in an ectopic location. The present study compared incidences of ectopic PPHS before and after macroadenoma surgery using MR imaging, including dynamic MR imaging to ascertain whether this ectopic change is irreversible. Materials and methods: MR imaging was performed preoperatively in 111 cases of macroadenoma, and then repeated more than 1-year postoperatively in 47 patients. Enhancement of PPHS was assessed using dynamic MR imaging. Areas of enhanced hyperintensity were considered true PPHS, and the relationship between presence and location of true PPHS and adenoma volume was analyzed. Moreover, changes in the presence and location of true PPHS were ascertained among the patients who underwent postoperative follow-up MR imaging. Results: Preoperatively, PPHS was seen only in the normal location in 29 patients (Group A: 26.1%). High signal was detected only in an ectopic location in 58 patients, and early enhancement of this ectopic high signal was confirmed by dynamic MR imaging in 56 patients (Group B: 50.5%). No PPHS was observed in 24 patients (Group C: 21.6%). Adenoma volume was significantly greater for Group B than for Group A (p < 0.001). Among the Group B patients who underwent MR imaging postoperatively (n = 31), the location of PPHS was not changed, except for two patients in whom PPHS was absent. Postoperatively, PPHS was not observed in the normal location in any patient in the Group B. Conclusions: Greater volume of adenoma is associated with a higher incidence of ectopic PPHS, and the ectopic change is irreversible

  16. Simultaneous occurrence of Graves’ disease in eutopic and ectopic thyroid tissues: A case report and review of literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Shoukat H; Rather, Tanveer A; Syed, Tajamul

    2012-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid tissue an uncommon condition results from abnormal migration of the primitive thyroid bud. This may be the only functional thyroid. Ectopic thyroid tissue may sometimes coexist with the eutopic thyroid gland. Hyperthyroidism in association with ectopic thyroid tissue is very uncommon. We report a rare case of simultaneous involvement of ectopic and eutopic thyroid tissue in a married women of 35 years who was referred to our department for a technetium 99m thyroid scan. Coexisting ectopic and eutopic thyroid tissue due to identical histology may have similar response to various stimulatory and inhibitory factors like hormones and immunoglobulin's. Iodine-131 is an easy to administer and effective treatment for patients with simultaneous Graves’ disease in the ectopic and eutopic thyroid tissues

  17. Ectopic lymphoid tissues support local immunoglobulin production in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jia; Wang, Hai; Zhang, Ya-Na; Cao, Ping-Ping; Liao, Bo; Wang, Zhe-Zheng; Shi, Li-Li; Yao, Yin; Zhai, Guan-Ting; Wang, Zhi-Chao; Liu, Li-Meng; Zeng, Ming; Lu, Xiang; Wang, Heng; Yang, Xiang-Ping; Yu, Di; Bachert, Claus; Liu, Zheng

    2018-03-01

    The contribution of ectopic lymphoid tissues (eLTs) to local immunoglobulin hyperproduction in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is unclear. We sought to explore the cellular basis, formation mechanisms, and function of eLTs in patients with CRSwNP. We graded lymphoid aggregations in sinonasal mucosa and histologically studied their structures. The expression of lymphorganogenic factors and molecules required for immunoglobulin production was measured by using real-time PCR, and their localization was analyzed by means of immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. The phenotype of follicular helper T cells was analyzed by performing flow cytometry. Immunoglobulin levels were quantified by using the Bio-Plex assay or ImmunoCAP system. Nasal tissue explants were challenged ex vivo with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus group 1 (Der p 1), and the expression of Iε-Cμ and Iε-Cγ circle transcripts was detected by using seminested PCR. Increased formation of eLTs with germinal center-like structures was discovered in patients with eosinophilic (20.69%) and noneosinophilic (17.31%) CRSwNP compared with that in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (5.66%) and control subjects (3.70%). The presence of eLTs was associated with increased expression of lymphorganogenic and inflammatory chemokines and cytokines, as well as their receptors. The expression of molecules required for immunoglobulin production, generation of follicular helper T cells, and production of IgE in eosinophilic polyps and IgG and IgA in both eosinophilic and noneosinophilic polyps were predominantly upregulated in patients with eLTs. After Der p 1 challenge ex vivo, Iε-Cμ transcript was detected only in eosinophilic polyps with eLTs but not in polyps without eLTs and noneosinophilic polyps. eLTs might support local immunoglobulin production and therefore significantly contribute to the development of CRSwNP. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of

  18. Ectopic cystoperitoneal shunt demonstrated by valvulography. A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jofre, M J; Sierralta, M P [Military Hospital Nuclear Medicine Department, Santiago (Chile)

    2002-09-01

    and the cough disappeared. Valvulography is a simple easily interpreted technique for the investigation of shunt complications, because of non-specific symptoms and signs that are not always recognized. It is important to consider the migration of the distal catheter resulting in ectopic localizations.

  19. Ectopic cystoperitoneal shunt demonstrated by valvulography. A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jofre, M.J.; Sierralta, M.P.

    2002-01-01

    and the cough disappeared. Valvulography is a simple easily interpreted technique for the investigation of shunt complications, because of non-specific symptoms and signs that are not always recognized. It is important to consider the migration of the distal catheter resulting in ectopic localizations

  20. Interventional radiology and endovascular surgery in the treatment of ectopic pregnancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornazari, Vinicius Adami Vayego; Szejnfeld, Denis; Elito, Julio Júnior; Goldman, Suzan Menasce [Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    The advent of interventional radiology enabled remarkable advances in diagnosis and treatment of several situations in obstetrics and gynecology. In the field of obstetrics, these advances include temporary occlusion of the iliac arteries to the management of placenta accreta and/or prior, arteriovenous fistulas after embolization of uterine curettage and management of ectopic uterine and extra-uterine pregnancies. The non-tubal ectopic pregnancy, either cervical, abdominal, ovarian or in a cesarean scar, often represents major therapeutic challenge, especially when exists a desire to maintain fertility. Despite the systemic methotrexate therapy and surgical resection of the ectopic gestational sac be the most used therapeutic options, the interventionist approach of non-tubal ectopic pregnancies, direct injection of methotrexate in the gestational sac and intra-arterial chemoembolization of uterine arteries constitute in the currently literature viable, safe, effective modalities with low morbidity, shorter hospital stay, and rapid clinical recovery. Because of little variety of materials used, and the increase in training of specialists in the area, the radiological intervention as a treatment option in ectopic pregnancies is financially viable and present considerable accessibility in the world and at most of Brazilian medical centers.

  1. Morphological, diagnostic and surgical features of ectopic thyroid gland: a review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Germano; Cinelli, Mariapia; Mesolella, Massimo; Tafuri, Domenico; Rocca, Aldo; Amato, Bruno; Rengo, Sandro; Testa, Domenico

    2014-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid tissue remains a rare developmental abnormality involving defective or aberrant embryogenesis of the thyroid gland during its passage from the floor of the primitive foregut to its usual final position in pre-tracheal region of the neck. Its specific prevalence accounts about 1 case per 100.000-300.000 persons and one in 4.000-8.000 patients with thyroid disease show this condition. The cause of this defect is not fully known. Despite genetic factors have been associated with thyroid gland morphogenesis and differentiation, just recently some mutation has been associated with human thyroid ectopy. Lingual region in the most common site of thyroid ectopy but ectopic thyroid tissue were found in other head and neck locations. Nevertheless, aberrant ectopic thyroid tissue has been found in other places distant from the neck region. Ectopic tissue is affected by different pathological changes that occur in the normal eutopic thyroid. Patients may present insidiously or as an emergency. Diagnostic management of thyroid ectopy is performed by radionuclide thyroid imaging, ultrasonography, CT scan, MRI, biopsy and thyroid function tests. Asymptomatic euthyroid patients with ectopic thyroid do not usually require therapy but are kept under observation. For those with symptoms, treatment depends on size of the gland, nature of symptoms, thyroid function status and histological findings. Surgical excision is often required as treatment for this condition. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Failure Rate of Single Dose Methotrexate in Managment of Ectopic Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feras Sendy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. One of the treatment modalities for ectopic pregnancy is methotrexate. The purpose of this study is to identify the failure rate of methotrexate in treating patients with ectopic pregnancy as well as the risk factors leading to treatment failure. Methods. A retrospective chart review of 225 patients who received methotrexate as a primary management option for ectopic pregnancy. Failure of single dose of methotrexate was defined as drop of BHCG level less than or equal to 14% in the seventh day after administration of methotrexate. Results. 225 patients had methotrexate. Most of the patients (151 (67% received methotrexate based on the following formula: f 50 mg X body surface area. Single dose of methotrexate was successful in 72% (162/225 of the patients. 28% (63/225 were labeled as failure of single dose of methotrexate because of suboptimal drop in BhCG. 63% (40/63 of failure received a second dose of methotrexate, and 37% (23/63 underwent surgical treatment. Among patient who received initial dose of methotrexate, 71% had moderate or severe pain, and 58% had ectopic mass size of more than 4 cm on ultrasound. Conclusion. Liberal use of medical treatment of ectopic pregnancy results in 71% success rate.

  3. Failure rate of single dose methotrexate in managment of ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendy, Feras; AlShehri, Eman; AlAjmi, Amani; Bamanie, Elham; Appani, Surekha; Shams, Taghreed

    2015-01-01

    Background. One of the treatment modalities for ectopic pregnancy is methotrexate. The purpose of this study is to identify the failure rate of methotrexate in treating patients with ectopic pregnancy as well as the risk factors leading to treatment failure. Methods. A retrospective chart review of 225 patients who received methotrexate as a primary management option for ectopic pregnancy. Failure of single dose of methotrexate was defined as drop of BHCG level less than or equal to 14% in the seventh day after administration of methotrexate. Results. 225 patients had methotrexate. Most of the patients (151 (67%)) received methotrexate based on the following formula: f 50 mg X body surface area. Single dose of methotrexate was successful in 72% (162/225) of the patients. 28% (63/225) were labeled as failure of single dose of methotrexate because of suboptimal drop in BhCG. 63% (40/63) of failure received a second dose of methotrexate, and 37% (23/63) underwent surgical treatment. Among patient who received initial dose of methotrexate, 71% had moderate or severe pain, and 58% had ectopic mass size of more than 4 cm on ultrasound. Conclusion. Liberal use of medical treatment of ectopic pregnancy results in 71% success rate.

  4. Ectopic Molar Pregnancy: Diagnostic Efficacy of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yasushi; Ohira, Satoshi; Yamazaki, Teruyuki; Shiozawa, Tanri

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic molar pregnancy is extremely rare, and preoperative diagnosis is difficult. Our literature search found only one report of molar pregnancy diagnosed preoperatively. Moreover, there is no English literature depicting magnetic resonance image (MRI) findings of ectopic molar pregnancy. We report a case of ectopic molar pregnancy preoperatively diagnosed using MRI. A literature review of 31 cases of ectopic molar pregnancy demonstrated that lesions have been found in the fallopian tube (19 cases, 61%), ovary (5 cases, 16%), cornu (3 cases, 10%), peritoneum (2 cases, 6%), uterine cervix (1 case, 3%), and cesarean scar (1 case, 3%). Abdominal pain and abnormal vaginal bleeding were reported in 70% and 61% of the patients, respectively. Twenty-one cases (67%) presented with rupture and hemoperitoneum. All patients underwent surgical resection or dilatation and curettage. Methotrexate therapy was performed in one case because residual trophoblastic tissue was suspected. A second operation was performed in one case of ovarian molar pregnancy because serum hCG levels increased again after primary focal ovarian resection. No patients developed metastatic disease or relapsed. These findings suggest the prognosis of ectopic molar pregnancy to be favorable.

  5. Ectopic Molar Pregnancy: Diagnostic Efficacy of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Yamada

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic molar pregnancy is extremely rare, and preoperative diagnosis is difficult. Our literature search found only one report of molar pregnancy diagnosed preoperatively. Moreover, there is no English literature depicting magnetic resonance image (MRI findings of ectopic molar pregnancy. We report a case of ectopic molar pregnancy preoperatively diagnosed using MRI. A literature review of 31 cases of ectopic molar pregnancy demonstrated that lesions have been found in the fallopian tube (19 cases, 61%, ovary (5 cases, 16%, cornu (3 cases, 10%, peritoneum (2 cases, 6%, uterine cervix (1 case, 3%, and cesarean scar (1 case, 3%. Abdominal pain and abnormal vaginal bleeding were reported in 70% and 61% of the patients, respectively. Twenty-one cases (67% presented with rupture and hemoperitoneum. All patients underwent surgical resection or dilatation and curettage. Methotrexate therapy was performed in one case because residual trophoblastic tissue was suspected. A second operation was performed in one case of ovarian molar pregnancy because serum hCG levels increased again after primary focal ovarian resection. No patients developed metastatic disease or relapsed. These findings suggest the prognosis of ectopic molar pregnancy to be favorable.

  6. Upper gastrointestinal ectopic variceal bleeding treated with various endoscopic modalities: Case reports and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Woo; Cho, Eunae; Jun, Chung Hwan; Choi, Sung Kyu; Kim, Hyun Soo; Park, Chang Hwan; Rew, Jong Sun; Cho, Sung Bum; Kim, Hee Joon; Han, Mingui; Cho, Kyu Man

    2017-01-01

    Ectopic variceal bleeding is a rare (2-5%) but fatal gastrointestinal bleed in patients with portal hypertension. Patients with ectopic variceal bleeding manifest melena, hematochezia, or hematemesis, which require urgent managements. Definitive therapeutic modalities of ectopic varices are not yet standardized because of low incidence. Various therapeutic modalities have been applied on the basis of the experiences of experts or availability of facilities, with varying results. We have encountered eight cases of gastrointestinal ectopic variceal bleeding in five patients in the last five years. All patients were diagnosed with liver cirrhosis presenting melena or hematemesis. All patients were treated with various endoscopic modalities (endoscopic variceal obturation [EVO] with cyanoacrylate in five cases, endoscopic variceal band ligation (EVL) in two cases, hemoclipping in one case). Satisfactory hemostasis was achieved without radiologic interventions in all cases. EVO and EVL each caused one case of portal biliopathy, and EVL induced ulcer bleeding in one case. EVO generally accomplished better results of variceal obturations than EVL or hemoclipping, without serious adverse events. EVO may be an effective modality for control of ectopic variceal bleeding without radiologic intervention or surgery.

  7. Ectopic Fgf signaling induces the intercalary response in developing chicken limb buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makanae, Aki; Satoh, Akira

    2018-01-01

    Intercalary pattern formation is an important regulatory step in amphibian limb regeneration. Amphibian limb regeneration is composed of multiple steps, including wounding, blastema formation, and intercalary pattern formation. Attempts have been made to transfer insights from regeneration-competent animals to regeneration-incompetent animalsat each step in the regeneration process. In the present study, we focused on the intercalary mechanism in chick limb buds. In amphibian limb regeneration, a proximodistal axis is organized as soon as a regenerating blastema is induced. Intermediate structures are subsequently induced (intercalated) between the established proximal and distal identities. Intercalary tissues are derived from proximal tissues. Fgf signaling mediates the intercalary response in amphibian limb regeneration. We attempted to transfer insights into intercalary regeneration from amphibian models to the chick limb bud. The zeugopodial part was dissected out, and the distal and proximal parts were conjunct at st. 24. Delivering ectopic Fgf2 + Fgf8 between the distal and proximal parts resulted in induction of zeugopodial elements. Examination of HoxA11 expression, apoptosis, and cell proliferation provides insights to compare with those in the intercalary mechanism of amphibian limb regeneration. Furthermore, the cellular contribution was investigated in both the chicken intercalary response and that of axolotl limb regeneration. We developed new insights into cellular contribution in amphibian intercalary regeneration, and found consistency between axolotl and chicken intercalary responses. Our findings demonstrate that the same principal of limb regeneration functions between regeneration-competent and -incompetent animals. In this context, we propose the feasibility of the induction of the regeneration response in amniotes.

  8. Mislocalization of the Drosophila centromere-specific histone CIDpromotes formation of functional ectopic kinetochores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heun, Patrick; Erhardt, Sylvia; Blower, Michael D.; Weiss,Samara; Skora, Andrew D.; Karpen, Gary H.

    2006-01-30

    The centromere-specific histone variant CENP-A (CID in Drosophila) is a structural and functional foundation for kinetochore formation and chromosome segregation. Here, we show that overexpressed CID is mislocalized into normally non-centromeric regions in Drosophila tissue culture cells and animals. Analysis of mitoses in living and fixed cells reveals that mitotic delays, anaphase bridges, chromosome fragmentation, and cell and organismal lethality are all direct consequences of CID mislocalization. In addition, proteins that are normally restricted to endogenous kinetochores assemble at a subset of ectopic CID incorporation regions. The presence of microtubule motors and binding proteins, spindle attachments, and aberrant chromosome morphologies demonstrate that these ectopic kinetochores are functional. We conclude that CID mislocalization promotes formation of ectopic centromeres and multicentric chromosomes, which causes chromosome missegregation, aneuploidy, and growth defects. Thus, CENP-A mislocalization is one possible mechanism for genome instability during cancer progression, as well as centromere plasticity during evolution.

