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  1. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancel Submit Search The CDC Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is caused by infection with a tick- ...

  2. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever, Sudan, 2008

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-04-15

    This podcast describes the emergence of the first human cases of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Sudan in 2008. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Stuart Nichol discusses how the disease was found in Sudan and how it spread in a hospital there.  Created: 4/15/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infections (proposed).   Date Released: 4/15/2010.

  3. Phylogeography of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimentov, Alexander S.; Dzagurova, Tamara K.; Drexler, Jan Felix; Gmyl, Anatoly P.

    2016-01-01

    Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is one of the most severe viral zoonozes. It is prevalent throughout Africa, Asia and southern Europe. Limited availability of sequence data has hindered phylogeographic studies. The complete genomic sequence of all three segments of 14 Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus strains isolated from 1958–2000 in Russia, Central Asia and Africa was identified. Each genomic segment was independently subjected to continuous Bayesian phylogeographic analysis. The origin of each genomic segment was traced to Africa about 1,000–5,000 years ago. The virus was first introduced to South and Central Asia in the Middle Ages, and then spread to China, India and Russia. Reverse transfers of genomic segments from Asia to Africa were also observed. The European CCHFV genotype V was introduced to Europe via the Astrakhan region in South Russia 280–400 years ago and subsequently gradually spread westward in Russia, to Turkey and the Balkans less than 150 years ago. Only a few recombination events could be suggested in S and L genomic segments, while segment reassortment was very common. The median height of a non-reassortant phylogenetic tree node was 68–156 years. There were reassortment events within the European CCHFV lineage, but not with viruses from other locations. Therefore, CCHFV in Europe is a recently emerged zoonosis that represents a spillover from the global gene pool. PMID:27880794

  4. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever: An Overview

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Serkan (O)ncü

    2013-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a zoonotic viral infection that is a serious threat to humans.The disease is widely distributed in Africa,Asia,and Europe and has developed into a serious public health concern.Humans become infected through the bites of ticks,by contact with a patient with CCHF,or by contact with blood or tissues from viremic livestock.Microvascular instability and impaired hemostasis are the hallmarks of the infection.Infection in human begins with nonspecific febrile symptoms,but may progress to a serious hemorrhagic syndrome with high mortality rates.Enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are the most used and specific tests for the diagnosis.The mainstay of treatment is supportive.Although definitive studies are not available,ribavirin is suggested to be effective especially at the earlier phase of the infection.Uses of universal protective measures are the best way to avoid the infection.In this review,all aspects of CCHF are overviewed in light of the current literature.

  5. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshtkar-Jahromi, Maryam; Sajadi, Mohammad M.; Ansari, Hossein; Mardani, Masoud; Naieni, Kourosh Holakouie

    2014-01-01

    The presence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) in Iran was first identified in studies of livestock sera and ticks in the 1970s, but the first human infection was not diagnosed until 1999. Since that time, the number of cases of CCHF in Iran has markedly increased. Through January 2012, articles in the published literature have reported a total of 870 confirmed cases, with 126 deaths, for a case fatality rate (CFR) of 17.6%. The disease has been seen in 26 of the country’s 31 provinces, with the greatest number of cases in Sistan and Baluchestan, Isfahan, Fars, Tehran, Khorasan, and Khuzestan provinces. The increase in CCHF in Iran has paralleled that in neighboring Turkey, though the number of cases in Turkey has been much larger, with an overall CFR of around 5%. In this article, we review the features of CCHF in Iran, including its history, epidemiology, animal and tick reservoirs, current surveillance and control programs, diagnostic methods, clinical features and experience with ribavirin therapy, and consider possible explanations for the difference in the CFR of CCHF between Iran and Turkey. The emergence of CCHF in Iran calls for countermeasures at many levels to protect the population, but also provides opportunities for studying the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of the disease. PMID:23872313

  6. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshtkar-Jahromi, Maryam; Sajadi, Mohammad M; Ansari, Hossein; Mardani, Masoud; Holakouie-Naieni, Kourosh

    2013-10-01

    The presence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) in Iran was first identified in studies of livestock sera and ticks in the 1970s, but the first human infection was not diagnosed until 1999. Since that time, the number of cases of CCHF in Iran has markedly increased. Through January 2012, articles in the published literature have reported a total of 870 confirmed cases, with 126 deaths, for a case fatality rate (CFR) of 17.6%. The disease has been seen in 26 of the country's 31 provinces, with the greatest number of cases in Sistan and Baluchestan, Isfahan, Fars, Tehran, Khorasan, and Khuzestan provinces. The increase in CCHF in Iran has paralleled that in neighboring Turkey, though the number of cases in Turkey has been much larger, with an overall CFR of around 5%. In this article, we review the features of CCHF in Iran, including its history, epidemiology, animal and tick reservoirs, current surveillance and control programs, diagnostic methods, clinical features and experience with ribavirin therapy, and consider possible explanations for the difference in the CFR of CCHF between Iran and Turkey. The emergence of CCHF in Iran calls for countermeasures at many levels to protect the population, but also provides opportunities for studying the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of the disease.

  7. Possible sexual transmission of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Yurievna Pshenichnaya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Three cases of family transmission of laboratory-confirmed Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF among spouses are reported. These spouses had sexual contact at the end of the incubation period or during the early stage of the mild form of CCHF, without any hemorrhagic symptoms in the first infected spouse. This report demonstrates that sexual contact may represent a real risk of CCHF transmission, even if the patient only experiences mild symptoms.

  8. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Iran and neighboring countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinikar, S; Ghiasi, Seyed Mojtaba; Hewson, R

    2010-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a zoonotic viral disease that is asymptomatic in infected livestock, but a serious threat to humans. Human infections begin with nonspecific febrile symptoms, but progress to a serious hemorrhagic syndrome with a case fatality rate of 2-50%. Although the ...... in Iran and neighboring countries and provide evidence of over 5000 confirmed cases of CCHF in a single period/season....

  9. A Case of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Oman

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    Matllooba Al-Zadjali

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the summer of June 2011, the first case of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF was observed in Oman since the last fifteen years. The first blood sample using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR test were sent looking for CCHF, tick-borne encephalitis, dengue, Japanese encephalitis, Chikungunya and West Nile. All resulted as negative. The repeated serology for CCHF came strongly positive after five days from the initial negative test, and accordingly patient started on ribavirin and he responded to it. His condition improved dramatically.

  10. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus activates endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly-Andersen, Anne-Marie; Moll, Guido; Andersson, Cecilia; Akerström, Sara; Karlberg, Helen; Douagi, Iyadh; Mirazimi, Ali

    2011-08-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) causes viral hemorrhagic fever with high case-fatality rates and is geographically widely distributed. Due to the requirement for a biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) laboratory and the lack of an animal model, knowledge of the viral pathogenesis is limited. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is characterized by hemorrhage and vascular permeability, indicating the involvement of endothelial cells (ECs). The interplay between ECs and CCHFV is therefore important for understanding the pathogenesis of CCHF. In a previous study, we found that CCHFV-infected monocyte-derived dendritic cells (moDCs) activated ECs; however, the direct effect of CCHFV on ECs was not investigated. Here, we report that ECs are activated upon infection, as demonstrated by upregulation of mRNA levels for E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM1), and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM1). Protein levels and cell surface expression of ICAM1 responded in a dose-dependent manner to increasing CCHFV titers with concomitant increase in leukocyte adhesion. Furthermore, we examined vascular endothelial (VE) cadherin in CCHFV-infected ECs by different approaches. Infected ECs released higher levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and IL-8; however, stimulation of resting ECs with supernatants derived from infected ECs did not result in increased ICAM1 expression. Interestingly, the moDC-mediated activation of ECs was abrogated by addition of neutralizing tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) antibody to moDC supernatants, thereby identifying this soluble mediator as the key cytokine causing EC activation. We conclude that CCHFV can exert both direct and indirect effects on ECs.

  11. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever infections reported by ProMED

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    Yavuz Ince

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: Case reporting systems such as ProMED are useful to gather information and synthesize knowledge on the emerging infections. Although certain areas need to be improved, ProMED provided good information about Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever.

  12. Autochthonous Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negredo, Anabel; de la Calle-Prieto, Fernando; Palencia-Herrejón, Eduardo; Mora-Rillo, Marta; Astray-Mochales, Jenaro; Sánchez-Seco, María P; Bermejo Lopez, Esther; Menárguez, Javier; Fernández-Cruz, Ana; Sánchez-Artola, Beatriz; Keough-Delgado, Elena; Ramírez de Arellano, Eva; Lasala, Fátima; Milla, Jakob; Fraile, Jose L; Ordobás Gavín, Maria; Martinez de la Gándara, Amalia; López Perez, Lorenzo; Diaz-Diaz, Domingo; López-García, M Aurora; Delgado-Jimenez, Pilar; Martín-Quirós, Alejandro; Trigo, Elena; Figueira, Juan C; Manzanares, Jesús; Rodriguez-Baena, Elena; Garcia-Comas, Luis; Rodríguez-Fraga, Olaia; García-Arenzana, Nicolás; Fernández-Díaz, Maria V; Cornejo, Victor M; Emmerich, Petra; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Arribas, Jose R

    2017-07-13

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a widely distributed, viral, tickborne disease. In Europe, cases have been reported only in the southeastern part of the continent. We report two autochthonous cases in Spain. The index patient acquired the disease through a tick bite in the province of Ávila - 300 km away from the province of Cáceres, where viral RNA from ticks was amplified in 2010. The second patient was a nurse who became infected while caring for the index patient. Both were infected with the African 3 lineage of this virus. (Funded by Red de Investigación Cooperativa en Enfermedades Tropicales [RICET] and Efficient Response to Highly Dangerous and Emerging Pathogens at EU [European Union] Level [EMERGE].).

  13. A case of brucellosis mimicking Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever.

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    Metin, Ozge; Teke, Turkan A; Gayretli Aydin, Zeynep G; Kaman, Ayse; Oz, Fatma N; Bayhan, Gulsum I; Tanir, Gonul

    2015-01-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease caused by Brucella spp. that is transmitted to humans by the ingestion of unpasteurized milk and other dairy products from infected animals or through close contact with secretions. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne disease caused by a virus that is transmitted to humans by ixoid tick bites, contact with blood and tissue of infected animals or contact with infected humans. The symptoms of brucellosis are non-specific; it can mimic other diseases. In this paper, we present a case of brucellosis that was initially evaluated as CCHF. We emphasize that brucellosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of CCHF, especially in endemic countries.

  14. Spatial analysis of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafavi, Ehsan; Haghdoost, AliAkbar; Khakifirouz, Sahar; Chinikar, Sadegh

    2013-12-01

    Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a viral zoonotic disease. During 1999-2011, 871 human cases of CCHF were diagnosed in Iran. A history of serologic conversion for CCHF virus was seen in 58.7% of 2,447 sheep samples, 25.0% of 1,091 cattle samples and 24.8% of 987 goat samples from different parts of Iran. Spatial analysis showed that the main foci of this disease in humans during these years were in eastern Iran (P Iran. Two livestock foci were detected in the northeastern northwestern Iran. On the basis of the results of this study, infection likely entered Iran from eastern and western neighboring countries.

  15. Exogenous nitric oxide inhibits Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, M; Falk, K I; Lundkvist, A; Mirazimi, A

    2006-09-01

    Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a geographically widespread pathogen that causes severe hemorrhagic fever with high mortality. Even though one of the main objectives focuses on the progress of antiviral agents, the research on CCHFV is strongly hampered due to its BSL-4 classification. Nitric oxide (NO), a mediator with broad biological effects, has been shown to possess inhibitory properties against various pathogens. The molecule constitutes a component of the innate immunity and serves to assist in the early immunological events where it contributes to clearance of microorganisms. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory properties of exogenous NO on CCHFV. We found that NO had a significant antiviral activity against CCHFV replication. By using the NO-donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) we were able to show up to 99% reduction in virion progeny yield. In contrast, 3-morpholinosydnonimine hydrochloride (SIN-1), a peroxynitrite donor, had no significant antiviral activity against CCHFV. Furthermore the expression of viral proteins; the nucleocapsid protein and the glycoprotein, were clearly reduced with increasing concentrations of SNAP. We have also shown that the amount of total vRNA in SNAP-treated cells was reduced by about 50% compared to the controls.

  16. The global distribution of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messina, Jane P.; Pigott, David M.; Golding, Nick; Duda, Kirsten A.; Brownstein, John S.; Weiss, Daniel J.; Gibson, Harry; Robinson, Timothy P.; Gilbert, Marius; William Wint, G. R.; Nuttall, Patricia A.; Gething, Peter W.; Myers, Monica F.; George, Dylan B.; Hay, Simon I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne infection caused by a virus (CCHFV) from the Bunyaviridae family. Domestic and wild vertebrates are asymptomatic reservoirs for the virus, putting animal handlers, slaughter-house workers and agricultural labourers at highest risk in endemic areas, with secondary transmission possible through contact with infected blood and other bodily fluids. Human infection is characterized by severe symptoms that often result in death. While it is known that CCHFV transmission is limited to Africa, Asia and Europe, definitive global extents and risk patterns within these limits have not been well described. Methods We used an exhaustive database of human CCHF occurrence records and a niche modeling framework to map the global distribution of risk for human CCHF occurrence. Results A greater proportion of shrub or grass land cover was the most important contributor to our model, which predicts highest levels of risk around the Black Sea, Turkey, and some parts of central Asia. Sub-Saharan Africa shows more focalized areas of risk throughout the Sahel and the Cape region. Conclusions These new risk maps provide a valuable starting point for understanding the zoonotic niche of CCHF, its extent and the risk it poses to humans. PMID:26142451

  17. Vectors of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Iran

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    Zakkyeh Telmadarraiy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ticks are important vectors and reservoirs of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF virus. Human beings may be infected whenever the normal life cycle of the infected ticks on non- human vertebrate hosts is interrupted by the undesirable presence of humans in the cycle. A total of 26 species of Argasid and Ixodid ticks have been recorded in Iran; including nine Hyalomma, two Rhipicephalus, two Dermacentor, five Haemaphysalis, two Boophilus, one Ixodes and two Argas as well as three Ornithodoros species as blood sucking ectoparasites of livestock and poultries. The present paper reviews tick vectors of CCHF virus in Iran, focusing on the role of ticks in different provinces of Iran using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR assay.Methods: During ten years study, 1054 tick specimens; including two species of Argasidae and 17 species of Ixodidae were examined for their infection to CCHF virus genome. The output of all studies as well as related publications were discussed in the current paper.Results: The results show that Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Hyalomma marginatum, H. anatolicum, H. asiaticum and H. dromedarii were known as the most frequent species which were positive for CCHF virus.Conclusion: The status of ticks which were positive for CCHF virus revealed that unlike the most common idea that Hyalomma species are the most important vectors of CCHF virus, other ticks including Rhipicephalus,Haemaphysalis and Dermacentor can be reservoir of this virus; thus, considering geographical distribution, type of host and environmental conditions, different tick control measurements should be carried out in areas with high incidence of CCHF disease.

  18. A case report of crimean congo hemorrhagic Fever in ostriches in iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mostafavi, Ehsan; Chinikar, Sadegh; Moradi, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a viral zoonosis, which is usually transmitted via tick bites or close contact with infected blood or tissue. This disease can cause a case fatality rate of up to 25%-30% in humans. CCHF Infection in birds is less documented. An ostrich can reproduce...

  19. Genetic detection and isolation of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Kosovo, Yugoslavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Anna; Bozovi, Bojana; Pavlidou, Vassiliki; Papadimitriou, Evangelia; Pelemis, Mijomir; Antoniadis, Aantonis

    2002-08-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (C-CHFV) strains were isolated from a fatal case and the attending physician in Kosovo, Yugoslavia. Early, rapid diagnosis of the disease was achieved by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The physician was successfully treated with oral ribavirin. These cases yielded the first genetically studied C-CHFV human isolates in the Balkans.

  20. Determination of serum adenosine deaminase and xanthine oxidase levels in patients with crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever

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    V. Kenan Celik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever is an acute viral hemorrhagic fever with a high mortality rate. Despite increasing knowledge about hemorrhagic fever viruses, little is known about the pathogenesis of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. In this study, we measured serum adenosine deaminase and xanthine oxidase levels in Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever patients. METHODS: Serum adenosine deaminase levels were measured with a sensitive colorimetric method described by Giusti and xanthine oxidase levels by the method of Worthington in 30 consecutive hospitalized patients (mean age 42.6 ± 21.0. Laboratory tests confirmed their diagnoses of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. Thirty-five subjects (mean age 42.9 ± 19.1 served as the control group. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in adenosine deaminase and xanthine oxidase levels between cases and controls (p0.05. CONCLUSION: Adenosine deaminase and xanthine oxidase levels were increased in patients with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever. Elevated serum xanthine oxidase activity in patients with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever may be associated with reactive oxygen species generated by the xanthine/xanthine oxidase system during inflammatory responses. In addition, elevated lipid peroxidation may contribute to cell damage and hemorrhage. The association of cell damage and hemorrhage with xanthine oxidase activity should be further investigated in large-scale studies.

  1. Prevalence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Pakistan and its new research progress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria Saleem; Syed Zawar Shah; Asma Haidari; Fatima Idrees

    2016-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever is a deadly and life-threatening viral sickness spreading throughout the world with high mortality rate of 10%–40%. The causative agents are ticks which show diversity in their strains and thus it is difficult to make vaccine, however some strains are conserved which is the positive point in vaccines development. From 2012 to 2015, a total of 161 cases were confirmed for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in Pakistan. And from 2012 to July 2014, 45 deaths were reported in the country. It is spreading sporadically in Pakistan. Mapping of endemic areas and cross-border veterinary surveillance should be developed in high risk areas and workshops should be arranged to increase public awareness about the disease. Control measures must be taken to avoid spreading of the disease to new areas.

  2. Genetic Diversity of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Strains from Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Sadegh Chinikar; Saeid Bouzari; Mohammad Ali Shokrgozar; Ehsan Mostafavi; Tahmineh Jalali; Sahar Khakifirouz; Norbert Nowotny; Fooks, Anthony R.; Nariman Shah-Hosseini

    2016-01-01

    Background: Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a member of the Bunyaviridae family and Nairovirus genus. It has a negative-sense, single stranded RNA genome approximately 19.2 kb, containing the Small, Medium, and Large segments. CCHFVs are relatively divergent in their genome sequence and grouped in seven distinct clades based on S-segment sequence analysis and six clades based on M-segment sequences. Our aim was to obtain new insights into the molecular epidemiology of CCHFV i...

  3. Co-infection of Malaria and Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever

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    B Sharifi-Mood

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Southeast of Iran is an endemic area for Malaria and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF. In 1999, we faced with an outbreak of CCHF in Sistan and Baluchistan Province, in the border of Paki­stan and Afghanistan. The most cases of Malaria in Iran are also reported from this area. This arti­cle presents a 17-year- old woman who admitted to our hospital because of acute fever, head­ache, epistaxis, hemorrhagic lesions on the skin and vaginal bleeding. Finally, she was recog­nized as a case that was co -infected with CCHF and malaria.

  4. Hepatitis in Patients with CrimeanCongo Hemorrhagic Fever

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    Batool Sharifi-Mood

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF is a viral disease and causing approximately 30% fatality rate. Recent studies have been reported that hepatitis in CCHF patients is with high mortality. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hepatitis in the CCHF cases and also detect the mortality rate among patients with hepatitis. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in patients with CCHF who were hospitalized in Boo-Ali hospital in Zahedan between Oct 2009 to Feb 2012. Liver function tests including aminotransferase enzymes and prothrombin time and mortality rate were evaluated. Results: Among 53 patients with CCHF, hepatitis was seen in 19 patients (45%. Nine patients died (21%. All dead patients had a serum aminotransaminase level ≥10 times the upper normal limit. Conclusion: Our study showed that hepatitis is prevalent in CCHF patients and a serum aminotransaminase level ≥5 times the upper normal limit (UNL is a risk factor for severe disease and high mortality.

  5. Report of the first case of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever in Qazvin Province (2016

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    AR. Nikoonejad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever is a potentially fatal disease that is reported from Asia, Africa and Europe. In May, 2016 a 42 year-old female is admitted to Buali-Sina hospital with epistaxis and within a few hours got loss of consciousness and shock. The patient was put on supportive care and oral Ribavirin. From the sixth admission day, the general condition of the patient improved and on the eleventh day she was discharged without an important sequela. Consequently, it is necessary to consider this disease in the differential diagnosis of all patients presented with fever and acute bleeding diathesis.

  6. Cross-sectional Serosurvey of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus IgG in Livestock, India, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourya, Devendra T; Yadav, Pragya D; Shete, Anita M; Sathe, Padmakar S; Sarkale, Prasad C; Pattnaik, Bramhadev; Sharma, Gaurav; Upadhyay, Kamlesh J; Gosavi, Surekha; Patil, Deepak Y; Chaubal, Gouri Y; Majumdar, Triparna D; Katoch, Vishwa M

    2015-10-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional serosurvey of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) among livestock in 22 states and 1 union territory of India. A total of 5,636 samples from bovines, sheep, and goats were screened for CCHF virus IgG. IgG was detected in 354 samples, indicating that this virus is widespread in this country.

  7. Seroepidemiological Studies of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Domestic and Wild Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spengler, Jessica R; Bergeron, Éric; Rollin, Pierre E

    2016-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a widely distributed, tick-borne viral disease. Humans are the only species known to develop illness after CCHF virus (CCHFV) infection, characterized by a nonspecific febrile illness that can progress to severe, often fatal, hemorrhagic disease. A variety of animals may serve as asymptomatic reservoirs of CCHFV in an endemic cycle of transmission. Seroepidemiological studies have been instrumental in elucidating CCHFV reservoirs and in determining endemic foci of viral transmission. Herein, we review over 50 years of CCHFV seroepidemiological studies in domestic and wild animals. This review highlights the role of livestock in the maintenance and transmission of CCHFV, and provides a detailed summary of seroepidemiological studies of wild animal species, reflecting their relative roles in CCHFV ecology.

  8. First international external quality assessment of molecular detection of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.

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    Camille Escadafal

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF is a zoonosis caused by a Nairovirus of the family Bunyaviridae. Infection is transmitted to humans mostly by Hyalomma ticks and also by direct contact with the blood or tissues of infected humans or viremic livestock. Clinical features usually include a rapid progression characterized by hemorrhage, myalgia and fever, with a lethality rate up to 30%. CCHF is one of the most widely distributed viral hemorrhagic fevers and has been reported in Africa, the Middle East and Asia, as well as parts of Europe. There is no approved vaccine or specific treatment against CCHF virus (CCHFV infections. In this context, an accurate diagnosis as well as a reliable surveillance of CCHFV infections is essential. Diagnostic techniques include virus culture, serology and molecular methods, which are now increasingly used. The European Network for the Diagnostics of "Imported" Viral Diseases organized the first international external quality assessment of CCHVF molecular diagnostics in 2011 to assess the efficiency and accurateness of CCHFV molecular methods applied by expert laboratories. A proficiency test panel of 15 samples was distributed to the participants including 10 different CCHFV preparations generated from infected cell cultures, a preparation of plasmid cloned with the nucleoprotein of CCHFV, two CCHFV RNA preparations and two negative controls. Forty-four laboratories worldwide participated in the EQA study and 53 data sets were received. Twenty data sets (38% met all criteria with optimal performance, 10 (19% with acceptable performance, while 23 (43% reported results showing a need for improvement. Differences in performance depended on the method used, the type of strain tested, the concentration of the sample tested and the laboratory performing the test. These results indicate that there is still a need for improving testing conditions and standardizing protocols for the molecular detection of Crimean-Congo

  9. Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Questions & answers Features Multimedia Contacts Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever Fact sheet N°208 January 2013 Key facts ... the principal tick vector. The Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus in animals and ticks The hosts of ...

  10. Tick cell lines for study of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus and other arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; Kohl, Alain; Bente, Dennis A; Fazakerley, John K

    2012-09-01

    Continuous cell lines derived from many of the vectors of tick-borne arboviruses of medical and veterinary importance are now available. Their role as tools in arbovirus research to date is reviewed and their potential application in studies of tick cell responses to virus infection is explored, by comparison with recent progress in understanding mosquito immunity to arbovirus infection. A preliminary study of propagation of the human pathogen Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) in tick cell lines is reported; CCHFV replicated in seven cell lines derived from the ticks Hyalomma anatolicum (a known vector), Amblyomma variegatum, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) decoloratus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, and Ixodes ricinus, but not in three cell lines derived from Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Ornithodoros moubata. This indicates that tick cell lines can be used to study growth of CCHFV in arthropod cells and that there may be species-specific restriction in permissive CCHFV infection at the cellular level.

