Tsai, Jack; Rosenheck, Robert A
Although criminal justice involvement and incarceration are common problems for homeless veterans, few studies have examined childhood risk factors for criminal justice involvement among veterans. This study examined the association between three types of childhood problems, family instability, conduct disorder behaviors, and childhood abuse, and criminal justice involvement and incarceration in adulthood. Data from 1,161 homeless veterans across 19 sites participating in the Housing and Urban Development-Veterans Affairs Supportive Housing program were examined. After controlling for sociodemographics and mental health diagnoses, veterans who reported more conduct disorder behaviors during childhood tended to report more criminal charges of all types, more convictions, and longer periods of incarceration during adulthood. However, the variance explained in criminal behavior by childhood was not large, suggesting that there are other factors that affect the trajectory by which homeless veterans become involved in the criminal justice system. Further research is needed to intervene in the pathway to the criminal justice system and guide efforts to prevent incarceration among veterans. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Faries Douglas E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals with schizophrenia may have a higher risk of encounters with the criminal justice system than the general population, but there are limited data on such encounters and their attendant costs. This study assessed the prevalence of encounters with the criminal justice system, encounter types, and the estimated cost attributable to these encounters in the one-year treatment of persons with schizophrenia. Methods This post-hoc analysis used data from a prospective one-year cost-effectiveness study of persons treated with antipsychotics for schizophrenia and related disorders in the United States. Criminal justice system involvement was assessed using the Schizophrenia Patients Outcome Research Team (PORT client survey and the victimization subscale of the Lehman Quality of Life Interview (QOLI. Direct cost of criminal justice system involvement was estimated using previously reported costs per type of encounter. Patients with and without involvement were compared on baseline characteristics and direct annual health care and criminal justice system-related costs. Results Overall, 278 (46% of 609 participants reported at least 1 criminal justice system encounter. They were more likely to be substance users and less adherent to antipsychotics compared to participants without involvement. The 2 most prevalent types of encounters were being a victim of a crime (67% and being on parole or probation (26%. The mean annual per-patient cost of involvement was $1,429, translating to 6% of total annual direct health care costs for those with involvement (11% when excluding crime victims. Conclusions Criminal justice system involvement appears to be prevalent and costly for persons treated for schizophrenia in the United States. Findings highlight the need to better understand the interface between the mental health and the criminal justice systems and the related costs, in personal, societal, and economic terms.
Parsons, Jim; Bergin, Tiffany
The aftermath of violent crime can leave victims with persistent emotional and mental health problems. Although research has shown the potential benefits of prosecuting cases through the courts, there is also a substantial literature that suggests that common features of the criminal justice system can exacerbate the impact of the initial crime, leading to a secondary victimization. The authors present a review of the research on the positive and negative impact of criminal justice involvement, and common points of failure in the efforts of justice institutions to meet the needs of victims. They conclude with recommendations for future work, including the need for research on restorative justice, victim impact statements, court notification systems, victim services, and victim advocates.
Majer, John M.; Salina, Doreen D.; Jason, Leonard A.
Social support types (abstinence, appraisal, belonging, tangible) were analyzed among a sample of women with criminal justice involvement and substance use disorders (n = 200). Hierarchical linear regression was conducted to examine social support types in relation to changes in abstinence self-efficacy while controlling for incarceration histories. Only abstinence social support and tangible social support predicted significant increases in abstinence self-efficacy, with tangible support accounting for more variance in the analytic model. Findings suggest women with criminal justice involvement who have substance use disorders have basic needs that if met would have an indirect effect on their recovery. Implications for treatment and research are discussed. PMID:26949443
Mitchell, Jessica N; Clark, Colleen; Guenther, Christina C
The relationship between criminal justice involvement and housing among homeless persons with co-occurring disorders was examined. Program participants assisted in moving to stable housing were interviewed at baseline, six months, and discharge. Those who remained homeless at follow-up and discharge had significantly more time in jail in the past month than those who were housed. However, criminal justice involvement was not significantly related to housing status at the six month follow-up or discharge. Findings suggest that housing people with complex behavioral health issues reduces the likelihood of further criminal justice involvement.
Desai, R A; Lam, J; Rosenheck, R A
It has been suggested that criminal justice involvement among the homeless, particularly those with mental illness, is largely situational. The objective of this study was to assess, in a sample of homeless seriously mentally ill people, the prevalence of childhood conduct disorder behaviors as a risk factor for adult criminal activity as well as the extent and types of adult criminal justice contact. Data were taken from the national ACCESS program, which conducted extensive baseline interviews with 7,222 homeless seriously mentally ill adults. The interview assessed demographics, childhood risk factors for criminal activity such as conduct disorder behaviors, foster care, and parental abuse, as well as current illness severity and recent criminal justice contact. The 2-month arrest rate in this sample was much higher than national rates (11% compared with 1% annually in the general population). Although most arrests were for minor crimes (10.8%), there were also substantial rates of arrest for major (2.7%) and substance-related charges (2.0%). The prevalence of a history of conduct disorder behavior was also substantial (55% in male subjects, 40% in female subjects), and conduct disorder was a strong predictor of recent criminal justice involvement, even after controlling for other predictors of arrest (odds ratio = 1.76 for major crimes, 1.49 for minor crimes, and 1.98 for substance-related crimes). Recent literature has criticized a trend to criminalize homeless mentally ill persons for attempting to get needed food, shelter, or medical attention. However, these data indicate that at least some proportion of arrests in this population are of people who have been exhibiting antisocial behavior since early adolescence, and that early antisocial behavior is a strong predictor of all types of recent arrests in this population.
McAra, Lesley; McVie, Susan
This report explores transitions into the adult criminal justice system amongst a large cohort of young people who were involved in the Edinburgh Study of Youth Transitions and Crime. It includes: a description of patterns of criminal convictions and disposals for young people up to age 19 (on average); an examination of the characteristics and institutional histories of cohort members with a criminal record as compared with youngsters with no such record; and an exploration of the profile of...
Johnson, Jennifer E; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Miranda, Robert; Rizzo, Christie J; Justus, Alicia N; Clum, George
Knowing where criminal justice-involved teens look for support and whether those supports reduce depression has important and possibly gender-specific treatment implications for this vulnerable population. This study examines the relationships between social support and depression in a mixed-gender sample of 198 incarcerated adolescents. Greater support from families and overall and greater satisfaction with supports predicted lower depression for boys and girls. Support from siblings and extended family strongly predicted lower depression; support from parents and from friends was either not related or only weakly related to depression. Girls reported higher levels of depression, more support from friends and extended family, and less support from parents than did boys. Family, sibling, and overall support were stronger predictors of depression for girls than for boys. Results suggest that nonparent family members, especially siblings and extended family, provide important emotional resources for teens in the criminal justice system. © 2011 SAGE Publications
Basto-Pereira, Miguel; Miranda, Ana; Ribeiro, Sofia; Maia, Ângela
Several studies have been carried out to investigate the effect of child maltreatment on juvenile justice involvement and future criminal life. However, little is known about the impact of other forms of adversity, beyond abuse and neglect, on juvenile delinquency and criminal persistence. The effect of early adversity on psychosocial problems is underexplored, particularly in juvenile delinquents. This study, using the Childhood Adverse Experiences (ACE) questionnaire, a tool accessing the exposure to different types of abuse, neglect and serious household dysfunction, explored the role of each adverse experience on juvenile justice involvement, persistence in crime and psychosocial problems during young adulthood. A Portuguese sample of 75 young adults with official records of juvenile delinquency in 2010/2011, and 240 young adults from a community sample completed ACE questionnaire and measures of psychosocial adjustment. Seven out of ten adverse experiences were significantly more prevalent in young adults with juvenile justice involvement than in the community sample, after matching the main demographic variables. The strongest predictor of juvenile justice involvement and criminal persistence during early adulthood was sexual abuse. Dimensions of child/adolescent emotional maltreatment and a mental illness in the household predicted a set of psychosocial problems in young adulthood. This study indicates that early adversity is significantly related to juvenile justice involvement, criminal persistence and psychosocial problems. This study also suggests that each experience has a different role in this process. There is an urgent need to screen, prevent and stop serious adversity. Future scientific directions and recommendations for policies are provided. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Johnson, Jennifer E.; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Miranda, Robert; Rizzo, Christie J.; Justus, Alicia N.; Clum, George
Knowing where criminal justice involved teens look for support and whether those supports reduce depression has important and possibly gender-specific treatment implications for this vulnerable population. This study examines the relationships between social support and depression in a mixed-gender sample of 198 incarcerated adolescents. Greater support from families and overall and greater satisfaction with supports predicted lower depression for boys and girls. Support from siblings and ext...
J.R. Blad (John)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ Is criminal justice becoming more and uncivilised if so, how could this be explained? Could Is criminal justice becoming more and uncivilised if so, how could this be explained? Could Is criminal justice becoming more and uncivilised if so, how could this be
Adler, Joanna R.
This chapter is designed to give the reader a flavour of a few areas in which psychology has been applied to criminal justice. It begins by providing some historical context and showing the development of some applications of psychology to criminal justice. The chapter is broadly split into 3 sections: Pre Trial; Trial; and Post Trial. In most of this chapter, the areas considered assess how psychology has had an influence on the law and how psychologists work within criminal justice settings...
Full Text Available This study aims to determine how the application of the concept of restorative justice in accordance with Law No. 11 of 2012 on Child Criminal Justice system. This study uses normative namely a study that discusses the problem based on the literature and legislation relating to the matter to be investigated. Law No. 11 of 2012 on the Criminal Justice System Child has provided a new concept in the criminal justice system, especially those in the juvenile justice system. Related to the concept of Restorative Justice or restorative justice is a resolution processes involving perpetrators, victims, families, and other relevant parties in a criminal act, jointly seek solutions to the offense and its implications by emphasizing restoration and not retribution
Epperson, Matthew W.; Wolff, Nancy; Morgan, Robert D.; Fisher, William H.; Frueh, B. Christopher; Huening, Jessica
The purpose of this paper is to cast a vision for the next generation of behavioral health and criminal justice interventions for persons with serious mental illnesses in the criminal justice system. The limitations of first generation interventions, including their primary focus on mental health treatment connection, are discussed. A person-place framework for understanding the complex factors that contribute to criminal justice involvement for this population is presented. We discuss practice and research recommendations for building more effective interventions to address both criminal justice and mental health outcomes. PMID:24666731
Full Text Available The value of justice in Act No. 11 of 2012 concerns the Child Criminal Justice System Act No. SPPA confirms the Restorative Justice Approach as a method of disputes resolution. The method of research used was normative-legal research with philosophical approach. The results showed that the value of restorative justice through diversion contained in Act SPPA but the diversion limit for certain types of criminal acts and threats of punishment under seven 7 years and not a repetition criminal recidivists. This indicates that Act SPPA still contained a retributive justice not promote the interests of protection for child.
Edalati, Hanie; Nicholls, Tonia L; Crocker, Anne G; Roy, Laurence; Somers, Julian M; Patterson, Michelle L
Exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) is highly prevalent among homeless individuals and is associated with negative consequences during homelessness. This study examined the effect of ACEs on the risk of criminal justice involvement and victimization among homeless individuals with mental illness. The study used baseline data from a demonstration project (At Home/Chez Soi) that provided Housing First and recovery-oriented services to homeless adults with mental illness. The sample was recruited from five Canadian cities and included participants who provided valid responses on an ACEs questionnaire (N=1,888). Fifty percent reported more than four types of ACE, 19% reported three or four types, 19% reported one or two, and 12% reported none. Rates of criminal justice involvement and victimization were significantly higher among those with a history of ACEs. For victimization, the association was significant for all ten types of ACE, and for justice involvement, it was significant for seven types. Logistic regression models indicated that the effect of cumulative childhood adversity on the two outcomes was significant regardless of sociodemographic factors, duration of homelessness, and psychiatric diagnosis, with one exception: the relationship between cumulative childhood adversity and criminal justice involvement did not remain significant when the analysis controlled for a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder and substance dependence. Findings support the need for early interventions for at-risk youths and trauma-informed practice and violence prevention policies that specifically target homeless populations.
Golder, Seana; Logan, T K
This research identified three subgroups of drug-involved men based on severity of self-reported violence perpetration against intimate or nonintimate partners among a sample of 148 men selected from a subsample of participants in the Kentucky National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) AIDS Cooperative Agreement. Men in the No Violence group accounted for approximately 19% of the total respondents, men in the Moderate Violence Severity and Extreme Violence Severity groups comprises 56% and 25% of the sample, respectively. Men in the Extreme Violence Severity group experienced significantly more psychological victimization as children and more frequent physical childhood abuse than did their peers. Men in the Extreme Violence Severity group reported having earlier involvement in the criminal justice system and lawbreaking behavior; they also reported higher frequency of marijuana and crack use. Implications for treatment and future research are presented.
Batastini, Ashley B; Bolanos, Angelea D; Morgan, Robert D
Individuals with mental health diagnoses, as well as those involved in the criminal justice system, experience a number of barriers in the recovery and reintegration progress, including access to stable, prosocial employment opportunities. Employment for these populations is important for establishing financial security, reducing unstructured leisure time, increasing self-worth, and improving interpersonal skills. However, research has demonstrated that individuals with psychiatric and/or criminal backgrounds may experience stigmatizing attitudes from employers that impede their ability to find adequate work. This study aimed to evaluate stigmatizing beliefs toward hypothetical applicants who indicated a mental health history, a criminal history, or both, as well as the effectiveness of psychoeducation in reducing stigma. Participants consisted of 465 individuals recruited from a large university who completed a series of online questions about a given applicant. Results of this study varied somewhat across measures of employability, but were largely consistent with extant research suggesting that mental illness and criminal justice involvement serve as deterrents when making hiring decisions. Overall, psychoeducation appeared to reduce stigma for hiring decisions when the applicant presented with a criminal history. Unfortunately, similar findings were not revealed when applicants presented with a psychiatric or a psychiatric and criminal history. Implications and limitations of these findings are presented, along with suggestions for future research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
As with any country, crime and justice and the contours of criminal justice have to be situated within the particular historical, social, and political context. Nowhere is this truer than in Northern Ireland, where the criminal justice system that has emerged has been shaped by a violent political conflict which spanned over three decades (from the late 1960s to the late 1990s). In the transition to peace, the reform of criminal justice agencies has been central—to a wider project of state le...
Croddy, Marshall; And Others
An introduction to criminal law, processes, and justice is provided in this high school level text. Content is divided into six chapters, each treating a particular aspect of criminal procedure and the social and political issues surrounding it. Chapter 1 considers the criminal, the effects of crime on its victims, and legislation to aid victims.…
DeZee, Matthew R.
The scholarly productivity of criminology and criminal justice faculty and programs was investigated. The methodologies that were used to rate journals that publish articles in the criminology/criminal justice field and to select 71 schools with graduate programs in criminology or criminal justice are described. Primary interest focused on…
Full Text Available The future of the children will determine the future of the nation. The increasing problem of juvenile delinquency in this globalization and information technology era, requires the state to give more attention to the child's future. Application of the criminal justice system for children in Indonesia is as stipulated in Law Number 3 of 1997 potentially detrimental to the child's interests. In practice, the judicial system had many problems, among them is a violation of the rights of children, such as: physical and psychological violence, as well as deprivation of the right to education and welfare. It happened because the juvenile justice system is against to national and international regulations on the protection of children’s rights. Besides that, theory of punishment for the juvenile delinquency still refers to the concept of retribution for the crimes. This concept is not very useful for the development of the child, so the concept need to be repaired with the concept of restorative justice. With this concept, the criminal justice system for the juvenile delinquency, leads to the restoration of the state and the settlement pattern, involving the perpetrator, the victim, their families and engage with the community. This is done with consideration for the protection of children against the law. Whereas in line with this spirit of the restorative justice, it gives birth to the Law No. 11 of 2012 on The Criminal Justice System of Children. How To Cite: Ansori, A. (2014. Criminal Justice System of Children in The Law Number 11 of 2012 (Restorative Justice. Rechtsidee, 1(1, 11-26. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.21070/jihr.v1i1.95
Erinda Duraj (Male
Full Text Available Children are a central concern of international criminal justice. International crimes and other forms of violence and the abuse of children are disturbing daily realities in today’s world. Children and young persons are increasingly being targeted for the purposes of murder, rape, abduction, mutilation, recruitment as child soldiers, trafficking, sexual exploitation and other abuses. Sierra Leone, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Colombia, and many others illustrate this. The participation of children in international criminal justice and other accountability mechanisms is now one of the major issues facing criminal justice today. In this sense, this paper presents a short overview on the issue of children and their participation in international criminal justice. The paper thus focuses on giving a definition of “child/children” according to international norms, which are the key principles of children’s rights, their participation in the criminal justice system, the different international crimes committed by them or against them etc. Also, this paper briefly addresses the main contours of the normative framework regarding the criminal responsibility of children for their alleged participation in international crimes. It reviews international norms regarding children who may be accused of having participated in the commission of such crimes themselves (as child soldiers and identifies their criminal responsibility for such acts. Finally, this paper acknowledges the obligations of states under international law to prosecute persons accused of genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity, torture and enforced disappearances, specifically focusing on crimes against children.
Kopak, Albert M
Recent political commentary in the USA has suggested that there is great potential for current criminal justice practices designed for drug-involved offenders to be significantly overhauled in the near future. It is imperative to plan for these changes by assessing how well current programs serve drug-involved criminal justice populations. The paper aims to discuss these issues. This critical assessment begins with an overview of the most recent research on the prevalence and impact that substance use disorders have within the criminal justice system. Although the evidence demonstrates that relying on incarceration as a crime control method for drug-involved offenders has many shortcomings, there are innovative new programs being adopted across the country. Two of these promising programs are discussed, as well as the potential results that could be realized from integrating medication assisted treatment into appropriate criminal justice programs designed for drug-involved offenders. Incarceration is a failed practice for attending to the underlying reasons why many drug-involved offenders become involved in criminal activities. There are encouraging new programs emerging in different parts of the USA, but the inclusion of supplemental treatment options could further promote positive outcomes. The impending expansion of criminal justice programs for drug-involved offenders must consider how innovative new programs can be fused with supplemental treatment options to achieve the best results.
Full Text Available At each stage of criminal procedure involving children (juveniles in conflict with the law, it is important to be ensured the fundamental rights provided by international standards, as well by national criminal legislation. Starting with the first contact of the child with criminal justice system until the pronunciation of the decision by the Court, including the enforcement of the punishment, the juvenile must be supervised by qualified professionals from criminal justice system, who could intervene in each moment with a purpose of providing pertinent information to criminal investigative body and to the Court, in order to establish a proportionate and equitable punishment.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have compared self-reported criminal behaviour with high-quality databases of criminal offences and judicial sanctions. Self-reported problems from drug abusers are generally believed to be valid. We assessed the validity of self-reported theft, drug offences and prison sentences from a five-year follow-up of female substance abusers who were originally treated in a compulsory care unit in Lund, run by the Swedish Board of Institutional Care. Methods Data from a total of 106 of a consecutive sample of 132 women inter-viewed in a five-year follow-up. All were thoroughly assessed for somatic complaints, psychiatric and psychological problems, background factors with standardized instruments. Data over the five years were linked to official records of judicial sanctions, retrieved from The National Council for Crime Prevention, Stockholm, Sweden. Register data have a full cover for the whole cohort. The current data base contain full data back to 1975 up to 2004. Results Agreement was assessed for each year, as well as for the total period. Statistical control was performed for other types of crimes and prison. Although statistically significant, agreement was modest, and in contrast to previous studies, patients under-reported violence charges. Conclusion The findings suggest that self-reports of criminal behaviour from women can be used with some caution, and that the validity of self-report may vary between types of criminal justice system involvement.
Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott; Kasiborski, Natalie; Karim, Nidal; Schmittel, Emily
This longitudinal study of 83 incarcerated women, who gave birth during incarceration and retained their parental rights through brief sentences, examines the intersection between subsequent criminal justice involvement postrelease and child welfare outcomes. Ten years of multiple state-level administrative data sets are used to determine if arrest or conviction predict foster care and/or termination of parental rights. Findings indicate that only felony arrest is a significant predictor of foster care involvement. Additionally, 69% of mothers retained legal custody, despite subsequent criminal involvement for many, suggesting supportive parenting programs and resources need to be available to these women throughout and after incarceration.
Full Text Available This research reviews the essence of the restorative justice principle as an approach in the settlement of criminal cases, and it aims to provide an overview of the construction of the restorative justice principle in criminal law enforcement. The outcomes of the research indicate that the restorative justice principle has been subject to frequent study in its understanding as an alternative criminal case settlement method, by way of positioning outside the criminal judiciary system. As it turns out in practice, however, it has certain weaknesses, particularly in view of the accountability and legitimacy aspects of its establishment. Therefore, there is a need for a scientific investigation process for the purpose of determining the status of parties involved in a case, as well as for positioning the case concerned. Based on such view, the restorative justice principle appears to be the ideal approach to be applied in the criminal judiciary system.
The Justice George Lewis Ruffin Society is an organization founded in 1984 to support minority professionals in the Massachusetts criminal justice system. The Society began the sponsorship of statewide Convocations in 1992. These events provide minority criminal justice professionals with the opportunity to focus on pertinent topics through expert presentations, panel discussions, and peer interactions. Because of its increasing importance in the criminal justice process at large, and growing significance to the minority community in particular, the committee determined that the 1994 Convocation would focus on DNA. A decision was made to concentrate both on the science and the ethical and moral considerations pertinent to its application. The committee determined that along with expert presentations, a large portion of each day`s program should be devoted to workshops, designed to provide participants with an opportunity to review, test and discuss the material in a small group environment. Overall objectives of the Convocation were to provide minority and non-minority criminal justice professionals with a basic foundation in the science of genetics as well as current developments in genetic diagnostic technology, to highlight the actual and potential application of DNA technology to the criminal justice system and elsewhere, and to underscore the implications of these developments for criminal justice policy and the law.
... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs [OJP (NIJ) Docket No. 1512] Draft NIJ Restraints Standard for Criminal Justice AGENCY: National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, DOJ. ACTION: Notice of Draft NIJ Restraints Standard for Criminal Justice and Certification Program...
Zaller, Nickolas; Cheney, Ann M; Curran, Geoffrey M; Booth, Brenda M; Borders, Tyrone F
African Americans are incarcerated at rates much higher than other racial and ethnic groups in the United States. We sought to qualitatively explore the relationships between ongoing involvement in the criminal justice system and continued drug use in a population of urban and rural African American cocaine users in a southern state. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted among African American cocaine users in Arkansas between 2010 and 2012. Participants resided in both rural (two counties located in the eastern Arkansas Mississippi delta region) and urban (the county including the capital city of Little Rock) areas. Numerous important themes emerged from participants' narratives, including chronic involvement with the criminal justice system (being a "career criminal"), continued access to drugs while incarcerated, relapse, and reincarceration and lack of access to effective drug treatment. Conclusion/Importance: The themes which emerged from our data speak to the collective experience that many substance using populations in the United States face in dealing with the criminal justice system. Our findings highlight the need to better, more holistic ways of engaging African American substance users in community based substance use treatment and supportive services.
... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criminal justice policy coordination. 0.85a Section 0.85a Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Federal Bureau of Investigation § 0.85a Criminal justice policy coordination. The Federal Bureau...
... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criminal Justice Information Services Advisory Policy Board. 20.35 Section 20.35 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE..., concept, and operational principles of various criminal justice information systems managed by the FBI's...
International Criminal Justice and the Politics of Compliance provides a comprehensive study of compliance with legal obligations derived from the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia's (ICTY) Statute and integrates theoretical debates on compliance into international justice
Lisa J. Laplante, University of Connecticut-School of Law, Estados Unidos
Full Text Available Abstract: This Article responds to an apparent gap in the scholarly literature which fails to merge the fields of human rights law and international criminal law—a step that would resolve the current debate as to whether any amnesty in transitional justice settings is lawful. More specifically, even though both fields are a subset of transitional justice in general, the discipline of international criminal law still supports the theory of “qualified amnesties” in transitional justice schemes, while international human rights law now stands for the proposition that no amnesty is lawful in those settings. This Article brings attention to this new development through a discussion of the Barrios Altos case. This Article seeks to reveal how an international human rights decision can dramatically impact state practice, thus also contributing to a pending question in international human rights law as to whether such jurisprudence is effective in increasing human rights protections. The Article concludes by looking at the implications of this new legal development in regard to amnesties in order to encourage future research regarding the role of criminal justice in transitional justice schemes. Keywords: Amnesty in the Americas. Transitional Justice. Human Rights Violations
Endalew Lijalem Enyew
Full Text Available Restorative Justice (RJ is an alternative way of apprehending crime and justice which views crime as a violation of a relationship among victims, offenders and community, and which allows the active participation of the crime’s stakeholders. It has the objective of ‘putting right’ the wrong done, to restore the broken relationship and to reintegrate the offender back into society. The Ethiopian criminal justice system views crime primarily as a violation of the state’s criminal laws, either in the form of a commission or omission. It excludes the community from participation, and gives no opportunity to the victim to fully participate in the process. Nor is there a satisfactory legal procedure which enables the public prosecutor to adequately protect the victim’s interest. The focus of the public prosecutor is to have the accused convicted and punished, instead of encouraging them to take responsibility to undo the wrong they have committed. This article thus examines whether restorative justice has a place in the formal legal framework of the existing Ethiopian criminal justice system; and analyses the prospects for, and the challenges that may hinder, the implementation of restorative justice practice in this framework.
Elbogen, Eric B; Johnson, Sally C; Newton, Virginia M; Straits-Troster, Kristy; Vasterling, Jennifer J; Wagner, H Ryan; Beckham, Jean C
Although criminal behavior in veterans has been cited as a growing problem, little is known about why some veterans are at increased risk for arrest. Theories of criminal behavior postulate that people who have been exposed to stressful environments or traumatic events and who report negative affect such as anger and irritability are at increased risk of antisocial conduct. We hypothesized veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or traumatic brain injury (TBI) who report anger/irritability would show higher rates of criminal arrests. To test this, we examined data in a national survey of N = 1,388 Iraq and Afghanistan war era veterans. We found that 9% of respondents reported arrests since returning home from military service. Most arrests were associated with nonviolent criminal behavior resulting in incarceration for less than 2 weeks. Unadjusted bivariate analyses revealed that veterans with probable PTSD or TBI who reported anger/irritability were more likely to be arrested than were other veterans. In multivariate analyses, arrests were found to be significantly related to younger age, male gender, having witnessed family violence, prior history of arrest, alcohol/drug misuse, and PTSD with high anger/irritability but were not significantly related to combat exposure or TBI. Findings show that a subset of veterans with PTSD and negative affect may be at increased risk of criminal arrest. Because arrests were more strongly linked to substance abuse and criminal history, clinicians should also consider non-PTSD factors when evaluating and treating veterans with criminal justice involvement.
Jacobs, Philip; Moffatt, Jessica; Dewa, Carolyn S; Nguyen, Thanh; Zhang, Ting; Lesage, Alain
Mental illness has been widely cited as a driver of costs in the criminal justice system. The objective of this paper is to estimate the additional mental health service costs incurred within the criminal justice system that are incurred because of people with mental illnesses who go through the system. Our focus is on costs in Alberta. We set up a model of the flow of all persons through the criminal justice system, including police, court, and corrections components, and for mental health diversion, review, and forensic services. We estimate the transitional probabilities and costs that accrue as persons who have been charged move through the system. Costs are estimated for the Alberta criminal justice system as a whole, and for the mental illness component. Public expenditures for each person diverted or charged in Alberta in the criminal justice system, including mental health costs, were $16,138. The 95% range of this estimate was from $14,530 to $19,580. Of these costs, 87% were for criminal justice services and 13% were for mental illness-related services. Hospitalization for people with mental illness who were reviewed represented the greatest additional cost associated with mental illnesses. Treatment costs stemming from mental illnesses directly add about 13% onto those in the criminal justice system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The criminal justice projects at SNL include three projects for the National Institute of Justice (smart gun, restraining foam, aqueous foam, corrections perimeter), a Southwest Border study, and one involving corrections agencies. It is concluded that the national technologies developed to protect nuclear and other high value assets have enormous potential for application to crime and personal safety; the difficulty lies in simplifying the technology transfer and making the new systems affordable.
It is only recently that domestic violence has been considered a violation of the law. Although men have battered, abused and mistreated their wives or intimate partners for a long time, historically, wife or partner abuse has been viewed as a "normal" part of marriage or intimate relationships. Only towards the end of the twentieth century, in the 1970 s, has domestic violence been defined a crime, justifying intervention by the criminal justice system. This article surveys the history of domestic violence as a criminal offense, and the justice system response to woman battering incidents. It first discusses the definition of the offense including debates around the offense definition, and the prevalence and reported frequency of the behavior termed woman battering. It then reviews the legal and social changes over time that have altered the criminal justice system s approach to domestic violence. Next it outlines the responses of the police, and the prosecution of domestic violence. The article also discusses research findings related to domestic violence and the criminal justice system, along with current controversies concerning the justice approach to domestic violence, its law enforcement, and related unfolding trends in the movement to address domestic violence through the criminal justice system.
Gonzalo Aguilar Cavallo
Full Text Available The international criminal justice has experienced a rapid change over the past years. This circumstance has underscored the need for interaction and complementation between international and domestic law. Some authors consider that the international criminal justice, and the activities of its tribunals, jeopardize the legality of international law. Our vision is that international criminal justice is a central pillar of the rule of law, at the national and the international levels. Far from undermining the legality of international law, international criminal justice paves the way towards a true international public order.
conference in July 2014 on the theme 'International Criminal Justice,. Reconciliation ... International Criminal Court (ICC) had come to occupy in discussions .... Pella, V. P., 1950, 'Towards an international criminal court', The American Journal.
Marianne L. Wade
Full Text Available This article sets out to explore the premise of general principles in what is labelled transnationalised criminal justice (encompassing the substantive and procedural law as well as the institutions of transnational criminal law and European criminal law. Whilst there can be no denying that these are diverse and divergent areas of law in many ways, their fundamental common denominator of seeking to convict individuals whilst subjecting these to arrest, detention and deprivation of other rights across borders, is taken as a baseline around which certain general principles may gravitate. The current state of executive over-reach within transnationalised criminal justice structures is studied, particularly in relation to the European criminal justice context. This over-reach is explored utilising the theoretical framework of social contract theory. It is suggested that the transfer of investigative and prosecutorial powers to transnationalised contexts undertaken by the relevant executives without seeking to temper this assignment with mechanisms to secure the rights of individuals which counter-balance these, as required by the constitutional traditions of their country, can be regarded as in breach of the social contract. Using this thought experiment, this article provides a framework with which to identify the deficits of transnationalised criminal law. The way in which such deficits undermine the legitimacy of the institutions created by states to operate the mechanisms of transnationalised criminal justice as well as the fundamental values of their own constitutions is, however, demonstrated as concrete. The latter are identified as mechanisms for deducing the general principles of transnationalised criminal justice (albeit via difficult international negotiation. If the supranationalisation of criminal justice powers is not to be regarded as a tool undermining constitutional values and effectively allowing executives acting in an
Nouwen, Sarah Maria; Werner, Wouter G
Over the past two decades, international criminal law has been increasingly institutionalized and has become one of the dominant frames for defining issues of justice and conflict resolution. Indeed, international criminal law is often presented as the road towards global justice. But the rise of international criminal law and its equation with global justice come with a profound risk: alternative conceptions of justice can be marginalized. Based on field work in Uganda and Sudan, we present ...
Lo, T Wing
This article examines the political and legal barriers to introducing restorative justice (RJ) in Hong Kong. It argues that the processes involved in RJ may be in conflict with the rule of law, which is regarded by the citizens of Hong Kong as sacrosanct in their resistance to the "mainlandization" of criminal justice practices after China resumed sovereignty of Hong Kong. It is argued that, because it could admit such potentially harmful Chinese criminal justice concepts as "rule by the people," "absence of the presumption of innocence," "leniency for self-confession and severity for resistance," and "toeing the party line," RJ would be devoid of any restorative substance and could breach the principles of due process.
Critical assessment of Nigeria criminal justice system and the perennial problem of awaiting trial in Port Harcourt maximum prison, Rivers State. ... Global Journal of Social Sciences ... Keywords: Nigeria criminal justice system, awaiting trial, rigidity of the penal law, holding charges, delay in the disposal of cases ...
Evaluates 15 criminal justice Web sites that have been selected according to the following criteria: authority, currency, purpose, objectivity, and potential usefulness to researchers. The sites provide narrative and statistical information concerning crime, law enforcement, the judicial system, and corrections. Searching techniques are also…
Walt, Lisa C; Hunter, Bronwyn; Salina, Doreen; Jason, Leonard
Researchers have suggested that interpersonal relationships, particularly romantic relationships, may influence women's attempts at substance abuse recovery and community re-entry after criminal justice system involvement. The present paper evaluates relational and power theories to conceptualize the influence of romantic partner and romantic relationship qualities on pathways in and out of substance abuse and crime. The paper then combines these conceptualizations with a complementary empirical analysis to describe an ongoing research project that longitudinally investigates these relational and power driven factors on women's substance abuse recovery and community re-entry success among former substance abusing, recently criminally involved women. This paper is designed to encourage the integration of theory and empirical analysis by detailing how each of these concepts are operationalized and measured. Future research and clinical implications are also discussed.
Zaller, Nickolas D; Cloud, David H; Brinkley-Rubinstein, Lauren; Martino, Sarah; Bouvier, Benjamin; Brockmann, Brad
Though the full implications of a Trump presidency for ongoing health care and criminal justice reform efforts remain uncertain, whatever policy changes are made will be particularly salient for the South, which experiences the highest incarceration rates, highest uninsured rates, and worst health outcomes in the United States. The passage of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) in 2010 was a watershed event and many states have taken advantage of opportunities created by the ACA to expand healthcare coverage to their poorest residents, and to develop partnerships between health and justice systems. Yet to date, only four have taken advantage of the benefits of healthcare reform. Expanding Medicaid would provide Southern states with the opportunity to significantly impact health outcomes for criminal justice-involved individuals. In the context of an uncertain policy landscape, we suggest the use of three strategies, focusing on advancing incremental change while safeguarding existing gains, rebranding Medicaid as a local or statewide initiative, and linking Medicaid expansion to criminal justice reform, in order to implement Medicaid expansion across the South.
Full Text Available Abstract Prisoners are entitled to have a reduction in criminal past remission as stipulated in the Indonesian Criminal Justice System still being debated to this day. This research reviews the essence of the implementation of the substantive law in granting remission against inmate corruption cases from the perspective of public and individual interests. The type of research used in this paper is socio-legal research reviewing remission policy from the perspective of the criminal law system with philosophical and statute approach. The outcomes of the research indicate that the implementation of granting remission for corruption prisoners does not provide justice both procedural and substantive does not provide legal expediency and arising imbalance of justice for individuals communities and countries. The need to implement remissions with impartial justice for corruption prisoners in granting remission to be useful for individuals communities and countries.
Diversion programs are initiatives in which persons with serious mental illness who are involved with the criminal justice system are redirected from traditional criminal justice pathways to the mental health and substance abuse treatment systems. This article is a review of the research literature conducted to determine whether the current evidence supports the use of diversion initiatives to reduce recidivism and to reduce incarceration among adults with serious mental illness with justice involvement. A structured literature search identified 21 publications or research papers for review that examined the criminal justice outcomes of various diversion models. The review revealed little evidence of the effectiveness of jail diversion in reducing recidivism among persons with serious mental illness. However, evidence was found that jail diversion initiatives can reduce the amount of jail time that persons with mental illness serve. Implications for practice and research are discussed.
Leutwyler, Heather; Hubbard, Erin; Zahnd, Elaine
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to discuss how case management can decrease recidivism for people with serious mental illness (SMI) because people with SMI are at high risk for incarceration and recidivism. Design/methodology/approach Examples of successful case management models for formerly incarcerated individuals with SMI found through a secondary analysis of qualitative data and an analysis of the literature are presented. Findings Currently, no international, national, or statewide guidelines exist to ensure that formerly incarcerated individuals with SMI receive case management upon community reentry despite evidence that such services can prevent further criminal justice involvement. Recommendations include establishment of and evaluation of best practices for case management. In addition, the authors recommend additional funding for case management with the goal of greatly increasing the number of individuals with SMI leaving the criminal justice system in their ability to access adequate case management. Originality/value Providing effective case management tailored to the needs of formerly incarcerated people with SMI improves their quality of life and reduces their involvement in the criminal justice system with clear positive outcomes for public safety and public health.
Carvalho, Henrique; Norrie, Alan W.
In this article, we offer a critical examination of the long and rich history of criminal justice scholarship in the pages of Social & Legal Studies. We do so by identifying and exploring a dialectical tension in such scholarship, between the recognition of the role of criminal justice as an instrument of violence, exclusion and control on the one hand, and the effort to seek, through or perhaps beyond the critique of criminal justice, an emancipatory project. We explore this tension by exami...
Full Text Available Slightly more than half of admissions to U.S. publicly-funded treatment for marijuana use are referred by the criminal justice system; this pattern has remained for at least 20 years. Nationally, Blacks comprise nearly a third of treatment admissions for marijuana use. This article explores the interplay between race and criminal justice referrals to treatment for marijuana use. Using data from the (U.S. 2011 Treatment Episode Data Set, we examine the relationship between race and diagnosis of cannabis use disorder (dependence versus abuse among referrals to community-based treatment in North Carolina. We compare Black/White differences in cannabis diagnoses across four referral sources: the criminal justice system, healthcare providers, self, and other sources. Race was significantly related to type of diagnosis across all four referral sources, however, the nature of the relationship was distinctly different among criminal justice referrals with Whites being more likely than Blacks to be diagnosed with cannabis dependence. Moreover, the marijuana use profiles of criminal justice referrals differed substantially from individuals referred by other sources. The findings suggest that diagnoses of cannabis abuse (rather than dependence may have worked to widen the diagnostic net by “capturing” individuals under control of the criminal justice system who manifested few problems with marijuana use, other than their involvement in the criminal justice system. The potential for a net-widening effect appeared to be most pronounced for Blacks.
McElrath, Karen; Taylor, Angela; Tran, Kimberly K.
Slightly more than half of admissions to U.S. publicly-funded treatment for marijuana use are referred by the criminal justice system; this pattern has remained for at least 20 years. Nationally, Blacks comprise nearly a third of treatment admissions for marijuana use. This article explores the interplay between race and criminal justice referrals to treatment for marijuana use. Using data from the (U.S.) 2011 Treatment Episode Data Set, we examine the relationship between race and diagnosis of cannabis use disorder (dependence versus abuse) among referrals to community-based treatment in North Carolina. We compare Black/White differences in cannabis diagnoses across four referral sources: the criminal justice system, healthcare providers, self, and other sources. Race was significantly related to type of diagnosis across all four referral sources, however, the nature of the relationship was distinctly different among criminal justice referrals with Whites being more likely than Blacks to be diagnosed with cannabis dependence. Moreover, the marijuana use profiles of criminal justice referrals differed substantially from individuals referred by other sources. The findings suggest that diagnoses of cannabis abuse (rather than dependence) may have worked to widen the diagnostic net by “capturing” individuals under control of the criminal justice system who manifested few problems with marijuana use, other than their involvement in the criminal justice system. The potential for a net-widening effect appeared to be most pronounced for Blacks. PMID:27706092
Full Text Available -1 Chapter Title: Race, crime and criminal justice in South Africa Bosilong, KP: CSIR DPSS, Pretoria Mbecke, P: CSIR DPSS, Pretoria ABSTRACT: This chapter begins with a brief tour of South Africa's justice and political systems, demographics...
Werner, W.G.; Nouwen, S.
Over the past two decades, international criminal law has been increasingly institutionalized and has become one of the dominant frames for defining issues of justice and conflict resolution. Indeed, international criminal law is often presented as the road towards global justice. But the rise of
Scheingold, Stuart A.
Reviews major theories of criminal justice, proposes an alternative analytic framework which focuses on cultural factors, applies this framework to several cases, and discusses implications of a cultural perspective for rule of law values. Journal available from Office of Publication, Department of Political Science, University of Florida,…
... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs [OJP (NIJ) Docket No. 1612] Criminal Justice Interview Room Recording System (IRRS) Standard, Supplier's Declaration of Conformity Requirements, and... three draft documents related to Interview Room Recording Systems (IRRS) used by criminal justice...
Full Text Available The present paper addresses the crisis of penal procedure in the contemporary society from its epistemological basis to, then, present restorative justice as a concrete alternative to the traditional criminal procedure. The intention is to describe how criminal procedure got established since its modern scientific roots and, then, to show the impossibility of a satisfactory management of social conflicts according to its standardized rules. After it, is argued that restorative justice is able to better deal with social conflicts than criminal procedure, once that system does not have standardized rules and allows the stakeholders to decide the situation according to their own deliberation, instead of being obliged to follow a decision from another person, usually a judge. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1737851
Full Text Available The article is the final part of the review of existing foreign models of juvenile criminal justice system. We analyze the principles of juvenile justice in the criminal trial: protective orientation, personalization and social richness of the trial, the emphasis on educational influences. We present the foreign experience of incorporating social, psychological and clinical special knowledge into specialized justice concerning juvenile offenders. We analyze modern trends in the development of juvenile justice in the United States and Canada. We present material related to methods of risk assessment of re-offending among adolescents. We highlight approaches to complex long-term follow-up of juvenile offenders in Anglo-Saxon juvenile justice. We describe some aspects of the probation service using the method of case management. In the context of the accepted “National Strategy for Action for the Benefit of Children for 2012-2017”, the prospects for the development of specialized criminal justice for young offenders in the Russian Federation are discussed
Full Text Available Effective exchange of information in the criminal justice chain is crucial for effective law enforcement, but difficult to achieve. This article describes the case of the development and introduction of electronic data exchange in the Dutch Criminal Justice chain. Basic theories on the introduction of IT in justice organizations are tested by means of qualitative empirical research. Case flow management automation is technically feasible in the criminal justice chain but presupposes willingness of different organizations attached to that chain to adapt working processes for that purpose. The Dutch case shows a relative failure of the development and implementation of an integrated case flow management system for the entire chain (from the police via the public prosecutions office and the courts up to the prison service. It also shows a relative success of connecting xml-based data files to different reference indexes using intelligent agent software. Compared to the intended integrated case flow management system this solution for inter-organizational data exchange is much more simple and flexible because it does not demand a far reaching adaptation of internal organizational routines. It avoids the complexities of justice organizations and simplifies tasks related to data exchange. The data therefore are more accurate and are faster available. The most important advantage however is that risks of failure of development and implementation are reduced.
California State Dept. of Justice, Sacramento. Bureau of Criminal Statistics and Special Services.
This California annual Criminal Justice Statewide Profile presents data which supplements the Bureau of Criminal Statistics' (BCS) annual Crime and Delinquency publication. This monograph summarizes and combines data pertaining to California's justice system. The profile consists of two sections. The first section consists of 12 tables displaying…
The International Criminal Court (ICC) came into being as a result of a desire by the international community to establish a permanent body to deliver criminal justice instead of the formula of ad hoc tribunals that had become the norm. The coming into force of the Rome Statute in 2002 was greeted with euphoria as it ...
Law is important and indeed indispensable for the continued existence of human society. The criminal justice system is entrusted with the responsibility of controlling criminal behaviour and punishing criminals or offenders. Compared to civil law, criminal law focuses more on the benefit of the state and political community ...
Christine M. Sarteschi
Full Text Available This paper sought to synthesize what is currently known about mentally ill offenders in American jails and prisons based upon the most recent government and congressional reports and relevant literature review. The primary goal is to provide a detailed picture of the status of mentally ill offenders—including prevalence, basic demographic information, bio-psycho-social status, mental health, and family histories—and also to identify the problems, conditions, and obstacles faced while under the jurisdiction of the criminal justice system. Mentally ill offenders are constitutionally guaranteed basic mental health treatment. A review of the literature indicates that this constitutional guarantee is not being adequately fulfilled. Implications and suggestions for change are discussed.