  9. Ectopic pregnancy: pictorial essay focusing on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Febronio, Eduardo Miguel; Rosas, George de Queiroz; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe [Escola Paulista de Medicina - Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM-Unifesp), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. of Imaging Diagnosis; Cardia, Patricia Prando, E-mail: giuseppe_dr@uol.com.br [Centro Radiologico Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    The objective of the present study is to describe key computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients with acute abdominal pain caused by ectopic pregnancy. For this purpose, two radiologists consensually selected and analyzed computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies performed in female patients with acute abdominal pain caused by proven ectopic pregnancy in the period between January 2010 and December 2011. The imaging diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy is usually obtained by ultrasonography, however, with the increasing use of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the assessment of patients with acute abdomen of gynecological origin it is necessary that the radiologist becomes familiar with the main findings observed at these diagnostic methods. (author)

  10. Ectopic pregnancy: pictorial essay focusing on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Febronio, Eduardo Miguel; Rosas, George de Queiroz; D'Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to describe key computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients with acute abdominal pain caused by ectopic pregnancy. For this purpose, two radiologists consensually selected and analyzed computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies performed in female patients with acute abdominal pain caused by proven ectopic pregnancy in the period between January 2010 and December 2011. The imaging diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy is usually obtained by ultrasonography, however, with the increasing use of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the assessment of patients with acute abdomen of gynecological origin it is necessary that the radiologist becomes familiar with the main findings observed at these diagnostic methods. (author)

  11. High Titers of Chlamydia trachomatis Antibodies in Brazilian Women with Tubal Occlusion or Previous Ectopic Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. S. Machado

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate serum chlamydia antibody titers (CATs in tubal occlusion or previous ectopic pregnancy and the associated risk factors. Methods. The study population consisted of 55 women wih tubal damage and 55 parous women. CAT was measured using the whole-cell inclusion immunofluorescence test and cervical chlamydial DNA detected by PCR. Odds ratios were calculated to assess variables associated with C. trachomatis infection. Results. The prevalence of chlamydial antibodies and antibody titers in women with tubal occlusion or previous ectopic pregnancy was significantly higher (P<.01 than in parous women. Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that chlamydia IgG antibodies were associated with tubal damage and with a larger number of lifetime sexual partners. Conclusions. Chlamydia antibody titers were associated with tubal occlusion, prior ectopic pregnancy, and with sexual behavior, suggesting that a chlamydia infection was the major contributor to the tubal damage in these women.

  12. Neuroendocrine carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater causing ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone-dependent Cushing's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Akihisa; Hayashi, Kazuki; Naitoh, Itaru; Seno, Kyoji; Okada, Yukiko; Ban, Tesshin; Kondo, Hiromu; Nishi, Yuji; Umemura, Shuichiro; Hori, Yasuki; Natsume, Makoto; Joh, Takashi

    2016-07-01

    Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is rarely secreted by neuroendocrine tumors. Although neuroendocrine tumors may occur at any site in the gastrointestinal system, they very rarely occur in the ampulla of Vater and have a poor prognosis. The present study described the first Cushing's syndrome as a result of ectopic ACTH arising from the ampulla of Vater neuroendocrine carcinoma. A 69-year-old female was admitted with clinical features of Cushing's syndrome, confirmed biochemically by hypokalemia, and elevated levels of ACTH and cortisol. In further investigations, a tumor of the ampulla of Vater and liver metastases were detected. Pathological analysis of the biopsy confirmed a neuroendocrine carcinoma, which was immunohistochemically positive for chromogranin A, synaptophysin, cluster of differentiation 56 and ACTH. Therefore, the present study diagnosed a functional and metastatic neuroendocrine carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater with ectopic ACTH production causing Cushing's syndrome. The patient succumbed to mortality 4 months later, despite administration of combined chemotherapy with irinotecan and cisplatin.

  13. A Case of Hemorrhagic Necrosis of Ectopic Liver Tissue within the Gallbladder Wall.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nagar, Sapna

    2012-02-01

    Ectopic liver tissue is a rare clinical entity that is mostly asymptomatic and found incidentally. In certain situations, however, patients may present with symptoms of abdominal pain secondary to torsion, compression, obstruction of adjacent organs, or rupture secondary to malignant transformation. Herein, we report a case of a 25-year-old female that presented with acute onset of epigastric pain found to have ectopic liver tissue near the gallbladder complicated by acute hemorrhage necessitating operative intervention in the way of laparoscopic excision and cholecystectomy. The patient\\'s postoperative course was uneventful. Gross pathology demonstrated a 1.2 x 2.8 x 4.5 cm firm purple ovoid structure that histologically revealed extensive hemorrhagic necrosis of benign ectopic liver tissue.

  14. Radiographic assessment of dental anomalies in patients with ectopic maxillary canines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Helle Budtz; Artmann, Lone; Larsen, Helle Juul

    2008-01-01

    dental deviations in cases with either palatal or labial ectopic canines. Design. Panoramic and intra-oral radiographs from 50 patients with palatally located (38 females and 12 males) and 19 patients with labially located ectopic canines (11 females and 8 males), aged 10 years, 2 months-18 years, 1...... month, were analysed. Dental deviations registered were crown and root malformations, agenesis, and eruption deviations. Registrations were performed in the maxillary incisor field and in the dentition in general. Results. The study documented that palatally as well as labially located ectopic canines...... can occur in dentitions without other dental deviations. Dental deviations occurred in approximately two-thirds of all cases, more often in females and in cases with palatally located canines. More than half of the females with palatally located canines had deviations in the maxillary incisors...

  15. Value of intramuscular methotrexate and bilateral uterine artery embolization for treating cervical ectopic pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Feng; Xiong Bin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the clinical value of bilateral uterine artery chemotherapy embolization (UACE) for cervical ectopic pregnancy analyzed. Methods: Clinical records of 40 patients with cervical ectopic pregnancy treated using UACE were retrospectively analyzed. Results: 8 patients with severe active vaginal bleeding after curettage were treated urgently with UACE. The remaining 32 patients were treated with UACE combined with sequential ultrasound-guided curettage. Active vaginal bleeding was stopped after UACE. There was no recurrent hemorrhage with the sequential ultrasound-guided curettage procedure. The β-HCG levels of all patients were normalized after 1 month. Conclusion: Bilateral uterine artery chemotherapy embolization is valuable as emergency treatment for patients with severe vaginal bleeding from cervical ectopic pregnancy. UACE combined with sequential ultrasound-guided curettage may be more effective. (authors)

  16. Acromegaly with no pituitary adenoma and no evidence of ectopic source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Khandelwal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 99% of patients with acromegaly harbor a growth hormone (GH secreting pituitary adenoma. As the time from onset of signs/symptoms to diagnosis of acromegaly is long (symptom onset to diagnosis is often 4-10 years, pituitary adenomas that cause GH excess are often large and are nearly always visible on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. However, in rare circumstances, acromegalic patients without an ectopic source will not have imaging evidence of a pituitary adenoma. Management of these patients poses special challenge, and once ectopic source of GH/growth-hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH is ruled out, an exploration of pituitary might be useful. We herein report a case of acromegaly with imaging evidence of sellar floor osteoma, but no pituitary adenoma, and negative work up for an ectopic source of GH/GHRH tumor, and on surgical exploration pituitary adenoma could be identified and removed and confirmed on histopathologic examination.

  17. Ectopic Varices in the Gastrointestinal Tract: Short- and Long-Term Outcomes of Percutaneous Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macedo, Thanila A.; Andrews, James C.; Kamath, Patrick S.

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the results of percutaneous management of ectopic varices, a retrospective review was carried out of 14 patients (9 men, 5 women; mean age 58 years) who between 1992 and 2001 underwent interventional radiological techniques for management of bleeding ectopic varices. A history of prior abdominal surgery was present in 12 of 14 patients. The interval between the surgery and percutaneous intervention ranged from 2 to 38 years. Transhepatic portal venography confirmed ectopic varices to be the source of portal hypertension-related gastrointestinal bleeding. Embolization of the ectopic varices was performed by a transhepatic approach with coil embolization of the veins draining into the ectopic varices. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) was performed in the standard fashion. Eighteen procedures (12 primary coil embolizations, 1 primary TIPS, 2 re-embolizations, 3 secondary TIPS) were performed in 13 patients. One patient was not a candidate for percutaneous treatment. All interventions but one (re-embolization) were technically successful. In 2 of 18 interventions, re-bleeding occurred within 72 hr (both embolization patients). Recurrent bleeding (23 days to 27 months after initial intervention) was identified in 9 procedures (8 coil embolizations, 1 TIPS due to biliary fistula). One patient had TIPS revision because of ultrasound surveillance findings. New encephalopathy developed in 2 of 4 TIPS patients. Percutaneous coil embolization is a simple and safe treatment for bleeding ectopic varices; however, recurrent bleeding is frequent and reintervention often required. TIPS can offer good control of bleeding at the expense of a more complex procedure and associated risk of encephalopathy

  18. Ectopic Cushing' syndrome caused by a neuroendocrine carcinoma of the mesentery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petersenn Stephan

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ACTH overproduction within the pituitary gland or ectopically leads to hypercortisolism. Here, we report the first case of Cushing' syndrome caused by an ectopic ACTH-secreting neuroendocrine carcinoma of the mesentery. Moreover, diagnostic procedures and pitfalls associated with ectopic ACTH-secreting tumors are demonstrated and discussed. Case presentation A 41 year-old man presented with clinical features and biochemical tests suggestive of ectopic Cushing's syndrome. First, subtotal thyroidectomy was performed without remission of hypercortisolism, because an octreotide scan showed increased activity in the left thyroid gland and an ultrasound revealed nodules in both thyroid lobes one of which was autonomous. In addition, the patient had a 3 mm hypoenhancing lesion of the neurohypophysis and a 1 cm large adrenal tumor. Surgical removal of the pituitary lesion within the posterior lobe did not improve hypercortisolism and we continued to treat the patient with metyrapone to block cortisol production. At 18-months follow-up from initial presentation, we detected an ACTH-producing neuroendocrine carcinoma of the mesentery by using a combination of octreotide scan, computed tomography scan, and positron emission tomography. Intraoperatively, use of a gamma probe after administration of radiolabeled 111In-pentetreotide helped identify the mesenteric neuroendocrine tumor. After removal of this carcinoma, the patient improved clinically. Laboratory testing confirmed remission of hypercortisolism. An octreotide scan 7 months after surgery showed normal results. Conclusion This case underscores the diagnostic challenge in identifying an ectopic ACTH-producing tumor and the pluripotency of cells, in this case of mesenteric cells that can start producing and secreting ACTH. It thereby helps elucidate the pathogenesis of neuroendocrine tumors. This case also suggests that patients with ectopic Cushing's syndrome and an octreotide

  19. Efficacy of dexmedetomidine for the control of junctional ectopic tachycardia after repair of tetralogy of Fallot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randhir S Rajput

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Junctional ectopic tachycardia occurs frequently after congenital cardiac surgery and can be a cause of increased morbidity and mortality. Dexmedetomidine (DEX is an a2 adrenoreceptor agonist, has properties of controlling tachyarrhythmia by regulating the sympatho-adrenal system. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of DEX for control of junctional ectopic tachycardia after repair of Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and twenty pediatric cardiac patients with TOFs were enrolled in a prospective randomized control study. Patients underwent correction surgery. They were divided into two groups, i.e., Group 1 (DEX and Group 2 (control. Heart rate, rhythm, mean arterial pressure (MAP were recorded after the anesthetic induction (T1, after termination of bypass (T2, after 04 hours (T3, and 08 hours after transferring the patient to intensive care unit (ICU; T4. Results: Heart rate was comparable between two groups before starting the drug but statistically significant after bypass until 08 hours after transferring the patient to ICU. Junctional ectopic tachycardia occurred more in Group-2 (20% as compared to Group-1 (9.09%; P = 0.022. Junctional ectopic tachycardia occurs early in Group-2 (0.14 ± 0.527 hours as compared to Group 1 (0.31 ± 1.29 hours; P = 0.042. The duration of junctional ectopic tachycardia was more prolonged in Group-2 (1.63 ± 3.64 hours as compared to Group-1 (0.382 ± 1.60 hours; P = 0.012. The time to withdraw from mechanical ventilation and ICU stay of Group 1 patient was less than of Group 2 patients (P = <0.001. Conclusion: DEX had a therapeutic role in the prevention of junctional ectopic tachycardia in patients undergoing repair for TOF.

  20. Ectopic Cushing' syndrome caused by a neuroendocrine carcinoma of the mesentery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fasshauer, Mathias; Paschke, Ralf; Koch, Christian A; Lincke, Thomas; Witzigmann, Helmut; Kluge, Regine; Tannapfel, Andrea; Moche, Michael; Buchfelder, Michael; Petersenn, Stephan; Kratzsch, Juergen

    2006-01-01

    ACTH overproduction within the pituitary gland or ectopically leads to hypercortisolism. Here, we report the first case of Cushing' syndrome caused by an ectopic ACTH-secreting neuroendocrine carcinoma of the mesentery. Moreover, diagnostic procedures and pitfalls associated with ectopic ACTH-secreting tumors are demonstrated and discussed. A 41 year-old man presented with clinical features and biochemical tests suggestive of ectopic Cushing's syndrome. First, subtotal thyroidectomy was performed without remission of hypercortisolism, because an octreotide scan showed increased activity in the left thyroid gland and an ultrasound revealed nodules in both thyroid lobes one of which was autonomous. In addition, the patient had a 3 mm hypoenhancing lesion of the neurohypophysis and a 1 cm large adrenal tumor. Surgical removal of the pituitary lesion within the posterior lobe did not improve hypercortisolism and we continued to treat the patient with metyrapone to block cortisol production. At 18-months follow-up from initial presentation, we detected an ACTH-producing neuroendocrine carcinoma of the mesentery by using a combination of octreotide scan, computed tomography scan, and positron emission tomography. Intraoperatively, use of a gamma probe after administration of radiolabeled 111 In-pentetreotide helped identify the mesenteric neuroendocrine tumor. After removal of this carcinoma, the patient improved clinically. Laboratory testing confirmed remission of hypercortisolism. An octreotide scan 7 months after surgery showed normal results. This case underscores the diagnostic challenge in identifying an ectopic ACTH-producing tumor and the pluripotency of cells, in this case of mesenteric cells that can start producing and secreting ACTH. It thereby helps elucidate the pathogenesis of neuroendocrine tumors. This case also suggests that patients with ectopic Cushing's syndrome and an octreotide scan positive in atypical locations may benefit from

  1. An appraisal of the management of ectopic pregnancy in a nigerian tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igwegbe, Ao; Eleje, Gu; Okpala, Bc

    2013-04-01

    Ectopic pregnancy has remained a significant cause of maternal morbidity and mortality especially in the sub Saharan Africa. A periodic appraisal of its management is paramount. To determine the incidence and associated risk factors, for ectopic pregnancy, review available treatment modalities and suggest interventions to reduce its prevalence, morbidity and mortality. A cross sectional study with retrolective data collection of all cases of ectopic pregnancy managed in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital, Nnewi, south-east Nigeria between 1(st) January, 2002 and 31(st) December, 2011 was undertaken. Analysis was carried out using Epi-info 2008 version 3.5.1. During the study period, there were a total 98 cases of ectopic pregnancies out of 8,811 deliveries and 1884 gynecological admissions, giving an incidence of 0.9% of all attendants or 1 in 90 deliveries and 5.2% of all gynecological admissions. Only 94.9% (93/98) case files were retrieved and were used in the final analysis. The mean age of the patients was 30.1 (0.7) years while the mean gestational age at presentations was 7.4 weeks. Previous induced abortion, 37.5% (36/93) was the commonest associated risk factor, followed by pelvic infections, 35.5% (33/93). The recurrence rate was 6.5% (6/93). Majority, 80.6% (75/93) presented with abdominal pain and 35.8% (33/93) presented with vaginal bleeding. Up to 88.2% (82/93) had salpingectomy while only 2.5% (2/93) were successfully managed medically with methotrexate therapy following diagnosis with transvaginal ultrasound Missed diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy occurred in 16.1% (15/93). There was no maternal death. Ectopic pregnancy has remained an important gynecological condition in our center. The common identifiable risk factors were induced abortion and pelvic infection. Early first trimester transvaginal ultrasound should be offered to all women for early diagnosis.

  2. [Successive ectopic pregnancies associated with tubal shistosomiasis in a French traveler].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroche, Justine; Mottet, Nicolas; Malincenco, Marianna; Gay, Catherine; Royer, Pierre Yves; Riethmuller, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is the second endemic parasitic disease in the world and is a common cause of urogenital infections. Ectopic pregnancies due to tubal obstruction by schistosoma's eggs are usually reported in Africa. Schistosomiasis also affects travelers but infection of the female genital tract is less frequently described. We report an unusual clinical case of two successive ectopic pregnancies with tubal schistosomiasis in a French woman, seven years after a travel to Mali. The first event was discovered after histologic examination of salpingectomy and the second event required a controlateral salpingotomy with an injection of methotrexate, two months later.

  3. The radiation like preventive methods of the ectopic development after hip surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menendez Garcia, J.C.; Delgado Macias, M.T.

    1995-01-01

    In view of the prevalence of ectopic bone development after hip surgery, a review has been done on the reports appearing in the literature dealing with the use of irradiation, at different doses and postoperative intervals, as a method to prevent this complication. The results demonstrate the efficacy of radiotherapy in preventing ectopic bone formation, the need to begin its application within the first four days of surgical treatment and the fact that satisfactory results can be obtained with relatively low and, thus, theoretically innocuous doses. 17 refs

  4. Ectopic ACTH syndrome complicated by multiple opportunistic infections treated with percutaneous ablation of the adrenal glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Chrystal; Roberts, James Mark

    2017-11-14

    Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-related Cushing's syndrome can lead to multiple complications including severe immunosuppression. If the ACTH-secreting tumour cannot be found, definitive treatment is surgical adrenalectomy, typically followed by glucocorticoid replacement. Here, we present a case of fulminant respiratory failure secondary to coinfection with Pneumocystis jirovecii and cytomegalovirus in a patient with ectopic ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome with occult primary. Due to significant deconditioning, she was unable to undergo definitive adrenalectomy and instead underwent percutaneous microwave ablation of the adrenal glands. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. [Multiple non-responding ESWL lithiasis in ectopic pelvic kidney: laparotomic surgical management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abed El Rahman, D; Zanetti, G; Cozzi, G; Cozzi, L A; Abed El Rahman, S; Maggioni, A; Rocco, F

    2010-01-01

    A 34 year-old male with multiple lithiasis of ectopic pelvic left kidney, which for 5 years had been causing pain in the left iliac region irradiating to ipsilateral inguinal region and testis. 4 ESWL treatments were unsuccessful. The diagnostic imaging (Angio-CT + Uro-CT) showed ectopic pelvic left kidney with abnormal vascularisation, characterised by multiple lithiasis extending in total area of 4x2 cm with shorter ureter. Right kidney was in normal position. A left pyelocalicolithotomy after DJ stent positioning was performed.