  11. Molecular epidemiology of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Bulgaria--An update.

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    Papa, Anna; Pappa, Styliani; Panayotova, Elitsa; Papadopoulou, Elpida; Christova, Iva

    2016-05-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is endemic in Bulgaria. During 2013-2014, 11 confirmed CCHF cases have been reported in the country (seven in 2013 and four in 2014). The present study provides the CCHF molecular epidemiology in Bulgaria based on all currently available S, M, and L RNA segment nucleotide sequences spanning the years 1978-2014. A relatively low genetic difference (0-6%, the maximum seen in the M RNA segment) was seen among the CCHFV sequences suggesting that a slow evolving CCHFV strain belonging to "Europe 1" clade is present in Bulgaria. Although the virus emerged in new foci during the recent years, it is more active in the established endemic foci which seem to offer the most suitable ecosystem and environment. Understanding the CCHF epidemiology and virus evolution is the basis for public health programs and vaccine design.

  12. Genetic Analysis of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashina, Lyudmila; Vyshemirskii, Oleg; Seregin, Sergei; Petrova, Irina; Samokhvalov, Evgeny; Lvov, Dmitry; Gutorov, Valery; Kuzina, Irina; Tyunnikov, Georgy; Tang, Yi-Wei; Netesov, Sergei; Petrov, Vladimir

    2003-01-01

    Genetic analysis of wild-type Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus strains recovered in the European part of Russia was performed. Reverse transcriptase PCR followed by direct sequencing was used to recover partial sequences of the CCHF virus medium (M) genome segment (M segment) from four pools of Hyalomma marginatum ticks and six human patients. Phylogenetic analysis of the M-segment sequences from Russian strains revealed a close relatedness of the strains (nucleotide sequence diversity, ≤5.0%). The strains differed significantly from CCHF viruses from other regions of the world (nucleotide sequence diversity, 10.3 to 20.4%), suggesting that CCHF virus strains recovered in the European part of Russia form a distinct group. PMID:12574301

  13. Public Knowledge and Attitude toward Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Tokat Turkey

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    R Yilmaz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The World health Organization (WHO declares Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fe­ver (CCHF endemic in Turkey. Despite the magnitude of problem, no documented evi­dence exists in Turkey, which reveals the aware­ness and practices of the country's adult popula­tion regarding CCHF, its spread, symptoms, treatment, and preven­tion. This study was conducted to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding CCHF in people visit­ing terti­ary care hospital in Tokat, Turkey."nMethods: This questionnaire based cross-sectional survey was conducted among patients' rela­tives or guardians who ad­mitted pediatric outpatient clinics during May-July 2008. The question­naire was composed of 25 questions."nResults: A total of 1034 respondents participated in the survey. Sufficient knowledge about CCHF was not found in 28.9% of the sample. Literate individuals were relatively better informed about CCHF as compared to the illiterate peo­ple. Television and radio were con­sidered as the most important and useful source of information on the disease."nConclusion: We have found insufficient knowledge on CCHF in our population. It is thought to have no chance of suc­cess against a fatal disease such as CCHF, which has serious consequences, without the contribution of commu­nity. It is clear that there are important tasks for health, agri­culture, and media sectors to improve public knowledge and awareness about CCHF. "n Keywords: Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever, Public knowledge, Survey, Turkey

  14. Serological survey of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in cattle in Berat and Kolonje, Albania

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    ARTA LUGAJ

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF is a tick-borne disease caused by the arbovirus Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus(CCHFV, which is a member of the Nairovirusgenus (family Bunyaviridae. The disease now occurs sporadically throughout much of Africa, Asia, andEurope and results in an approximately 30% fatality rate. Numerous genera of ixodid ticks serve both as vector and reservoir for CCHFV; however, ticks in the genus Hyalommaare particularlyimportant to the ecology of this virus.The aim of this study was to examine the distribution of CCHFV among the cattle in Berat and Kolonje regions in Albania. The data taken in this study indicates for the presence of CCHFV Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in these countries. The serum samples were conserved in -20°C and tested with immunological methods using indirect ELISA assay in Friedrich-Loeffler Institute (FLI, Greifswald Germany. Through this technique it was possible to identified IgG antibodies in infected serum samples. From these results in Berat-Terpanwe had an indication about the presence of IgG antibodies in 2 blood samples. 3 serum samples were equivocal and 45 serum samples were negative from the total of 50 serum samples in cattle. While in Kolonje-Erseke the results show the presence of IgG antibodies in 4 blood samples from 54 seum samples in cattle. Respectively the prevalence in these 2 countries in Albania is 4.4% and 8%. These results can clearly proved the presence of CCHFV in livestock in Albania.

  15. An antigenic investigation of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) in hard ticks from provinces in northern Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albayrak, Harun; Ozan, Emre; Kurt, Mitat

    2010-10-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus threatens human health. Exposure of the infected tick is a strong risk factor for human disease. In this study, the hard ticks collected from a variety of mammalian species (cattle, sheep, goat, and buffalo) and a turtle in either coastal or inland Black Sea region of Turkey were surveyed for the presence of antigen from Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV). CCHFV antigen was found in 46 of 421 tick pools (10.92%). Positivity rates for the provinces varied and were as follows: Samsun 33.87%, Ordu 4.34%, Giresun 8.86%, Sinop 6.09%, Amasya 7.40%, Tokat 5.08%, and Sivas 8.06%. CCHFV antigen was detected in seven of 11 tick species tested. These results suggest that these hard ticks may act as a reservoir for CCHFV in northern Turkey.

  16. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus-Specific Antibody Detection in Cattle in Mauritania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sas, Miriam A; Mertens, Marc; Isselmou, Ekaterina; Reimer, Nicole; El Mamy, Bezeid O; Doumbia, Baba; Groschup, Martin H

    2017-08-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) was detected for the first time in Mauritania in 1983 and several CCHFV outbreaks were reported in the following years. The last human case was diagnosed in 2015. However, no recent data exist about the prevalence of CCHFV in animals, although it is already described that prevalence studies in animals serve as good risk indicators. CCHFV can cause a severe hemorrhagic fever with a high case fatality rate in humans. Therefore, a precise risk assessment on the basis of updated data is very important. This article gives an overview about the current CCHFV prevalence in cattle in Mauritania. A seroprevalence study was carried out using 495 cattle sera from Mauritania, which were collected in the year 2013. The sera were analyzed by an inhouse CCHFV-IgG-ELISA. As second screening test, an adapted commercial CCHFV-IgG-ELISA was performed. Inconclusive sera were additionally tested by a modified commercial CCHFV-IgG-IFA. All assays showed high diagnostic sensitivity (>95%) and specificity (>98%). The overall prevalence of CCHFV-specific antibodies found in Mauritanian cattle was 67%, ranging from 56% to 90% in different provinces. This study shows a very high CCHFV-specific antibody prevalence in cattle in Mauritania. It is the highest seroprevalence detected in Mauritania so far. This strengthens the hypothesis that CCHFV is a serious and ongoing threat for public health in Mauritania.

  17. Prevalence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in healthy population, livestock and ticks in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajs, Luka; Humolli, Isme; Saksida, Ana; Knap, Nataša; Jelovšek, Mateja; Korva, Miša; Dedushaj, Isuf; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an acute, tick borne disease often associated with hemorrhagic presentations and high case fatality rate. Kosovo is a highly endemic area for CCHF, with a significant case fatality rate. The aim of our study was to determine the prevalence of CCHF in Kosovo. We tested 1105 serum samples from healthy population in both endemic and non-endemic areas in the country. Our results revealed a seroprevalence of 4.0% (range 0-9.3%) which is comparable to the seroprevalence in other countries. We show that seroprevalence is correlated to the disease incidence in each studied municipality. We also tested 401 animal sera (353 cow, 30 sheep, 10 goat and 8 chicken) in four endemic municipalities in Kosovo. We detected specific antibodies in all animals except in chicken. Seroprevalence in cows is comparable to other endemic areas and correlates to the seroprevalence in humans. No CCHF RNA could be detected in 105 tick samples obtained in 2012 and 2013. Sequencing of CCHFV positive ticks from 2001 revealed that the virus is most closely related to viral strains that were detected in CCHF patients from Kosovo. Results suggest that mild CCHF cases are most probably underdiagnosed and consequently that the burden of disease is higher than reported. Our study provides key information for CCHF surveillance and raises awareness for possible imported cases in CCHF non-endemic countries.

  18. Clinical symptoms and laboratory findings supporting early diagnosis of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafavi, Ehsan; Pourhossein, Behzad; Chinikar, Sadegh

    2014-07-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a zoonotic disease, which is usually transmitted to humans by tick bites or contact with blood or other infected tissues of livestock. Patients suffering from CCHF demonstrate an extensive spectrum of clinical symptoms. As it can take considerable time from suspecting the disease in hospital until reaching a definitive diagnosis in the laboratory, understanding the clinical symptoms and laboratory findings of CCHF patients is of paramount importance for clinicians. The data were collected from patients who were referred to the Laboratory of Arboviruses and Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers at the Pasteur institute of Iran with a primary diagnosis of CCHF between 1999 and 2012 and were assessed by molecular and serologic tests. Referred patients were divided into two groups: patients with a CCHF positive result and patients with a CCHF negative result. The laboratory and clinical findings of these two groups were then compared. Two-thousand five hundred thirty-six probable cases of CCHF were referred to the laboratory, of which 871 cases (34.3%) were confirmed to be CCHF. Contact with infected humans and animals increased the CCHF infection risk (P important role in patient survival and the application of the findings of this study can prove helpful as a key for early diagnosis.

  19. Ribavirin for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever: systematic review and meta-analysis

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    G Gail

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever epidemics often occur in areas where health services are limited, and result in high case fatality rates. Besides intensive care, ribavirin is often recommended. A solid evidence base for the use of this drug will help justify assuring access to the drug in areas where epidemics are common. Methods We carried out a systematic review of observational and experimental studies of people with suspected or confirmed Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever that included comparisons between patients given ribavirin and those not. We extracted data on mortality, hospital stay, and adverse events. Risk of bias was assessed using a standard checklist, and data were presented in meta-analytical graphs, stratified by study design, and GRADE tables presented. The risk of bias was summarised using the GRADE method. Results 21 unique studies, including one randomised controlled trial of ribavirin, were included. Quality of the evidence was very low, with a Down and Black median score of 4 (maximum possible 33. Ribavirin treatment was not shown to be superior to no ribavirin treatment for mortality rate in a single RCT (RR: 1.13, 95%CI: 0.29 to 4.32, 136 participants, GRADE=low quality evidence; but ribavirin was associated with reduced mortality by 44% when compared to no ribavirin treatment in the pooled observational studies (RR: 0.56, 95%CI: 0.35 to 0.90, 955 participants; GRADE=very low quality evidence. Adverse events were more common with the ribavirin patients, but no severe adverse events were reported. No difference in length of hospital stay was reported. Conclusions No clear message of benefit is available from the current data on ribavirin as observational data are heavily confounded, and the one trial carried out has limited power. However, ribavirin could potentially have benefits in this condition and these results clearly indicate a pragmatic, randomised controlled trial in the context of good quality

  20. Molecular epidemiology of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in Kosovo.

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    Luka Fajs

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV is a zoonotic agent that causes severe, life-threatening disease, with a case fatality rate of 10-50%. It is the most widespread tick-borne virus in the world, with cases reported in Africa, Asia and Eastern Europe. CCHFV is a genetically diverse virus. Its genetic diversity is often correlated to its geographical origin. Genetic variability of CCHFV was determined within few endemic areas, however limited data is available for Kosovo. Furthermore, there is little information about the spatiotemporal genetic changes of CCHFV in endemic areas. Kosovo is an important endemic area for CCHFV. Cases were reported each year and the case-fatality rate is significantly higher compared to nearby regions. In this study, we wanted to examine the genetic variability of CCHFV obtained directly from CCHF-confirmed patients, hospitalized in Kosovo from 1991 to 2013. We sequenced partial S segment CCHFV nucleotide sequences from 89 patients. Our results show that several viral variants are present in Kosovo and that the genetic diversity is high in relation to the studied area. We also show that variants are mostly uniformly distributed throughout Kosovo and that limited evolutionary changes have occurred in 22 years. Our results also suggest the presence of a new distinct lineage within the European CCHF phylogenetic clade. Our study provide the largest number of CCHFV nucleotide sequences from patients in 22 year span in one endemic area.

  1. Molecular epidemiology of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajs, Luka; Jakupi, Xhevat; Ahmeti, Salih; Humolli, Isme; Dedushaj, Isuf; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a zoonotic agent that causes severe, life-threatening disease, with a case fatality rate of 10-50%. It is the most widespread tick-borne virus in the world, with cases reported in Africa, Asia and Eastern Europe. CCHFV is a genetically diverse virus. Its genetic diversity is often correlated to its geographical origin. Genetic variability of CCHFV was determined within few endemic areas, however limited data is available for Kosovo. Furthermore, there is little information about the spatiotemporal genetic changes of CCHFV in endemic areas. Kosovo is an important endemic area for CCHFV. Cases were reported each year and the case-fatality rate is significantly higher compared to nearby regions. In this study, we wanted to examine the genetic variability of CCHFV obtained directly from CCHF-confirmed patients, hospitalized in Kosovo from 1991 to 2013. We sequenced partial S segment CCHFV nucleotide sequences from 89 patients. Our results show that several viral variants are present in Kosovo and that the genetic diversity is high in relation to the studied area. We also show that variants are mostly uniformly distributed throughout Kosovo and that limited evolutionary changes have occurred in 22 years. Our results also suggest the presence of a new distinct lineage within the European CCHF phylogenetic clade. Our study provide the largest number of CCHFV nucleotide sequences from patients in 22 year span in one endemic area.

  2. A case report of crimean congo hemorrhagic Fever in ostriches in iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafavi, Ehsan; Chinikar, Sadegh; Moradi, Maryam; Bayat, Neda; Meshkat, Mohsen; Fard, Mohammad Khalili; Ghiasi, Seyyed Mojtaba

    2013-01-01

    Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a viral zoonosis, which is usually transmitted via tick bites or close contact with infected blood or tissue. This disease can cause a case fatality rate of up to 25%-30% in humans. CCHF Infection in birds is less documented. An ostrich can reproduce viruses and can also play the role of a mechanical vector, by transporting infected ticks without becoming ill. In March 2007, three butchers and one worker in an ostrich farm were infected with CCHF in central part of Iran. Considering the role ostriches play in transmitting the disease, serum samples from five ostriches of that farm were taken and sent to the laboratory for CCHF ELISA tests. The result of the IgG test was positive for one (20%) of the ostriches. At the same time, serum samples of eight sheep from the same farm were sent for IgG testing, two (25%) of which were positive. This was the first report of CCHF infection of an ostrich in Iran and tracing CCHF IgG against this ostrich and the afore-mentioned sheep may have revealed that the disease in the worker was the cause of transmission of this disease from these animals or their ticks.

  3. Knowledge, attitude and practice of healthcare workers concerning Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Western Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mojtaba Salimi; Abbas Aghaei Afshar; Mojtaba Limoee; Soraya Babakhani; Omid Chatrabgoun; Ahmad Ali Hanafi-Bojd; Gidiglo Godwin Nutifafa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of healthcare workers in Kermanshah Province about Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF). Methods: This study was conducted in 2014 on healthcare personnel in different job categories including physicians, nurses, midwives, laboratory staff and network health staff of Kermanshah Province by direct interview. Results: A total of 367 respondents who had more than 5 years of experience in their jobs were interviewed. Among them 91%of physicians and nurses, 97%of midwives and health workers and 96%of laboratory staff stated that they had not been confronted with CCHF patients so far. Regarding knowledge, 76%of physicians, 78%of nurses, 77%of midwives and 58%of laboratory staff believed that the disease is remediable. Most of the interviewed participants stated that the disease pertains to people who are in close contact with domestic animals, but they did not consider their own occupations as one of the risk factors. More than 70% of the respondents believed that the disease may exist in the province or their work field. Generally, the knowledge about CCHF was inadequate, with nurses having the lowest level of knowledge. Conclusions: Knowledge of Kermanshah healthcare staff about CCHF was poor, especially nurses in a high risk job category. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct specific training programs for the disease identification, transmission, prevention, and treatment as well as the use of personal protection and safety devices.

  4. Knowledge, attitude and practice of healthcare workers concerning Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Western Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mojtaba Salimi; Abbas Aghaei Afshar; Mojtaba Limoee; Soraya Babakhani; Omid Chatrabgoun; Ahmad Ali Hanafi-Bojd; Gidiglo Godwin Nutifafa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of healthcare workers in Kermanshah Province about Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever(CCHF).Methods: This study was conducted in 2014 on healthcare personnel in different job categories including physicians, nurses, midwives, laboratory staff and network health staff of Kermanshah Province by direct interview.Results: A total of 367 respondents who had more than 5 years of experience in their jobs were interviewed. Among them 91% of physicians and nurses, 97% of midwives and health workers and 96% of laboratory staff stated that they had not been confronted with CCHF patients so far. Regarding knowledge, 76% of physicians, 78% of nurses, 77% of midwives and 58% of laboratory staff believed that the disease is remediable. Most of the interviewed participants stated that the disease pertains to people who are in close contact with domestic animals, but they did not consider their own occupations as one of the risk factors. More than 70% of the respondents believed that the disease may exist in the province or their work field. Generally, the knowledge about CCHF was inadequate, with nurses having the lowest level of knowledge.Conclusions: Knowledge of Kermanshah healthcare staff about CCHF was poor,especially nurses in a high risk job category. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct specific training programs for the disease identification, transmission, prevention, and treatment as well as the use of personal protection and safety devices.

  5. Sero-epidemiological survey of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in Tunisia

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    Wasfi Fares

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF is a tick-borne disease associated with a high case fatality rate and transmitted mainly by Hyalomma marginatum. The geographical distribution of H. marginatum covers most of the Western Mediterranean basin. We aimed to investigate whether CCHF virus (CCHFv is circulating in Tunisia. Samples from unexplained acute febrile patients (n = 181 and a high risk group of humans, mainly slaughter workers (n = 38, were collected in the summer of 2014 and analyzed for exposure to CCHFv using serological tests and real-time RT-PCR. Ticks were collected from Northern and Southern Tunisia during May–June 2014 and examined for the presence of CCHFv by real-time RT-PCR. Of the 181 febrile patients, 5 showed only high titers of IgM suggesting a recent exposure to CCHFv. Among 38 slaughter workers, 2 had IgG anti-CCHFv responses yielding a seroprevalence of 5.2%. No CCHFv was detected in ticks and sera. Our results provide evidence of human exposure to CCHFv in Tunisia.

  6. Sero-epidemiological survey of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasfi, Fares; Dowall, Stuart; Ghabbari, Tayssir; Bosworth, Andrew; Chakroun, Mohamed; Varghese, Anitha; Tiouiri, Hanene; Ben Jemaa, Mounir; Znazen, Abir; Hewson, Roger; Zhioua, Elyes; Letaief, Amel

    2016-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne disease associated with a high case fatality rate and transmitted mainly by Hyalomma marginatum. The geographical distribution of H. marginatum covers most of the Western Mediterranean basin. We aimed to investigate whether CCHF virus (CCHFv) is circulating in Tunisia. Samples from unexplained acute febrile patients (n = 181) and a high risk group of humans, mainly slaughter workers (n = 38), were collected in the summer of 2014 and analyzed for exposure to CCHFv using serological tests and real-time RT-PCR. Ticks were collected from Northern and Southern Tunisia during May–June 2014 and examined for the presence of CCHFv by real-time RT-PCR. Of the 181 febrile patients, 5 showed only high titers of IgM suggesting a recent exposure to CCHFv. Among 38 slaughter workers, 2 had IgG anti-CCHFv responses yielding a seroprevalence of 5.2%. No CCHFv was detected in ticks and sera. Our results provide evidence of human exposure to CCHFv in Tunisia. PMID:26956221

  7. Consensus report: Preventive measures for Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever during Eid-al-Adha festival

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    Hakan Leblebicioglu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF is endemic in Eurasian countries such as, Turkey, Pakistan, Afghanistan and Iran. CCHF virus is spread by the Hyalomma tick, which is found mainly on cattle and sheep. Muslim countries, in which these animals are sacrificed during Eid-Al-Adha, are among the countries where CCHF is endemic, and it has been observed that CCHF is associated with practices surrounding the Eid-ad-Adha festival. The dates for Eid-Al-Adha drift 10 days earlier in each year according to Georgian calendar. In previous years Eid-al-Adha occurred in autumn-winter months however in the next 10-15 years it will be take place in the summer months when CCHF is more prevalent. This may lead to a rise in the number of cases due to increased dissemination of CCHF virus with uncontrolled animal movements in and between countries. This consensus report focuses on the variable practices regarding animal handling in different regions and possible preventative measures to reduce the incidence of CCHF. Environmental hygiene and personal protection are essential parts of prevention. There is a need for international collaborative preparedness and response plans for prevention and management of CCHF during Eid-Al-Adha in countries where the disease is prevalent.

  8. Seroepidemiology of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Slaughterhouse Workers in North Eastern Iran

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    M Zeinali

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF is an acute febrile haemorrhagic disease. This study was conducted to ascertain the infection status amongst slaughterhouse workers in Iran's north-eastern provinces (Razavi and northern and southern Khorasan, so that analysis of the results could help clarification of the epidemiology of this disease in the aforementioned provinces and eastern regions of Iran.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, conducted in 2004 and 2005, 108 slaughterhouse workers from 24 cities of the three previously mentioned provinces were randomly entered into the study. An IgG specific ELISA test was carried out on the participants’ serum samples.Results: Sixteen out of 108 (14.8% participants under study were shown to have IgG against CCHF. The highest rate of infection was seen in Razavi Khorasan and southern Khorasan at 17.5% and 16.7%, respectively.Conclusion: The study showed a relatively high frequency of this disease amongst slaughterhouse workers in these provinces. Taking into account the small number of reported cases from these provinces, it would seem that more focus is required on primary diagnosis and on referral of suspected patients.

  9. Hard ticks (Ixodidae and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in south west of Iran.

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    Narges Sharifinia

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ticks are vectors of some important arthropod-borne diseases in both fields of veterinary and medicine, such as Lyme, tularemia, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and some types of encephalitis as well as Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF. Iran is known as one of the main foci of CCHF in west of Asia. This study was conducted in DarrehShahr County because of the development of animal husbandry in this area to detect the fauna and viral infection of the hard ticks of livestock. A cross-sectional survey was conducted during 2011-2012 with random sampling in four villages. A sample of ticks was subjected to RT-PCR method for detection of viral infection. During the study period, 592 Ixodidae ticks were collected and identified as seven species of Hyalomma asiaticum, Hy. marginatum, Hy. anatolicum, Hy. dromedarii, Hy. detritum, Rhipicephalus bursa and Rh. sanguineus. More than 20% of these ticks were examined to detect the genome of CCHF virus while 6.6% were positive. All species of Hyalomma were found to be positive. A high rate of livestock was found to be infected with hard ticks, which can act as the vectors of the CCHF disease. Regarding infection of all five Hyalomma species captured in this area, this genus should be considered as the main vector of CCHF. Planning control program can be performed based on the obtained data on seasonal activity of Ixodidae to prevent animal infestation as well as to reduce the risk of CCHF transmission.

  10. The role of heparan sulphate in pathogenesis of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever disease

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    Fatma Mutlu Kukul Guven

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF is a viral infection typically transmitted by tick bite. This study is to define the level of heparan sulphate (HS in serum/urine since HS may play a role in the pathogenesis of hemorrhagic events in the patients with CCHF. Methods: In this study, the patient group consisted of 79 cases with a positive diagnosis of CCHF according to PCR/ELISA outcome among the patients referred to Cumhuriyet University, School of Medicine in 2010. A total of 81 volunteers who had not any viral or metabolic disease were enrolled as the control group. The blood samples were centrifuged, and the serum and urine samples obtained were stored at – 80°C until they were studied. Then, these samples were simultaneously dissolved, and HS level was spectrophotometrically measured using glycosaminoglycans specific 1– 9, dimethyl-methylene blue (DMMB stain. Results: A statistically significant increase in the HSserum values was found both in the individuals under and above 16 yr old in the patient groups compared to the controls (p <0.05. Also there was a statistically significant increase in the urine levels of HS in the cases >16 yr old compared to the controls (p <0.05. Interpretations & conclusion: Increase of the serum/urine levels of HS was though to be due to vascular endothelium damage and to liver injury as well as vascular endothelium damage in the patients who died. Further, comprehensive studies are needed to demonstrate whether the serum/urine levels of HS are correlated to liver and vascular endothelium damage and prognosis of the disease.