Conrad, John P.; Myren, Richard A.
The question of whether criminology and criminal justice are distinct fields is addressed in two papers. Differences between criminology and criminal justice are delineated by emphasizing formal definitions of the field(s), occupational roles, contemporary educational trends, and future development. According to John P. Conrad, criminology is the…
Muñoz, Jaime P; Moreton, Emily M; Sitterly, Audra M
In the past 40 years, prison populations in the U.S. have nearly quadrupled while funding for rehabilitation, education and other programmes has been cut. Despite accounting for a small fraction of the world's population more than 20% of the worlds incarcerated population is in the U.S. and the rate of recidivism remains alarmingly high. Occupational therapists have the capability to play a significant role in addressing the needs of persons within the criminal justice system. However, the profession has been slow to delineate of the role occupational therapy within criminal justice settings. This study sought to provide a descriptive analysis of current occupational therapy roles and practices within the U.S. criminal justice system. Using survey research methods, the researchers collected data from respondents (N = 45; Response Rate + 51.7%) to establish a baseline of the scope of practices employed by occupational therapists working in the U.S. criminal justice system. U.S. practitioners work within institutional and community based criminal justice settings. Primary practice models, assessments and group interventions were catalogued. Respondents strongly valued the creation of networking to build the professions' presence within criminal justice settings. Occupational therapy in the criminal justice system remains an emerging practice arena. Understanding the current scope of practice in the U.S. and creating a mechanism for collaboration may help increase the depth, breadth and overall growth of the profession's role in these settings. The sampling method does not guarantee a representative sample of the population and is limited to practice within the United States. Survey design may not have allowed for respondents to fully describe their practice experiences. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Robertson, Allison G; Swanson, Jeffrey W; Frisman, Linda K; Lin, Hsiuju; Swartz, Marvin S
Adults with serious mental illness have a relatively high risk of criminal justice involvement. Some risk factors for justice involvement are known, but the specific interaction of these risk factors has not been examined. This study explored the interaction of gender, substance use disorder, and psychiatric diagnosis among patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder to identify subgroups at higher risk of justice involvement. Administrative service records of 25,133 adults with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder who were clients of Connecticut's public behavioral health system during 2005-2007 were merged with state records of criminal convictions, incarceration, and other measures of justice involvement. The main effects and the effects of interactions of gender, substance use disorder, and psychiatric diagnosis on risk of justice involvement ("offending") were estimated by using multivariable logistic regression. Men with bipolar disorder and co-occurring substance use disorder had the highest absolute risk of offending in every category of justice involvement. For both men and women, bipolar disorder was associated with an increased risk of offending versus schizophrenia, but the increase was significantly greater for women. Substance use disorder also increased risk of offending more among women than men, especially among those with schizophrenia. Men and women with bipolar disorder and substance use disorders have much higher risk of justice involvement than those with schizophrenia, especially those without a substance use disorder. Research is needed to validate these effects in other populations and specify risk factors for justice involvement among adults with mental illness.
Verga, Christopher; Murillo, Leo; Toulon, Errol D.; Morote, Elsa-Sofia; Perry, S. Marshall
This quantitative study explored criminal justice college students' satisfaction with the police. 176 college students in Suffolk County, Long Island and New York City participated in a survey. The study examined the extent to which satisfaction with the local police department differs by location (urban and suburban), gender (female and male),…
Fox, Kathryn J
New Zealand is well known for its restorative justice conferences in the youth justice system. However, restorative justice has yet to overwhelm the adult criminal justice system. Based on interviews in New Zealand with correctional staff, restorative justice providers, and others, this article explores the reason for the modest inroads that restorative practice has made, and suggests that the general context may explain the limits of restorative justice in other places. The article argues that bureaucratic silos make it challenging to determine if restorative practice might fit within a rehabilitation or reintegration framework. In addition, because of the dominance of psychological modes for assessing and treating criminal behavior, an overarching preoccupation with risk management orients correctional practice toward treatment. Moreover, restorative justice's affiliation with victims' perspectives has made its placement within offender reintegration difficult to imagine. Finally, the penal populism that frames correctional practice in New Zealand, and other Anglophone countries, makes alternative to punishment harder to sell. However, the current liminal state of correctional practice creates an opportunity to conceive of more humanistic ways of repairing the harm caused by crime. © The Author(s) 2013.
Barringer, Alexandra; Hunter, Bronwyn A.; Salina, Doreen; Jason, Leonard A.
Programs for women with substance abuse and criminal justice histories often incorporate empowerment and social support into service delivery systems. Women’s empowerment research has focused on the relationship between women’s personal identities and the larger sociopolitical context, with an emphasis on how community based resources are critical for promoting well-being. Social support often protects against negative outcomes for individuals who live with chronic stress. However, few studies have evaluated community resource knowledge and empowerment among marginalized women or how social support might strengthen or weaken this relationship. This study investigated resource knowledge, social support and empowerment among 200 minority women in substance abuse recovery who had recent criminal justice involvement. Results indicated that resource knowledge was related to empowerment and belonging social support marginally moderated this relationship. In addition, education level increased and current involvement in the criminal justice system decreased empowerment. Implications for research, practice and policy are discussed. PMID:27084362
Conrad, John P.
Suggests that the Golden Age of criminal justice research has ended with an impending era of austerity. Reviews the work done in the past forty years and recommends a return to the people-oriented research that characterized the Chicago School of the early '20s rather than systems research. (Author/JAC)
Moore, Kelly E; Tull, Matthew T; Gratz, Kim L
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is associated with elevated risk for a variety of risky behaviors, including criminal behaviors. Yet, limited research has examined the relation of BPD to criminal justice (CJ) involvement, or the mechanisms underlying this relation. This study examined the role of two mechanisms, emotion-driven difficulties controlling impulsive behaviors and physical aggression, in the relation between BPD symptom severity and CJ involvement among 118 patients in residential substance abuse treatment (76% male; 62% African-American). Participants completed measures of BPD symptom severity, CJ contact, diversity of CJ charges, emotion-driven impulse control difficulties, physical aggression, and covariates (substance use severity and antisocial personality disorder symptoms). BPD symptom severity was associated with CJ contact through emotion-driven difficulties controlling impulsive behaviors, and with diversity of CJ charges through emotion-driven difficulties controlling impulsive behaviors and physical aggression; however, the indirect relations to diversity of CJ charges became non-significant when covariates were included. Results highlight the important role of emotion-driven difficulties controlling impulsive behaviors in criminal behaviors among individuals with BPD symptoms, as well as the potential clinical utility of targeting this mechanism to prevent CJ involvement and/or recidivism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Although a sizable number of studies have gathered information from college students regarding their varying degrees of support for capital punishment, few have explored the underlying rationales behind these students’ death penalty support or opposition. In addition, although criminal justice majors have frequently been used as study participants, little research has sought to explore if law enforcement majors are different in manners for supporting or opposing capital punishment than other criminal justice majors. In the current study, a survey designed to measure reasons for support or opposition to capital punishment was administered to a convenience sample of 135 criminal justice and law enforcement majors at a mid-size Midwestern university. The results indicated that law enforcement majors were not significantly different from criminal justice majors on measures of support or opposition to capital punishment. There were, however, some notable differences found related to the academic standing of the students.
Potter, Roberto Hugh; Akers, Timothy A; Bowman, Daniel Richard
The Men in STD Training and Empowerment Research Study (MISTERS) program and epidemiological criminology began their development in Atlanta at about the same time. MISTERS focuses on men recently released from jail to reduce both HIV/STD and crime-related risk factors through a brief educational intervention. This article examines ways in which MISTERS and epidemiological criminology have been used to inform one another in the replication of the MISTERS program in Orange County, Florida. Data from 110 MISTERS participants during the first 10 months of operation are analyzed to examine the overlapping occurrence of health and criminal risk behaviors in the men's lives. This provides a test of core hypotheses from the epidemiological criminology framework. This article also examines application of the epidemiological criminology framework to develop interventions to address health and crime risk factors simultaneously in Criminal Justice-Involved populations in the community.
Sissons, Peter L.
This monograph explores the Hispanic experience of the criminal justice system by examining statistics provided by Federal, State, and local agencies. A review of the literature provides a theoretical perspective from which to view the data. Examination of the first set of data begins with a description of the experiences of Puerto Ricans in the…
Heuer, Janet; Coggins, Porter E.
Criminal justice students preparing at the university level will be required to possess knowledge and understanding of applicable constitutional law, rights and responsibilities upon entering their profession to ensure the competent execution of the duties of which they will be entrusted to perform. Students majoring in the criminal justice field…
Archibald, Paul C; Parker, Lauren; Thorpe, Roland
Criminal justice contact-defined as lifetime arrest, parole, or incarceration, seems to exacerbate chronic conditions, and those who are most likely to have had contact with the criminal justice system, such as Black adults, often already have pre-existing disproportionately high rates of stress and chronic conditions due to the social determinants of health that affect underrepresented minorities. Findings from this study suggest that there is a mechanism that links the stressors among Black adults manifested by such factors as family, financial, neighborhood, and personal problems with criminal justice contact to obesity-related health status. Using the National Survey of American Life (NSAL), modified Poisson regression analyses were used to determine the association between criminal justice contact, stressors, and obesity-related health problems among a national sample of Black adults (n = 5008). In the full model, the odds of experiencing obesity-related health problems for Black adults who had criminal justice contact was reduced (PR, 1.23 to 1.14) and not statistically significant. Black adults who reported experiencing family stressors (PR, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.08, 1.36), financial stressors (PR, 1.30; 95% CI, 1.16, 1.47), and personal stressors (PR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.02, 1.31) were statistically significant and higher than those who reported not experiencing any of these stressors; neighborhood stressors was not statistically significant. The evidence suggests a relationship between the stressors associated with criminal justice contact and obesity-related health status. These findings emphasize the need to further explore the family, financial, and personal stressors for Black adults with criminal justice contact in order to further our understanding of their obesity-related health problems.ᅟ.
Rodrigo Ghiringhelli de Azevedo
Full Text Available After a presentation of indicators that allow assessing the degree of democratization of the criminal justice system in the context of democratization process in Latin America, this article points out the discrepancy existing in that domain, in the several instances that make up the justice system, from criminal legislation to the prison system. Examining the specific situation of Brazil and Argentina, problems in the functioning of institutions responsible by crime as well as the increase in crime control are pointed out as factors that cause a growing loss of legitimacy for the system, which is unable to justify its high degree of selectivity and authoritarianism. Some efforts under way to approach that phenomenon are listed. Finally, a few alternatives for institutional improvement are presented, among which the action of social scientists by producing research and analyses, as a crucial instrument to enlarge institutional ability to deal with current social conflict on democratic bases.
Mirjan Damaška 's scholarly publications provide important insights for the analysis of systems of criminal justice at the international level. This is particularly true for his major book: The Faces of Justice and State Authority - A Comparative Approach to the Legal Process. The book develops
Glenwick, David S.
A multidisciplinary undergraduate course in correctional psychology is described, noteworthy features of which include field work experiences in criminal justice agencies, discussions with criminal justice personnel from a variety of disciplines and professions, and in-class role-playing exercises, as well as more traditional coursework. (Author)
Full Text Available The newly completed Criminal Courts of Justice (CCJ at Parkgate Street in Dublin 8 is the largest courts project undertaken in the history of the Irish State. The design of the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC systems was based on computer simulated modelling of the build ing to determine the optimum plant selection and operation based on the contract conditions and energy targets. The report will analyse the computer simulated energy targets versus the actual energy consumption and assess the benefit of engineering solutions such as twin-skin facades and heat recovery based on real data. The report will draw conclusions on the real benefit of such systems with in the built environment. In addition to the energy targets, the report will discuss the commission ing processes involved in delivering the energy targets required and the importance of designing metering strategies to enable the data to be collected and analysed.
Brandt, Anna L. S.
The number of mentally ill inmates in the criminal justice system has increased dramatically. This article evaluates the prevalence and causes of mental illness in the criminal justice system and describes the inadequate care that is provided, the effects of imprisonment, and the problem of rehabilitation. (Contains 4 notes.)
Petrucci, Carrie J
The criminal justice system has reached unprecedented scope in the United States, with over 6.4 million people under some type of supervision. Remedies that have the potential to reduce this number are continually being sought. This article analyzes an innovative strategy currently being reconsidered in criminal justice: the apology. Despite a legal system that only sporadically acknowledges it, evidence for the use of apology is supported by social science research, current criminal justice theories, case law, and empirical studies. Social psychological, sociological and socio-legal studies pinpoint the elements and function of apology, what makes apologies effective, and concerns about apology if it were implemented in the criminal justice system. Theoretical evidence is examined (including restorative justice, therapeutic jurisprudence, crime, shame, and reintegration) to explore the process of apology in the criminal justice context. Attribution theory and social conduct theory are used to explain the apology process specifically for victims and offenders. A brief examination of case law reveals that though apology has no formal place in criminal law, it has surfaced recently under the federal sentencing guidelines. Finally, empirical evidence in criminal justice settings reveals that offenders want to apologize and victims desire an apology. Moreover, by directly addressing the harmful act, apology may be the link to reduced recidivism for offenders, as well as empowerment for victims. This evidence combined suggests that apology is worthy of further study as a potentially valuable addition to the criminal justice process. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Aguilera, Edgar R.
The author advances the thesis that the now well established international crime victims' right to know the truth creates an opportunity for an applied epistemology reflection regarding international criminal justice. At the heart of the project lies the author's argument that this victims' right -if taken seriously- implies both the right that the international criminal justice system's normative structures or legal frameworks and practices feature a truth-promoting profile, or in other word...
Berryessa, Colleen M
Although the relationship between criminal activity and ADHD has been heavily studied, this paper reviews a largely neglected area of academic discourse: how symptoms of ADHD that often contribute to offending behavior may also potentially create further problems for offenders with ADHD after they come into contact with the criminal justice system and pilot their way through the legal process. The main symptoms of ADHD that are primarily connected to criminal offending are examined and contextualized with respect to diagnosed offenders' experiences with the justice system. Symptoms of ADHD, specifically reward deficiency, behavioral inhibition, and attention deficits, may affect whether individuals will be successful in their experiences in court, with probation, and during incarceration. This is especially true for individuals whose ADHD diagnoses are unknown to the criminal justice system or have never been formally diagnosed. Actors in the criminal justice need to be aware of the symptomatic features and behavioral patterns of offenders with ADHD in order to recognize and identify these offenders, and correspondingly, to refer them to mental health services. Recognizing that at least some of an offender's behavior may be related to symptoms of ADHD will help the criminal justice system better provide recommendations regarding sentencing, probation, and treatment provisions, as well as better ensure that offenders with ADHD have a more successful and just experience in their interactions with the criminal justice system.
Mbaba, Mary; Brown, Shan-Estelle; Wooditch, Alese; Kiss, Marissa; Murphy, Amy; Kumari, Suneeta; Taxman, Faye; Altice, Frederick; Lawson, William B; Springer, Sandra A
Individuals involved in the criminal justice system have disproportionately high rates of psychiatric disorders when compared to the general U.S. If left untreated, the likelihood of subsequent arrest increases and risk for adverse health consequences is great, particularly among opioid users. To explore the prevalence, characteristics, and treatment of mood disorders among justice involved opioid-dependent populations. The current study enrolled 258 treatment-seeking opioid-dependent individuals under community-based criminal justice supervision (e.g., probation, parole) screened from the larger parent study, Project STRIDE, a seek/test/treat randomized control trial (RCT) examining HIV and opioid use treatment. During baseline, individuals were screened for depression using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) and screened for bipolar disorder using the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) tool. Overall, 78 (30%) participants screened positive for moderate to severe depression and 54 (21%) screened positive for bipolar disorder. Participants self-reported mood disorders at higher rates than they screened positive for these conditions. Participants screening positive for these conditions experienced significantly greater family, legal, and medical problems on the Addiction Severity Index-Lite (ASI-Lite) than those who did not screen positive. Incidence of a lifetime suicide attempt was found to be associated with a positive screen for both mood disorders. Prescribed psychotropic treatment utilization was similar among those who screened positive for depression or bipolar disorder with approximately 38% reporting taking medication. Findings suggest universal mood disorder screening to improve comprehensive psychiatric care and treatment of opioid-dependent justice-involved individuals.
Ibañez, Gladys E; Whitt, Elaine; Rosa, Mario de la; Martin, Steve; O'Connell, Daniel; Castro, Jose
The population within the criminal justice system suffers from various health disparities including HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV). African American and Latino offenders represent the majority of the offender population. Evidence-based interventions to prevent HIV and HCV among criminal justice clients are scant and usually do not take cultural differences into account. Toward this end, this study describes the process of culturally adapting an HIV/HCV prevention intervention for Latino criminal justice clients in Miami, Florida, by using the ecological validity model. Recommendations for culturally adapting an intervention for Latinos include an emphasis on language and integrating cultural themes such as familism and machismo. © The Author(s) 2016.
Michelle Katherine Larson Rose
Full Text Available Exemplified by the landmark trial of O.J. Simpson, news media coverage of criminal cases in the United States is now regularly dominated by tabloid style coverage, complete with fixation on the victims and accused in criminal cases. Investigators have shown that such coverage of criminal proceedings is linked to decreasing levels of public trust and confidence in the criminal justice system. What is not yet understood is how rapid changes to the media universe in terms of online news sources and social networking are impacting coverage of criminal proceedings and public understanding of the criminal justice system. By surveying the American public on their news consumption habits, participation in social networking, knowledge and opinions of highly publicized criminal cases, and perceptions of the legitimacy of the justice system, we offer one of the first analyses of social media’s impact on public interaction with the criminal justice system. Ultimately we find little evidence that social media is enhancing citizen knowledge about or confidence in the criminal justice system, but we do uncover strong evidence that social media engagement with criminal trials leads to a greater desire for vengeance and encouragement of vigilante attitudes and behavior. Como demostró el emblemático juicio a O.J. Simpson, la cobertura mediática de los casos penales en los Estados Unidos está dominada de forma regular por una cobertura de estilo sensacionalista, centrando su atención en las víctimas y acusados de los casos criminales. Investigaciones han demostrado que esta cobertura de los procesos criminales está relacionada con un menor nivel de confianza del público en el sistema de justicia criminal. Todavía no se conoce con qué rapidez están impactando los cambios en el universo de los medios de comunicación que han llegado de la mano de las fuentes de información en línea y las redes sociales, en la cobertura de los procesos criminales y la
Chandler, Redonna; Gordon, Michael S; Kruszka, Bridget; Strand, Lauren N; Altice, Frederick L; Beckwith, Curt G; Biggs, Mary L; Cunningham, William; Chris Delaney, J A; Flynn, Patrick M; Golin, Carol E; Knight, Kevin; Kral, Alex H; Kuo, Irene; Lorvick, Jennifer; Nance, Robin M; Ouellet, Lawrence J; Rich, Josiah D; Sacks, Stanley; Seal, David; Spaulding, Anne; Springer, Sandra A; Taxman, Faye; Wohl, David; Young, Jeremy D; Young, Rebekah; Crane, Heidi M
The STTR treatment cascade provides a framework for research aimed at improving the delivery of services, care and outcomes of PLWH. The development of effective approaches to increase HIV diagnoses and engage PLWH in subsequent steps of the treatment cascade could lead to earlier and sustained ART treatment resulting in viral suppression. There is an unmet need for research applying the treatment cascade to improve outcomes for those with criminal justice involvement. The Seek, Test, Treat, and Retain (STTR) criminal justice (CJ) cohort combines data from 11 studies across the HIV treatment cascade that focused on persons involved in the criminal justice system, often but not exclusively for reasons related to substance use. The studies were conducted in a variety of CJ settings and collected information across 11 pre-selected domains: demographic characteristics, CJ involvement, HIV risk behaviors, HIV and/or Hepatitis C infections, laboratory measures of CD4 T-cell count (CD4) and HIV RNA viral load (VL), mental illness, health related quality of life (QoL), socioeconomic status, health care access, substance use, and social support. The STTR CJ cohort includes data on 11,070 individuals with and without HIV infection who range in age from 18 to 77 years, with a median age at baseline of 37 years. The cohort reflects racial, ethnic and gender distributions in the U.S. CJ system, and 64% of participants are African-American, 12% are Hispanic and 83% are men. Cohort members reported a wide range of HIV risk behaviors including history of injection drug use and, among those who reported on pre-incarceration sexual behaviors, the prevalence of unprotected sexual intercourse ranged across studies from 4% to 79%. Across all studies, 53% percent of the STTR CJ cohort reported recent polysubstance use. The STTR CJ cohort is comprised of participants from a wide range of CJ settings including jail, prison, and community supervision who report considerable diversity in
Carlson, Kerstin Bree
My project uses the case study of the ICTY and reconciliation in the Balkans to address the larger topic of the capacity of international criminal tribunals (ICTs) as transitional justice mechanisms. I argue that the ICTY operates under the (flawed) received wisdom of the IMT at Nuremberg, what I...... term the international criminal justice template. This template accords three transitional justice functions for ICTs beyond (and in conjunction with) their central judicial aim of adjudicating cases: as (1) articulators of progressive criminal law (2) historians and (3) reconcilers or storytellers. My...... and the development of international law and society studies, in order to better theorize and understand the structural and theoretical constraints governing the establishment of legitimacy for international criminal courts....
Over the past 7 years or so, the World Bank has expanded its rule of law agenda by moving into the area of criminal justice reform. This turn to criminal justice reform, however obvious it may be from a development perspective, was — and still is — a controversial step. This is because the World
mass atrocities in Africa with evidence grounded in both state practice and the histories of African ... for this study in its explicit acknowledgement and emphasis that the “Court .... though it is by cases concerning African countries, international criminal justice is not ..... efficient response to conflict and crisis situations in Africa.
Braunstein, Rich; Anderson, Bill
One confronts many difficulties when conducting policy-relevant criminal justice research that focuses on American Indian interests. Foremost among these difficulties is the great variation in relevant contexts that apply to this area of research. From the urban context of large American cities, where American Indians constitute a slim minority…
Kort-Butler, Lisa A; Sittner Hartshorn, Kelley J
Research demonstrates a complex relationship between television viewing and fear of crime. Social critics assert that media depictions perpetuate the dominant cultural ideology about crime and criminal justice. This article examines whether program type differentially affects fear of crime and perceptions of the crime rate. Next, it tests whether such programming differentially affects viewers' attitudes about the criminal justice system, and if these relationships are mediated by fear. Results indicated that fear mediated the relationship between viewing nonfictional shows and lack of support for the justice system. Viewing crime dramas predicted support for the death penalty, but this relationship was not mediated by fear. News viewership was unrelated to either fear or attitudes. The results support the idea that program type matters when it comes to understanding people's fear of crime and their attitudes about criminal justice.
Quinn, Jason; Simpson, Alexander I F
Controversy has arisen surrounding findings of not criminally responsible (NCR) or not guilty by reason of insanity (NGRI) in recent years. In some countries, the debate has been driven by the concerns of victims, who are seeking greater information on discharge, accountability on the part of the offender, and involvement in the disposition of NCR or NGRI perpetrators. Their demands raise questions about proportionality between the seriousness of the index offense and the disposition imposed, the place of retribution in the NCR regimen, and the ethics-related challenges that emerge from this tension. We conducted a literature review focused on the relationship of victims to NCR and NGRI processes. The literature is limited. However, theoretical reasoning suggests that interventions based on restorative justice principles reduce persistently negative feelings and increase a sense of justice for victims of criminally responsible defendants. Opportunities and problems with extending such processes into the area of mentally abnormal offenders are discussed.
Miguel de Serpa Soares
Full Text Available The author states that any form of international justice always represents a means of limiting national sovereignty. In the case of International Criminal Law, this limiting is even more evident by compromising elements essential to the classical paradigm of International Law, as for example the punishing monopoly of States or the concept of a quasi-absolute State sovereignty. International criminal tools, crimes, sentences, jurisdictions, are all able to be, at least partially, a legal alternative to the issues of peace-keeping and national security, exclusively political and diplomatic. This alternative inevitable leads to tensions with a power structure that has not been altered since 1945. However, for this legal criminal alternative to be put in place, a long period of maturation will be required based on irrefutable technical and legal credibility.
The differences between criminology and criminal justice are assessed by comparing them to a more abstract typology. This typology is comprised of four basic elements: the focal concerns of the fields; career patterns of professionals; the extent to which the fields are theoretically based and are disciplines, sciences, and professions; and the…
Yury V. Derishev
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the institution of the removal of a judge in criminal trial proceedings, which is regarded as the most important guarantees of fair criminal justice. Based on the definition of the nature and content of the mechanism for the removal of a judge, the Authors offer an analysis of the problems of the application of law that accompany its implementation in modern criminal proceedings
This is an extract from a speech given by Mr Justice Gillen to a conference in Belfast organised by Children Law UK in January 2006. It addresses the potential conflict between the concept of the welfare of children inherent in the family care system and that of responsibility inherent in the criminal justice system. It questions whether the…
Full Text Available While problem-based learning (PBL has been successfully used in many disciplines for over 30 years, it has not yet been widely adopted by criminal justice instructors. It is a student-centered curriculum that empowers undergraduate students to decide what they learn and to apply their knowledge and skills while solving real-world problems in relevant and authentic contexts. The present study provides an overview of PBL and empirical evidence for the effectiveness of problem-based instruction in many disciplines. This article offers theoretical foundations for adopting PBL in the study of crime and criminal justice. Finally, for scaffolding instructors striving to implement PBL, this article describes possible formats of implementation and also identifies the challenges new PBL instructors may encounter during application and provides specific recommendations.
Erinda Duraj (Male)
Children are a central concern of international criminal justice. International crimes and other forms of violence and the abuse of children are disturbing daily realities in today’s world. Children and young persons are increasingly being targeted for the purposes of murder, rape, abduction, mutilation, recruitment as child soldiers, trafficking, sexual exploitation and other abuses. Sierra Leone, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Rwanda, Colombia, and many others illustrate this. The partic...
Though hidden from view by being considered "non-existent", the meager evidence indicates that Hispanics have an unusually high arrest and incarceration rate. Hispanic background is rarely asked on the six major sources of criminal justice statistics--statistics of arrests, courts, prisoners, juvenile delinquency, crime victimization, and public…
Eva Achjani Zulfa
Full Text Available “Restorative Justice” is a model approach which emerged in the 1960s in an effort to solve criminal cases. Unlike the approach used in conventional criminal justice system, this approach focuses on the direct participation of perpetrators, victims and society in the settlement process. This theory of the approach is still debated, but the view is in fact growing and it exercises a lot of influence on legal policies and practices in several countries. The UN through its basic principles considers the approach of restorative justice as the approach which could be used in the rational criminal justice system. Restorative justice is a concept of thinking that supports the development of the criminal justice system with emphasis on the required involvement of the community. It is also involving the casualties who with the current criminal justice system are excluded. In several countries, restorative justice has been translated into a variety of formulations to accommodate a variety of values, philosophical basis, terms, strategies, mechanisms, and programs. Good consultation with the perpetrators and the victims themselves may provide the public with a different mindset in preventing emerging problems. This process can involve the police, prosecutorial institution or the traditional institutions. Therefore, without excluding the work in the formal legal system, the institutional mechanism for resolution through consultation was working in the community. In the various principles and models of the restorative justice approach, the process of dialogue between the perpetrator and the victim is a fundamental and the also the most important part of the application of the restorative justice. The direct dialogue between the perpetrator and the victim gave the victim the opportunity to express what he/she felt, hope for human rights and the desire to reach a criminal settlement.
Full Text Available This exploratory study investigates the various factors to be considered when developing and implementing consumer participation in community-based criminal justice settings. The study uses the Victorian Association for the Care and Resettlement of Offenders (VACRO, based in Melbourne, Australia, as its case study site as this organisation is in the process of formally introducing consumer participation. The study is informed by previous research in key areas related to criminal justice, focusing on the perspectives of various stakeholders: staff, volunteers, and consumers. A mixed method approach offered a range of opportunities for participants to engage with the research. Thematic analysis identified multi-layered issues need to be considered when implementing consumer participation. Poor individual understanding was noted as a barrier, alongside a limited shared vision of the concept. These were seen to be influenced by practical issues such as high staff turnover and conceptual challenges, notably the existing discourse around offenders. The implications of these findings for further research on consumer participation in the criminal justice setting are explored.
Beyond Criminal Justice: Toward a New Paradigm for Political Settlement in Africa. Mass violence in contemporary Africa typically occurs in cycles. Months or years after one wave of violence is brought to an end, another wave overtakes it. Peace agreements are swept away and yesterday's victims emerge as today's ...
... for the detection of contraband. Screening technology is widely used by criminal justice practitioners...: 1. Model Number and Name of the screening system/device. 2. Technology used by the system/device for... container or bag), Plastic, Wood, Ceramic, Powder (in a small packet), and/or Paper (e.g., folded currency...
Patterson, Debra; Campbell, Rebecca
After a rape, survivors may seek help from multiple community organizations including the criminal justice system (CJS). Research has found that few survivors report their assaults to the police and of those who do report, many withdraw their participation during the investigation. However, relatively little is known about the factors that lead…
Becerra-Muñoz, Jose; García-España, Elisa; Aguilar Conde, Araceli
In the last years, the Crime Observatory of the University of Malaga has analysed police records on criminal activity, has also carried out several crime victims surveys in Spain and has worked on a detailed analysis of the prison system and its connection to the prison policy. This year´s report focuses on the Criminal Justice System, one of the big official data providers, to gather, organize and interpret a great deal of quantitative data from 2000 to 2011. Such longitudinal scrutiny of...
Forst, Martin L.
This article examines recent criticism of the current criminal justice system which characterizes it as a "nonsystem" because its three main components--law enforcement, courts, and correction--are often poorly managed and inefficient. (Author)
Full Text Available Does media exposure to salient criminological events exacerbate racialized perceptions of injustice? We examine whether closely following media coverage of the fatal encounter of George Zimmerman’s shooting of Trayvon Martin moderates racial and ethnic differences in opinion surrounding the event and the U.S. criminal justice system. Our analysis addresses several key aspects of the case: Whether Zimmerman would have been arrested sooner if Martin had been white, whether respondents felt Zimmerman’s acquittal was justified, and whether there is racial bias against African Americans in the criminal justice system. Relying on national opinion surveys before and after Zimmerman’s trial verdict, our findings support the racial gradient thesis by demonstrating that sustained exposure to racialized framing of the incident in the media affects Hispanics the most and hardens entrenched attitudes among African Americans relative to whites. The analysis supports the continuing relevance of the mass media in attitude formation.
Youngyol Y. Schanz
Full Text Available This study examines whether race or ethnicity affects student decision-making pertaining to career goals and choices. The career goals and choices of undergraduates in criminal justice (CJ were surveyed in early spring of 2006. The research also investigates students’ perceptions of their own perceived competence as future CJ practitioners. Data were collected from CJ undergraduates from an urban university in the upper Midwestern part of the U.S. The results indicate that racial or ethnic minority students have significantly different career goals and choices than those of non-minority students. Some future research implications and policy implications are discussed.
Cid, Rodrigo D
Like other Latin American democratic societies, Chile is supposed to respect legal rights of mentally ill people who are in trouble with the law, and provide them protection, treatment and welfare. Therefore, in this decade, the Chilean Criminal Justice and Mental Health System has undergone significant changes. Because this article is related to the recent social features that involve different areas such as justice, mental health assistance and forensic psychiatry systems, and thereby the nonexistence of current literature that reviews this matter from a global perspective and its implications for the mental health population involved in the justice system, its review and analysis seems to be interesting. The 'New Forensic Psychiatry Network' (NFPN) has been putting in relevant efforts to offer proper treatment and forensic assessment taking into account the civil rights of mentally insane people, and the 'Criminal Justice System Reform' (CJSR) is making possible legal conditions for better justice ensuring a more just resolution of insane defendants' and mentally ill convicts' lawsuits. From the author's viewpoint, all these changes are leading to a deep cultural impact on a Chilean's mind, changing their vision of justice and how society should respect insane defendants' and mentally ill convicts' legal rights.
Oslick, Mary Ellen
This article examines the issue of children with incarcerated parents within the broader topic of criminal justice in multicultural children's literature. The sheer magnitude of culture of children with incarcerated parents makes it necessary for their stories to be included in children's literature. Children with an incarcerated parent need to…
Cabrera, Laura Y; Elger, Bernice S
In recent years, discussion around memory modification interventions has gained attention. However, discussion around the use of memory interventions in the criminal justice system has been mostly absent. In this paper we start by highlighting the importance memory has for human well-being and personal identity, as well as its role within the criminal forensic setting; in particular, for claiming and accepting legal responsibility, for moral learning, and for retribution. We provide examples of memory interventions that are currently available for medical purposes, but that in the future could be used in the forensic setting to modify criminal offenders' memories. In this section we contrast the cases of (1) dampening and (2) enhancing memories of criminal offenders. We then present from a pragmatic approach some pressing ethical issues associated with these types of memory interventions. The paper ends up highlighting how these pragmatic considerations can help establish ethically justified criteria regarding the possibility of interventions aimed at modifying criminal offenders' memories.
E Silva, Karine
Are cybersecurity vigilantes at odds with criminal justice? Perhaps. In general terms, vigilantism could be understood as an act of retaliation launched by private agents in response to a perceived criminal conduct and targeting alleged perpetrators of a crime. This form of unofficial crime control
Full Text Available This research paper is an exploratory pilot study aimed at accessing the views of children on the criminal justice system, their perceptions of how children in conflict with the law are treated, the impact that crime has on them, their schools...
Kane, Michael N.
Undergraduate social work and criminal justice students completed 1 of 4 vignettes that were identical with the exception of the age and gender of the vignette's subject. In each vignette, the subject interacted with an opposite-sex 24-year-old waiter or waitress. Following each vignette, respondents answered 20 items relating to the age, gender,…
Arfken, Cynthia L; Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott
Studies have found funding source, whether public or private, is associated with treatment and services offered in community-based agencies. However, the association of criminal justice funding with community-based treatment and services is unknown. Using a mixed method case study approach with 34 agencies within one state we assessed administrators' perspectives of the most important funding source, treatment and services offered. We found that agencies rely on multiple funding sources and the source rated most important was associated with treatment and services offered in the agency. Those agencies citing a criminal justice entity as the most important funder were more likely to offer specific ancillary services and adopt motivational interviewing than those citing private funds. Although client characteristics or training opportunities may determine these services and practices, the agency's most important funding source may have implications for services offered.
Farabee, D; Leukefeld, C G
This study examined the likelihood that drug users would receive HIV/ AIDS prevention information and supplies (e.g., condoms and bleach) in the rural state of Kentucky. Despite evidence of high HIV risk among criminal justice and substance-using populations, incarceration and substance-user treatment were only minimally associated with prior HIV prevention exposure or HIV testing. These data strongly support the use of criminal justice and treatment settings to provide AIDS prevention interventions for the high-risk drug-using populations they serve, and to target HIV prevention services in rural as well as urban areas.
Full Text Available New criminal legislation got into force in Serbia at the beginning of 2006. In that way, Serbia got unique Criminal Code which includes all provisions of material criminal law except provisions related to the criminal position of juveniles. System of criminal sanctions for juvenile off enders, procedure for their imposition and the way, procedure and terms for their execution are regulated by the provisions of the separate law - the Law on juvenile off enders and criminal protection of juveniles. Some of the most important novelties introduced by new juvenile criminal law are system of diversion, i.e. system of diversion orders, which aim at excluding the imposition of criminal sanctions in the cases when criminal sanction is not necessary from the perspective of crime suppression. Bearing that in mind, this paper is dedicated to forms of diversion orders as a form of measures that lead to more efficient system of restorative justice within our new juvenile criminal legislation. .
Reinhardt, William R.
Contrary to the dominant discourse metanarrative, this dissertation explores, re-exposes, and updates the generally hidden realities of what is actually taking place in the current operation of the American criminal justice system. The government/dominant discourse benefits from the amorphous ambiguity of the law in conjunction with its usage of…
Full Text Available The objective of this article is to examine the changes introduced by the 2005 Cameroonian Criminal Procedure Code on matters of juvenile justice, considering that before this Code, juvenile justice in Cameroon was governed by extra-national laws. In undertaking this analysis, the article highlights the evolution of the administration of juvenile justice 50 years after independence of Cameroon. It also points out the various difficulties and shortcomings in the treatment of juvenile offenders in Cameroon since the enactment of the new Criminal Procedure Code. The article reveals that the 2005 Code is an amalgamation of all hitherto existing laws in the country that pertained to juvenile justice, and that despite the considerable amount of criticism it has received, the Code is clearly an improvement of the system of juvenile justice in Cameroon, since it represents a balance of the due process rights of young people, the protection of society and the special needs of young offenders. This is so because the drafters of the Code took a broad view of the old laws on juvenile justice. Also a wide range of groups were consulted, including criminal justice professionals, children’s service organisations, victims, parents, young offenders, educators, advocacy groups and social-policy analysts. However, to address the challenges that beset the juvenile justice system of Cameroon, the strategy of the government should be focussed on three areas: the prevention of youth crime, the provision of meaningful consequences for the actions of young people, and the rehabilitation and reintegration of young offenders. Cameroonian law should seek educative solutions rather than to impose prison sentences or other repressive measures on young offenders. Special courts to deal with young offenders should be established outside the regular penal system and should be provided with resources that are adequate for and appropriate to fostering their understanding of
Full Text Available Victim Impact Statement (VIS is a crucial aspect in the process of dispensation of justice. It reinforces the participatory model of criminal justice system, wherein both the accused and the victim are significant and interwined in justice delivery mechanism. VIS has received little support from pro-accused activists who assert that the acceptance of such statements would make way for emotional blackmail and consequent enhancement of quantum of sentence. The claim has, however, been assailed by victimologists the world over, who have hailed the same as a positive assertion of the rights of the victim in the sentencing process. Simply speaking, a victim impact statement is a written or verbal statement made as part of the judicial legal process, which allows a victim of crime the opportunity to speak during the sentencing of the accused. It offers an opportunity to the victim or his/her family members to elaborate the trauma and hardships faced as a result of the crime committed. The present status of the victim or family, including the inconveniences faced, also become clear to the judge and allows him to make a decision. While VIS has been considered as significant and included as part of the criminal justice process in several nations across the world, India has remained rather unmoved and untouched. Several victimological approaches have been included in recent years in the criminal procedure of the land, yet impact statements seem to have eluded the legislators. This is particularly of significance in light of Indian judgments where the courts have reiterated that punishment must respond to the “society’s cry for justice”.
Criminal Justice Task Force (CJTF) permitting concentrating assistance to a small number of officials from across the chain of responsibilities while maintaining the necessary separation of powers required by due process standards. This task force has been selected, trained, equipped and housed in order...... involved in the chain of responsibilities who could be isolated from their peers and given the benefit of concentrated financial and technical assistance, while simultaneously maintaining the separation of powers mandated by the standards of due process. This underlying concept has been proven...
de Hert, Paul; Papakonstantinou, Vagelis
Allegedly the Police and Criminal Justice Data Protection Directive (henceforth, the “Directive”) is the little-known, much overlooked part of the EU data protection reform package that stormed into the EU legislative agenda towards the end of 2015. Its counterpart, regulating all other personal
Lauritsen, Janet L.; Sampson, Robert
Although racial discrimination emerges some of the time at some stages of criminal justice processing-such as juvenile justice-there is little evidence that racial disparities result from systematic, overt bias. Discrimination appears to be indirect, stemming from the amplification of initial disadvantages over time, along with the social construction of "moral panics" and associated political responses. The "drug war" of the 1980s and 1990s exacerbated the disproportionate representation of ...
Murphy, Sean M; Polsky, Daniel; Lee, Joshua D; Friedmann, Peter D; Kinlock, Timothy W; Nunes, Edward V; Bonnie, Richard J; Gordon, Michael; Chen, Donna T; Boney, Tamara Y; O'Brien, Charles P
Criminal justice-involved individuals are highly susceptible to opioid relapse and overdose-related deaths. In a recent randomized trial, we demonstrated the effectiveness of extended-release naltrexone (XR-NTX; Vivitrol ® ) in preventing opioid relapse among criminal justice-involved US adults with a history of opioid use disorder. The cost of XR-NTX may be a significant barrier to adoption. Thus, it is important to account for improved quality of life and downstream cost-offsets. Our aims were to (1) estimate the incremental cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained for XR-NTX versus treatment as usual (TAU) and evaluate it relative to generally accepted value thresholds; and (2) estimate the incremental cost per additional year of opioid abstinence. Economic evaluation of the aforementioned trial from the taxpayer perspective. Participants were randomized to 25 weeks of XR-NTX injections or TAU; follow-up occurred at 52 and 78 weeks. Five study sites in the US Northeast corridor. A total of 308 participants were randomized to XR-NTX (n = 153) or TAU (n = 155). Incremental costs relative to incremental economic and clinical effectiveness measures, QALYs and abstinent years, respectively. The 25-week cost per QALY and abstinent-year figures were $162 150 and $46 329, respectively. The 78-week figures were $76 400/QALY and $16 371/abstinent year. At 25 weeks, we can be 10% certain that XR-NTX is cost-effective at a value threshold of $100 000/QALY and 62% certain at $200 000/QALY. At 78 weeks, the cost-effectiveness probabilities are 59% at $100 000/QALY and 76% at $200 000/QALY. We can be 95% confident that the intervention would be considered 'good value' at $90 000/abstinent year at 25 weeks and $500/abstinent year at 78 weeks. While extended-release naltrexone appears to be effective in increasing both quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and abstinence, it does not appear to be cost-effective using generally accepted value
Klapwijk, Eduard T; Lelieveld, Gert-Jan; Aghajani, Moji; Boon, Albert E; van der Wee, Nic J A; Popma, Arne; Vermeiren, Robert R J M; Colins, Olivier F
Research suggests that individuals with conduct disorder (CD) are marked by social impairments, such as difficulties in processing the affective reactions of others. Little is known, though, about how they make decisions during social interactions in response to emotional expressions of others. In this study, we therefore investigated the neural mechanisms underlying fairness decisions in response to communicated emotions of others in aggressive, criminal justice-involved boys with CD (N = 32) compared with typically developing (TD) boys (N = 33), aged 15-19 years. Participants received written emotional responses (angry, disappointed or happy) from peers in response to a previous offer and then had to make fairness decisions in a version of the Dictator Game. Behavioral results showed that CD boys did not make differential fairness decisions in response to the emotions, whereas the TD boys did show a differentiation and also responded more unfair to happy reactions than the CD boys. Neuroimaging results revealed that when receiving happy vs disappointed and angry reactions, the CD boys showed less activation than the TD boys in the temporoparietal junction and supramarginal gyrus, regions involved in perspective taking and attention. These results suggest that boys with CD have difficulties with processing explicit emotional cues from others on behavioral and neural levels. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
... amounts for volunteers, as explained at 75 FR 18752, and Centralized Billing Service Providers (CBSPs), as... Information Services Division; Revised User Fee Schedule AGENCY: Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI.... Enourato, Section Chief, Resources Management Section, Criminal Justice Information Services Division, FBI...
Cerdá, Magdalena; Tracy, Melissa; Keyes, Katherine M
Cities are investing millions in Cure Violence, a public health approach to reduce urban violence by targeting at-risk youth and redirecting conflict to nonviolent responses. The impact of such a program compared with criminal justice responses is unknown because experiments directly comparing criminal justice and public health approaches to violence prevention are infeasible with observational data. We simulated experiments to test the influence of two interventions on violence: (1) Cure Violence and (2) directed police patrol in violence hot spots. We used an agent-based model to simulate a 5% sample of the New York City (NYC) adult population, with agents placed on a grid representing the land area of NYC, with neighborhood size and population density proportional to land area and population density in each community district. Agent behaviors were governed by parameters drawn from city data sources and published estimates. Under no intervention, 3.87% (95% CI, 3.84, 3.90) of agents were victimized per year. Implementing the violence interrupter intervention for 10 years decreased victimization by 13% (to 3.35% [3.32, 3.39]). Implementing hot-spots policing and doubling the police force for 10 years reduced annual victimization by about 11% (to 3.46% [3.42, 3.49]). Increasing the police force by 40% combined with implementing the violence interrupter intervention for 10 years decreased violence by 19% (to 3.13% [3.09, 3.16]). Combined investment in a public health, community-based approach to violence prevention and a criminal justice approach focused on deterrence can achieve more to reduce population-level rates of urban violence than either can in isolation. See video abstract at, http://links.lww.com/EDE/B298.