  6. Ectopic expression of a vesicle trafficking gene, OsRab7, from Oryza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-07-18

    Jul 18, 2011 ... OsRab7, from Oryza sativa, confers tolerance to several ... Key Laboratory of Molecular Biology and Gene Engineering, College of Life Science, Nanchang University, ... The reverse transcription was performed using MMLV.

  7. Paclitaxel-induced epithelial damage and ectopic MMP-13 expression promotes neurotoxicity in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisse, Thomas S; Middleton, Leah J; Pellegrini, Adriana D; Martin, Paige B; Spaulding, Emily L; Lopes, Olivia; Brochu, Elizabeth A; Carter, Erin V; Waldron, Ashley; Rieger, Sandra

    2016-04-12

    Paclitaxel is a microtubule-stabilizing chemotherapeutic agent that is widely used in cancer treatment and in a number of curative and palliative regimens. Despite its beneficial effects on cancer, paclitaxel also damages healthy tissues, most prominently the peripheral sensory nervous system. The mechanisms leading to paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy remain elusive, and therapies that prevent or alleviate this condition are not available. We established a zebrafish in vivo model to study the underlying mechanisms and to identify pharmacological agents that may be developed into therapeutics. Both adult and larval zebrafish displayed signs of paclitaxel neurotoxicity, including sensory axon degeneration and the loss of touch response in the distal caudal fin. Intriguingly, studies in zebrafish larvae showed that paclitaxel rapidly promotes epithelial damage and decreased mechanical stress resistance of the skin before induction of axon degeneration. Moreover, injured paclitaxel-treated zebrafish skin and scratch-wounded human keratinocytes (HEK001) display reduced healing capacity. Epithelial damage correlated with rapid accumulation of fluorescein-conjugated paclitaxel in epidermal basal keratinocytes, but not axons, and up-regulation of matrix-metalloproteinase 13 (MMP-13, collagenase 3) in the skin. Pharmacological inhibition of MMP-13, in contrast, largely rescued paclitaxel-induced epithelial damage and neurotoxicity, whereas MMP-13 overexpression in zebrafish embryos rendered the skin vulnerable to injury under mechanical stress conditions. Thus, our studies provide evidence that the epidermis plays a critical role in this condition, and we provide a previously unidentified candidate for therapeutic interventions.

  8. Approach and management of primary ectopic breast carcinoma in the axilla : Where are we? A comprehensive historical literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visconti, Giuseppe; Eltahir, Yassir; Van Ginkel, Robert J; Bart, Joost; Werker, Paul M N

    Primary ectopic breast carcinoma is a rare disease and, at present, no specific guidelines on its diagnosis and treatment are available. The purpose of this article is to review the world literature in English on primary ectopic breast carcinoma located in the armpit and to offer guidelines for

  9. Ectopic Oral Tonsillar Tissue: A Case Series with Bilateral and Solitary Presentations and a Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masashi Kimura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An ectopic tonsil is defined as tonsillar tissue that develops in areas outside of the four major tonsil groups: the palatine, lingual, pharyngeal, and tubal tonsils. The occurrence of tonsillar tissue in the oral cavity in ectopic locations, its prevalence, and its developmental mechanisms that belong to its formation remain unclear. In this report, we describe a rare case of bilateral symmetric ectopic oral tonsillar tissue located at the ventral surface of the tongue along with two solitary cases arising from the floor of the mouth. The role of immune system and its aberrant response leading to ectopic deposits desires further studies. As an ectopic tonsil may simulate a benign soft tissue tumor, this case series highlights the importance of this entity in our clinical differential diagnosis of oral soft tissue masses.

  10. Expression and clinical significance of MMP-2, MVD, MEK-2 in endometriosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the expression and clinical significance of MMP-2, MVD, MEK-2in the endometriosis. Methods: A total of 42 endometrial endometriosis patients with surgery were selected in our hospital obstetrics and gynecology from September 1, 2008 to December 18, 2014. Endometriosis were removed during surgery and served as ectopic group. A total of 42 examples of the above-described patients with endometriosis eutopic were taken out as the eutopic group. Another 34 patients with uterine fibroids were selected in our hospital obstetrics and gynecology during the same period. Normal endometrium were taken as the normal endometrium group. Clinical expression of MMP-2, MVD, MEK-2 of three groups were analyzed. Results: MVD in ectopic endometrium group were significantly higher than those in eutopic and normal endometrium (P<0.05. MEK-2 expression in normal endometrial tissue mainly was negative and weakly positive. The expression was positive in ectopic endometrium and eutopic. The expression of ectopic endometrium MEK-2and MMP-2 were the highest, followed by the reign of endometrium, and the expression of normal endometrium were the lowest. Conclusions: MMP-2, MVD, MEK-2 in ectopic endometrium show high expression, detection of MMP-2, MVD, MEK-2-clinical expression in endometriosis can help in pathogenesis, clinical diagnosis and treatment.

  11. Ectopic osteoid and bone formation by three calcium-phosphate ceramics in rats, rabbits and dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Wang

    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate ceramics with specific physicochemical properties have been shown to induce de novo bone formation upon ectopic implantation in a number of animal models. In this study we explored the influence of physicochemical properties as well as the animal species on material-induced ectopic bone formation. Three bioceramics were used for the study: phase-pure hydroxyapatite (HA sintered at 1200°C and two biphasic calcium phosphate (BCP ceramics, consisting of 60 wt.% HA and 40 wt.% TCP (β-Tricalcium phosphate, sintered at either 1100°C or 1200°C. 108 samples of each ceramic were intramuscularly implanted in dogs, rabbits, and rats for 6, 12, and 24 weeks respectively. Histological and histomorphometrical analyses illustrated that ectopic bone and/or osteoid tissue formation was most pronounced in BCP sintered at 1100°C and most limited in HA, independent of the animal model. Concerning the effect of animal species, ectopic bone formation reproducibly occurred in dogs, while in rabbits and rats, new tissue formation was mainly limited to osteoid. The results of this study confirmed that the incidence and the extent of material-induced bone formation are related to both the physicochemical properties of calcium phosphate ceramics and the animal model.

  12. Virilization caused by an ectopic adrenal tumor located behind the iliopsoas muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavroudis, Konstantinos; Aloumanis, Kyriakos; Papapetrou, Peter D; Voros, Dionisios; Spanos, Iraklis

    2007-06-01

    Virilization due to androgen-secreting neoplasms in women is a result of androgen overproduction from benign or malignant tumors that are found in the ovaries or rarely in the adrenal glands. Virilizing tumors that arise from ectopic adrenal tissue are extremely rare. We describe a very rare case of an ectopic androgen-producing adrenal tumor. Case report study. Endocrinology outpatient department of university-affiliated teaching hospital. A 45-year-old woman with symptoms of virilization of abrupt onset and rapid progression, with high serum androgen hormone levels and normal glucocorticoid secretion. Basal hormonal levels, stimulation and suppression tests, imaging techniques, and selective venous sampling. Localization and surgical removal of the source of androgen production. An ectopic mass was detected behind the left iliopsoas muscle. The patient was operated on and an oblong-shaped lesion, weighing 6 g, was removed. Histologically, the tissue was identified to be of adrenal origin. Postoperatively the androgen levels decreased to normal levels. This case illustrates difficulties in detecting and localizing the rare contingence of an ectopic adrenocortical androgen-secreting tumor.

  13. A case of right ectopic kidney associated with malrotation of left kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Kun

    1982-01-01

    The terms 'renal ectopia' describes kidneys which are congenitally located in abnormal anatomic positions. I have experienced a female patient with right ectopic kidney located in lower abdomen and pelvis associated with hydronephrosis and chronic pyelonephritis. Her left kidney showed malrotation. This case was reported with review of literatures

  14. A case of right ectopic kidney associated with malrotation of left kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Kun [Jeon Bug National University College of Medicine, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1982-06-15

    The terms 'renal ectopia' describes kidneys which are congenitally located in abnormal anatomic positions. I have experienced a female patient with right ectopic kidney located in lower abdomen and pelvis associated with hydronephrosis and chronic pyelonephritis. Her left kidney showed malrotation. This case was reported with review of literatures.

  15. Ectopic lobe of right lung with abscess formation in children: a visual diagnosis case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chyi-Sen; Wan, Kong-Sang

    2013-08-01

    We report a 9-year-old boy who had chest pain of 3 weeks' duration caused by ectopic lobe of the right lung with abscess formation. The diagnosis was supported by chest computed tomography and video-assisted thoracoscopy. The child responded well to the operation and fully recovered.

  16. A case of ectopic ureteral orifice with hypoplastic kidney diagnosed by enhanced computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, Mikio; Yoshimoto, Jun; Matsumura, Yosuke; Ohmori, Hiroyuki

    1983-01-01

    A case of ectopic ureteral orifice, 6 year old girl with urinary incontinece, is herein reported. Cystoscopy and excretory urogram showed absense of right half of trigone and non visualizing kidney. By enhanced computed tomography, right hypoplastic kidney was found and right nephrectomy was performed. We emphasize that enhanced computed tomography is very usefull for diagnosis of localization of hypoplastic kidney. (author)

  17. An Ectopic Thyroid Gland and Tissue in the Goat Pituitary Gland – A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Ectopic Thyroid Gland and Tissue in the Goat Pituitary Gland – A Short Communication. H B O'Hara, D Oduor-Okele, S Gombe. Abstract. No Abstract. Kenya Veterinarian Vol. 15 1991: pp. 45-46. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  18. Two cases of benign polyps of the posterior urethra (ectopic prostatic tissue)

    OpenAIRE

    多田, 晃司; 山羽, 正義; 田村, 公一; 藤広, 茂; 河田, 幸道

    1990-01-01

    We report two cases of benign polyps of the posterior urethra. Their first symptoms were gross hematuria and urinary frequency. Both specimens obtained by transurethral resection were histologically identified as prostatic tissue. Discussion on benign polyps of the posterior urethra as ectopic prostatic tissue was done with review of literature.

  19. Use of a radioreceptorassay of human chorionic gonadotropin for the diagnosis and management of ectopic pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saxena, B.B.; Landesman, R.

    1975-01-01

    The radioreceptorassay of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), with a sensitivity of 50 pg or 3 mIU/ml of plasma, has provided almost 100 percent reliability in detecting pregnancy after the first missed cycle. This test may be performed within 1 hour and is ideally suited to the clinical detection of ectopic pregnancy, especially in patients who require immediate surgical intervention. Thirteen patients with suspected ectopic pregnancy were evaluated by the radioreceptorassay, one of whom was followed with four separate determinations. The results of the assay were subsequently compared with those of hemagglutination pregnancy tests, clinical symptoms, and pathologic findings. All of the patients were diagnosed accurately by the radioreceptorassay, even when hemagglutination tests yielded a false indication of pregnancy. By this assay, the hCG levels during ectopic pregnancies are generally lower than those found during a normal intrauterine pregnancy; in addition, pregnancy may be detected much earlier (prior to the rupture) than is possible by hemagglutination tests. Furthermore, the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy may be excluded for patients admitted to the hospital with acute abdominal emergencies

  20. Retroperitoneal ectopic pregnancy: a case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Man; Cidan, Lamu; Zhang, Dan

    2017-10-16

    Retroperitoneal ectopic pregnancy (REP) is an extremely rare type of ectopic pregnancy, with a total of less than 20 cases reported in the English literature. However, failure to recognize REP may result in severe consequences. We report a case of 32-year-old woman with REP. She had amenorrhea, left lower abdominal pain, but no vaginal bleeding. Her urine human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) test was positive and blood HCG level was 1880 m-international units per milliliter (mIU/mL). Transvaginal ultrasound sonography showed a left adnexal mass. Laparoscopy found an enlarged uterus, normal right uterine tube and ovary, and normal left uterine tube. The left ovary was partly covered by a blood clot, but appeared normal after removing the clot. There was a 10-mm circular peritoneal defect located lateral to the left sacrocervical ligament, anterior to the left ovarian fossa, and next to the lower edge of the left broad ligament. The patient was diagnosed of having REP with the gestational tissues covered by the peritoneum. The REP was removed by laparoscopic surgery. Bleeding was stopped by bipolar coagulation and absorbable hemostatic cellulose. The patient recovered smoothly and was discharged on the next day after surgery. Her blood HCG returned to normal range 29 days after surgery. REP is very rare, but in any suspected case of ectopic pregnancy, caution must be paid to find signs of REP when the common sites of ectopic pregnancy do not have any positive findings.

  1. Ectopic spleen presenting with anemia and an abdominal mass in a dog

    OpenAIRE

    Prosser, Kirsten J.; Webb, Jinelle A.; Hanselman, Beth A.

    2013-01-01

    An 11.5-year-old, neutered male, golden retriever dog that had previously had a splenectomy for benign disease 2 years prior to presentation was diagnosed with anemia and a large abdominal mass. Necropsy and histopathology identified the abdominal mass as ectopic splenic tissue.

  2. Ectopic spleen presenting with anemia and an abdominal mass in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, Kirsten J; Webb, Jinelle A; Hanselman, Beth A

    2013-11-01

    An 11.5-year-old, neutered male, golden retriever dog that had previously had a splenectomy for benign disease 2 years prior to presentation was diagnosed with anemia and a large abdominal mass. Necropsy and histopathology identified the abdominal mass as ectopic splenic tissue.

  3. Prevalence of Ectopic Breast Tissue and Tumor: A 20-Year Single Center Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Famá, Fausto; Cicciú, Marco; Sindoni, Alessandro; Scarfó, Paola; Pollicino, Andrea; Giacobbe, Giuseppa; Buccheri, Giancarlo; Taranto, Filippo; Palella, Jessica; Gioffré-Florio, Maria

    2016-08-01

    Ectopic breast tissue, which includes both supernumerary breast and aberrant breast tissue, is the most common congenital breast abnormality. Ectopic breast cancers are rare neoplasms that occur in 0.3% to 0.6% of all cases of breast cancer. We retrospectively report, using a large series of breast abnormalities diagnosed and treated, our clinical experience on the management of the ectopic breast cancer. In 2 decades, we observed 327 (2.7%) patients with ectopic breast tissue out of a total of 12,177 subjects undergoing a breast visit for lesions. All patients were classified into 8 classes, according to the classification of Kajava, and assessed by a physician examination, ultrasounds, and, when appropriate, further studies with fine needle aspiration cytology and mammography. All specimens were submitted to the anatomo-pathologist. The most frequent benign histological diagnosis was fibrocystic disease. A rare granulosa cell tumor was also found in the right anterior thoracic wall of 1 patient. Four malignancies were also diagnosed in 4 women: an infiltrating lobular cancer in 1 patient with a lesion classified as class I, and an infiltrating apocrine carcinoma, an infiltrating ductal cancer, and an infiltrating ductal cancer with tubular pattern, occurring in 3 patients with lesions classified as class IV. Only 1 recurrence was observed. We recommend an earlier surgical approach for patients with lesions from class I to IV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Superselective uterine arterial infusion and embolization in the treatment of ectopic pregnancies of 56 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Chaolin; Li Changfu; Zhang Yanhua; Liu Feng; Guan Yafang; Liu Zhen; Wang Weibo; Niu Haijuan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To probe a simple, safe, and minimally invasive method to treat ectopic pregnancy with preservation of the organs. Methods: Superselective catheterization of uterine artery through cannulation of right femoral artery was achieved in 56 patients with ectopic pregnancy. Location of the lesions involved, feeding arteries, and active bleeding were observed on angiography. 150 mg of methylamine neopterin diluted in 100 ml of saline water was infused slowly into the target artery. Small gelatin spongy particles with size of 0.5 mm in diameter were used to embolize the uterine artery until its branches were totally obliterated. Follow-up was undertaken to observe the results of the treatment. Results: Superselective uterine arterial infusion and embolization were successfully performed in all 56 patients without any related complications. Active bleeding in the peritoneum in 33 eases ceased soon after embolization. The embryos in 13 patients were confirmed to have died by ultrasound two days after the procedure. Beta-HCG value dropped to below 5 U/L within two to twelve days. Hemorrhage in the peritoneum dissolved after seven days in all cases. Mixed mass disappeared after one month. Histerosalpingography was performed three months after the procedure in 19 patients and patent fallopians were demonstrated in 11 patients. Conclusions: Superselective uterine arterial infusion and embolization is a minimally invasive procedure, which can be used to effectively treat ectopic pregnancy by disabling the ectopic embryo and embolizing leaking arteries with the advantages of preserving the fallopian tubes. (authors)

  5. Obesity and exercise-induced ectopic ventricular arrhythmias in apparently healthy middle aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbag, Avi; Sidi, Yechezkel; Kivity, Shaye; Beinart, Roy; Glikson, Michael; Segev, Shlomo; Goldenberg, Ilan; Maor, Elad

    2016-03-01

    Obesity and overweight are strongly associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, there are limited data on the association between excess weight and the risk of ectopic ventricular activity. We investigated the association between body mass index (BMI) and the risk for ectopic ventricular activity (defined as multiple ventricular premature beats (≥3), ventricular bigeminy, nonsustained ventricular tachycardia or sustained ventricular tachycardia) during exercise stress testing among 22,516 apparently healthy men and women who attended periodic health screening examinations between the years 2000 and 2014. All subjects had completed maximal exercise stress testing annually according to the Bruce protocol. Subjects were divided at baseline into three groups: normal weight (BMI ≥ 18.5 kg/m(2) andexercise-induced ectopic ventricular activity arrhythmias was highest among obese subjects, intermediate among overweight subjects and lowest among subjects with normal weight (3.4%, 2.7% and 2.2% respectively; p exercise compared with subjects with normal weight (p = 0.005), and that each 1 kg/m(2) increase in BMI was associated with a significant 4% (p = 0.002) increased adjusted risk for exercise-induced ventricular arrhythmias. Obesity is independently associated with increased likelihood of ectopic ventricular arrhythmia during exercise. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  6. Methotrexate treatment in progressive tubal ectopic pregnancies and hCG-related clinicosurgical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Askin Dogan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to evaluate the relationship between the success of methotrexate treatment and β-hCG levels in progressive tubal ectopic pregnancies. We defined a retrospective cohort of 394 progressive tubal ectopic pregnancy patients treated with methotrexate. A single-dose methotrexate protocol using 50 mg/m2 was administered to patients with progressive tubal ectopic pregnancy. Surgery was performed in patients who exhibited signs of acute abdomen due to tubal rupture. Of 394 patients that received methotrexate treatment, 335 (84.6% responded to medical treatment, while the remaining 59 (15.36% underwent surgery due to treatment failure. β-hCG levels in the failure group were significantly higher as compared with the success group at Day 1, Day 4, and Day 7 (2116±3157 vs. 4178±3422, 2062±3551 vs. 4935±4103, and 1532±3007 vs. 3900±4783, respectively. The receiver operating characteristics curve for β-hCG levels at Day 1 was 0.738, with a cutoff value of 1418 mIU/mL, while sensitivity and specificity values reached the optimum for treatment success (83.1% and 59.4%, respectively. Medical treatment with methotrexate achieved an 85.02% success rate for the treatment of progressive tubal ectopic pregnancy, while success rates for medical treatment decreased significantly when initial β-hCG levels were >1418 mIU/mL.