  11. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Subunit Vaccines Induce High Levels of Neutralizing Antibodies But No Protection in STAT1 Knockout Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortekaas, Jeroen; Vloet, Rianka P M; McAuley, Alexander J; Shen, Xiaoli; Bosch, Berend Jan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/273306049; de Vries, Laura; Moormann, Rob J M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069850550; Bente, Dennis A

    2015-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus is a tick-borne bunyavirus of the Nairovirus genus that causes hemorrhagic fever in humans with high case fatality. Here, we report the development of subunit vaccines and their efficacy in signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) knockout mice

  12. Genome Sequence of Ex-Afghanistan Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus SCT Strain, from an Imported United Kingdom Case in October 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, John; Atkinson, Barry; Logue, Christopher H; Latham, Jennie; Newman, Edmund N C; Hewson, Roger

    2013-05-16

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus is a serious human pathogen causing severe hemorrhagic disease with a fatality rate of up to approximately 30%. We have determined the viral genomic sequence from an isolate that caused a fatal case of imported CCHF in the United Kingdom in October 2012.

  13. Novel Molecular Beacon Probe-Based Real-Time RT-PCR Assay for Diagnosis of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Encountered in India

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    Aman Kamboj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF is an emerging zoonotic disease in India and requires immediate detection of infection both for preventing further transmission and for controlling the infection. The present study describes development, optimization, and evaluation of a novel molecular beacon-based real-time RT-PCR assay for rapid, sensitive, and specific diagnosis of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV. The developed assay was found to be a better alternative to the reported TaqMan assay for routine diagnosis of CCHF.

  14. Assessment of Recombination in the S-segment Genome of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Sadegh Chinikar; Nariman Shah-Hosseini; Saeid Bouzari; MohammadAli Shokrgozar; Ehsan Mostafavi; Tahmineh Jalali; Sahar Khakifirouz; Groschup, Martin H.; Matthias Niedrig

    2015-01-01

     Background: Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus (CCHFV) belongs to genus Nairovirus and family Bunyaviridae. The main aim of this study was to investigate the extent of recombination in S-segment genome of CCHFV in Iran.Methods: Samples were isolated from Iranian patients and those available in GenBank, and analyzed by phyloge­netic and bootscan methods.Results: Through comparison of the phylogenetic trees based on full length sequences and partial fragments in the S-segment genome of CCHF...

  15. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus-infected hepatocytes induce ER-stress and apoptosis crosstalk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV is a widely distributed tick-borne member of the Nairovirus genus (Bunyaviridae with a high mortality rate in humans. CCHFV induces a severe disease in infected patients that includes, among other symptoms, massive liver necrosis and failure. The interaction between liver cells and CCHFV is therefore important for understanding the pathogenesis of this disease. Here, we described the in vitro CCHFV-infection and -replication in the hepatocyte cell line, Huh7, and the induced cellular and molecular response modulation. We found that CCHFV was able to infect and replicate to high titres and to induce a cytopathic effect (CPE. We also observed by flow cytometry and real time quantitative RT-PCR evidence of apoptosis, with the participation of the mitochondrial pathway. On the other hand, we showed that the replication of CCHFV in hepatocytes was able to interfere with the death receptor pathway of apoptosis. Furthermore, we found in CCHFV-infected cells the over-expression of PUMA, Noxa and CHOP suggesting the crosstalk between the ER-stress and mitochondrial apoptosis. By ELISA, we observed an increase of IL-8 in response to viral replication; however apoptosis was shown to be independent from IL-8 secretion. When we compared the induced cellular response between CCHFV and DUGV, a mild or non-pathogenic Nairovirus for humans, we found that the most striking difference was the absence of CPE and apoptosis. Despite the XBP1 splicing and PERK gene expression induced by DUGV, no ER-stress and apoptosis crosstalk was observed. Overall, these results suggest that CCHFV is able to induce ER-stress, activate inflammatory mediators and modulate both mitochondrial and death receptor pathways of apoptosis in hepatocyte cells, which may, in part, explain the role of the liver in the pathogenesis of CCHFV.

  16. Genetic Diversity of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Strains from Iran

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    Sadegh Chinikar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV is a member of the Bunyaviridae family and Nairovirus genus. It has a negative-sense, single stranded RNA genome approximately 19.2 kb, containing the Small, Medium, and Large segments. CCHFVs are relatively divergent in their genome sequence and grouped in seven distinct clades based on S-segment sequence analysis and six clades based on M-segment sequences. Our aim was to obtain new insights into the molecular epidemiology of CCHFV in Iran.Methods: We analyzed partial and complete nucleotide sequences of the S and M segments derived from 50 Iranian patients. The extracted RNA was amplified using one-step RT-PCR and then sequenced. The sequences were ana­lyzed using Mega5 software.Results: Phylogenetic analysis of partial S segment sequences demonstrated that clade IV-(Asia 1, clade IV-(Asia 2 and clade V-(Europe accounted for 80 %, 4 % and 14 % of the circulating genomic variants of CCHFV in Iran respectively. However, one of the Iranian strains (Iran-Kerman/22 was associated with none of other sequences and formed a new clade (VII. The phylogenetic analysis of complete S-segment nucleotide sequences from selected Ira­nian CCHFV strains complemented with representative strains from GenBank revealed similar topology as partial sequences with eight major clusters. A partial M segment phylogeny positioned the Iranian strains in either associa­tion with clade III (Asia-Africa or clade V (Europe.Conclusion: The phylogenetic analysis revealed subtle links between distant geographic locations, which we pro­pose might originate either from international livestock trade or from long-distance carriage of CCHFV by infected ticks via bird migration.

  17. [A case of brucellosis misdiagnosed as Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almiş, Habip; Yakıncı, Cengiz

    2012-07-01

    Brucellosis which is a zoonotic infection, is an important public health problem in Turkey and all over the world. The disease may involve many organs and systems. Since the symptoms of brucellosis are non-specific, difficulties in differential diagnosis and misdiagnosis are frequent. In this case report we present a case of brucellosis, misdiagnosed as Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF). A 13-year-old boy was referred from another medical center with preliminary diagnosis of CCHF and admitted to our clinic with fever and a history of presence of a tick on his back. His physical observation only included splenomegaly. The laboratory results on admission were anemia, thrombocytopenia, elevation of acute phase reactants and liver transaminase levels. Abdominal ultrasonography revealed splenomegaly. Since the patient had anemia, epistaxis, fever and thrombocytopenia, he was initially diagnosed as CCHF. Meantime serum sample of the patient had been sent to Refik Saydam National Public Health Agency for CCHF PCR test. The fever of the patient could not be controlled. His detailed medical history revealed stockbreeding and consumption of raw milk products. Patient's signs and symptoms were also compatible with brucellosis and standard tube agglutination test for brucellosis was positive at 1/1280 titer in serum. The patient was diagnosed as brucellosis and the treatment was started with combination of rifampicin (1 x 600 mg/day) and doxycycline (2 x 100 mg/day). Blood cultures yielded negative result. The PCR tests for CCHF was found also negative. His fever and other complaints improved with treatment which was completed in six weeks and the follow-up was without complications. Turkey is endemic both for brucellosis and CCHF. This case was reported to emphasize that the cases of brucellosis could mimic other diseases and brucellosis should also be considered in the differential diagnosis of CCHF.

  18. Public Knowledge and Attitude toward Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in Tokat Turkey

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    R Yilmaz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The World health Organization (WHO declares Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fe­ver (CCHF endemic in Turkey. Despite the magnitude of problem, no documented evi­dence exists in Turkey, which reveals the aware­ness and practices of the country's adult popula­tion regarding CCHF, its spread, symptoms, treatment, and preven­tion. This study was conducted to assess the level of knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding CCHF in people visit­ing terti­ary care hospital in Tokat, Turkey.Methods: This questionnaire based cross-sectional survey was conducted among patients' rela­tives or guardians who ad­mitted pediatric outpatient clinics during May-July 2008. The question­naire was composed of 25 questions.Results: A total of 1034 respondents participated in the survey. Sufficient knowledge about CCHF was not found in 28.9% of the sample. Literate individuals were relatively better informed about CCHF as compared to the illiterate peo­ple. Television and radio were con­sidered as the most important and useful source of information on the disease.Conclusion: We have found insufficient knowledge on CCHF in our population. It is thought to have no chance of suc­cess against a fatal disease such as CCHF, which has serious consequences, without the contribution of commu­nity. It is clear that there are important tasks for health, agri­culture, and media sectors to improve public knowledge and awareness about CCHF.

  19. Emergence of viral hemorrhagic fevers: Is recent outbreak of crimean congo hemorrhagic fever in India an indication?

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    C Lahariya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The emerging and re-emerging diseases are posing a great health risk for the last few years. One such category of diseases is viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHFs, which have emerged in the new territories, worldwide. Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF cases, for the first time in India, were reported from Gujarat, in January 2011. The emergence of diseases not reported earlier, pose great economic and social challenge, burden health system, and create panic reaction. Nonetheless, with recent experience in control of epidemic diseases, and advances in basic scientific knowledge; the public health community is better prepared for these unexpected events. This review provides information to physicians on CCHF for managing outbreak, and identifies public health measures to prevent emergence and re-emergence of VHFs (including CCHF in future. The authors suggest that though, there are a few challenging and unanswered questions, the public health preparedness still remains the key to control emerging and re-emerging diseases. The countries where virus activities have been reported need to be prepared accordingly.

  20. A nosocomial transmission of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever to an attending physician in north kordufan, Sudan

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    Elbashir Mustafa I

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF, a tick-borne disease caused by Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV, is a member of the genus Nairovirus in the family Bunyaviridae. Recently, CCHFV has been reported as an important emerging infectious viral pathogen in Sudan. Sporadic cases and multiple CCHF outbreaks, associated with nosocomial chain of transmission, have been reported in the Kordufan region of Sudan. Aims To confirm CCHF in an index patient and attending physician in North Kordufan region, Sudan, and to provide some information on virus genetic lineages. Methods Antibody captured ELISA, reverse transcription PCR, partial S segment sequences of the virus and subsequent phylogenetic analysis were used to confirm the CCHFV infection and to determine the virus genetic lineages. Results CCHF was confirmed by monitoring specific IgM antibody and by detection of the viral genome using RT-PCR. Treatment with oral ribavirin, replacement with fluid therapy, blood transfusion and administration of platelets concentrate resulted in rapid improvement of the health condition of the female physician. Phylogenetic analysis of the partial S segment sequences of the 2 CCHFV indicates that both strains are identical and belong to Group III virus lineage, which includes viruses from Africa including, Sudan, Mauritania, South Africa and Nigeria. Conclusion Further epidemiologic studies including, CCHFV complete genome analysis and implementation of improved surveillance are urgently needed to better predict and respond to CCHF outbreaks in the Kordufan region, Sudan.

  1. Various clinical conditions can mimic Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in pediatric patients in endemic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Soner S; Kara, Duygu; Fettah, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne disease with high mortality. Many disorders can mimic CCHF. It is important to recognize the condition and to perform differential diagnosis in endemic countries. Twenty-one children aged 18 years or less with a preliminary diagnosis of CCHF were retrospectively evaluated. Real-time PCR and a confirmatory indirect immunofluorescence assay for negative results were performed. The diagnoses determined that 9 patients had (42.9%) CCHF; 7 patients had (33.3%) viral upper respiratory tract infections (URTI); 2 patients had (9.5%) brucellosis; 1 patients had (4.7%) periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis, and adenitis (PFAPA) syndrome episode; 1 patient had (4.7%) cerebral palsy, diabetes insipidus, acute gastroenteritis, and hypernatremic dehydration; and 1 patient had (4.7%) cellulitis after a tick bite. The mean age of patients with CCHF was greater than that of the other patients (116.1±53.6 vs. 94.1±52.1 months, p=0.02). Seventeen (81%) of the children included had a history of tick bites, 2 (9.5%) had a history of contact with a patient with CCHF, and 2 (9.5%) had no exposure, but were living in an endemic region. Three patients had an underlying disorder: cerebral palsy and diabetes insipidus, epilepsy, or PFAPA. All of the children experienced fever. Other frequent symptoms were malaise, diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain, but none of these differed statistically between the patient groups. CCHF patients had a longer mean duration of symptoms (10.56±1.42 vs. 6.75±3.62 days, p=0.008) and a longer mean length of hospitalization (8.00±2.08 vs. 3.58±1.56 days, pnon-infectious causes may resemble CCHF. Although they are not pathognomonic, some indicators, including a longer symptom duration and hospitalization, cytopenia, elevated liver enzymes, creatine kinase and prolonged coagulation parameters, were found to be in favor of CCHF.

  2. Molecular epidemiology of Crimean- Congo hemorrhagic fever virus genome isolated from ticks of Hamadan province of Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahmasebi, F; Ghiasi, Seyed Mojtaba; Mostafavi, E

    2010-01-01

    .2% of the ticks collected from livestock of different regions of the Hamadan province in western Iran. The infected species belonged to Hyalomma detritum, H. anatolicum, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Argas reflexus. With one exception, genetic analysis of the virus genome isolates showed high sequence identity......BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus is a tick-borne member of the genus Nairovirus, family Bunyaviridae. CCHFV has been isolated from at least 31 different tick species. The virus is transmitted through the bite of an infected tick, or by direct contact with CCHFV......-infected patients or the products of infected livestock. This study was undertaken to study the genetic relationship and distribution of CCHFV in the tick population of Hamadan province of Iran. METHOD: In this study, RT-PCR has been used for detection of the CCHFV genome. RESULTS: This genome was detected in 19...

  3. Assessment of Recombination in the S-segment Genome of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Iran

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    Sadegh Chinikar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available  Background: Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus (CCHFV belongs to genus Nairovirus and family Bunyaviridae. The main aim of this study was to investigate the extent of recombination in S-segment genome of CCHFV in Iran.Methods: Samples were isolated from Iranian patients and those available in GenBank, and analyzed by phyloge­netic and bootscan methods.Results: Through comparison of the phylogenetic trees based on full length sequences and partial fragments in the S-segment genome of CCHFV, genetic switch was evident, due to recombination event. Moreover, evidence of multi­ple recombination events was detected in query isolates when bootscan analysis was used by SimPlot software.Conclusion: Switch of different genomic regions between different strains by recombination could contribute to CCHFV diversification and evolution. The occurrence of recombination in CCHFV has a critical impact on epidemi­ological investigations and vaccine design. 

  4. [A case of brucellosis and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever coinfection in an endemic area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakeçili, Faruk; Çıkman, Aytekin; Akın, Hicran; Gülhan, Barış; Özçiçek, Adalet

    2016-04-01

    Brucellosis, a zoonotic disease which is especially seen in developing countries is still an important public health problem worldwide. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is another zoonotic disease that transmits to humans by infected tick bites as well as exposure to blood or tissue from infected animals. Both of the diseases are common among persons who live in rural areas and deal with animal husbandry. Since brucellosis usually presents with non-specific clinical symptoms and may easily be confused with many other diseases, the diagnosis of those infections could be delayed or misdiagnosed. In this report, a case of coinfection of brucellosis and CCHF has been presented to emphasize the possibility of association of these infections. A 70-year-old female patient with a history of dealing with animal husbandry in a rural area admitted to our hospital with the complaints of fever, malaise, generalized body and joint pains, and headache. Her complaints had progressed within the past two days. She also reported nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea. She denied any history of tick bites. Her physical examination was significant for the presence of 38.8°C fever, increased bowel sounds and splenomegaly. Laboratory analysis revealed leukopenia, thrombocytopenia and high levels of liver enzymes. The patient was admitted to our service with the prediagnosis of CCHF. Serum sample was sent to the Department of Microbiology Reference Laboratory at Public Health Agency of Turkey for CCHF testing. During patient's hospitalization in service, more detailed history was confronted and it was learned that she had fatigue, loss of appetite, sweating, joint pain, and intermittent fever complaints were continuing within a month and received various antibiotic treatments. The tests for brucellosis were conducted and positive results for Brucella Rose Bengal test, tube agglutination (1/160 titers) and immune capture test with Coombs (1/320 titers) were determined

  5. Pathogenesis and Immune Response of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in a STAT-1 Knockout Mouse Model▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bente, Dennis A.; Alimonti, Judie B.; Shieh, Wun-Ju; Camus, Gaëlle; Ströher, Ute; Zaki, Sherif; Jones, Steven M.

    2010-01-01

    Tick-borne Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) causes a severe hemorrhagic syndrome in humans but not in its vertebrate animal hosts. The pathogenesis of the disease is largely not understood due to the lack of an animal model. Laboratory animals typically show no overt signs of disease. Here, we describe a new small-animal model to study CCHFV pathogenesis that manifests clinical disease, similar to that seen in humans, without adaptation of the virus to the host. Our studies revealed that mice deficient in the STAT-1 signaling molecule were highly susceptible to infection, succumbing within 3 to 5 days. After CCHFV challenge, mice exhibited fever, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and highly elevated liver enzymes. Rapid viremic dissemination and extensive replication in visceral organs, mainly in liver and spleen, were associated with prominent histopathologic changes in these organs. Dramatically elevated proinflammatory cytokine levels were detected in the blood of the animals, suggestive of a cytokine storm. Immunologic analysis revealed delayed immune cell activation and intensive lymphocyte depletion. Furthermore, this study also demonstrated that ribavirin, a suggested treatment in human cases, protects mice from lethal CCHFV challenge. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that the interferon response is crucial in controlling CCHFV replication in this model, and this is the first study that offers an in-depth in vivo analysis of CCHFV pathophysiology. This new mouse model exhibits key features of fatal human CCHF, proves useful for the testing of therapeutic strategies, and can be used to study virus attenuation. PMID:20739514

  6. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever nosocomial infection in a immunosuppressed patient, Pakistan: case report and virological investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Zahra; Mahmood, Faisal; Jamil, Bushra; Atkinson, Barry; Mohammed, Murtaza; Samreen, Azra; Altaf, Lamia; Moatter, Tariq; Hewson, Roger

    2013-03-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is endemic in the Baluchistan province, Pakistan. Sporadic outbreaks of CCHF occur throughout the year especially in individuals in contact with infected livestock. Nosocomial transmission remains a risk due to difficulties in the diagnosis of CCHF and limited availability of facilities for the isolation of suspected patients. Rapid diagnosis of CCHF virus infection is required for early management of the disease and to prevent transmission. This study describes the case of a 43-year-old surgeon who contracted CCHF during a surgical procedure in Quetta, Baluchistan and who was transferred to a tertiary care facility at the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi within 1 week of contracting the infection. Diagnosis of CCHF was made using a rapid real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for CCHF viral RNA. The patient had chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis D infection for which he had previously received a liver transplant. He proceeded to develop classic hemorrhagic manifestations and succumbed to the infection 14 days post-onset of disease. There was no further nosocomial transmission of the CCHF during the hospital treatment of the surgeon. Early diagnosis of CCHF enables rapid engagement of appropriate isolation, barrier nursing and infection control measures thus preventing nosocomial transmission of the virus.

  7. Molecular Assay on Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Ticks (Ixodidae Collected from Kermanshah Province, Western Iran

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    Maria Mohammadian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF is a feverous and hemorrhagic disease endemic in some parts of Iran and caused by an arbovirus related to Bunyaviridae family and Nairovirusgenus. The main virus reser­voir in the nature is ticks, however small vertebrates and a wide range of domestic and wild animals are regarded as reservoir hosts. This study was conducted to determine the infection rate of CCHF virus in hard ticks of Sarpole-Zahab County, Kermanshah province, west of Iran.Methods: From total number of 851 collected ticks from 8 villages, 131 ticks were selected randomlyand investi­gated for detection of CCHF virus using RT-PCR.Results: The virus was found in 3.8% of the tested ticks. Hyalommaanatolicum, H.asiaticum and Rhipicephalus sanguineus species were found to have viral infection, with the highest infection rate (11.11% in Rh. sanguineus.Conclusion: These findings provide epidemiological evidence for planning control strategies of the disease in the study area.

  8. Tetracyclines as a potential antiviral therapy against Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus: Docking and molecular dynamic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Amirhossein; Amanlou, Arash; Moosavi-Movahedi, Faezeh; Golestanian, Sahand; Amanlou, Massoud

    2017-07-01

    Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus (CCHFV) is one of the deadliest human diseases with mortality rate near 50%. Special attention should be paid to this virus since there is no approved treatment for it. On the other hand, the recent outbreak of Ebola virus which is a member of hemorrhagic fever viruses shows this group of viruses can be extremely dangerous. Previous studies have indicated that nucleoprotein of CCHFV, a pivotal protein in virus replication, is an appropriate target for antiviral drug development. The aim of this study is finding inhibitor(s) of this protein. Herein, a virtual screening procedure employing docking followed by molecular dynamic was used to identify small molecule inhibitors of the nucleoprotein from FDA-approved drugs. Regarding CCHFV, using in-silico method is a safe way to achieve its inhibitor(s) since this virus is categorized as a World Health Organization (WHO) biosafety level 4 pathogen and therefore investigation in general laboratories is restricted. In conclusion, considering docking and molecular dynamic results alongside with bioavailability of FDA-approved drugs, doxycycline and minocycline are proposed as potential inhibitors of CCHFV nucleoprotein. There is hope, this study encourage other research groups for in-vitro and in-vivo studies about the efficacy of those two medicines in CCHFV treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Multiple Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus strains are associated with disease outbreaks in Sudan, 2008-2009.

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    Imadeldin E Aradaib

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF activity has recently been detected in the Kordufan region of Sudan. Since 2008, several sporadic cases and nosocomial outbreaks associated with high case-fatality have been reported in villages and rural hospitals in the region. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we describe a cluster of cases occurring in June 2009 in Dunkop village, Abyei District, South Kordufan, Sudan. Seven CCHF cases were involved in the outbreak; however, clinical specimens could be collected from only two patients, both of whom were confirmed as acute CCHF cases using CCHF-specific reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis of the complete S, M, and L segment sequences places the Abyei strain of CCHF virus in Group III, a virus group containing strains from various countries across Africa, including Sudan, South Africa, Mauritania, and Nigeria. The Abyei strain detected in 2009 is genetically distinct from the recently described 2008 Sudanese CCHF virus strains (Al-fulah 3 and 4, and the Abyei strain S and L segments closely match those of CCHF virus strain ArD39554 from Mauritania. CONCLUSIONS: The present investigation illustrates that multiple CCHF virus lineages are circulating in the Kordufan region of Sudan and are associated with recent outbreaks of the disease occurring during 2008-2009.

  10. Inherent dynamics within the Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic fever virus protease are localized to the same region as substrate interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisenmesser, Elan Z.; Capodagli, Glenn; Armstrong, Geoffrey S.; Holliday, Michael; Isern, Nancy G.; Zhang, Fengli; Pegan, Scott D.

    2015-05-01

    Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is one of several lethal viruses that encodes for a viral ovarian tumor domain (vOTU), which serves to cleave and remove multiple proteins involved in cellular signaling such as ubiquitin (Ub) and interferon stimulated gene produce 15 (ISG15). Such manipulation of the host cell machinery serves to downregulate the host response and, therefore, complete characterization of these proteases is important. While several structures of the CCHFV vOTU protease have been solved, both free and bound to Ub and ISG15, few structural differences have been found and little insight has been gained as to the dynamic plasticity of this protease. Therefore, we have used NMR relaxation experiments to probe the dynamics of CCHV vOTU, both alone and in complex with Ub, thereby discovering a highly dynamic protease that exhibits conformational exchange within the same regions found to engage its Ub substrate. These experiments reveal a structural plasticity around the N-terminal regions of CCHV vOTU, which are unique to vOTUs, and provide a rationale for engaging multiple substrates with the same binding site.

  11. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus-encoded ovarian tumor protease activity is dispensable for virus RNA polymerase function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Eric; Albariño, César G; Khristova, Marina L; Nichol, Stuart T

    2010-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a tick-borne virus (genus Nairovirus, family Bunyaviridae) associated with high case fatality disease outbreaks in regions of Africa, Europe, and Asia. The CCHFV genome consists of three negative-strand RNA segments, S, M, and L. The unusually large virus L polymerase protein and the need for biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) containment conditions for work with infectious virus have hampered the study of CCHFV replication. The L protein has an ovarian tumor (OTU) protease domain located in the N terminus, which has led to speculation that the protein may be autoproteolytically cleaved to generate the active virus L polymerase and additional functions. We report the successful development of efficient CCHFV helper virus-independent S, M, and L segment minigenome systems for analysis of virus RNA and protein features involved in replication. The virus RNA segment S, M, and L untranslated regions were found to be similar in support of replication of the respective minigenomes. In addition, the OTU domain located in the N terminus of the expressed virus L protein was shown to be a functional protease. However, no evidence of L protein autoproteolytic processing was found, and the OTU protease activity was dispensable for virus RNA replication. Finally, physiologically relevant doses of ribavirin inhibited CCHFV minigenome replication. These results demonstrated the utility of the minigenome system for use in BSL-2 laboratory settings to analyze CCHFV biology and in antiviral drug discovery programs for this important public health and bioterrorism threat.