Hui, Cora Y T; Lo, T Wing
Over-reliance on confession has had a long history in the Chinese criminal justice system. Recent high-profile wrongful conviction cases have raised public awareness of the coercive and torturous methods used to extract confessions. Despite the return of Hong Kong to Chinese sovereignty, Hong Kong remains a common law jurisdiction and the most serious criminal offences are tried by a jury. The present study empirically examines the relative impact of DNA evidence, confession, eyewitness testimony, and victim testimony in a Hong Kong-Chinese mock juror sample. The results show that the participants placed greater value on DNA evidence than on confession, and placed the lowest value on testimonial evidence. It is argued that the situation of "one country, two cultures" remains strong: Whereas participants are still influenced by the Chinese criminal justice concept of confession, their judgment is still predominately influenced by the scientific evidence as commonly practiced in the West. Thus, no solid evidence has been found to confirm the emergence of mainlandization in Hong Kong's criminal justice system. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available In contrast to many European jurisdictions, the victim of an alleged crime in England, Wales and Northern Ireland is denied any form of meaningful participation at the trial stage of the criminal justice process. This is by reason of the unyielding structure of the Anglo-American adversarial system, which facilitates a dispute between two parties only - the prosecution, acting on behalf of the collective public interest and the defence. In recent years, however, the victims’ movement has gained momentum as advocates of victims’ rights have been engaged in an impassioned campaign to enhance the participatory rights of victims in the criminal justice process. Fervent arguments have been articulated pertaining to the value of various forms of victim input. This paper cogitates some of these arguments and critically evaluates how enhanced victim participation in the criminal justice process has the potential to undercut the integrity of the Anglo- American adversarial system; a system with objective adjudication at its core.
Christensen, Mikkel Jarle
The article is a sociological investigation into the crucial role of legal academics in the professional mobilization that characterized the creation and development of international criminal justice. Analyzing the different stages in the evolution of international criminal law culminating...
Hirschinger-Blank, Nancy Beth; Simons, Lori; Kenyon, Alexandra
A triangulation mixed-methods design was used to measure differences in service-learning outcomes for 32 students enrolled in criminal justice courses during the academic years 2003 (n = 16) and 2005 (n = 16). Results show that service-learners increase their political awareness and course value but experience a decrease in problem-solving skills…
Jurisdictions in the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia now have laws that enable preventive detention of post-sentence sex offenders based on an assessment of the offender's likely recidivism. Measures of recidivism, or risk assessments, rely on the criminal justice process to produce the "pool" of sex offenders studied. This article argues that recidivism research needs to be placed in the context of attrition studies that document the disproportionate and patterned attrition of sexual offenses and sexual offenders from the criminal justice process. Understanding the common biases that affect criminal prosecution of sex offenses would improve sexual violence prevention policies.
Ferrazzi, Priscilla; Krupa, Terry
Rehabilitation-oriented criminal court mental health initiatives to reduce the number of people with mental illness caught in the criminal justice system exist in many North American cities and elsewhere but not in the mainly Inuit Canadian Arctic territory of Nunavut. This study explores whether the therapeutic aims of these resource-intensive, mainly urban initiatives can be achieved in criminal courts in Nunavut's resource constrained, culturally distinct and geographically remote communities. A qualitative multiple-case study in the communities of Iqaluit, Arviat and Qikiqtarjuaq involved 55 semi-structured interviews and three focus groups with participants representing four sectors essential to these initiatives: justice, health, community organizations and community members. These interviews explored whether the therapeutic jurisprudence (TJ) principles that guide criminal court mental health initiatives and the component objectives of these principles could be used to improve the criminal court response to people with mental illness in Nunavut. Interviews revealed 13 themes reflecting perceptions of Inuit culture's influence on the identification of people with mental illness, treatment, and collaboration between the court and others. These themes include cultural differences in defining mental illness, differences in traditional and contemporary treatment models, and the importance of mutual cultural respect. The findings suggest Inuit culture, including its recent history of cultural disruption and change, affects the vulnerability of Nunavut communities to the potential moral and legal pitfalls associated with TJ and criminal court mental health initiatives. These pitfalls include the dominance of biomedical approaches when identifying a target population, the medicalization of behaviour and culture, the risk of "paternalism" in therapeutic interventions, and shortcomings in interdisciplinary collaboration that limit considerations of Inuit culture. The
Full Text Available Women commit significantly fewer murders than men and are perceived to be less violent. This belief about women’s non-violence reflects the discourses surrounding gender, all of which assume that women possess certain inherent essential characteristics such as passivity and gentleness. When women commit murder the fundamental social structures based on appropriate feminine gendered behaviour are contradicted and subsequently challenged. This article will explore the gendered constructions of women who kill within the criminal justice system. These women are labelled as either mad, bad or a victim, by both the criminal justice system and society, depending on the construction of their crime, their gender and their sexuality. Symbiotic to labelling women who kill in this way is the denial of their agency. That is to say that labelling these women denies the recognition of their ability to make a semi-autonomous decision to act in a particular way. It is submitted that denying the agency of these women raises a number of issues, including, but not limited to, maintaining the current gendered status quo within the criminal law and criminal justice system, and justice both being done, and being seen to be done, for these women and their victims.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The advance of thery regarding the purpose of criminal punishment was started from Kantianism, retributive and utilitarian which has orientation toward the crime actor. Basically, this aim does not accomodate integrated criminal punishment purpose, untuil emergin restroaktive concept in which involve the crime victim interest in the crime punishment mechanism. For Indonesia, restroaktive justice concept has been kwon in the curtomary law under the peace process. Restroaktif Justice in the Insight of Criminal Punishment according to Gayo’s Customary Law
Winters, Drew E; Beerbower, Emily
Adolescents involved in the juvenile justice system are prone to more traumatic events than other adolescents, leaving them in danger of developmental difficulties. Trauma exposure is predictive of poor outcomes including mental and physical health issues as well as criminal activity. Current treatment approaches either have a nominal effect on recidivism rates or increase the likelihood of future criminal offenses. This article explores adolescent brain development, the unique difficulties that juvenile justice youth face, and mindfulness meditation as an adjunctive treatment to system-based treatment. Mindfulness meditation may be a way to redress damage to the brain and facilitate healthy brain development, thus impacting prosocial behavior. Practice implications include integrating mindfulness meditation as an important part of rehabilitative efforts with juvenile justice youth.
Kent, Stephanie L; Carmichael, Jason T
The number of discovered wrongful criminal convictions (and resulting exonerations) has increased over the past decade. These cases erode public confidence in the criminal justice system and trust in the rule of law. Many states have adopted laws that aim to reduce system errors but no study has examined why some states appear more willing to provide due process protections against wrongful convictions than others. Findings from regression estimates suggest that states with a Republican controlled legislature or more Republican voters are less likely to pass these laws while the presence of advocacy organizations that are part of the 'innocence movement' make legislative change more likely. We thus identify important differences in the political and social context between U.S. states that influence the adoption of criminal justice policies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lambdin, Barrot H; Kral, Alex H; Comfort, Megan; Lopez, Andrea M; Lorvick, Jennifer
People who smoke crack cocaine and people who inject drugs are at-risk for criminal justice involvement as well as HIV and HCV infection. Compared to criminal justice involvement, substance use treatment (SUT) can be cost-effective in reducing drug use and its associated health and social costs. We conducted a cross-sectional study of people who smoke crack cocaine and people who inject drugs to examine the association between incarceration, community supervision and substance use treatment with HIV/HCV testing, components of the HIV treatment cascade, social and physical vulnerability and risk behavior. Targeted sampling methods were used to recruit people who smoke crack cocaine and people who inject drugs (N = 2072) in Oakland, California from 2011 to 2013. Poisson regression models were used to estimate adjusted prevalence ratios between study exposures and outcomes. The overall HIV prevalence was 3.3% (95% CI 2.6-4.1). People previously experiencing incarceration were 21% (p People previously experiencing community supervision were 17% (p = 0.001) and 15% (p = 0.009), respectively, more likely to report HIV and HCV testing; and were not more likely to report receiving HIV care or initiating ART. People with a history of SUT were 15% (p People previously experiencing incarceration or community supervision were also more likely to report homelessness, trouble meeting basic needs and risk behavior. People with a history of substance use treatment reported higher levels of HCV and HIV testing and greater access to HIV care and treatment among HIV-positive individuals. People with a history of incarceration or community supervision reported higher levels of HCV and HIV testing, but not greater access to HIV care or treatment among HIV-positive individuals., Substance use treatment programs that are integrated with other services for HIV and HCV will be critical to simultaneously address the underlying reasons drug-involved people engage in drug
Felkenes, George T.
Graduates of six institutions were surveyed in an effort to develop a profile of doctoral graduates from institutions that have traditionally offered doctoral programs oriented specifically toward the field of criminal justice. A second research objective was to develop an understanding of the attitudes, frustrations, and utilization patterns of…
Full Text Available There has been a call to better link public health and criminal justice approaches to best address crime problems generally, and youth and gang violence in particular. Importantly, there has yet to be a systematic examination of how criminal justice approaches can be integrated within a public health framework. This paper examines the strengths and challenges with mapping gang research and evidence-informed practices onto a public health approach. Conceptual examination reveals benefits to utilizing an integrated framework, but it also exposes core problems with identification and prediction of gang joining and gang membership. The gang label as a master status is called into question. It is argued that a public health framework can inform public policy approaches as to when the focus should be youth violence versus gangs and gang violence.
Peters, Roger H; Young, M Scott; Rojas, Elizabeth C; Gorey, Claire M
Over seven million persons in the United States are supervised by the criminal justice system, including many who have co-occurring mental and substance use disorders (CODs). This population is at high risk for recidivism and presents numerous challenges to those working in the justice system. To provide a contemporary review of the existing research and examine key issues and evidence-based treatment and supervision practices related to CODs in the justice system. We reviewed COD research involving offenders that has been conducted over the past 20 years and provide an analysis of key findings. Several empirically supported frameworks are available to guide services for offenders who have CODs, including Integrated Dual Disorders Treatment (IDDT), the Risk-Need-Responsivity (RNR) model, and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT). Evidence-based services include integrated assessment that addresses both sets of disorders and the risk for criminal recidivism. Although several evidence-based COD interventions have been implemented at different points in the justice system, there remains a significant gap in services for offenders who have CODs. Existing program models include Crisis Intervention Teams (CIT), day reporting centers, specialized community supervision teams, pre- and post-booking diversion programs, and treatment-based courts (e.g., drug courts, mental health courts, COD dockets). Jail-based COD treatment programs provide stabilization of acute symptoms, medication consultation, and triage to community services, while longer-term prison COD programs feature Modified Therapeutic Communities (MTCs). Despite the availability of multiple evidence-based interventions that have been implemented across diverse justice system settings, these services are not sufficiently used to address the scope of treatment and supervision needs among offenders with CODs.
Joana Domingues Vargas
Full Text Available The current article is intended to demonstrate the advantages of prioritizing an analysis of court caseload processing for a given type of crime and proceeding to a comparison of the results obtained from empirical studies in different countries. The article draws on a study I performed on rape cases tried by the court system in Campinas, São Paulo State, and the study by Gary LaFree on rape cases in the United States, based on data in Indianapolis, Indiana. The comparative analysis of determinants of victims' and law enforcement agencies' decisions concerning the pursuit of legal action proved to be productive, even when comparing two different systems of justice. This allowed greater knowledge of how the Brazilian criminal justice system operates, both in its capacity to identify, try, and punish sex offenders, and in terms of the importance it ascribes to formal legal rules in trying rape cases, in comparison to the American criminal justice system.
Newbury-Birch, Dorothy; McGeechan, Grant J; Holloway, Aisha
Purpose Evidence in the UK tells us that risky drinking is high amongst those in contact with the criminal justice system. The purpose of this paper is to explore the reasons why carrying out research around risky drinking in this setting is so difficult. Design/methodology/approach A commentary on the issues of carrying out research in the criminal justice setting. Findings There are issues of carrying out research in the criminal justice setting. The authors argue, that as academics we can be more proactive in working with practitioners in the design and carrying out of studies. By examining what the primary outcome of interest is to those that work in the field rather than what funding agencies tell us academics must use, academics may engage in a more co-productive way that enables everyone to achieve what they need. Moreover more work is needed to show how this approach can be achieved both in the UK and internationally. Originality/value This editorial explores some of the difficulties of carrying out alcohol research in the criminal justice system and postulates ways that this could be made easier.
Full Text Available The subject-matter of this paper is to provide an overview of the situation/ status within Macedonian criminal legislation as a concept whose introduction and implementation is of recent time. This issue is addressed at two levels: through the overview of the representation of restorative justice elements within the Macedonian criminal legislation and through foreseeing the difficulties considering the implementation of this concept. Regarding the second level the author especially focuses on the difficulties with which social work centers and local communities have to deal. In order to answer the posed questions the author used his own findings, as well as the findings to which he came during the direct contacts with representatives of respective institutions or on the grounds of materials that these institutions provided. In the conclusion, the author attempts to answer to the closing question: can we be satisfied with the accomplished in the area of restorative justice? The author attempts to answer on the grounds of certain indicators (political will, material assumptions, realized professional trainings and education. The author points out to the necessity of acting in the educational system as well on all levels with an aim to create indispensable critical mass within society that will have an upgraded awareness for peaceful resolution of the conflict situation.
The previous Westminster criminal justice system entailed a different kind of separation of powers insofar as it concerns the role of state prosecutors. In the Westminster system prosecutors are part of the executive branch, whereas they were a split-off from the judiciary in constitutional states and function like a de facto ...
Lee, J. J.
A user's guide to the network design program is presented. The program is written in FORTRAN V and implemented on a UNIVAC 1108 computer under the EXEC-8 operating system which enables the user to construct least-cost network topologies for criminal justice digital telecommunications networks. A complete description of program features, inputs, processing logic, and outputs is presented, and a sample run and a program listing are included.
McAfee, James K.; Gural, Michele
Results of a survey of state attorneys general (N=46) found that, with few exceptions, identification of persons with mental retardation in criminal justice is neither systematic nor probable. Protections lie in statutes pertaining to mental illness rather than to mental retardation. (Author/DB)
Rosenberg, Alana; Groves, Allison K; Blankenship, Kim M
Despite knowledge of racial bias for drug-related criminal justice involvement and its collateral consequences, we know less about differences between Black and White drug offenders. We compare 243 Blacks and White non-violent drug offenders in New Haven, CT for demographic characteristics, substance use, and re-entry services accessed. Blacks were significantly more likely to have sales and possession charges, significantly more likely to prefer marijuana, a less addictive drug, and significantly less likely to report having severe drug problems. For both races, drug treatment was the most common service accessed through supervision. These comparisons suggest different reasons for committing drug-related crimes and thus, different reentry programming needs. While drug treatment is critical for all who need it, for racial justice, we must also intervene to address other needs of offenders, such as poverty alleviation and employment opportunities.
Biffi, Emanuela; Mulder, Eva; Pemberton, Antony; Santos, Manuela; Valério, Mafalda; Vanfraechem, Inge; van der Vorm, Benny
Project IVOR – Implementing victim-oriented reform of the criminal justice system in the European Union (2014-2016) offers an overview of current research into and with victims’ rights and services, identifying lacunas in the knowledge base and offering a model which can serve to connect experience
Webster, J Matthew; Mateyoke-Scrivner, Allison; Staton, Michele; Leukefeld, Carl
The current study examined rurality and criminality as predictors of the lifetime HIV risk behaviors of 661 male, drug-abusing state prisoners. HIV risk behaviors included the number of lifetime sex partners, the number of lifetime drug injections, the number of times had sex with an injection drug user, and the frequency with which a condom was used. Regression analyses showed that criminality was related to the number of lifetime injections, whereas rurality was related to fewer lifetime sex partners and less frequent condom use. A rurality by criminality interaction for sex with an injection drug user was found. Specifically, those from rural areas who had more extensive criminal histories reported relatively high numbers of sex partners who were IDUs. Results are discussed in the context of rural and criminal justice interventions for HIV risk behavior.
Bates, Lyndel; Hayes, Hennessey
Universities are increasingly focusing on the employability of students after they graduate from their studies. While practicums is one way of enhancing students' employability, the School of Criminology and Criminal Justice embeds employability throughout its degree programs using a range of strategies. These methods are based on the student…
Criminal justice education is a relatively new program in higher education in many countries, and its curriculum and parameters remain unsettled. An exploratory study investigated whether threshold concepts theory provided a useful lens by which to explore student understandings of this multidisciplinary field. Eight high-performing final-year…
Full Text Available One of the most important achievements of the contemporary criminal justice system and criminal policy is development of the concept of restorative justice. Contemporary concept of restorative justice was developed in 1970s on the basis of the criticism of the traditional criminal law and criminal justice system. Since that time, it has been developing through different programs in many countries. Reform of the criminal justice system in Serbia staring from 2002 went into direction of entering elements of restorative justice into existing criminal justice system. In that sense, development of restorative justice is still at the beginning in our country. However, it can be noticed that there is a low level of awareness on the nature and importance of restorative forms of response to crime among our professionals, as well as a lack of understanding of the concept itself. Due to that, the aim of the paper is to enable better understanding of restorative concept in general through defining restorative justice and basic principles it relies on. That may put a basis for further recognition of restorative elements in our criminal justice system, which may provide adequate implementation of relevant provisions of restorative character in practice. .
Thom, Katey; Burnside, Dave
Co-production has begun to make inroads into research, policy, and practice in mental health and addictions. Little is known, however, about the role co-production has or could have in shaping how the criminal justice system responds to mental health and addictions. Given that a large majority of prisoners in Aotearoa New Zealand have been diagnosed with either a mental health or substance use disorder within their lifetime, it is imperative alternative approaches are considered if we are to reduce the high imprisonment rates and contribute positively to health, safety, and well-being of all New Zealanders. In this study, we explore how co-production has been conceptualized and used in criminal justice systems internationally, and offer an experiential account of our first steps into co-production both in service delivery and research. We conclude by proposing a way forward to expand partnerships between those who have experience-based expertise and researchers within the criminal justice context, offering a small- and large-scale project as potential examples of what co-production may look like in this space. © 2018 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.
This article is a reaction to Sarah Nouwen and Wouter Werner, ‘Doing Justice to the Political. The International Criminal Court in Uganda and Sudan’, 21 EJIL (2010) 941. It takes issue with attempts to understand international law and particularly the workings of the International Criminal Court in
Full Text Available This review article discusses studies on the history of crime and the criminal law in England and Ireland published during the last few years. These reflect the ›history of crime and punishment‹ as a more or less established sub-discipline of social history, at least in England, whereas it only really began to flourish in the german-speaking world from the 1990s onwards. By contrast, the legal history of the criminal law and its procedure has a strong, recently revived academic tradition in Germany that does not really have a parallel in the British Isles, whose legal scholars still evidence their traditional reluctance to confront penal subjects.
According to the main argument in favour of the practice of racial profiling as a low enforcement tactic, the use of race as a targeting factor helps the police to apprehend more criminals. In the following, this argument is challenged. It is argued that, given the assumption that criminals...... are currently being punished too severely in Western countries, the apprehension of more criminals may not constitute a reason in favour of racial profiling at all....
Carlson, Kerstin Bree
criminal law are unrealizable under current ICT practice. This is due to international criminal law's foundational, legitimizing basis in natural law, rather than political liberalism. The article calls for a revision of ICT institutional accountability structures.......This article challenges international criminal tribunals' (ICTs) capacity to perform the socially constitutive work of transitional justice. Highlighting paradigmatic ICT jurisprudence, it shows both the "progress" and "justice" constructs central to the work and legitimacy of international...
Virginia State General Assembly, Richmond. Joint Legislative Audit and Review Commission.
Virginia has 36 criminal justice training academies, including 10 regional academies. The academies conduct entry-level, inservice, and specialized training for law enforcement officers, jailers, and other criminal justice personnel. In 1998, the Joint Legislative Audit and Review Commission (JLARC) was directed to review the quality, consistency,…
Morn, Frank T.
Current developments concerning criminology and criminal justice education are viewed historically and placed within a broader perspective of academic professionalization, and a few of the debates going on within and between the two fields are considered. Some early sociologists made considerable claim to studies of crime, and criminology and…
This book reviews the history of academic criminal justice--the studying and teaching of crime, police, law and legal processes, and corrections--from 1870 to the present. The nine chapters have the following titles: (1) "Introduction: Academic Politics and Professionalism, 1870-1930"; (2) "Progressivism and Police Education,…
Theoretical perspectives, supported by empirical evidence, have consistently argued that the judicial treatment of offenders by criminal justice agents is sometimes biased by extralegal factors, such as offenders' sociodemographic characteristics. According to defensive attribution theory, individuals tend to protect themselves against unfortunate…
Full Text Available Si aujourd’hui les Tribunaux pénaux internationaux pour l’ex-Yougoslavie et pour le Rwanda affirment qu’ils ont pour objectif de favoriser la restauration de la paix, cette mission puise pourtant ses racines dans une réglementation des comportements dans la guerre. Cette généalogie révèle un changement de mission du droit pénal international qui, associant progressivement justice et paix, a conduit récemment à y adjoindre la « réconciliation nationale ». Sans être définie, la « réconciliation nationale » va s’introduire dans le vocable des juges internationaux. Ainsi, lors de la détermination de la peine, les juges vont considérer que les efforts de l’accusé en faveur de la réconciliation nationale est un élément susceptible de réduire la peine au titre des circonstances atténuantes. A partir d’une analyse de l’ensemble des décisions des deux Tribunaux pénaux internationaux, cet article analyse sens et enjeux de l’appropriation de la « réconciliation nationale » par la justice pénale internationale saisie par des impératifs collectifs.Although the international criminal courts for the Former Yugoslavia and for Rwanda claim that their goal is to contribute to the restoration and the maintenance of peace, their mission originates in the laws of war. This genealogy reveals a shift in international criminal law’s missions. Combining « justice » and « peace », the international judges have added the notion of « national reconciliation » to their vocabulary without defining it. Thus to give a « fair sentence » judges are willing to consider the defendant’s efforts in favor of national reconciliation among the elements that they take into account as mitigating factors. Analyzing the judgments of the international criminal tribunal for the former Yugoslavia and for the Rwanda, this article explores what is at stake when international criminal justice is faced with social
Lynch, Michael J.; Stretesky, Paul B.; Long, Michael A.
This article examines studies related to environmental justice in the criminological literature and from a criminological perspective. Criminologists have long been concerned with injustices in the criminal justice system related to the enforcement of criminal law. In the 1990s, following the emergence of green criminology, a handful of criminologists have drawn attention to environmental justice as an extension of more traditional criminological studies of justice and injustice. Relevant criminological studies of environmental justice are reviewed, and suggestions for future environmental justice research are offered.
Elbogen, Eric B.; Johnson, Sally C.; Newton, Virginia M.; Straits-Troster, Kristy; Vasterling, Jennifer J.; Wagner, H. Ryan; Beckham, Jean C.
Objective: Although criminal behavior in veterans has been cited as a growing problem, little is known about why some veterans are at increased risk for arrest. Theories of criminal behavior postulate that people who have been exposed to stressful environments or traumatic events and who report negative affect such as anger and irritability are at…
Full Text Available The Rome Statute, as well as the International Criminal Court (ICC, regarded as a worldwide mechanism for the fight for impunity and a better protection of human rights, has 124 State parties up to date. China, however, is still not a party to the Rome Statute, mainly because of five reasons. This article looks for promoting the academic research on the Rome Statute and the ICC to clarify some confusion, and strengthening the Chinese domestic legislation to make use of the principle of complementary jurisdiction to exclude the jurisdiction of the ICC at largest. It is possible for China to be ready to access to the Rome Statute and take part in the ICC club in the future, which is also a contribution of China to the development of the international criminal law and justice.
Svennerlind, Christer; Nilsson, Thomas; Kerekes, Nóra; Andiné, Peter; Lagerkvist, Margareta; Forsman, Anders; Anckarsäter, Henrik; Malmgren, Helge
Historically, the Swedish criminal justice system conformed to other Western penal law systems, exempting severely mentally disordered offenders considered to be unaccountable. However, in 1965 Sweden enforced a radical penal law abolishing exceptions based on unaccountability. Mentally disordered offenders have since then been subjected to various forms of sanctions motivated by the offender's need for care and aimed at general prevention. Until 2008, a prison sentence was not allowed for offenders found to have committed a crime under the influence of a severe mental disorder, leaving forensic psychiatric care the most common sanction in this group. Such offenders are nevertheless held criminally responsible, liable for damages, and encumbered with a criminal record. In most cases, such offenders must not be discharged without the approval of an administrative court. Two essentially modern principles may be discerned behind the "Swedish model": first, an attempted abolishment of moral responsibility, omitting concepts such as guilt, accountability, atonement, and retribution, and, second, the integration of psychiatric care into the societal reaction and control systems. The model has been much criticized, and several governmental committees have suggested a re-introduction of a system involving the concept of accountability. This review describes the Swedish special criminal justice provisions on mentally disordered offenders including the legislative changes in 1965 along with current proposals to return to a pre-1965 system, presents current Swedish forensic psychiatric practice and research, and discusses some of the ethical, political, and metaphysical presumptions that underlie the current system. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Substance users are more likely to have co-occurring health problems, and this pattern is intensified among those involved with the criminal justice system. Interview data for 1977 incarcerated men in 5 states from the Multi-site Family Study on Incarceration, Parenting, and Partnering that was conducted between December 2008 and August 2011 were analyzed to compare pre-incarceration substance use patterns and health outcomes between men who primarily used marijuana, primarily used alcohol, primarily used other drugs, and did not use any illicit substances during that time. Using regression modeling, we examined the influence of substance use patterns on physical and mental health. Primary marijuana users comprised the largest portion of the sample (31.5%, closely followed by nonusers (30.0%, and those who primarily used other drugs (30.0%; primary alcohol users comprised the smallest group (19.6%. The substance user groups differed significantly from the nonuser group on many aspects of physical and mental health. Findings suggest that even among justice-involved men who are not using “hard” drugs, substance use merits serious attention. Expanding the availability of substance use treatment during and after incarceration might help to promote physical and mental health during incarceration and reentry.
Deutschmann, Linda B., Ed.; Wright, Richard A., Ed.
One of a series of resources for teaching sociology at the postsecondary level, this volume contains syllabi and instructional materials for courses in criminology and criminal justice. Material is divided into four sections. Section 1, innovative approaches to the teaching of criminology, contains four papers which discuss a corrections practicum…
TINDAK PIDANA KEKERASAN DALAM RUMAH TANGGA MENURUT SISTEM PERADILAN PIDANA DALAM PERSPEKTIF RESTORATIVE JUSTICE / The Act Of Domestic Violence In Criminal Justice System In Restorative Justice Perspective
Full Text Available Banyak penyelesaian perkara kekerasan dalam rumah tangga yang tidak memenuhi rasa keadilan, terutama bagi korban dan subordinat dalam rumah tangga. Dalam disertasi ini disampaikan hasil yaitu pertama, penyelesaian perkara kekerasan dalam rumah tangga pada kenyataannya diselesaikan melalui Undang-Undang No. 23 Tahun 2004 sebagai lex specialis. Penyelesaian kasus kekerasan dalam rumah tangga berdasarkan aturan tersebut, secara empiris lebih menekankan pada pemidanaannya, sehingga terlihat tujuan preventif, protektif, dan konsolidatif tidak terpenuhi. Kedua, penelitian ini menyimpulkan bahwa kekerasan dalam rumah tangga merupakan perkara dengan multi dimensi penyelesaian karena terdapat sisi lingkup perdata dan di sisi lain lingkup pidana. Oleh karena itu dibutuhkan suatu media di dalam sistem yang dapat mengakomodasi penyelesaian perkara tersebut, yang salah satunya adalah dengan menggunakan pendekatan restorative justice. There are many domestic violence settlements that do not satisfy the sense of justice, especially for the victims and subordinate in the household. The dissertation results: first, the settlement of domestic violence in fact settled by Act No. 23 of 2004 as lex special. The settlements of domestic violence cases based on that rule, empirically emphasis on the criminal sanction, so that the purpose of preventive, protective and consolidative was not rise. Second, the research concluded that domestic violence is a case with the multi-dimensional settlement because there is the scope of the civil and criminal sphere on the other side. Therefore, it needs a medium in the system that can accommodate the completion of the case, which one of them is restorative justice approach.
Howes, Loene M
Clear communication about forensic science is essential to the effectiveness and perceived trustworthiness of the criminal justice system. Communication can be seen as a meaning-making process that involves different components such as the sender of a message, the message itself, the channel in which a message is sent, and the receiver of the message. Research conducted to date on the communication between forensic scientists and non-scientists in the criminal justice system has focused on different components of the communication process as objects of study. The purpose of this paper is to bring together communication theory and past research on the communication of forensic science to contribute to a deeper understanding of it, and to provide a coherent view of it overall. The paper first outlines the broader context of communication theory and science communication as a backdrop to forensic science communication. Then it presents a conceptual framework as a way to organise past research and, using the framework, reviews recent examples of empirical research and commentary on the communication of forensic science. Finally the paper identifies aspects of the communication of forensic science that may be addressed by future research to enhance the effectiveness of communication between scientists and non-scientists in this multidisciplinary arena. Copyright © 2014 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Forensic Advisors at the National Institute for Criminalistics and Criminology in Brussels act as advising body to the magistrate regarding analytical possibilities and the usefulness of trace analysis in a case. Initially, their function was devised to assist in complex murder cases with unknown offender. However, in a previous study, the increasing diversity of the cases they are requested for has been observed (Bitzer et al., in press). In order to deepen our understanding of the decision steps in the criminal investigation process, the decision to involve a Forensic Advisor and the factors leading to their involvement were evaluated. The study focused on homicide, robbery and burglary cases with and without requests for a Forensic Advisor between January 2014 and June 2016. The factors were categorised into five knowledge dimensions: strategic, immediate, physical, criminal and utility. Decision tree modelling was carried out in order to identify the factors influencing the request for a Forensic Advisor in the case. The decision to request a Forensic Advisor differs between different types of offences. It also depends on the complexity of the case in terms of the number of traces and objects collected at the crime scene, and the availability of witness reports. Indeed, Forensic Advisors take the role of trace analysis coordinator by providing an overview of all available traces, objects, analyses and results. According to the principal implication factors and the performed case study, the contribution of Forensic Advisors consists mainly in summarising all information and advise on potential additional analyses. This might be explained by a loss of overview of the information and the possibilities regarding trace analysis by the magistrate responsible of the case. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Platt, Derrick E.
Low levels of reading performance are associated with delinquency. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between early involvement in the justice system and reading problems. This study examined the relationship between youth at various early stages of involvement with criminal behaviors and reading abilities (specifically,…
Phillips, Susan D.; Gleeson, James P.; Waites-Garrett, Melissa
The expansion of the criminal justice system over the last several decades helped to focus attention on children of incarcerated parents, many of whom have parents with substance abuse problems. Since the 1990's, a national grassroots campaign has been underway to make substance abuse treatment an alternative to incarceration for parents who…
Sung, Hung-En; Belenko, Steven; Feng, Li; Tabachnick, Carrie
Compliance with therapeutic regimens constitutes an important but infrequently studied precursor of treatment engagement and is a necessary condition of successful treatment. This study builds on recent treatment process research and provides a theory-driven analysis of treatment compliance. Five hypotheses are formulated to predict treatment noncompliance among criminal justice-mandated clients. These hypotheses tap different determinants of treatment progress, including physical prime, supportive social network, conventional social involvement, treatment motivation, and risk-taking propensity. Data from 150 addicted felons participating in a diversion program are analyzed to test the hypotheses. Predictors related to these hypotheses correctly identify 58% of the fully compliant clients and 55-88% of the noncompliant clients. Most hypotheses are at least partially corroborated and a few strong correlates emerge across analyses. Clients in their physical prime, those with poorer social support, and those lacking internal desires for change were found especially likely to violate treatment program rules. Clinical implications are discussed.
Liu, Liu; Chui, Wing Hong; Chen, Ye
Young drug users are found to be increasingly involved in criminal justice issues. This exploratory and descriptive study aims to analyze the criminal behaviors among young Chinese drug users through a mixed methods research design. Quantitative analysis indicates that young drug users with and without a history of criminality show significant differences in terms of several features. Male drug users, particularly, those who are older, with religious beliefs, and initiated into drug use at younger age were most likely to commit crimes. Among drug users with criminal experiences, those who committed crimes prior to drug initiation have a greater likelihood of committing violent crimes. Furthermore, young drug users with severe depression are more likely to commit crimes, especially violent ones. Qualitative analysis further illustrates that young male drug users often get involved in criminal conduct of the youth gang nature with propensity for engaging in violent crimes as compared to their female counterparts who are more likely to turn into drug dealers and traffickers, in addition to engaging in larceny. The research findings are consistent with developmental theories and "victim to offender cycle". Integrated mental health and substance use services are suggested for crime prevention among young Chinese drug users.
Fovet, Thomas; Geoffroy, Pierre Alexis; Vaiva, Guillaume; Adins, Catherine; Thomas, Pierre; Amad, Ali
Bipolar disorder is a severe and prevalent psychiatric disease. Poor outcomes include a high frequency of criminal acts, imprisonments, and repeat offenses. This critical review of the international literature examined several aspects of the complex relationship between individuals with bipolar disorder and the criminal justice system: risk factors for criminal acts, features of bipolar patients' incarceration, and their postrelease trajectories. Publications were obtained from the PubMed and Google Scholar electronic databases by using the following MeSH headings: prison, forensic psychiatry, criminal law, crime, and bipolar disorder. Among patients with bipolar disorder, the frequency of violent criminal acts is higher than in the general population (odds ratio [OR]=2.8, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.8-4.3). The frequency is higher among patients with bipolar disorder and a comorbid substance use disorder than among those without either disorder (OR=10.1, CI=5.3-19.2). As a result, the prevalence of bipolar disorder among prisoners is high (2%-7%). In prison, patients' bipolar disorder symptoms can complicate their relationship with prison administrators, leading to an increased risk of multiple incarcerations. Moreover, the risk of suicide increases for these prisoners. Criminal acts are common among patients with bipolar disorder and are often associated with problems such as addiction. Thus it is important to improve the diagnosis and treatment of inmates with bipolar disorder.
Robertson, Angela A; Walker, Courtney S
Decades of research have established that experience of abuse and/or neglect in childhood is related to negative outcomes, such as juvenile delinquency. Existing research has shown that involvement in child welfare services is also related to juvenile delinquency, particularly for children who are victims of neglect. Research has also identified educational factors such as chronic absenteeism as significant predictors of involvement in the juvenile justice system. However, little research has investigated the combined influence of educational factors, child abuse, and involvement in child protective services on justice system involvement. The current study examined the influence of educational factors and involvement in child protective services on justice system involvement. The study utilized records from an educational database of children who attended a school within a county of Mississippi in any year from 2003 through 2013. Cases were then matched with records from the county Youth Court, Law Enforcement agencies, and Child Protection Services. A multivariate logistic regression controlling for gender, race, current age, and time at risk was conducted to involvement in the justice system. In general, educational factors were stronger predictors of justice system involvement than allegations of maltreatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
James, David V
The form that diversion mechanisms take in a given jurisdiction will be influenced both by mental health law and sentencing policies, and by the structure of criminal justice and health care systems. In England and Wales, treatment in hospital in lieu of any other sentence is available as a disposal option following a finding of guilt. In addition, there is a National Health Service, free at the point of delivery, the existence of which creates the potential for a co-ordinated nationwide response to mental disorder within the criminal justice system. In recent years, the National Health Service has taken over the delivery of health care in prisons, including psychiatric services, with the principle being one of equivalence between the quality of health provision provided in the community and that provided in prisons. However, problems within the system dictate that an important place remains for add-on diversion initiatives at courts and police stations, which aim to circumvent some of the delays in dealing with mentally disordered people or to prevent them entering the criminal justice system in the first place. It has been demonstrated that such mechanisms can be highly effective, and a government-sponsored review in 1992 recommended their general adoption. A lack of central co-ordination determined that progress was very slow. A new government-commissioned report in 2009 set out detailed recommendations for reform throughout the system. It laid emphasis on a co-ordinated response at all levels and between all agencies, and placed importance on linking initiatives with community services and with preventative measures, including attention to the effects of social exclusion. Some grounds for optimism exist, although there are particular problems in implementing change at a time of financial austerity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Teaching and research are often the most focused upon aspects of working within academia in criminology and criminal justice (Sitren & Applegate, 2012; Jonson & Moon, 2014; Pratt, 2014), but an overlooked and underappreciated part of an undergraduate's overall higher education success is academic advising (Light, 2001). There has been…
Phillips, Jake; Fowler, Andrew; Westaby, Chalen
Self-disclosure, the act of therapists revealing something about themselves in the context of a professional relationship, has been linked with higher levels of effectiveness when used by correctional workers. However, it is poorly defined in both criminal justice policy and criminological research which has resulted in a lack of understanding about the potential risks and benefits to practice and practitioners. This article uses literature from other fields (namely, social work, counselling, and psychotherapy) to lay out what forms self-disclosure might take in the field of criminal justice. The article presents data that were generated as part of a larger project on emotional labour in probation practice in England. It analyses these data to argue that self-disclosure is used in two principle ways: to create and enhance a therapeutic relationship and in a more correctional way which is focused on criminogenic risk and need. We conclude by arguing that future research which seeks to identify a link between certain skills and effective outcomes needs to start with a much stronger definition of such skills as, otherwise, any effects are likely to be lost.
Alejandra Mera González-Ballesteros
Full Text Available Hace ya más de tres décadas que se han venido implementando en diversas jurisdicciones programas de justicia restaurativa en el ámbito de la justicia penal, especialmente en los sistemas de justicia penal juvenil, ofreciendo una alternativa de resolución orientada a la reparación, desjudicialización y el diálogo entre los directamente involucrados en el conflicto. Este vertiginoso desarrollo ha precedido generalmente a la regulación legal y al debate sobre estándares y garantías procesales que deben orientar estos programas. Sin embargo, a medida que los programas de justicia restaurativa han ganado terreno y se han propuesto como mecanismos de resolución en casos de mayor gravedad y de criminalidad adulta, la necesidad de establecer estándares legales se ha hecho urgente. Hasta ahora, a nivel comparado, no existe acuerdo sobre la necesidad o el contenido de las garantías procesales aplicables a los programas de justicia restaurativa. Este trabajo propone que es necesario establecer estándares procesales claros en la implementación de estos programas, pero a su vez, que ellos deben adecuarse a los principios y fines que ésta persigue.Since more than thirty years, many countries have implemented restorative justice programmes to deal with criminal matters, especially with young offenders. This programmes offer different ways to deal with the aftermaths of a crime, through diversion, reparation and the active participation of those involved in the conflict. This dramatic development has occurred, though, without broad legal regulations or deep debates regarding procedural safeguards and standards. Nevertheless, as restorative justice programmes grow and are being used to deal with serious offences and adult offenders, the need for the setting of safeguards is pressing. Until now, there is not agreement in the literature regarding the specific content of procedural safeguards for restorative justice. This paper suggests that
Irlena Maria Malheiros da Costa
Full Text Available The article analyzes the enactment of the victim of “children and adolescents sexual abuse” in the criminal justice system of Fortaleza. For a person to be recognized as a victim of “children and adolescents sexual abuse”, it is necessary more than a sexual situation imposed by adults. It is necessary to enact a dossier able to convince the judge that there was an event with the characteristics typified by the Brazilian Penal Code. It is in enactment a crime that a victim is being enacted. However, the elements expected by are not always found criminal justice system, which it can form disbelief in justice and repentance of the complaint.
Polcin, Douglas L
Over the past decade there has been a clear consensus among drug policy researchers that the practice of incarcerating persons for drug offenses has been counterproductive. As a result, U.S. criminal justice policy is increasingly emphasizing alternative dispositions to incarceration for drug related arrests. In addition, large numbers of persons currently incarcerated for drug related offenses are being released into communities. However, there are serious questions about where these individuals are going to live once released and how they will access needed services. Residential recovery homes in the community are good options for those who wish to pursue abstinence from drugs. They provide a drug- and alcohol-free living environment along with social support for abstinence and successful functioning in the community. This paper reviews recent changes in drug policy the U.S. and describes the variety of recovery home options that are available to persons diverted or released from incarceration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Focus of attention in the criminal justice system so far has always been to the perpetrator, whereas parties related to a process of criminal justice encompasses the perpetrator, the victim, and the community. A crime victim, in particular, would suffer more since he/she could experience secondary victimization in the criminal justice system. The law concerning victim and witness protection only states the limitation for the criminal victim to ask for compensation to criminal justice system, either as a victim of direct criminal or a victim of abuse power done by law enforcement officers. Child victims are treated the same way as to adult victims, whilst they have a greater dimension of the problem and effects to be dealt with Mechanism and procedures to be followed are ius constituendum (intended/desirable law, as they only share expectation of indemnity, compensation, and rehabilitation which have not been empirically tested in a real situation.
Maya Pagni Barak
Full Text Available Over the last 40 years a number of scholars have called upon fellow criminologists to rethink the field’s priorities and methods, as well as the American criminal justice system and current punishment practices. Drawing on alternative criminologies, including constitutive and peacemaking criminologies, as well as the practice of reintegrative shaming, this paper presents a new model of criminal justice that combines aspects of adversarial, restorative, social, and transformative justice frameworks. The resulting “intersectional criminal justice” offers a holistic harm-reduction model that moves the focus of our criminal justice system away from “rough justice” and towards collective restorative healing and positive social change.
Tsyganenko Sergey, S.
Full Text Available The paper deals with the main issues of the modern concept of the criminal proceeding differentiation in terms of new methodological and theoretical approaches - models of criminal justice and the theory of criminal procedural strategy. This draws attention to a trend to expand the scope of application in criminal proceedings, along with production and procedural forms of justice and law and technology. In connection with what is considered their place in the structure of modern criminal procedure, the application conditions and development prospects. For a long time in the theory of criminal systemology a key element in the process acted as a procedural form of normative-functional complex stages and phases of activity in the pre-trial and judicial parts of the criminal justice system. Its mission has been focused on the achievement of major milestones in the implementation of justice, which, ultimately, are expressed in establishing the truth in the case. Thus, there was a two-element mechanism consisting of pre-trial proceedings, due to the need to solve the crime and bringing charges and proceedings, consisting primarily of the trial based on the principles of justice. This order, established regulations, is unified - it is equally applied to all categories of criminal cases and with all the procedural authorities. Modern criminal procedure is a differentiated form in which, along with established procedural steps and process of production, and has been actively used legal procedural technology.
Tan, Nikolas Feith
under the jurisdiction of the International Criminal Court, temporal jurisdiction renders prosecution impossible. This article explores Prabowo’s human rights abuses, and how international criminal law has failed to achieve justice for these crimes. It concludes that Prabowo’s political rise threatens...... the aims of international criminal justice....