  7. Clinical Study of Ectopic Pregnancy in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narinder Kaur

    2014-12-01

    seventh postoperative day. Conclusion: Ectopic pregnancy can be suspected clinically by history and associated risk factors. Women presenting with acute pain abdomen with a positive urine β-hCG test should be promptly diagnosed and treated without undue delay to reduce maternal morbidity and mortality.

  8. Ectopic Pregnancy: Reasons for the High Tubal Rupture Rates in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tropical Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology ... The case notes were reviewed to obtain information on the socio demographic characteristics of the patients, clinical history and operative findings. Results: Of the ... Besides, majority of our women present late making them more vulnerable to ruptured ectopic pregnancy.

  9. An Appraisal of the Management of Ectopic Pregnancy in a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-12-31

    Dec 31, 2011 ... Analysis was carried out using Epi‑info 2008 version 3.5.1. Results: ... Keywords: Appraisal, Ectopic pregnancy, Management .... and beta human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) assay. .... 7th ed. Oxford, London: Blackwell Science; 2007. p. 106‑16. 5. ... rcog.org.uk/resources/Public/pdf/green_top21 tubal.

  10. 42 CFR 50.308 - Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... pregnancies. Federal financial participation is available with respect to the cost of drugs or devices to... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drugs and devices and termination of ectopic pregnancies. 50.308 Section 50.308 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  11. Giant ectopic liver, hepatocellular carcinoma and pachydermia-a rare genetic syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miny Peter

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ectopic liver is a very uncommon developmental anomaly that predisposes to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. We describe the second documented case of a hepatocellular carcinoma developing in the primary liver of a patient with a rare and uncharacterized genetic symptom complex. Also present was the largest ectopic liver ever reported, measuring 12 cm in diameter which contained a solitary focus of metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma. The primary hepatocellular carcinoma is believed to have arisen in the native liver from a hepatic adenoma that was diagnosed 15 years earlier. The patient's uncharacterised condition featured prominent thick, yellow skin over the dorsum of the fingers, and was associated with follicular hyperkeratosis, abnormal plantar creases, digital clubbing, misshaped ears, a lingua plicata and an angioleiomyolipoma of the right kidney. This unique case of hepatocellular carcinoma arising from liver cell adenoma in a patient with an uncharacterised condition featuring a large ectopic liver invites discussion of the role of local factors in carcinogenesis in the parent liver but not the ectopic liver. It also underlines the imperative ongoing need for clinical autopsies.

  12. Ectopic Pregnancy: A 5 Year Review of Cases at Nnamdi Azikiwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Ruptured ectopic pregnancy continues to be a common life threatening emergency in our environment as well as a public health problem. Objective: This is to study the incidence, clinical presentation, risk factors and the management of cases that presented in our centre over a five year period. Methods: This is ...

  13. EVALUATION OF THE IMPORTANCE OF BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS IN RELATION TO ULTRASONOGRAPHIC FINDING IN ECTOPIC PREGNANCY DIAGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Lončar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The implantation of the fertilized egg outside the uterine cavity leads to the development of ectopic pregnancy. The incidence of ectopic pregnancy is 1/100 births. The most common place of ectopic implantation of the fertilized ovum is the oviduct (98% with predilection for the ampullar part of the Fallopian tube. The aim of this study was to determine the predictive importance of beta-hCG and progesterone concentration compared to ultrasonographic finding in the ectopic pregnancy diagnosis.We examined 24 patients with ectopic pregnancies which we divided according to the days of amenorrhea into two groups: the first group with the total of 28 patients from 16–42 days and another group of 8 patients with amenorrhea longer than 42 days. The control group was comprised of 20 patients with vital intrauterine pregnancy, gestational age of 42-52 days. Blood samples for quantitative determination of hormones were collected on three occasions after 48 hours in the forenoon time in the examined and control group of pregnant women. Ultrasonographic examinations of all pregnant women were carried out immediately after blood sampling, with the trans-vaginal approach using "make loop" option, and measurements with an accuracy of 0.1 mm.Mean values for beta-hCG range from 698-1774 mlU/ml in the first group of pregnant women, and in the second group of 1896 mlU/ml to 4410 mlU/ml with a statistically significant difference compared to the values in the control group (p <0.001. The concentration of progesterone in the first group of women ranging from 41-70 nmol/l, and in the second group of 76-94 nmol/l which is also the statistically significant difference compared to the control group (p<0.002. We have shown that ultrasonographic finding with its parameters reliably predicts the values of biochemical parameters both in normal intrauterine pregnancy and in the case of ectopic pregnancy.Embryo viability and implantation place condition the values of

  14. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor is involved in ectopic endometrial tissue growth and peritoneal-endometrial tissue interaction in vivo: a plausible link to endometriosis development.

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    Halima Rakhila

    Full Text Available Pelvic inflammation is a hallmark of endometriosis pathogenesis and a major cause of the disease's symptoms. Abnormal immune and inflammatory changes may not only contribute to endometriosis-major symptoms, but also contribute to ectopic endometrial tissue growth and endometriosis development. A major pro-inflammatory factors found elevated in peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis and to be overexpressed in peritoneal fluid macrophages and active, highly vascularized and early stage endometriotic lesions, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF appeared to induce angiogenic and inflammatory and estrogen producing phenotypes in endometriotic cells in vitro and to be a possible therapeutic target in vivo. Using a mouse model where MIF-knock out (KO mice received intra-peritoneal injection of endometrial tissue from MIF-KO or syngeneic wild type (WT mice and vice versa, our current study revealed that MIF genetic depletion resulted in a marked reduction ectopic endometrial tissue growth, a disrupted tissue structure and a significant down regulation of the expression of major inflammatory (cyclooxygenease-2, cell adhesion (αv and β3 integrins, survival (B-cell lymphoma-2 and angiogenic (vascular endothelial cell growth factors relevant to endometriosis pathogenesis, whereas MIF add-back to MIF-KO mice significantly restored endometriosis-like lesions number and size. Interestingly, cross-experiments revealed that MIF presence in both endometrial and peritoneal host tissues is required for ectopic endometrial tissue growth and pointed to its involvement in endometrial-peritoneal interactions. This study provides compelling evidence for the role of MIF in endometriosis development and its possible interest for a targeted treatment of endometriosis.

  15. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor is involved in ectopic endometrial tissue growth and peritoneal-endometrial tissue interaction in vivo: a plausible link to endometriosis development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakhila, Halima; Girard, Karine; Leboeuf, Mathieu; Lemyre, Madeleine; Akoum, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic inflammation is a hallmark of endometriosis pathogenesis and a major cause of the disease's symptoms. Abnormal immune and inflammatory changes may not only contribute to endometriosis-major symptoms, but also contribute to ectopic endometrial tissue growth and endometriosis development. A major pro-inflammatory factors found elevated in peritoneal fluid of women with endometriosis and to be overexpressed in peritoneal fluid macrophages and active, highly vascularized and early stage endometriotic lesions, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) appeared to induce angiogenic and inflammatory and estrogen producing phenotypes in endometriotic cells in vitro and to be a possible therapeutic target in vivo. Using a mouse model where MIF-knock out (KO) mice received intra-peritoneal injection of endometrial tissue from MIF-KO or syngeneic wild type (WT) mice and vice versa, our current study revealed that MIF genetic depletion resulted in a marked reduction ectopic endometrial tissue growth, a disrupted tissue structure and a significant down regulation of the expression of major inflammatory (cyclooxygenease-2), cell adhesion (αv and β3 integrins), survival (B-cell lymphoma-2) and angiogenic (vascular endothelial cell growth) factors relevant to endometriosis pathogenesis, whereas MIF add-back to MIF-KO mice significantly restored endometriosis-like lesions number and size. Interestingly, cross-experiments revealed that MIF presence in both endometrial and peritoneal host tissues is required for ectopic endometrial tissue growth and pointed to its involvement in endometrial-peritoneal interactions. This study provides compelling evidence for the role of MIF in endometriosis development and its possible interest for a targeted treatment of endometriosis.

  16. Ectopic brown adipose tissue in muscle provides a mechanism for differences in risk of metabolic syndrome in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almind, Katrine; Manieri, Monia; Sivitz, William I; Cinti, Saverio; Kahn, C Ronald

    2007-02-13

    C57BL/6 (B6) mice subjected to a high-fat diet develop metabolic syndrome with obesity, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance, whereas 129S6/SvEvTac (129) mice are relatively protected from this disorder because of differences in higher basal energy expenditure in 129 mice, leading to lower weight gain. At a molecular level, this difference correlates with a marked higher expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and a higher degree of uncoupling in vitro in mitochondria isolated from muscle of 129 versus B6 mice. Detailed histological examination, however, reveals that this UCP1 is in mitochondria of brown adipocytes interspersed between muscle bundles. Indeed, the number of UCP1-positive brown fat cells in intermuscular fat in 129 mice is >700-fold higher than in B6 mice. These brown fat cells are subject to further up-regulation of UCP1 after stimulation with a beta3-adrenergic receptor agonist. Thus, ectopic deposits of brown adipose tissue in intermuscular depots with regulatable expression of UCP1 provide a genetically based mechanism of protection from weight gain and metabolic syndrome between strains of mice.

  17. The Phospholipase D2 Knock Out Mouse Has Ectopic Purkinje Cells and Suffers from Early Adult-Onset Anosmia.

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    Matthieu M Vermeren

    Full Text Available Phospholipase D2 (PLD2 is an enzyme that produces phosphatidic acid (PA, a lipid messenger molecule involved in a number of cellular events including, through its membrane curvature properties, endocytosis. The PLD2 knock out (PLD2KO mouse has been previously reported to be protected from insult in a model of Alzheimer's disease. We have further analysed a PLD2KO mouse using mass spectrophotometry of its lipids and found significant differences in PA species throughout its brain. We have examined the expression pattern of PLD2 which allowed us to define which region of the brain to analyse for defect, notably PLD2 was not detected in glial-rich regions. The expression pattern lead us to specifically examine the mitral cells of olfactory bulbs, the Cornus Amonis (CA regions of the hippocampus and the Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. We find that the change to longer PA species correlates with subtle architectural defect in the cerebellum, exemplified by ectopic Purkinje cells and an adult-onset deficit of olfaction. These observations draw parallels to defects in the reelin heterozygote as well as the effect of high fat diet on olfaction.

  18. Renal dysplasia with the ipsilateral ectopic ureter mimicking abscess of the prostate

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    Grbić Dragan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In males the ectopic ureter usualy drains into the prostate (50%. During ureteric developement a thin membrane (Chawalla’s membrane separates the lumen of the ureter and the urogenital sinus at the point where the ureter joins the urogenital sinus. This membrane ruptures allowing urin to drain from the ureter to the urogenital sinus. The authors reported a case of renal dysplasia associated with ipsilateral uretral ectopia mimicking prostatic abscess. Case report. A subfebrile (37.3°C, 23-year-old patient, otherwise healthy, presented with persistent ascending perineal pain non-responsive to antibiotics and analgetics. Digitorectal examination (DRE showed asymmetric prostate with a soft, tender, buldging left lobe suggestive of prostatic abscess. The diagnosis was suspected using transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS, but the picture of the anechoic tubular structure in the left lobe of the prostate with a proximal undefined extraprostatic extension and a caudal intraprostatic blind end was incoclusive for the definitive diagnosis of prostatic abscess. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI was ordered and definitive diagnosis of renal dysplasia associated with the ipsilateral ectopic ureter filled with inflamed content mimicking prostatic abscess was made. Transurethral incision/minimal resection of the distal, blindly closed end of left ectopic ureter was done. Endoscopic surgical treatment was sufficient for relief of clinical symptoms. The patient’s recovery was uneventful. Conclusion. To the best of our knowledge, a case of renal dysplasia with the ipsilateral ectopic ureter mimicking prostate abscess has not been reported so far. Cystic pelvic malformations in males may result from too craniall sprouting of the ureteral bud, with delayed absorption and ectopic opening of the distal end of the ureter.

  19. RISK FACTOR EPIDEMIOLOGY OF ECTOPIC PREGNANCY AND SUCCESS OF NONSURGICAL MANAGEMENT

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    Vijayan C.P

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Ectopic pregnancies are increasing in number and proportions. Real increase and better detection methods are contributing for this rise. All the cases diagnosed now are not surgical emergencies. Medical management and expectant line of management are possible. Revised clinical guidelines are there for the selection of cases for nonsurgical management. Knowledge about the risk factors is good for prophylaxis and to have a high suspicion about ectopic pregnancy in high-risk individuals. Knowing the success rate is absolutely essential for counselling before starting the therapy. Aim of the study- 1. To study the risk factor profile of ectopic pregnancies and to compare them with the old data of the study setting. 2. To follow up the cases receiving nonsurgical treatment and to assess the success rate. MATERIALS AND METHODS Study Setting- Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Government Medical College, Kottayam. It is a tertiary care centre with 1500 beds and catering for the population of five districts of Kerala. Study Design- Observational Study Study Period- This study was completed by eighteen months from April 2014 to September 2015. RESULTS 219 cases of ectopic pregnancies were diagnosed during the study period. The ratio of this number with the total number of deliveries during that period is 3.48% and this is three times higher than that of the ratio twenty years ago (1.23%. Risk factor profile is also showing changes over this period. 15.1% had medical treatment and 11% had expectant line of therapy. Success rates are 87.87% and 95.65%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS Incidence and detection of ectopic pregnancies are increasing and the risk factor profile is changing. In properly selected cases, the success of nonsurgical management is excellent.

  20. Low levels of LTR retrotransposon deletion by ectopic recombination in the gigantic genomes of salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frahry, Matthew Blake; Sun, Cheng; Chong, Rebecca A; Mueller, Rachel Lockridge

    2015-02-01

    Across the tree of life, species vary dramatically in nuclear genome size. Mutations that add or remove sequences from genomes-insertions or deletions, or indels-are the ultimate source of this variation. Differences in the tempo and mode of insertion and deletion across taxa have been proposed to contribute to evolutionary diversity in genome size. Among vertebrates, most of the largest genomes are found within the salamanders, an amphibian clade with genome sizes ranging from ~14 to ~120 Gb. Salamander genomes have been shown to experience slower rates of DNA loss through small (i.e., genomes. However, no studies have addressed DNA loss from salamander genomes resulting from larger deletions. Here, we focus on one type of large deletion-ectopic-recombination-mediated removal of LTR retrotransposon sequences. In ectopic recombination, double-strand breaks are repaired using a "wrong" (i.e., ectopic, or non-allelic) template sequence-typically another locus of similar sequence. When breaks occur within the LTR portions of LTR retrotransposons, ectopic-recombination-mediated repair can produce deletions that remove the internal transposon sequence and the equivalent of one of the two LTR sequences. These deletions leave a signature in the genome-a solo LTR sequence. We compared levels of solo LTRs in the genomes of four salamander species with levels present in five vertebrates with smaller genomes. Our results demonstrate that salamanders have low levels of solo LTRs, suggesting that ectopic-recombination-mediated deletion of LTR retrotransposons occurs more slowly than in other vertebrates with smaller genomes.

  1. Ectopic jejunal pacemakers and gastric emptying after Roux gastrectomy: Effect of intestinal pacing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlstrom, L.; Kelly, K.A.