  12. Viremia and antibody response of small African and laboratory animals to Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, A J; Leman, P A; Swanepoel, R

    1989-05-01

    Eleven species of small African wild mammals, laboratory rabbits, guinea pigs, and Syrian hamsters were infected with Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus. Low-titered viremia followed by development of antibody was observed in scrub hares (Lepus saxatilis), Cape ground squirrels (Xerus inauris), red veld rats (Aethomys chrysophilus), white tailed rats (Mystromys albicaudatus), bushveld gerbils (Tatera leucogaster), striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio), and guinea pigs. The maximum viremic titer in 4 scrub hares was 10(1.7-4.2) 50% mouse lethal doses/ml. Viremia was detected in 1/17 infected laboratory rabbits. Antibody response was only detected in South African hedgehogs (Atelerix frontalis), highveld gerbils (T. brantsii), Namaqua gerbils (Desmodillus auricularis), 2 species of multimammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis and M. coucha), and Syrian hamsters. The results of the study indicate that a proportion of infected scrub hares develop CCHF viremia of an intensity shown in the Soviet Union to be sufficient for infection of feeding immature ixodid ticks, but that South African hedgehogs and wild rodents are unlikely to be of importance as maintenance hosts of the virus in southern Africa.

  13. Development of a real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Barry; Chamberlain, John; Logue, Christopher H; Cook, Nicola; Bruce, Christine; Dowall, Stuart D; Hewson, Roger

    2012-09-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a virulent tick-borne disease with a case fatality rate ranging from 10-50% for tick-borne transmission, and up to 80% for nosocomial transmission. Human cases have been reported in over 30 countries across Europe, Asia, and Africa. It appears to be spreading to new areas with several countries reporting their first human cases of CCHF disease within the past 10 years. We report a novel real-time RT-PCR assay designed to amplify a conserved region of the CCHF virus S segment. It is capable of detecting strains from all 7 groups of CCHF, including the AP92 strain that until recently represented a lineage of strains that were not associated with human disease. The limit of detection of the assay is 5 copies of target RNA, and the assay shows no cross-reactivity with other viruses from within the same genus, or with viruses causing similar human disease.

  14. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever:a molecular survey on hard ticks (Ixodidae) in Yazd province, Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Salim Abadi Yaser; Chinikar Sadegh; Telmadarraiy Zakkyeh; Vatandoost Hassan; Moradi Maryam; Oshaghi Mohammad Ali; Ghiasi Seyed Mojtaba

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the rate of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) infection in hard ticks (Ixodidae) in Yazd province of Iran. Methods: A molecular survey on hard ticks(Ixodidae) was conducted in Yazd province during 2008 -2009. A total of 140 hard ticks (three genera and 7 species) were collected from randomly selected villages and were exanimate for presence of CCHFV reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method. Results:CCHFV genome was found in 5.71% of hard ticks. All positive ticks were from Hyalomma genus. Positive ticks including: Hyalomma dromedarii, Hyalomma marginatum, Hyalomma anatolicum,Hyalomma detritum, Hyalomma asiaticum . We were not able to find virus in in Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Dermacentor marginatus. Results exhibited that Hyalomma is the main vector in the study area. Conclusions: Due to the presence of virus in 24 provinces' out of 31, we recommend the use of acaricides and repellent to prevent disease transmission among humans. Greta care should be taken by the people who are working in slaughter houses.

  15. The complete genome sequence of a Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever virus isolated from an endemic region in Kosovo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duh, Darja; Nichol, Stuart T; Khristova, Marina L; Saksida, Ana; Hafner-Bratkovič, Iva; Petrovec, Miroslav; Dedushaj, Iusuf; Ahmeti, Salih; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana

    2008-01-01

    The Balkan region and Kosovo in particular, is a well-known Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) endemic region, with frequent epidemic outbreaks and sporadic cases occurring with a hospitalized case fatality of approximately 30%. Recent analysis of complete genome sequences of diverse CCHF virus strains showed that the genome plasticity of the virus is surprisingly high for an arthropod-borne virus. High levels of nucleotide and amino acid differences, frequent RNA segment reassortment and even RNA recombination have been recently described. This diversity illustrates the need to determine the complete genome sequence of CCHF virus representatives of all geographically distinct endemic areas, particularly in light of the high pathogenicity of the virus and its listing as a potential bioterrorism threat. Here we describe the first complete CCHF virus genome sequence of a virus (strain Kosova Hoti) isolated from a hemorrhagic fever case in the Balkans. This virus strain was isolated from a fatal CCHF case, and passaged only twice on Vero E6 cells prior to sequence analysis. The virus total genome was found to be 19.2 kb in length, consisting of a 1672 nucleotide (nt) S segment, a 5364 nt M segment and a 12150 nt L segment. Phylogenetic analysis of CCHF virus complete genomes placed the Kosova Hoti strain in the Europe/Turkey group, with highest similarity seen with Russian isolates. The virus M segments are the most diverse with up to 31 and 27% differences seen at the nt and amino acid levels, and even 1.9% amino acid difference found between the Kosova Hoti and another strain from Kosovo (9553-01). This suggests that distinct virus strains can coexist in highly endemic areas. PMID:18197964

  16. The complete genome sequence of a Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever virus isolated from an endemic region in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedushaj Iusuf

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Balkan region and Kosovo in particular, is a well-known Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF endemic region, with frequent epidemic outbreaks and sporadic cases occurring with a hospitalized case fatality of approximately 30%. Recent analysis of complete genome sequences of diverse CCHF virus strains showed that the genome plasticity of the virus is surprisingly high for an arthropod-borne virus. High levels of nucleotide and amino acid differences, frequent RNA segment reassortment and even RNA recombination have been recently described. This diversity illustrates the need to determine the complete genome sequence of CCHF virus representatives of all geographically distinct endemic areas, particularly in light of the high pathogenicity of the virus and its listing as a potential bioterrorism threat. Here we describe the first complete CCHF virus genome sequence of a virus (strain Kosova Hoti isolated from a hemorrhagic fever case in the Balkans. This virus strain was isolated from a fatal CCHF case, and passaged only twice on Vero E6 cells prior to sequence analysis. The virus total genome was found to be 19.2 kb in length, consisting of a 1672 nucleotide (nt S segment, a 5364 nt M segment and a 12150 nt L segment. Phylogenetic analysis of CCHF virus complete genomes placed the Kosova Hoti strain in the Europe/Turkey group, with highest similarity seen with Russian isolates. The virus M segments are the most diverse with up to 31 and 27% differences seen at the nt and amino acid levels, and even 1.9% amino acid difference found between the Kosova Hoti and another strain from Kosovo (9553-01. This suggests that distinct virus strains can coexist in highly endemic areas.

  17. A Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) viral vaccine expressing nucleoprotein is immunogenic but fails to confer protection against lethal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowall, SD; Buttigieg, KR; Findlay-Wilson, SJD; Rayner, E; Pearson, G; Miloszewska, A; Graham, VA; Carroll, MW; Hewson, R

    2016-01-01

    Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a severe tick-borne disease, endemic in many countries in Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe and Asia. Between 15–70% of reported cases are fatal with no approved vaccine available. In the present study, the attenuated poxvirus vector, Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara, was used to develop a recombinant candidate vaccine expressing the CCHF virus nucleoprotein. Cellular and humoral immunogenicity was confirmed in 2 mouse strains, including type I interferon receptor knockout mice, which are susceptible to CCHF disease. Despite the immune responses generated post-immunisation, the vaccine failed to protect animals from lethal disease in a challenge model. PMID:26309231

  18. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus clades V and VI (Europe 1 and 2) in ticks in Kosovo, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherifi, Kurtesh; Cadar, Daniel; Muji, Skender; Robaj, Avni; Ahmeti, Salih; Jakupi, Xhevat; Emmerich, Petra; Krüger, Andreas

    2014-09-01

    Despite being a small country, Kosovo represents one of the few foci of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) in Europe. The distribution of Kosovar tick vectors and the evolution of CCHF virus in ticks are both as yet unknown. A better description of the extent and the genetic diversity of CCHFV in ticks from endemic settings is essential, in order to be controlled. We investigated the 2012 distribution of Kosovar ticks alongside the prevalence and the phylogeography of tick-derived CCHFV. Hyalomma marginatum dominated in the endemic municipalities with 90.2% versus 24.3% in the non-endemic regions. Of 1,102 tested ticks, 40 (3.6%) were CCHFV-positive, belonging to H. marginatum (29), Rhipicephalus bursa (10), and Ixodes ricinus (1). The virus strains clustered with clade V and VI related sequences. They fell into two lineages: Kosovo I and II. Kosovo I comprised strains recovered exclusively from R. bursa ticks and was closely related to AP92 prototype strain. Kosovo II clustered into Kosovo IIa, including human-derived strains, and IIb including only strains detected in H. marginatum and I. ricinus. Our phylogeographic reconstruction suggests two temporally distinct CCHFV introductions: the most probable location of the most recent common ancestor of Kosovo I lineage was in Greece (63 years ago) and that of lineages IIa-b in Turkey (35 years ago). After each CCHFV introduction into Kosovo, subsequent lineage expansions suggest periods of in situ evolution. The study provides the first insight into the genetic variability and the origin of CCHFV in ticks from Kosovo. Our findings indicate the spreading of CCHFV to non-endemic areas, which underlines the importance of further studies in order to monitor and predict future CCHF outbreaks in Kosovo. The AP92-like strains appear to be more widespread than previously thought and may provide a promising target for experimental studies due to their assumed low pathogenicity.

  19. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus clades V and VI (Europe 1 and 2 in ticks in Kosovo, 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurtesh Sherifi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite being a small country, Kosovo represents one of the few foci of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF in Europe. The distribution of Kosovar tick vectors and the evolution of CCHF virus in ticks are both as yet unknown. A better description of the extent and the genetic diversity of CCHFV in ticks from endemic settings is essential, in order to be controlled. We investigated the 2012 distribution of Kosovar ticks alongside the prevalence and the phylogeography of tick-derived CCHFV. Hyalomma marginatum dominated in the endemic municipalities with 90.2% versus 24.3% in the non-endemic regions. Of 1,102 tested ticks, 40 (3.6% were CCHFV-positive, belonging to H. marginatum (29, Rhipicephalus bursa (10, and Ixodes ricinus (1. The virus strains clustered with clade V and VI related sequences. They fell into two lineages: Kosovo I and II. Kosovo I comprised strains recovered exclusively from R. bursa ticks and was closely related to AP92 prototype strain. Kosovo II clustered into Kosovo IIa, including human-derived strains, and IIb including only strains detected in H. marginatum and I. ricinus. Our phylogeographic reconstruction suggests two temporally distinct CCHFV introductions: the most probable location of the most recent common ancestor of Kosovo I lineage was in Greece (63 years ago and that of lineages IIa-b in Turkey (35 years ago. After each CCHFV introduction into Kosovo, subsequent lineage expansions suggest periods of in situ evolution. The study provides the first insight into the genetic variability and the origin of CCHFV in ticks from Kosovo. Our findings indicate the spreading of CCHFV to non-endemic areas, which underlines the importance of further studies in order to monitor and predict future CCHF outbreaks in Kosovo. The AP92-like strains appear to be more widespread than previously thought and may provide a promising target for experimental studies due to their assumed low pathogenicity.

  20. Detection of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Hanta, and sandfly fever viruses by real-time RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Sofi M; Aitichou, Mohamed; Hardick, Justin; Blow, Jamie; O'Guinn, Monica L; Schmaljohn, Connie

    2011-01-01

    The development of sensitive and specific nucleic acid diagnostic assays for viral pathogens is essential for proper medical intervention. This chapter describes four fluorescence-based PCR assays to detect the Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHFV), Andes (ANDV), Hantaan (HANV), and Sandfly Fever Sicilian (SFSV) Viruses. These assays are based on species-specific hydrolysis probes targeting the nucleocapsid protein gene for CCHFV and SFSV and the glycoprotein gene for ANDV and HANV. All four assays were optimized for LightCycler 2.0 (Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN) or Ruggedized Advanced Pathogen Identification Device (R.A.P.I.D.; Idaho Technology Inc., Salt Lake City, UT). The assays were evaluated using the protocols described in the Subheading 3. The limits of detection were approximately 5, 2, 2, and 5 plaque-forming units (PFUs) for CCHFV, ANDV, HTNV, and SFSV assays, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the assays were evaluated with test panels that consisted of 20-60 known positive and 30-135 known negative samples, representing 7-34 genetically diverse bacterial and viral species. The CCHFV assay detected 59 out of the 60 positive samples and no false positives, resulting in 98.3% sensitivity at LOD of 5 PFU and 100% specificity. The ANDV and HTNV assays correctly identified all the positive samples with no false positive reactions; therefore, the sensitivity and specificity of these assays were determined to be 100% at LOD of 2 PFU. The SFSV assay missed three positive samples and cross-reacted with one of 48 negative samples, resulting in 95% sensitivity at LOD of 5 PFU and 98% specificity.

  1. Measures undertaken in the German Armed Forces Field Hospital deployed in Kosovo to contain a potential outbreak of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frangoulidis, Dimitrios; Meyer, Hermann

    2005-05-01

    During May and June 2001, the World Health Organization reported an outbreak of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Kosovo. Two of the outbreak foci were located within the German Kosovo Force's zone of responsibility and thus countermeasures were undertaken at the German field hospital in Prizren to prepare for a potential outbreak among soldiers. A risk assessment was undertaken and the following essential issues were addressed: the education of troops with emphasis given to the prevention of tick bites, the establishment of an isolation unit, including barrier nursing and technical safety measures, the establishment of procedures for the safe handling of biological specimens intended for laboratory diagnosis, protocols for the treatment and prophylaxis with ribavirin, protocols for effective disinfection and decontamination, and an "outbreak plan" should the disease spread among soldiers. Using Army Mobile Field Hospital System equipment, a plan was implemented within 72 hours. The procedures described herein are likely to be suitable for the containment of other highly contagious diseases.

  2. Structural Analysis of a Viral Ovarian Tumor Domain Protease from the Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Complex with Covalently Bonded Ubiquitin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capodagli, Glenn C.; McKercher, Marissa A.; Baker, Erica A.; Masters, Emily M.; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Pegan, Scott D. (Denver); (NWU)

    2014-10-02

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus is a tick-borne, negative-sense, single-stranded RNA [ssRNA(-)] nairovirus that produces fever, prostration, and severe hemorrhages in humans. With fatality rates for CCHF ranging up to 70% based on several factors, CCHF is considered a dangerous emerging disease. Originally identified in the former Soviet Union and the Congo, CCHF has rapidly spread across large sections of Europe, Asia, and Africa. Recent reports have identified a viral homologue of the ovarian tumor protease superfamily (vOTU) within its L protein. This protease has subsequently been implicated in downregulation of the type I interferon immune response through cleavage of posttranslational modifying proteins ubiquitin (Ub) and the Ub-like interferon-simulated gene 15 (ISG15). Additionally, homologues of vOTU have been suggested to perform similar roles in the positive-sense, single-stranded RNA [ssRNA(+)] arteriviruses. By utilizing X-ray crystallographic techniques, the structure of vOTU covalently bound to ubiquitin propylamine, a suicide substrate of the enzyme, was elucidated to 1.7 {angstrom}, revealing unique structural elements that define this new subclass of the OTU superfamily. In addition, kinetic studies were carried out with aminomethylcoumarin (AMC) conjugates of monomeric Ub, ISG15, and NEDD8 (neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated 8) substrates in order to provide quantitative insights into vOTU's preference for Ub and Ub-like substrates.

  3. Serological evaluation of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in humans with high-risk professions living in enzootic regions of Isfahan province of Iran and genetic analysis of circulating strains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinikar, Sadegh; Ghiasi, Seyed Mojtaba; Naddaf, Saeed;

    2012-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a zoonotic viral disease that is asymptomatic in infected livestock, but causes a serious threat to humans with a mortality rate up to 50%. Although the CCHF virus (CCHFV) is often transmitted by ticks, livestock-to-human and human-to-human transmission a...... proportion of infected ticks increases the risk of CCHF outbreaks in the province and probably posits a great danger to other provinces....

  4. Interim Report on SNP analysis and forensic microarray probe design for South American hemorrhagic fever viruses, tick-borne encephalitis virus, henipaviruses, Old World Arenaviruses, filoviruses, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever viruses, Rift Valley fever

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaing, C; Gardner, S

    2012-06-05

    The goal of this project is to develop forensic genotyping assays for select agent viruses, enhancing the current capabilities for the viral bioforensics and law enforcement community. We used a multipronged approach combining bioinformatics analysis, PCR-enriched samples, microarrays and TaqMan assays to develop high resolution and cost effective genotyping methods for strain level forensic discrimination of viruses. We have leveraged substantial experience and efficiency gained through year 1 on software development, SNP discovery, TaqMan signature design and phylogenetic signature mapping to scale up the development of forensics signatures in year 2. In this report, we have summarized the whole genome wide SNP analysis and microarray probe design for forensics characterization of South American hemorrhagic fever viruses, tick-borne encephalitis viruses and henipaviruses, Old World Arenaviruses, filoviruses, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus and Japanese encephalitis virus.

  5. First phylogenetic analysis of a Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus genome in naturally infected Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks (Acari: Ixodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakoorziba, Mohammad Reza; Naddaf-Sani, Ali Asghar; Moemenbellah-Fard, Mohammad Djaefar; Azizi, Kourosh; Ahmadnia, Sara; Chinikar, Sadegh

    2015-05-01

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a potentially fatal systemic viral disease in many parts of the world, including Iran. The nationwide incidence of human CCHF in endemic areas was 870 confirmed cases with 126 deaths (case fatality rate, CFR = 17.6 %) in the decade leading to 2012. The detection of the CCHF virus (CCHFV) genome in tick vectors is of fundamental importance for identifying these ticks as potential reservoirs of CCHFV infection. From May to October 2013, following detection of four new clinical cases resulting in two deaths in the city of Mashhad (northeast Iran), hard ticks were recovered from infested livestock in 40 villages in Khorasan-Razavi province and examined by the microscopic method for species identification. About a quarter of the ticks were then subjected to reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect the CCHFV genome. The PCR products were then sequenced, and their phylogenetic lineages were determined. A total of 407 hard ticks were captured, representing seven different species in two distinct genera. Members of the genus Hyalomma were widely distributed in all but two of the villages studied, and this was also the most frequent (83.3 %) tick genus. Of 105 adult ticks subjected to RT-PCR, four (3.8 %) ticks were found positive for the CCHFV genome. One brown ear tick, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, was found to be naturally infected for the first time anywhere in the world. Ticks of Hyalomma asiaticum, Hyalomma marginatum, and Rhipicephalus turanicus were also found to be naturally infected with CCHFV. CCHFV found in these four different tick species were clustered in the same lineage with the Matin and SR3 strains from Pakistan and some other strains from Iran, indicating that these tick species were naturally infected with genetically closely related CCHFV in the region. The presence of CCHFV infection in four different hard tick species was confirmed using RT-PCR in northeast Iran. Part of this

  6. Development and evaluation of a real-time RT-qPCR for detection of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus representing different genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, Anne J; Kallio-Kokko, Hannimari; Ozkul, Aykut; Bodur, Hurrem; Korukruoglu, Gulay; Mousavi, Mehrdad; Pranav, Patel; Vaheri, Antti; Mirazimi, Ali; Vapalahti, Olli

    2014-12-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a zoonotic disease caused by a nairovirus belonging to family Bunyaviridae. The CCHF virus (CCHFV) can be transmitted to humans by Hyalomma ticks as well as by direct contact with infected body fluids or tissues from viremic livestock or humans. Our aim was to set up a fast RT-qPCR for detection of the different CCHFV genotypes in clinical samples, including an inactivation step to make the sample handling possible in lower biosafety levels (BSL) than BSL-4. This method was evaluated against commercial reference assays and international External Quality Assessment (EQA) samples. The analytical limit of detection for the developed CCHFV-S RT-qPCR was 11 CCHFV genomes per reaction. After exclusion of four dubious samples, we studied 38 CCHFV-positive samples (using reference tests) of which 38 were found positive by CCHFV-S RT-qPCR, suggesting a sensitivity of 100%. CCHFV-S RT q-PCR detected all eight different CCHFV strains representing five different CCHFV genotypes. In conclusion, the CCHFV-S RT-qPCR described in this study was evaluated using various sources of CCHFV samples and shown to be an accurate tool to detect human CCHFV infection caused by different genotypes of the virus.

  7. Reverse transcription PCR-based detection of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus isolated from ticks of domestic ruminants in Kurdistan province of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakoorziba, Mohammad Reza; Golmohammadi, Parvaneh; Moradzadeh, Rahmatollah; Moemenbellah-Fard, Mohammad Djaefar; Azizi, Kourosh; Davari, Behrooz; Alipour, Hamzeh; Ahmadnia, Sara; Chinikar, Sadegh

    2012-09-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a potentially fatal viral vector-borne zoonosis which has a mortality rate of up to 30% without treatment in humans. CCHF virus is transmitted to humans by ticks, predominantly from the Hyalomma genus. Following the report of two confirmed and one suspected death due to CCHF virus in Kurdistan province of Iran in 2007, this study was undertaken to determine the fauna of hard ticks on domestic ruminants (cattle, sheep, and goats) and their possible infection with CCHF virus using reverse transcription PCR technique. This is the first detection of CCHF virus in ticks from the Kurdistan province of Iran. Overall, 414 ixodid ticks were collected from two districts in this province. They represented four genera from which 10 separate species were identified. The Hyalomma genus was the most abundant tick genus (70%). It was the only genus shown to be infected with the CCHF virus using RT-PCR technique. The number of ticks positive for CCHF virus was 5 out of 90 (5.6%) adult ticks. The three remaining genera (Haemaphysalis, Rhipicephalus, and Dermacentor) were all negative following molecular survey. Four of the five virally-infected ticks were from cattle mainly in the Sanandaj district. We concluded that CCHF virus is present in the Hyalomma ticks on domestic ruminants (cattle) in Kurdistan province of Iran.

  8. Molecular analysis of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus and Rickettsia in Hyalomma marginatum ticks removed from patients (Spain) and birds (Spain and Morocco), 2009-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomar, Ana M; Portillo, Aránzazu; Mazuelas, David; Roncero, Lidia; Arizaga, Juan; Crespo, Ariñe; Gutiérrez, Óscar; Márquez, Francisco J; Cuadrado, Juan F; Eiros, José M; Oteo, José A

    2016-07-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) was detected in Spain in 2010. The presence of CCHFV in Hyalomma marginatum ticks from migratory birds passing through Morocco during the spring migration strengthened the hypothesis of the arrival of infected ticks transported by birds to the Iberian Peninsula. Furthermore, Hyalomma species are vectors of bacterial infections such as spotted fever rickettsioses. CCHFV and Rickettsia were screened in Hyalomma ticks from Spain attached to patients (n=12) and birds (n=149). In addition, Rickettsia was investigated in 52 Hyalomma ticks from Morocco (previously reported as CCHFV-infected). No sample collected in Spain showed an infection with CCHFV. Two ticks removed from patients (16.7%), as well as 47 (31.5%) and 4 (7.7%) from birds, collected in Spain and Morocco respectively, were infected with Rickettsia aeschlimannii. Rickettsia sibirica subsp. mongolitimonae was also found in 2 ticks from birds collected in Spain (1.3%). The risk of CCHFV-infected ticks attached to migratory birds to reach the North of Spain is low. This study corroborates the presence of R. aeschlimannii in Spain and Morocco, and supports that H. marginatum can be a potential vector of R. sibirica subsp. mongolitimonae in the Iberian Peninsula.

  9. The first clinical case due to AP92 like strain of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever virus and a field survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Midilli Kenan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF is a fatal infection, but no clinical case due to AP92 strain was reported. We described the first clinical case due to AP92 like CCHFV. Methods A case infected by a AP92 like CCHFV was detected in Balkanian part of Turkey. Diagnosis was confirmed by RT-PCR and sequencing. A human serologic and tick survey studies were performed in the region, where the case detected. Results Thirty eight individuals out of 741 were found to be anti CCHFV IgM positive. The attack rate for overall CCHFV was calculated as 5.2%. In univariate analyses, CCHFV IgM positivity was found to be associated with the age (p Conclusion This is the first human case with AP92 like CCHFV infection. Furthermore, this is the first report of AP92 like strain in Turkey. In the region, elderly males carry the highest risk for CCHFV infection.