Restorative justice has gained ascendancy within both judicial systems and educational settings through which court-involved youth are resocialized as part of reintegration intervention. This article explores the conflict over collective representation at the intersections among public education, criminal justice, and restorative intervention. The…
Konrad, Norbert; Lau, Steffen
Mentally disordered prisoners in Germany are subject to special legal regulations, which can be traced back to the 1933 "Dangerous Habitual Offenders and their Detention and Rehabilitation Act". There are no special diversion programs in Germany but diversion does in fact happen via legal regulations that are based on the construct of legal responsibility. Diversion refers to the removal of offenders from the criminal justice system at any stage of the procedure and court proceedings. In recent years the number of occupied beds in forensic psychiatric hospitals has continued to rise. At the same time the number of people in prisons has slightly decreased while there has been a slight increase in the number of available beds in general psychiatry. Germany experienced public and media concern about the risk posed by conditionally released mentally ill offenders and other perceived inadequacies in the criminal justice system. Therefore the way in which prisoners or forensic patients are supervised after they have been discharged was reformed in 2007 in order to assure a more efficient control of their conduct after their release from custody by means of mandatory treatment and monitoring. Special outpatient clinics were to assist discharged patients in complying with the conditions of probation and parole. However organisational structures for these specialised outpatient institutions vary within Germany because of its federal administration. This results in regional differences in conditions of treatment and probably in differences in quality as well, but surveys about the effects, efficacy or effectiveness of forensic outpatient treatment in Germany are scarce. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Peterson, James; Cota, Michelle; Gray, Holly; Bazerman, Lauri; Kuo, Irene; Kurth, Ann; Beckwith, Curt
Innovative interventions increasing linkage, adherence, and retention in care among HIV-infected persons in the criminal justice system are needed. The authors conducted a qualitative study to investigate technology-based tools to facilitate linkage to community-based care and viral suppression for HIV-infected jail detainees on antiretroviral medications being released to the community. The authors conducted 24 qualitative interview-12 in Rhode Island and 12 in Washington, DC-among recently incarcerated HIV-infected persons to elicit their perceptions on the use of technology tools to support linkage to HIV care among criminal justice populations. This article discusses participants' perceptions of the acceptability of technological tools such as (a) a computer-based counseling and (b) text messaging interventions. The participants reported positive experiences when previewing the technology-based tools to facilitate linkage to HIV care and adherence to HIV medications. Successful linkage to care has been shown to improve HIV-associated and non-HIV-associated health outcomes, as well as prevent criminal recidivism and facilitate reentrants' successful and meaningful transition. These findings can be used to inform the implementation of interventions aimed at promoting adherence to antiretroviral medications and linkage to care for HIV-infected persons being released from the correctional setting.
Nicosia, Nancy; Macdonald, John M; Arkes, Jeremy
We investigated the extent to which racial/ethnic disparities in prison and diversion to drug treatment were explained by current arrest and criminal history characteristics among drug-involved offenders, and whether those disparities decreased after California's Proposition 36, which mandated first- and second-time nonviolent drug offenders drug treatment instead of prison. We analyzed administrative data on approximately 170,000 drug-involved arrests in California between 1995 and 2005. We examined odds ratios from logistic regressions for prison and diversion across racial/ethnic groups before and after Proposition 36. We found significant disparities in prison and diversion for Blacks and Hispanics relative to Whites. These disparities decreased after controlling for current arrest and criminal history characteristics for Blacks. Proposition 36 was also associated with a reduction in disparities, but more so for Hispanics than Blacks. Disparities in prison and diversion to drug treatment among drug-involved offenders affect hundreds of thousands of citizens and might reinforce imbalances in criminal justice and health outcomes. Our study indicated that standardized criminal justice policies that improved access to drug treatment might contribute to alleviating some share of these disparities.
Ćorović Emir A.
Full Text Available The principle of guilt is one of the essential principles of criminal law. However, it is a very complex principle. Its content has been presented in this paper particularly referring to a systematic deviation of it in the criminal legislation of the Republic of Serbia. According to the provisions of the article 2 of the Criminal Code of Serbia the principle of guilt is related to punishments and warning measures, while security and educational measures remained beyond its reach. On the other side, The Criminal Code defining a crime offense in the article 14 demands culpability of perpetrator's behavior. It involves a conceptual problem: a possibility is given for criminal sanctions of the principle of guilt, article 2 of the Criminal Code not referring to security and educational measures could be applied for people acting without culpability. It is paradoxical to accept criminal-justice reaction in the form of criminal sanctions regarding people without guilt. According to author of this paper, such a normative solution brings into issue the relevant principle, more precisely its basis, generality and guidance, the qualities that every legal principle should maintain. Of course, deviations of legal principle and the principle of guilt are possible but they must be kept to a minimum. Otherwise, systematic legal principle deviations, in this case the principle of guilt, are not to be tolerated. Connecting the principle of guilt with the system of criminal sanctions opens the debate on voluntarism embodied in the freedom of will and guilt and positivism/determinism embodied in perpetrator's danger and educational neglect within the criminal law. It is over a century discussion in the science of criminal law. The author of the paper concludes criminal-justice reaction in the form of criminal sanction can be justified only of based on the principle of guilt. Otherwise, such a reaction has no place in the criminal law.
... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dissemination of criminal history record information. 20.33 Section 20.33 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS Federal Systems and Exchange of Criminal History Record Information § 20.33 Dissemination of...
Ćopić Sanja M.
Full Text Available Negative social reaction and inadequate reaction of the agencies of the formal control on the primary victimization is leading to the so called secondary victimization that can be a source of trauma and frustration as much as the primary victimization. Due to that, relation of the police and the judiciary towards the crime victims is of a great importance regarding victims’ willingness to report the victimization, their confidence in these agencies, and cooperation during clearing up the crime. In order to realize the victim’s position in the criminal justice system, this paper contains an overview of how the police, prosecutor’s office and courts are functioning. The paper is based on the interviews made with the representatives of these state agencies, as well as on the previous knowledge and realized surveys concerning this topic. The aim of the paper is to emphasize the position and the role of the victim support service in the system of the state intervention, based upon the obtained data, as well as to give some basic information on how victims could report the crime, what are their rights and duties, what can they expect from the competent agencies.
Carly B. Dierkhising
Full Text Available Background: Up to 90% of justice-involved youth report exposure to some type of traumatic event. On average, 70% of youth meet criteria for a mental health disorder with approximately 30% of youth meeting criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Justice-involved youth are also at risk for substance use and academic problems, and child welfare involvement. Yet, less is known about the details of their trauma histories, and associations among trauma details, mental health problems, and associated risk factors. Objective: This study describes detailed trauma histories, mental health problems, and associated risk factors (i.e., academic problems, substance/alcohol use, and concurrent child welfare involvement among adolescents with recent involvement in the juvenile justice system. Method: The National Child Traumatic Stress Network Core Data Set (NCTSN-CDS is used to address these aims, among which 658 adolescents report recent involvement in the juvenile justice system as indexed by being detained or under community supervision by the juvenile court. Results: Age of onset of trauma exposure was within the first 5 years of life for 62% of youth and approximately one-third of youth report exposure to multiple or co-occurring trauma types each year into adolescence. Mental health problems are prevalent with 23.6% of youth meeting criteria for PTSD, 66.1% in the clinical range for externalizing problems, and 45.5% in the clinical range for internalizing problems. Early age of onset of trauma exposure was differentially associated with mental health problems and related risk factors among males and females. Conclusions: The results indicate that justice-involved youth report high rates of trauma exposure and that this trauma typically begins early in life, is often in multiple contexts, and persists over time. Findings provide support for establishing trauma-informed juvenile justice systems that can respond to the needs of traumatized youth.
Mapes, Anna A; Kloosterman, Ate D; de Poot, Christianne J
Current figures on the efficiency of DNA as an investigative tool in criminal investigations only tell part of the story. To get the DNA success story in the right perspective, we examined all forensic reports from serious (N = 116) and high-volume crime cases (N = 2791) over the year 2011 from one police region in the Netherlands. These data show that 38% of analyzed serious crime traces (N = 384) and 17% of analyzed high-volume crime traces (N = 386) did not result in a DNA profile. Turnaround times (from crime scene to DNA report) were 66 days for traces from serious crimes and 44 days for traces from high-volume crimes. Suspects were truly identified through a match with the Offender DNA database of the Netherlands in 3% of the serious crime cases and in 1% of the high-volume crime cases. These data are important for both the forensic laboratory and the professionals in the criminal justice system to further optimize forensic DNA testing as an investigative tool. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
The book is a comprehensive narration of the use of expertise in international criminal trials offering reflection on standards concerning the quality and presentation of expert evidence. It analyzes and critiques the rules governing expert evidence in international criminal trials...... and the strategies employed by counsel and courts relying upon expert evidence and challenges that courts face determining its reliability. In particular, the author considers how the procedural and evidentiary architecture of international criminal courts and tribunals influences the courts' ability to meaningfully...... incorporate expert evidence into the rational fact-finding process. The book provides analysis of the unique properties of expert evidence as compared with other forms of evidence and the challenges that these properties present for fact-finding in international criminal trials. It draws conclusions about...
Gissel, Line Engbo
This presentation builds on an earlier published article, 'Contemporary Transitional Justice: Normalising a Politics of Exception'. It argues that the field of transitional justice has undergone a shift in conceptualisation and hence practice. Transitional justice is presently understood to be th...... to be the provision of ordinary criminal justice in contexts of exceptional political transition.......This presentation builds on an earlier published article, 'Contemporary Transitional Justice: Normalising a Politics of Exception'. It argues that the field of transitional justice has undergone a shift in conceptualisation and hence practice. Transitional justice is presently understood...
Halliday, S.; Burns, N.; Hutton, N.; McNeill, F.; Tata, C.; University of Glasgow; University of Strathclyde; University of New South Wales
The study of decision-making by public officials in administrative settings has been a mainstay of law and society scholarship for decades. The methodological challenges posed by this research agenda are well understood: how can socio-legal researchers get inside the heads of legal decision-makers in order to understand the uses of official discretion? This article describes an ethnographic technique the authors developed to help them penetrate the decision-making practices of criminal justic...
The Child Justice Act 75 of 2008 establishes a criminal justice system for child accused, separate from the criminal justice system which continues to apply for adult accused in South Africa. The Act aims to keep children out of detention and away from the formal criminal justice system, mainly through diversion. When these ...
Walters, Glenn D
One purpose of this study was to determine whether parental involvement, measured in late adolescence, mediates the relationship between delinquency in mid-adolescence and crime in early adulthood. This study's second purpose was to ascertain whether this relationship is moderated by sex, such that late adolescent parental involvement mediates the delinquency-crime relationship in females but not in males. A secondary analysis of data provided by 579 (272 males, 307 females) members of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Child (NLSYC) was conducted in an effort to evaluate the possibility of moderated mediation in the relationship between delinquency at age 16, parental involvement at age 18, and criminality at age 24. Moderated mediation analysis, path analysis, and causal mediation analysis revealed the presence of a conditional indirect relationship between delinquency, parental involvement, and adult crime moderated by sex. These results are consistent with views on cumulative disadvantage and gendered pathways to crime. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Starting from the unbreakable bond that exists between human trafficking and prostitution, the author explores in the paper the issue of the influence of value judgments about the existence of free will in prostitution on shaping criminal justice responses to human trafficking. Two possible answers to this question also create two models of criminal-political responses to human trafficking. The author criticizes the first one, which does not recognize the freedom of will, because besides the ...
Simpson, Antony E.
The development of minimum standards in higher education through the evolution of accreditation in specialized disciplines, and standard setting in criminology and criminal justice education are examined. The very different experiences with the concept of accreditation encountered in the fields of public administration and law are considered. Law…
Walters, Glenn D
Research has shown that procedural justice reliably predicts future offending behavior, although there is some indication that this may be more a function of legitimacy beliefs than of procedural justice per se. The current study sought to explain continuity and desistance in the moral model of criminal lifestyle development by comparing legitimacy beliefs, procedural justice, and moral disengagement as initiators and mediators of pathways leading to early adult offending. It was hypothesized that low legitimacy beliefs but not perceived procedural (in)justice or moral disengagement would initiate, and that moral disengagement but not low legitimacy beliefs or procedural injustice would mediate, the effect of low legitimacy beliefs on subsequent offending behavior. This hypothesis was tested in a group of 1,142 young adult males (age range = 18 to 20) from the Pathways to Desistance study (Mulvey, 2012). Results showed that as predicted, the target pathway (legitimacy → moral disengagement → offending) but none of the control pathways achieved a significant indirect effect. Hence, 1 way legitimacy beliefs reduce future offending and lead to desistance is by inhibiting moral disengagement. Besides the theoretical implications of these results, there is also the suggestion that legitimacy beliefs and moral disengagement should be considered for inclusion in secondary prevention and criminal justice intervention programs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Folino, Jorge Oscar; Abait, Patricia Estela
To review research results on the relationship between pathological gambling and criminality, published in 2007 and 2008, in English and in Spanish. An important association between pathological gambling and criminality was confirmed in populations of anonymous gamblers, helpline callers and substance abusers. Helplines provide a timely service to gamblers who have not reached the maximum stages in the development of a pathological gambling pattern. Pathological gambling is associated with violence in couples and dysfunctional families. Inversely, violence is also an antecedent promoting vulnerability toward pathological gambling. Impulsiveness shows diverse relationships with pathological gambling and violence as well. A pathological gambler's involvement in crime is exceptionally considered without responsibility by justice, but it may be an indicator of the disorder severity and the need for special therapeutic tactics. While reviewing the present study, research work was published that contributed to a better understanding of the association between pathological gambling and criminality and went further into their complex relationship and the formulation of explanatory models related to impulsiveness.
Mellgren, Caroline; Ivert, Anna-Karin
One of the biggest challenges for criminal justice educators is to deal with the strongly held opinions and preconceived notions about criminal justice issues among students. It often takes the form of students being reluctant to accept certain premises that does not comply with their own experience of the issue. The general tendency to reject…
Gabbidon, Shaun L.; Greene, Helen Taylor; Wilder, Kideste
This article reexamines the exclusion of African Americans in the discipline of criminology and criminal justice. Young and Sulton raised this issue in their important article that focused on the role of African American scholars in various aspects of the field. The article revisits several areas investigated in the original article, including the…
Full Text Available The article argues the problems technician and historics of the formation of the main operators of the system of justice in Brazil, mainly commission agents, promoters and magistrates. Seeks to show that an inherited historical culture exists, based in the value of the inequality, that incorporates the university formation of these operators of justice and that it goes to influence considerably its decisions throughout the conduction of moved criminal proceedings against without lands. It is based on the analysis of an extracted data set of the responsible institutions for the formation of these operators, such as university, schools of magistracy and schools of the Public prosecution service.
Burke, Jeffrey D; Mulvey, Edward P; Schubert, Carol A; Garbin, Sara R
The active involvement of parents - whether as recipients, extenders, or managers of services - during their youth's experience with the juvenile justice system is widely assumed to be crucial. Parents and family advocacy groups note persisting concerns with the degree to which successful parental involvement is achieved. Justice system providers are highly motivated and actively working to make improvements. These coalescing interests provide a strong motivation for innovation and improvement regarding family involvement, but the likely success of these efforts is severely limited by the absence of any detailed definition of parental involvement or validated measure of this construct. Determining whether and how parental involvement works in juvenile justice services depends on the development of clear models and sound measurement. Efforts in other child serving systems offer guidance to achieve this goal. A multidimensional working model developed with parents involved in child protective services is presented as a template for developing a model for parental involvement in juvenile justice. Features of the model requiring changes to make it more adaptable to juvenile justice are identified. A systematic research agenda for developing methods and measures to meet the present demands for enhanced parental involvement in juvenile justice services is presented.
Pierce, Matthew W.; Runyan, Carol W.; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I.
To understand the potential public health and social justice implications of criminal background screening on college admissions, we examined postsecondary institutions' reasons for collecting or not collecting applicants' criminal justice information. We invited heads of admissions from 300 randomly sampled postsecondary institutions to complete…
Rose, Lisa Hale
In spite of open access to community college education, specifically human service associate degree programs, students with criminal justice histories do not necessarily have an unobstructed pathway to obtaining the degree and admission to the baccalaureate programs in human services and social work that are almost always selective. The first…
Arthur Trindade M. Costa
Full Text Available Neste artigo, discutimos as limitações e os obstáculos para a elaboração e implantação de uma Política Criminal no Distrito Federal. Para isso, analisamos a forma como o processo de tomada de decisões no interior do Sistema de Justiça Criminal está estruturado. Observamos, a partir de etnografias e grupos focais, que tanto delegados, quanto promotores e juízes estabelecem critérios para selecionar os inquéritos e processos que merecerão atenção. Sem essa seleção, o funcionamento do Sistema de Justiça Criminal seria ainda mais caótico. Ocorre que essa seletividade é feita sem atender a uma Política Criminal. Existem diferentes filtros no Sistema de Justiça Criminal do DF, que seguem diferentes lógicas, cujo resultado é a ausência de uma Política Criminal coerente. As causas disso repousam no não reconhecimento da discricionariedade no Sistema de Justiça Criminal do Distrito Federal e, consequentemente, da sua não estruturação.In this article we discuss the limits and obstacles to the creation and implementation of a criminal policy in the Brazilian Federal District. So, we analyze how the decision making process in the Criminal Justice System has been structured. We observed, through ethnographies and focus groups, that commissioners, attorneys and judges have been established their own criteria to select police inquiries and criminal procedures. There are different biases in the Criminal Justice System of Federal District that follow different logics, whose consequence is the lack of a coherent criminal policy. The causes of this are the no recognition of the discretion in the Criminal Justice System and, consequently, it no structuration.
João Paulo Calves
Full Text Available The inability of the criminal justice system in Brazil to contain the advances of crime in society awakens a sense of impunity and the desire for immediate answers from the government to stop the advances of violence. This article aims to analyze the main reasons contributing to the inefficiency of judicial assistance, and describes, based on literature review of Beccaria, Kant and Bobbio, the foundations abolitionists and antiabolicionistas of the death penalty. It was concluded that Brazil prohibits the punishment of judicial death, but society and the State apply the death penalty in extra-judicial manner.
Fejes-Mendoza, Kathy E.; Rutherford, Robert B., Jr.
Interviews with 30 female juvenile offenders were conducted to (1) describe their educational and criminal backgrounds and (2) describe a subgroup of learning handicapped juvenile female offenders. Nearly one third had received special education services prior to their incarceration with additional offenders diagnosed as handicapped upon entry…
Koss, Mary P; Bachar, Karen J; Hopkins, C Quince
Problems in criminal justice system response to date and acquaintance rape, and the nonpenetration sexual offenses are identified: (1) these crimes are often markers of a career of sexual offense, yet they are widely viewed as minor; (2) perpetrators of these crimes are now held accountable in ways that reduce their future threat of sex offending; and (3) current criminal justice response to these crimes disappoints and traumatizes victims and families. In response to these identified problems, we are implementing and evaluating RESTORE, an innovative victim-driven, community-based restorative justice program. Restorative justice views crime as harm for which the person responsible must be held accountable in meaningful ways. RESTORE uses a community conference to involve the victim, offender, and both parties' family and friends in a face-to-face dialogue directed at identifying the harm, and developing a plan for repair, rehabilitation, and reintegration into the community.
Walker, Sarah Cusworth; Bishop, Asia S; Pullmann, Michael D; Bauer, Grace
Family involvement is recognized as a critical element of service planning for children's mental health, welfare and education. For the juvenile justice system, however, parents' roles in this system are complex due to youths' legal rights, public safety, a process which can legally position parents as plaintiffs, and a historical legacy of blaming parents for youth indiscretions. Three recent national surveys of juvenile justice-involved parents reveal that the current paradigm elicits feelings of stress, shame and distrust among parents and is likely leading to worse outcomes for youth, families and communities. While research on the impact of family involvement in the justice system is starting to emerge, the field currently has no organizing framework to guide a research agenda, interpret outcomes or translate findings for practitioners. We propose a research framework for family involvement that is informed by a comprehensive review and content analysis of current, published arguments for family involvement in juvenile justice along with a synthesis of family involvement efforts in other child-serving systems. In this model, family involvement is presented as an ascending, ordinal concept beginning with (1) exclusion, and moving toward climates characterized by (2) information-giving, (3) information-eliciting and (4) full, decision-making partnerships. Specific examples of how courts and facilities might align with these levels are described. Further, the model makes predictions for how involvement will impact outcomes at multiple levels with applications for other child-serving systems.
Full Text Available Contemporary concept of restorative justice emerged at the end of 1960s and the beginning of 1970s, at the time when repression and social exclusion stared to show their lacks. Restorative justice has emerged on the critics of the conventional criminal justice response to crime, which denies the power to both the victim and the offender, and particularly neglecting a victim and minimizing his/her role in the procedure. While the accent of the repressive discourse is on the crime and punishment, restorative discourse is focused on the relationship between parities involved in a criminal case, who should actively participate in the process of finding out adequate solution of the problem arose from the criminal offence. Keeping that in mind, it is quite obvious that theoretical knowledge, concepts and movements that are focused on victims, their rights, legal and overall position had the strongest impact on the development of restorative justice. Taking that as a departure point, the impact of the “conflict as property” concept, victimology, movement for the restitution, movement for victim’s rights, and feminist movement, on the development of a contemporary concept of restorative justice is analyzed in this paper, and vice versa.
Agnes spoke about the concerns and challenges faced by victims within the Indian criminal justice system. Over the years, Majlis has been working on sexual assault of women and girls with the state machinery (courts, police, lawyers and jurists) and within the criminal justice system. Drawing from their body of work, Agnes ...
Martin, Ralph C., II; Keeley, Elizabeth
Reviews the protections afforded by the Constitution for defendants in criminal trials. These include the right to a jury trial (in cases of possible incarceration), an impartial jury, and the requirement of a unanimous verdict. Defends the use of plea bargaining as essential to an efficient criminal justice system. (MJP)
Gagnier, Karina Royer; Moore, Timothy E; Green, Melvyn
Individuals with FASD exhibit deficits in many domains that can include memory, learning, behavioural inhibition, executive functioning, interpersonal skills, and language. These deficits have serious implications for affected persons when they become engaged in the legal system. In 2004, Moore and Green reviewed case law and psychological literature which suggested that FASD-related deficits placed affected individuals at a significant disadvantage in the justice system. According to them, this disadvantage stemmed from the limited awareness and knowledge of FASD demonstrated by key players in the justice system, as well as the scarcity of effective interventions in place to rehabilitate affected defendants. The aim of the current paper is to assess the extent to which awareness of FASD-related issues in the Canadian justice system has advanced since the publication of Moore and Green's conclusions. First, the deficits associated with FASD and their implications for the justice system are described. Next, recent case law and psychological evidence are reviewed as we consider issues of witness reliability and false confessions. The significance of FASD for sentencing, fitness to stand trial, and the Not Criminally Responsible by Reason of Mental Disorder defence are also briefly discussed. Finally, emerging system wide responses to FASD-related issues are presented. Overall, it appears that the call for closer examination of FASD by the justice system has been answered, but a need for increased education and awareness remains.
Gustavo Rabay Guerra
Full Text Available The present work starts stating the failure of the dominant paradigm of the penal system, retributive model, pointing to the emergence of restorative justice as a new paradigm of criminal justice, from the change in focus about the offender and in the rescue of victim’s role of conflict situations in the criminal orbit. In this sense, from the employment of mediation as restorative practice and identification of theoretical disagreements about the relationship between restorative justice and mediation, this article has the intention to investigate the existing interface between mediation and restorative justice in Brazil. Therefore, we start from the assumption that mediation and restorative justice are institutes with different origins and trajectories that at some moments have common destinations, presenting an intersection relationship when mediation is used in criminal matters as restorative practice. Thus, the research has as main aim to analyze similarities and differences between mediation and restorative justice in the Brazilian practice. From this perspective, we intend to make use of a comparative approach in the analysis of the institutes, to identify their origins and trajectories
Roesch, R; Ogloff, J R; Eaves, D
There is a need for researchers and policy makers in the area of mental health and law to collaborate and develop common methods of approach to research. Although we have learned a great deal about the prevalence and needs of mentally ill offenders in jails and prisons, there are a number of research questions that remain. If the "second generation" of research is to be fruitful--and useful to policy makers--we need to be sure that the methods we employ are valid and that the findings we obtain are reliable. By collaborating with colleagues in other jurisdictions, we can begin to learn whether some of the existing findings are of a general nature, or dependent upon the system in which they were found. Similarly, while the first-generation research has alerted us to the needs of mentally ill offenders in jails and prisons, second-generation research is needed to help identify factors that may help prevent the "revolving door phenomenon," which results in mentally ill people being volleyed among mental health, criminal justice, and community settings. One area that has received embarrassingly little attention has been the need for considering the relationship between substance abuse and mental disorders. In our own work, we have found an alarmingly high degree of substance abuse among offenders, including mentally ill offenders. We have come to realize the importance of considering the role that substance abuse coupled with other mental disorders may play in the criminal justice system. As a result of this concern, the Surrey Mental Health Project recently hired a full-time drug and alcohol counselor whose job it is to work with inmates with substance abuse disorders while in the jail, and to help arrange continuing treatment resources upon their release. As Wilson et al. (1995) discuss, intensive case management projects may be particularly useful at targeting the unique needs of mentally ill offenders with multiple problems. Much of the research conducted with
Full Text Available The previous Westminster criminal justice system entailed a different kind of separation of powers insofar as it concerns the role of state prosecutors. In the Westminster system prosecutors are part of the executive branch, whereas they were a split-off from the judiciary in constitutional states and function like a de facto second organ of the third branch of state power. Currently executive interference in state prosecutions often leads to pre-trial inequality. A further difficulty arises from the unconsidered manner in which the former royal prerogative of pardoning was retained in the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996. It used to be a royal veto of judicial sentences in the constitutional monarchy of the former Westminster model. Although the corresponding veto of parliamentary legislation by the head of state did not survive into modern times, the pardoning power has not been discontinued. Section 84(2(j thus causes an irreconcilable conflict with section 165(5 of the Constitution which guarantees the legally binding force of judicial decisions. It undermines the rule of law and leads to post-trial inequality in the execution of sentences. The parole system, which dates back to 1959, likewise allows the executive to overrule judicial sentences and is in conflict with section 165(5. The perpetuation of the status quo in criminal justice is in effect leading to a re-Westminstering of the constitutional state.
Campbell, Rebecca; Bybee, Deborah; Townsend, Stephanie M; Shaw, Jessica; Karim, Nidal; Markowitz, Jenifer
To address the underreporting and underprosecution of adult sexual assaults, communities throughout the United States have implemented multidisciplinary interventions to improve postassault care for victims and the criminal justice system response. One such model is the Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner (SANE) Program, whereby specially trained nurses provide comprehensive psychological, medical, and forensic services for sexual assault. In this study, we conducted a multisite evaluation of six SANE programs (two rural programs, two serving midsized communities, two urban) to assess how implementation of SANE programs affects adult sexual assault prosecution rates. At each site, most sexual assaults reported to law enforcement were never referred by police to prosecutors or were not charged by the prosecutor's office (80%-89%). Individually, none of the sites had a statistically significant increase in prosecution rates pre-SANE to post-SANE. However, when the data were aggregated across sites, thereby increasing statistical power, there was a significant effect such that cases were more likely to be prosecuted post-SANE as compared with pre-SANE. These findings suggest that the SANE intervention model does have a positive impact on sexual assault case progression in the criminal justice system. Nevertheless, there is still a pressing need for improvement as the vast majority of both pre-SANE and post-SANE resulted in nonreferral/no charges filed. © The Author(s) 2014.
Cole, Donna M; Thomas, Dawna Marie; Field, Kelsi; Wool, Amelia; Lipiner, Taryn; Massenberg, Natalie; Guthrie, Barbara J
Past drug epidemics have disproportionately criminalized drug addiction among African Americans, leading to disparate health outcomes, increased rates of HIV/AIDS, and mass incarceration. Conversely, the current opioid addiction crisis in the USA focuses primarily on white communities and is being addressed as a public health problem. The 21st Century Cures Act has the potential to reduce racial health disparities in the criminal justice system through the Act's public health approach to addiction and mental health issues. The 21st Century Cures Act is a progressive step in the right direction; however, given the historical context of segregation and the criminalization of drug addiction among African Americans, the goals of health equity are at risk of being compromised. This paper discusses the implications of this landmark legislation and its potential to decrease racial health disparities, highlighting the importance of ensuring that access to treatment and alternatives to incarceration must include communities of color. In this paper, the authors explain the key components of the 21st Century Cures Act that are specific to criminal justice reform, including a key objective, which is treatment over incarceration. We suggest that without proper attention to how, and where, funding mechanisms are distributed, the 21st Century Cures Act has the potential to increase racial health disparities rather than alleviate them.
The criminal justice system is constituted of criminal norms, institutions and methods, among others. Interpretation of the criminal law is a process that transforms the text of the law into reality. The process is influenced by various factors, such as, the courts' conception of the criminal law, the concept and practice of ...
Juvenile justice administration in Nigeria is weak and has been given very .... The Nigerian criminal justice system, of which the juvenile justice system is an integral part, ... as instruments of security and justice but as weapons of oppression8.
Gissel, Line Engbo
justice, while also tracing how and why international decision-making processes interfered with the negotiations, narrated the conflicts and insisted on a narrow scope of justice. Building on this interpretive analysis, a comparative analysis of peace processes in Uganda, Kenya and Colombia explores a set......The book investigates how involvement by the International Criminal Court (ICC) affects efforts to negotiate peace. It offers an interpretive account of how peace negotiators and mediators in two peace processes in Uganda and Kenya sought to navigate and understand the new terrain of international...... of general features pertaining to the judicialisation of peace....
Full Text Available Apology has many benefits to offenders and victims. The last 15 years have produced worthwhile quantitative and qualitative studies that have refined our understanding of apology, but have also identified the diversity in what can be said in apology and how it can be received. The apology literature in the last 15 years in social psychology, criminology, and criminal justice is examined, including two and three-way interaction effects and qualitative results that focus on the effectiveness of apology at the contextual and individual levels, and the important role that emotion can play. It is recommended that apology be implemented with a “less is more” approach for apology to be most effective for youth in juvenile justice; and that a venue is provided for a spontaneous/voluntary apology to occur, or a minimally prepared apology, using only broad prescriptions on how it ought to be carried out. By utilizing appropriate research strategies, knowledge about apology and its effectiveness in legal settings including juvenile justice can continue to build to determine what type of apology works best for whom under what circumstances.Las disculpas tienen numerosos beneficios para víctimas y victimarios. En los últimos 15 años se han realizado importantes estudios cuantitativos y cualitativos que han mejorado nuestra comprensión sobre las disculpas, pero que también han identificado la diversidad de lo que se puede decir al pedir perdón y cómo se puede recibir. Se analiza la literatura sobre disculpas de los últimos 15 años en la psicología social, la criminología, y la justicia penal, incluyendo efectos de interacción de dos y tres vías que se centran en la efectividad de las disculpas en los niveles contextual e individual, y el rol tan importante que puede jugar la emoción. Se recomienda que la disculpa se desarrolle bajo un acercamiento de "menos es más" para que sea más efectiva en el caso de los jóvenes en la justicia juvenil
The growth of restorative justice has sparked debate over the future of the criminal justice system, which has historically adopted a retributive, punitive philosophy and advocated for an individualistic, treatment-orientated approach. This approach has over time failed to address the needs of crime victims, communities and.
Laxminarayan, Malini; Pemberton, Antony
Procedural quality is an important aspect of crime victims' experiences in criminal proceedings and consists of different dimensions. Two of these dimensions are procedural justice (voice) and interpersonal justice (respectful treatment). Social psychological research has suggested that both voice and respectful treatment are moderated by the impact of outcomes of justice procedures on individuals' reactions. To add to this research, we extend this assertion to the criminal justice context, examining the interaction between the assessment of procedural quality and outcome favorability with victim's trust in the legal system and self-esteem. Hierarchical regression analyses reveal that voice, respectful treatment and outcome favorability are predictive of trust in the legal system and self-esteem. Further investigation reveals that being treated with respect is only related to trust in the legal system when outcome favorability is high. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jones, Andrew; Hayhurst, Karen Petra; Millar, Tim
Motivation and readiness for substance misuse treatment predict treatment retention and successful treatment outcomes but may be lower among substance users coerced into treatment. We tested for differences associated with legal involvement and with client perceptions of coercion among individuals entering drug misuse treatment in England. Data collection involved 342 treatment agencies. Measures of motivation and readiness for treatment were taken from the Circumstances, Motivation, and Readiness (CMR) scale. Referral source was ordered to represent level of legal involvement and conditions. Perceived coercion was defined by a CMR item. Linear regression models, adjusting for client complexity, tested for differences in motivation and readiness by these measures. Levels of motivation and readiness did not differ according to level of legal conditions (coefficient = -0.38, 95% CI [-1.65, 0.88]). Motivation was inversely associated with perceived coercion (coefficient = -0.28, 95% CI [-0.05, -0.50], p = .014). At the point of treatment entry, criminal justice referral and aligned conditions have no impact on levels of motivation to achieve positive treatment outcomes. Concerns around lower levels of motivation are better focused on those who perceive themselves as coerced rather than on those whose referral carries a level of legal condition.
Full Text Available Referring on the development of criminal law recently, it is inevitable to reform the criminal law through changes on the Indonesian Criminal Code (KUHP. Being derived from the foreign law (relic of the colonial era, the Criminal Code has been obsolete, injustice, outmoded and unrealistic irrelevant for the present reality. The type of research employed in this paper is normative research, reviewing the restorative justice principle from the perspective of the criminal law system, with the aim of constructing a restorative justice concept which is ideal to be applied in the Indonesian criminal law system. The concept of restorative justice is an approach of problem solving that emphasizes the recovery of victims and to restore the relationship between the perpetrator and the victim and to their respective communities. By using such approach, the parties are expected to reach a mutual agreement related to the settlement of disputes which expected to harmonize the relationship of the parties prior the occurrence of the crime. On the practical level, the principles on restorative justice for the settlement of criminal case may need to be implemented imminently as part of the criminal system in Indonesia.
Lacey, Nicola; Pickard, Hanna
What do you do when faced with wrongdoing-do you blame or do you forgive? Especially when confronted with offences that lie on the more severe end of the spectrum and cause terrible psychological or physical trauma or death, nothing can feel more natural than blame. Indeed, in the UK and the USA, increasingly vehement and righteous public expressions of blame and calls for vengeance have become commonplace; correspondingly, contemporary penal philosophy has witnessed a resurgence of the retributive tradition, in the modern form usually known as the 'justice' model. On the other hand, people can and routinely do forgive others, even in cases of severe crime. Evolutionary psychologists argue that both vengeance and forgiveness are universal human adaptations that have evolved as alternative responses to exploitation, and, crucially, strategies for reducing risk of re-offending. We are naturally endowed with both capacities: to blame and retaliate, or to forgive and seek to repair relations. Which should we choose? Drawing on evolutionary psychology, we offer an account of forgiveness and argue that the choice to blame, and not to forgive, is inconsistent with the political values of a broadly liberal society and can be instrumentally counter-productive to reducing the risk of future re-offending. We then sketch the shape of penal philosophy and criminal justice policy and practice with forgiveness in place as a guiding ideal.
van der Wilt, H.
This essay addresses the convoluted relationship between international criminal justice and peace by drawing parallels with the dialectics between these concepts within a domestic legal order. While it is acknowledged that national criminal law enforcement is functional in keeping and restoring the
Tobia Maria S
Full Text Available Abstract The criminal justice system creates particular challenges for persons with HIV and Hepatitis C, many of whom have a history of injection drug use. The case of Scott Ortiz, taken from public trial and sentencing transcripts, reveals the manner in which incarceration may delay learning of important health problems such as Hepatitis C infection. In addition, the case of Mr. Ortiz suggests the bias in sentencing that a former injection drug user may face. Collaboration between the Montefiore Medical Center residency in Social Medicine and a Bronx legal services agency, Bronx Defenders, yielded the discovery that a decade after diagnosis with HIV and after long term incarceration, Mr. Ortiz was infected with Hepatitis C. Mr. Ortiz only became aware of his advanced Hepatitis C and liver damage during his trial. The second important aspect of this case centers on the justification for lengthy sentence for a burglary conviction. The presiding Judge in Mr. Ortiz's case acknowledged that because of his advanced illness, Mr. Ortiz posed no threat to society as a burglar (the crime for which he was convicted. But the Judge elected to use his discretion to sentence Mr. Ortiz to a term of 15 years to life (as opposed to a minimum of two to four years based on the idea that the public health would be served by preventing Mr. Ortiz from returning to the life of a street addict, sharing dirty needles with others. Mr. Ortiz reports distant injection drug use, no evidence of current or recent drug use was presented during Mr. Ortiz's trial and he reports no injection drug use for over a decade. In this case, bias against a former injection drug user, masquerading as concern for public health, is used to justify a lengthier sentence. Mr. Ortiz's lack of awareness of his Hepatitis C infection despite long term incarceration, combined with the justification for his dramatically increased sentence, provide examples of how persons within the criminal justice
Salvemini, Anthony V; Piza, Eric L; Carter, Jeremy G; Grommon, Eric L; Merritt, Nancy
Evaluations are routinely conducted by government agencies and research organizations to assess the effectiveness of technology in criminal justice. Interdisciplinary research methods are salient to this effort. Technology evaluations are faced with a number of challenges including (1) the need to facilitate effective communication between social science researchers, technology specialists, and practitioners, (2) the need to better understand procedural and contextual aspects of a given technology, and (3) the need to generate findings that can be readily used for decision making and policy recommendations. Process and outcome evaluations of technology can be enhanced by integrating concepts from human factors engineering and information processing. This systemic approach, which focuses on the interaction between humans, technology, and information, enables researchers to better assess how a given technology is used in practice. Examples are drawn from complex technologies currently deployed within the criminal justice system where traditional evaluations have primarily focused on outcome metrics. Although this evidence-based approach has significant value, it is vulnerable to fully account for human and structural complexities that compose technology operations. Guiding principles for technology evaluations are described for identifying and defining key study metrics, facilitating communication within an interdisciplinary research team, and for understanding the interaction between users, technology, and information. The approach posited here can also enable researchers to better assess factors that may facilitate or degrade the operational impact of the technology and answer fundamental questions concerning whether the technology works as intended, at what level, and cost. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available Social work forensic reports can play a vital role in sentencing. In this article the expectations of criminal courts of social work forensic reports were established in order to improve the contribution of the social work discipline in the search for justice. An important result indicates that courts would like to make use of social work forensic reports, among others. However, the poor writing style of some of these reports makes them unfit for use in the legal context. It is argued that social workers must be trained in critical thinking and the elements of clear writing to enable them to produce high-quality forensic reports.
International criminal law is being pulled in different directions by various conflicting considerations – deterrence, retribution, justice for victims, reconciliation, and setting the historical record. This trend is detrimental for the survival of the system as it erodes the coherence and under......International criminal law is being pulled in different directions by various conflicting considerations – deterrence, retribution, justice for victims, reconciliation, and setting the historical record. This trend is detrimental for the survival of the system as it erodes the coherence...
Mendez, Mario F
Brain disorders can lead to criminal violations. Patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are particularly prone to sociopathic behavior while retaining knowledge of their acts and of moral and conventional rules. This report describes four FTD patients who committed criminal violations in the presence of clear consciousness and sufficiently intact cognition. They understood the nature of their acts and the potential consequences, but did not feel sufficiently concerned to be deterred. FTD involves a unique pathologic combination affecting the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, with altered moral feelings, right anterior temporal loss of emotional empathy, and orbitofrontal changes with disinhibited, compulsive behavior. These case histories and the literature indicate that those with right temporal FTD retain the capacity to tell right from wrong but have the slow and insidious loss of the capacity for moral rationality. Patients with early FTD present a challenge to the criminal justice system to consider alterations in moral cognition before ascribing criminal responsibility.
Full Text Available Diversity management has been implemented vigorously in organizations with workforce diversity practices. One of the possible outcomes of diversity management is increased fairness in the organization. However, women perceive organizations as still being unfair, even though diverse managerial practices have been adopted to address equity related problems. In this article, we examine how female employees in federal agencies view diversity management and whether they believe that diversity management can lead to organizational justice. By using the 2013 Federal Employee Viewpoint Survey (FEVS data, we found that diversity management leads to a higher level of organizational justice for female employees. However, white female employees have a higher agreement on the effi cacy of diversity management in producing procedural and interactional justice than do non-white female employees. Also, female employees in the regulatory or redistributive agency category perceive less that diversity management leads to organizational justice than those in other agencies. We therefore conclude that diversity management is an effective tool to achieve organizational justice for particular groups.
Bufkin, Jana L; Luttrell, Vickie R
With the availability of new functional and structural neuroimaging techniques, researchers have begun to localize brain areas that may be dysfunctional in offenders who are aggressive and violent. Our review of 17 neuroimaging studies reveals that the areas associated with aggressive and/or violent behavioral histories, particularly impulsive acts, are located in the prefrontal cortex and the medial temporal regions. These findings are explained in the context of negative emotion regulation, and suggestions are provided concerning how such findings may affect future theoretical frameworks in criminology, crime prevention efforts, and the functioning of the criminal justice system.
Ryan, Thomas G.; Ruddy, Sean
Our purpose herein is to demonstrate how restorative justice continues to unfold globally and we explain how the use of a restorative justice ideology and intervention leads to a common alternative, not only in criminal justice institutions, but also within social agencies, such as elementary schools, and the related social support systems. We…
Although the vast majority of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) are law-abiding citizens, there is a small percentage with offending behaviour that is considered antisocial, socially inappropriate, or defined as illegal. It has long been recognised that individuals with ID or mental-health needs who break the law should be dealt with differently from the general population. There have been an increasing number of empirical studies in this area; however, these have been plagued by various definitional and methodological issues. Prevalence estimates of offenders with ID are complicated by diagnostic variations and inconsistencies in the criminal justice process. International studies have shown a large range, from 2% to 40%, depending on methodological approaches. The following review will highlight the salient issues including prevalence of offending, characteristics of offenders, vulnerabilities within the legal system, assessment, and a brief overview of intervention and treatment approaches.
Full Text Available Big Data evangelists often argue that algorithms make decision-making more informed and objective—a promise hotly contested by critics of these technologies. Yet, to date, most of the debate has focused on the instruments themselves, rather than on how they are used. This article addresses this lack by examining the actual practices surrounding algorithmic technologies. Specifically, drawing on multi-sited ethnographic data, I compare how algorithms are used and interpreted in two institutional contexts with markedly different characteristics: web journalism and criminal justice. I find that there are surprising similarities in how web journalists and legal professionals use algorithms in their work. In both cases, I document a gap between the intended and actual effects of algorithms—a process I analyze as “decoupling.” Second, I identify a gamut of buffering strategies used by both web journalists and legal professionals to minimize the impact of algorithms in their daily work. Those include foot-dragging, gaming, and open critique. Of course, these similarities do not exhaust the differences between the two cases, which are explored in the discussion section. I conclude with a call for further ethnographic work on algorithms in practice as an important empirical check against the dominant rhetoric of algorithmic power.
Azlinda Azman, PhD
Full Text Available Victims’ position is increasingly acknowledged in the criminal justice system across the world. Because of that, criminal justice systems in various countries slowly transform from focusing too much on the relationship between offenders and the legal system and to between the offenders and their victims. Several programs are highlighted such as victim-offender mediation, family group conferences, reparative orders and referral orders in this article. Findings from several studies support the effectiveness of the programs on both the victims and the offenders in terms of several measurements such as satisfaction and recidivism. Looking at this revolution, Malaysian academicians and professionals are beginning to recognize restorative justice as a possible revolution to its criminal justice system, but Malaysian criminal justice system first needs to strengthen or build components that support victims of crime, as this is one of the main principles of restorative justice. Currently, Malaysia still focuses on offenders and their relationship with legal system, but not much with their own victims (physical, emotional, and psychological consequences of the crime. Several possible issues before formal implementation of restorative justice are discussed. The issues (culture, training, and attitude of Malaysian people, including the victims, offenders, and those who work with them can influence the efficiency of restorative justice programs if not identified systematically. These issues can also be the possible research areas to be ventured in the future as these researches can help in implementation.