    1989-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine whether ectopic pacemakers are present after meals in the Roux limbs of dogs after vagotomy and Roux gastrectomy, whether these pacemakers slow gastric emptying of liquids or solids, and whether abolishing the pacemakers with electric pacing might speed any slow emptying that occurs. In six dogs that underwent vagotomy and Roux gastrectomy and in four dogs that underwent vagotomy and Billroth gastrectomy (controls), myoelectric activity of the Roux limb or duodenum was measured during gastric emptying of a 500 kcal mixed meal of 99mTc-labeled cooked egg and 111In-labeled milk. Roux dogs were tested with and without pacing of the Roux limb. Roux dogs showed ectopic pacemaker in the Roux limb that drove the pacesetter potentials of the limb in a reverse, or orad, direction during 57% of the postprandial recordings. Billroth dogs had no ectopic pacemakers (p less than 0.05). Liquids emptied more slowly in Roux dogs (half-life (t1/2) = 121 +/- 15 minutes) than in Billroth dogs (t1/2 = 43 +/- 9 minutes; p less than 0.05), but solids emptied similarly in both groups of dogs (t1/2 approximately 8 hours). Pacing the Roux limb abolished the ectopic pacemakers, restored the slow emptying of liquids to the more rapid rate found in the Billroth dogs (t1/2: paced Roux, 72 +/- 15 minutes; Billroth, 43 +/- 9 minutes; p greater than 0.05) and did not change emptying of solids. The conclusion was that ectopic pacemakers present in the Roux limb after vagotomy and Roux gastrectomy drove the limb in a reverse direction and slowed emptying of liquids after the operation. The defect was corrected by pacing the Roux limb in a forward direction

  2. Ectopic jejunal pacemakers and gastric emptying after Roux gastrectomy: Effect of intestinal pacing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karlstrom, L.; Kelly, K.A. (Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (USA))

    1989-11-01

    The aims of this study were to determine whether ectopic pacemakers are present after meals in the Roux limbs of dogs after vagotomy and Roux gastrectomy, whether these pacemakers slow gastric emptying of liquids or solids, and whether abolishing the pacemakers with electric pacing might speed any slow emptying that occurs. In six dogs that underwent vagotomy and Roux gastrectomy and in four dogs that underwent vagotomy and Billroth gastrectomy (controls), myoelectric activity of the Roux limb or duodenum was measured during gastric emptying of a 500 kcal mixed meal of 99mTc-labeled cooked egg and 111In-labeled milk. Roux dogs were tested with and without pacing of the Roux limb. Roux dogs showed ectopic pacemaker in the Roux limb that drove the pacesetter potentials of the limb in a reverse, or orad, direction during 57% of the postprandial recordings. Billroth dogs had no ectopic pacemakers (p less than 0.05). Liquids emptied more slowly in Roux dogs (half-life (t1/2) = 121 +/- 15 minutes) than in Billroth dogs (t1/2 = 43 +/- 9 minutes; p less than 0.05), but solids emptied similarly in both groups of dogs (t1/2 approximately 8 hours). Pacing the Roux limb abolished the ectopic pacemakers, restored the slow emptying of liquids to the more rapid rate found in the Billroth dogs (t1/2: paced Roux, 72 +/- 15 minutes; Billroth, 43 +/- 9 minutes; p greater than 0.05) and did not change emptying of solids. The conclusion was that ectopic pacemakers present in the Roux limb after vagotomy and Roux gastrectomy drove the limb in a reverse direction and slowed emptying of liquids after the operation. The defect was corrected by pacing the Roux limb in a forward direction.

  3. Dacryocystitis following a nasolacrimal duct obstruction caused by an ectopic intranasal tooth in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelter-Ratson, Katrin; Hagen, Regine; Grundmann, Stefan; Spiess, Bernhard Martin

    2015-09-01

    To describe a nasolacrimal duct (NLD) obstruction secondary to an ectopic tooth in a 5-year-old male Border collie. The dog was presented with a 1-month history of mucopurulent discharge from the left eye (OS) preceded by a lifelong history of epiphora OS. Treatment with neomycin/polymyxin B/dexamethasone ophthalmic solution had not improved the clinical signs, and the NLD was not patent when irrigated by the referring veterinarian. A complete ophthalmologic examination was performed followed by dacryocystorhinography and computed tomography (CT). The ophthalmologic examination revealed marked mucopurulent discharge, mild conjunctivitis, slightly elevated STT measurements, and a negative Jones test OS. Both nasolacrimal puncta OS could be cannulated without resistance for approximately 1.5 cm. Upon irrigation, copious amounts of mucopurulent discharge were exited through the corresponding punctum, while no fluid could be detected at the nares. Dacryocystorhinography was performed. Radiographs revealed an ectopic left canine tooth within the left nasal cavity. A cystic dilation of the NLD was observed proximal to the ectopic tooth. Computed tomography was performed to determine the exact position of the tooth and possible involvement of adjacent structures; CT confirmed the previous imaging findings. Treatment with systemic antibiotics, NSAIDs, and ofloxacin ophthalmic solution led to resolution of the clinical signs within several days. Surgery was declined by the owner. This is the first case report describing a blocked NLD due to an ectopic tooth in a dog. Ectopic teeth should be included as a differential diagnosis in cases of dacryocystitis and chronic epiphora in dogs. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  4. Frozen-Thawed Embryo Transfer Cycles Have a Lower Incidence of Ectopic Pregnancy Compared With Fresh Embryo Transfer Cycles.

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    Zhang, Xinyu; Ma, Caihong; Wu, Zhangxin; Tao, Liyuan; Li, Rong; Liu, Ping; Qiao, Jie

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the risk of ectopic pregnancy of embryo transfer. A retrospective cohort study on the incidence of ectopic pregnancy in fresh and frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles from January 1 st , 2010, to January 1 st , 2015. Infertile women undergoing frozen-thawed transfer cycles or fresh transfer cycles. In-vitro fertilization, fresh embryo transfer, frozen-thawed embryo transfer, ectopic pregnancy. Ectopic pregnancy rate and clinical pregnancy rate. A total of 69 756 in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer cycles from 2010 to 2015 were analyzed, including 45 960 (65.9%) fresh and 23 796 (34.1%) frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles. The clinical pregnancy rate per embryo transfer was slightly lower in fresh embryo transfer cycles compared with frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles (40.8% vs 43.1%, P cycles, blastocyst transfer shows a significantly lower incidence of ectopic pregnancy (0.8% vs 1.8%, P = .002) in comparison with day 3 cleavage embryo transfer. The risk of ectopic pregnancy is lower in frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles than fresh embryo transfer cycles, and blastocyst transfer could further decrease the ectopic pregnancy rate in frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles.

  5. MAPK phosphatase AP2C3 induces ectopic proliferation of epidermal cells leading to stomata development in Arabidopsis.

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    Julija Umbrasaite

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In plant post-embryonic epidermis mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling promotes differentiation of pavement cells and inhibits initiation of stomata. Stomata are cells specialized to modulate gas exchange and water loss. Arabidopsis MAPKs MPK3 and MPK6 are at the core of the signaling cascade; however, it is not well understood how the activity of these pleiotropic MAPKs is constrained spatially so that pavement cell differentiation is promoted only outside the stomata lineage. Here we identified a PP2C-type phosphatase termed AP2C3 (Arabidopsis protein phosphatase 2C that is expressed distinctively during stomata development as well as interacts and inactivates MPK3, MPK4 and MPK6. AP2C3 co-localizes with MAPKs within the nucleus and this localization depends on its N-terminal extension. We show that other closely related phosphatases AP2C2 and AP2C4 are also MAPK phosphatases acting on MPK6, but have a distinct expression pattern from AP2C3. In accordance with this, only AP2C3 ectopic expression is able to stimulate cell proliferation leading to excess stomata development. This function of AP2C3 relies on the domains required for MAPK docking and intracellular localization. Concomitantly, the constitutive and inducible AP2C3 expression deregulates E2F-RB pathway, promotes the abundance and activity of CDKA, as well as changes of CDKB1;1 forms. We suggest that AP2C3 downregulates the MAPK signaling activity to help maintain the balance between differentiation of stomata and pavement cells.

  6. Cesarean Scar Ectopic Pregnancy: Laparoscopic Resection and Total Scar Dehiscence Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahgoub, Sara; Gabriele, Victor; Faller, Emilie; Langer, Bruno; Wattiez, Arnaud; Lecointre, Lise; Akladios, Cherif

    2018-02-01

    To illustrate a laparoscopic technique for the resection of cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy, associated with isthmocele repair. Case report (Canadian Task Force classification III). A tertiary referral center in Strasbourg, France. Cesarean scar pregnancy is a rare form of ectopic pregnancy. The major risk of this type of pregnancy is the early uterine rupture with massive, sometimes life-threatening, bleeding. Thus, active management of these pregnancies starting immediately after diagnosis is crucial. Therapeutic options can be medical, surgical, or a combination. Numerous case reports or case series can be found in the literature, but there are few clinical studies, which are difficult to conduct because of case rarity and inconclusiveness. A 2016 meta-analysis that included 194 articles published between 1978 and 2014 (126 case reports, 45 cases series, and 23 clinical studies) concluded that hysteroscopy or laparoscopic hysterotomy seems to be the best first-line approach to treating cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy, with uterine artery embolization reserved for significant bleeding and/or a high suspicion index for arteriovenous malformation [1]. There is no consensus on the treatment of reference, however. The case involves a 38-year-old primiparous women who underwent a cesarean section delivery in 2010 and who was diagnosed by ultrasound scan at 7 weeks gestation with cesarean scar ectopic pregnancy, which was confirmed by pelvic magnetic resonance imaging. The patient initially received medical treatment with 2 intramuscular injections of methotrexate and one local intragestational injection of KCl. Her initial human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) level was 82 000 IU/L. Rigorous weekly biological and ultrasound monitoring revealed an involution of the ectopic pregnancy associated with decreasing hCG. No bleeding or infectious complications occurred during this period. After 10 weeks of monitoring, her hCG had stabilized at 300 IU/L, and a residual image

  7. Ectopic Human Fasciola hepatica Infection by an Adult Worm in the Mesocolon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ah Jin; Choi, Chang Hwan; Choi, Sun Keun; Shin, Yong Woon; Park, Yun-Kyu; Kim, Lucia; Choi, Suk Jin; Han, Jee Young; Kim, Joon Mee; Chu, Young Chae; Park, In Suh

    2015-12-01

    We report here an ectopic case of Fasciola hepatica infection confirmed by recovery of an adult worm in the mesocolon. A 56-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with discomfort and pain in the left lower quadrant of the abdomen. Abdominal CT showed 3 abscesses in the left upper quadrant, mesentery, and pelvic cavity. On surgical exploration, abscess pockets were found in the mesocolon of the sigmoid colon and transverse colon. A leaf-like worm found in the abscess pocket of the mesocolon of the left colon was diagnosed as an adult fluke of F. hepatica. Histologically, numerous eggs of F. hepatica were noted with acute and chronic granulomatous inflammations in the subserosa and pericolic adipose tissues. Conclusively, a rare case of ectopic fascioliasis has been confirmed in this study by the adult worm recovery of F. hepatica in the mesocolon.

  8. Maxillary second molar impaction in the adjacent ectopic third molar: Report of five rare cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souki, Bernardo Q.; Cheib, Paula L.; de Brito, Gabriela M.; Pinto, Larissa S. M. C.

    2015-01-01

    Maxillary second molar impaction in the adjacent ectopic third molar is a rare condition that practitioners might face in the field of pediatric dentistry and orthodontics. The early diagnosis and extraction of the adjacent ectopic third molar have been advocated, and prior research has reported a high rate of spontaneous eruption following third molar removal. However, some challenges in the daily practice are that the early diagnosis of this type of tooth impaction is difficult with conventional radiographic examination, and sometimes the early surgical removal of the maxillary third molar must be postponed because of the risks of damaging the second molar. The objective of this study is to report a case series of five young patients with maxillary second molar impaction and to discuss the difficulty of early diagnosis with the conventional radiographic examination, and unpredictability of self-correction. PMID:26321848

  9. Ectopic gynecomastia: report of occurrence in a male patient with type 1 diabetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serpa, Bruna S.; Scoppetta, Luiz Raphael Pereira Donoso; Moraes, Paula Camargo; Funari, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmao, E-mail: brunass@einstein.b [Hospital Albert Einstein, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. of Imaging

    2010-08-15

    We report a case of breast tissue development at the usual insulin injection area, on both iliac fossa. There is no report in the literature that shows relation between hypertrophy, and/or increase of in vivo breast tissue and insulin stimulus. To our knowledge, this is the first case of ectopic gynecomastia reported in the literature. Male patient, 52 years, diabetic, sought to the Emergency Department due to abdominal pain. Abdomen computed tomography scan incidentally identified tissue with the same morphological and attenuation characteristics of the breast in the subcutaneous of both iliac fossa, at the usual insulin injection site. The patient was also submitted to complementary ultrasound exam. Ectopic gynecomastia is a possible entity, considering embryology and hormone aspects, but literature has no record of such cases in men. Another intriguing point is that the preeminence of the breast tissue occurred only at the chronic insulin injection area, a stimulating hormone, known to be mitogenic. (author)

  10. Maxillary second molar impaction in the adjacent ectopic third molar: Report of five rare cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Q Souki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maxillary second molar impaction in the adjacent ectopic third molar is a rare condition that practitioners might face in the field of pediatric dentistry and orthodontics. The early diagnosis and extraction of the adjacent ectopic third molar have been advocated, and prior research has reported a high rate of spontaneous eruption following third molar removal. However, some challenges in the daily practice are that the early diagnosis of this type of tooth impaction is difficult with conventional radiographic examination, and sometimes the early surgical removal of the maxillary third molar must be postponed because of the risks of damaging the second molar. The objective of this study is to report a case series of five young patients with maxillary second molar impaction and to discuss the difficulty of early diagnosis with the conventional radiographic examination, and unpredictability of self-correction.

  11. The echoic pseudogestational sac of ectopic pregnancy simulating early intrauterine pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, R M; Stein, K; Shih, Y H; Goodman, J D

    1983-05-01

    The sonographic features of ectopic pregnancy have been well documented. When an early intrauterine pregnancy is identified or an obvious extrauterine sac is visualized, diagnosis is not a problem; but often a sac is seen within the uterus that may contain a well-defined rind and even internal echoes simulating an early fetal pole. This has been mistaken for an early intrauterine pregnancy. In this review, four patients with pseudogestational sacs had internal echoes within the sac, and two of them ultimately underwent dilatation and curettage, which revealed blood clots. This supports the assertion that fetal cardiac activity and/or fetal motion should be demonstrated within a fetal pole before the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy is excluded.

  12. Interdisciplinary approach for management of ectopically erupted maxillary anterior teeth and incisal guidance

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    Shailesh Mohanlal Bhandari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Orthodontists treat many patients with ectopically erupted, malformed, and transposed maxillary incisors. Increased mobility and long-term retention are significant concerns in cases with root resorption. Understanding of interdisciplinary approach is a must for these challenging and complex dental situations. However, careful diagnosis and judicious management of these potentially volatile patients can alleviate the risk of compromised esthetics and function. Occasionally, patients require restorative treatment during or after orthodontic therapy. Should the objectives of orthodontic treatment differ for the restorative patient compared with the nonrestorative patient? How should the treatment planning sequence proceed? This case report will discuss the many interdisciplinary issues that are involved in placing and restoring the ectopically erupted and malformed anterior teeth in orthodontic patients.

  13. A Rare Case of Atypical Renal Arteries Arrangement with Ectopic Kidneys in a Guinea Pig

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    Maženský D.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We recorded a very rare case of atypical renal arteries arrangement in a guinea pig using the corrosion technique in the study of the arterial system. The right renal artery originated from the ventral wall of the abdominal aorta at the level of the caudal aspect of the 5th lumbar vertebra. The left renal artery originated from the left common iliac artery approximately 12 mm caudally to the aortic bifurcation. The right kidney was located ventral to the aortic bifurcation and the left kidney inside the pelvic cavity between the common iliac arteries. According to the vascular pattern, we determined that the ectopic kidneys in this guinea pig were unusual. This is the first case describing bilateral ectopic kidneys in a guinea pig.

  14. Ectopic gynecomastia: report of occurrence in a male patient with type 1 diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serpa, Bruna S.; Scoppetta, Luiz Raphael Pereira Donoso; Moraes, Paula Camargo; Funari, Marcelo Buarque de Gusmao

    2010-01-01

    We report a case of breast tissue development at the usual insulin injection area, on both iliac fossa. There is no report in the literature that shows relation between hypertrophy, and/or increase of in vivo breast tissue and insulin stimulus. To our knowledge, this is the first case of ectopic gynecomastia reported in the literature. Male patient, 52 years, diabetic, sought to the Emergency Department due to abdominal pain. Abdomen computed tomography scan incidentally identified tissue with the same morphological and attenuation characteristics of the breast in the subcutaneous of both iliac fossa, at the usual insulin injection site. The patient was also submitted to complementary ultrasound exam. Ectopic gynecomastia is a possible entity, considering embryology and hormone aspects, but literature has no record of such cases in men. Another intriguing point is that the preeminence of the breast tissue occurred only at the chronic insulin injection area, a stimulating hormone, known to be mitogenic. (author)

  15. Ectopic cervical thymoma mimicking as papillary thyroid carcinoma: A diagnostic dilemma

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    Thakur Abhijit

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic cervical thymomas are often confused with thyroid or parathyroid swellings due to their anatomical positioning. Predominant epithelial thymoma can be misdiagnosed as papillary thyroid carcinoma on fine needle aspiration and lymph node metastasis of epithelial tumor on frozen section. Predominantly lymphocytic thymomas have often been misinterpreted as Hashimoto′s thyroiditis or malignant lymphoma, either by fine needle aspiration or on frozen section analysis. If cytology is doubtful and is not correlating with clinical, anatomical and surgical findings; immunohistochemistry is a very important tool in such cases to give final answer. Thyroid cell specific proteins such as thyroglobulin, thyroid transcription factor-1, thyroperoxidase and dipeptidyl aminopeptidase-4, neuroendocrine markers chromogranin, calcitonin and parathyroid hormone could be used to rule out thyroid or parathyroid origin. We present such rare case of ectopic cervical thymoma mimicking as papillary thyroid carcinoma.