  10. The first clinical case due to AP92 like strain of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever virus and a field survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Background Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a fatal infection, but no clinical case due to AP92 strain was reported. We described the first clinical case due to AP92 like CCHFV. Methods A case infected by a AP92 like CCHFV was detected in Balkanian part of Turkey. Diagnosis was confirmed by RT-PCR and sequencing. A human serologic and tick survey studies were performed in the region, where the case detected. Results Thirty eight individuals out of 741 were found to be anti CCHFV IgM positive. The attack rate for overall CCHFV was calculated as 5.2%. In univariate analyses, CCHFV IgM positivity was found to be associated with the age (p < 0.001), male gender (p = 0.001), agricultural activity (p = 0.036), and history of tick bite (p = 0.014). In multivariate analysis, older age (OR: 1.03, CI:1.01–1.05, p < 0.001), male gender were found to be the risk factors (OR: 2.5, CI:1.15–5.63, p = 0.020) for CCHFV infection. Conclusion This is the first human case with AP92 like CCHFV infection. Furthermore, this is the first report of AP92 like strain in Turkey. In the region, elderly males carry the highest risk for CCHFV infection. PMID:19515251

  11. Influence of laboratory animal hosts on the life cycle of Hyalomma marginatum and implications for an in vivo transmission model for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysen eGargili

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV is one of the most geographically widespread arboviruses and causes a severe hemorrhagic syndrome in humans. The virus circulates in nature in a vertebrate-tick cycle and ticks of the genus Hyalomma are the main vectors and reservoirs. Although the tick vector plays a central role in the maintenance and transmission of CCHFV in nature, comparatively little is known of CCHFV-tick interactions. This is mostly due to the fact that establishing tick colonies is laborious, and working with CCHFV requires a biosafety level 4 laboratory (BSL4 in many countries. Nonetheless, an in vivo transmission model is essential to understand the epidemiology of the transmission cycle of CCHFV. In addition, important parameters such as vectorial capacity of tick species, levels of infection in the host necessary to infect the tick, and aspects of virus transmission by tick bite including the influence of tick saliva, cannot be investigated any other way. Here, we evaluate the influence of different laboratory animal species as hosts supporting the life cycle of Hyalomma marginatum, a two-host tick. Rabbits were considered the host of choice for the maintenance of the uninfected colonies due to high larval attachment rates, shorter larval-nymphal feeding times, higher nymphal molting rates, high egg hatching rates and higher conversion efficiency index. Furthermore, we describe the successful establishment of an in vivo transmission model CCHFV in a BSL4 biocontainment setting using interferon knockout mice. This will give us a new tool to study the transmission and interaction of CCHFV with its tick vector.

  12. Influence of laboratory animal hosts on the life cycle of Hyalomma marginatum and implications for an in vivo transmission model for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargili, Aysen; Thangamani, Saravanan; Bente, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is one of the most geographically widespread arboviruses and causes a severe hemorrhagic syndrome in humans. The virus circulates in nature in a vertebrate-tick cycle and ticks of the genus Hyalomma are the main vectors and reservoirs. Although the tick vector plays a central role in the maintenance and transmission of CCHFV in nature, comparatively little is known of CCHFV-tick interactions. This is mostly due to the fact that establishing tick colonies is laborious, and working with CCHFV requires a biosafety level 4 laboratory (BSL4) in many countries. Nonetheless, an in vivo transmission model is essential to understand the epidemiology of the transmission cycle of CCHFV. In addition, important parameters such as vectorial capacity of tick species, levels of infection in the host necessary to infect the tick, and aspects of virus transmission by tick bite including the influence of tick saliva, cannot be investigated any other way. Here, we evaluate the influence of different laboratory animal species as hosts supporting the life cycle of Hyalomma marginatum, a two-host tick. Rabbits were considered the host of choice for the maintenance of the uninfected colonies due to high larval attachment rates, shorter larval-nymphal feeding times, higher nymphal molting rates, high egg hatching rates, and higher conversion efficiency index (CEI). Furthermore, we describe the successful establishment of an in vivo transmission model for CCHFV in a BSL4 biocontainment setting using interferon knockout mice. This will give us a new tool to study the transmission and interaction of CCHFV with its tick vector.

  13. Detection, isolation and confirmation of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in human, ticks and animals in Ahmadabad, India, 2010-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devendra T Mourya

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In January 2011, human cases with hemorrhagic manifestations in the hospital staff were reported from a tertiary care hospital in Ahmadabad, India. This paper reports a detailed epidemiological investigation of nosocomial outbreak from the affected area of Ahmadabad, Gujarat, India. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Samples from 3 suspected cases, 83 contacts, Hyalomma ticks and livestock were screened for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF virus by qRT-PCR of which samples of two medical professionals (case C and E and the husband of the index case (case D were positive for CCHFV. The sensitivity and specificity of indigenous developed IgM ELISA to screen CCHFV specific antibodies in human serum was 75.0% and 97.5% respectively as compared to commercial kit. About 17.0% domestic animals from Kolat, Ahmadabad were positive for IgG antibodies while only two cattle and a goat showed positivity by qRT-PCR. Surprisingly, 43.0% domestic animals (Buffalo, cattle, sheep and goat showed IgG antibodies in the adjoining village Jivanpara but only one of the buffalo was positive for CCHFV. The Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum ticks were positive in PCR and virus isolation. CCHFV was isolated from the blood sample of case C, E in Vero E-6 cells and Swiss albino mice. In partial nucleocapsid gene phylogeny from CCHFV positive human samples of the years 2010 and 2011, livestock and ticks showed this virus was similar to Tajikistan (strain TAJ/H08966, which belongs in the Asian/middle east genetic lineage IV. CONCLUSIONS: The likely source of CCHFV was identified as virus infected Hyalomma ticks and livestock at the rural village residence of the primary case (case A. In addition, retrospective sample analysis revealed the existence of CCHFV in Gujarat and Rajasthan states before this outbreak. An indigenous developed IgM ELISA kit will be of great use for screening this virus in India.

  14. Molecular epidemiology of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus detected from ticks of one humped camels (Camelus dromedarius) population in northeastern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champour, Mohsen; Chinikar, Sadegh; Mohammadi, Gholamreza; Razmi, Gholamreza; Shah-Hosseini, Nariman; Khakifirouz, Sahar; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Jalali, Tahmineh

    2016-03-01

    A comprehensive study was conducted on camel ticks to assess the epidemiological aspects of the infection in camels. From May 2012 to January 2013, 11 cities and towns from the Khorasan provinces, northeastern Iran, were randomly selected as a "cluster" and at least 14 camels were sampled from each cluster. A total of 200 camels were examined in this study, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used for the detection of the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) genome. Tick infestation was observed in 171 of the 200 camels, 480 ixodid ticks were collected, and one genus was identified as Hyalomma. Four species were reported to be the major tick species infesting camels. Among these, Hyalomma dromedarii was the most predominant tick species (90.7 %), followed by H. anatolicum (6 %), H. marginatum (2.9 %), and H. asiaticum (0.4 %). The genome of the CCHFV was detected in 49 (10.2 %) of the 480 ticks. The CCHFV RNA was detected in two of the four tick species, and the viral genome was detected from tick samples in three South Khorasan cities. The positivity rate of ticks was as follows: Boshroyeh, 25 out of 480 (5.2 %); Birjand, 17 out of 480 (3.5 %); and Nehbandan, 7 out of 480 (1.5 %). We recommend the use of acaricides to prevent disease transmission to humans and to reduce the tick population in camels. Care should be taken by abattoir workers and by those who work closely with camels.

  15. Seasonality in hospital admissions of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever and its dependence on ambient temperature—empirical evidence from Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Tariq; Xu, Zhiwei; Younus, Muhammad; Qayyum, Abdul; Riaz, Muhammad T.

    2017-04-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) has been reported from all provinces of Pakistan. Little is known about the seasonal variations in the disease and its association with weather conditions. In this study, we explored time-series data about monthly number of CCHF admissions (2007-2010) in three public sector hospitals of Quetta—the capital city of Baluchistan province of Pakistan. Cosinor analysis was carried out to investigate seasonality in the data. To assess the effect of average monthly ambient temperature (°C) on disease, a distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) was applied. Cosinor model revealed statistically significant seasonality in monthly number of CCHF patients admitted to the study hospitals. The estimated amplitude was 3.24 cases per month with phase in mid-June and low point in mid-December. DLNM confirmed nonlinear and delayed effect of temperature on hospital admissions. At a lag of 2 months, the cumulative relative risk was more than 1 at temperature at 18.37 °C and above. In addition, relative risk was significantly high at 60th (21.98 °C), 70th (24.50 °C), 80th (27.33 °C), and 90th (29.25 °C) percentiles of temperature (relative to median value, 18.37 °C). Inclusion of Eid-al-Adha as a predictor did not improve the fitness of DLNM. Based on our analysis, we concluded significant seasonality in CCHF hospital admissions. Our findings also suggested average monthly ambient temperature (°C) as a significant predictor of CCHF hospitalizations. DLNM presented in this study may be improved with inclusion of other possible time-varying predictors particularly meteorological conditions of this region.

  16. Mini-genome rescue of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus and research into the evolutionary patterns of its untranslated regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiuru; Xia, Han; Zhang, Yujiang; Yin, Shiyu; Zhang, Zhong; Tang, Shuang; Kou, Zheng; Yu, Jingfeng; Fan, Zhaojun; Li, Tianxian

    2013-10-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a member of genus Nairovirus, family Bunyaviridae, which are distributed widely in Africa, Europe and Asia with several genotypes. As a BSL-4 level pathogen, the requirement of high-level biosafety facilities severely constrains researches on live virus manipulation. In this study, we developed a helper-virus-independent mini-genome rescue system for the Chinese YL04057 strain. Based on the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-derived mini-genome plasmids, this polymerase I driven system permits easy observation and quantification. Unlike previous report, gradually reduced levels of activity of the CCHFV L, M and S untranslated regions (UTRs) were observed in our system. We also demonstrated that the UTRs at both ends were indispensable for mini-genome background expression. In addition, we phylogentically analyzed all six UTRs of CCHFV and showed that L-UTRs were clustered together approximately corresponding to their original geographical continents. The UTRs of M segment showed a similar branch structure to its open reading frames (ORFs), and nearly an identical tree was generated with 5' UTRs of S segment compared with its ORFs. However, the 3' UTRs of S segment formed new divergent groups. Compatibility tests of YL04057 strain nucleocapsid protein and L protein expression plasmids with Nigerian strain IbAr10200 mini-genomes revealed lower compatibility of L-UTRs without an obvious effect on M-UTRs. Moreover, we demonstrated that the L-UTRs could tolerate certain nucleotide mutations. This system may provide a foundation for future studies of the viral replication cycle, pathogenic mechanisms and evolutionary patterns of CCHFV.

  17. Comparison of the Serum Levels of Interferon-α in the Patients With Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Based on Disease Severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliheh Metanat

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF is an acute viral and potentially fatal disease that is endemic in the south east of Iran, especially Sistan and Baluchestan. This study aimed to measure the serum levels of interferon-[1]r (IFN-[1]r in the patients with CCHF, considering the disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC severity. The second aim was to determine the correlation between the serum levels of IFN-[1]r and DIC severity using the guidance of diagnosis and treatment of the CCHF. Methods: Thirty-seven patients with CCHF were studied. The diagnosis was made, based on the detection of viral RNA by real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and by positive serology. These patients, based on the severity of DIC, were divided into two groups. The serum levels of IFN-[1]r were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method and compared between these two groups. Data analysis was performed using the SPSS 20.0 and non-parametric statistical tests were used for analyses. Results: The mean serum levels of IFN-[1]r were lower in the patients with CCHF on the ­rst day compared to the ­fth day of admission (P < 0.008. There was a signi­cant relationship between the serum levels of IFN-[1]r and DIC severity, as the level of IFN-[1]r was lower in the patients with overt DIC (P < 0.001. The serum level of IFN-[1]r in the patients with the overt DIC was 1.04 pg/dL with 90% speci­city and 88% sensitivity. Conclusion: The serum levels of IFN-[1]r were lower in the patients with severe CCHF, and their evaluation may be used as a marker for the diagnosis of disease severity.

  18. [An assessment of the status of natural foci of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in the Crimea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markeshin, S Ia; Smirnova, S E; Evstaf'ev, I L

    1992-04-01

    The parasitological data and the results of the virological and serological investigations of materials, collected in nature and in the course of study of the immune structure of the population, are indicative of the circulation of CHF virus in the Crimea and the possibility of human infection. Data on spontaneous infection of four species of Ixodes ticks with CHF virus have been confirmed, including the data, obtained for the first time for this region, on the participation of Dermacentor marginatus in this process. The study has revealed, also for the first time, that, together with European brown hares, the natural foci of this infection may be maintained by scilly shrews, common voles and European wood mice. Low activity of the Crimean focus may be the result of active land reclamation, keeping the cattle stalled in most of the stock-breeding farms of the region, as well as a sharp decline in the number of hares at the territories of hunting preserves.

  19. [An evaluation of the status of natural foci of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in the Crimea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markeshin, S Ia; Smirnova, S E; Evstaf'ev, I L

    1991-09-01

    Parasitological data, the results of virological and serological investigations of materials, collected in nature and during the study of the immune structure of the population and indicative of the circulation of CCHF, virus in the Crimea and the possibility of human infection, are presented. The data on the spontaneous CCHF virus infection of 4 tick species belonging to the genus Ixodes have been confirmed, and evidence on the participation of Dermacentor marginatus in this process obtained for the first time in this region. The study has revealed for the first time that, besides European brown hares, scilly shrews, common voles and field mice may contribute to the maintenance of the natural foci of this infection. The low activity of the Crimean focus of CCHF may be the result of the intensive use of land, the widely spread stall-feeding of cattle, as well as a sharp decrease in the number of hares on the territories of hunting preserves.

  20. Genetic characterization and molecular clock analyses of the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus from human and ticks in India, 2010-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Pragya D; Cherian, Sarah S; Zawar, Divya; Kokate, Prasad; Gunjikar, Rashmi; Jadhav, Santosh; Mishra, Akhilesh C; Mourya, Devendra T

    2013-03-01

    A nosocomial outbreak of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) was reported among humans in Ahmadabad district, Gujarat, India during January, 2011. In the present study we provide the complete genomic sequences of four CCHFV isolates derived from two human patients and two pools of Hyalomma anatolicum ticks during the period of this outbreak and the complete S segment sequence of two retrospective human serum samples, positive for CCHFV in 2010. Sequence-based molecular characterization of the Indian CCHFV showed that they possessed the functional motifs known to occur in the S, M and L gene segment products as in other CCHF viruses. The S segment of the six Indian CCHF viruses showed 99.8% nucleotide identity. Notably both tick isolates shared 100% nucleotide identity with one of the Indian human isolates of 2011. Phylogenetic analysis based on the S segment demonstrated that the Indian CCHFV isolates formed a distinct cluster in the Asian-Middle East group IV of CCHF viruses. The S segment was closest to a Tajikistan strain TADJ/HU8966 of 1990 (98.5% nucleotide identity) and was of South-Asia 2 type while the M segment was of type M2. Both M and L segments were closest to an Afghanistan strain Afg09-2990 of 2009 (93% and 98% nucleotide identity, respectively). The Indian isolates were thus identified as a South-Asia 2/M2 far-east virus combination and the differing parental origin in the S and L/M segments is suggestive that it may be an intra-genotypic reassortant. Molecular clock studies further revealed that the ancestry of the viruses was not very recent and dated back to about 33years on the basis of the S segment while it was about 15years based on the M segment. Thus though the 2011 outbreak may not have resulted from a very recent introduction, considering that so far there is no evidence of multiple circulating strains in the country, the possibility of a recent re-introduction of the virus from any of the neighboring countries cannot be ruled out. The

  1. Hazara virus infection is lethal for adult type I interferon receptor-knockout mice and may act as a surrogate for infection with the human-pathogenic Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowall, Stuart D; Findlay-Wilson, Stephen; Rayner, Emma; Pearson, Geoff; Pickersgill, Janice; Rule, Antony; Merredew, Natasha; Smith, Hazel; Chamberlain, John; Hewson, Roger

    2012-03-01

    Hazara virus (HAZV) is closely related to the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV). HAZV has not been reported to cause human disease; work with infectious material can be carried out at containment level (CL)-2. By contrast, CCHFV causes a haemorrhagic fever in humans and requires CL-4 facilities. A disease model of HAZV infection in mice deficient in the type I interferon receptor is reported in this study. Dose-response effects were seen with higher doses, resulting in a shorter time to death and earlier detection of viral loads in organs. The lowest dose of 10 p.f.u. was still lethal in over 50 % of the mice. Histopathological findings were identified in the liver, spleen and lymph nodes, with changes similar to a recent mouse model of CCHFV infection. The findings demonstrate that inoculation of mice with HAZV may act as a useful surrogate model for the testing of antiviral agents against CCHFV.

  2. Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Fields Virology , vol. 1, fourth ed. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp. 1581–1602. Schwarz, T.F., Nsanze, H., Ameen, A.M., 1997...and several other arthropod-borne viruses. Intervi- rology 1, 297–316. Nichol, S.T., 2001. Bunyaviruses. In: Knipe, D.M., Howley, P.M. (Eds.), Fields ... Virology , vol. 1, fourth ed. Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins, O P P P P P P P R R Uukuniemi virion RNA: an electron microscopic study. J. Virol. 21

  3. Heat Shock Protein 70 Family Members Interact with Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus and Hazara Virus Nucleocapsid Proteins and Perform a Functional Role in the Nairovirus Replication Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surtees, Rebecca; Dowall, Stuart D.; Shaw, Amelia; Armstrong, Stuart; Hewson, Roger; Carroll, Miles W.; Mankouri, Jamel; Edwards, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The Nairovirus genus of the Bunyaviridae family contains serious human and animal pathogens classified within multiple serogroups and species. Of these serogroups, the Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) serogroup comprises sole members CCHFV and Hazara virus (HAZV). CCHFV is an emerging zoonotic virus that causes often-fatal hemorrhagic fever in infected humans for which preventative or therapeutic strategies are not available. In contrast, HAZV is nonpathogenic to humans and thus represents an excellent model to study aspects of CCHFV biology under conditions of more-accessible biological containment. The three RNA segments that form the nairovirus genome are encapsidated by the viral nucleocapsid protein (N) to form ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes that are substrates for RNA synthesis and packaging into virus particles. We used quantitative proteomics to identify cellular interaction partners of CCHFV N and identified robust interactions with cellular chaperones. These interactions were validated using immunological methods, and the specific interaction between native CCHFV N and cellular chaperones of the HSP70 family was confirmed during live CCHFV infection. Using infectious HAZV, we showed for the first time that the nairovirus N-HSP70 association was maintained within both infected cells and virus particles, where N is assembled as RNPs. Reduction of active HSP70 levels in cells by the use of small-molecule inhibitors significantly reduced HAZV titers, and a model for chaperone function in the context of high genetic variability is proposed. These results suggest that chaperones of the HSP70 family are required for nairovirus replication and thus represent a genetically stable cellular therapeutic target for preventing nairovirus-mediated disease. IMPORTANCE Nairoviruses compose a group of human and animal viruses that are transmitted by ticks and associated with serious or fatal disease. One member is Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever

  4. Scientific Opinion on the Role of Tick Vectors in the Epidemiology of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever and African Swine Fever in Eurasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The report provides an update on the role of the tick vectors in the epidemiology of African swine fever (ASF and Crimean and Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF in Eurasia, specifically to review of the geographical distribution of the relevant ticks with presentation of maps of their occurrence in Europe and Mediterranean basin; a description of the factors that define the relevant tick population dynamics and identify possible high risk areas in the EU; an update on the role of tick vectors associated with CCHF and ASF in Eurasia; and reviews available methods for the control of the relevant tick vectors. Data were collected through systematic literature review in a database from which maps of geographic distribution of ticks, CCHF virus and ASF virus were issued. The main vectors for CCHF are Hyalomma spp, Increase in the number of fragmented areas and the degradation of agricultural lands to bush lands are the two main factors in the creation of new foci of CCHF in endemic areas. Movement of livestock and wildlife species, which may carry infected ticks, contributes to the spread of the infection. The Middle East and Balkan countries are the most likely sources of introduction of CCHFV into other European countries. All the Ornithodoros species investigated so far can become infective with ASF virus and are perhaps biological vectors. These ticks are important in maintaining the local foci of the ASFV, but do not play an active role in the geographical spread of the virus. Wild boars have never been found infested by Ornithodoros spp. because wild boars normally do not rest inside protected burrows, but above the ground. There is no single ideal solution to the control of ticks relevant for CCHF or ASF. The integrated control approach is probably the most effective.

  5. Therapeutic management of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Calle-Prieto, Fernando; Martín-Quirós, Alejandro; Trigo, Elena; Mora-Rillo, Marta; Arsuaga, Marta; Díaz-Menéndez, Marta; Arribas, José Ramón

    2017-06-29

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever has been reported in more than 30 countries in Africa, Asia, the Middle East and Eastern Europe, with an increasing incidence in recent years, especially in Europe. Because no specific treatments have demonstrated efficacy, supportive treatment is essential, as well as the provision of a centre with the appropriate means to guarantee the safety of its healthcare professionals. Laboratory monitoring of thrombocytopenia, severe coagulopathy or liver failure is of critical importance. Patients with Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever should be admitted to High Level Isolation Units where appropriate biocontainment procedures can prevent nosocomial transmission through infected fluids or accidents with contaminated material. In case of high-risk exposures, early administration of ribavirin should be considered. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  6. A Q fever case mimicking crimean-congo haemorrhagic fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Karabay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Coxiella burnetii is the bacterium that causes Q fever. Human infection is mainly transmitted from cattle, goats and sheep. The disease is usually self-limited. Pneumonia and hepatitis are the most common clinical manifestations. In this study, we present a case of Q fever from the western part of Turkey mimicking Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF in terms of clinical and laboratory findings.