Bushway, Shawn D.; Piehl, Anne Morrison
In sentencing research, significant negative coefficients on age research have been interpreted as evidence that actors in the criminal justice system discriminate against younger people. This interpretation is incomplete. Criminal sentencing laws generally specify punishment in terms of the number of past events in a defendant's criminal history.…
Puglisi, Lisa; Calderon, Joseph P; Wang, Emily A
Access to health care is a constitutional right in the United States correctional system, and many incarcerated adults are newly diagnosed with chronic diseases in prison. Despite this right, the quality of correctional health care is variable, largely unmeasured and unregulated, and characterized by patients' widespread distrust of a health system that is intimately tied to a punitive criminal justice system. Upon release, discontinuity of care is the norm, and when continuity is established, it is often hindered by distrust, discrimination, poor communication, and racism in the health system. In this paper, we will propose best practices in transitioning from correctional- to community-based health care and argue that achieving health equity for people with criminal justice involvement in the United States is not possible without ethical provision of health care. © 2017 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
Débora Regina Pastana
Full Text Available This article reports analyses and conclusions formulated from comments about Brazilian Criminal Justice and that they had given to origin the thesis “Criminal Justice in Current Brazil: Democratic speech - practical authoritarian”. Focusing specifically national legal education, this text looks for to associate the maintenance of the authoritarianism in the criminal control to the positivist tradition of national legal science.
McAuliff, Kathleen E; Williams, Shannon M; Ferrari, Joseph R
We examined perceptions on school sense of community and social justice attitudes among undergraduates (N = 427; 308 women, 115 men; M age = 19.72, SD = 1.91), and how year in school and club membership affected these constructs. Results demonstrated that involvement with a greater number of clubs was associated with having a stronger school sense of community and more positive social justice attitudes. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that year in school did not significantly predict social justice attitudes. Results suggested that greater involvement and sense of school belonging might be linked to social justice attitudes.
In this monograph, the author argues for the integration of the concept of forgiveness into criminal law through incorporating restorative justice practices such as victim-offender mediation. Although forgiveness is not a purpose in itself nor can it be enforced, criminal law should provide room for
Langsted, Lars Bo; Garde, Peter; Greve, Vagn
Derived from the renowned multi-volume International Encyclopaedia of Laws, this book provides a practical analysis of criminal law in Denmark. An introduction presents the necessary background information about the framework and sources of the criminal justice system, and then proceeds......-trial proceedings, trial stage, and legal remedies. A final part describes the execution of sentences and orders, the prison system, and the extinction of custodial sanctions or sentences. Its succinct yet scholarly nature, as well as the practical quality of the information it provides, make this book a valuable...... resource for criminal lawyers, prosecutors, law enforcement officers, and criminal court judges handling cases connected with Denmark. Academics and researchers, as well as the various international organizations in the field, will welcome this very useful guide, and will appreciate its value in the study...
Walters, Glenn D
An item response theory (IRT) analysis of the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) was performed on 26,831 (19,067 male and 7,764 female) federal probationers and compared with results obtained on 3,266 (3,039 male and 227 female) prisoners from previous research. Despite the fact male and female federal probationers scored significantly lower on the PICTS thinking style scales than male and female prisoners, discrimination and location parameter estimates for the individual PICTS items were comparable across sex and setting. Consistent with the results of a previous IRT analysis conducted on the PICTS, the current results did not support sentimentality as a component of general criminal thinking. Findings from this study indicate that the discriminative power of the individual PICTS items is relatively stable across sex (male, female) and correctional setting (probation, prison) and that the PICTS may be measuring the same criminal thinking construct in male and female probationers and prisoners. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
The Right to a Fair Appeal in International Criminal Law – Layman’s Summary A criminal trial does not end after the first judgment of a court. A person is only finally found guilty or innocent after one or more appeals. Appeals thus have an important place in the criminal justice system. However,
Wenzel, Michael; Okimoto, Tyler G; Feather, Norman T; Platow, Michael J
The emergence of restorative justice as an alternative model to Western, court-based criminal justice may have important implications for the psychology of justice. It is proposed that two different notions of justice affect responses to rule-breaking: restorative and retributive justice. Retributive justice essentially refers to the repair of justice through unilateral imposition of punishment, whereas restorative justice means the repair of justice through reaffirming a shared value-consensus in a bilateral process. Among the symbolic implications of transgressions, concerns about status and power are primarily related to retributive justice and concerns about shared values are primarily related to restorative justice. At the core of these processes, however, lies the parties' construal of their identity relation, specifically whether or not respondents perceive to share an identity with the offender. The specific case of intergroup transgressions is discussed, as are implications for future research on restoring a sense of justice after rule-breaking.
Gori, Alessio; Ponti, Lucia; Tani, Franca; Iraci Sareri, Giuseppe; Giannini, Marco; Meringolo, Patrizia; Craparo, Giuseppe; Bruschi, Angelo; Caretti, Vincenzo; Cacioppo, Marco; Paterniti, Rolando; Schuldberg, David
The relationship between substance use disorders and criminal activity is strong, and one that is not easily resolved in the criminal justice system. A better understanding of personality traits among substance misusers who commit offences could support better treatment efforts. The aim of this study is to explore associations between the psychopathology of people addicted to substances who have also committed crimes. We recruited 263 substance-dependent individuals (80% male, 20% female) from a cohort of people attending regional community services in Italy. They all completed an extensive evaluation of their current mental health and personality traits. Their official criminal records were obtained, and the psychopathology of those who had a criminal record compared with those who did not. The criminal group was more likely to perceive the external world as hostile and to consider others as responsible for their own problems and difficulties; in addition, substance-dependent individuals with criminal records showed more personality traits within the psychopathy range and fewer in the dependent personality range than the substance abusers who had never committed crimes. These findings allow us to hypothesise that substance abusers who also have criminal convictions may have a specific personality profile. If further research were to confirm this, then it could have important implications for identifying people for particular treatment pathways and developing more effective treatments. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available The Model Criminal Code (MCC was intended to be a Code for all Australian jurisdictions. It represents a high point of faith in the value and possibility of systematising, rationalising and modernising criminal law. The core of the MCC is Chapter 2, the ‘general principles of criminal responsibility’, which outlines the ‘physical’ and ‘fault’ elements of criminal offences, and defines concepts such as recklessness. This paper assesses the MCC as a criminal law reform project and explores questions of how the MCC came into being, and why it took shape in certain ways at a particular point in time. The paper tackles these questions from two different perspectives—‘external’ and ‘internal’ (looking at the MCC from the ‘outside’ and the ‘inside’. I make two main arguments. First, I argue that, driven by a ‘top down’ law reform process, the MCC came into being at a time when changes in crime and criminal justice were occurring, and that it may be understood as an attempt to achieve stability in a time of change. Second, I argue that the significance of the principles of criminal responsibility, which formed the central pivot of the MCC, lies on the conceptual level—in relation to the language through which the criminal law is thought about, organised and reformed.
justice (Pt. 1, Art. 6 of the Criminal Code. 7 Rules of court fine actually allow re-use of penalties and, moreover, consistent application of the two main types of punishment, although no one can be held criminally responsible twice for the same offense (Pt. 2, Art. 6 of the Criminal Code.
Chu, Sandra Ka Hon
In September 2010, the Ontario Superior Court of Justice held that three provisions of the Criminal Code dealing with prostitution violated sex workers' constitutional rights, were not in accordance with the principles of fundamental justice and must be struck down.
Zosky, Diane L.
Unlike in the adult criminal justice system, where domestic violence policies hold perpetrators accountable for their violence, the juvenile justice system rarely addresses teenage dating violence. Although the adult criminal justice system has pursued policies toward intimate partner violence grounded on a "zero tolerance" ideology, the juvenile…
... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individual's right to access criminal history record information. 20.34 Section 20.34 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL... Individual's right to access criminal history record information. The procedures by which an individual may...
Wijaya, Sandy Ari
Penal mediation is a process of extra judicial settlement for criminal case. The application ofpenal mediation on criminal law is to give the justice and protection to the victims of which it isnot accommodate by legality aspect in Indonesia criminal law. The existence of penal mediationprinciple with legal certainty affect the domestic violence (KDRT). The inconsistence continueswhen the penal mediation process relevance is applied to serious domestic violence that violate thehuman rights. T...
Kennedy, Kieran M
A number of factors are known to influence the progression of sexual crimes through the criminal justice system. The role of victim injury in influencing decision-making at pivotal stages has been addressed by a number of separate research projects. This article consolidates existing research evidence in order to highlight the important role that victim injury plays at each step of the legal process. The importance of accurate diagnosis and recording of victim injury is highlighted. Furthermore, by describing the significant impact that the presence of victim injury can have on the legal outcome, the importance of ensuring that cases without victim injury are correctly interpreted by the police, legal professionals, judiciary and the jury is heavily emphasised.
Full Text Available Criminal environment’s counteraction is considered as purposeful, active and intentional influence of its representatives on participants in criminal proceedings. It is directed at persons who, due to their professional duties, are involved in detection and investigation of crimes as well as court proceedings, or who possess evidentiary information (witnesses, victims, etc.. Counteraction may be expressed in different ways: discrediting operatives, investigators and judges; pressure on persons involved in the investigation and the trial through bribery, blackmail, threats to life and health of themselves and their family, etc. The administration of justice becomes inefficient due to the variety of forms and purposes of counteraction. The importance of operational units’ awareness of the activities of criminal environment representatives is shown. The importance of revealing the facts of unlawful influence on witnesses and victims of crime, who subsequently acquire procedural status of witnesses and victims, in order to prevent such facts is also stressed. It is proposed to suppress the counteraction of criminal environment by following ways: 1 identifying (with the help of informants and by crime detection actions the persons attempting to influence the preliminary investigation; 2 documenting the suspects actions aimed at illegal influence on participants in criminal proceedings for the purpose of conducting the procedural actions and decision making; 3 “in cell” (using an agent crime detection actions against detainees and arrestees throughout the whole process of covert operation; 4 creating investigative team to develop a common mechanism to neutralize criminal environment’s counteraction to crime investigation.
... with the filing of criminal charges against the domestic violence offender, or the costs associated... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Filing costs for criminal charges. 90.15 Section 90.15 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN The STOP...
Kristin Xueqin Wu
Full Text Available The legitimacy of international criminal trials is not automatic: it is conditional upon endorsement by local communities. If the very communities involved do not 'feel' a sense of justice, these trials would not only contribute little to the post-conflict peace process, but also create a backlash against these international courts and tribunals, tarnishing the image of international criminal justice. Despite its critical importance, this image management process is still at the stage of trial and error. The first outreach programme, established by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY, has been fighting a losing battle against the Tribunal's poor image in the former Yugoslavia region. In contrast, the Special Court for Sierra Leone (SCSL has been highly praised for promoting a holistic experience of 'just'. What causes these differences, and what could be learnt from them? After comparing the various undertakings by these two ad-hoc tribunals - in terms of outreach strategies, press strategies and resource management - this paper draws three lessons for the permanent International Criminal Court (ICC: gaining acceptance, smoothing communication and boosting judicial efficiency.
Curt G Beckwith
Full Text Available Transgender persons are highly victimized, marginalized, disproportionately experience incarceration, and have alarmingly increased rates of HIV infection compared to cis-gender persons. Few studies have examined the HIV care continuum outcomes among transgender women (TW, particularly TW who are involved with the criminal justice (CJ system.To improve our understanding of HIV care continuum outcomes and risk behaviors among HIV-infected TW who are involved with the CJ system, we analyzed data from the National Institute on Drug Abuse-supported Seek, Test, Treat, Retain (STTR Data Harmonization Initiative. Baseline data were pooled and analyzed from three U.S. STTR studies to examine HIV risk and care continuum indicators among CJ-involved HIV-infected TW compared to cisgender men (CM, matched on age (within 5 years and study at a ratio of 1:5.Eighty-eight TW and 440 CM were included in the study. Among matched participants, TW were more likely to report crack and cocaine use compared to CM (40%,16% respectively, p<0.001; both TW and CM reported high rates of condomless sex (58%, 64%, respectively; TW were more likely than CM to have more than one sexual partner (OR = 2.9, 95% CI: 1.6, 5.2; p<0.001 and have engaged in exchange sex (OR = 3.9, 95% CI: 2.3, 6.6; p<0.001. There were no significant differences between TW and CM in the percentage currently taking ART (52%, 49%, respectively, the mean percent adherence to ART (77% for both groups, and the proportion who achieved viral suppression (61%, 58%, respectively.HIV-infected CJ-involved TW and CM had similar use of ART and viral suppression but TW were more likely than matched CM to engage in exchange sex, have multiple sexual partners, and use crack/cocaine. TW and CM had similarly high rates of condomless sex and use of other drugs. TW require tailored risk reduction interventions, however both CJ-involved TW and CM require focused attention to reduce HIV risk and improve HIV continuum of
Petersen, Michael Bang; Sell, Aaron; Tooby, John; Cosmides, Leda
We propose that intuitions about modern mass-level criminal justice emerge from evolved mechanisms designed to operate in ancestral small-scale societies. By hypothesis, individuals confronted with a crime compute two distinct psychological magnitudes: one that reflects the crime’s seriousness and another that reflects the criminal’s long-term value as an associate. These magnitudes are computed based on different sets of cues and are fed into motivational mechanisms regulating different aspects of sanctioning. The seriousness variable regulates how much to react (e.g., how severely we want to punish); the variable indexing the criminal’s association value regulates the more fundamental decision of how to react (i.e., whether we want to punish or repair). Using experimental designs embedded in surveys, we validate this theory across several types of crime and two countries. The evidence augments past research and suggests that the human mind contains dedicated psychological mechanisms for restoring social relationships following acts of exploitation. PMID:23412662
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obstructing justice. 11.435 Section 11.435 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER COURTS OF INDIAN OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.435 Obstructing justice. A person commits a misdemeanor if, with...
Smalarz, Laura; Madon, Stephanie; Yang, Yueran; Guyll, Max; Buck, Sarah
This research provided the first empirical test of the hypothesis that stereotypes bias evaluations of forensic evidence. A pilot study (N = 107) assessed the content and consensus of 20 criminal stereotypes by identifying perpetrator characteristics (e.g., sex, race, age, religion) that are stereotypically associated with specific crimes. In the main experiment (N = 225), participants read a mock police incident report involving either a stereotyped crime (child molestation) or a nonstereotyped crime (identity theft) and judged whether a suspect's fingerprint matched a fingerprint recovered at the crime scene. Accompanying the suspect's fingerprint was personal information about the suspect of the type that is routinely available to fingerprint analysts (e.g., race, sex) and which could activate a stereotype. Participants most often perceived the fingerprints to match when the suspect fit the criminal stereotype, even though the prints did not actually match. Moreover, participants appeared to be unaware of the extent to which a criminal stereotype had biased their evaluations. These findings demonstrate that criminal stereotypes are a potential source of bias in forensic evidence analysis and suggest that suspects who fit criminal stereotypes may be disadvantaged over the course of the criminal justice process. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Abstract The UK Adult ADHD Network (UKAAN was founded by a group of mental health specialists who have experience delivering clinical services for adults with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD within the National Health Service (NHS. UKAAN aims to support mental health professionals in the development of services for adults with ADHD by the promotion of assessment and treatment protocols. One method of achieving these aims has been to sponsor conferences and workshops on adult ADHD. This consensus statement is the result of a Forensic Meeting held in November 2009, attended by senior representatives of the Department of Health (DoH, Forensic Mental Health, Prison, Probation, Courts and Metropolitan Police services. The objectives of the meeting were to discuss ways of raising awareness about adult ADHD, and its recognition, assessment, treatment and management within these respective services. Whilst the document draws on the UK experience, with some adaptations it can be used as a template for similar local actions in other countries. It was concluded that bringing together experts in adult ADHD and the Criminal Justice System (CJS will be vital to raising awareness of the needs of ADHD offenders at every stage of the offender pathway. Joint working and commissioning within the CJS is needed to improve awareness and understanding of ADHD offenders to ensure that individuals are directed to appropriate care and rehabilitation. General Practitioners (GPs, whilst ideally placed for early intervention, should not be relied upon to provide this service as vulnerable offenders often have difficulty accessing primary care services. Moreover once this hurdle has been overcome and ADHD in offenders has been identified, a second challenge will be to provide treatment and ensure continuity of care. Future research must focus on proof of principle studies to demonstrate that identification and treatment confers health gain, safeguards
Gladfelter, Andrew S; Lantz, Brendan; Ruback, R Barry
Restitution to victims is rarely paid in full. One reason for low rates of payments is that offenders lack financial resources. Beyond ability to pay, however, we argue that fair treatment has implications for offender behavior. This study, a survey of probationers who owed restitution, investigated the links between (a) ability to pay, (b) beliefs about restitution and the criminal justice system, and (c) restitution payment, both the amount paid and number of payments. Results indicate that perceived fair treatment by probation staff-those most directly involved with the collection of restitution payments-was significantly associated with greater payment, net of past payment behavior, intention to pay, and ability to pay. Because restitution has potentially rehabilitative aspects if offenders pay more of the court-ordered amount and if they make regular monthly payments, how fairly probation staff treat probationers has implications for both victims and for the criminal justice system.
Full Text Available At European level crime among children represents a contemporary issue and in Romania, the philosophy of the new penal code approved by Law No 286/2009 is shaped around punishment. Prevention policy in Romania and juvenile justice objectives relative to age criteria outlines two different legal manners to address children's liability under the law. One is targeting the category of children between 0 and 14 years of age, which consideres the absolute inability of criminal responsibility and one that provides criminal liability starting from the age of 14. The sensitivity of the issue of children involved in unlawfull acts and the inventory of responses to it brought me to the necessity of research the types of approach and diversity of social services built around this target group.
Coomber, Ross; Moyle, Leah; Belackova, Vendula; Decorte, Tom; Hakkarainen, Pekka; Hathaway, Andrew; Laidler, Karen Joe; Lenton, Simon; Murphy, Sheigla; Scott, John; Stefunkova, Michaela; van de Ven, Katinka; Vlaemynck, Marieke; Werse, Bernd
It is now commonly accepted that there exists a form of drug supply, that involves the non-commercial supply of drugs to friends and acquaintances for little or no profit, which is qualitatively different from profit motivated 'drug dealing proper'. 'Social supply', as it has become known, has a strong conceptual footprint in the United Kingdom, shaped by empirical research, policy discussion and its accommodation in legal frameworks. Though scholarship has emerged in a number of contexts outside the UK, the extent to which social supply has developed as an internationally recognised concept in criminal justice contexts is still unclear. Drawing on an established international social supply research network across eleven nations, this paper provides the first assessment of social supply as an internationally relevant concept. Data derives from individual and team research stemming from Australia, Belgium, Canada, Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Hong Kong, the Netherlands, England and Wales, and the United States, supported by expert reflection on research evidence and analysis of sentencing and media reporting in each context. In situ social supply experts addressed a common set of questions regarding the nature of social supply for their particular context including: an overview of social supply research activity, reflection on the extent that differentiation is accommodated in drug supply sentencing frameworks; evaluating the extent to which social supply is recognised in legal discourse and in sentencing practices and more broadly by e.g. criminal justice professionals in the public sphere. A thematic analysis of these scripts was undertaken and emergent themes were developed. Whilst having an absence of local research, New Zealand is also included in the analysis as there exists a genuine discursive presence of social supply in the drug control and sentencing policy contexts in that country. Findings suggest that while social supply has been found to exist as
Full Text Available Twenty three inmates from a rural state penitentiary with mental retardation participated in a study on the differential treatment of persons with mental retardation by the criminal justice system. After obtaining informed consent, the inmates were screened for appropriateness for the study using the PPVT-R, a proxy test for IQ. The inmates were interviewed to obtain a social history and given the CAST-MR, an instrument that measures the competency of a person with mental retardation to stand trial. Results suggest participants may not have been competent to stand trial, learned most of what they knew about the criminal justice system while incarcerated, and had difficulty with interpersonal conflict and conflict with authority. The combination of these factors suggests that clients in the study may have been vulnerable to being coerced into confessing to crimes they did not commit. The presence of an advocate during criminal justice system encounters may benefit persons with mental retardation.
Azlinda Azman, PhD; Mohd Taufik bin Mohammad
Victims’ position is increasingly acknowledged in the criminal justice system across the world. Because of that, criminal justice systems in various countries slowly transform from focusing too much on the relationship between offenders and the legal system and to between the offenders and their victims. Several programs are highlighted such as victim-offender mediation, family group conferences, reparative orders and referral orders in this article. Findings from several studies support the ...
Allen, Ashleigh A; Chen, Donna T; Bonnie, Richard J; Ko, Tomohiro M; Suratt, Colleen E; Lee, Joshua D; Friedmann, Peter D; Gordon, Michael; McDonald, Ryan; Murphy, Sean M; Boney, Tamara Y; Nunes, Edward V; O'Brien, Charles P
Concerns persist that individuals with substance use disorders who are under community criminal justice supervision experience circumstances that might compromise their provision of valid, informed consent for research participation. These concerns include the possibilities that desire to obtain access to treatment might lead individuals to ignore important information about research participation, including information about risks, or that cognitive impairment associated with substance use might interfere with attending to important information. We report results from a consent quiz (CQ) administered in a multisite randomized clinical trial of long-acting naltrexone to prevent relapse to opioid use disorder among adults under community criminal justice supervision-a treatment option difficult to access by this population of individuals. Participants were required to answer all 11 items correctly before randomization. On average, participants answered 9.8 items correctly (89%) at baseline first attempt (n=306). At week 21 (n=212), participants scored 87% (9.5 items correct) without review. Performance was equivalent to, or better than, published results from other populations on a basic consent quiz instrument across multiple content domains. The consent quiz is an efficient method to screen for adequate knowledge of consent information as part of the informed consent process. Clinical researchers who are concerned about these issues should consider using a consent quiz with corrected feedback to enhance the informed consent process. Overall, while primarily useful as an educational tool, employing a CQ as part of the gateway to participation in research may be particularly important as the field continues to advance and tests novel experimental treatments with significant risks and uncertain potential for benefit. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
In recent years, the legitimacy of China's criminal justice system has been increasingly challenged by the Chinese populace, in part due to the numerous exposed miscarriages of justice. The Chinese academic mainstream as well as the political and judicial authorities have looked towards the
Brinkley-Rubinstein, Lauren; Zaller, Nickolas; Martino, Sarah; Cloud, David H; McCauley, Erin; Heise, Andrew; Seal, David
The United States (US) is in the midst of an epidemic of opioid use; however, overdose mortality disproportionately affects certain subgroups. For example, more than half of state prisoners and approximately two-thirds of county jail detainees report issues with substance use. Overdose is one of the leading causes of mortality among individuals released from correctional settings. Even though the criminal justice (CJ) system interacts with a disproportionately high number of individuals at risk of opioid use and overdose, few CJ agencies screen for opioid use disorder (OUD). Even less provide access to medication assisted treatment (e.g. methadone, buprenorphine, and depot naltrexone), which is one of the most effective tools to combat addiction and lower overdose risk. However, there is an opportunity to implement programs across the CJ continuum in collaboration with law enforcement, courts, correctional facilities, community service providers, and probation and parole. In the current paper, we introduce the concept of a "CJ Continuum of Care for Opioid Users at Risk of Overdose", grounded by the Sequential Intercept Model. We present each step on the CJ Continuum and include a general overview and highlight opportunities for: 1) screening for OUD and overdose risk, 2) treatment and/or diversion, and 3) overdose prevention and naloxone provision. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Carlson, Kerstin Bree
The ICTY does not merely represent a historical stage in the development of international criminal justice which can now be put aside and left to legal historians. It also has a lasting impact, due to the fact that its Rules of Procedure and Evidence are judge-made law, tested in the fire of court...... practice and frequently amended to take the latest developments into account. Finally, with the arrest of Slobodan Karadžić, a new chapter has been opened for the Court. This volume thus provides not only an account of all the debates revolving around the proper role of international criminal justice...... and a contribution to the developing academic discipline of “transitional justice”; it also opens up a perspective to the International Criminal Court and asks what procedural legacy the ad hoc tribunals for Yugoslavia and Ruanda provide for the future of international criminal procedure....
Full Text Available Act No. 11 Year 2012 on the Juvenile Justice Systemthat now come into force, grounded in the concept of restorative justice. Restorative justice is the completion of the criminal case together relevant parties in order to seek a fair settlement with the emphasis on restoring back to its original state. To achieve this restorative justice efforts for settling disputes diversion or transfer of children from the criminal justice process to the outside of the criminal justice process. At this diversion efforts have implications for social work. If previously a social worker who has a small role for children in conflict with the law (ABH, it is now a greater role. So it is necessary to enhance the quality and quantity of social workers. Improved quality and quantity must be followed by efforts such as education and training. Institutional quality of social welfare services should also be strengthened because it is the institution that will hold ABH when diversion efforts agreed by the parties. Keyword: Restorative Justice; Diversion; Social Workers ABSTRAK UU SPPA yang sekarang mulai berlaku, berpijak pada paradigma restorative justice. Restorative justice merupakan penyelesaian perkara tindak pidana bersama-sama pihak terkait dalam rangka mencari penyelesaian yang adil dengan menekankan pemulihan kembali pada keadaan semula. Untuk mencapai keadilan restoratif ini dilakukan upaya diversi atau pengalihan penyelesaian perkara anak dari proses peradilan pidana ke proses di luar peradilan pidana. Pada upaya diversi inilah memiliki dampak bagi pekerjaan sosial. Jika sebelumnya pekerja sosial mempunyai peranan yang kecil kepada anak yang berhadapan dengan hukum (ABH, maka kini peranannya lebih besar. Sehingga dibutuhkan peningkatan kualitas maupun kuantitas. Peningkatan kualitas maupun kuantitas harus diikuti dengan upaya seperti pendidikan dan pelatihan. Kualitas kelembagaan pelayanan kesejahteraan sosial juga harus diperkuat karena lembaga inilah yang
Developmental Psycho- Neurological Research Trends and Their Importance for Reassessing Key Decision-Making Assumptions for Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults in Juvenile/Youth and Adult Criminal Justice Systems
Full Text Available One of the underlying foundations of Western criminal justice is the notion that human behavior is the product of rational choice. The creation of separate justice systems for juveniles and adults is based on the idea that fundamental differences in rationality exist between these two groups. Since its inception, the establishment of upper and lower boundaries demarking the juvenile justice system has been a highly contentious issue, both scientifically and politically. Critically, this debate stems from the largely arbitrary nature of the boundaries. Over the last thirty years a sufficiently large body of psychological and neurological empirical work has examined the development of decision-making and rational choice in late childhood, adolescents, and adulthood. The current article discusses the implications of this research on the establishment of upper and lower age jurisdictions for the juvenile justice system, as well as how adolescent decision-making influences other key aspects of the justice process such as competency to stand trial.
Full Text Available The separation of judicial functions falls, indisputably, in the news gallery of the Romanian criminal trial current rules. The previous Criminal Procedure Code, namely that of 1968, as well as the older ones, hadn‟t enrolled in their content such a principle. However, the doctrine identified, under mentioned legal regulations, the existence of distinct procedural functions and their need to separate, in the idea of genuine criminal justice accomplishment. These procedural functions were: the indictment function (or charges, the defense function the trial function. In the new code, this principle proclaims the existence of four judicial functions that aim the efficiency and speed of the criminal trial, but also guarantee the presumption of innocence, equal opportunity of parties, protection of rights and fundamental freedoms. This research try to explain this principle and its connections with other institutions of the criminal trial.
The ACJA 2015 has repealed and replaced the Criminal Procedure Act and the Criminal Procedure Code in Federal courts. The scope of Section 396 of the ACJA however needs to be determined and adhered to in a bid to ensure that speed which is one of the aims of the ACJA is not defeated in criminal trials before the ...
This article challenges stereotypical conceptions of Law and Science as cultural opposites, arguing that English criminal trial practice is fundamentally congruent with modern science's basic epistemological assumptions, values and methods of inquiry. Although practical tensions undeniably exist, they are explicable-and may be neutralised-by paying closer attention to criminal adjudication's normative ideals and their institutional expression in familiar aspects of common law trial procedure, including evidentiary rules of admissibility, trial by jury, adversarial fact-finding, cross-examination and the ethical duties of expert witnesses. Effective partnerships between lawyers and forensic scientists are indispensable for integrating scientific evidence into criminal proceedings, and must be renegotiated between individual practitioners on an on-going basis. Fruitful interdisciplinary collaboration between scholars with a shared interest in forensic science should dispense with reductive cultural stereotypes of Science and Law. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Full Text Available Only one book devoted entirely to the theories of Cesare Lombroso was published in Britain in the period 1880-1918, and that is The Criminal, by Havelock Ellis. In his book, Ellis noted the paradox of the British reaction to criminal anthropology. While researching the book, he had canvassed opinion among criminal justice professionals on the subject, hoping to garner home-grown reactions to the impassioned criminological debates taking place at the time on the Continent. Ellis was familiar w...
Full Text Available Positive law is less oriented towards the protection of victims, especially women. Restorative justice appears to protect and resolve problems with the interests of the victim-oriented. This article discuss the form of legal protection for victims of violence against women, gender-based and describe the form of restorative justice for victims of gender-based violence against women. Positive criminal law does not accommodate both the interests of the victim to determine the crime against him self and to restore his suffering. This is caused due to the dominance of retributive justice in the settlement mind set crime through the criminal law. The restorative justice allows for an active role in the completion of a crime victim who happens also allows the imposition of sanctions that are beneficial to the recovery of the suffering of the victims.
Full Text Available The new juvenile (substantive, procedural and executive criminal law came into force at the beginning of 2006 in the Republic of Serbia.. In this way, by concluding its reform of criminal law, the Republic of Serbia followed the trends of modern criminal policies of other developed European countries (France, Germany, and Croatia. Therefore, in that special, specifi c way, it determined the criminal legal status of juveniles. That specifi city is refl ected in various directions : 1 Lex specialis was brought in – a special Act on juvenile perpetrators of criminal acts and the criminal legal protection of juveniles when juveniles in their criminal legal position are completely separate from the status of adults as perpetrators of criminal acts, 2 the special authority of district courts is determined for taking action in criminal cases of juvenile perpetrators of criminal acts, 3 compulsory specialisation is provided for persons in the criminal judiciary taking part in criminal proceedings for juvenile perpetrators of criminal acts ( with previous training and issuing of licences ‘certifi cates’ and 4 besides criminal sanctions, the law has provided for juvenile perpetrators of criminal acts the possibility of sentencing specifi c measures sui generis – educational orders ( directions or recommendations – as means of restorative justice by which the commencement or carrying out of legal action is avoided. This paper precisely deals with this new criminal legal position of juvenile perpetrators of criminal acts and with the new institutions of restorative justice from theoretical, practical and comparative legal aspects.
Heponiemi, Tarja; Elovainio, Marko; Kouvonen, Anne; Kuusio, Hannamaria; Noro, Anja; Finne-Soveri, Harriet; Sinervo, Timo
Elderly care systems have undergone a lot of changes in many European countries, including Finland. Most notably, the number of private for-profit firms has increased. Previous studies suggest that employee well-being and the quality of care might differ according to the ownership type. The present study examined whether the ownership type and the staffing level were associated with organisational commitment, job involvement, and job satisfaction. In addition, we examined the potential moderating effect of organisational justice on these associations. Cross-sectional questionnaire study. 1047 Finnish female staff members aged 18-69 years working in sheltered housing or nursing homes (units n=179). The relationships were studied with analyses of covariance (ANCOVA), adjusting for the effects of age and case-mix. Organisational commitment and job satisfaction levels were low in for-profit sheltered homes when justice levels were low, but when justice levels were high, for-profit sheltered homes did not differ from other ownership types. Similarly, organisational justice acted as a buffer against low commitment resulting from low staffing levels. Staffing levels were lowest in public sheltered homes and highest in not-for-profit sheltered homes. The results show that organisational justice can act as a buffer against low organisational commitment that results from low staffing levels and working in for-profit sheltered homes. Increasing justice in regard to the management, outcomes, and procedures in the organisation would thus be important. 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Restorative justice has been an increasing feature in the discourses within adult and youth justice criminal justice systems in recent years. This article examines interpersonal conflicts arising from crime, bullying and antisocial behaviour in residential care, and the advantages and disadvantages of utilising such approaches in relation to these…
Jan Samuel Maringka
Full Text Available On extradition law in Indonesia is based from the fact that since the adoption of the Act in 1979, there have been fundamental changes in the criminal procedure ode in Indonesia, namely the enactment of Law No. 8 of 1981 on Criminal Proceedings and has the ratification of the International Covenant on Civil and Politics Rights (International Convention on Civil and political Rights, abbreviated as ICCPR under Law No. 12 of 2005 which requires Indonesia to immediately adjust its positive legal provisions in accordance with the principles set out in the ICCPR. Considering the purpose of extradition implementation as an effort to support law enforcement process and related to examination process in extradition case which is not different from the stages of case handling process as regulated in criminal procedure law, it is necessary to affirm the concept of extradition as an integral part of the enforcement process law so that the principle of due process can be implemented consequently in the process of extradition implementation.
Full Text Available We present the results of study of illegal actions predictors in individuals with mental disorders and discuss the specific features of female criminality. On a sample of 69 patients with a diagnosis of organic mental disorder and schizophrenia, with criminal histories, we applied clinical and psychological hermeneutic analysis, used questionnaires to determine the self-assessments of patients, self-control diagnosis, self-regulation style features, diagnosis of aggression and hostility, coping strategies, destructive attitudes in interpersonal relationships. It made possible to identify clinical, social and pathopsychological factors of aggressive behavior in forensic patients. These individual psychological characteristics of mentally ill women will improve the prognosis of their aggressive behavior, implement differentiated preventive measures in the hospital and to establish appropriate intervention programs
van Wormer, Katherine
This article provides an overview of restorative justice as a process and examines its relevance to women who have been victimized by physical and sexual abuse. The starting point is the justice system with its roots in adversarial, offender-oriented practices of obtaining justice. The widespread dissatisfaction by battered women and rape victims and their advocates with the current system of mandatory law enforcement opens the door for consideration of alternative forms of dealing with domestic violence. Restorative justice strategies, as argued here, have several major advantages. Like social work, these strategies are solution-based rather than problem-based processes, give voice to marginalized people, and focus on healing and reconciliation. Moreover, restorative justice offers an avenue through which the profession of social work can re-establish its historic role in criminal justice. The four models most relevant to women's victimization are victim-offender conferencing, family group conferencing, healing circles, and community reparations. Each model is examined separately from a feminist standpoint. The discussion is informed by insights from the teachings of standpoint feminist theory and social work values, especially social justice.
Thomas G Ryan
Full Text Available Our purpose herein is to demonstrate how restorative justice continues to unfold globally and we explain how the use of a restorative justice ideology and intervention leads to a common alternative, not only in criminal justice institutions, but also within social agencies, such as elementary schools, and the related social support systems. We draw attention to this emerging trend via current research and resources that enable us to put forward a definition, theoretical background and list the characteristic traits of this alternative mode of life consequence. Finally, we argue that the use of restorative justice in schools is a focus that is really a paradigm shift within the landscape of the educational enterprise.
policy of the various states tends by globalist influence more or less. The desire for sovereignty in every sphere, including criminal justice, results the imposition of sanctions by the globalist structures. Reformist penal policy expresses the loss of a strategic, informed criminological development goals of criminal justice, and, as a rule, corresponds to the group, not the public interest. Experimental criminal policy demonstrates a high rate of development and takes a growing place in the globalist projects with an anti-Russian content.
In the midst of concerns about serious offences committed by young people, the Child Justice Act is the first formal legislative step to introduce restorative justice in South Africa, and promotes reconciliation and problem solving as an approach to the criminal behaviour of youth. This article analyses the new place of ...
Beaver, Kevin M; Jackson, Dylan B; Flesher, Dillon
During the past couple of decades, the amount of research examining the genetic underpinnings to antisocial behaviors, including crime, has exploded. Findings from this body of work have generated a great deal of information linking genetics to criminal involvement. As a partial result, there is now a considerable amount of interest in how these findings should be integrated into the criminal justice system. In the current paper, we outline the potential ways that genetic information can be used to increase the effectiveness of treatment programs designed to reduce recidivism among offenders. We conclude by drawing attention to how genetic information can be used by rehabilitation programs to increase program effectiveness, reduce offender recidivism rates, and enhance public safety.
In the third section, I criticize the claim that truth commissions are not a moral compromise at all but embody a superior, restorative conception of justice. I conclude by showing why retribution is required by criminal justice, and why truth commissions must be seen, not as an end in themselves, but as institutions whose ...
short, does it have a future, and how shall it remain relevant in the future? This article is a think piece ... Introduction. The International Criminal ... in its operations by international politics, are the ICC's weaknesses a function of its very nature or ...
Full Text Available The current paper deals with the nature of justice in George R. R. Martin’s novel series A Song of Ice and Fire (1996- and Tales of Dunk and Egg (1998- under the light of Daniel Van Ness’ theory of restorative justice. This brand of justice is famed for its strong emphasis on the welfare of both parties (that is, victim and offender in the process of passing judgment, its manner of determining criminal restitution which usually involves conferences, gatherings and community service, and more importantly, its aversion to ‘punishment’ at all costs. In the title-mentioned works, it will be argued, however, George R. R. Martin depicts a world which shows extreme prejudice against most levels and forms of crime, an attitude which not only fails to heal the damage done by the criminal, but also results in even more damage.
Full Text Available The current paper deals with the nature of justice in George R. R. Martin’s novel series A Song of Ice and Fire (1996- and Tales of Dunk and Egg (1998- under the light of Daniel Van Ness’ theory of restorative justice. This brand of justice is famed for its strong emphasis on the welfare of both parties (that is, victim and offender in the process of passing judgment, its manner of determining criminal restitution which usually involves conferences, gatherings and community service, and more importantly, its aversion to ‘punishment’ at all costs. In the title-mentioned works, it will be argued, however, George R. R. Martin depicts a world which shows extreme prejudice against most levels and forms of crime, an attitude which not only fails to heal the damage done by the criminal, but also results in even more damage.
Full Text Available Restorative justice as the theoretical foundation of social reaction to crime is one of the key themes of contemporary criminological discourse. The idea of crime as a conflict between perpetrator and victim of crime is included in the core ideas related to the concept of restorative justice, which differs from traditional understanding of crime as a relationship between the state and the individual. This change in perspective on crime points towards social reaction to crime that differs from traditional criminal justice system. As the restoration process of relationship damaged by crime is directly related to possibilities of participation in the very process, institutionalisation of that participation sets the scope of restorative process. In this article, the author points towards the traditional criminal justice and restorative justice processes, focusing the relationship of perpetrator and victim of crime and the process of conflict resolution. The aim of the article is to highlight the conflict perspective as a defining element of the relationship between offender and victim, and to underline the effectiveness of restorative justice as social reaction to crime, which contributes to optimisation of the relationship between the offender and the community.
Koss, Mary P; Bachar, Karen J; Hopkins, C Quince; Carlson, Carolyn
Problems in criminal justice system response to date-acquaintance rape and nonpenetration sexual offenses include (a) they are markers of a sexual offending career, yet are viewed as minor; (b) perpetrators are not held accountable in ways that reduce reoffense; and (c) criminal justice response disappoints and traumatizes victims. To address these problems, a collaboration of victim services, prosecutors, legal scholars, and public health professionals are implementing and evaluating RESTORE, a victim-driven, community-based restorative justice program for selected sex crimes. RESTORE prepares survivors, responsible persons (offenders), and both parties' families and friends for face-to-face dialogue to identify the harm and develop a redress plan. The program then monitors the offender's compliance for 12 months. The article summarizes empirical data on problems in criminal justice response, defines restorative justice models, and examines outcome. Then the RESTORE program processes and goals are described. The article highlights community collaboration in building and sustaining this program.
Kretschmar, Jeff M.; Flannery, Daniel J.
This article examined the relationship between suicide behaviors and displacement, as defined by out-of-home placement, in a sample of juvenile-justice-involved youth with mental health issues. Participants included boys and girls between the ages of 10 and 18 who were enrolled in a juvenile justice diversion program for children with mental or…
Full Text Available Sexual violence is used to maintain what Dr. Riane Eisler (1990 conceptualizes as the dominator model of society. The early days of the feminist anti-violence movement focused on changing the dominator model, but, in part, this focus was co-opted by seeking criminal justice solutions, contributing to punitive responses and mass incarceration that have been ineffective in ending sexual violence. The racist history of the rape charge and its disproportionate effect on people of color, an effect that continues today. Legislators have passed draconian laws that uniquely apply to anyone convicted of a sex offense, the definition of which has been broadened to encompass harmless behavior. A separate legal regime for sex offenders that isolates them from society and marks them for life as monsters obfuscates the causes of sexual violence and contributes to the problem. The feminist anti-violence movement remains influential, though little recognized, in today’s efforts to respond to sexual violence through restorative justice and transformative justice. A number of groups have adopted the RJ/TJ model, in particular women of color. The article provides examples of successful and unsuccessful implementation of RJ/TJ and discusses impediments to wider adoption of this approach. RJ/TJ is a promising alternative to the current criminal justice response to sexual assault, one that will bring us closer to a partnership culture.
Shapiro, Lauren R.
Eyewitness recall by 60 adolescents and 60 young adults in Experiment 1 and by 64 children and 63 preadolescents in Experiment 2 for a simulated theft in which gender-role characteristics and sex of criminal were manipulated (i.e., masculine male, feminine male, feminine female, masculine female) was investigated. Gender-role flexibility impacted…
Fried, C S; Reppucci, N D
Theories of judgment in decision making hypothesize that throughout adolescence, judgment is impaired because the development of several psychosocial factors that are presumed to influence decision making lags behind the development of the cognitive capacities that are required to make mature decisions. This study uses an innovative video technique to examine the role of several psychosocial factors--temporal perspective, peer influence, and risk perception--in adolescent criminal decision making. Results based on data collected from 56 adolescents between the ages of 13 and 18 years revealed that detained youth were more likely to think of future-oriented consequences of engaging in the depicted delinquent act and less likely to anticipate pressure from their friends than nondetained youth. Examination of the developmental functions of the psychosocial factors indicates age-based differences on standardized measures of temporal perspective and resistance to peer influence and on measures of the role of risk perception in criminal decision making. Assessments of criminal responsibility and culpability were predicted by age and ethnicity. Implications for punishment in the juvenile justice system are discussed.
The doctrine of mens rea is a central distinguishing feature of criminal justice system in old ... specific mental element that is required to be defined and proved in respect of a ... Does the idea of causation relate to the question of mens rea?
Full Text Available Labeling theory suggests that criminal justice interventions amplify offending behavior. Theories of intergenerational transmission suggest why children of convicted parents have a higher risk of offending. This paper combines these two perspectives and investigates whether labeling effects might be stronger for children of convicted parents. We first investigated labeling effects within the individual: we examined the impact of a conviction between ages 19-26 on self-reported offending behavior between 27-32 while controlling for self-reported behavior between 15-18. Our results show that a conviction predicted someone's later self-reported offending behavior, even when previous offending behavior was taken into account. Second, we investigated whether having a convicted parent influenced this association. When we added this interaction to the analysis, a labeling effect was only visible among people with convicted parents. This supports the idea of cumulative disadvantage: Labeling seems stronger for people who are already in a disadvantaged situation having a convicted parent.
... Statement for the Criminal Alien Requirement 9 AGENCY: U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Prisons... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the Criminal Alien Requirement 9 project (CAR 9). This notice briefly... contractor's to house up to 1,889 federal, low-security, adult male, non-U.S. citizen, criminal aliens at...
Gromet, Dena M; Okimoto, Tyler G; Wenzel, Michael; Darley, John M
Three studies investigated whether victims' satisfaction with a restorative justice process influenced third-party assignments of punishment. Participants evaluated criminal offenses and victims' reactions to an initial restorative justice conference, and were later asked to indicate their support for additional punishment of the offender. Across the three studies, we found that victim satisfaction (relative to dissatisfaction) attenuates people's desire to seek offender punishment, regardless of offense severity (Study 2) or conflicting reports from a third-party observer (Study 3). This relationship was explained by the informational value of victim satisfaction: Participants inferred that victims felt closure and that offenders experienced value reform, both of which elevated participants' satisfaction with the restorative justice outcome. The informational value communicated by victim satisfaction, and its criminal justice implications, are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.