  16. Duplex System with Ectopic Ureter Opens into the Posterior Urethra: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milicevic, Snjezana; Bijelic, Radojka; Krivokuca, Vladimir; Jakovljevic, Branislava

    2018-04-01

    Duplicated ureter or Duplex Collecting System is a congenital condition in which the ureteric bud, the embryological origin of the ureter, arises twice, resulting in two ureters draining a single kidney. This congenital anomaly is rare, and even rarer when the duplex system with ectopic ureter is present. This type of congenital anomaly is even more rarely diagnosed and surgically treated in adulthood. This case report presents a case of a 32-year-old male, who had a duplex collecting system with two ureters on the left side. Ectopic ureter, draining the upper pole of the left kidney, opened into the posterior urethra. In our patient, taking into account the clinical perspective, the renal tissue damaging of the upper pole which was not functional, partial nephrectomy and ureterectomy was successfully performed.

  17. Ectopic banking of amputated great toe for delayed thumb reconstruction: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Ian L; Hui-Chou, Helen G; Zelken, Jonathan; Basile, Patrick L; Ipsen, Derek; Higgins, James P

    2014-07-01

    Ectopic banking of amputated parts is a recognized technique for delayed replantation of an amputated part when the amputation stump will not permit immediate replantation. This is conventionally performed with the intent of transferring the injured part back to its anatomic position when the amputation stump is more appropriate for replantation. Current warfare conditions have led to a commonly encountered military trauma injury pattern of multiple extremity amputations with protected trunk and core structures. This pattern poses many challenges, including the limit or absence of donor sites for immediate or delayed flap reconstructive procedures. We describe a case in which we ectopically banked the great toe of an amputated lower extremity for delayed thumb reconstruction. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Roles of Chronic Low-Grade Inflammation in the Development of Ectopic Fat Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pattern of fat distribution is a major determinant for metabolic homeostasis. As a depot of energy, the storage of triglycerides in adipose tissue contributes to the normal fat distribution. Decreased capacity of fat storage in adipose tissue may result in ectopic fat deposition in nonadipose tissues such as liver, pancreas, and kidney. As a critical biomarker of metabolic complications, chronic low-grade inflammation may have the ability to affect the process of lipid accumulation and further lead to the disorder of fat distribution. In this review, we have collected the evidence linking inflammation with ectopic fat deposition to get a better understanding of the underlying mechanism, which may provide us with novel therapeutic strategies for metabolic disorders.

  19. Management of interstitial ectopic pregnancies with a combined intra-amniotic and systemic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swank, Morgan L; Harken, Tabetha R; Porto, Manuel

    2013-08-01

    Approximately 2% of all pregnancies are ectopic; of these, 4% are interstitial or cervical. There exists no clear consensus as to whether surgical or medical management is superior. We present three cases of advanced nonfallopian tube ectopic pregnancies from 6 to 8 weeks of gestation. Our first two cases were managed with a combined intrafetal, intra-amniotic and systemic approach using methotrexate and potassium chloride, whereas our third case was managed with an intra-amniotic approach alone. Our combined approach cases were successful, with resolution of human chorionic gonadotropin in 50 and 34 days, whereas our single approach case re-presented with bleeding requiring uterine artery embolization and operative removal of products of conception. Patients presenting with advanced interstitial or cervical pregnancies who are clinically stable can be offered medical management with a combined approach.

  20. A Combination of Surgery And Methotrexate for Successful Treatment of a Caesarean Scar Ectopic Pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tadesse, WG

    2018-06-01

    Caesarean scar ectopic pregnancy (CSEP) is one of the rarest forms of ectopic pregnancies. With rising caesarean delivery (CD) rates worldwide, there is an increase in the incidence of CSEP. Patients usually present with painless vaginal bleeding and often misdiagnosed as spontaneous miscarriage. The use of ultrasonography with colour flow Doppler helps in the differential diagnosis. Different treatment options are described in the literature, although there is insufficient evidence regarding the best approach. We report the diagnosis and management of a case of CSEP in a woman with four previous CD who presented with vaginal bleeding and lower abdominal cramps at six weeks of gestation. She was treated with laparoscopic and ultrasound guided aspiration of the gestational sac and local injection of methotrexate supplemented by intramuscular methotrexate injection.

  1. Successful Management of Cervical Ectopic Pregnancy with Bilateral Uterine Artery Embolization and Methotrexate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keitaroh Takeda

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cervical ectopic pregnancy (CEP is a rare form of ectopic pregnancy. Cases diagnosed early in pregnancy can be managed medically, but more advanced pregnancies often require hysterectomy. Uterine artery embolization (UAE is a novel approach to CEP for those who wish to preserve fertility. Here we present the case of a 44-year-old female with a 2-week history of vaginal bleeding and abdominal pain who was diagnosed with CEP and successfully treated with bilateral UAE (BUAE in combination with methotrexate. A 44-year-old female presented to the emergency department with a 2-week history of vaginal bleeding. Serum beta-hCG was 71,964 mIU/ml. The transvaginal ultrasound confirmed CEP. The patient was referred to obstetrics and interventional radiology and ultimately treated with BUAE and methotrexate. Symptoms resolved quickly and she was discharged after 3 days.

  2. A new platelet cryoprecipitate glue promoting bone formation after ectopic mesenchymal stromal cell-loaded biomaterial implantation in nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trouillas, Marina; Prat, Marie; Doucet, Christelle; Ernou, Isabelle; Laplace-Builhé, Corinne; Blancard, Patrick Saint; Holy, Xavier; Lataillade, Jean-Jacques

    2013-01-04

    This study investigated the promising effect of a new Platelet Glue obtained from Cryoprecipitation of Apheresis Platelet products (PGCAP) used in combination with Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSC) loaded on ceramic biomaterials to provide novel strategies enhancing bone repair. PGCAP growth factor content was analyzed by ELISA and compared to other platelet and plasma-derived products. MSC loaded on biomaterials (65% hydroxyapatite/35% beta-TCP or 100% beta-TCP) were embedded in PGCAP and grown in presence or not of osteogenic induction medium for 21 days. Biomaterials were then implanted subcutaneously in immunodeficient mice for 28 days. Effect of PGCAP on MSC was evaluated in vitro by proliferation and osteoblastic gene expression analysis and in vivo by histology and immunohistochemistry. We showed that PGCAP, compared to other platelet-derived products, allowed concentrating large amount of growth factors and cytokines which promoted MSC and osteoprogenitor proliferation. Next, we found that PGCAP improves the proliferation of MSC and osteogenic-induced MSC. Furthermore, we demonstrated that PGCAP up-regulates the mRNA expression of osteogenic markers (Collagen type I, Osteonectin, Osteopontin and Runx2). In vivo, type I collagen expressed in ectopic bone-like tissue was highly enhanced in biomaterials embedded in PGCAP in the absence of osteogenic pre-induction. Better results were obtained with 65% hydroxyapatite/35% beta-TCP biomaterials as compared to 100% beta-TCP. We have demonstrated that PGCAP is able to enhance in vitro MSC proliferation, osteoblastic differentiation and in vivo bone formation in the absence of osteogenic pre-induction. This clinically adaptable platelet glue could be of interest for improving bone repair.

  3. Dynamic localization of MreB in Vibrio parahaemolyticus and in the ectopic host bacterium Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Shen-Wen; Chen, Shau-Yan; Wong, Hin-chung

    2008-11-01

    MreB, a homolog of eukaryotic actin, participates in morphogenesis, cell division, cell polarity, and chromosome segregation in prokaryotes. In this study, a yellow fluorescent protein conjugate (YFP-MreB(Vp)) was generated to investigate the behavior of MreB in merodiploid strain SC9 of the enteropathogen Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Under normal growth conditions, YFP-MreB(Vp) formed helical filaments with a pitch of 0.64 +/- 0.09 microm in about 85% of exponential-phase cells, and different clusters, relaxed coils, and ring configurations were observed in a small proportion of the cells. Overexpression of YFP-MreB(Vp) substantially altered the structure of the MreB cytoskeleton and resulted in swollen and pleomorphic cells. Disturbing the activities of penicillin-binding proteins or adding magnesium suppressed the morphological distortions. These results indicate that mislocalization of cell wall-synthesizing machinery was responsible for morphological abnormality. By expressing YFP-MreB(Vp) in the ectopic host bacterium Escherichia coli, shrinkage, fragmentation, and annealing of MreB(Vp) filaments were directly observed. This work revealed the dynamic pattern of the localization of YFP-MreB(Vp) in V. parahaemolyticus and its relationship to cell morphogenesis, and the YFP-MreB(Vp)-E. coli system may be used to investigate the dynamic spatial structures of the MreB cytoskeleton in vivo.

  4. Successful Management of Tubal Ectopic Pregnancy with Transvaginal Sonography Guided Intracardiac KCL Injection and Systemic Methotrexate - A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumesh Choudhary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Methotrexate (Mtx is an accepted modality for conservative treatment of ectopic pregnancy. However, there is no consensus regarding its use in live ectopic pregnancy and high serum beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (β-hCG titres. Concurrent use of intra-sac hypertonic KCl, to produce cardiac asystole with systemic Mtx potentially improve outcome in live ectopic gestations with very high serum β-hCG titres. Here a successful management of live ectopic pregnancy in a 25-year-old nulliparous woman, with very high β-hCG titres (29502.04mIU/mL, using ultrasound-guided intra-cardiac potassium chloride (KCl injection and systemic Mtx is reported. No treatment related complications were encountered. However, individualized treatment with a stringent follow-up regime is mandatory in such cases.

  5. Ectopic papillary thyroid carcinoma in the mediastinum without any tumoral involvement in the thyroid gland. A Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiee, Susan; Sadrizade, Ali; Jafarian, Amirhosein; Zakavi, Seyed Rasoul; Ayati, Narjess

    2013-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid tissue results from abnormal embryologic development and migration of the thyroid gland. True malignant transformation in ectopic thyroid tissue is extremely rare and is always diagnosed after surgical excision of the lesion by pathology examinations. There are well-documented cases of ectopic thyroid cancer while primary tumoral lesion occurs in the orthotopic thyroid, but only rare cases of ectopic PTC without any evidence of occult thyroid cancer in the orthotopic thyroid or cervical lymph nodes have been reported. We report on a 39 year old woman who was operated for a mediastinal mass. The initial diagnosis was a malignant thymic lesion, which was later confirmed to be a papillary thyroid carcinoma. Consequently, total thyroidectomy was performed and pathology report showed normal thyroid tissue with no evidence of any neoplastic involvement. Until now, only one similar case has been reported

  6. Ectopic craniopharyngioma of the fourth ventricle in a patient with Gardner syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Andres H; Chaudhry, Ammar; Seidman, Roberta J; Peyster, Robert; Bangiyev, Lev

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic craniopharyngioma is uncommon and a craniopharyngioma confined purely within the fourth ventricle is extremely rare. We report a craniopharyngioma of the fourth ventricle in a 20-year-old man with Gardner syndrome. Imaging characteristics of craniopharyngiomas and fourth ventricle lesions are discussed with a review of the literature regarding the pathogenesis of craniopharyngiomas and the possible association with Gardner syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Noonan syndrome: crossed fused ectopic kidneys and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis-a rare association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ankur; Khaira, Ambar; Lal, Charanjit; Mahajan, Sandeep; Tiwari, Suresh C

    2009-10-01

    Noonan syndrome is characterised by short stature, typical facial dysmorphology and congenital heart defects. Urogenital abnormalities are reported in 10% of the cases. We present a 14-year-old girl with characteristic features of Noonan syndrome and nephrotic-range proteinuria. She had crossed fused ectopic kidneys. Renal biopsy showed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Oral steroids were instituted and she responded well. The case highlights this novel renal presentation of Noonan syndrome.

  8. Post-traumatic stress, anxiety and depression following miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy: a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Farren, Jessica; Jalmbrant, Maria; Ameye, Lieveke; Joash, Karen; Mitchell-Jones, Nicola; Tapp, Sophie; Timmerman, Dirk; Bourne, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This is a pilot study to investigate the type and severity of emotional distress in women after early pregnancy loss (EPL), compared with a control group with ongoing pregnancies. The secondary aim was to assess whether miscarriage or ectopic pregnancy impacted differently on the type and severity of psychological morbidity. Design This was a prospective survey study. Consecutive women were recruited between January 2012 and July 2013. We emailed women a link to a survey 1, 3 and 9...

  9. Ectopic Calcification as Discernible Manifestation in Neonates with Pseudohypoparathyroidism Type 1a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masanori Adachi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1a (PHP1a is challenging, because both the osteodystrophy, such as brachydactyly and round face, and the symptomatic hypocalcemia usually develop beyond infancy. Although ectopic calcification may be an early sign of PHP1a, there are no systematic reviews regarding the time of its appearance. We here report on two PHP1a patients who presented with subcutaneous calcification in neonatal period.

  10. The secretory endometrial protein, placental protein 14, in women with ectopic gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruge, S; Sørensen, Steen; Vejtorp, M

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the serum level of the secretory endometrial protein, placental protein 14 (PP14) and progesterone (P) in women with ectopic gestation. DESIGN: Blood samples were collected prospectively and preoperatively. Reference range was determined from a prospective population of 98......: These findings suggest that the regulation of the PP14 production involves either a control mechanism from the ovary or is mediated by paracrine secretion....

  11. Ectopic major transplantation for salvage of upper and lower extremity amputations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazerani Shahram

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: Ectopic tissue transplanta- tion is not a new idea. Godina and his colleagues pioneered this method in the 1980s. This method is a last resort method of preserving an amputated body part, which consists of banking the amputated segment in an ectopic area and re- turning it to its native place at a later date. In this article we present our experience with this demanding procedure. Methods: Debridement was the mainstay of this procedure. The stump and amputated part are carefully de- brided and the stump was either closed primarily or covered by a flap. The amputated part was transplanted to one of several banking sites in the body and at a later date it will be transferred to its native site in an elective setting. Results: Seven patients meeting the set criteria for ectopic transplantation were enrolled in this study. The over- all success rate was about 70%, lower than expected but these are cases of severe crush injury. Although the func- tional recovery of these patients are very low, all of the successful cases except one could find a job as a janitor or light manual worker. No patient could return to his previous job. Conclusion: Ectopic transplantation of body parts is an accepted method of treatment of severely crushed ex- tremity or finger injuries. In our country an amputee has very little chance of finding a job instead a disabled person can. In addition in Iran cultures amputation is seen as pu- nishment of either the God or the society, so it is not well accepted and many patients persist on saving the limb even with no functional recovery. None of our successful cases could return to his previous occupation but almost all of them could find a job as janitors or light manual workers. Key words: Replantation; Transplantation; Extremities; Amputation, traumatic

  12. Rathke′s cyst with ectopic neurohypophysis presenting as severe short stature with delayed puberty

    OpenAIRE

    Deep Dutta; Ajitesh Roy; Sujoy Ghosh; Pradip Mukhopadhyay; Ranen Dasgupta; Satinath Mukhopadhyay; Subhankar Chowdhury

    2012-01-01

    Ectopic neurohypophysis (EN) is found in nearly half of children with growth hormone deficiency (GHD). Rathke's cyst (RC) is uncommon in children and when present, hypopituitarism is found in nearly half of them. We present a fourteen and half-year-old girl with severe short stature and delayed puberty who on evaluation was found to have GHD, secondary hypocortisolism, and hypogonadism. Imaging revealed hypoplastic anterior pituitary, stalk agenesis, EN at tuber cinereum and intrapituitary RC...

  13. Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone syndrome in a case of duodenal neuroendocrine tumor presenting with liver metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Khare

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH syndrome is an uncommon disorder and comprises about 15% of all patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS. Duodenal carcinoids are rare, indolent tumors usually associated with a benign progression. We hereby report a rare case of CS resulting from ectopic ACTH secretion from a duodenal neuroendocrine tumor (NET presenting with liver metastasis. A 37-year-old female presented with abdominal discomfort and dyspepsia of 1-month duration. Ultrasound abdomen suggested a well-defined hypoechoic lesion in the left lobe of the liver, suggestive of neoplasia. On clinical examination, she had Cushingoid features and persistent hypokalemia. Midnight ACTH and cortisol levels were grossly elevated at 1027 pg/ml (n < 46 pg/ml and 87.56 μg/dl (n < 7.5 μg/ml, respectively. Both overnight and high-dose dexamethasone suppression test confirmed nonsuppressed cortisol levels - 86.04 and 84.42 μg/dl (n < 1.8 μg/ml, respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging brain showed a structurally normal pituitary gland. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen revealed hepatic lesion with bilateral adrenal enlargement. A diagnosis of ectopic ACTH-dependent CS was made. Intraoperatively, a duodenal lesion of 0.5 cm × 0.5 cm was identified alongside an 8 cm × 6 cm exophytic lesion in segment IV of the liver. Frozen section of the duodenal lesion was positive for NET. She underwent a Whipple's surgery, cholecystectomy, and left hepatic lobectomy. Postoperatively, she showed clinical and biochemical remission. Herewith, we report the third case of duodenal carcinoid tumor presenting as ectopic ACTH syndrome and the first with liver metastasis.