  7. Two cases of Hantavirus infection in Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever endemic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Sünbül

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHF and Leptospirosis are endemic in our region. Hantavirus infections may beconfused with similar clinical picture zoonotic infections. Two patients with fever, malaise, cough, phlegm, nausea, vomiting,thrombocytopenia, renal failure, elevated transaminases, and a history of mouse contact were hospitalized in ourclinic with a presumptive diagnosis of leptospirosis, pneumonia, CCHF and Hantavirus infections. Empirical antibiotictreatment was initiated and CCHF and leptospirosis was ruled out with laboratory tests. Hantavirus immunoglobulin(Ig-G and Ig-M antibodies were detected positive by immunofluorescent antibody (IFA method in both cases but,Dobrova virus was detected in only one patient with immunoblotting methods. Both patients were discharged aftertreatment. Hantavirus infections may be misdiagnosed as zoonotic infections since they have similar clinical picture. Itshould be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with a history of contact with mouse. J Microbiol Infect Dis2012; 2(3: 117-120Key words: Hantavirus, hemorrhagic fever, renal syndrome, pulmonary syndrome

  8. 克里米亚-刚果出血热病毒可视化逆转录环介导等温扩增快速检测法的建立%A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification for rapid visual detection of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩一芳; 钟璟皓; 张晨; 张琪; 吕恒; 胡丹; 张锦海; 王长军

    2016-01-01

    目的 建立克里米亚刚果出血热病毒(Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus,CCHFV)的可视化逆转录环介导等温扩增(reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification,RTLAMP)快速检测法.方法 体外合成CCHFV的S基因,构建重组质粒,体外转录为模板RNA,在线设计3组LAMP引物,使用实时浊度仪筛选出最佳引物,以羟基萘酚蓝(Hydroxynaphthol blue,HNB)作为指示剂,建立可视化RT-LAMP反应体系.结果 实时浊度检测结果显示合成的3组LAMP引物中第1组引物的扩增效率最高,峰值出现于20 min.添加环引物后,扩增效率进一步提高,13 min即可达到峰值.利用最佳引物建立的CCHFV可视化RT-LAMP检测法最低检测限浓度为10拷贝/μl,检出时间为30 min,较巢式RT-PCR法和实时定量RT-PCR法分别高1-3个数量级.该方法稳定性好,不会与症状相近的病原体如肾综合征出血热汉坦病毒(汉滩型和汉城型)、马尔堡病毒、新型布尼亚病毒、埃博拉病毒(GP蛋白和VP蛋白)产生交叉反应.结论 建立的CCHFV可视化RT-LAMP检测法,灵敏度好、特异度高、快速廉价、操作简单,无需开盖即可直接观察结果,适用于条件有限的基层单位和偏远地区.但仍需临床样本进行进一步验证.%Objective To develop a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) for rapid and visual detection of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus.Methods The recombinant plasmid containing the S gene of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus was constructed using in vitro gene synthesis.The most effective primers of the three sets of RT-LAMP primers,designed by Primer Explorer software 4.0,was selected using real-time turbidimetry.Hydroxynaphthol blue (HNB) as the indicator was used to judge the result.Results The result of real-time turbidimetry showed that the first set of primers had the highest amplification efficiency with a peak time of 20 min.The amplification efficiency was

  9. European survey on laboratory preparedness, response and diagnostic capacity for crimean-congo haemorrhagic fever, 2012

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.D. Fernandez-Garcia (Maria Dolores); A. Negredo; A. Papa (Anna); O. Donoso-Mantke; M. Niedrig; H. Zeller; A. Tenorio; L. Franco (Leticia); S.W. Aberle (Stephan W.); M. van Esbroeck (M.); I. Christova; A. Markotic (Alemka); I.-C. Kurolt (Ivan-Christian); H. Zelena (Hana); I. Golovljova; D. Pannetier (Delphine); R. Charrel (Remi); J. Schmidt-Chanasit (Jonas); R. Wölfel (Roman); A. Papa (Anna); M.R. Capobianchi (Maria Rosaria); X. Jakupi (Xhevat); J. Storozenko (Jelena); A. Griskevicius (Algis); G. Bosevska (Golubinka); C. Muscat (Clive); M. Schutten (Martin); S.G. Dudman (Susanne Gjeruldsen); M.J. Alves (M. João); C.S. Ceianu; A. Platonov (Alexander); B. Bozovic (Bojana); B. Klempa; T. Avsic (Tatjana); A. Tenorio; Å. Lundkvist (Åke); P. Cherpillod (Pascal); G. Korukluoglu; D.W.G. Brown (D. W G); T. Brooks (Tim)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractCrimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an infectious viral disease that has (re-)emerged in the last decade in south-eastern Europe, and there is a risk for further geographical expansion to western Europe. Here we report the results of a survey covering 28 countries, conducted in 20

  10. Nosocomial infection of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in eastern Iran: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinikar, Sadegh; Shayesteh, Majid; Khakifirouz, Sahar; Jalali, Tahmineh; Rasi Varaie, Fereshteh Sadat; Rafigh, Mahboubeh; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Shah-Hosseini, Nariman

    2013-01-01

    An outbreak of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever occurred in the county of Birjand in eastern Iran in November 2011. Four cases were involved in this outbreak. Two patients died after admission to hospital, one of whom was a nurse who acquired the infection nosocomially, and the others were treated successfully.

  11. Severe Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever presented with massive retroperitoneal haemorrhage that recovered without antiviral treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gharabaghi, Mehrnaz Asadi; Chinikar, Sadegh; Ghiasi, Seyyed Mojtaba

    2011-01-01

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tickborne viral zoonosis with up to 50% mortality in humans caused by CCHF virus belonging to the genus Nairovirus, family Bunyaviridae. The geographical distribution of CCHF cases corresponds closely with the distribution of principle tick vectors...

  12. Surveillance and laboratory detection system of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinikar, S; Goya, M M; Shirzadi, M R

    2008-01-01

    be spread from person to person and is one of the rare haemorrhagic fever viruses able to cause nosocomial outbreaks in hospitals. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever is a public health problem in many regions of the world such as Eastern Europe, Asia, the Middle East and Africa. In addition to clinical...

  13. Epidemiology and Mutational Analysis of Global Strains of Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Han; Simon Ravner

    2011-01-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a severe illness with high fatality.Cases are reported in several countries in Africa,Europe,the Middle East,and Asia.Phylogenetic analyses based on the virus S (nucleocapsid),M (glycoprotein),and L (polymerase) genome segments sequences indicate distinct geographic lineages exist but their specific genetic characteristics require elucidation.In this work we collected all full length S segment sequences and generated a phylogenetic tree based on the alignment of these 62 samples.We then analyzed the alignment using entries from AAIndex,the Amino Acid Index database,to identify amino acid mutations that performed significant changes in charge,pka,hydropathy and side chain volume.Finally,we mapped these changes back to the tree and alignment to identify correlated mutations or sites that characterized a specific lineage.Based on this analysis we are able to propose a number of sites that appear to be important for virus function and which would be good candidates for experimental mutational analysis studies.

  14. Epidemiological, serological and herd immunity of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in Kosovo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humolli, Isme; Dedushaj, Isuf; Zupanac, Tatjana Avsic; Muçaj, Sefedin

    2010-01-01

    Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is primarily a zoonotic disease, mostly present as sporadic cases, but outbreaks also occur, especially in the family. Disease as endemic form is presents in some countries of Africa, Europe and Asia. In 2001, outbreak of CCHF was registered in Kosova, Albania, Pakistan, Iran, and South Africa. Goal of the research was to establish a pattern of the disease, its natural flow and herd immunity. For this purpose we used epidemiological methods, laboratory confirmation (ELISA, PCR) and t-test and chi2-test for results significance verification. Morbidity rate of the disease for the period of fifteen years (1995-2009) is 0.49 in 100,000 inhabitants, and lethality rate is 26.76 deaths on 100 lab confirmed cases. CCHF in Kosovo is present in 50% of the territory with common characteristics: altitude, hot climate, low bush and farming. Hyper endemic zones are in Central and South West of Kosovo. Seroprevalence in entire healthy population is found to be 24.3%. Presence of the CCHF antibodies was found in 14% of livestock, and in 32.6% of sheep. A phylogenetic aspect of the CCHFvirus isolated in Kosovo is the same as of the virus isolated in Drosdov (Russia).

  15. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus in Kazakhstan (1948-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmakhanov, Talgat; Sansyzbaev, Yerlan; Atshabar, Bakhyt; Deryabin, Pavel; Kazakov, Stanislav; Zholshorinov, Aitmagambet; Matzhanova, Almagul; Sadvakassova, Alya; Saylaubekuly, Ratbek; Kyraubaev, Kakimzhan; Hay, John; Atkinson, Barry; Hewson, Roger

    2015-09-01

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a pathogenic and often fatal arboviral disease with a distribution spanning large areas of Africa, Europe and Asia. The causative agent is a negative-sense single-stranded RNA virus classified within the Nairovirus genus of the Bunyaviridae family. Cases of CCHF have been officially recorded in Kazakhstan since the disease was first officially reported in modern medicine. Serological surveillance of human and animal populations provide evidence that the virus was perpetually circulating in a local enzoonotic cycle involving mammals, ticks and humans in the southern regions of the country. Most cases of human disease were associated with agricultural professions such as farming, shepherding and fruit-picking; the typical route of infection was via tick-bite although several cases of contact transmission associated with caring for sick patients have been documented. In total, 704 confirmed human cases of CCHF have been registered in Kazakhstan from 1948-2013 with an overall case fatality rate of 14.8% for cases with a documented outcome. The southern regions of Kazakhstan should be considered endemic for CCHF with cases reported from these territories on an annual basis. Modern diagnostic technologies allow for rapid clinical diagnosis and for surveillance studies to monitor for potential expansion in known risk areas.

  16. Molecular detection of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus in ticks from southeastern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehravaran, Ahmad; Moradi, Maryam; Telmadarraiy, Zakyeh; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Moradi, Ali Reza; Khakifirouz, Sahar; Shah-Hosseini, Nariman; Varaie, Fereshteh Sadat Rasi; Jalali, Tahmineh; Hekmat, Soheila; Ghiasi, Seyed Mojtaba; Chinikar, Sadegh

    2013-02-01

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) virus is a tick-borne member of the genus Nairovirus, family Bunyaviridae. CCHF virus has been isolated from at least 31 different species of ticks. The virus is transmitted through the bite of an infected tick or by direct contact with CCHF virus-infected patients or the products of infected livestock. This study was conducted to determine the rate of CCHF virus infection in ticks in the district of Zahedan, in the province of Sistan and Baluchistan, southeastern Iran. A total of 140 ticks were collected from Sistan and Baluchistan. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used for the detection of the CCHF virus genome in the tick population. This genome was detected in 4.3% of ticks collected from livestock of different regions of Zahedan. The infected tick genera belonged to Hyalomma and Haemaphysalis. Although in the epidemiology of CCHF virus Hyalomma ticks are considered to be the most important vectors and reservoirs, the virus has also been reported to occur in other genera of ticks, which conforms to the current data in our study from Sistan and Baluchistan. Given that animals are common hosts for Hyalomma and Haemaphysalis, regular monitoring programmes for livestock should be applied for CCHF virus control.

  17. Phylogenetic analysis in a recent controlled outbreak of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in the south of Iran, December 2008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinikar, S; Ghiasi, Seyed Mojtaba; Mojtaba Ghiasi, S;

    2010-01-01

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a viral zoonotic disease with a high mortality rate in humans. The CCHF virus is transmitted to humans through the bite of Ixodid ticks or contact with blood or tissues of CCHF patients or infected livestock. In December 2008, a re-emerging outbreak...... herd were serologically analysed and more than half of them were positive for CCHFV. We demonstrated that two routes of transmission played a role in this outbreak: contact with tissue and blood of infected livestock, and nosocomial transmission. Phylogenetic analyses helped to identify the origin...

  18. A survey of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in livestock and ticks in Ardabil Province, Iran during 2004-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telmadarraiy, Z; Ghiasi, Seyed Mojtaba; Moradi, Maryam

    2010-01-01

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a viral haemorrhagic fever caused by the CCHF virus. It is mainly transmitted to humans and animals by ticks. In recent y, large numbers of livestock have been transported across the border areas of Ardabil Province resulting in an outbreak of CCHF...... in the adjacent districts. A comprehensive study was carried out to assess the epidemiological aspects of the disease in this province. In the study area, 130 ticks were collected from randomly selected villages and classified into 9 species of hard tick and 2 species of soft tick. All ticks were analyzed...... for the presence of CCHF virus genome using gel-based and real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reactions (RT-PCR). The results showed CCHF infection in almost 28% of ticks collectively. Also, of 56 livestock sera, around 39% were IgG-positive. The presence of anti-CCHF virus IgG antibodies and the CCHF...

  19. A novel vaccine against Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever protects 100% of animals against lethal challenge in a mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen R Buttigieg

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF is a severe tick-borne disease, endemic in many countries in Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe and Asia. Between 15-70% of reported cases are fatal. There is no approved vaccine available, and preclinical protection in vivo by an experimental vaccine has not been demonstrated previously. In the present study, the attenuated poxvirus vector, Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara, was used to develop a recombinant candidate vaccine expressing the CCHF virus glycoproteins. Cellular and humoral immunogenicity was confirmed in two mouse strains, including type I interferon receptor knockout mice, which are susceptible to CCHF disease. This vaccine protected all recipient animals from lethal disease in a challenge model adapted to represent infection via a tick bite. Histopathology and viral load analysis of protected animals confirmed that they had been exposed to challenge virus, even though they did not exhibit clinical signs. This is the first demonstration of efficacy of a CCHF vaccine.

  20. Investigation of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever and Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-12

    nasal bleeding, hematuria and gross gastrointestinal bleeding. K-- F -6- Up todate 41 HFRS cases have been serologically diagnosed in Greece. The...CCHF in Greece up until April 1987, was discussed and the conclusions drawn are reported. 4 pA. : -3- B. HORAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROKE (HilS) B1...level. Two house rats (Rattus rattus) captured in a slaughter house in Thessaloniki were found to be seropositive (Table 2). _ _ I -9-. Todate

  1. First report of adult Hyalomma marginatum rufipes (vector of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus on cattle under a continental climate in Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hornok Sándor

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Hungary is being monitored for the northward spreading of thermophilic ixodid species, therefore ticks were collected from cattle and wild ruminants (red, fallow and roe deer in the autumn of 2011. Findings Besides indigenous species (1185 Dermacentor reticulatus and 976 Ixodes ricinus, two Hyalomma marginatum rufipes males were found on two cows, in September eight days apart. Conclusions This is the northernmost autochthonous infestation of the type host (cattle with H. m. rufipes, vector of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus. The present findings are suggestive of the moulting success of this Afro-Mediterranean tick species in a continental climate in Central Europe.

  2. Protective effects of a Modified Vaccinia Ankara-based vaccine candidate against Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever virus require both cellular and humoral responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart D Dowall

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF is a severe tick-borne disease, endemic in many countries in Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe and Asia. There is no approved vaccine currently available against CCHF. The most promising candidate, which has previously been shown to confer protection in the small animal model, is a modified Vaccinia Ankara virus vector expressing the CCHF viral glycoprotein (MVA-GP. It has been shown that MVA-GP induces both humoral and cellular immunogenicity. In the present study, sera and T-lymphocytes were passively and adoptively transferred into recipient mice prior to challenge with CCHF virus. Results demonstrated that mediators from both arms of the immune system were required to demonstrate protective effects against lethal challenge.

  3. Protective effects of a Modified Vaccinia Ankara-based vaccine candidate against Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever virus require both cellular and humoral responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowall, Stuart D; Graham, Victoria A; Rayner, Emma; Hunter, Laura; Watson, Robert; Taylor, Irene; Rule, Antony; Carroll, Miles W; Hewson, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) is a severe tick-borne disease, endemic in many countries in Africa, the Middle East, Eastern Europe and Asia. There is no approved vaccine currently available against CCHF. The most promising candidate, which has previously been shown to confer protection in the small animal model, is a modified Vaccinia Ankara virus vector expressing the CCHF viral glycoprotein (MVA-GP). It has been shown that MVA-GP induces both humoral and cellular immunogenicity. In the present study, sera and T-lymphocytes were passively and adoptively transferred into recipient mice prior to challenge with CCHF virus. Results demonstrated that mediators from both arms of the immune system were required to demonstrate protective effects against lethal challenge.

  4. Defining Key Entry Events for Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus in Mammalian Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-10

    illness with severe fever, headache, nausea, diarrhea, muscle aches , photophobia, and other non-specific flu-like symptoms [3, 5, 32]. Soon after the...usage, such as was found with the alphavirus Sindbis virus [214]. In that study, cell culture passage of Sindbis virus resulted in mutations that...infection of  Aedes  triseriatus. Science, 1987. 235(4788): p. 591‐3.  79.  Pekosz, A., et al., Tropism of bunyaviruses: evidence for a G1 glycoprotein

  5. Ecology and Epidemiology of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Transmission in the Republic of Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    transmission. Trans. Roy. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. (In press), 1990. Graf, J. F., Mermod, C. and Aeschliman, A. Ecologie et ethologie d"lxodes ricinus en...Hebert, R. Ecologie des populations de rongeurs de Bandia (Senegal) en zone sahelo-soudanienne. La Terre et la Vie, 31, 33, 1977. Hoogstraal, H. The

  6. Diversity, Replication, Pathogenicity and Cell Biology of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    washed with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), emulsified directly in complete or incomplete Freund’s adjuvant, and inoculated subcutaneously and...1990. Hen egg white lysozyme expressed in, and secreted from, Aspergillus niger is correctly processed and folded. Biotechnology (New York) 8:741–745. 7...cell lysates. The cell culture medium was aspirated, and the cells were washed briefly with Dulbecco’s phosphate-buffered saline (DPBS; Invitrogen) and

  7. Diversity, Replication, Pathogenicity and Cell Biology of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    CCHFV. VII Congreso Argentino de Virologia . September 19-22. Buenos Aires, Argentina. 13 5. Conclusions. The major conclusions reached during the...seroepidemiological clinical notes. East Afr Med 1 44, 86-92. and tick survey in the Sultanate of Oman. Trop Med Int Health 5, Thompson, J. D

  8. Geographical distribution and surveillance of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever in Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chinikar, Sadegh; Ghiasi, Seyed Mojtaba; Moradi, Maryam

    2010-01-01

    . Since 2000, we have shown the disease to be prevalent in 23 out of 30 provinces of Iran. Among those, Sistan-va-Baluchistan, Isfahan, Fars, Tehran, Khorasan, and Khuzestan demonstrated the highest infection, respectively. Notably, Sistan-va-Baluchistan province, southeast of Iran, has the highest...... of the disease has ranged variably in different provinces of Iran. More pathogenesis and phylogenetic studies should therefore be investigated to clarify these differences....

  9. Examination of the specific clinical symptoms and laboratory findings of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cetin Kilinc

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusion: It was inferred that certain clinical symptoms and laboratory findings such as fever, headache, widespread body pain, fatigue, leucopenia, nausea, vomiting, high CK levels, thrombocytopenia, AST/ ALT elevation and elevated LDH levels are highly specific and are required to be considered in the definitive diagnosis of CCHF, particularly in regions where this infection is observed as endemic.

  10. The feasibility of developing a risk assessment for the impact of climate change on the emergence of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in livestock in Europe: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, P; Estrada-Peña, A; Martinez, M; Ulrich, R G; Wilson, A; Capelli, G; Phipps, P; de la Torre, A; Muñoz, M J; Dottori, M; Mioulet, V; Fooks, A R

    2010-06-01

    Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is one of the most widespread of all medically important arboviruses with ticks of the Hyalomma spp. serving as the main vectors. Infection of livestock by CCHFV serves as a route of exposure to humans, as a reservoir of disease and as a route of importation. This study discusses the pathways and data requirements for a qualitative risk assessment for the emergence of CCHFV in livestock in Europe. A risk map approach is proposed based on layers that include the potential routes of release (e.g. by migrating birds carrying infected ticks) together with the main components for exposure, namely the distributions of the tick vectors, the small vertebrate host reservoirs and the livestock. A layer on landscape fragmentation serves as a surrogate for proximity of livestock to the tick cycle. Although the impact of climate change on the emergence of CCHF is not clear, comparing the distribution of risk factors in each layer currently with those predicted in the 2080s with climate change can be used to speculate how potential high-risk areas may shift. According to the risk pathway, transstadial and/or transovarial transmission in the tick vector are crucial for CCHFV spread. Vector competence and tick vector switching, however, remain critical factors for CCHFV colonization of new regions in Europe. The species of migratory bird is also an important consideration in the release assessment with greater abundance and biodiversity of ground-dwelling birds in southern Europe than in northern Europe.

  11. Current status of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region: issues, challenges, and future directions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seif S. Al-Abri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF is the most widespread, tick-borne viral disease affecting humans. The disease is endemic in many regions, such as Africa, Asia, Eastern and Southern Europe, and Central Asia. Recently, the incidence of CCHF has increased rapidly in the countries of the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region (WHO EMR, with sporadic human cases and outbreaks of CCHF being reported from a number of countries in the region. Despite the rapidly growing incidence of the disease, there are currently no accurate data on the burden of the disease in the region due to the different surveillance systems used for CCHF in these countries. In an effort to increase our understanding of the epidemiology and risk factors for the transmission of the CCHF virus (CCHFV; a Nairovirus of the family Bunyaviridae in the WHO EMR, and to identify the current knowledge gaps that are hindering effective control interventions, a sub-regional meeting was organized in Muscat, Oman, from December 7 to 9, 2015. This article summarizes the current knowledge of the disease in the region, identifies the knowledge gaps that present challenges for the prevention and control of CCHFV, and details a strategic framework for research and development activities that would be necessary to curb the ongoing and new threats posed by CCHFV.

  12. Serological and Virological Evidence of Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever Virus Circulation in the Human Population of Borno State, Northeastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukbuk, David N.; Dowall, Stuart D.; Lewandowski, Kuiama; Bosworth, Andrew; Baba, Saka S.; Varghese, Anitha; Watson, Robert J.; Bell, Andrew; Atkinson, Barry; Hewson, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite several studies on the seroprevalence of antibodies against Crimean-Congo Haemorrhagic Fever virus (CCHFV) from humans and cattle in Nigeria, detailed investigation looking at IgG and IgM have not been reported. Additionally, there have been no confirmed cases of human CCHFV infection reported from Nigeria. Principal Findings Samples from sera (n = 1189) collected from four Local Government Areas in Borno State (Askira/Uba, Damboa, Jere and Maiduguri) were assessed for the presence of IgG and IgM antibodies. The positivity rates for IgG and IgM were 10.6% and 3.5%, respectively. Additionally, sera from undiagnosed febrile patients (n = 380) were assessed by RT-PCR assay for the presence of CCHFV RNA. One positive sample was characterised by further by next generation sequencing (NGS) resulting in complete S, M and L segment sequences. Conclusions This article provides evidence for the continued exposure of the human population of Nigeria to CCHFV. The genomic analysis provides the first published evidence of a human case of CCHFV in Nigeria and its phylogenetic context. PMID:27926935

  13. Molecular diagnostic and genetic characterization of highly pathogenic viruses: application during Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus outbreaks in Eastern Europe and the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippone, C; Marianneau, P; Murri, S; Mollard, N; Avsic-Zupanc, T; Chinikar, S; Desprès, P; Caro, V; Gessain, A; Berthet, N; Tordo, N

    2013-02-01

    Several haemorrhagic fevers are caused by highly pathogenic viruses that must be handled in Biosafety level 4 (BSL-4) containment. These zoonotic infections have an important impact on public health and the development of a rapid and differential diagnosis in case of outbreak in risk areas represents a critical priority. We have demonstrated the potential of a DNA resequencing microarray (PathogenID v2.0) for this purpose. The microarray was first validated in vitro using supernatants of cells infected with prototype strains from five different families of BSL-4 viruses (e.g. families Arenaviridae, Bunyaviridae, Filoviridae, Flaviviridae and Paramyxoviridae). RNA was amplified based on isothermal amplification by Phi29 polymerase before hybridization. We were able to detect and characterize Nipah virus and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) in the brains of experimentally infected animals. CCHFV was finally used as a paradigm for epidemics because of recent outbreaks in Turkey, Kosovo and Iran. Viral variants present in human sera were characterized by BLASTN analysis. Sensitivity was estimated to be 10(5) -10(6) PFU/mL of hybridized cDNA. Detection specificity was limited to viral sequences having ~13-14% of global divergence with the tiled sequence, or stretches of ~20 identical nucleotides. These results highlight the benefits of using the PathogenID v2.0 resequencing microarray to characterize geographical variants in the follow-up of haemorrhagic fever epidemics; to manage patients and protect communities; and in cases of bioterrorism. © 2012 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2012 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  14. Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus nucleoprotein reveals endonuclease activity in bunyaviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yu; Wang, Wenming; Ji, Wei; Deng, Maping; Sun, Yuna; Zhou, Honggang; Yang, Cheng; Deng, Fei; Wang, Hualin; Hu, Zhihong; Lou, Zhiyong; Rao, Zihe

    2012-01-01

    Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a virus with high mortality in humans, is a member of the genus Nairovirus in the family Bunyaviridae, and is a causative agent of severe hemorrhagic fever (HF). It is classified as a biosafety level 4 pathogen and a potential bioterrorism agent due to its aerosol infectivity and its ability to cause HF outbreaks with high case fatality (∼30%). However, little is known about the structural features and function of nucleoproteins (NPs) in the Bunyaviridae, especially in CCHFV. Here we report a 2.3-Å resolution crystal structure of the CCHFV nucleoprotein. The protein has a racket-shaped overall structure with distinct “head” and “stalk” domains and differs significantly with NPs reported so far from other negative-sense single-stranded RNA viruses. Furthermore, CCHFV NP shows a distinct metal-dependent DNA-specific endonuclease activity. Single residue mutations in the predicted active site resulted in a significant reduction in the observed endonuclease activity. Our results present a new folding mechanism and function for a negative-strand RNA virus nucleoprotein, extend our structural insight into bunyavirus NPs, and provide a potential target for antiviral drug development to treat CCHFV infection. PMID:22421137

  15. [Clinical aspects of viral hemorrhagic fever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saijo, Masayuki

    2005-12-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) is defined as virus infections that usually cause pyrexia and hemorrhagic symptoms with multiple organ failure. VHF includes following viral infections: Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF), Marburg hemorrhagic fever (MHF), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) and Lassa fever. In particular, the causative agents of EHF, MHF, CCHF, and Lassa fever are Ebola, Marburg, CCHF, Lassa viruses, respectively, and regarded as biosafety level-4 pathogens because of their high virulence to humans. Recently, relatively large outbreaks of EHF and MHF have occurred in Africa, and areas of EHF- and MHF-outbreaks seem to be expanding. Although outbreaks of VHF have not been reported in Japan, there is a possibility that the deadly hemorrhagic fever viruses would be introduced to Japan in future. Therefore, preparedness for possible future outbreaks of VHF is necessary in areas without VHF outbreaks.