Rud, I.; van Klaveren, C.; Groot, W.; Maassen van den Brink, H.
The empirical literature on education and crime suggests that both criminal behavior and educational attainment are transferred from parents to children. However, the impact of criminal involvement of parents on educational outcomes of children tends to be ignored, even though the entailed social
Payne, Allison Ann; Welch, Kelly
Schools today are more frequently using punitive discipline practices to control student behavior, despite the greater effectiveness of community-building techniques on compliance that are based on restorative justice principles found in the criminal justice system. Prior research testing the racial threat hypothesis has found that the racial…
The present text presents brief considerations on the internationalization of criminal policy and its consequences. The transformation of criminal justice to combat drugs, organized crime and terrorism has resulted in the instrumentalisation of the State's punitive power. This change impacts not
Full Text Available The deprivation of the proceeds of crime has been a feature of criminal law for many years. The original rationale for the confiscation of criminal assets at international level was the fight against organised crime, a feature of society described by the European Court of Human Rights as a "scourge" so that the draconian powers which are a feature of confiscation regimes around the world have been approved in circumstances which otherwise might have caused governments considerable difficulties before the international human rights tribunals. The primary objective of this article is to determine if the asset forfeiture measures employed in the South African criminal justice system are in need of any reform and/or augmentation in accordance with the "spirit, purport and object" of the South African Constitution. This article attempts to answer three questions. Firstly, why is criminal asset forfeiture important to law enforcement? Secondly, in which circumstances can property be forfeited and what types of property are subject to forfeiture? Thirdly, how is forfeiture accomplished, and what are its constitutional ramifications?
Full Text Available This paper departs from the observation that the victim image leading public discourse has transformed in recent years: increasingly victims reject the traditional victim label implying helplessness and dependency to adopt the image of the emancipated victim that wishes to participate in the criminal proceedings. Restorative justice at first sight provides an answer to these emancipated victims’ wishes, offering them participation in criminal proceedings. Yet, using the concept of empowerment as an example and the community psychology perspective as a theoretical reference, our analysis suggests that restorative justice uses a restricted definition of empowerment: it reduces empowerment to developing self-confidence and new understandings of the offence, neglecting the behavioural component of empowerment. This characteristic of restorative justice seems to deny victims’ capacities to promote social change and inhibit them from reaching true empowerment.
De Hoon, Marieke
While the International Criminal Court (icc) strives for justice for atrocity crimes throughout the world, increasingly, its legitimacy is undermined: powerful states refuse to join, African states prepare to leave, victims do not feel their needs for justice are met. This article argues that this
Damm, Anna Piil; Larsen, Britt Østergaard; Nielsen, Helena Skyt
This paper exploits a Danish policy reform combined with population-wide administrative registers to investigate whether being above the minimum age of criminal responsibility deters juveniles from crime. We study young individuals’ tendency to commit crime as well as their likelihood of recidivi....... The latter results are consistent with labeling effects of processing in the criminal justice system....
Lanier, Mark M; Zaitzow, Barbara H; Farrell, C Thomas
Worldwide, women are increasingly being incarcerated. One unintended consequence is the increase in unhealthy female offenders. Among the more serious health concerns are HIV and AIDS. Challenges associated with caring for women with HIV/AIDS impacts not only disease management and infection control within correctional facilities but also the prisoners' home communities where they will need health care, drug and alcohol rehabilitation, housing assistance, and employment opportunities. No bridging theory has been presented that links prison and community health concerns with criminal justice policy. This article not only presents recommendations for effective HIV/AIDS policy but also suggests epidemiological criminology as a means of explicit merging of health with justice issues and consequently provides a bridging framework. © The Author(s) 2015.
Full Text Available Traditionally, transitional justice processes do not address the role of corporations in dictatorships or in armed conflicts that give rise to the need for dealing with grave and systematic human rights violations. However, there is a growing awareness that in many contexts corporations contribute to these violations, often in the form of corporate complicity with the principal violators. An argument can therefore be made that to achieve the aims of transitional justice and establish a holistic narrative of the past as well as obtain justice and reparations for victims requires investigating and addressing the role of corporate actors. This article uses the example of Colombia’s Justice and Peace process to show some of the complexities, opportunities and challenges that arise if transitional justice measures focus primarily on criminal law and create a specific legal framework, outside of the ordinary justice systems, only for a limited group of primary perpetrators, in the Colombian case for members of the armed groups who demobilised. It is argued that the exclusion of corporate actors in contexts where their role is regarded as significant leads to victims seeking alternatives ways to obtain justice and that both victims and corporations would benefit if transitional justice mechanisms addressed the role of corporations.
... Office of the Attorney General; Assumption of Concurrent Federal Criminal Jurisdiction in Certain Areas of Indian Country AGENCY: Office of the Attorney General, Department of Justice. ACTION: Final rule... concurrent criminal jurisdiction within the tribe's Indian country, and for the Attorney General to decide...
approche combinée de droit international et de sciences politiques, cet article se veut une ..... protection of the public interest, rehabilitation, and social reconstruction .... been required to rewrite their criminal laws to ensure clear definitions of.
Noll, Douglas E.; Harvey, Linda
This article will present the restorative justice model and examine how the restorative justice philosophy and process can be applied to clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse and religious sexual misconduct to resolve legal claims and allow the process of healing to begin. Restorative justice is a holistic approach to criminal, civil, and church law…
Workowski, Eric J.
This study examined the relationship between criminal violence and type of substance abuse among 184 current and former residents of an inpatient non-hospital drug and alcohol treatment facility. The criminal justice system functioned as the source of referral into the program for 89% of the subjects studied while only 11% came to treatment…
Tedeschi, Frank; Ford, Elizabeth
There is a well-established and growing body of evidence from research that adolescents who commit crimes differ in many regards from their adult counterparts and are more susceptible to the negative effects of adjudication and incarceration in adult criminal justice systems. The age of criminal court jurisdiction in the United States has varied throughout history; yet, there are only two remaining states, New York and North Carolina, that continue to automatically charge 16 year olds as adults. This review traces the statutory history of juvenile justice in these two states with an emphasis on political and social factors that have contributed to their outlier status related to the age of criminal court jurisdiction. The neurobiological, psychological, and developmental aspects of the adolescent brain and personality, and how those issues relate both to a greater likelihood of rehabilitation in appropriate settings and to greater vulnerability in adult correctional facilities, are also reviewed. The importance of raising the age in New York and North Carolina not only lies in protecting incarcerated youths but also in preventing the associated stigma following release. Mental health practitioners are vital to the process of local and national juvenile justice reform. They can serve as experts on and advocates for appropriate mental health care and as experts on the adverse effects of the adult criminal justice system on adolescents.
Henrique Ribeiro Cardoso
Full Text Available Over the last few decades, the criminal model of retributive justice has been challenged for not being suitable for the prevention and repression of criminality in Brazil. The high incarceration rate has increased with the number of drug trafficking prisoners which leads to, consequently, a formulation of criminal policy on the standard punitive model rather effective alternative forms, or less harmful for solving the problem. Its commercial nature at the same time reveals the importance for the consummation of the crime opening the possibilities for insertion of the extensive restorative practices, which exceeds the legally allowed.
Friedmann, Peter D.; Katz, Elizabeth C.; Rhodes, Anne G.; Taxman, Faye S.; O'Connell, Daniel J.; Frisman, Linda K.; Burdon, William M.; Fletcher, Bennett W.; Litt, Mark D.; Clarke, Jennifer; Martin, Steven S.
This article describes the rationale, study design, and implementation for the Step'n Out study of the Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies. Step'n Out tests the relative effectiveness of collaborative behavioral management of drug-involved parolees. Collaborative behavioral management integrates the roles of parole officers and treatment…
... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Evidence of criminal conviction. 1003.41 Section 1003.41 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE... that indicates the existence of a conviction; (4) Minutes of a court proceeding or a transcript of a...
Pereira, André Martins; Lima Pereira, Luana Rochelly Miranda
This study aims to understand the criminal procedural law in a democratic perspective as a containment strategy of the criminal justice system advance or a harm reduction tool, and the way that the democratic perspective of the criminal procedural law is blocked by media criminalization. For that it seeks to analyze the issue from contributions of critical criminology, critical theory of criminal procedural law and critical authors of social comunication
McCluskey, G.; Lloyd, G.; Stead, J.; Kane, J.; Riddell, S.; Weedon, E.
This paper explores definitions and understandings of restorative practices in education. It offers a critique of current theoretical models of restorative justice originally derived from the criminal justice system and now becoming popular in educational settings. It questions the appropriateness of these concepts as they are being introduced to…
Franke, Nancy D; Treglia, Dan; Cnaan, Ram A
Social work plays a marginal role in opposing the trend of mass incarceration and high rates of recidivism, and social work education offers limited opportunities for students to specialize in working with people who are currently or were previously incarcerated. How to train students of social work to work against mass-incarceration is still challenging. The authors devised and implemented an in-school social service agency devoted to working with people pre and post release from a prison system. The agency is a field practicum setting where interested students study and practice reentry work. In this article, the authors describe and assess the educational merit of this in-school agency. Findings from surveys of students and alumni suggest that the program attained its educational goals of connecting classroom education to practice experience and training students for careers in the criminal justice system. The authors also discuss pending challenges. The experience of the Goldring Reentry Initiative suggests that by developing their own social work agencies, the authors may be able to heighten their students educational experience and expand their contribution to social work practice broadly.
Edwardh, Marlys; Adam, Barry; Joncas, Lucie; Clayton, Michaela
Justice Edwin Cameron, of the Constitutional Court of South Africa, served as moderator. He said that this topic was particularly relevant for "an African/Canadian setting" because African countries may use Canadian developments as justification for their efforts to address HIV transmission and exposure through criminal law. Justice Cameron said that Canada is internationally perceived as a human rights-respecting state and, thus, sets an example, particularly for African nations, on how to comply with human rights issues. He added that in this particular case, however, Canada was sending the wrong message. This article contains summaries of the four presentations made during this panel. Marlys Edwardh reviews how the Supreme Court of Canada in Cuerrier interpreted the concepts of "endangering life" and "fraud". Barry Adam discusses the notion of a "duty to disclose" and how this affects HIV prevention. Lucie Joncas examines how the Supreme Court defined "fraud" in Cuerrier and describes a case before the Quebec Court of Appeal which may turn on whether the use of a condom or having a low viral load is considered not to constitute a significant risk of transmission. Finally, Michaela Clayton describes the trend in Southern African countries to adopt laws criminalizing HIV transmission or exposure, and explains that criminalization endangers women's health and lives.
... obtained. In recognition of the link between drug trafficking and many criminal organizations, the Attorney... to combat firearm-related violent crime. The nexus between drug trafficking and firearm violence is... Involved in Drug Offenses for Administrative Forfeiture (2012R-9P) AGENCY: Department of Justice. ACTION...
Full Text Available Female criminality in Poland, that is the violation of legal standards by women, threatened by penalty, is not great. The number of sentenced women in prison has maintained at the same level 7%-10% of the general sentenced population for a long time. Research shows that gender does not have a great impact on criminality. However, there have been some findings physiological states such as pregnancy or breast feeding predispose women to commit crimes. It has also been noted that more women than men commit crimes where cleverness is required. The smaller number of women’s crimes is explained by factors like family upbringing, where mothers present a greater traditional lifestyle. Women are also victims of crimes such as: domestic violence, sexual harassment, human trafficking, crimes associated with prostitution. Sentenced to imprisonment, they reside in separate penitentiary units, where they can give birth to their children and stay with them in prison Homes for Mothers and Children until the child turns 3 or exceptionally 4 years old. Imprisoned women, due to specific personality are treated more softly than men, but are subject to the same rigors as men, depending on the type of prison they are in. They are being prepared to perform the roles of mothers, wives or for an independent life in the free world.
Although laws have been promulgated to protect the rights of women, ... to justice in the formal and traditional systems, with respect to serious criminal offences ... Special journal issue highlights IDRC-supported findings on women's paid work.
Criminal offenders are sometimes required, by the institutions of criminal justice, to undergo medical interventions intended to promote rehabilitation. Ethical debate regarding this practice has largely proceeded on the assumption that medical interventions may only permissibly be administered to criminal offenders with their consent. In this article I challenge this assumption by suggesting that committing a crime might render one morally liable to certain forms of medical intervention. I then consider whether it is possible to respond persuasively to this challenge by invoking the right to bodily integrity. I argue that it is not.
María Belén Bonilla Albán
Full Text Available The essay explains how the inclusion of the security of public policy in the 2008 Constitution of Ecuador as part of the constitutional state of law and justice or “guarantor state” can become a substantial limit for criminal decisionism, which is usually behind the penal policy in Latin America. Thus, the function of this collateral is to eliminate the huge space of discretion in the management of the most sensitive policy of modern state penal policy. However, the guarantee of public policy is not clear in determining the limits of punitive power; therefore, this paper seeks to explore some of the international human rights.
Full Text Available Anak sebagai generasi penerus bangsa sudah selayaknya mendapatkan perhatian khusus. Hal tersebut bertujuan dalam rangka pembinaan anak untuk mewujudkan sumber daya manusia yang berkualitas. Maka dari itu, diperlukan pula sarana dan prasarana hukum yang mengantisipasi segala permasalahan yang timbul. Sarana hukum ini bertujuan untuk mengantisipasi stigma atau cap jahat yang ditimbulkan ketika anak berhadapan dengan hukum, sekaligus memulihkan dan memasyarakatkan kembali anak tersebut. Salah satu solusinya adalah dengan mengalihkan atau menempatkan pelaku tindak pidana anak keluar dari sistem peradilan pidana serta memberikan alternatif bagi penyelesaian dengan pendekatan keadilan demi kepentingan terbaik bagi anak, yang kemudian dikenal dengan pendekatan restorative justice. Restorative justice yang merupakan implementasi konsep dari diversi telah dirumuskan dalam sistem peradilan pidana anak, namun sistem yang baik haruslah diiringi dengan suatu sikap yang dijiwai kehendak untuk memandang dan berkeyakinan bahwa dunia ini selalu menjadi lebih baik. Selain itu, hendaknya prinsip the best interest of the children selalu diutamakan ketika menangani anak yang berhadapan dengan hukum. Children as the nation's next generation is already deserve special attention. It aims in order to develop the child to realize the quality of human resources. Therefore, it is also necessary legal infrastructure to anticipate any problems that arise. The legal means to anticipate stigma or stamp evil inflicted when the child against the law, as well as restoring and re-socialize the child. One solution is to divert or placing the offender children out of the criminal justice system as well as providing an alternative to the settlement with justice approach in the best interests of the child, who was then known as restorative justice approach. Restorative justice which is the implementation of the concept of diversion has been formulated in the juvenile justice system
André Martins Pereira
Full Text Available This study aims to understand the criminal procedural law in a democratic perspective as a containment strategy of the criminal justice system advance or a harm reduction tool, and the way that the democratic perspective of the criminal procedural law is blocked by media criminalization. For that it seeks to analyze the issue from contributions of critical criminology, critical theory of criminal procedural law and critical authors of social comunication
Heribertus Jaka Triyana
Full Text Available In practice, the application of the complementarity principle in the Rome Statute remains unclear, particularly with respect to the prioritization of national penal law jurisdiction. This paper willdiscuss the relevance of the complementarity principle to the development of a national criminal justice system and to the investigation and prosecution of the most serious crimes provided for in the Statute. It was concluded that the complementarity principle should be used to unravel the twisted development of the national criminal justice system in accordance with the provisions of international law. We need to establish our national criminal justice system as the main and foremost forum (hence, willing and able in the process of investigating and prosecuting the most serious crimes on earth. Dalam praktik, aplikasi Asas Pelengkap (the complementarity principle dalam Statuta Roma masihbelum jelas, khususnya terkait dengan pengutamaan (prioritization yurisdiksi hukum pidana nasional. Oleh karena itu, tulisan ini akan membahas relevansi asas tersebut terhadap pembangunan sistem hukum pidana nasional dan terhadap penyelidikan dan penuntutan kejahatan paling serius yang diatur dalam Statuta. Disimpulkan bahwa Asas Pelengkap harus Mahkamah digunakan sebagai pengurai benang kusutpembangunan sistem hukum pidana nasional Indonesia sesuai dengan ketentuan hukum internasional supaya menjadi forum utama (mau dan mampu dalam proses penyelidikan dan penuntutan kejahatan paling serius di muka bumi.
Meijers, T.; Glasius, M.
This article examines the discourses of prosecution and defence in the case of Radovan Karadžić before the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. It contributes to current debates about the legitimacy and utility of international criminal justice, which have tended to neglect the
Full Text Available The Child Justice Act 75 of 2008 establishes a criminal justice system for child accused, separate from the criminal justice system which continues to apply for adult accused in South Africa. The Act aims to keep children out of detention and away from the formal criminal justice system, mainly through diversion. When these interventions would be inadequate or unsuccessful, the Act provides for child offenders to the tried and sentenced in child justice courts. Until now there has been little discussion of the details of the provisions dealing with sentencing.Sentencing in a child justice court is regulated by chapter 10 of the Act and section 68 is the first section in this chapter. This section effectively amounts to the “jurisdictional” provision of the new child sentencing system: it not only mandates child justice courts to impose their sentences in terms of the Act, but also provides the first set of boundaries (or the first part of the framework within which sentencing should take place. Despite its brevity, section 68 is not without interpretative challenges. Of course, it has to be interpreted within the context of the entire Act. Explaining this context is the first function of this article. The various aspects of section 68 are further critically explored and discussed.
Full Text Available On June 15th, 2011, a hockey riot occurred in Vancouver, British Columbia. This event is prominent in Canada’s history for, among other reasons, the unprecedented extent to which it was documented via photographs and video footage. The days that followed the riot saw much of this media documentation uploaded to social media platforms on the Internet, where Internet users worked together to identify and collectively “name and shame” those believed to have been involved in the disturbance. Several individuals targeted by these “Internet vigilantes” were young offenders whose identities are legally protected from publication under the Youth Criminal Justice Act (YCJA. This article examines the phenomenon of “Internet vigilantism”, and raises the issue of whether those provisions within the YCJA that prohibit the identification of youth remain relevant today, given the current difficulties in enforcing these provisions. Following an overview of these “secrecy provisions”, the phenomenon of Internet vigilantism is defined, and challenges posed by acts of Internet vigilantism are discussed. A “naming and shaming” Facebook group created for the purpose of identifying participants in the 2011 Vancouver riot is then looked to as a case study of Internet vigilantism in action. This article concludes with recommendations for how justice officials and social media outlets may modify current practices to better protect the safety and security of young offenders, and to minimize harmful instances of Internet vigilantism.
Olsson, Martin O; Bradvik, Louise; Öjehagen, Agneta; Hakansson, Anders
Risk factors for suicide and fatal accidental intoxication are extensively studied, while risk factors for intoxications/injuries of undetermined intent are less well known. The latter have shown an overlap with suicides, but also with fatal accidental intoxications. The objective was to analyze potential differences and similarities in the patterns of risk factors for accidental intoxications, injuries/intoxications with undetermined intent, and suicides, respectively. A follow-up register study was conducted, using data from ASI interviews with clients in the criminal justice system in Sweden (n=6744), followed in the National Causes of Death Register. A set of risk factors from the ASI interview were tested in bivariate analysis with the respective cause of death, yielding significant risk factors further analyzed in three Cox regression models. In Cox regression analyses, death from fatal accidental intoxication was associated with male gender (HR 4.09), use of heroin (HR 2.86), and use of cannabis (HR 1.94), and death from intoxication/injury of undetermined intent was associated with use of heroin (HR 3.48), binge drinking of alcohol (HR 2.46) and previous psychiatric hospitalization (HR 2.41), while negatively associated with depression (HR 0.33). Death from suicide was associated with previous suicide attempts (HR 2.78) and use of sedatives (HR 2.17). In this population of criminal justice clients with reported substance use problems, fatal injuries/intoxications with undetermined intent - like fatal accidental intoxications - appear to be associated with substance use variables, and cannot readily be assumed to represent the same background factors as suicide. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
Sun, Ivan Y; Luo, Haishan; Wu, Yuning; Lin, Wen-Hsu
General strain theory (GST) has been one of the most frequently tested criminological theories. According to GST, strain tends to generate negative emotions, which create pressures for corrective action, such as crime and delinquency. Although GST has received strong empirical support, one under-addressed issue is the lack of diversity in sampling population in assessing the generalizability of the theory. Using survey data collected from 335 incarcerated women in four Chinese prisons, this study examined the impact of strain and negative emotions on the level of female criminality. The strain variable, physical abuse, and discrimination, exerted a positive effect on female inmates' levels of criminality, whereas negative emotions were not significantly related to female criminality. Two control variables, age of current offense and educational attainment, were predictive of female criminality, with younger and less-educated women having more serious criminality. Implications for future research and policy are discussed. © The Author(s) 2015.
Harvey, Lynn K.; Mitchell, Alvin D.
The justice studies program at Winston-Salem State University (WSSU) is designed to produce a new breed of justice practitioners whose understanding of justice and its administration is broadened to include the political, social, economic, and cultural conditions within which issues of crime and punishment are pursued and addressed. While it…
Full Text Available This article examines the complex, inherently political, and often contradictory processes of truth-finding, history-telling, and formation of collective memory through transitional justice. It explores tensions between history-telling and the normative goals of truth commissions and international criminal courts, taking into account the increasing importance attributed to victims as witnesses of history. The legal space these instruments of transitional justice offer is determined by both their historical and political roots, and specific goals and procedures. Because the legal space that truth commissions offer for history-telling ismore flexible and their report open to public debate, they may open up alternative public spaces and enable civil society to contest the master narrative. The legal truth laid down in the rulings of an international criminal court is by definition closed. The verdict of a court is definite and authoritative; closure, not continued debate about what it has established as the truth, is its one and only purpose. In conclusion, the article calls for a critical appraisal of transitional justice as acclaimed mediator of collective memories in post-conflict societies.
Full Text Available The development of the Neighbourhood Justice Centre (NJC in the Melbourne suburb of Collingwood is a first for Australia and reflects a universal growing interest in addressing the underlying causes of criminal behaviour and disadvantage as well as improving access to justice.By Tim Hasslet, School of Integrative Systems, University of Queensland, Chris Ballenden, Ponte Consulting; Saroj Godbole, Ponte Consulting; Kerry Walker, Director, Neighbourhood Justice Centre, Melbourne
McMullan, Elizabeth C; Carlan, Philip E; Nored, Lisa S
This study compares perceptions of domestic violence for college students planning to work in law enforcement with students aspiring to careers in social work and non-law-enforcement criminal justice (N = 491). The study involves students attending four public universities across one Southern state who completed a survey (spring of 2006) measuring whether various scenarios were (1) related to domestic violence, and (2) worthy of being reported to law enforcement. Findings indicate that all student groups (law enforcement, non-law-enforcement criminal justice, and social work) tended to identify the various scenarios as domestic violence (and worthy of being reported) regardless of the person's sexual orientation, violence severity, and offender's or victim's gender. However, law enforcement students are less sensitive to domestic violence when compared with social work and non-law enforcement criminal justice students. Findings reveal that (1) graduate students, (2) female students, and (3) White students (compared with African American students in general) attending majority White universities were more likely to identify domestic violence and its worthiness of being reported.The data in this study indicate that criminal justice programs produce graduates who are reasonably sensitive toward the importance of appropriate domestic violence response but could still improve using the techniques employed within social work programs.
Vestergaard, Jørn; Adamo, Silvia
Practitioners in the criminal justice system are fairly content with the European Arrest Warrant and other schemes based on the principle of mutual recognition of judicial decisions. This is the result of a survey published by Professor of Criminal Law Jørn Vestergaard and research asststant Silvia...... Adamo from The Faculty of Law, University of Copenhagen. In recent years, the principle of mutual recognition has become a cornerstone in police and criminal law cooperation between Member States. In particular, the European Arrest Warrant has come to play an important role. The pivotal point...
... criminal justice agency reports. Intelligence or investigative information (e.g., suspected criminal... history record information and does not include other information such as intelligence or treatment data... individual's fingerprints on file locally, it is necessary for that agency to relate his prints to an...
Cropsey, Karen L; Clark, C Brendan; Zhang, Xiao; Hendricks, Peter S; Jardin, Bianca F; Lahti, Adrienne C
Smokers in the criminal justice system represent some of the most disadvantaged smokers in the U.S., as they have high rates of smoking (70%-80%) and are primarily uninsured, with low access to medical interventions. Few studies have examined smoking-cessation interventions in racially diverse smokers, and none have examined these characteristics among individuals supervised in the community. The purpose of this study is to determine if four sessions of standard behavioral counseling for smoking cessation would differentially aid smoking cessation for African American versus non-Hispanic white smokers under community corrections supervision. An RCT. Five hundred smokers under community corrections supervision were recruited between 2009 and 2013 via flyers posted at the community corrections offices. All participants received 12 weeks of bupropion plus brief physician advice to quit smoking. Half of the participants received four sessions of 20-30 minutes of smoking-cessation counseling following tobacco treatment guidelines, whereas half received no additional counseling. Generalized estimating equations were used to determine factors associated with smoking abstinence across time. Analyses were conducted in 2014. The end-of-treatment abstinence rate across groups was 9.4%, with no significant main effects indicating group differences. However, behavioral counseling had a differential effect on cessation: whites who received counseling had higher quit rates than whites who did not receive counseling. Conversely, African Americans who did not receive counseling had higher average cessation rates than African Americans who received counseling. Overall, medication-adherent African American smokers had higher abstinence rates relative to other smokers. Racial disparities in smoking cessation are not evident among those who are adherent to medication. More research is needed to better understand the differential effect that behavioral counseling might have on treatment
Sergey G. Ol’kov
Full Text Available Objective to prove the theorems of validity justice and certainty of bisectrixity to elaborate the mathematical bases of the theory of court sentences. Methods observation deduction and induction applying the law of formal logic comparative analysis formaljuridical method mathematical methods. Results 1 theorems of validity justice and certainty of bisectrixity are proved and detailed 2 equally probable equilibrium and diagonal court sentences are viewed in the 2dimensional 3dimensional 4dimensional and 5dimensional space of criminal liability when the scope of punishment is determined by four variables y f x1 x2 x3 x4 where y ndash scope of punishment x1 ndash character and degree of the public danger of the deed x2 ndash category of a criminal public danger of the personality x3 ndash circumstances aggravating punishment x4 ndash circumstances extenuating punishment f ndash parameters of the equation connecting the left and right parts of the equation 3 aggravating and extenuating circumstances can be integrated into a single variable in the form of a fraction where the numerator is the scope of circumstances aggravating punishment x3 and thenbspdenominator is the extenuating circumstances x4 thus we obtain an integrated variable x3 x4 4 it is proved that the certainty of diagonal sentence is s c or v c times larger than the certainty of the equally probable sentence where с is the length of the diagonal s is the area of sentences vnbspis the space of sentences 5 it is proved that the bisectral sentence is the most optimal among the equilibrium ones as it equally takes into account the functions of the defense and the prosecution. Scientific novelty the newly obtained scientific results. Practical significance possibility to use the obtained scientific results for the development of criminallegal and criminalprocedural theories tonbspincrease the level of justice of the court sentences. Keywords Criminal procedure Theorem of validity Theorem
Anderson Reis de Sousa
Full Text Available Abstract This qualitative, descriptive research had the purpose of analyzing the discourse of women and men involved in criminal proceedings on their experience of conjugal violence. Interviews were conducted with men in criminal proceedings for marital violence and the respective testimonies of their companions, contained in case files, were analyzed. Data were organized using the NVIVO® 11 software and the Collective Subject Discourse method. The discourses indicate that the reciprocity of the experience of violence is not recognized by the couple. While the woman sometimes transfers the responsibility of the act to the ingestion of alcohol or to herself, the man minimizes the event and questions the legitimacy of the testimony given by his companion. This points to the importance of the creation of spaces for reeducation in the perspective of gender, which would allow the recognition of the grievance by the couple and favor more respectful and harmonious relationships within the family.
Full Text Available Mediation is an alternative means of conflict resolution, is designed as a flexible procedure whose utility was observed in contrast to the deficiencies of the judiciary system. In the field of criminal law, mediation is part of the larger concept of the restorative justice whose aim is restoring the main victim in its rights. From this perspective, to the criminal process is intended, in principal, repairing of the victim's prejudice and, subsequently, to encourage the delinquent in taking responsibility and to acknowledge his guilt, and also to determine him to actively participate in repairing the damage caused. The ultimate goal of the process is giving back the delinquent to society and consequently, reducing the relapse. Romanian legislator has not taken this concept, and how it is regulated mediation in criminal matters is hesitant, cautious and ultimately ineffective. Specifically, in situations that will actually occur, victim-delinquent mediation will only take the form of "assisted reconciliation."
Walters, Glenn D; Lowenkamp, Christopher T
Higher order scores derived from the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS; Walters, 1995) have been found to predict recidivism in released prison inmates with effect sizes in the low-moderate to medium range. The current study sought to determine whether the PICTS is capable of predicting general recidivism in a sample of 81,881 male and 14,519 female offenders on federal probation or supervised release. Results indicated that the PICTS General Criminal Thinking, Proactive, and Reactive scores and 6 of the 7 thinking style scales predicted recidivism in follow-ups of 6 or more months, 12 or more months, and 24 or more months with effect sizes in the low-moderate to medium range. The effect sizes were reduced to small and low-moderate, respectively, when age and prior arrests were controlled for in a series of partial correlations. It was also noted that the PICTS General Criminal Thinking score contributed significant diagnostic information to recidivism prediction in both males and females above and beyond the information provided by a comprehensive risk assessment procedure. These results indicate that the PICTS may be a useful adjunct to other risk assessment procedures in providing comprehensive risk prediction and management services to offenders under community supervision. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Jacques, Karen; Taylor, Paul J
The authors examined the backgrounds and social experiences of female terrorists to test conflicting accounts of the etiology of this offending group. Data on 222 female terrorists and 269 male terrorists were examined across 8 variables: age at first involvement, educational achievement, employment status, immigration status, marital status, religious conversion, criminal activity, and activist connections. The majority of female terrorists were found to be single, young (terrorism, but they were more likely to have a higher education attainment, less likely to be employed, and less likely to have prior activist connections. The results clarify the myths and realities of female-perpetrated terrorism and suggest that the risk factors associated with female involvement are distinct from those associated with male involvement.
van Lent, Leonie
The aim of this article is to assess the recent attempts by the Dutch judiciary to gain more public acceptance of its tasks and functioning in criminal justice by enhancing its relationship with the press. The central question to be answered is to what extent the current stance towards the media, as
Roberto Carvalho Veloso
Full Text Available Obstetric violence is characterized by the imposition of interventions harmful to the physical and psychological integrity of pregnant women, perpetrated by health professionals and institutions (public and private in which such women are assisted. This paper aims to discuss the civil and criminal liability in cases of obstetric violence, from the judgments of the Supreme Court (STF, Superior Court of Justice (STJ and the Courts of Justice (TJs of the Rio Grande do Sul State and Minas Gerais, in order to identify the nature of the punishment and characterization of obstetric violence.
Mohmed Alqahtani Faten
Full Text Available Saudi Arabia has recent in years pass several important legislations to ensure a fair and balanced justice system, including: 1 The Law of Procedure Before Sharia Courts of September 2001, which grants defendants the right to legal representation and outlines the process by which please, evidence and experts are heard by the courts. 2 The Code of Law Practice of January 2001, which outlines requirements necessary to become an attorney and defines the duties and right of lawyers, including the right of attorney-client privilege. 3 The Law of Criminal Procedure of May 2001, which protects a defendant right with the regard to interrogation, investigation, and incarceration; outlines a series of regulations that justice and law enforcement authorities must follow during all stages of legal process, from arrest and interrogation to trial and sentencing; prohibits torture and protects the right of suspects to obtain legal counsel; and limits the period of arbitrary detention. The main objective of this study is to examine the operation of the criminal justice system in Saudi Arabia in light of the international human rights standards pertaining to the administration of justice. It involves the international human rights treaties and focuses mainly on the instruments in which the right to a fair trail in Saudi Arabia.
Full Text Available The term “rationality” has been mentioned for ages in philosophical discourse, and later in science. No wonder that considerations regarding the reasons behind committing crimes involve the question of rationality of culprits. The article comprises a review of contemporary research on factors which, on a neurobiological, psychological or social level, modify the level of rationality of criminals. In case of the juveniles, factors such as not fully developed brain structures, the influence of hormonal changes resulting in emotional instability and peer pressure, should also be taken into account. Adult criminals often manifest a deficit of activity in the prefrontal cortex of the brain, combined with increased activity in the subcortex, resulting in an increased propensity for violence. Neurophysiologic disorders may be accompanied by factors reducing the rationality, such as: errors in thinking, habitual use of neutralisation techniques or being lead by the, typical for street culture, perception of justice. All of the above should be taken into account as a part of a multi-aspect analyses of the causes of crime.
Danis, Fran S.
This article reviews the social science, legal, and criminal justice literature regarding interventions used to stop domestic violence. Examines the theoretical foundations and effectiveness of police interventions, the use of protective orders, prosecutions and victim advocacy, court responses, and coordinated community responses to domestic…
Meagher, Peter J.
The focus of this dissertation was the use of restorative justice practices in the collegiate setting. Some have expressed concern with the legal nature of campus conduct processes. Restorative practices have been implemented in criminal justice and K-12 settings and are seen by some as an antidote to overly legalistic campus conduct processes.…
Lutnick, Alexandra; Cohan, Deborah
Sex work is a criminal offence in San Francisco, USA, and sex work advocates have so far unsuccessfully campaigned for decriminalizing it. Some groups argue that the decriminalization movement does not represent the voices of marginalized sex workers. Using qualitative and quantitative data from the Sex Worker Environmental Assessment Team Study, we investigated the perspectives and experiences of a range of female sex workers regarding the legal status of sex work and the impact of criminal law on their work experiences. Forty women were enrolled in the qualitative phase in 2004 and 247 women in the quantitative phase in 2006-07. Overall, the women in this study seemed to prefer a hybrid of legalization and decriminalization. The majority voiced a preference for removing statutes that criminalize sex work in order to facilitate a social and political environment where they had legal rights and could seek help when they were victims of violence. Advocacy groups need to explore the compromises sex workers are willing to make to ensure safe working conditions and the same legal protections afforded to other workers, and with those who are most marginalized to better understand their immediate needs and how these can be met through decriminalization.
Nigeria prison system was modeled by colonial prison administration with emphasis on punishment and deterrence. This contradicts the fundamental objective of prison establishment as a corrective institution, for reformation, rehabilitation and re-integration of inmates. The position of prison in criminal justice administration ...
Full Text Available In the R. v. J.A. case, a man was criminally convicted for performing sexual activities on his partner while she was rendered unconscious through erotic asphyxiation. Evaluating the legal and ethical stakes of the case is challenging because the complainant changed her testimony from non-consent to consent at trial, and the couple’s history includes both kinky sex and domestic violence. In this paper, I problematize the legal reasoning of the trial judgment (R. v .A.(J. 2008 ONCJ 195, the Supreme Court of Canada’s majority decision ( 2 S.C.R. 440, as well as the LEAF factum, and some of the feminist commentary. I argue that both the legal and the feminist discourses privilege domestic and sexual violence as the preeminent context in this case, erase or gloss over kinky eroticism and subjectivity, and advance a carceral politics that privileges the criminal justice system as an articulator of truth, and a vehicle for gender justice.En el caso R. v. J.A., se condenó penalmente a un hombre por llevar a cabo actividades sexuales con su pareja, después de dejarla inconsciente mediante asfixia erótica. Evaluar las implicaciones legales y éticas del caso es un reto, porque la querellante cambió en el juicio su testimonio del no consentimiento al consentimiento, y la historia de la pareja incluye tanto el fetichismo sexual como la violencia doméstica. En este artículo se problematiza sobre el razonamiento jurídico de la sentencia (R. v. A. (J. 2008 ONCJ 195, la decisión mayoritaria del Tribunal Supremo de Canadá ( 2 RCS 440, así como el factum LEAF, y algunos de los comentarios feministas. Se sostiene que tanto los discursos jurídicos como los feministas consideran la violencia doméstica y sexual como el contexto preeminente en este caso, borran o disimulan el fetichismo erótico y la subjetividad, y promueven una política penitenciaria en la que el sistema de justicia penal es articulador de la verdad y vehículo para la
There had been differences in the crimes committed by male and female in various stages, throughout the world. Male criminality became the most significant issue in the literary discussion of crime, which gave female criminality little or no attention. Against this background, this paper looked into disparity in the punishment ...
Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is to consider pardon in the restorative justice context. Beginning from the basic standpoint that restorative justice imposes request for interests-balancing of different subjects connected by criminal act, the author tries to examine the articulation of the aforementioned standpoint through the pardon concept, accepted in domestic positive law. There is no doubt that the institute is designed in favour of the crime perpetrator, which is confirmed by the analysis of different legal effects produced by its content, while the victim- and society interests remained, at least, insufficiently protected. Therefore, the author points to some positive examples from comparative law and poses certain suggestions, that can be of use for eventual reforming of the institute, in order to achieve values of restorative justice. .
Berti, Chiara; Mameli, Consuelo; Speltini, Giuseppina; Molinari, Luisa
In this study we explore teacher justice and parent support in learning motivation and visions of a just world. The study sample was 509 Italian secondary school students, 163 males and 346 females. Regression analyses investigated the impact of teacher justice, parental involvement and factors of school choice (one's interests and parental…
Gade, Christian B. N.
In this article, I explore the historical origin and development of the use of the term “restorative justice” in published sources. The main argument is that the growing popularity of the term and its expanding use makes increasingly blurred what restorative justice is. I begin by investigating....... In the 2000s, the term began to appear in United Nations and European Union documents, illustrating that restorative justice had become an internationally recognised approach to justice. After describing this international development, I analyse the Danish context, where the term “restorative justice” began...... to appear in writings around the year 2000. Around the same time, the existing Danish victim offender mediation programme became connected to restorative justice. Later, Danish practices outside the area of criminal justice became associated with the term. In conclusion, I argue that a potential problem...
Background In Japan, medical error leading to patient death is often handled through the criminal rather than civil justice system. However, the number of cases handled through the criminal system and how this has changed in recent years has not previously been described. Our aim was to determine the trend in reports of patient death to the police and the trend in the resulting prosecution of healthcare providers for medical error leading to patient death from 1998 to 2008. Methods We collected data regarding the number of police reports of patient death made by physicians, next-of-kin, and other sources between 1998 and 2008. We also collected data regarding the number of resulting criminal prosecutions of healthcare providers between 1998 and 2008. Reporting and prosecution trends were analyzed using annual linear regression models. Results Reports: The number physician reports of patient deaths to the police increased significantly during the study period (slope 18.68, R2 = 0.78, P deaths to the police by physicians increased significantly from 1998 to 2008 while those made by next-of-kin and others did not. The resulting criminal prosecutions of healthcare providers increased significantly during the same time period. The reasons for these increases are unclear and should be the focus of future research. PMID:20187954
KONSEP DIYAT SEBAGAI ALTERNATIF PEMIDANAAN DALAM SISTEM PERADILAN PIDANA UNTUK MENGATASI FENOMENA OVERCAPACITY LEMBAGA PEMASYARAKATAN / THE CONCEPT OF DIYAT AS AN ALTERNATIVE PUNISHMENT IN CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM AS A SOLUTION OF PRISON OVERCAPACITY PHENOMENA
Full Text Available Melalui metode eklektis-inkorporasi dan konsep prismatik, konsep diyat yang telah dimodifikasi akan dapat mengalami unifikasi hukum bagi seluruh komponen bangsa Indonesia. Kebaikan dan keunggulan konsep diyat dapat menjadi solusi alternatif terhadap kegagalan dari sistem hukum pidana yang saat ini dipergunakan. Tujuan utama dari paradigma hukum pancasila bukan hanya sekedar mencapai keadilan semata, namun pula mencapai kedamaian dalam kehidupan bermasyarakat, berbangsa dan bernegara. Pengembalian kondisi masyarakat kepada keadaan semula (restitutio in integrum merupakan tujuan yang utama dalam Paradigma Hukum Pancasila. Namun, proses infiltrasi konsep diyat tersebut, harus melalui penelitian secara mendalam, khususnya terhadap tindak pidana apa yang dapat diterapkan. Konsep diyat pada intinya pula dapat melakukan reduksi terhadap kewenangan hakim dalam menjatuhkan pidana penjara terhadap pelaku tindak pidana tertentu yang ditetapkan melalui politik hukum pidana dan sistem hukum pidana di Indonesia, apabila telah tercapai kedamaian dan keadilan oleh pihak korban dan/atau keluarga korban. Penulisan karya ilmiah ini menggunakan metode yuridis normatif dengan pendekatan undang-undang, pendekatan konseptual, pendekatan filosofis dan pendekatan sosiologis. Through the ecletic-incorporation method and prismatic concept, the concept of diyat which has been modified will make it able to experience the unification of the law for the nation of Indonesia. Through the goodness and excellence of the concept of diyat, the author believes it is an alternative solution to the failure of the Criminal Justice System that is currently used. The main objective of the Paradigm of the Pancasila Law is not just to achieve justice, but also to achieve peace in the life of society, nation and state. Reversing the conditions of the community to its original state (restitutio in integrum is the main goal in the Paradigm of the Pancasila Law. However, the infiltration
Smith, Olivia; Galey, Jessica
English and Welsh responses to rape have long been critically examined, leading to attempted improvements in the criminal justice system. Despite this, little attention has been paid to the Criminal Injuries Compensation Scheme (CICS) and the difficulties applying it to rape. To begin addressing this gap, researchers interviewed three, and qualitatively surveyed 22, Independent Sexual Violence Advisors. The findings suggest that CICS may not only reinforce rape myths and disadvantage vulnerable survivors, but is also a source of validation and contributes to survivor justice. The study, while exploratory, therefore, highlights the need for further discussion about rape survivor compensation.
This dissertation points out the stark inequalities of segregated criminal justice in nineteenth-century Java and analyses this unequal system in practice, shown by an actor-focused approach and through a framework of legal pluralities. Ravensbergen searched for the conflicts occurring
Full Text Available La victime de graves violations du droit international humanitaire a longtemps été ignorée par une Justice pénale internationale naissante. Pourtant, nul doute que le bénéfice d’une justice éclairée serait un paramètre important dans le processus de « résilience » pour les victimes de l’horreur qui sont incapables d’affronter le quotidien post traumatique. Récemment, le régime de la Cour pénale internationale témoigne d’une prise en compte prometteuse, mais encore fragile des grands droits des victimes (représentation, protection, indemnisation.La víctima de graves violaciones del derecho internacional humanitario fue ignorada por las bases de la Justicia penal internacional naciente. Sin embargo, no cabe duda de que el beneficio de una justicia encendida sería un parámetro importante en el proceso de «resilience» para las víctimas del horror, que son incapaces de enfrentarse con una vida post traumática. Últimamente, el régimen de la Corte Penal Internacional está evolucionando hacia una toma en consideración cada vez más importante, pero aún frágil, de los grandes derechos de las víctimas (representación, protección, indemnización.For a long time, the victim of serious violations regarding humanitarian international law had been ignored by the new field of international criminal Justice. However, the benefit of an enlightened justice would be – no doubt – an important parameter in the process of “resilience” for the victims of the horror, who are unable to face a post traumatic everyday life. Recently, the core rights of the victims before international criminal justice (representation, protection, compensation has been taking into account by the international criminal Court, demonstrating a promising but still fragile evolution.
de Kogel, C H; Westgeest, E J M C
In this contribution an empirical approach is used to gain more insight into the relationship between neuroscience and criminal law. The focus is on case law in the Netherlands. Neuroscientific information and techniques have found their way into the courts of the Netherlands. Furthermore, following an Italian case in which a mentally ill offender received a penalty reduction in part because of a 'genetic vulnerability for impulsive aggression', the expectation was expressed that such 'genetic defenses' would appear in the Netherlands too. To assess how neuroscientific and behavioral genetic information are used in criminal justice practice in the Netherlands, we systematically collect Dutch criminal cases in which neuroscientific or behavioral genetic information is introduced. Data and case law examples are presented and discussed. Although cases are diverse, several themes appear, such as prefrontal brain damage in relation to criminal responsibility and recidivism risk, and divergent views of the implications of neurobiological knowledge about addiction for judging criminal responsibility. Whereas in the international 'neurolaw literature' the emphasis is often on imaging techniques, the Dutch findings also illustrate the role of neuropsychological methods in criminal cases. Finally, there appears to be a clear need of practice oriented instruments and guidelines.
justice in criminal matters. 6. The above ... For a fine understanding of the above laws, see Mukete "Rights of the Juvenile ...... appointment and duration of office, protection from external influences and the appearance of ..... education, lack of opportunities, media violence, poverty, divorce, child abuse, and other similar ...