  14. Clinical effectiveness of multiple-drug injection treatment in unruptured ectopic pregnancies: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Quan; Wang, Lu-Lu; Shao, Xiao-Hui; Wang, Si-Ming; Dong, Xiao-Qiu

    2012-10-01

    To study the effect of local interventional treatment of unruptured ectopic pregnancies with multiple-drug injection guided by color Doppler sonography. In this retrospective analysis, 49 patients with an unruptured ectopic pregnancy were treated with two different local injection methods administered under sonographic guidance. The patients were divided into single-drug (n = 23) and multiple-drug (n = 26) injection groups, and they received a locally administered injection of methotrexate alone or a combination including methotrexate, hemocoagulase, antibiotics, and anti-inflammatory drugs, respectively. Overall, local injection treatment was successful in 44 patients. The 5 patients with failed treatment underwent laparotomy about 1 week after single-drug injection. Serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG ) levels, ectopic pregnancy mass sizes, blood flow at various points after treatment, the incidence of pelvic bleeding, and the time for serum β-hCG levels to return to normal and the mass to resolve were analyzed in the remaining 44 patients. Single-drug treatment was successful in 18 patients; 10 of 23 had low to moderate pelvic bleeding after treatment, and 5 were referred for surgery. All 26 patients were successfully treated by multiple-drug injection. Only 2 patients had a small amount of pelvic bleeding. Differences between groups were statistically significant (P injection under color Doppler guidance is a new, safe, and effective method for treating unruptured ectopic pregnancies. It accelerates the serum β-hCG decline and facilitates mass resolution. This regimen is associated with a very low rate of pelvic bleeding, improves the success rate of conservative treatment, and, therefore, has value as an important clinical application.

  15. Histology-directed and imaging mass spectrometry: an emerging technology in ectopic calcification

    OpenAIRE

    Taverna, Domenico; Boraldi, Federica; De Santis, Giorgio; Caprioli, Richard M; Quaglino, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to demonstrate the potential of an optimized histology directed protein identification combined with imaging mass spectrometry technology to reveal and identify molecules associated to ectopic calcification in human tissue. As a proof of concept, mineralized and non-mineralized areas were compared within the same dermal tissue obtained from a patient affected by Pseudoxanthoma elasticum, a genetic disorder characterized by calcification only at specific sites of...

  16. Ectopic bone formation and chondrodysplasia in transgenic mice carrying the rat C3(1)/T{sub AG} fusion gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, J.E.; Maroulakou, I.G.; Anver, M. [National Cancer Institute, Frederick, MD (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Transgenic mice expressing the SV40 large T-antigen (T{sup AG}) under the regultory control of the hormone-responsive rat C3(1) prostatein promoter develop unusual bone and cartilage lesions, as well as ectopic bone and cartilage formation. Two lines of transgenic animals have been propagated in which the expression of the transgene in chondrocytes results in a mild to moderate generalized disorganization of cartilage growth which appears to affect multiple tissues, including the trachea, ear pinna and articular cartilage. The epiphyseal plates are also affected with normal architecture of the zones of proliferation and maturation, but marked elongation of the zone of hypertrophy. Immunocytochemistry demonstrates that expression of T{sup AG} is limited to the zone of hypertropny in the epiphyseal plates, suggesting that the chondrocytes become hormone-responsive at this particular stage of differentiation. Normal mineralization and trabecular formation in long bone appears to occur. Ectopic bone and cartilage formation occurs in the foot pads of the fore- and hind- feet over the course of several months. This is preceded by proliferation of sweat gland epithelial cells followed by the appearance of nodules of cartilage and bone. The nodules are closely associated with proliferating epithelium but are not contiguous with bony structures normally found in the feet. The roles of BMP`s, growth factors, oncogenes and hormones in the development of these lesions will be presented. These transgenic animals may provide new insights into hormone-responsiveness of chondrocytes, as well as factors involved in the processes of bone and cartilage differentiation and growth. These transgenic animals may serve as a useful model for human heterotopic bone formation.

  17. A rare presentation of ruptured interstitial ectopic pregnancy with broad ligament hematoma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Abbas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic pregnancy is a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in the first trimester. Interstitial type is the most dangerous variety with a high risk of life-threatening internal hemorrhage. Obstetricians need a high index of suspicion to diagnose such rare type. We are reporting a rare case of ruptured interstitial ectopic pregnancy presented with a large broad ligament hematoma early in the first trimester. A 25-year-old woman was presented with gradual onset of increasing abdominal pain after 6 weeks of amenorrhea. She had a positive urinary pregnancy test. Abdominal ultrasound revealed bulky empty uterus and ill-defined mass at the right side of the uterus. On exploration, incision and drainage of broad ligament hematoma were performed in addition to right salpingectomy. Interstitial ectopic pregnancy represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge and frequently constitutes an obstetrical emergency. Its rupture early in the first trimester should be expected. Early diagnosis and proper management are the most important issues to avoid its catastrophic consequences.

  18. Gamma-radiation produces abnormal Bergmann fibers and ectopic granule cells in mouse cerebellar cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inouye, Minoru; Hayasaka, Shizu; Funahashi, Atsushi; Yamamura, Hideki

    1992-01-01

    Morphological changes in Bergmann glial fibers in the developing cerebellar cortex produced by exposure to gamma-rays were investigated in association with ectopic granule cells. Six-day-old mice that had been exposed to 3 Gy of gamma-radiation were killed 6 hours after exposure or at 7 through 30 days of age. Their cerebella were examined histologically and immunohistochemically for glial fibrillary acidic protein in Bergmann fibers. Extensive cell death took place in the external granular layer (EGL) of the cerebellum from 6 through 24 hours after exposure. This led to the thinning of the EGL and a decrease in the number of migrating cells in the molecular layer. The number of Bergmann cells was not decreased, but the fibers in the molecular layer were distorted; whereas, in the control these fibers were straight and perpendicular to the pial surface. The EGL began to recover 2 days after exposure, and abnormally oriented migrating cells were seen. At 17 days of age, some cell clustering was observed in the molecular layer of the irradiated cerebellum. Distortion of the Bergmann fibers was marked in regions where ectopic granule cells appeared at 30 days of age. These findings suggest that the distortion of Bergmann fibers leads to the production of ectopic granule cells after exposure to gamma-radiation. (author)

  19. Ectopic Thymic Cyst of the Subglottis: Considerations for Diagnosis and Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Iram; Kirby, Patricia; Liming, Bryan

    2018-03-01

    To share the diagnostic and management challenges created by an extremely rare airway lesion-the subglottic ectopic thymic cyst. Case report and literature review. We review the presentation, management, and clinical course of an infant who presented with a subglottic mass that was histologically confirmed as a thymic cyst. A brief literature review supplements the case presentation Results: We present the third described case of an ectopic thymic cyst presenting as a subglottic mass. The differential diagnosis of subglottic masses in neonates consists primarily of subglottic hemangioma and mucous retention cysts. Otolaryngologists must be prepared for unexpected findings when dealing with critical airways. We compare the presentation and management of our patient with the 2 previously described cases. We propose an embryologic theory for the origin of these rare lesions. An ectopic thymic cyst is a rare and unexpected cause of neonatal stridor. Management of pediatric airway lesions must allow for unexpected findings at the time of diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopy. The appropriate management of subglottic thymic cysts is poorly defined, but close surveillance for recurrence is mandatory.

  20. Osteogenesis imperfecta with ectopic mineralizations in dentin and cementum and a COL1A2 mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantaputra, Piranit Nik; Sirirungruangsarn, Yuddhasert; Intachai, Worrachet; Ngamphiw, Chumpol; Tongsima, Sissades; Dejkhamron, Prapai

    2018-04-10

    We report a Thai father (patient 1) and his daughter (patient 2) affected with osteogenesis imperfecta type IV and dentinogenesis imperfecta. Both were heterozygous for the c.1451G>A (p.Gly484Glu) mutation in COL1A2. The father, a Thai boxer, had very mild osteogenesis imperfecta with no history of low-trauma bone fractures. Scanning electron micrography of the primary teeth with DI of the patient 2, and the primary teeth with DI of another OI patient with OI showed newly recognized dental manifestations of teeth with DI. Normal dentin and cementum might have small areas of ectopic mineralizations. Teeth affected with DI have well-organized ectopic mineralizations in dentin and cementum. The "French-fries-appearance" of the crystals at the cemento-dentinal junction and abnormal cementum have never been reported to be associated with dentinogenesis imperfecta, either isolated or osteogenesis imperfecta-associated. Our study shows for the first time that abnormal collagen fibers can lead to ectopic mineralization in dentin and cementum and abnormal cementum can be a part of osteogenesis imperfecta.

  1. Rim intratorácico ectópico Thoracic ectopic kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudinei Leôncio Beraldo

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O rim ectópico intratorácico é uma anomalia rara. De todas as ectopias renais é a mais rara (p = 0,005%. Relata-se um caso de ectopia renal intratorácica em um homem negro de 83 anos, que procurou atendimento médico com quadro clínico compatível com enfisema pulmonar. Foi solicitado radiograma de tórax, que evidenciou uma massa, diagnosticada por tomografia computadorizada como ectopia renal. A maioria dos casos de rim torácico aparece como uma tumoração intratorácica encontrada em radiogramas de tórax solicitados por qualquer outra razão alheia à suspeita dessa anomalia, e não necessita de tratamento específico.Thoracic ectopic kidney is a rare anomaly, the rarest of all renal ectopia types (p = 0.005%. Herein, we describe a case of thoracic ectopic kidney in an 83-year-old black man who, upon seeking medical attention, presented a clinical profile consistent with pulmonary emphysema. A chest X-ray was ordered, and the results showed evidence of a mass, which was then diagnosed (through computed tomography as renal ectopia. The majority of thoracic ectopic kidney cases present as an intrathoracic tumor seen on chest X-rays ordered for reasons other than suspicion of this anomaly and do not require special treatment.

  2. Sonographic findings of hepatobiliary fascioliasis accompanied by extrahepatic expansion and ectopic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teke, Memik; Önder, Hakan; Çiçek, Mutalip; Hamidi, Cihad; Göya, Cemil; Çetinçakmak, Mehmet Güli; Hattapoğlu, Salih; Ülger, Burak Veli

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the sonographic findings of hepatobiliary fascioliasis with extrahepatic expansion and ectopic lesions. The study included 45 patients with fascioliasis. All diagnoses were confirmed via serologic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Sonographic findings in the hepatobiliary system, extrahepatic expansion, and ectopic lesions were defined. The most common hepatic lesions were subcapsular localized, small, confluent, multiple hypoechoic nodules with poorly defined borders. We also detected ectopic lesion in 5 patients (11.1%) and live parasites in the gallbladder and bile duct in 11 (24.4%). The large spectrum of entities in the differential diagnosis of hepatobiliary fascioliasis may lead to misdiagnosis and incorrect treatment. However, the diagnosis can be made when the characteristic sonographic features are seen, such as heterogeneity of the liver with multiple poorly defined hypoechoic-isoechoic lesions and multiple echogenic nonshadowing particles in the gallbladder or common bile ducts. Nonetheless, the differential diagnosis of fascioliasis versus other hepatic lesions may still be difficult. In these situations, pathologic confirmation should be performed to exclude the possibility of malignancy. © 2013 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  3. The alignment of impacted and ectopic teeth using the Easy-Way-Coil (EWC) System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Michael

    2008-05-01

    Teeth that do not spontaneously erupt in the dental arch or are ectopic must normally be surgically exposed. For orthodontic correction a traction device must be attached to the affected tooth over which the already-raised mucoperiosteal flap is lowered to improve the periodontal condition. The author has developed a system at his private orthodontic practice for this purpose, and it has proven itself over a 10-year period. A traction spring is fastened to a lingual button that is attached to the etched tooth surface using an adhesive. The appliance is activated by systematically shortening the spring. A total of 103 patients were treated successfully in this way, 45 of whom had presented a unilaterally ectopic canine requiring an average treatment time of 17.8 months from surgical exposure to removal of the fixed appliance. None of the patients suffered inflammatory reactions in the oral mucosa adjacent to the traction spring during the treatment. Two impacted teeth were ankylosed and could not be aligned. The EWC-System is clinically a reliable, efficient, easy to use and economical system for the alignment of impacted and ectopic teeth.

  4. Preoperative localization of supernumerary and ectopic parathyroid glands in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tominaga, Yoshihiro; Kano, Tadayuki; Tanaka, Yuji; Uchida, Kazuharu; Yamada, Nobuo; Kawai, Machio; Takagi, Hiroshi.

    1989-01-01

    The undetectable supernumerary and ectopic parathyroid glands have a high risk of persistent and recurrent hyperparathyroidism, especially in the patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism. Preoperative image diagnosis, CT scan, echogram and 201 TlCl scintigram were very useful for detecting supernumerary and ectopic parathyroid glands in our 132 patients who underwent parathyroidectomy for secondary hyperparathyroidism. Among these methods the scintigraphy showed the highest detection rate of the glands located in the thyroid gland and those located between the thyroid gland and trachea. The echography was useful in detecting the glands in the thyroid gland, but could not offer easy visualization those located in the mediastinum. Even the ectopic parathyroid glands, weighing more than 500 mg were identifiable at about 90% when all the methods were applied routinely. In our experience, four patients had a supernumerary gland which was detected by the preoperative image diagnostic procedures at the initial surgery. One patient had a supernumerary gland in the mediastinum which was detected by image diagnosis after the initial operation and was removed at reoperation. (author)

  5. Comparing the difference of measured GFR of ectopic pelvic kidney between anterior and posterior imaging processing in renal dynamic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Baojun; Zhao Deshan

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare and analyze the difference of measured glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of ectopic pelvic kidney between anterior and posterior imaging processing in renal dynamic imaging. Methods: There were 10 patients collected retrospectively, with ectopic kidneys in pelvic cavity confirmed by ultrasound, CT, renal dynamic imaging and other imaging modalities. All images of ectopic kidneys in renal dynamic imaging were processed by anterior and posterior methods respectively. The ectopic kidney was only processed in anterior imaging, ectopic kidney and contralateral normal kidney were processed in posterior imaging. Total GFR equalled the sum of GFR of normal kidney in posterior imaging and GFR of ectopic kidney in anterior imaging, was compared with total GFR of two kidneys in posterior imaging and GFR in two-sample method. All correlation analysis were completed between GFRs from three methods and all patients were followed up. Statistically paired t-test and bivariate correlation analysis test were used. Results: The mean GFR of ectopic kidney in anterior imaging equal to (27.48±12.24) ml/(min · 1.73 m 2 ). It was more than GFR [(10.71 ±4.74) ml/ (min · 1.73 m 2 )] in posterior imaging above 46% (t=5.481, P<0.01). There was no significant difference (t=-2.238, P>0.05), but better correlation (r=0.704, P<0.05) between total GFR in anterior imaging and GFR in two-sample method. There was significant difference (t=4.629, P<0.01)and worse correlation (r=0.576, P>0.05) between total GFR in posterior imaging and GFR in two-sample method. Conclusion: Comparing with GFR in posterior imaging, GFR in anterior imaging can more truly reflect function condition of ectopic pelvic kidney in renal dynamic imaging. (authors)

  6. Vinorelbine Potently Induces Placental Cell Death, Does Not Harm Fertility and is a Potential Treatment for Ectopic Pregnancy

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    Roxanne Hastie

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic pregnancies complicate 1–2 pregnancies and are a leading cause of maternal death. An effective oral drug therapy that replaces surgery might make its treatment safer, cheaper, simpler and therefore more widely accessible. The only current medical treatment offered to women is intramuscular methotrexate, but this only reliably resolves smaller ectopic pregnancies. As such, many ectopic pregnancies require surgical excision. We show that vinorelbine, an orally available chemotherapeutic agent, potently induced placental cell death but did not harm fertility in mice. Vinorelbine was 100–1000 times more potent than methotrexate in inducing placental cell death in vitro, and more potent than combination methotrexate and gefitinib (another proposed treatment for ectopic pregnancy being evaluated in phase III trials. Mechanistically, it caused microtubule condensation, blocked mitosis and activated the apoptosis cascade in placental cells. Vinorelbine was more efficacious than methotrexate ± gefitinib in reducing the volume of placental cell tumors xenografted subcutaneously in SCID mice. Mice exposed to vinorelbine and allowed to breed, following a four week washout period, displayed normal fertility, however long-term fertility was not assessed. Human Fallopian tubes treated with vinorelbine did not exhibit up-regulation of apoptosis molecules. Our findings show that placental cells appear sensitive to vinorelbine and it has potential as a tablet-only approach to treat ectopic pregnancy. Keywords: Ectopic pregnancy, Vinorelbine, Methotrexate, Placenta, Treatment

  7. ECTOPIC CUSHING SYNDROME: A 10-YEAR EXPERIENCE FROM A TERTIARY CARE CENTER IN SOUTHERN INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyakumar, Samantha; Paul, Thomas Vizhalil; Asha, Hesargatta Shyamsunder; Gnanamuthu, Birla Roy; Paul, M J; Abraham, Deepak Thomas; Rajaratnam, Simon; Thomas, Nihal

    2017-08-01

    Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion is a less common cause of Cushing syndrome and is seen in 5 to 10% of cases with endogenous hypercortisolemia. We hereby describe our experience of patients with ectopic ACTH syndrome, who have been managed over the past 10 years at a tertiary care center in Southern India. The inpatient and outpatient records of patients from 2006 to 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. The clinical features, clinical history, biochemical values, imaging features, including radiologic findings and positron emission tomography scans, management, details of follow-up, and outcomes, were documented. We compared the biochemical findings in these patients with 20 consecutive patients with Cushing disease (Cushing syndrome of pituitary origin). A total of 21 patients were studied. The median age at presentation was 34 years (range, 19 to 55 years). Seven patients had thymic carcinoid, 7 had bronchial carcinoid, 3 had lung malignancies, 2 had medullary carcinoma thyroid, 1 patient had a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor, and 1 patient had an occult source of ACTH. The most common clinical features at presentation were muscle weakness (95%), hyperpigmentation (90%), facial puffiness (76%), easy bruising (61%), edema (57%), and striae (52%). Extensive acne was seen in a large number of patients (43%). Only 3 patients (14%) had central obesity. The median 8 am cortisol was 55.5 μg/dL (range, 3.8 to 131 μg/dL), median 8 am ACTH was 207 pg/mL (range, 31.1 to 703 pg/mL), and the median 24-hour urinary free cortisol was 2,484 μg (range, 248 to 25,438 μg). Basal cortisol and ACTH, as well as midnight cortisol and ACTH level, were markedly higher in patients with ectopic Cushing syndrome as compared to patients with Cushing disease. Twelve of 21 patients had developed life-threatening infections by follow-up. Nine patients had undergone surgical intervention to address the primary tumor. However, only 1 patient exhibited a complete cure on

  8. Localization of ectopic and supernumerary parathyroid glands in patients with secondary and tertiary hyperparathyroidism: surgical description and correlation with preoperative ultrasonography and Tc99m-Sestamibi scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, José Santos Cruz de; Mangussi-Gomes, João Paulo; Rocha, Lillian Andrade da; Ohe, Monique Nakayama; Rosano, Marcello; das Neves, Murilo Catafesta; Santos, Rodrigo de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    Hyperparathyroidism is an expected metabolic consequence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Ectopic and/or supernumerary parathyroid glands (PT) may be the cause of surgical failure in patients undergoing total parathyroidectomy (PTX). To define the locations of ectopic and supernumerary PT in patients with renal hyperparathyroidism and to correlate intraoperative findings with preoperative tests. A retrospective study was conducted with 166 patients submitted to PTX. The location of PT during surgery was recorded and classified as eutopic or ectopic. The preoperative localizations of PT found by ultrasonography (USG) and Tc99m-Sestamibi scintigraphy (MIBI) were subsequently compared with intraoperative findings. In the 166 patients studied, 664 PT were found. Five-hundred-seventy-seven (86.4%) glands were classified as eutopic and 91(13.6%) as ectopic. Eight supernumerary PT were found. The most common sites of ectopic PT were in the retroesophageal and thymic regions. Taken together, USG and MIBI did not identify 56 (61.5%) ectopic glands. MIBI was positive for 69,7% of all ectopic glands located in the mediastinal and thymic regions. The presence of ectopic and supernumerary PT in patients with renal hyperparathyroidism is significant. Although preoperative imaging tests did not locate most of ectopic glands, MIBI may be important for identifying ectopic PT in the mediastinal and thymic regions.