  16. Colonization and Containment of Hyalomma Marginatum Rufipes for Studies on the Transmission of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-07-31

    Russian) Tabl. anal. Faune URSS 4 125pp Olenev, NO. 1931 Die Zecken (Ixodidea) der fauna Russlands. Zeits chr. Parasitenk. 4(1) 126-139 Olenev, NO. 1931...Parasitenk 4 126 Olenev, NO. 1931 Mag. Paras. Zool. Acad. Scien. URSS . 2 249 q Oliver, JH. 1972 Cytogenetics of ticks (Acari: Ixodoidea). 8. Chr...USA. Pomeranzev, BI. 1946 Tableaux analytiques Faunne URSS . Publ. Ins. Zool. Acad. Science. Popov, GV, Levi, VD, Vasilenko, SM, and Chumakov, MP

  17. Diagnosis and Chemotherapy of Human Trypanosomiasis and Vector Ecology of Rift Valley and Congo-Crimean Hemorrhagic Fever in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-27

    Evaluation of a briquet formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (H-14) against Aedes spp. and Culex spp. larvae in dambos in Kenya...with measurable IgG also had measurable IgM indicating recent exposure to RVF virus. Logan, T.M., and K.J. Linthicum. 1992. Evaluation of a briquet ...Technology. In press. ABSTR.A : Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner var. israelensis serotype H-14 (Bti) in briquet formulation (Bactimos) was tested in a field

  18. Interventions Against West Nile Virus, Rift Valley Fever Virus, and Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus: Where Are We?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortekaas, J.A.; Ergonul, O.; Moormann, R.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    ARBO-ZOONET is an international network financed by the European Commission's seventh framework program. The major goal of this initiative is capacity building for the control of emerging viral vector-borne zoonotic diseases, with a clear focus on West Nile virus, Rift Valley fever virus, and Crimea

  19. Sequence Optimized Real-Time RT-PCR Assay for Detection of Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-21

    density macroarrays [15], high density resequencing arrays [16], 55 padlock probes with colorimetric readout [17], LAMP [18], and polymerase chain reaction ...Announcement). Briefly, the S segment of each virus was amplified using the 83 SuperScript III One-Step RT- PCR system with Platinum Taq DNA Polymerase High...Platinum One-Step Quantitative RT- PCR System) # Rxns = Reagents Stock [Final] 1rxn 28 2X Reaction Mix 2 1 10 280 Nuclease-free water 1.7 47.6 100 µM F

  20. A DNA Vaccine for Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Protects Against Disease and Death in Two Lethal Mouse Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-18

    currently no licensed vaccines to prevent CCHFV infection. We developed a DNA vaccine expressing the M-segment glycoprotein genes of CCHFV and assessed its...immunogenicity and protective efficacy in two lethal mouse models of disease: type I interferon receptor knockout (IFNAR-/-) mice; and a novel...humoral immune responses with neutralizing titers after three vaccinations in both IFNAR-/- and IS mouse models.

  1. HMGB1 Is a Potential Biomarker for Severe Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Resman Rus

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF are common representatives of viral hemorrhagic fevers still often neglected in some parts of the world. Infection with Dobrava or Puumala virus (HFRS and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV can result in a mild, nonspecific febrile illness or as a severe disease with hemorrhaging and high fatality rate. An important factor in optimizing survival rate in patients with VHF is instant recognition of the severe form of the disease for which significant biomarkers need to be elucidated. To determine the prognostic value of High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1 as a biomarker for disease severity, we tested acute serum samples of patients with HFRS or CCHF. Our results showed that HMGB1 levels are increased in patients with CCHFV, DOBV or PUUV infection. Above that, concentration of HMGB1 is higher in patients with severe disease progression when compared to the mild clinical course of the disease. Our results indicate that HMGB1 could be a useful prognostic biomarker for disease severity in PUUV and CCHFV infection, where the difference between the mild and severe patients group was highly significant. Even in patients with severe DOBV infection concentrations of HMGB1 were 2.8-times higher than in the mild group, but the difference was not statistically significant. Our results indicated HMGB1 as a potential biomarker for severe hemorrhagic fevers.

  2. Evaluation of knowledge of the healthcare personnel working in Giresun province regarding Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever before and after educational training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safiye Koculu

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusion: It was observed that the healthcare personnel working in district state hospitals of the province were moderately aware of CCHF disease. There is possibility of achieving improvement in their knowledge by educating them regarding CCHF and such educational programmes should be conducted from time-to-time.

  3. Re-Emergence of Congo Virus in Pakistan: Call for Preparedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauseef Ahmad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF once again re-emerged in Pakistan. In July 2016, 2 CCHF cases were reported from Lodhran and Bahawalpur districts of Pakistan. Later on the CCHF virus was also reported from other region of the country including Balochistan, Karachi and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Up to 22 August 2016, a total of 20 deaths were reported of which 12 from Balochistan, 5 from Karachi, 2 from Bahawalpur and 1 from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Precautions measurements and awareness is necessary to protect the normal individuals away from this fatal disease. The media, health department and government need to play their active role to stop the spread of CCHF in the country. [Biomed Res Ther 2016; 3(8.000: 742-744

  4. Short report: Diagnostic testing for hemorrhagic fevers in Pakistan: 2007-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Zahra; Atkinson, Barry; Jamil, Bushra; Samreen, Azra; Altaf, Lamia; Hewson, Roger

    2014-12-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) and dengue virus (DENV) are endemic to Pakistan. Patients presenting with symptoms of fever, bleeding, and rash cannot be distinguished without appropriate testing. We report data on 354 samples tested for CCHFV at The Aga Khan University Hospital in Pakistan between 2007 and 2013. All samples were tested for the presence of CCHFV RNA. Some samples were also tested for DENV RNA, NS-1 antigen, and/or reactive immunoglobulin M antibodies. Of 354 clinical specimens screened for CCHFV, 52 specimens were positive, with 24 cases in 2013 alone. Most cases were from Sindh and Baluchistan, which border other CCHFV-endemic regions: Iran and Afghanistan. Among CCHFV-negative samples, 168 samples were tested for DENV, and 36% of these samples were found to be DENV-positive. Rapid differentiation of CCHFV and DENV can prevent nosocomial transmission and result in time and cost savings for patients and healthcare workers.

  5. 77 FR 75880 - Control of Communicable Diseases: Interstate; Scope and Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ..., diphtheria, infectious tuberculosis (TB), plague, smallpox, yellow fever, and viral hemorrhagic fevers, such as Marburg, Ebola, and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), Severe Acute Respiratory...

  6. TRAINING PROGRAM FOR NURSING STAFF REGARDING VIRAL HEMORRHAGIC FEVERS IN A MILITARY HOSPITAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M; Megahed, Laila Abdel-Mawla; Saleh, Halla Ahmed Abdullah; Abdelfattah, Magda Abdelhamid; Morsy, Tosson Aly

    2015-08-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) refer to a group of illnesses caused by several distinct families of viruses. In general, the term "viral hemorrhagic fever" is used to describe a severe multisystem syndrome (multisystem in that multiple organ systems in the bpdy are affected). Characteristically, the overall vascular system is damaged, and the body's ability to regulate itself is impaired. These symptoms are often accompanied by hemorrhage (bleeding); however, the bleeding is it rarely life-threatening. While some types of hemorrhagic fever viruses can cause relatively mild illnesses, many of these viruses cause severe, life-threatening disease. The selected disaster diseases for this study included: 1-Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic Fever, 2-Dengue Fever, 3-Ebola Fever, 4-Hem-orrhagic Fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), 5-Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome, 6-Lassa Fever, 7-Marburg Fever, 8-Rift Valley Fever and 9-Yellow Fever. The educational training program was given over ten sessions to a group of Staff Nurses. The results showed that the program succeeded in enhancing nurse' knowledge, awareness, responsibility, and obligations toward patients with the Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers The results showed a significant impact of training sessions illuminated in the follow-up test on the knowledge score of nurses in all types of diseases except for the Congo hemorrhagic fever, while, statistical significance varied in some diseases in the study when it comes to the comparison between pretest and post-test. All results confirmed on the positive impact of the training program in enhancing the knowledge of nurses toward VHFs patients and their relevant. There was a significant positive impact of the training sessions on changing the attitude of nurses toward patients with VHFs. This result was confirmed on the collective level since the total scores on tests revealed significant positive impact of the study on changing the attitude of nurses toward relevant patients. The relationship

  7. CRIMEAN WAR OTTTOMAN COMMEMORATIVE AND MILITARY MEDALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Hakan Tekin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Medals are symbols to honor people and also to increase their loyalty to the state. States have revealed forces through medals in a symbolic sense. Although the Ottoman Empire met with the tradition of medal in the period of Sultan Mehmed II, medals became important with Sultan Mahmud I. Commemorative and military medals were pressed by the Ottoman Empire at the end of the Crimean War. The Ottomans used medals as a reflection of not only awards for those showing usefulness in the war but also as a souvenir to commemorate this important battle. Even allied forces and defeated Russia had made medals for Crimean War. In our study, information will be given about Crimean War commemorative and military medals in Ottoman era of the Crimean War. Mecidi Crimean War badges were not included in the study due to the scope of the research.

  8. Advance on Viral Hemorrhagic Fever with Relational Arboviruses%虫媒病毒相关出血热研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨杜鹃; 张海林; 梁国栋

    2011-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fever is a group of natural focus infection diseases caused by different viruaes featured of pyrexia, haemorrhagia, shock and high case-fatality. Some of the diseases are related to arbovirus, including Rift valley fever, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome, Yellow fever, Dengue fever, Kyasanur forest disease, Omsk hemorrhagic fever, and Chikungunya fever. The present paper made a review of the diseases listed above on their epidemic characteristic, etiology, diagnosis, treatment and prevention.%病毒性出血热是由不同病毒引起的以发热、出血、休克、高病死率为特征的一组自然疫源性疾病,其中与虫媒病毒有关的出血热主要有立夫特山谷热、克里米亚刚果出血热、肾综合征出血热、黄热病、登革热、科萨努尔森林病、鄂木斯克出血热、基孔肯雅热等,本文从流行特征、病原学、诊断、治疗及预防等方面对上述疾病作一综述.

  9. Dicty_cDB: CHH885 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available its) Value FJ562095_1( FJ562095 |pid:none) Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever vi... ...33 3.0 AY947890_1( AY947890 |pid:none) Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever vi... 32 5.1 AY675240_1( AY675240 |pid:none) Crime...an-Congo hemorrhagic fever vi... 32 6.7 DQ211623_1( DQ211623 |pid:none) Crimean-Congo hemorrhag...ic fever vi... 32 6.7 DQ211617_1( DQ211617 |pid:none) Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic f...ever vi... 32 6.7 DQ211618_1( DQ211618 |pid:none) Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever vi... 32 6.7 protein updat

  10. Epidemiology and Epizootiological Investigations of Hemorrhagic Fever Viruses in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-30

    in East Africa. Dengue virus type 2 has Deen isolated in Coastal Kenya once out with no haemorrhagic manifestations. Marourg virus was initially...virus, Rift Valley fever virus, Congo-Crimean haemorrhagic fever virus, Lassa virus, Dengue virus, West Nile viruq or fellow Fever virus). Electron...to conduct the proposed field investigations. I. Office of the President 2. Ministry of Tourism and Wildlife 3. Ministry of Research, Science and

  11. Charting the Crimean War: Contexts, Nationhood, Afterlives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Bates

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Crimean War (1853–56 is much more culturally significant than its popular mythologies suggest. Now remembered mainly for the Charge of the Light Brigade and the Lady with the Lamp, the Crimean War is a pivotal moment in the history of modern warfare seen as both the last of the old wars and first of the new. The first total war, it inaugurated new forms of weaponry, tactics, communication, war reporting, military medicine, and new attitudes towards soldiers. The introduction outlines this issue of '19'’s case for the conflict’s wide-ranging significance, placing the Crimean War in the context of earlier and later nineteenth-century warfare, and considering its varied cultural afterlives.

  12. CRIME CONGO HEMORHAGIC FEVER EPIDEMY: A PRELIMINARY REPORT OF ISFAHAN PROVINCE IN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K MOSTAFAVIZADE

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF is a viral disease of Buynaviridae family. Disease is primarily zoonosis but sporadic and epidemic human infection can occur. During year 2001 many outbreaks have been reported from Kosovo, Iran, Albania and Pakistan. A Hyalomma tick can transmit the disease and virus reservoirs are rodents, ostrich, ground frequenting birds and hyalomma tick. Another way of human infection is contact with infected animal blood and products or crushing a tick with bare hands. Contact with infected human blood can also transmit the disease. During outbreak, 18 cases were confirmed by serologic methods. 12 men and 6 women aged 20-40 years old. Ten of men and 5 of women had history of contact with infected animal blood or tissue and a lady had been bitten by a tick. A young assistant of internal medicine who came in contact with the first patient, developed the disease. We were not able to determine route of transmission in one case. The most frequent clinical signs included fever, myalgia, weakness, fatique, bleeding tendency, petechia, purpura and jundice. Lab exam revealed thrombocytopenia, elevated liver enzymes and prolongation of prothrombin time. Althoug the most common route of human infection is tick bite, but in this outbreak the main route was contact with infected animal blood and tissue. This point confirms that unsanitary slaughtering of animal could be dangerous. It seems that reeducating physicians, veterinarians and those who take care of such patients maybe helpful to neighboring countries triggered the outbreak, so that educating people who are involved in husbandry may limiting human infection.

  13. The Crimean War on Book Pages…

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Chennyk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains overview of the most interesting books of Russian book market on the history of the Crimean (Eastern War, published in 2010-2016. The author studies the re-editions of classical works and sources on the history of the Crimean War (E.V. Tarle, L.N. Tolstoy, Kh.Ya. Gyubbenet, books by foreign authors published in Russian (W.H. Russell, J. Sweetman, P. Mercer, A. Trubetskoy and books by modern Russian researchers (P.M. Lyashuk, E. Kaydalova, L.V. Melnikova, Yu.A. Naumova, S.A. Pinchuk and S.V. Chennyk.

  14. Sequencing, Expression and Diagnostic Application of the Nucleoprotein Gene of Xinjiang Hemorrhagic Fever Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马本江; 杭长寿; 解燕乡; 王世文

    2004-01-01

    In order to analyze the nucleoprotein (NP) gene of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), viral RNA was amplified by RT-PCR by using the proof-reading DNA polymerase to produce the complete NP gene. The PCR product was sequenced, analyzed for phylogenesis and cloned into the expression vector pE132a and the recombinant plasmid expressed in E. coil BL-21 with high yield. The primarily purified fused protein.was used to coat ELISA plates for the detect antibodies. It was found the similarities between NP gene of BA88166 and other XHFVs in nucleotide level and amino acid contents were very significant, and the NP gene of BA88166 encoded a nucleoprotein with 482 amino acid and a deduced molecular weight (MW) of 54 kDa. Western blot assay showed that the fusion protein expressed in bacteria possessed good antigenicity. The results with ELISA for the detection of the human and animal sera collected in endemic areas were found to be in good accordance to the clinical diagnosis. It concluded that the relations of NP genes of XHFV BA88166 and other XHFVs appeared to be evolutionally close. The methodologies established in this study were accurate, specific, rapid and reproducible for the clinical examinations and epidemiological survey.

  15. Crimean Crisis and Military Balance in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongshu Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available As the Crimean Crisis goes on, many analysis have been focusing on the dynamics among parties of Ukraine, the EU, the US and Russia. Very few noticed another important strategic impact the Crisis may cause: the Chinese military rebalancing in East Asia. China has been increasingly confident in assuming both political and military power in the East Asian region. The confidence resulted in the South China Sea disputes with ASEAN countries, “Anti-Secession Law” against Taiwan, and the Diaoyu/Senkaku Islands Dispute with Japan. Behind such confidence of China, the EU has consistently been exporting defence products to China since the end of the Cold War; Ukraine, although sometimes reluctantly, has also been backing China along the process of building up a stronger navy as well as other defense industry construction; Russia has traditionally been supplying China with a wide range of military hardware. It can be noticed that the Crimean Crisis involved three out of four countries and region that have been behind China’s rise. How will the Crimean Crisis influence China’s rebalance in East Asia then? The answers stay opaque. This paper will attempt to answer the questions.

  16. Who owns the Crimean Past? Conflicted Heritage and Ukrainian Identities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarse, van der R.; Finissage colloquium "The Legacy of Charlemagne, 814-2014", 28-29-11-2014, Ename-Oudenaarde (België) (2014-11-28)

    2014-01-01

    Who owns the Crimean Past? Conflicted Heritage and Ukrainian Identities ‘Crimea Gold and Secrets of the Black Sea‘ was the title of the 2014 exhibition of several German museums and the Amsterdam Allard Pierson Museum in cooperation with four Crimean museums and the Kiev museum of Ukrainian treasure

  17. A Multiplex PCR/LDR Assay for the Simultaneous Identification of Category A Infectious Pathogens: Agents of Viral Hemorrhagic Fever and Variola Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchita Das

    Full Text Available CDC designated category A infectious agents pose a major risk to national security and require special action for public health preparedness. They include viruses that cause viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF syndrome as well as variola virus, the agent of smallpox. VHF is characterized by hemorrhage and fever with multi-organ failure leading to high morbidity and mortality. Smallpox, a prior scourge, has been eradicated for decades, making it a particularly serious threat if released nefariously in the essentially non-immune world population. Early detection of the causative agents, and the ability to distinguish them from other pathogens, is essential to contain outbreaks, implement proper control measures, and prevent morbidity and mortality. We have developed a multiplex detection assay that uses several species-specific PCR primers to generate amplicons from multiple pathogens; these are then targeted in a ligase detection reaction (LDR. The resultant fluorescently-labeled ligation products are detected on a universal array enabling simultaneous identification of the pathogens. The assay was evaluated on 32 different isolates associated with VHF (ebolavirus, marburgvirus, Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Lassa fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus, Dengue virus, and Yellow fever virus as well as variola virus and vaccinia virus (the agent of smallpox and its vaccine strain, respectively. The assay was able to detect all viruses tested, including 8 sequences representative of different variola virus strains from the CDC repository. It does not cross react with other emerging zoonoses such as monkeypox virus or cowpox virus, or six flaviviruses tested (St. Louis encephalitis virus, Murray Valley encephalitis virus, Powassan virus, Tick-borne encephalitis virus, West Nile virus and Japanese encephalitis virus.

  18. A Multiplex PCR/LDR Assay for the Simultaneous Identification of Category A Infectious Pathogens: Agents of Viral Hemorrhagic Fever and Variola Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sanchita; Rundell, Mark S.; Mirza, Aashiq H.; Pingle, Maneesh R.; Shigyo, Kristi; Garrison, Aura R.; Paragas, Jason; Smith, Scott K.; Olson, Victoria A.; Larone, Davise H.; Spitzer, Eric D.; Barany, Francis; Golightly, Linnie M.

    2015-01-01

    CDC designated category A infectious agents pose a major risk to national security and require special action for public health preparedness. They include viruses that cause viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) syndrome as well as variola virus, the agent of smallpox. VHF is characterized by hemorrhage and fever with multi-organ failure leading to high morbidity and mortality. Smallpox, a prior scourge, has been eradicated for decades, making it a particularly serious threat if released nefariously in the essentially non-immune world population. Early detection of the causative agents, and the ability to distinguish them from other pathogens, is essential to contain outbreaks, implement proper control measures, and prevent morbidity and mortality. We have developed a multiplex detection assay that uses several species-specific PCR primers to generate amplicons from multiple pathogens; these are then targeted in a ligase detection reaction (LDR). The resultant fluorescently-labeled ligation products are detected on a universal array enabling simultaneous identification of the pathogens. The assay was evaluated on 32 different isolates associated with VHF (ebolavirus, marburgvirus, Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus, Lassa fever virus, Rift Valley fever virus, Dengue virus, and Yellow fever virus) as well as variola virus and vaccinia virus (the agent of smallpox and its vaccine strain, respectively). The assay was able to detect all viruses tested, including 8 sequences representative of different variola virus strains from the CDC repository. It does not cross react with other emerging zoonoses such as monkeypox virus or cowpox virus, or six flaviviruses tested (St. Louis encephalitis virus, Murray Valley encephalitis virus, Powassan virus, Tick-borne encephalitis virus, West Nile virus and Japanese encephalitis virus). PMID:26381398

  19. Reporting the Crimean War: Misinformation and Misinterpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Hinton

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There is probably no important event in times past whose historiography is free from misinformation, misunderstanding, misinterpretation, or mistakes; and in this regard the Crimean War is no exception to this rule. The misinformation quoted in this article can be placed in at least one of four principal categories. The first involved either the failure to seek out primary sources for the correct information, or a demonstration of ignorance of military protocol, or the misrepresentation of data which in itself is not necessarily inaccurate. The three other examples are characterized by Samuel Butler’s bon mots that ‘though God cannot alter the past, historians can’. The first of these involved flights of fancy that are clearly absurd; the second comprises unkind and sometimes malicious remarks made without any reference to contemporary documents or reliable secondary sources that might support the assertions made; while the third, and possibly the most serious, was the seemingly deliberate falsification of the facts. The purpose of this article is to provide a selection of the many available examples of these misrepresentations which relate to the medical aspects of the Crimean campaign and to provide responses that hopefully go someway to setting the record straight.

  20. Investigation of hemorrhagic fever viruses inside wild populations of ticks: One of the pioneer studies in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania Ali El Hadi Mohamed

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To screen hemorrhagic fever viruses inside wild populations of ticks collected from Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between January and March 2016. Methods: Ticks were identified depending on their morphological features using classical keys then grouped into pools. Ticks in each pool were processed separately using the sterile pestles and mortars. Viral RNA was extracted using Qiagen RNeasy Mini Kit and Qiagen RNAeasy Columns (Qiagen, Hilden, Germany according to the instructions of manufacturers. A total number of 1 282 hard ticks were collected, and 582 of them were precisely identified then screened for the presence of arboviruses using quantitative real-time PCR. The four species were screened for six viruses: Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV, Chikungunya virus (CHIKV, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV, Alkhurma virus (INKV, Sindbis virus (SINV, and Pan Hanta virus (HANTA. CT value for the negative control (RNA free water was zero. Negative and positive controls were tested for each test to confirm the specificity of the selected primer pairs. SYBR Green One step RT-PCR Master Mix (KAPA Biosystems, Boston, MA was tested along with primers. Results: Ticks identification resulted into four species: Hyalomma schulzei, Hyalomma onatoli, Boophilus kdhlsi, and Hyalomm dromedarii. All the ticks’ species (except Boophilus kdhlsi were positive for the following viruses: SINV, RVFV, CHIKV, and CCHFV. While HANTA viruses have been detected in a single species (Hyalomm dromedarii. Conclusions: According to our knowledge this research may be one of the pioneer studies in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Incrimination of the above mentioned ticks species as well as their vectorial capacity are highly recommended for investigation in the upcoming researches.

  1. Cannibalism in Colonial Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Lindholm, Anders; Gehin, Laurent; Bliddal, Marie; Christensen, Josefine; Mauritzen, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the project is to view the different concepts of cannibalism seen in colonial Congo. By analyzing the meaning of cannibalism in Congo in the time span between 1890-1905, we have tried to find a coherence between cannibalism in its definitive and metaphorical form. Additionally we have attempted to determine whether cannibalism was more a myth than fact, and what impact it had on the natives. We have furthermore tried to put cannibalism in relation to contemporary fiction of the tim...

  2. Breeding the Congo Peacock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemmel, van A.C.V.

    1961-01-01

    The discovery of the Congo Peacock (Afropavo congensis CHAPIN) is one of the most recent in ornithology. Certainly it is the most famous one. The history of the discovery has been described by CHAPIN in detail (5, 6). The first living specimens exported from Kongo reached the United States June 1949

  3. Breeding the Congo Peacock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemmel, van A.C.V.

    1961-01-01

    The discovery of the Congo Peacock (Afropavo congensis CHAPIN) is one of the most recent in ornithology. Certainly it is the most famous one. The history of the discovery has been described by CHAPIN in detail (5, 6). The first living specimens exported from Kongo reached the United States June

  4. Hospital-based surveillance for viral hemorrhagic fevers and hepatitides in Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Humphrey Kofi Bonney

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHF are acute diseases associated with bleeding, organ failure, and shock. VHF may hardly be distinguished clinically from other diseases in the African hospital, including viral hepatitis. This study was conducted to determine if VHF and viral hepatitis contribute to hospital morbidity in the Central and Northern parts of Ghana. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From 2009 to 2011, blood samples of 258 patients with VHF symptoms were collected at 18 hospitals in Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo, Northern, Upper West, and Upper East regions. Patients were tested by PCR for Lassa, Rift Valley, Crimean-Congo, Ebola/Marburg, and yellow fever viruses; hepatitis A (HAV, B (HBV, C (HCV, and E (HEV viruses; and by ELISA for serological hepatitis markers. None of the patients tested positive for VHF. However, 21 (8.1% showed anti-HBc IgM plus HBV DNA and/or HBsAg; 37 (14% showed HBsAg and HBV DNA without anti-HBc IgM; 26 (10% showed anti-HAV IgM and/or HAV RNA; and 20 (7.8% were HCV RNA-positive. None was positive for HEV RNA or anti-HEV IgM plus IgG. Viral genotypes were determined as HAV-IB, HBV-A and E, and HCV-1, 2, and 4. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: VHFs do not cause significant hospital morbidity in the study area. However, the incidence of acute hepatitis A and B, and hepatitis B and C with active virus replication is high. These infections may mimic VHF and need to be considered if VHF is suspected. The data may help decision makers to allocate resources and focus surveillance systems on the diseases of relevance in Ghana.