Romulus, Elijah Rey Asse
This paper explores and analyzes energy justice and the stakeholders involved. Energy insecurity, specifically the lack of access to electricity effects over 1.3 billion people worldwide and energy justice is a way to address it. This paper is supported by a case study with data collected in the southern rural regions of Haiti regarding energy justice communities. Three cities were studied: Les Cayes, Anse-a-Veau, and Les Anglais. It examines how solar businesses can aid energy justice communities seeking access to electricity. Stakeholders such as the communities themselves, solar businesses, and nonprofits in the region are studied and analyzed. The paper concludes solar businesses are helping said communities but needs participation from other stakeholders to be successful. Finally, there are five recommendations to build capacity, develop infrastructure in the region, explore the possibility of solar cooperatives, strengthen the solar economy in Haiti, and demand reparations.
Full Text Available A criminal investigation requires the forensic scientist to search and to interpret vestiges of a criminal act that happened in the past. The forensic scientist is one of the many stakeholders who take part in the information quest within the criminal justice system. She reads the investigation scene in search of physical traces that should enable her to tell the story of the offense/crime that allegedly occurred. The challenge for any investigator is to detect and recognize relevant physical traces in order to provide clues for investigation and intelligence purposes, and that will constitute sound and relevant evidence for the court. This article shows how important it is to consider the relevancy of physical traces from the beginning of the investigation and what might influence the evaluation process. The exchange and management of information between the investigation stakeholders are important. Relevancy is a dimension that needs to be understood from the standpoints of law enforcement personnel and forensic scientists with the aim of strengthening investigation and ultimately the overall judicial process.
...), and the Office of Violence Against Women, provide grant funds to state, local, and tribal governments for crime prevention and intervention programs as well as funding for criminal justice system improvement programs...
Little, Simon; Stewart, Anna; Ryan, Nicole
Restorative justice conferencing is a police diversionary strategy used extensively in Australian jurisdictions to channel young offenders away from formal court processing. Advocates view conferencing as culturally appropriate and a means to reduce the overrepresentation of Indigenous young people because it is rooted in Indigenous justice traditions. However, whether conferencing is effective at reducing recidivism by Indigenous young people compared with non-Indigenous young people remains unknown. We examine this using a longitudinal cohort of youth offenders from Australia. Propensity score matching was used to match Indigenous and non-Indigenous young people at their first conference and examined reoffending outcomes to explore its efficacy at reducing recidivism ( n = 394). Results indicate that, despite statistically controlling for factors related to reoffending, recidivism levels postconference were significantly higher for Indigenous young people. These results suggest that conferencing is unlikely to address the problem of Indigenous overrepresentation within Australia's youth justice system.
There is a notable shift toward more repression and criminalization in sex work policies, in Europe and elsewhere. So-called neo-abolitionism reduces sex work to trafficking, with increased policing and persecution as a result. Punitive "demand reduction" strategies are progressively more popular. These developments call for a review of what we know about the effects of punishing and repressive regimes vis-à-vis sex work. From the evidence presented, sex work repression and criminalization are branded as "waterbed politics" that push and shove sex workers around with an overload of controls and regulations that in the end only make things worse. It is illustrated how criminalization and repression make it less likely that commercial sex is worker-controlled, non-abusive, and non-exploitative. Criminalization is seriously at odds with human rights and public health principles. It is concluded that sex work criminalization is barking up the wrong tree because it is fighting sex instead of crime and it is not offering any solution for the structural conditions that sex work (its ugly sides included) is rooted in. Sex work repression travels a dead-end street and holds no promises whatsoever for a better future. To fight poverty and gendered inequalities, the criminal justice system simply is not the right instrument. The reasons for the persistent stigma on sex work as well as for its present revival are considered.
Bouffard, Jeff A
Deterrence represents the central theoretical core of the American criminal justice system, yet relatively little attention has been paid to how emotions like fear and anger may relate to deterrence. Psychological research has debated whether negative emotions each have similar impacts on decision making (valence approaches) or if distinct emotions have unique impacts (appraisal tendency approaches). This study explores the direct and indirect influences of fear and anger on hypothetical drunk driving likelihood, including their impact on cost perceptions. Surveys were administered to 1,013 male and female incarcerated felony offenders in the Southwestern United States. Using a multivariate path model and controlling for a number of other individual factors, current fear related to increased cost perceptions and anger to decreased costs. Anger also maintained a direct influence on drunk driving, whereas fear did not. Despite their shared negative valence, fear and anger appear to have dissimilar influences on cost perceptions and criminal decision making. A better understanding of these processes may lead to improved crime prevention approaches. © The Author(s) 2014.
The standard of proof in criminal law a®ects retributive justice throughthe number of wrong convictions and wrong acquittals. It also a®ects thelevel of crime, since a higher standard of proof implies less deterrence andless incapacitation. This article derives an expression for the optimal...
Bartlett, Jennifer; Domene, José F.
Little is known about the career development of youth with a history of criminal activity and the factors that influence their career development. The ability to secure employment is important in predicting successful outcomes for this population, but unfortunately youth who have been involved in crime are likely to face a myriad of obstacles to…
Full Text Available The paradox of positivistic view and progressive law in the criminal law enforcement happened because there is a difference among the law enforcement officer’s view and perception. Our law education from the beginning until now still teaches the students the positivistic view so that after the students becoming law officers in running the law they still use positive law or positivistic view. The positivistic view is often far from the substantive justice and close to the formal justice. In order to functioning the progressive law in law enforcement especially the penal code constraint of positivistic view which rooted inside of the law enforcer’s mind, therefore it is need paradigm change by fixing the law system, law education, ethics and morality of law officers , and increasing religious consciousness.Keywords: paradox, law positivism, progressive law, criminal law enforcement
Full Text Available This special issue traces multifaceted readings of criminal law reform in the context of developments in Australia, North America and Europe. It addresses a range of criminal law legislative regimes, frameworks and issues confronting criminal law reform including as they relate to family violence, organisational liability for child sexual abuse, drug-driving and Indigenous under-representation on juries. In doing so, the articles variously assess the impacts of past criminal law reforms, current processes of reform, areas in need of future reform and the limitations of reform. It poses a number of challenges: Who does law reform serve? What principles should guide the work of criminal justice reform? What is the role and responsibility of universities in law reform? Who are the natural allies of academics in agitating for reform? Is reform of criminal law enough for progressive social change? Do public inquiries and law reform assist with progressive change or do they have the potential to undermine the struggle for more humane and equitable social responses?
Full Text Available In this paper the concept of sports ethics is defined and attention is directed to kinds of behavior which are not considered as fair play, the general conception of criminal offence as well as the elements of general idea of criminal act, unlawfulness and guilt with special attention paid to the basis on which unlawfulness and delict, and with them, the criminal offence itself are excluded. Consent of the injured party as basis for excluding unlawfulness has been carefully considered, with emphasis on the fact that with accepting to participate is a certain sport an athlete does not consent to be hurt outside the frame which rules of a particular sport imply. The attitude is accepted that with his consent an athlete consented to the possibility for his integrity be endangered, which still does not mean that he consented to be injured indeed, i.e. a difference is recognized between the consequence of endangering and the consequence of injuring protected assets. After that, rules which are applied in certain sports are explained and connected with the acceptance of the injured party, and the stand is taken that acceptance of the injured party excludes existence of criminal deed only in a situation when an injury occurred within the rules of a particular sport. If the injury occurred by breaking the rules of the sport, it would be considered as a criminal act. In conclusion, the stand is taken that it is necessary to fight against all harmful occurrences in sports, including the injuries which occurred due to severe violation of rules which should be applied in a particular sport. It is concluded that consent of the injured party must not be an excuse for not applying criminal justice, if the injury occurred by violation of the rules of a particular sport.
Full Text Available All post-conflict societies switching to constitutional liberal democracies have to deal with their past through transitional justice mechanisms that offer to hear the victims, try the perpetrators of all types of abuses, introduce peace and reconciliation schemes. It is time for state and non-state organs to account for past crimes. Several countries have successfully tested such mechanisms. Northern Ireland is the ideal ground for transitional justice to operate but it dispels foreign tailor-made models. However, a number of major reforms and projects have addressed sensitive issues in the wake of the Good Friday Agreement. Two key institutions, the police and the criminal justice system, whose responsibility in the conflict was undeniable, have been reformed. Law and lawyers are concerned with these changes and the introduction of a Human Rights culture in Northern Ireland. A clear break with the past must be achieved for transitional justice mechanisms to work successfully.
Full Text Available This article describes (1 the relationship between the demands made by feminist movements of the 1970s in cases of sexual violence and criticism of the criminal justice system by these movements and other groups, including the prisoners’ movement; and (2 the relationship between this debate and the legal process of reforming the definition and punishment of rape. Two periods are analyzed. In the early 1970s, the common cause of very different movements targeting the law was the priority given to the defense against forms of repression and disciplinary institutions. After 1975, the demands of feminist and prisoner movements diverged and even conflicted. One camp called for an offensive approach to changing the legal punishment of rape whereas the other camp fought against penal reforms imposed by the government and, more specifically, against long sentences.
The interpreter in criminal cases generally has had a purely linguistic training with no difference from the education received by his colleague interpreters. The position of interpreters in criminal cases is vague and their role depends to a large extent on individual interpretation of officials involved in the criminal procedure. Improvements on…
Luiz Fábio Silva Paiva
Full Text Available Este artigo aborda as percepções de cidadãos a respeito da apuração e punição de crimes pela Justiça Criminal. A pesquisa foi realizada no períodode 2005 a 2007 em um bairro de Fortaleza, Ceará, em matérias de jornais, entrevistas com moradores e observação direta, e analisou homicídios: a que permaneceram sem solução; b com indiciamento de morador que permaneceu livre por período além das expectativas dos vizinhos; c devidamente apurados, com punição dos criminosos, mas com detenções por período inferior aos anseios dos moradores. This article addresses people’s perceptions of the judgment and punishment of crimes by the Criminal Justice System. The research was conducted from 2005 to 2007 in a neighborhood in Fortaleza, Ceará, and was based on newspaper articles, interviews with residents and direct observation, focusing on homicide crimes which: a remained unresolved; b involved the indictment of a resident who remained free for longer than the neighbors expected; c were duly judged with the criminals being sentenced, but for shorter periods than the residents would have liked.
1. To ascertain serious pains and sufferings in the meaning of section 17 no. 2 b law of prevention of cruelty to animals you cannot do without the help of an expert witness for taking possession of evidence--apart from simple cases. Except the clarifying of fundamental questions concerning prevention of cruelty to animals a professional statement of the administrative veterinary surgeon will be as a rule sufficient. 2. For the actual seizure of animals for the purpose of confiscation and compulsory disposal the criminal justice is extremely dependent on the support of the authorities of administration. Therefore a trouble-free cooperation of criminal justice, veterinary authorities, animal homes and--concerning the protection of species--authorities for protection of endangered nature is imperative. 3. The main problems with the application of the regulation concerning the interdiction of keeping animals according to sections 20 and 20 a law of prevention of cruelty to animals are justified in the legal prerequisites. It is unsatisfactory that an interdiction of keeping animals cannot be imposed by summary punishment order and that a confiscation of animals is not possible by criminal proceedings in case of offence against sections 20 subsection 3, 20 a subsection 3 law of prevention of cruelty to animals. Therefore an admission of the sections as mentioned above to section 19 law of prevention of cruelty to animals seems to be convenient.
Sullivan, Tami P; Weiss, Nicole H; Price, Carolina; Pugh, Nicole E
Criminal protection orders (POs), with varying degrees of restrictions, are issued by the criminal justice system to enhance the safety of victims of domestic violence (DV). Limited research exists to elucidate factors associated with their issuance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate how demographic, relationship, parenting, and court-process-related factors are related to the level of restriction the PO places on the offender. Two-hundred ninety-eight women who were victims in a criminal DV case ( M age 36.4, 50.0% African American) participated in a structured interview approximately 12 to 15 months following the offenders' arraignment. Results revealed that psychological DV severity and fear of the offender in the 30 days prior to arraignment significantly predicted PO level of restriction issued. In addition, level of restriction requested by the victim significantly predicted level of restriction issued by the judge (though closer examination of the data revealed that many orders were issued at a different level of restriction than the victim requested). Other demographic, relationship, parenting, and court-process-related factors did not predict PO level of restriction issued. Findings are discussed with respect to practice and policy in the criminal justice system.
The subject matter of this research are the States’ obligations under the European Convention on Human Rights (the ECHR) to protect human rights through criminal law, with a focus on the procedural limb of such protection, namely the States’ duty to carry out effective criminal investigations into the most serious human rights offences. Furthermore, this study adopts also an integrated approach and discusses the interplay between the duty to conduct effective criminal investigations under the...
Clark, Karen L.
This paper aims to provide support for post-secondary institutions' exploring and implementing restorative justice in their judicial practices. Although restorative principles have been employed successfully across the globe in criminal proceedings and K-12 education, most colleges and universities have not yet embraced this practice. By exploring…
The paper provides a classification of criminal groups, structured by the following parameters: a) operation mode (secret/open), b) law-enforcement and administrative support (presence/absence). We describe four types of criminal groups: a) legitimized criminal organization, b) secret criminal organization engaged in illegal business, c) secret general crime group, and d) general crime group operating openly. The four types differ in the content of criminal subculture. Modern criminal subcult...
Caldwell, Dean S.; Dorling, Ernest W.
A survey analyzing networking and contact with colleagues received 159 of 307 responses, 73% from criminal justice practitioners and 27% from criminal justice faculty. Apparent differences in communication practices disappear when educational level and research involvement are considered. (SK)
Beatrice de Graaf
Full Text Available On 24 August 2012, the judges of the Oslo District Court passed their final verdict in the case of Anders Behring Breivik, declaring Breivik criminally sane and legally responsible for the killing of 77 people during the bombing of government buildings in Oslo and the shooting spree on the island of Utøya on 22 July 2011. This Research Paper examines to what extent the Breivik trial attained the goals of criminal justice: retribution, prevention, restoring democratic order and upholding the rule of law. Furthermore, it aims to determine if the trial contributed to the need for closure in society. The Research Paper concludes that the trial did indeed have a positive impact on the coping mechanisms in Norwegian society and that most Norwegians viewed the trial as a positive counter-weight to the brutality of Breivik’s acts. Overall, the trial was viewed as an example of justice and as a trial that upheld the democratic values of Norwegian society – in stark contrast to Breivik’s values.
Overkill or not enough: Two decades ago, Congress realized that a system of civil remedies alone, devoid of any lasting punitive consequences, was inadequate to insure compliance with environmental protection statutes. Other than the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899, which was designed to protect navigation, Federal criminal sanctions were not applicable to water pollution offenses. The Federal Water Pollution Control Act, more commonly known as the Clean Water Act (CWA), was twenty-four years old before Federal criminal enforcement of its provisions was allowed. But since the early 1970's, the criminal provisions of the CWA have been strengthened, the United States Department of Justice has beefed up its environmental enforcement efforts, and environmental polluters have been prosecuted. This Federal effort is now approaching overkill.
Manson, Donald A.; Sedgwick, Jeffrey L., Ed.
This research focused on the criminal justice system's handling of offenders against children, comparing it with the processing of offenders against all victims. Data were obtained from California, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Utah, and Virginia for offenses against children and against all victims in the areas of kidnapping, sexual assault,…
Rogers, Margaret R.; O'Bryon, Elisabeth C.
Inequalities and disparities abound in U.S. society. Research studies reveal that across the contexts of people's lives--in the workplace, the home, churches, banking and lending, health care, criminal justice system, and schools--unevenness and disparities exist across racial, gender, sexual orientation, language background, ability, and…
Pamela Ivellize Pamplona Galvao De Medeiros
Full Text Available Two decades ago, the Law 9099/95 consolidated new consensual criminal justice model for the crimes of lesser offensive potential through conciliation and application despenalizadoras measures. The criminal transaction and the conditional suspension of the procedure are the despenalizadoras measures provided for in the Act. They are institutions aimed at preventing other crimes and social reintegration of the offender from the justice of distribution with joint application by the judiciary, prosecution, victim and community , represented by organized civil society. This restorative justice model does not remove the perpetrator from society and provides the serving of sentences in an environment conducive to reflection on their role in society, their rights and duties, your commitment to yourself and the community. This study aims to demonstrate that alternatives to imprisonment under Law 9099/95, and effective criminal act may act in the construction of citizenship, as realization instrument of fundamental rights, based on program experience developed in the Federal District from partnerships between the public prosecutor of the Federal District and Territories and civil society.
Raaijmakers, E.; de Keijser, J. W.; Nieuwbeerta, P.; Dirkzwager, A. J E
At present, procedural justice theory has predominantly been used to explain defendants' satisfaction with the police, courts and prisons. It is unclear to what extent this theory is also applicable to lawyers. This study investigates to what extent (1) criminal defendants are satisfied with their
Ibañez, Gladys E; Agudo, Michelle; Martin, Steve S; O'Connell, Daniel J; Auf, Rehab; Sheehan, Diana M
Little is known about the offending behavior and recidivism factors of Latinos by nativity (U.S. born, foreign-born). The present study focused on Latinos in community corrections (n = 201) in Miami, Florida, and examined differences in criminal activity, drug use, and mental health by nativity. Data were collected utilizing convenience sampling between June 2014 and December 2015. The research question was: what are the offending, drug use, and mental health histories of Latinos involved in community corrections? Participants were mostly male (n = 120; 59.7%), White (n = 105; 52.2%), and Cuban (n = 97; 48.3%). U.S. born community corrections clients (n = 141) were more likely to report more lifetime and recent criminal activity; and more likely to report lifetime and recent drug use behavior than foreign-born Latinos (n = 60). No differences were found in recent mental health. Correctional healthcare should tailor services such as substance abuse treatment differently toward U.S. born and foreign-born Latinos.
Jansson, Irene; Hesse, Morten; Fridell, Mats
status over the years, and linked with hospital and criminal justice registers. Results The impact of PD on functioning varied substantially between disorders and outcome domains. Conduct disorder alone was associated with criminal justice involvement, and conduct disorder and avoidant PD features were...
... handling of domestic violence cases, in criminal, tribal, and other courts about domestic violence and... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN Arrest Policies in Domestic Violence... police departments and other criminal justice agencies to improve tracking of cases involving domestic...
... felony domestic violence offense, that the abused bear the costs associated with filing criminal charges... involve a coordinated effort by criminal justice personnel and non-profit, private, domestic violence or... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN Arrest Policies in Domestic Violence...
Loyens, Kim; Maesschalck, Jeroen; Bouckaert, Geert
This article provides an in-depth case study analysis of a pilot project organized by the section "Strategic Analysis" of the Belgian Federal Police. Using the Delphi method, which is a judgmental forecasting technique, a panel of experts was questioned about future developments of crime, based on their expertise in criminal or social…
that only criminal tribunals deriving their authority from international law should be labelled ‘international’, while the term ‘national criminal court’ should apply to tribunals set up under national law. This terminology would underline that issues concerning jurisdiction and applicable law must......Since the post-World War II tribunals, only few scholars have attempted to draw a definitional distinction between international and national criminal courts. Remarkable exceptions include Robert Woetzel, who in 1962 categorized criminal courts according to ‘the involvement of the international...... that ‘the involvement of the international community’ is at best an unhelpful criterion when it comes to resolving questions, e.g. regarding the immunity of state officials and the relevance of domestic law, that require a determination of the legal system in which the court operates. Instead, it is argued...
Diehl, Alessandra; Pillon, Sandra Cristina; Dos Santos, Manoel Antônio; Rassool, G Hussein; Laranjeira, Ronaldo
The aim of this study was to investigate the link between violence, crime, and sexual behavior among patients with substance-related disorder admitted to a specialized inpatient care unit. This was a cross-sectional study using a questionnaire on socio-demographic characteristics, drug of choice (DOC), questions about sexual behavior, and instruments to evaluate the severity of dependence (SADD, DAST, FTND), level of impulsivity (BIS-11), and a screening sex addiction scale. The sample consisted of 587 adult subjects, of which 82.3% were men, 66.4% had used cocaine (sniffed and smoked) as their DOC, 24.4% had a history with the criminal justice system, 26.8% had committed crimes, 19.3% had engaged in violent behavior, and 12.2% had been involved in drug trafficking. In this sample, crime was strongly associated with various sexual behaviors and the severity of substance dependence.
van Prooijen, J.W.; Kerpershoek, E.F.P.
The present research examined the psychological origins of retributive reactions, which are defined as independent observers' anger-based emotions, demonized perceptions, and punishment intentions in response to criminal offenders. Based on the idea that society's justice system has an
Kuat Puji Prayitno
Full Text Available Restorative justice is a philosophy, a process, an idea, a theory and an intervention, that emphasizes repairing the harm caused or revealed by criminal behaviour. This process is in stark contrast to the established way of addressing crime which are seen as offences committed against the State. Restorative justice finds its footing in the basic philosophy of the four precepts of Pancasila, namely prioritizing deliberation in decision making. Purpose of the settlement with the Victim Offender Mediation is to "humanize" the justice system, that fairness is able to answer what the actual needs of victims, offenders and communities.
Full Text Available This paper is a study about the efficiency of the criminal system designed in the new Criminal Procedure Code of Iran, that came into effect on June 22, 2015. Notwithstanding the notable legislator’s efforts, infrastructural and structural reforms have not been carried out. Accordingly, it is not expected to be as efficient as the previous laws due to the lack of fundamental reforms; reforms caused the improvement in “low-level efficiency” (saving resources in the economic sense rather than in the “high-level” one (saving resources plus developing more justice. The analysis of the efficiency of the Code and proposal of fundamental reforms for having a high-level efficient Criminal Law in Iran are the main objectives of this paper. After an introduction (Chapters I and II, we made a historical approach of the Iranian system in this matter (Chapter III. Then, we analyze three types of efficiency (Chapter IV, attending to some infrastructural elements, some structural factors and other procedural aspects. At last, we synthetize four conclusions (Chapter V. Main conclusion is that efficiency in the system of criminal procedure would be only on low-level.
Beaver, Kevin M.; Schwartz, Joseph A.; Connolly, Eric J.; Al-Ghamdi, Mohammed Said; Kobeisy, Ahmed Nezar
The role of parenting in the development of criminal behavior has been the source of a vast amount of research, with the majority of studies detecting statistically significant associations between dimensions of parenting and measures of criminal involvement. An emerging group of scholars, however, has drawn attention to the methodological…
Shade, Kate; Kools, Susan; Pinderhughes, Howard; Weiss, Sandra J
The purpose of this qualitative study was to further the understanding of father identity and role development among adolescents involved in the justice system. Youth who were expecting a child or parenting an infant and who were incarcerated, arrested, or had admitted to criminal behavior participated in interviews and observations in a juvenile detention center and in the community. Data analysis revealed 4 patterns of fathering intentions: (a) embracing fatherhood, (b) being barred from fatherhood, (c) being ambivalent about fatherhood, or (d) rejecting fatherhood. Community health nurses can use this information to assess father identity status and address factors that interfere with father engagement. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
As the twenty-first century starts, the focus of interest is the subject of safety. Crime has increased and become more serious in the past quarter of a century; we have also started to look more closely at the needs of victims. People everywhere seem to call for more criminal justice and for
Ragusa, Angela T
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a widespread, ongoing, and complex global social problem, whose victims continue to be largely women. Women often prefer to rely on friends and family for IPV help, yet when informal support is unavailable they remain hesitant to contact formal services, particularly legal support for many reasons. This study applies a sociological lens by framing the IPV and legal help-seeking experiences of rural Australian women gained from 36 in-depth face-to-face interviews as socially contextualized interactions. Findings reveal police and court responses reflect broader social inequalities and rurality exacerbates concerns such as anonymity and lack of service. Cultural differences and power imbalances between survivors and formal support providers are manifested to inform future research seeking to improve survivors' willingness to engage and satisfaction with formal services. Finally, the important role police and the criminal justice system play in de-stigmatizing IPV and legitimating its unacceptability is argued a crucial, yet unrecognized, key to social change.
Full Text Available In addition to confiscation of proceeds of crime in the criminal or its associate procedure, as exists in national law, the author suggests the existence of other models in the seizure of property whose legal origin is suspected, represented in foreign legal systems. Recognizing this fact, the central part of his work is about the civil law confiscation or seizure of proceeds of crime in the administrative proceedings and taxing criminal profit, as alternative or corrective forms of action present in comparative legal systems. Briefly has been given an overview of basic principles on which they are based, and pointed out the problems faced by entities engaged in the field of their practical application. After a brief presentation and analysis of these systems the author raises a rhetorical question: whether the use of civil law or administrative proceedings legitimate tool in the fight against crime or a shortcut that states use to mitigate the lack of efficiency of the instruments used in crime fighting? In doing so, he reminds that confiscation and forfeiture and the criminal or its associated procedure is exactly the kind of civil law Institute (prohibiting unjust used in the realization of the goals of the criminal law. Essentially, it is a desirable tool, which can help to achieve (partial restorative justice. However, putting discussed aspects of confiscation in the view of the domestic law, the author concludes that the decision which has been opted by domestic legislator is currently the best way for the practical implementation of the principle of prohibition of unlawful enrichment.
US Consumer Product Safety Commission — When CPSC is involved in a civil or criminal investigations into violations of the Consumer Products Safety Act the Commission publishes final determinations and...
Ferrazzi, Priscilla; Krupa, Terry
Studies that seek to understand and improve health care systems benefit from qualitative methods that employ theory to add depth, complexity, and context to analysis. Theories used in health research typically emerge from social science, but these can be inadequate for studying complex health systems. Mental health rehabilitation programs for criminal courts are complicated by their integration within the criminal justice system and by their dual health-and-justice objectives. In a qualitative multiple case study exploring the potential for these mental health court programs in Arctic communities, we assess whether a legal theory, known as therapeutic jurisprudence, functions as a useful methodological theory. Therapeutic jurisprudence, recruited across discipline boundaries, succeeds in guiding our qualitative inquiry at the complex intersection of mental health care and criminal law by providing a framework foundation for directing the study's research questions and the related propositions that focus our analysis. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available The last twenty years, since the fall of the Berlin wall in 1989, more than 120 violent conflicts waged across the globe and hundreds of thousands of people killed, disappeared, handicapped or left in distress.Violent conflicts involve frequent human rights violations as well as many crimes. These kinds of crimes are usually very serious and tend to involve many victims, and have attracted attention from a variety of disciplines, including social and political scientists and (criminal lawyers. Therefore, the author argues that criminology as an academic discipline has until recently hardly been interested in studying international crimes.In order to understand this, the author is firstly interested in sketching the background of the concept of international crimes and comparing it with the notion of political crimes and also with that of serious human rights violations. Secondly, international crimes will be situated in their political context of transitional justice and its links with organized crime will be explored.
Perceptions of Recidivism Among Incarcerated Youth: The Relationship Between Exposure to Childhood Trauma, Mental Health Status, and the Protective Effect of Mental Health Services in Juvenile Justice Settings
Jamie R. Yoder
Full Text Available Research suggests that youth involved the juvenile justice system have trauma histories that are two times higher than the general youth population. Juvenile justice-involved youth also have high rates of mental health symptoms. Fewer studies have examined how trauma links to mental health symptoms among youth offenders, and even less research focuses on how mental health status and service delivery can impact their perceived likelihood for success. This study examines the effects of mental health screening and service delivery on perceived future criminal justice interactions— arrest and incarceration—among adjudicated youth (n=7,073 housed in correctional facilities. Secondary data were used to examine trauma histories, mental health needs, and mental health screening and service delivery. Significant relationships between traumatic events and mental health problems were found, along with relationships between mental health problems and mental health screening and service delivery. Most interestingly, results pointed to the strong inverse relationship between mental health service delivery and youth’s perceived likelihood for recidivism. These findings show the promise of juvenile justice systems appropriately responding to the mental health concerns of youth.
Hean, Sarah; Heaslip, Vanessa; Warr, Jerry; Staddon, Sue
Effective screening of mentally-ill defendants in the criminal court system requires cooperation between legal professionals in the criminal justice system (CJS), and health and social care workers in the mental-health service (MHS). This interagency working, though, can be problematic, as recognized in the Bradley inquiry that recommended joint training for MHS and CJS professionals. The aim of this study was to examine the experiences and attitudes of workers in the CJS and MHS to inform the development of relevant training. The method was a survey of mental-health workers and legal professionals in the court. The results showed that both agencies were uncertain of their ability to work with the other and there is little training that supports them in this. Both recognized the importance of mentally-ill defendants being dealt with appropriately in court proceedings but acknowledged this is not achieved. There is a shared willingness to sympathize with defendants and a common lack of willingness to give a definite, unqualified response on the relationship between culpability, mental-illness and punishment. Views differ around defendants' threat to security.Findings suggest there is scope to develop interprofessional training programs between the CJS and MHS to improve interagency working and eventually impact on the quality of defendants' lives. Recommendations are made on the type of joint training that could be provided.
Gissel, Line Engbo
This article investigates how involvement by the International Criminal Court (ICC) in situations of ongoing conflict affects peace processes. It argues that the level of ICC involvement is crucial for the Court’s impact on peace settlements and that this impact takes the form of delegating...
Law is a major instrument of maintaining cohesion in any given society. Its formulation, codification or unification as well as interpretation are major factors in determining the credibility of the criminal justice system and the level of legal conformity. The letter and spirit of the law are defeated when its formation, modulations, ...
Full Text Available This study analyzes the effect of income on repeat criminal victimization in Brazil using data from the 2009 National Household Sample Survey and its special supplement on victimization and access to justice. Two count-data models were estimated for four types of crime: theft, robbery, attempted theft/robbery, and physical assault. A positive nonlinear effect of income on repeat victimization for the three types of property crimes and a negative nonlinear effect of income on physical assault were observed.
Laurent, François-Xavier; Vibrac, Geoffrey; Rubio, Aurélien; Thévenot, Marie-Thérèse; Pène, Laurent
In the criminal framework, the analysis of approximately 20 DNA microsatellites enables the establishment of a genetic profile with a high statistical power of discrimination. This technique gives us the possibility to establish or exclude a match between a biological trace detected at a crime scene and a suspect whose DNA was collected via an oral swab. However, conventional techniques do tend to complexify the interpretation of complex DNA samples, such as degraded DNA and mixture DNA. The aim of this review is to highlight the powerness of new forensic DNA methods (including high-throughput sequencing or single-cell sequencing) to facilitate the interpretation of the expert with full compliance with existing french legislation. © 2017 médecine/sciences – Inserm.
Wyse, Jessica J B
As the community corrections system has moved away from a focus on rehabilitation, it has been suggested that criminal offenders are no longer understood psychologically, but rather as rational actors for whom criminality is a choice. Rehabilitative efforts thus aim to guide these choices. Utilizing mixed methodology that draws on observational, interview, and case note data collected within the probation/parole system of a western U.S. state, I suggest that both officers' conceptualizations of the criminal self and the rehabilitative strategies they use are gendered. I find that officers view the male criminal self as flawed or underdeveloped and the female as permeable and amorphous, that is, lacking firm boundaries. In response to these constructions, officers aim to rehabilitate men largely by encouraging economic roles and responsibilities, while for women, rehabilitation aims to solidify boundaries: discouraging relationship formation and containing emotions. The differences identified point to ways in which gendered concepts of the criminal self contribute to gender disparities in contemporary supervision.
Full Text Available By opting for the approach based on the dichotomy of individual criminal responsibility for the act of genocide and the responsibility of the State in both the Bosnian and Croatian Genocide cases, the International Court of Justice enabled the establishment of a jurisprudential connection with the judgments of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia. After outlining the reasons for adopting such an approach, which are classified as both positive and negative, the author offers an extensive analysis of the differences between the ICJ and ICTY, stressing the necessity to take these differences into account when considering the interconnection between the 'World Court' and the ICTY as a specialized tribunal. The paper focuses on the need for a balanced and critical approach to the jurisprudence of the ICTY as regards genocide, by differentiating between the Tribunal s factual and legal findings. The author insists that a substantive criterion, not a formal one, must be applied with a view to the proper assessment of the factual findings of the Tribunal in accordance with the standards of judicial reasoning of the ICJ. As regards the treatment of the ICTY's legal findings which relate to genocide, it is stressed that their uncritical acceptance would compromise the determination of the relevant rules of the Genocide Convention by the Court. Namely, the law applied by the ICTY as regards the crime of genocide is not equivalent to the relevant law established by the Convention and may be understood as its progressive development rather than its application.
Joana Domingues Vargas
Full Text Available This study presents a longitudinal analysis of the records found in the Women’s Defense Division of the Public Ministry and in the Criminal Courts of the municipality of Campinas, São Paulo State. The study identified both the characteristics of rape (the accused, victims and relations between them, as well as the processes of selection and filtering to which they are submit during their processing. The results found for Campinas reflect rape complaints found in international studies, which indicate that rape is a heterogeneous category, although the aggressors are invariably men and the victims young. On the other hand, when the criminal selection process is analyzed, a filtering of typologies is noticed, found in the complaint phase in three standards for the crime of rape: intrafamiliar, committed by an unknown aggressor and among youth who know each other.
Forensic Science means the application of science to those criminal and civil laws that are enforced by the police agencies in a criminal justice system .Forensic Science plays a vital role in the criminal justice system by providing scientifically based information through the analysis of physical evidence. It involves the use of multiple disciplines such as physics, chemistry, biology, computer science and engineering for evidence analysis. In this paper I would like to analysis how...
Penner, Erika K; Shaffer, Catherine S; Viljoen, Jodi L
Theories of procedural justice suggest that individuals who experience the criminal justice system as fair are more likely to perceive it as legitimate and, in turn, are less likely to reoffend. However, when individuals come into contact with the legal system, they are not blank slates - they have beliefs and personality characteristics that may systematically influence such perceptions. Our aim was to establish the extent to which demographic characteristics, legal history and clinical features, including personality characteristics, systematically influenced the degree to which young people experience the justice system as fair and legitimate. Self-report, file and interview data were collected from ninety-two 12 to 17-year-olds on probation in Western Canada. Substance use and traumatic experiences were inversely correlated with perceptions of procedural justice and legal legitimacy. Young people with higher scores on interpersonal, lifestyle and antisocial facets of the psychopathy checklist: youth version believed less strongly in the legitimacy of the law, but regression analyses confirmed that only history of trauma was independently associated with perceived procedural justice and legitimacy. Those in the youngest age group were more likely to have positive perceptions of justice than older youths, but demographics and legal history otherwise did not relate to outcomes. Our findings suggest that examining the relationship between procedural justice, legitimacy and offending without taking intra-individual variables into account may neglect important influences on those relationships. Other research has begun to show that young people who do not accept the law as legitimate or the criminal justice system as fair are more likely to offend. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Denzel, A.D.; van Esch, A.Y.M.; Harte, J.M.; Scherder, E.J.A.
Objective To explore the relationship between ethnicity, psychotic disorders and criminal behavior by investigating differences in prevalence rates of psychotic disorders between detainees from Black and minority ethnic (BME) groups and non-BME detainees. Method A systematic review of all empirical
Nella Sumika Putri
Full Text Available Penyelesaian tindak pidana kecelakaan lalu lintas di Indonesia dapat diselesaikan melalui sistem peradilan pidana,namun pada umumnya pelaku mengadakan proses perdamaian di luar pengadilan dengan keluarga korban sehingga terjadi kesepakatan perdamaian antara para pihak. Model perdamaian tersebut dikenal dengan model pendekatan restorative justice yang sampai saat ini belum diakomodir dalam peraturan perundang-undangan sehingga aparat penegak hukum menjadi ragu untuk menjadikan kesepakatan perdamaian sebagai pertimbangan untuk menghentikan atau melanjutkan penyidikan. Putusan pengadilan juga belum menempatkan perdamaian antara para pihak sebagai dasar untuk melepaskan pelaku. Mekanisme ini hanya terbatas sebagai pertimbangan untuk meringankan pidana kepada terdakwa. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian, upaya pendekatan restorative justice dalam perkara kecelakaan lalu lintas lebih memberikan rasa keadilan baik bagi pelaku maupun korban. Akan tetapi, pelaksanaan penghentian penyidikan karena telah dilakukan pendekatan restorative justice dalam tindak pidana kecelakaan lalu lintas tidak dapat dilakukan secara absolut karena terdapat beberapa kriteria yang harus dijadikan patokan dalam pengambilan keputusan mengenai penyidikan. Abstract Traffic accident crime is resolved by the criminal court. Mostly, however, the perpetrators hold a peace process outside the court with the victims and their families in the model of an agreement among them. This model is known as the restorative justice model. There is no specific legislation on restorative justice as an alternative approach to adjudicate traffic accident, which makes it difficult for the law enforcer to consider restorative justice as a basis to continue or discontinue an investigation. Furthermore, there is no court regulation justifying the use of restorative justice approach as a groundwork to release the perpetrators. This thesis finds that restorative justice approach is more equitable in solving
El aspecto científico de la trilogía “ministerio público-policía-peritos” en el nuevo proceso penal de corte acusatorio, adversarial y oral en México/The scientific aspect of the trilogy "public-police-expert ministry" in the new adversarial criminal process, and oral adversarial court in Mexico
Juan Antonio Maruri Jiménez
Full Text Available The last June 18, 2008 the Decree amending Articles 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22 are amended was published; (the fractions XXI and XXIII of Article 73, Section VII of Article 115 and section XIII paragraph B of Article 123 of the Constitution of the United Mexican States, giving rise to the Constitutional reform of criminal justice, emerging as basic expectations: total transformation of the criminal justice system; effectively guarantee the validity of the “due process” in criminal matters restore confidence in the criminal justice system and its institutions doing research and efficient prosecution of crimes, the accused is greater assurances defense thereby ensuring the protection, support and participation of victims and injured, and safeguard the principles governing a Democratic-State Constitutional Law.
Martha Frías Armenta
Full Text Available The first tribunal in Mexico was established in the central state of San Luis Potosi in 1926. The Law Regarding Social Prevention and Juvenile Delinquency for the Federal District and Mexican territories was promulgated in 1928. In 2005, Article 18 of the Mexican Constitution was modified to establish a comprehensive system (“Sistema Integral de justicia” in Spanish of justice for juveniles between 12 and 18 years old who had committed a crime punishable under criminal law. Its objective was to guarantee juveniles all the due process rights established for adults, in addition to the special ones recognized for minors. The constitutional reform also provides a framework that includes special tribunals as well as alternative justice options for juveniles. With these reforms, institutionalization of minors was to be considered an extreme measure applicable only to felonies and to juveniles older than 14. In 2006, all states within the Mexican federation enacted the “Law of justice for adolescents”. This system, at both the federal and state levels, formalizes a new global paradigm with regard to the triangular relationship between children, the State and the Law. It recognizes that children are also bearers of the inherent human rights recognized for all individuals, instead of simply objects in need of protection. However, despite formally aligning Mexican juvenile justice law with the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC, issues of actual substantive rights remained and new ones have appeared. For example, juveniles younger than 14 who have not committed a felony are released from institutions without any rehabilitation or treatment options, and alternative forms of justice were included without evaluating their possibilities of application or their conditions for success. In addition, the economic status of most juvenile detainees continues to be one of the most important determining factors in the administration of justice
Boehnlein, James K; Schaefer, Michele N; Bloom, Joseph D
In forensic psychiatry, there is increasing recognition of the importance of culture and ethnicity in the criminal justice process as the population becomes more culturally diverse. However, there has been little consideration of the role of cultural factors in the trial process for criminal defendants, particularly in the sentencing phase of trial. Using a capital murder case study, this article explores the role of cultural forensic psychiatric consultation, focusing on the sentencing phase of trial as the place where the full scope and power of a cultural evaluation can be brought most effectively to the attention of the court. Cultural psychiatric perspectives can enrich a core forensic evaluation and be maximally helpful to the court, by exploring family dynamics and psychological health influenced by cultural history, immigrant and refugee experiences, and sociocultural environment. Specific recommendations and cautions for effective cultural consultation in forensic psychiatry are discussed.
Full Text Available During their procedural activity, investigative and judicial bodies have the pressing need to make use of special knowledge in different scientific fields of technique and science in order to resolve outstanding issues related to the subject of verification, which the law has defined as subject of expertise in criminal trial. Experts’ opinion is conceived and implemented as a particular means of verification; experts help in discovering the facts that are important to finding out the truth in criminal proceedings. In addition, they ascertain the facts and give an opinion on them, as a result of specific skills they have in the field of technique, science or culture. Experts and the process conducted by them were given importance in the legislation of the Communist era particularly with the drafting of the Code of Criminal Procedure of 1979 which provides in considerable detail both the functions and the importance of expertise to resolve a criminal case. Furthermore, nowadays expertise as evidence in criminal proceedings is becoming increasingly important and is emerging, especially in view of developments in the field of Technique and Science since many criminals are very good at using innovations as a priority means for escaping detection and punishment. But on the other hand, scientific developments are increasingly cooperating with law and justice institutions to resolve the events and to provide assistance for achieving quality results in a shorter time, something that probably was unthinkable before.
Berryessa, Colleen M.
In recent years, there has been increasing scientific research on possible genetic or heritable influences to the etiology of pedophilia, driven by national and public concerns about better understanding the disorder in order to reduce children’s vulnerabilities to pedophilic and child sex offenders. This research has corresponded to growing academic dialogue on how advances in genetic research, especially concerning the causes and development of particular mental disorders or behaviors, may affect traditional practices of criminal law and how the justice system views, manages, and adjudicates different types of criminal behavior and offenders. This paper strives to supplement this dialogue by exploring several of the many possible effects and implications of research surrounding genetic or heritable contributions to pedophilia for the five widely accepted objectives that enforce and regulate the punishment of criminal law. These include retribution, incapacitation, deterrence, rehabilitation, and restoration. Although still currently in early stages, genetic and heritability research on the etiology of pedophilia may have the potential moving forward to influence the current and established punitive methods and strategies of how the justice system perceives, adjudicates, regulates, and punishes pedophilic and sex offenders, as well as how to best prevent sexual offending against children by pedophilic offenders in the future. PMID:25557668
The growing severity of our societal response to environmental misconduct is reflected, in part, by the criminalization of environmental wrongs by both state and Federal governments. Indeed, the recently enacted Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 continue this trend, giving the Environmental Protection Agency, via the Department of Justice, significant new criminal enforcement tools. The importance attached to law enforcement of environmental laws is a relatively recent phenomenon and took a significant upswing in 1982 when the department of Justice created what is today the Environmental Crimes Section in what is now the Environment and Natural Resources Division, which section has grown steadily and now has over 25 attorneys who prosecute or assist in the prosecution of environmental crimes in the U.S.