  9. Gene Expression of Leptin and Long Leptin Receptor Isoform in Endometriosis: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Prestes Nácul

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, leptin/BMI ratio in serum and peritoneal fluid and gene expression of leptin and long form leptin receptor (OB-RL were assessed in eutopic and ectopic endometria of women with endometriosis and controls. Increased serum leptin/BMI ratio was found in endometriosis patients. Leptin and OB-RL gene expression was significantly higher in ectopic versus eutopic endometrium of patients and controls. A positive, significant correlation was observed between leptin and OB-RL transcripts in ectopic endometria and also in eutopic endometria in endometriosis and control groups. A negative and significant correlation was found between OB-RL mRNA expression and peritoneal fluid leptin/BMI ratio only in endometriosis. These data suggest that, through a modulatory interaction with its active receptor, leptin might play a role in the development of endometrial implants.

  10. Expressing exogenous functional odorant receptors in cultured olfactory sensory neurons

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    Fomina Alla F

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Olfactory discrimination depends on the large numbers of odorant receptor genes and differential ligand-receptor signaling among neurons expressing different receptors. In this study, we describe an in vitro system that enables the expression of exogenous odorant receptors in cultured olfactory sensory neurons. Olfactory sensory neurons in the culture express characteristic signaling molecules and, therefore, provide a system to study receptor function within its intrinsic cellular environment. Results We demonstrate that cultured olfactory sensory neurons express endogenous odorant receptors. Lentiviral vector-mediated gene transfer enables successful ectopic expression of odorant receptors. We show that the ectopically expressed mouse I7 is functional in the cultured olfactory sensory neurons. When two different odorant receptors are ectopically expressed simultaneously, both receptor proteins co-localized in the same olfactory sensory neurons up to 10 days in vitro. Conclusion This culture technique provided an efficient method to culture olfactory sensory neurons whose morphology, molecular characteristics and maturation progression resembled those observed in vivo. Using this system, regulation of odorant receptor expression and its ligand specificity can be studied in its intrinsic cellular environment.

  11. Atrial ectopic activity in cryptogenic ischemic stroke and TIA: a risk factor for recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, João; Braga, Carlos Galvão; Rocha, Sofia; Santos, Ana Filipa; Gomes, André; Cabreiro, Ana; Magalhães, Sónia; Ferreira, Carla

    2015-02-01

    To characterize atrial ectopic activity in patients with cryptogenic ischemic stroke (CIS) or transient ischemic attack (TIA) and determine its prognostic significance. Retrospective cohort study, in which 184 patients with CIS or TIA who had performed 24-hour Holter electrocardiogram were included. The median follow-up was 27.5 months. Baseline clinical and imagiologic characteristics, etiologic investigation results, and ischemic stroke and TIA recurrences information were collected. Number of atrial premature complexes (APCs) per hour was categorized as less than 10 APCs/hour, 10-30 APCs/hour, and more than 30 APCs/hour. Most of the patients had less than 10 APCs/hour (82.6%), 8.2% had 10-30 APCs/hour, and 9.2% had more than 30 APCs/hour. Patients with more than 30 APCs/hour had a greater median left atrium diameter than patients with 30 APCs/hour or less (42 mm vs. 38 mm; 95% confidence interval [CI], .50-7.00; P = .003). Annual recurrence rate of CIS or TIA was 2.9% in patients with less than 10 APCs/hour, 11.0% in 10-30 APCs/hour, and 22.6% in more than 30 APCs/hour (P = .001). More than 30 APCs/hour were independently associated with recurrence risk in multivariate survival analysis (hazard ratio, 3.40; 95% CI, 1.12-10.32; P = .030). In patients with CIS or TIA, frequent atrial ectopic activity (>30 APCs/h) was independently associated with increased risk of stroke or TIA recurrence. Further studies need to validate frequent atrial ectopic activity as a risk factor for recurrence in cryptogenic stroke and confirm its role as a predictor of occult atrial fibrillation. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Surgical correction of ectopic penis and scrotum associated with bilateral orchidopexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobral, Daniel Santos Rocha; Silva, Helder Damásio da; Damázio, Eulálio

    2017-01-01

    Ectopic penis is usually associated with penoscrotal transposition, and it is rarely observed in isolation. We report a surgical approach for an extremely rare case. A 10-year-old male patient with bilateral cryptorchidism and ectopic penis and scrotum in perineal area, with no penoscrotal transposition, representing an association not yet described in literature. A previous orchiopexy failed due to ectopic scrotum. By means of an inverted Y incision, the penis was mobilized and a perineal skin flap in form of a testicular sac was prepared. Finally orchiopexy was performed. The surgery was essential to treat cryptorchidism and to improve the self-image of the patient. RESUMO O pênis ectópico geralmente ocorre associado à transposição peno-escrotal, sendo raro isoladamente. Relatamos uma abordagem cirúrgica para um caso extremamente raro. Tratava-se de paciente do sexo masculino, 10 anos, com criptorquidia bilateral e pênis e escroto ectópicos, na região perineal, sem transposição peno-escrotal, representando uma associação ainda não descrita na literatura. Orquidopexia prévia sem sucesso, devido à ectopia do escroto. Por meio de uma incisão em Y invertido, mobilizou-se o pênis e preparou-se um retalho da pele perineal em forma de bolsa testicular. Por fim, realizou-se a orquidopexia. A cirurgia foi fundamental para tratar a criptorquidia e promover ganho na autoimagem do paciente.

  13. Usefulness of Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt in the Management of Bleeding Ectopic Varices in Cirrhotic Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidal, V.; Joly, L.; Perreault, P.; Bouchard, L.; Lafortune, M.; Pomier-Layrargues, G.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) in the control of bleeding from ectopic varices. Methods. From 1995 to 2004, 24 cirrhotic patients, bleeding from ectopic varices, mean age 54.5 years (range 15-76 years), were treated by TIPS. The etiology of cirrhosis was alcoholic in 13 patients and nonalcoholic in 11 patients. The location of the varices was duodenal (n = 5), stomal (n = 8), ileocolic (n = 6), anorectal (n = 3), umbilical (n = 1), and peritoneal (n 1). Results. TIPS controlled the bleeding in all patients and induced a decrease in the portacaval gradient from 19.7 ± 5.4 to 6.4 ± 3.1 mmHg. Postoperative complications included self-limited intra-abdominal bleeding (n = 2), self-limited hemobilia (n = 1), acute thrombosis of the shunt (n = 1), and bile leak treated by a covered stent (n = 1). Median follow-up was 592 days (range 28-2482 days). Rebleeding occurred in 6 patients. In 2 cases rebleeding was observed despite a post-TIPS portacaval gradient lower than 12 mmHg and was controlled by variceal embolization; 1 patient underwent surgical portacaval shunt and never rebled; in 3 patients rebleeding was related to TIPS stenosis and treated with shunt dilatation with addition of a new stent. The cumulative rate of rebleeding was 23% and 31% at 1 and 2 years, respectively. One- and 2-year survival rates were 80% and 76%, respectively. Conclusion. The present series demonstrates that bleeding from ectopic varices, a challenging clinical problem, can be managed safely by TIPS placement with low rebleeding and good survival rates

  14. Overview and guidelines of off-label use of methotrexate in ectopic pregnancy: report by CNGOF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marret, Henri; Fauconnier, Arnaud; Dubernard, Gil; Misme, Hélène; Lagarce, Laurence; Lesavre, Magali; Fernandez, Hervé; Mimoun, Camille; Tourette, Claire; Curinier, Sandra; Rabishong, Benoit; Agostini, Aubert

    2016-10-01

    Our objective is to describe off-label use of methotrexate in ectopic pregnancy treatment using evidence based medicine. The patient group includes all women with a pregnancy outside the usual endometrium, or of unknown location. Method used was a Medline search on ectopic pregnancy managed using methotrexate treatment; evidence synthesis was done based on this current literature analysis. Level of evidence (LE) were given according to the centre for evidence base medicine rules. Grade was proposed for guidelines but no recommendation was possible as misoprostol is off label use for all the indications studied. In the absence of any contraindication, the protocol recommended for medical treatment of ectopic pregnancy is a single intramuscular injection of methotrexate (MTX) at a dosage of 1mg/kg or 50mg/m(2) (Grade A). It can be repeated once at the same dose should the hCG concentration not fall sufficiently. Pretreatment laboratory results must include a complete blood count and kidney and liver function tests (in accordance with its marketing authorization). MTX is an alternative to conservative treatment such as laparoscopic salpingotomy for uncomplicated tubal pregnancy (Grade A) with pretreatment hCG levels≤5000IU/l (Grade B). Expectant management is preferred for hCG levelslocation persisting more than 10days in an asymptomatic woman who has an hCG level>2000IU/l, routine MTX treatment is an option. MTX is not indicated for combination with treatments such as mifepristone or potassium. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  15. Ectopic Overexpression of a Novel R2R3-MYB, NtMYB2 from Chinese Narcissus Represses Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Tobacco

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    Muhammad Anwar

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available R2R3 MYB transcription factors play key functions in the regulation of secondary metabolites. In the present study, a R2R3 MYB transcriptional factor NtMYB2 was identified from Chinese narcissus (Narcissus tazetta L. var. Chinensis Roem and functionally characterized. NtMYB2 belongs to subgroup 4 of the R2R3 MYB transcription factor family that are related to repressor MYBs involved in the regulation of anthocyanin and flavonoids. Transient expression confirmed that NtMYB2 strongly reduced the red pigmentation induced by MYB- anthocyanin activators in agro-infiltrated tobacco leaves. Ectopic expression of NtMYB2 in tobacco significantly reduced the pigmentation and altered the floral phenotypes in transgenic tobacco flowers. Gene expression analysis suggested that NtMYB2 repressed the transcript levels of structural genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway, especially the UFGT gene. NtMYB2 gene is expressed in all examined narcissus tissues; the levels of transcription in petals and corona is higher than other tissues and the transcription level at the bud stage was highest. These results show that NtMYB2 is involved in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway and may act as a repressor by down regulating the transcripts of key enzyme genes in Chinese narcissus.

  16. Ectopic Overexpression of a Novel R2R3-MYB, NtMYB2 from Chinese Narcissus Represses Anthocyanin Biosynthesis in Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Muhammad; Wang, Guiqing; Wu, Jiacheng; Waheed, Saquib; Allan, Andrew C; Zeng, Lihui

    2018-03-28

    R2R3 MYB transcription factors play key functions in the regulation of secondary metabolites. In the present study, a R2R3 MYB transcriptional factor NtMYB2 was identified from Chinese narcissus ( Narcissus tazetta L. var. Chinensis Roem) and functionally characterized. NtMYB2 belongs to subgroup 4 of the R2R3 MYB transcription factor family that are related to repressor MYBs involved in the regulation of anthocyanin and flavonoids. Transient expression confirmed that NtMYB2 strongly reduced the red pigmentation induced by MYB- anthocyanin activators in agro-infiltrated tobacco leaves. Ectopic expression of NtMYB2 in tobacco significantly reduced the pigmentation and altered the floral phenotypes in transgenic tobacco flowers. Gene expression analysis suggested that NtMYB2 repressed the transcript levels of structural genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway, especially the UFGT gene. NtMYB2 gene is expressed in all examined narcissus tissues; the levels of transcription in petals and corona is higher than other tissues and the transcription level at the bud stage was highest. These results show that NtMYB2 is involved in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway and may act as a repressor by down regulating the transcripts of key enzyme genes in Chinese narcissus.

  17. The cannabinoid receptor CB1 contributes to the development of ectopic lesions in a mouse model of endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Ana-Maria; Quattrone, Federica; Pannese, Maria; Ulisse, Adele; Candiani, Massimo; Diaz-Alonso, Javier; Velasco, Guillermo; Panina-Bordignon, Paola

    2017-01-01

    Does signaling via the cannabinoid (CB 1 ) receptor play a role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis in a mouse model? Mice treated with a CB 1 agonist developed larger ectopic lesions, while less severe lesions developed in the absence of functional CB 1 expression. The expression of components of the endocannabinoid system has been demonstrated in both mouse and human uteri. CB 1 receptors are expressed in human epithelial and stromal cell lines derived from eutopic endometrium and deep infiltrating endometriosis nodules. This was a randomized study in a mouse model of endometriosis. In a first set of experiments, mice with endometriosis were treated with the CB 1 receptor agonist methanandamide (MET) (5 mg/kg, n = 20) on Days 1-5 and 8-12. In a second set of experiments, endometriosis development was evaluated in CB 1 -/- mice and in their wild-type (WT) littermates. Endometriosis-like lesions were induced in Balb/c and C57/Bl6 mice. Two weeks after disease induction, the lesions were counted, measured and either included for immunohistochemistry analysis or frozen for gene expression profiling by semi-quantitative real-time PCR. To limit the role of chance, the experiments were conducted under standardized laboratory conditions with appropriate controls. The lesion total volume was significantly higher in MET-treated compared with vehicle-treated mice (P endometriosis in a mouse model. However, the relative contribution of the CB 1 -mediated signaling pathways active in inflammatory, uterine and peritoneal cells remains to be ascertained. Since the study was performed in a mouse model, the significance of the findings in the human system warrants further investigation. Clarifying the function and regulation of CB 1 and its molecular interactions with endogenous ligands, and how endocannabinoids levels are regulated in women with endometriosis, represent critical areas of research for the potential development of a novel medical treatment of the disease. A

  18. Ectopic external auditory canal and ossicular formation in the oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supakul, Nucharin [Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Department of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Radiology, Bangkok (Thailand); Kralik, Stephen F. [Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Ho, Chang Y. [Indiana University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Indianapolis, IN (United States); Riley Children' s Hospital, MRI Department, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Ear abnormalities in oculo-auricular-vertebral spectrum commonly present with varying degrees of external and middle ear atresias, usually in the expected locations of the temporal bone and associated soft tissues, without ectopia of the external auditory canal. We present the unique imaging of a 4-year-old girl with right hemifacial microsomia and ectopic location of an atretic external auditory canal, terminating in a hypoplastic temporomandibular joint containing bony structures with the appearance of auditory ossicles. This finding suggests an early embryological dysfunction involving Meckel's cartilage of the first branchial arch. (orig.)

  19. Hepatopathy in an adult, secondary to congenital untreated panhypopituitarism and ectopic posterior pituitary gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A Valle-Murillo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a rare case of an adult with advanced liver failure in the setting of an untreated congenital panhypopituitarism. A 32-years-old man presented with a newly onset seizure episode secondary to hypoglycemia. In the initial exploration, we found eunuchoid habitus, absence of secondary sexual characteristics, ascites, and hepatic encephalopathy. Hormonal evaluation confirmed the absence of anterior hypophyseal hormones and the liver function tests showed derangement of liver function. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI showed hypoplastic adenohypophysis and ectopic posterior pituitary gland. In the approach to liver disease, no cause was identified, besides the untreated panhypopituitarism.

  20. Hepatopathy in an adult, secondary to congenital untreated panhypopituitarism and ectopic posterior pituitary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle-Murillo, Miguel A; Perez-Diaz, Ivan

    2012-09-01

    We report a rare case of an adult with advanced liver failure in the setting of an untreated congenital panhypopituitarism. A 32-years-old man presented with a newly onset seizure episode secondary to hypoglycemia. In the initial exploration, we found eunuchoid habitus, absence of secondary sexual characteristics, ascites, and hepatic encephalopathy. Hormonal evaluation confirmed the absence of anterior hypophyseal hormones and the liver function tests showed derangement of liver function. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) showed hypoplastic adenohypophysis and ectopic posterior pituitary gland. In the approach to liver disease, no cause was identified, besides the untreated panhypopituitarism.