Full Text Available Envisioning an international public order means envisioning an order sustained by a legal and institutional framework that ensures effective collective action with a view to defending fundamental values of the international community and to solving common global problems, in line with the universalist vision of international law. Envisioning the construction of an international public order means considering that this framework, which embraces and promotes the respect for human rights focused particularly on human dignity, is consolidating and evolving based on the International Criminal Court (ICC. The establishment of the ICC added an international punitive perennial facet to international humanitarian law and international human rights law and linked justice to peace, to security and to the well-being of the world, reaffirming the principles and objectives of the Charter of the United Nations (UN. Nevertheless, the affirmation process of an international criminal justice by punishing those responsible for the most serious crimes of concern to the international community as a whole, faces numerous obstacles of political and normative character. This article identifies the central merits of the Rome Statute and ICC’s practice and indicates its limitations caused by underlying legal-political tensions and interpretive questions relating to the crime of aggression and crimes against humanity. Finally, the article argues for the indispensability of rethinking the jurisdiction of the ICC, defending the categorization of terrorism as an international crime, and of articulating its mission with the "responsibility to protect", which may contribute to the consolidation of the ICC and of international criminal law and reinforce its role in the construction of an effective international public order.
Full Text Available The most dangerous forms and aspects of violent crime are criminal offences against life and bodily integrity of others, which are generally designated as acts of homicide. The most prominent among these criminal offences is the crime of murder. Due to the significance, legal nature, characteristics and consequences of this criminal act, all contemporary legislations prescribe the most severe measures and types of punishment for the commission of this crime. There are three types of murder: 1 ordinary (common murder, 2 murder committed under mitigating circumstances, and 3 murder committed under aggravating circumstances, which is as a rule punishable by the most severe punishment. All contemporary criminal legislations, including French legislation, recognize various types and forms of murder, depending on the classification criteria. The most prominent forms of murder are those involving various motives that induce the perpetrators to cause death to another person. In this paper, the author examines the concept, contents, characteristics, forms and elements of the crime of murder in French criminal law, discussing the theoretical and practical aspects of this issue.
Wong, Kevin; Christmann, Kris
The idea of '“Justice Reinvestment'” (JR), has been proposed by United Kingdom (UK) policy makers and criminal justice campaigners as a way of responding to the problems arising from the economic crisis in 2007 and 2008. Despite the interest in JR from policy makers, a systematic approach to JR in the UK has yet to be adopted. Instead, the implementation of JR in the UK has been limited to a somewhat piecemeal approach with an uncoordinated set of initiatives, including Payment by Results (Pb...
...) Subsection (d)(2). Amendment of the records would interfere with ongoing criminal or civil law enforcement... Act, Privacy Act and Mandatory Declassification Review Requests and Administrative Appeals for the... of Justice (DOJ-003); Freedom of Information Act, Privacy Act and Mandatory Declassification Review...
The author of this article explores the motivation factors that lead privileged college students to be involved in social justice efforts. The students participating in this study identified multiple reasons for their initial and continued involvement in social justice work, but all students identified three main sources of motivation: responding…
Full Text Available Abstract Drug abuse has grown over the days with significant development. Narcotics crime actually not only brings individual actors but tends to be a criminal offense syndicate or covert organization over the worlds. In this case the syndicate allegedly not only brings perpetrators of adults but feared the actors who are categorized as a child in accordance with the applicable laws. On the other side children occupy a special place in the law. Basic philosophy of the treatment of juvenile delinquents is for the best interests of the child but the fact that peoples behavior lately is very alarming how society is so easy to judge people suspected as perpetrators of criminal acts. The objective of this research is to understand the essence of the ultimum remedium principle as the basis for criminal punishment in the Indonesian criminal system in order to understand how the crisis is influencing drug phenomenon and drugs users lives and the extent of their impact on the settlement of narcotics crime against children as an offender. The outcomes of the research indicate that the Law No. 11 of 2012 regarding the Criminal Justice System for Juvenile Delinquency Rules of the Supreme Court of the Republic of Indonesia No. 4 of 2014 on Guidelines for Diversion and Law No. 35 of 2009 regarding Narcotics Crime have been given the freedom and legitimacy to the judge to apply the principle of ultimum remedium in handling cases of children in conflict with the law. As it turns out in practice however the ultimum remedium principle is rarely applied and tends to be overlooked in the process of juvenile justice.
Full Text Available The combination of information security and criminal law in the case of usage of smart mobile phones among the students is a very relevant and current topic. Namely, the number of smart mobile phones’ users is rising daily, including among the student population, due to the need for perpetual communication and constant access to information. However, the lack of knowledge about recommendations on information security and safe use of smart mobile phone together with their disregard could lead to criminal responsibility of the users of smart mobile phones, including students. The purpose of this paper is therefore to represent the potential consequences of criminal responsibility and how to avoid it. The knowledge on safe use of smart mobile phones, their software, but also threats and safety solutions is very low among students, as the survey shows. Due to the loss, conveyance or disclosure of protected data, criminal responsibility of a user could therefore be relevant. In certain cases the juvenile criminal justice system is partly still relevant due to the students’ age, whereas in every case the students' culpability should be assessed precisely. This assessment namely distinguishes the cases, when the student is a perpetrator of a criminal act from the cases, when the student is only a victim of a criminal act due to his improper use of smart mobile phones.
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exclusion of employees in the Criminal... OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) POLITICAL ACTIVITY-FEDERAL EMPLOYEES RESIDING IN DESIGNATED LOCALITIES § 733.102 Exclusion of employees in the Criminal...
Langsted, Lars Bo; Garde, Peter; Greve, Vagn
<> book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....... book contains a thorough description of Danish substantive criminal law, criminal procedure and execution of sanctions. The book was originally published as a monograph in the International Encyclopaedia of Laws/Criminal Law....
S Barnert, Elizabeth; S Abrams, Laura; Maxson, Cheryl; Gase, Lauren; Soung, Patricia; Carroll, Paul; Bath, Eraka
Purpose Despite the existence of minimum age laws for juvenile justice jurisdiction in 18 US states, California has no explicit law that protects children (i.e. youth less than 12 years old) from being processed in the juvenile justice system. In the absence of a minimum age law, California lags behind other states and international practice and standards. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach In this policy brief, academics across the University of California campuses examine current evidence, theory, and policy related to the minimum age of juvenile justice jurisdiction. Findings Existing evidence suggests that children lack the cognitive maturity to comprehend or benefit from formal juvenile justice processing, and diverting children from the system altogether is likely to be more beneficial for the child and for public safety. Research limitations/implications Based on current evidence and theory, the authors argue that minimum age legislation that protects children from contact with the juvenile justice system and treats them as children in need of services and support, rather than as delinquents or criminals, is an important policy goal for California and for other national and international jurisdictions lacking a minimum age law. Originality/value California has no law specifying a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction, meaning that young children of any age can be processed in the juvenile justice system. This policy brief provides a rationale for a minimum age law in California and other states and jurisdictions without one.
Helverschou, Sissel Berge; Steindal, Kari; Nøttestad, Jim Aage; Howlin, Patricia
The processes of arrest, investigation, trial and imprisonment are often extremely difficult for individuals with autism spectrum disorders. In this study, nine offenders with autism spectrum disorders were interviewed about the circumstance surrounding the criminal acts, their views of the arrest, the police interrogation, the trial and the…
El aspecto científico de la trilogía “ministerio público-policía-peritos” en el nuevo proceso penal de corte acusatorio, adversarial y oral en México/The scientific aspect of the trilogy "public-police-expert ministry" in the new adversarial criminal process, and oral adversarial court in Mexico
Juan Antonio Maruri Jiménez
The last June 18, 2008 the Decree amending Articles 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22 are amended was published; (the fractions) XXI and XXIII of Article 73, Section VII of Article 115 and section XIII paragraph B of Article 123 of the Constitution of the United Mexican States, giving rise to the Constitutional reform of criminal justice, emerging as basic expectations: total transformation of the criminal justice system; effectively guarantee the validity of the “due process” in criminal matters re...
处在发展与转型期的中国存在金融抑制，具体表现为对利率、银行、证券、资本账户的管制。互联网金融创新是传统金融经营模式的嬗变，在刑法规范语境下，反抗抑制的结果使其触及刑事法网。在金融市场体制性与功能性缺陷的现实背景下，刑法介入互联网金融必须遵从经济发展规律，秉持“宽和”的刑事政策，把正当经营互联网金融业务的风险行为“出罪化”；坚持立法“立罪至后”原则，收紧当前利用互联网平台实施的非法集资行为犯罪圈；坚持司法“二次违法性”原则，刑事责任的追究以行政、经济、民事等法律做出违法性认定为前提。%In China ,there exists financial repression in the development and transition period ,which is per‐formance in the control of interest rates ,banks ,securities and capital account .Internet financial innovation is the change of the traditional financial management mode .Financial innovation behaviors reach the criminal law in the context of criminal law norms .Facing financial institutional and functional weakness ,the intervention path to the Internet banking by the criminal law should be in accordance with the following :Adhere to the“wide” criminal principle and put the legitimate business of internet banking out of crime risk ;adhere to the principle of crime in the back and tighten the current use of the internet platform to implement the behavior ille‐gal financing ;adhere to the“second law” principle of justice ,and the criminal responsibility determination is based on administrative economic and civil legal responsibility determination .
Tracy, Robert G.; And Others
To determine the effects of military service on subsequent criminal behavior, especially violent crimes, this study compared veteran and non-veteran felons incarcerated at the Texas Department of Corrections. Available programed data on inmates born since 1930 were supplemented by interview and questionnaire data on 200 veterans concerning…
Pillay, Anthony L; Willows, Clive
With increasing numbers of juveniles accused of serious crimes international concern is growing around the procedural consequences for affected individuals within the context of the law and criminal justice. Issues of culpability in children and adolescents are often raised, with much deliberation and insufficient agreement among legal and child development experts. Exactly when and to what extent juveniles can be held responsible for their action is a matter requiring careful consideration to avoid substantial erring in either direction. Although some international guiding standards and principles have been established, these are rather broad and unable to provide specific prescriptions. In addition, the assessment of criminal capacity in juveniles is a complex task, and one that is not wholly without reliability and validity problems. As in the case of South Africa and a few other countries, mental health specialists are often tasked with conducting developmental assessments to provide courts with expert evidence regarding criminal capacity. This paper examines the concept of criminal capacity in the context of the theory, controversies and challenges that affect this area of psychological focus.
Nicholls, Tonia L; Crocker, Anne G; Seto, Michael C; Wilson, Catherine M; Charette, Yanick; Côté, Gilles
To state the sociodemographic characteristics, mental health histories, index offence characteristics, and criminal histories of male and female forensic psychiatric patients. Clinicians and researchers advocate that mental health and criminal justice organizations implement gender-specific services; however, few studies have sampled forensic patients to evaluate the extent to which men's and women's treatment and management needs are different. Data were collected from Review Board files from May 2000 to April 2005 in the 3 largest Canadian provinces. Using official criminal records, participants were followed for 3 to 8 years, until December 2008. The final sample comprised 1800 individuals: 15.6% were women and 84.4% were men. There were few demographic differences, but women had higher psychosocial functioning than men. Both men and women had extensive mental health histories; women were more likely diagnosed with mood disorders and PDs and men were more likely diagnosed with schizophrenia spectrum disorders and SUDs. The nature of the index offence did not differ by gender, except women were more likely to have perpetrated murders and attempted murders. For offences against a person, women were more likely to offend against offspring and partners and less likely to offend against strangers, compared with men. Women had significantly less extensive criminal histories than men. Not criminally responsible on account of mental disorder-accused women have a distinct psychosocial, clinical, and criminological profile from their male counterparts, which may suggest gender-specific assessment, risk management, and treatment in forensic services could benefit patients. The findings are also consistent with traditional models (Risk-Need-Responsivity) and ultimately demonstrate the importance of individual assessment and client-centred services.
DePrince, Anne P; Dmitrieva, Julia; Gagnon, Kerry L; Srinivas, Tejaswinhi
A growing literature links social reactions to disclosures of intimate violence to posttraumatic outcomes. The Social Reactions Questionnaire (SRQ), a widely used measure developed to assess social reactions, asks about reactions received from people generally. The ability to examine the impact of social reactions from specific groups of people-such as criminal justice personnel versus community-based providers-has become increasingly more important from both research and practice perspectives. For example, as sexual assault responses nationally have relied on community-coordinated models that involve both criminal justice and community-based systems, tools are lacking to systematically assess the impact of social reactions from criminal justice personnel and community-based providers on survivors. Using the SRQ, the current study asked women to report separately on reactions received from criminal justice personnel, community-based providers, and informal supports. We recruited a diverse community sample of women ( N = 228, ages 18-63, 19% lesbian/bisexual, 44% ethnic minority) who experienced a sexual assault in the previous year and disclosed to the criminal justice system and/or a community-based provider. Multilevel analyses revealed considerable variability in the social reactions reported by women across criminal justice personnel, community-based providers, and informal supports. Analyses supported a seven-factor structure for the SRQ when the measure is yoked to particular experiences of disclosure, in this case to criminal justice personnel, community-based providers, or informal supports. The utility of this modified administration and scoring of the SRQ and the importance of considering reactions across different groups are described.
Kim, Eun Young; Park, Jiung; Kim, Bongseog
rates of psychiatric morbidity and recidivism. In particular, physical neglect during childhood plays a critical role in repeated crime, independent of mental-health problems for high-risk adults involved with the criminal justice system. Rigorous evaluations of the relevance of childhood maltreatment in the assessment and treatment of criminal offenders are needed.
van Prooijen, Jan-Willem; Kerpershoek, Emiel F P
The present research examined the psychological origins of retributive reactions, which are defined as independent observers' anger-based emotions, demonized perceptions, and punishment intentions in response to criminal offenders. Based on the idea that society's justice system has an autonomy-protective function, we reason that chronic autonomy interacts with situational autonomy cues (i.e., opportunities to make choices) to predict retributive reactions to criminal offenders. More specifically, we hypothesized that choice opportunities in an unrelated decision-making context would prompt people to display stronger retributive reactions to offenders than no-choice opportunities, and that these effects of choice would be particularly pronounced among people who chronically experience deprivation of autonomy needs. Results from two experiments supported this hypothesis. It is concluded that retributive reactions to criminal offenders originate from a desire to regulate basic autonomy needs. © 2011 The British Psychological Society.
Sabatello, Maya; Appelbaum, Paul S
Although emerging findings in psychiatric and behavioral genetics create hope for improved prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disorders, the introduction of such data as evidence in criminal and civil proceedings raises a host of ethical, legal, and social issues. Should behavioral and psychiatric genetic data be admissible in judicial proceedings? If so, what are the various means for obtaining such evidence, and for what purposes should its admission be sought and permitted? How could-and should-such evidence affect judicial outcomes in criminal and civil proceedings? And what are the potential implications of using behavioral and psychiatric genetic evidence for individuals and communities, and for societal values of equality and justice? This article provides an overview of the historical and current developments in behavioral genetics. We then explore the extent to which behavioral genetic evidence has-and should-affect determinations of criminal responsibility and sentencing, as well as the possible ramifications of introducing such evidence in civil courts, with a focus on tort litigation and child custody disputes. We also consider two ways in which behavioral genetic evidence may come to court in the future-through genetic theft or the subpoena of a litigant's biospecimen data that was previously obtained for clinical or research purposes-and the concerns that these possibilities raise. Finally, we highlight the need for caution and for approaches to prevent the misuse of behavioral genetic evidence in courts.
International Child Development Centre
The third Innocenti Digest deals with the main issues connected with children and young people coming into conflict with the law and contact with the justice system. It looks at standards and problems from arrest through to the court hearing and sentencing, use of custodial measures and ways of avoiding the child’s unnecessary and counter-productive involvement with the formal justice system. It also covers prevention questions. Like previous publications in the series, it contains practical ...
McDavid, H A; Cowell, N; McDonald, A
There is a high level of criminal violence that afflicts the Jamaican society. While it is certainly noncommunicable in the context of medicine and public health, the concepts of social contagion and the well-established fact of the intergenerational transfer of effects of trauma raise questions as to whether or not it is non-communicable in a social sense. Historically, scholars have linked Jamaican criminal violence to three main roots: poverty and urban decay, political patronage, garrisonisation and more recently to a fourth, the growth in transnational organized crime (TOC). Traditionally as well, policymakers have brought the three discrete perspectives of criminology, criminal justice and public health to bear on the problem. This paper applies a conceptual framework derived from a combination of epidemiology and the behavioural sciences to argue that a sustainable resolution to this looming and intractable social problem must take the form of a cocktail of policies that encompasses all three approaches at levels ranging from the community to the international.
Flowe, Heather D.
Background This study tested whether the 2D face evaluation model proposed by Oosterhof and Todorov can parsimoniously account for why some faces are perceived as more criminal-looking than others. The 2D model proposes that trust and dominance are spontaneously evaluated from features of faces. These evaluations have adaptive significance from an evolutionary standpoint because they indicate whether someone should be approached or avoided. Method Participants rated the emotional state, personality traits, and criminal appearance of faces shown in photographs. The photographs were of males and females taken under naturalistic conditions (i.e., police mugshots) and highly controlled conditions. In the controlled photographs, the emotion display of the actor was systematically varied (happy expression, emotionally neutral expression, or angry expression). Results Both male and female faces rated high in criminal appearance were perceived as less trustworthy and more dominant in police mugshots as well as in photographs taken under highly controlled conditions. Additionally, emotionally neutral faces were deemed as less trustworthy if they were perceived as angry, and more dominant if they were morphologically mature. Systematically varying emotion displays also affected criminality ratings, with angry faces perceived as the most criminal, followed by neutral faces and then happy faces. Conclusion The 2D model parsimoniously accounts for criminality perceptions. This study extends past research by demonstrating that morphological features that signal high dominance and low trustworthiness can also signal high criminality. Spontaneous evaluations regarding criminal propensity may have adaptive value in that they may help us to avoid someone who is physically threatening. On the other hand, such evaluations could inappropriately influence decision making in criminal identification lineups. Hence, additional research is needed to discover whether and how people can avoid
Flowe, Heather D
This study tested whether the 2D face evaluation model proposed by Oosterhof and Todorov can parsimoniously account for why some faces are perceived as more criminal-looking than others. The 2D model proposes that trust and dominance are spontaneously evaluated from features of faces. These evaluations have adaptive significance from an evolutionary standpoint because they indicate whether someone should be approached or avoided. Participants rated the emotional state, personality traits, and criminal appearance of faces shown in photographs. The photographs were of males and females taken under naturalistic conditions (i.e., police mugshots) and highly controlled conditions. In the controlled photographs, the emotion display of the actor was systematically varied (happy expression, emotionally neutral expression, or angry expression). Both male and female faces rated high in criminal appearance were perceived as less trustworthy and more dominant in police mugshots as well as in photographs taken under highly controlled conditions. Additionally, emotionally neutral faces were deemed as less trustworthy if they were perceived as angry, and more dominant if they were morphologically mature. Systematically varying emotion displays also affected criminality ratings, with angry faces perceived as the most criminal, followed by neutral faces and then happy faces. The 2D model parsimoniously accounts for criminality perceptions. This study extends past research by demonstrating that morphological features that signal high dominance and low trustworthiness can also signal high criminality. Spontaneous evaluations regarding criminal propensity may have adaptive value in that they may help us to avoid someone who is physically threatening. On the other hand, such evaluations could inappropriately influence decision making in criminal identification lineups. Hence, additional research is needed to discover whether and how people can avoid making evaluations regarding
Heather D Flowe
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: This study tested whether the 2D face evaluation model proposed by Oosterhof and Todorov can parsimoniously account for why some faces are perceived as more criminal-looking than others. The 2D model proposes that trust and dominance are spontaneously evaluated from features of faces. These evaluations have adaptive significance from an evolutionary standpoint because they indicate whether someone should be approached or avoided. METHOD: Participants rated the emotional state, personality traits, and criminal appearance of faces shown in photographs. The photographs were of males and females taken under naturalistic conditions (i.e., police mugshots and highly controlled conditions. In the controlled photographs, the emotion display of the actor was systematically varied (happy expression, emotionally neutral expression, or angry expression. RESULTS: Both male and female faces rated high in criminal appearance were perceived as less trustworthy and more dominant in police mugshots as well as in photographs taken under highly controlled conditions. Additionally, emotionally neutral faces were deemed as less trustworthy if they were perceived as angry, and more dominant if they were morphologically mature. Systematically varying emotion displays also affected criminality ratings, with angry faces perceived as the most criminal, followed by neutral faces and then happy faces. CONCLUSION: The 2D model parsimoniously accounts for criminality perceptions. This study extends past research by demonstrating that morphological features that signal high dominance and low trustworthiness can also signal high criminality. Spontaneous evaluations regarding criminal propensity may have adaptive value in that they may help us to avoid someone who is physically threatening. On the other hand, such evaluations could inappropriately influence decision making in criminal identification lineups. Hence, additional research is needed to discover whether
Soraia da Rosa Mendes
Full Text Available Tal como poucos o tema da barganha e da justiça criminal negocial tem sido um dos principais pontos de acaloradas discussões dentro da pauta de assuntos do processo penal no mundo e, de algum tempo, também no Brasil. Neste sentido, o dossiê "Colaboração Premiada e Justiça Criminal Negocial" tem como objetivo propiciar um espaço amplo e aberto às analises e estudos daqueles que se debruçam sobre os principais aspectos do instituto da colaboração/delação premiada em suas diversas interfaces, como, por exemplo: ao sistema de justiça criminal negocial no direito comparado; à ação penal pública e oportunidade; à celebração do acordo e a decretação de medidas cautelares; ao controle dos acordos durante a investigação preliminar; aos limites constitucionais de atuação do Ministério Público investigador, acusador e negociador; ao sistema acusatório e o papel do Poder Judiciário nos acordos; e aos direitos do colaborador e a atuação da mídia.
Larke, Patricia J.
Reviews factors considered by courts in judicial decisions concerning teachers involved in criminal offenses relating to alcohol and drug violations, larceny, theft, shoplifting, gambling, and manslaughter. The courts have held that when criminal conduct shows a connection between the offense and the teacher's effectiveness then cause exists for…
Eduardo Gutierrez Cornelius
Full Text Available Review of Chávez-García, Miroslava. States of Delinquency: Race and Science in the Making of California’s Juvenile Justice System. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2012.
Petersen, Rasmus Rosenqvist
important challenge for criminal network investigation, despite the massive attention it receives from research and media. Challenges such as the investigation process, the context of the investigation, human factors such as thinking and creativity, and political decisions and legal laws are all challenges...... that could mean the success or failure of criminal network investigations. % include commission reports as indications of process related problems .. to "play a little politics" !! Information, process, and human factors, are challenges we find to be addressable by software system support. Based on those......Criminal network investigations such as police investigations, intelligence analysis, and investigative journalism involve a range of complex knowledge management processes and tasks. Criminal network investigators collect, process, and analyze information related to a specific target to create...
Barnert, Elizabeth S.; Abrams, Laura S.; Maxson, Cheryl; Gase, Lauren; Soung, Patricia; Carroll, Paul; Bath, Eraka
Purpose Despite the existence of minimum age laws for juvenile justice jurisdiction in 18 US states, California has no explicit law that protects children (i.e. youth less than 12 years old) from being processed in the juvenile justice system. In the absence of a minimum age law, California lags behind other states and international practice and standards. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach In this policy brief, academics across the University of California campuses examine current evidence, theory, and policy related to the minimum age of juvenile justice jurisdiction. Findings Existing evidence suggests that children lack the cognitive maturity to comprehend or benefit from formal juvenile justice processing, and diverting children from the system altogether is likely to be more beneficial for the child and for public safety. Research limitations/implications Based on current evidence and theory, the authors argue that minimum age legislation that protects children from contact with the juvenile justice system and treats them as children in need of services and support, rather than as delinquents or criminals, is an important policy goal for California and for other national and international jurisdictions lacking a minimum age law. Originality/value California has no law specifying a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction, meaning that young children of any age can be processed in the juvenile justice system. This policy brief provides a rationale for a minimum age law in California and other states and jurisdictions without one. Paper type Conceptual paper PMID:28299968
Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of the content of EU Treaty of Lisbon, which deals with ensurance of freedom, security and justice in the joint European space. The Treaty of Lisbon describes the attempts of the European Union to ensure a high security level to prevent and fight crime, rasism and xenophobia, to develop particular measures of coordination and cooperation between police and judicial authorities and other competent authorities for their further development, as well as for the mutual recognition of judgements in criminal matters. Correspondingly, the implementation of the requirements of the Treaty of Lisbon identifies the need to form an adequate national criminal law policy in our country as well.
Full Text Available This article deals with recognition, justice, and the good life separately, then as tied together in a web of interdependence. I begin with the multiple meanings of “recognition” and “to recognize.” I follow the order that Paul Ricoeur has in established in The Course of Recognition. Ricoeur groups these definitions into three kinds: epistemological definitions, recognition of oneself, and recognition of others. Next, I describe two kinds of justice, that of the judiciary and courts, both civil and criminal. Finally, I point out the many systems that must function to have a good life in a modern society. These include systems of transportation, communication, commerce, banking, private property, as well as many others. Their importance is brought home when we look at countries in civil war, such as Syria, or ones that have been mostly destroyed by natural forces such as Haiti after the massive earthquake. My conclusion is that the good life requires recognition of one another and of legitimate governments as well as functioning systems of justice. Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE
Mammarella, Brian T M
Advancements in neuroscience and related fields are beginning to show, with increasing clarity, that certain human behaviors stem from uncontrolled, mechanistic causes. These discoveries beg the question: If a given behavior results from some combination of biological predispositions, neurological circumstances, and environmental influences, is that action unwilled and therefore absolved of all attributions of credit, blame, and responsibility? A number of scholars in law and neuroscience who answer "yes" have considered how the absence of free will should impact criminal law's willingness to justify punishments on the basis of retribution, with some arguing that criminal law ought to dispense with retributive justice because the concept of blameworthiness is out of touch with scientific reality. This Note posits a more practical reason for reform by reviewing available empirics on the way people perceive human agency. The research suggests that as the science of human agency becomes increasingly vivid and reductionistic, laypeople will become proportionally less willing to attribute blame, and these shifting societal intuitions will ultimately diminish criminal law's moral credibility. The practical effects of low moral credibility might include diminished compliance, cooperation, and acquiescence with criminal laws, as well as increased general deviance. Importantly, this Note observes that these effects will likely manifest even if people retain a belief in free will. Further, ontological reality plays no part in this Note's argument; whether we in fact have free will is irrelevant. This Note instead contributes to the discourse by highlighting the implications of oncoming shifts in lay conceptions of both particular behaviors and the natural world writ large.
Loutfy, Mona; Tyndall, Mark; Baril, Jean-Guy; Montaner, Julio Sg; Kaul, Rupert; Hankins, Catherine
A poor appreciation of the science related to HIV contributes to an overly broad use of the criminal law against individuals living with HIV in cases of HIV nondisclosure. To promote an evidence-informed application of the law in Canada, a team of six Canadian medical experts on HIV and transmission led the development of a consensus statement on HIV sexual transmission, HIV transmission associated with biting and spitting, and the natural history of HIV infection. The statement is based on a literature review of the most recent and relevant scientific evidence (current as of December 2013) regarding HIV and its transmission. It has been endorsed by >70 additional Canadian HIV experts and the Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada. Scientific and medical evidence clearly indicate that HIV is difficult to transmit during sex. For the purpose of informing the justice system, the per-act possibility of HIV transmission through sex, biting or spitting is described along a continuum from low possibility, to negligible possibility, to no possibility of transmission. This possibility takes into account the impact of factors such as the type of sexual acts, condom use, antiretroviral therapy and viral load. Dramatic advances in HIV therapy have transformed HIV infection into a chronic manageable condition. HIV physicians and scientists have a professional and ethical responsibility to assist those in the criminal justice system to understand and interpret the science regarding HIV. This is critical to prevent miscarriage of justice and to remove unnecessary barriers to evidence-based HIV prevention strategies.
Criminal career-related factors among female robbers in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, and a presumed 'revolving-door' situation Fatores relacionados à carreira criminal em mulheres condenadas por roubo no estado de São Paulo, Brasil, e uma situação presumível de "porta giratória"
Fernando Henrique Nadalini Mauá
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Risk-taking behaviors, family criminality, poverty, and poor parenting have been frequently associated with an earlier onset of criminal activities and a longer criminal career among male convicts. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to identify factors related to the onset and recurrence of criminal behavior among female robbers in the State of São Paulo - Brazil. METHOD: It was a cross-sectional study carried out inside a feminine penitentiary in São Paulo. From June 2006 to June 2010, 175 inmates convicted only for robbery were recruited to be evaluated about family antecedents of criminal conviction, alcohol and drug misuse, impulsiveness, depressive symptoms, and psychosocial features. RESULTS Having family antecedents of criminal conviction consistently predicted an earlier onset of criminal activities and a longer criminal career among female robbers. Drug use in youth and the severity of drug misuse were significantly related to the initiation and recurrence of criminal behavior, respectively. DISCUSSION: Prisons must systematically screen detainees and provide treatments for those with health problems in general. Children of inmates should obtain help to modify the negative consequences of their parents' incarceration in order to mitigate the negative consequences of pursuing this 'static' factor.INTRODUÇÃO:Comportamentos de correr riscos, criminalidade familiar, pobreza e pais inadequados foram frequentemente associados a um início mais precoce de atividades criminais e a uma carreira criminal mais longa em presos do sexo masculino. OBJETIVO:Esse estudo visa identificar os fatores relacionados ao início e à recorrência do comportamento criminal em mulheres assaltantes no estado de São Paulo, Brasil. MÉTODO: Este foi um estudo em corte transversal realizado dentro de uma penitenciária feminina em São Paulo. De junho de 2006 a junho de 2010, 175 internas condenadas apenas por roubo foram recrutadas para avalia
The Federal Water Pollution Control Act as amended by the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 provides criminal penalties in oil spills that result from criminal activity, gross negligence or wilful misconduct on the part of the spiller. Nevertheless, the Department of Justice has seen fit to reach into unrelated legislation to potentially apply strict criminal liability to any oil spill regardless of intent. Strict criminalization of accidental oil spills is demonstrably counterproductive to effective protection of the environment from the effect of spills since it poses a serious impediment to cooperation and coordination by and between those charged by law to respond to them. This impediment is particularly dangerous since it threatens the proper functioning of the inherently sensitive ''troika'' Unified Command Structure that has evolved in spill response management in response to OPA-90 management requirements. Introduction of strict criminal liability for accidental spills is also particularly troublesome in that it must enlist unrelated law to influence an area that has been addressed specifically by legislation designed for that purpose; legislation that has worked well in the past 30 years to both regulate the target activities while successfully achieving the objective of protecting and improving environment quality. (author)
Malgieri, G.; de Hert, Paul; Gray, David C.; Henderson, Stephen
The two European Courts (the European Court of Human Rights, ECtHR and, to a lesser degree, the European Union Court of Justice, EUCJ) have contributed greatly to the development of a legal framework for surveillance by either law enforcement agencies in the criminal law area or by secret services.
Finley-Brook, Mary; Holloman, Erica L.
The U.S. is experiencing unprecedented movement away from coal and, to a lesser degree, oil. Burdened low-income communities and people of color could experience health benefits from reductions in air and water pollution, yet these same groups could suffer harm if transitions lack broad public input or if policies prioritize elite or corporate interests. This paper highlights how U.S. energy transitions build from, and contribute to, environmental injustices. Energy justice requires not only ending disproportionate harm, it also entails involvement in the design of solutions and fair distribution of benefits, such as green jobs and clean air. To what extent does the confluence of state, civic, and market processes assure “just” transitions to clean, low-carbon energy production involving equitable distribution of costs, benefits, and decision-making power? To explore this question we assess trends with (1) fossil fuel divestment; (2) carbon taxes and social cost of carbon measurements; (3) cap-and-trade; (4) renewable energy; and (5) energy efficiency. Current research demonstrates opportunities and pitfalls in each area with mixed or partial energy justice consequences, leading to our call for greater attention to the specifics of distributive justice, procedural justice, and recognition justice in research, policy, and action. Illustrative energy transition case studies suggest the feasibility and benefit of empowering approaches, but also indicate there can be conflict between “green” and “just”, as evident though stark inequities in clean energy initiatives. To identify positive pathways forward, we compile priorities for an energy justice research agenda based on interactive and participatory practices aligning advocacy, activism, and academics. PMID:27657101
Full Text Available The U.S. is experiencing unprecedented movement away from coal and, to a lesser degree, oil. Burdened low-income communities and people of color could experience health benefits from reductions in air and water pollution, yet these same groups could suffer harm if transitions lack broad public input or if policies prioritize elite or corporate interests. This paper highlights how U.S. energy transitions build from, and contribute to, environmental injustices. Energy justice requires not only ending disproportionate harm, it also entails involvement in the design of solutions and fair distribution of benefits, such as green jobs and clean air. To what extent does the confluence of state, civic, and market processes assure “just” transitions to clean, low-carbon energy production involving equitable distribution of costs, benefits, and decision-making power? To explore this question we assess trends with (1 fossil fuel divestment; (2 carbon taxes and social cost of carbon measurements; (3 cap-and-trade; (4 renewable energy; and (5 energy efficiency. Current research demonstrates opportunities and pitfalls in each area with mixed or partial energy justice consequences, leading to our call for greater attention to the specifics of distributive justice, procedural justice, and recognition justice in research, policy, and action. Illustrative energy transition case studies suggest the feasibility and benefit of empowering approaches, but also indicate there can be conflict between “green” and “just”, as evident though stark inequities in clean energy initiatives. To identify positive pathways forward, we compile priorities for an energy justice research agenda based on interactive and participatory practices aligning advocacy, activism, and academics.
Millenky, Megan; Mage, Caroline
Involvement in the juvenile justice system has tremendous costs for the individuals within it, as well as for society. Such involvement may damage a child's relationships with friends and family, negatively affect mental health, and interrupt the academic progress and work experience that should accumulate during adolescence. On the societal…
Wiryani, F.; Herwastoeti; Najih, M.; Haris, A.
The right to a safe food is a human rights protected by the 1945 Constitution and legislation, including the Health Act, the Consumer Protection Act and Food Act. The law governing the rights and obligations of consumers; rights, obligations and responsibilities of businesses, as well as prohibitions and sanctions for businesses that violate. Food consumers aggrieved can file a non-litigation legal action and / or litigation. Non-litigation legal efforts made through negotiation or mediation or through Consumer Dispute Resolution Body (BPSK). The litigation efforts made by filing a lawsuit for damages to the court and / or reporting the case to the criminal law enforcement. This study specifically examines the enforcement of criminal law in the judgment as a safeguard against food consumers. Sanctions provisions setting a strategic role in an effort to make the protection of consumers of food. Patterns general formulation of the maximum penalty in the third Act is not appropriate because it too gives flexibility for the judge to make a decision as low to the Defendant. Facts on society, business agent has a dominant and strong position compared with consumers of food. These favorable conditions business agent position and vice versa less give legal protection to the Consumer Food. Preferably the pattern formulation penalty of criminal acts in the field of food using a specific minimum and maximum public.
Full Text Available Despite the progress that women have made in the fight against gender-based violence, it is still prevalent in various countries in the world. For many women in Latin American countries femicide is a constant reality. This paper critically analyzes femicide in Latin American countries and the legal and criminal responses to this crime. The paper defines femicide and discusses the nature and extent of femicide in Latin America. The analysis of this phenomenon in Latin American countries indicates that although some of these countries have made important strides in addressing the problem, they still face challenges in adequately preventing this crime.
Full Text Available In the literature, as well as in international statistical surveys, we can rarely find more detailed information on juvenile delinquency in the Russian Federation, as well as on the criminal reaction towards juvenile offenders. Due to the turbulent conditions and great social turmoil which took place in the last few decades in this country, there should be a greater interest in the problem of juvenile delinquency. For Serbia, the experience of the Russian Federation could be especially important if one bears in mind that our country is still going through a transition, population stratification and through economic crisis, and also that Serbia and the Russian Federation share some cultural and religious similarities. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to present, in the summary way, the basic features of juvenile delinquency and the criminal justice system, and thereby build a basis for future research and comparison.
In response to the Home Office recommendations contained in Speaking Up for Justice (1998) the Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act (YJCEA) 1999 introduced a new regime for the conduct of sexual offence trials. Section 41 of the Act, which came into force on 4 December 2000, brings about dramatic changes to the rules on the admissibility of evidence of complainants' sexual behaviour, severely restricting the discretion of trial judges to introduce such evidence or to allow questioning concerning it. This represents a radical new departure that will fundamentally affect an accused's position at trial. Responses to section 41 have predictably been divided given the extremely sensitive nature of this area of the law of evidence and the complex set of social and political issues which are at stake. Many have greeted it as a long overdue reform of a system premised upon outmoded and sexist beliefs concerning women's sexual behaviour which has routinely functioned to admit prejudicial and irrelevant evidence. Others, predominantly within the legal profession, have expressed serious concerns over whether the new law is workable and the extent to which, by potentially excluding critically relevant evidence, it may infringe upon a defendant's right to a fair trial. The quality of the legislation is soon to be tested. On 26 and 27 March 2001 the House of Lords heard an interlocutory appeal in the case of R v. A and were asked to decide if the new provisions, by excluding previous sexual history evidence between the complainant and the defendant, contravened Article 6 of the European Convention of Human Rights. Their Lordships are, at the time of writing, yet to give judgment and the fate of the defendant in question, and several others whose trials have been postponed pending their decision, hangs in the balance. This article seeks to show that the new Act, despite being well-intentioned, does not adopt a coherent or sustainable approach to the relevance of previous
Sherretts, Nicole; Boduszek, Daniel; Debowska, Agata
The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of period of incarceration, criminal friend index (a retrospective measure intended to quantify criminal associations before 1st incarceration), and 4 psychopathy factors (interpersonal manipulation, callous affect, erratic lifestyle, and antisocial behavior) in criminal social identity (CSI) while controlling for age and gender. Participants were a sample of 501 incarcerated offenders (male n = 293; female n = 208) from 3 prisons located in Pennsylvania State. Moderated regression analyses indicated no significant direct association between period of incarceration and CSI or between criminal friend index and Measure of Criminal Social Identity (MCSI). However, a significant moderating effect of interpersonal manipulation on the relationship between period of incarceration and MCSI was observed. Period of incarceration was significantly positively correlated with MCSI (particularly with the in-group ties subscale) for only those offenders who scored high (1 SD above the mean) on interpersonal manipulation and significantly negatively correlated for those who scored low (1 SD below the mean) on interpersonal manipulation. Also, criminal friend index was positively significantly associated with in-group ties for high levels (1 SD above the mean) of callous affect. The main findings provide evidence for the claim that prisoners are likely to simulate changes in identity through the formation of bonds with other offenders and that this can be achieved using interpersonal manipulation skills. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Since the end the cold war new pattern of armed conflict is that of ferocious intrastate war. In the 90s several longstanding, protracted conflicts turned violent. Two of the worst examples were the wars in former Yugoslavia and the genocide and the ensuing civil war in Rwanda. besides the paradigm of "peacebuilding" a main repons to this trend by the international community was a legalistic one. Consequently, international law and justice has made greater progress than ever before in recorde...
... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Criminal conviction. 14.5 Section 14.5 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION RULES RELATING TO... felony or of a misdemeanor involving fraud or involving moral turpitude in matters related to the...
Barretto, Craig; Miers, Sarah; Lambie, Ian
Public perceptions of crime and punishment have taken on increasing importance as countries grapple with how to address youth violence. The current study aimed to compare the views of those who have had personal experience of victimisation from youth offenders and those who have not, on what could be improved in managing youth offending in New Zealand. A qualitative methodology was used with data from open-ended survey responses from a nationally representative sample. Public sentiments favoured addressing systemic issues and providing rehabilitation as main emphases followed by more punitive measures, prevention, and restorative justice. Victims were over-represented on sentiments of prevention whereas non-victims were over-represented in support for more punitive measures and restorative justice. There was also considerable support for a multi-facetted approach that utilised a number of the approaches above, suggesting that the solution is as complex as the offender's circumstances. These findings are very much in line with the current goals of the youth justice system with its emphasis on diversion and rehabilitation.
Gianina Anemona Radu
Full Text Available A person's right not to incriminate oneself or to remain silent and not contribute to their own incrimination is a basic requirement of due process, although the right not to testify against oneself is not expressly guaranteed. This legal right is intended to protect the accused/ the defendant against the authorities’ abusive coercion. The scope of the right not to incriminate oneself is related to criminal matter under the Convention, and thus susceptible or applicable to criminal proceedings concerning all types of crimes as a guarantee to a fair trial. The European Court of Justice ruled that despite the fact that art. 6 paragraph 2 of the Convention does not expressly mention the right not to incriminate oneself and the right not to contribute to their own incrimination (nemo tenetur are ipsum accusare these are generally recognized international rules that are in consistence with the notion of “fair trial” stipulated in art. 6. By virtue of the right to silence, the person charged with a crime is free to answer the questions or not, as he/she believes it is in his/her interest. Therefore, the right to silence involves not only the right not to testify against oneself, but also the right of the accused/ defendant not to incriminate oneself. Thus, the accused/defendant cannot be compelled to assist in the production of evidence and cannot be sanctioned for failing to provide certain documents or other evidence. Obligation to testify against personal will, under the constraint of a fine or any other form of coercion constitutes an interference with the negative aspect of the right to freedom of expression which must be necessary in a democratic society. It is essential to clarify certain issues as far as this right is concerned. First of all, the statutory provision in question is specific to adversarial systems, which are found mainly in Anglo-Saxon countries and are totally different from that underlying the current Romanian Criminal
Murphy, Wendy J
The past 20 years of criminal law and practice have produced much heat but little light on the issue of when, if ever, the accused in a criminal case can legitimately seek disclosure of a victim's privileged files that exist exclusively in the custody of a private third party. In many jurisdictions, forced disclosure is routine, and victims must choose between justice and privacy, resulting in either the dismissal or underprosecution of serious violence or the victim's opting to forego necessary treatment. This dilemma is disproportionately imposed on women and child victims of sexual violence, and it threatens to prevent healing for a significant percentage of victimized persons. This article outlines the legal and policy interests of third parties in this debate and offers a model set of procedures to protect against needless harm to third parties, while respecting the important rights of the criminally accused.
ELIZA EMANUELA OPREA
Full Text Available In the criminal proceedings of some law states the wrongful sentencing of individuals is very rare, having a comprehensive system of procedural safeguards which prevent such a situation. The purpose of the criminal proceedings is to punish only the culprits, the Criminal Procedure code frontispiece being stated the idea that no innocent person should be held criminally liable. By achieving this aspect of purpose is ensured observance of legality and the rule of law. All the basic rules and the whole organization of the criminal trial are polarized around this major goal of justice. Also the professional qualification level of those summoned to administer criminal justice in the modern state to minimizes the risk of judiciar miscarriages. The deep humanism of our law requires though the regulation of those procedural arrangements, through which in the event of an act of injustice, the wrongly convicted is able to obtain prompt repairs that society owes them. A very important aspect related to the evolution over time of the regulation of this institution, is that in its doctrine of integration in the European Union, Romania has adopted a series of laws and regulations designed to ensure our legislation’s alignment with the relevant legislation of the countries from the European community and to ensure the compliance with the European Convention on Human Rights. This process is still ongoing, therefore the establishment and the subsequent modification of the special procedure concerning the remedies for the material or moral damage in the event of unjust sentence or unlawful deprivation of liberty was based on the desire to avoid the conviction situation of the Romanian state by the international courts for failure to comply with the Art. 5 paragraph 5 of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms that 'any individual who is the victim of arrest or detention in conditions contrary to the provisions of this article
Kulić, Mirko; Milošević, Goran
Countries often resort to tightening of criminal sanctions against those who do not fulfill their tax obligations on time. Instead of more organized undertaking of measures to eliminate the causes of tax crime, Serbia seeks to solve the problem by upgrading the criminal legislation. There are six criminal offences which provide for criminal law protection of public revenues. Among these criminal offences, the central place belongs to the criminal offence of tax evasion and criminal offence of...
Mellin, Elizabeth A.; Fang, Hong-Ning
This study found that lack of involvement in prosocial institutions, affiliation with other troubled youth, and indifference regarding personal safety partially mediate the relationship between depression and delinquency among justice-involved female adolescents. The results suggest that depression may not be the primary conduit to delinquency.…