  5. Disease: H00284 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Patients may develop subclinical symptoms to severe hemorrhagic disease. Infectious disease Crimean-Congo he...viral infection that occurs sporadically in Africa, Asia, eastern and southern Europe, and the Middle East.

  6. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus in Kazakhstan (1948-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talgat Nurmakhanov

    2015-09-01

    The southern regions of Kazakhstan should be considered endemic for CCHF with cases reported from these territories on an annual basis. Modern diagnostic technologies allow for rapid clinical diagnosis and for surveillance studies to monitor for potential expansion in known risk areas.

  7. First serological evidence of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever in febrile patients in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argentina Felisbela Muianga

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: This study shows for the first time that humans are exposed to CCHFV in Mozambique. It highlights the need for further work to investigate the broader extent of circulating CCHFV in the country and its clinical implications.

  8. 基孔肯亚热、克里米亚-刚果出血热、裂谷热病毒核酸液相芯片检测方法的建立%Development of a liquichip method for detecting Chikungunya virus, Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus and Rift Valley fever virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李云峰; 石静; 马旭; 葛藤; 蔡鹏; 薛芳

    2015-01-01

    目的 建立基孔肯亚热、克里米亚-刚果出血热、裂谷热病毒核酸液相芯片检测方法.方法 建立探针偶联至荧光微球、多重PCR扩增方法、杂交检测方法,并对所建立的液相芯片检测方法的灵敏度和特异性进行评价.结果 建立的液相芯片检测方法能对基孔肯亚热、克里米亚-刚果出血热、裂谷热病毒中的任意1种、任意2种或者3种同时进行筛查检测,基孔肯亚热病毒检测的灵敏度为1×104 copies/PCR,克里米亚-刚果出血热病毒检测的灵敏度为1×105copies/PCR,裂谷热病毒检测的灵敏度为1×103 copies/PCR.该方法对汉坦病毒、埃博拉病毒、黄热病毒、西尼罗病毒、马尔堡病毒的检测结果均为阴性.结论该方法具有高通量、多重检测、快速、敏感、特异的特点,为基孔肯亚热、克里米亚-刚果出血热、裂谷热病毒的筛查检测提供一种新方法.

  9. Florence Nightingale: her Crimean fever and chronic illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossey, Barbara M

    2010-03-01

    Florence Nightingale's Crimean fever and chronic illness have intrigued historians for more than a century and a half. The purpose of this article is threefold: (a) to discuss the facts that point to the cause of Nightingale's Crimean fever as brucellosis, (b) to show that her debilitating illness for 32 years (1855-1887) was compatible with the specific form of chronic brucellosis, and (c) to present new evidence that she was still having severe symptoms in December 1887, when it was previously felt that she had no severe symptoms after 1870.

  10. Hemorrhagic Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    A stroke is a medical emergency. There are two types - ischemic and hemorrhagic. Hemorrhagic stroke is the less common type. It happens when ... an artery wall that breaks open. Symptoms of stroke are Sudden numbness or weakness of the face, ...

  11. Saker Falcon on the Crimean Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor V. Karyakin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article we made a revaluation of a number of the Saker (Falco cherrug on the Crimean Peninsula based on data obtained in an expedition conducted in May 9–26 of 2015. During this expedition Sakers were observed on 58 sites (31 times they were seen on pylons of power lines, 14 – on cliffs in the foothills of Crimean Mountains, 8 – on the coastal cliffs and 4 on the coastal precipices, and one adult male was seen in the forest shelter belt near Syvash lagoon. We revealed 49 breeding territories of Saker including 42 occupied nests with successful breeding. The estimation of the total number of breeding population on peninsula is 145–184 (mean 165 breeding pairs, including 125–159 (mean 142 pairs which breeding attempts were successful in 2015. The distance between the neighboring pairs is 1.95–15.21 km (mean 6.56±3.37 km, n=43. Pylons of power lines were used by 30 breeding pairs (61.22% out of 49, and 29 successful nests (69.05% out of 42 were built on pylons. Supposedly, 63.83% of all breeding pairs in Crimea are bred on pylons, and the percentage of successful nests out of the total number of nests in population is 71.89%. From the 34 nests that were built on pylons, 24 (70.59% were located on the concrete pylons and 10 (29.41% on the metal ones. On cliffs and precipices we found 24 nests in total. Eighteen (75% of them were built on a bare ground, while the others were found in the nests built by other bird species (most of them were made in the former nests of the Raven (Corvus corax, and one pair occupies a nest of the Long-legged Buzzard (Buteo rufinus located on cliff. The percentage of successful nests out of occupied ones was 85.71%. We found broods of 1–4 nestlings, which in average (n=23 makes 2.83±0.78 nestling per successful nest. The majority of broods (65.22% consisted of 3 nestlings. On 20 breeding territories (90.91% male birds were older then 2 years old, and two breeding territories (9.09% were occupied

  12. The Crimean War: a Clash of Civilizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana V. Vakulova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The need to use the civilizational approach to the analysis of the causes and outcomes of the Crimean war (campaign 1854-1855 is revealed in this article. The author analyzes the causes of the war related to the religious factor. The Soviet historiography had not considered the religious factor to be relevant for the progressive development of the state, and therefore the provisions of the mentioned approach had not been used in the analysis of historical events. The conflict that arose between France and Russia about the Holy places, is characterized by the fact that the keys of the Bethlehem Church had been taken from the Orthodox community, which they traditionally belonged to, and had been handed over to the Catholic community by the Turkish authorities of Palestine under France’s constraint. The author points to the main cause of the war – violation of the Russian law on the protection of Orthodoxy in Turkey fixed by international treaties. It is argued that it is natural to name this war – The battle for the Manger of the Lord. That is why the main events of inter-civilizational conflict took place in the Crimea and in Sevastopol, which had not only been the military base of Russia on the Black Sea, but also the cradle of Russian Orthodoxy. Analyzing the events, the author comes to the conclusion that the outcome of the war testifies to the victory of the Orthodox state and the Russian diplomacy, because the status quo of the Holy places was maintained in accordance with the state of Affairs which had existed in the Byzantine Empire. The preservation of the integrity and sovereignty of Orthodox state is the confirmation of this victory. It is shown the ability to evaluate the results of the war is based on the positions of a civilizational approach.

  13. Who Owns the Crimean Past? : Conflicted Heritage and Ukrainian Identities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laarse, R.; Callebaut, D.

    2016-01-01

    In the past ten years interest in the history and heritage of European regional and ethnic conflicts has grown explosively. These not only play a prominent role in collective memory, but also in political debates, cultural property protection, commemorations, and public space. The so-called Crimean

  14. Looking closer at the Congo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansson, Johanna; Jiang, Wenran

    2011-01-01

    An NGO report on Chinese investment in the Democratic Republic of Congo opens a vital debate, but its methodology leaves the reader wanting a fuller version of the facts, write Johanna Jansson and Jiang Wenran.......An NGO report on Chinese investment in the Democratic Republic of Congo opens a vital debate, but its methodology leaves the reader wanting a fuller version of the facts, write Johanna Jansson and Jiang Wenran....

  15. Preretinal hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Felippe

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A case of Valsalva hemorrhagic retinopathy treated with Nd:YAGlaser indescribed. The patient presented decreased visual acuityafter coughing, and a preretinal hemorrhage was diagnosed in theposterior pole; puncturing the posterior hyaloid face was performedwith Nd:Yag laser. Rapid hemorrhage absorption was observedafter the therapy proposed and visual acuity was recovered. Nd:Yaglaser proved to be safe and efficient in the management of preretinalhemorrhage.

  16. Anapa to the Crimean War (1853–1856 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Demidov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the facts characterizing the degree of involvement of the fortress of Anapa in the supply of Russian troops located in Crimea and Sevastopol during the Crimean war of 1853-1856 year. It presents numerous materials from English, Irish and Scottish Newspapers of the period, which described in detail every event that had a connection to the fortress of Anapa. These foreign sources blend harmoniously with the data from the Russian periodicals, and information stored in the State archive of the Krasnodar region. All the information can be divided into three periods of life of Anapa: before leaving the fortress of Anapa, at the time of its abandonment by the Russian army and after returning of the Russian garrison in Anapa. In the conclusion the author comes to the conclusion that the degree of participation of Anapa to the Crimean war is quite high, despite the fact that geographically it is not located in the Crimea.

  17. Russian Medical Service During the Crimean War: New Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Naumova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Although Russian historiography of the Crimean War yields slightly to its English counterpart in output, it still includes dozens of works from solid multi-volumed research to popular science reviews. The majority of works done before the revolution of 1917 were greatly influenced by the Paris peace of 1856 (dubbed ‘humiliating’ and tended to exaggerate the shortcomings of the Russian military and political system in the middle of the nineteenth century. During the Soviet period — with its overwhelming party control over the social sciences — most research followed the Leninist thesis that the Crimean War ‘demonstrated the rottenness and impotence of feudal Russia’. Nothing suited this axiom more than the catastrophic situation with regard to the treatment of Russian wounded and sick during the conflict. Quite apart from the overall level of casualties, the fact that the vast majority of deaths occurred in hospitals rather than on the battlefield caused a huge public outcry. Immediately after the conflict the Russian government commenced a series of reforms to modernize the army medical system and adapt it to the realities of modern warfare. Overcrowded hospitals, men dying on the ground with minimal medical care available, heartless bureaucrats plundering the government’s money — all became part of a new Crimean War mythology which obscured the real ‘reason why’. Just recently, Russian historians have produced new works on the subject which adopt a more critical approach to conventional doctrines. New research uncovered interesting archival materials, allowing us to look once again at the army medical service during the Crimean War and, using both published and unpublished sources, to try to discover the cause of the large number of deaths from different diseases and determine whether they were avoidable.

  18. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15005-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available one) Vitis vinifera contig VV78X069996.... 38 1.6 DQ094832_1( DQ094832 |pid:none) Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic ...1( AY900143 |pid:none) Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever vi... 37 2.7 DQ211627_1( DQ211627 |pid:none) Crimean-....7 DQ019222_1( DQ019222 |pid:none) Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever vi... 37 2.7 A...Y363113_1( AY363113 |pid:none) Oryzias latipes zinc finger protei... 37 2.7 DQ211626_1( DQ211626 |pid:none) Crime...BZF9) RecName: Full=Uveal autoantigen with coiled-coil domain... 37 2.7 AY900143_

  19. The Medical NBC Battlebook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-05-01

    hyperaesthesias Brucellosis, Rift Valley fever, Venezuelan equine ecephalitis, Q-fever, Influenza , Dengue fever, Chikungunya fever, Inhalation...Q fever, Histoplasmosis, Coccidiodomycosis, Influenza , Omsk hemorrhagic fever, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Korean hemorrhagic fever, Ricin... Zoonosis – an infection or infectious disease transmissible under natural conditions from vertebrate animals to man. Zoonotic - Pertaining to disease

  20. Song Repertoire and Origins of Crimean Population of Chiffchaff, Phylloscopus collybita (Sylviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grishchenko A. V.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Song repertoire of geographically isolated Chiffchaff population that formed in Crimean mountains in 1990s is analyzed. There are 42 song elements in the Crimean Chiffchaff repertoire. A quarter of their song elements appear to be specific for this population because it is absent in neighboring European Chiffchaff populations from regions to the north (Ph. c. abietinus subspecies and west (Ph. c. collybita subspecies. Comparison of song elements of Crimean Chiffchaffs with those of Caucasian birds of Ph. c. caucasica subspecies shows that they belong to same vocal population: specific elements in Crimean Chiffchaff songs are found also in songs of Caucasian birds. This is evidence that breeding population of Chiffchaff in Crimea originated from the species expansion from Caucasus, and that Crimean Chiffchaffs belong to Ph. c. caucasica subspecies.

  1. [Alveolar hemorrhage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrot, A; Fartoukh, M; Cadranel, J

    2015-04-01

    Alveolar hemorrhage occurs relatively rarely and is a therapeutic emergency because it can quickly lead to acute respiratory failure, which can be fatal. Hemoptysis associated with anemia and pulmonary infiltrates suggest the diagnosis of alveolar hemorrhage, but may be absent in one third of cases including patients in respiratory distress. The diagnosis of alveolar hemorrhage is based on the findings of a bronchoalveolar lavage. The causes are numerous. It is important to identify alveolar hemorrhage due to sepsis, then separate an autoimmune cause (vasculitis associated with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody, connective tissue disease and Goodpasture's syndrome) with the search for autoantibodies and biopsies from readily accessible organs, from a non-immune cause, performing echocardiography. Lung biopsy should be necessary only in exceptional cases. If the hemorrhage has an immune cause, treatment with steroids and cyclophosphamide may be started. The indications for treatment with rituximab are beginning to be established (forms that are not severe and refractory forms). The benefit of plasma exchange is unquestionable in Goodpasture's syndrome. In patients with an immune disease that can lead to an alveolar hemorrhage, removing any source of infection is the first priority. Copyright © 2014 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Ebola Virus Disease, Democratic Republic of the Congo, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanclares, Carolina; Kapetshi, Jimmy; Lionetto, Fanshen; de la Rosa, Olimpia; Tamfun, Jean-Jacques Muyembe; Alia, Miriam; Kobinger, Gary

    2016-01-01

    During July–November 2014, the Democratic Republic of the Congo underwent its seventh Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak. The etiologic agent was Zaire Ebola virus; 66 cases were reported (overall case-fatality rate 74.2%). Through a retrospective observational study of confirmed EVD in 25 patients admitted to either of 2 Ebola treatment centers, we described clinical features and investigated correlates associated with death. Clinical features were mainly generic. At admission, 76% of patients had >1 gastrointestinal symptom and 28% >1 hemorrhagic symptom. The case-fatality rate in this group was 48% and was higher for female patients (67%). Cox regression analysis correlated death with initial low cycle threshold, indicating high viral load. Cycle threshold was a robust predictor of death, as were fever, hiccups, diarrhea, dyspnea, dehydration, disorientation, hematemesis, bloody feces during hospitalization, and anorexia in recent medical history. Differences from other outbreaks could suggest guidance for optimizing clinical management and disease control. PMID:27533284

  3. Beyond the Theatre of Military Operations: the Monuments of the Crimean War in Simferopol and Bakhchisaray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay A. Syedin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the events that took place on the Crimean peninsula during the Eastern War (1853-1856 beyond the main battle fields. The author describes overall picture of what was happening in the Crimean cities on the background of heroic defense of Sevastopol, names cities which experienced invasion and tells about the consequences of their occupation. The article mainly focuses on Simferopol and Bakhchisaray as the front-line cities that played a significant role in defense of Sevastopol and experienced all the consequences of military actions on the Crimean peninsula. The author names the famous participants of the Crimean War whose lives were closely connected with those cities, and tells about historical monuments related to the events of those years. The aforementioned participants include the famous writers L. N. Tolstoy and N. V. Berg, who spent significant amount of time in those cities during the war. Another personality that draws the author’s close attention is N.I. Pirogov, a surgeon whose professional activity on the peninsula at that time was tightly connected with Simferopol. The article also tells about active participants of military operations – generals P.A. Vrevskiy and P.V. Veimarn who lost their lives during the battle at the Chornaya river and were buried in Bakhchisaray. The author believes that knowledge of events that were happening on the entire territory of the Crimean peninsula substantially improves our understanding of the scale of the Crimean War, reveals the drama of the War and its impact on nations, cities and individuals – whether well-known to us or not – and provides additional material for patriotic education. The article describes in detail the work on preservation of memorials of the Crimean War and promotes the attitude of care towards the monuments located all over the Crimean peninsula.

  4. Hemorrhagic disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930167 Relationship among changes of bloodpicture and hemorrhage to skin,fundus occuliand brain in 220 cases of hematologic disease.WU Bingquan(吴秉权),et al.Blood Dis Hosp,CMAS.Tianjin Med J 1992;20(9):515-517.Changes of blood picture related to bleedingof the skin,fundus occuli and brain were ana-lyzed in 220 cases of blood diseases.Resultsshowed,in iron deficient anemia with pro-

  5. Q emocratic Republic of the Congo:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Women and Peace-building in the Democratic Republic of the Congo .... Former Yugoslavia, Burundi, Northern Ireland and India and Pakistan. In the ..... we would have thought it was time to talk about sexual violence against women.

  6. Medical anthropology and Ebola in Congo: cultural models and humanistic care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewlett, B S; Epelboin, A; Hewlett, B L; Formenty, P

    2005-09-01

    Seldom have medical anthropologists been involved in efforts to control high mortality diseases such as Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) This paper describes the results of two distinct but complementary interventions during the first phases of an outbreak in the Republic of Congo in 2003. The first approach emphasized understanding local peoples cultural models and political-economic explanations for the disease while the second approach focused on providing more humanitarian care of patients by identifying and incorporating local beliefs and practices into patient care and response efforts.

  7. The French Army and British Army Crimean War Reforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Dawson

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available French army logistics of the Crimean War are generally considered to have been better organized than their British counterpart. This sometimes erroneous belief was fuelled by letters home (from officers and men as well as by the reporting of various ‘special correspondents’ in the Crimea, and created an emotional response favourable to the ordinary soldier and, in particular, towards the French. This then became the basis for arguments for reform of the British army in the military and domestic press and in Parliament. Clamour for reform on French lines led to official studies being made of the French army, especially of logistics, officer education, and even uniforms. The French army, however, was little understood and the resulting ephemeral corps-style units (such as Land Transport Corps, Army Work Corps, and Mounted Staff Corps were quickly found faulty. In fact, official study of the French army often had little or no effect on the major reforms of the war. Emulation of the French was ultimately short-lived and of little effect; the favourable perception of the French was based on short-term emotional response and, indeed, the desire for army reform had its sting drawn with the establishment of the Roebuck Committee. Post-war retrenchment and success in the Indian Mutiny would stifle what was left of the reform debate.

  8. Off the Chart: The Crimean War in British Public Consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Berridge

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Crimean War revealed in this issue of '19' is of such rich and varied historical interest as to make a mystery of its relative obscurity with the general public in the UK. My own article adopts a novelist’s perspective to chart some aspects of this popular decline, exploring the treatment of the Siege of Sebastopol through the media of painting, literature, and cinema, and considering whether those aspects of the war that have made the greatest impression on the public mind are also those that make it least commercially attractive. It also examines the more official legacy, from the treatment of war dead to the changing face of sculpted memorials, and by comparing British commemoration with that of Russians in Crimea, discusses the possible role played in national memory by both shame and pride. In a final brief analysis of the 1968 film 'The Charge of the Light Brigade', I consider the extent to which modern rejection of Victorian values has created historical distortion, and whether a more truthful presentation might better serve the cause of preserving an important war in the British public consciousness.

  9. Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 4 viruses that cause two other hemorrhagic fevers, dengue hemorrhagic fever and yellow fever. Virus Families Information ... 2014 Content source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases ( ...

  10. Stage of the Analysis of the Crimean Khanate Sources: V.D. Smirnov »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Nepomnyashchiy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of a substantial body of archival documents of the Institute of Oriental Manuscripts of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the little-known publications, the author has restored laborious work of professor of St. Petersburg University Vasiliy Dmitrievich Smirnov who collected, organized and preserved in the central archival repositories sources for the history of the Crimean Khanate. The author has reconstructed the main events in his life and his activities in the Imperial Public Library related to the concentration in this store of the Crimean Tatar documents (article also contains a short list of his main works. Not limited to the literary sources of Turkey and Russia, Vasiliy Dmitrievich repeatedly worked in the libraries of Budapest, Vienna, London, and Paris. In the 1880’s, he continued to develop the theme of his doctoral thesis and combined literary studies and work in the archives with archaeological researches in the Crimea. The author has analyzed the process of creating of the largest work on the history of the Crimean Khanate, which remains hitherto an unrivaled. V.D. Smirnov managed to summarize Turkish sources (medieval Ottoman and Crimean “chronicles”, most of which have not yet been translated and historiography. This work continues to constitute a historiographical interest in the present. He widely covered, in the first place, the political history of the Crimean Khanate. The author have reviewed the research trip of V.D. Smirnov to the Crimea, his work in local archives, and communication with experts in the Crimean Tatar and Ottoman history. The author has considered the epistolary heritage of the scholar and, on this basis, discovered his academic contacts with leading researchers of Crimea of that time. The author found that he corresponded with such researchers as A.I. Markevich, N.A. Sultan Krym Giray, Z.A. Firkovich, S.M. Shapshal. To V.D. Smirnov belong a comprehensive source study on the history of

  11. Northern Black Sea Region in 1400–1442 and the Origin of the Crimean Khanate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.P. Gulevych

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The history of the Crimean Khanate’s foundation still remains poorly studied. Also, little is known about the early years of the first Crimean khan Haci I Giray whose ancestors ruled in the Crimea and the Golden Horde. In the 20s of the 15th century the Grand Duke of Lithuania Vytautas actively intervened in the affairs of the Crimea and the Golden Horde trying to establish his sovereignty in the city of Caffa, where he strove to nominate subordinated khans. However, at the end of his reign, he could not exert a serious military pressure because until he died, he was occupied with his coronation. The boundaries of the Crimean tumen extended from the river Dniester in the West to the Volga River in the East, from the mean flow of the Dnieper and Southern Bug River in the North to the coastal cities of the Crimean peninsula in the south. In the first half of 15th century, there were many stationary settlements of Tatars in the Black Sea steppes. Thus, the tumen occupied a large territory. Having a great military power, the Crimean rulers did not separate the Crimean Ulus from the Golden Horde, but used the peninsula as a staging area for the seizure of power in the state capital city of Sarai. The Tatar nobility also sought to enthrone those khans who would be dependent on them. One of their strongest representatives was Tehene-bey who had a residence in Solkhat on the Crimean peninsula. He persuaded Vytautas to give them Ulugh Muhammad as a khan. In response, the khan nominated Tehene-bey as his deputy in the Crimea. A few years later, Ulugh Muhammad quarreled both with Tehene-bey and the Lithuanian ruler Švitrigaila. In 1433, the Grand Duke of Lithuania helped Khan Sayid Ahmad II both to split the Golden Horde and to seize power on the right bank of the Dnieper. According to many historians, Haci Giray seized power in the Crimea and defeated a Genoese military detachment in 1434, but this statement is not confirmed by the written sources and

  12. Nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbein, Nancy J; Wijman, Christine A C

    2010-11-01

    Nontraumatic (or spontaneous) intracranial hemorrhage most commonly involves the brain parenchyma and subarachnoid space. This entity accounts for at least 10% of strokes and is a leading cause of death and disability in adults. Important causes of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage include hypertension, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, aneurysms, vascular malformations, and hemorrhagic infarcts (both venous and arterial). Imaging findings in common and less common causes of spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage are reviewed.

  13. [Ebola hemorrhagic fever: its extension reflects the African sanitary disaster].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourée, Patrice

    2014-09-01

    Ebola virus, described in 1976 in Zaire, causes severe hemorrhagic fever with a high mortality rate in humans and nonhuman primates. Epidemics occurred since this time to nowadays in Sudan, Gabon, Congo and currently in Guinea, Liberia, Sierra-Leone, Nigeria and Senegal. Specific treatment and vaccine are not available. So, to prevent the virus transmission with live and dead patients, we must use strict individual and collective measures which are not always understood by local populations and make contact tracing; it is the only way to curb the epidemic.

  14. CPAFFC Delegation Visits Democratic Republic of the Congo and Republic of Congo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu; Liya

    2016-01-01

    At the invitation of Andre Kimbuta,mayor of Kinshasa in the Democratic Republic of the Congo,and Jean Marie Ewengue,mayor of Oyo city,Republic of Congo,a CPAFFC delegation led by Lin Yi,the group’s vice-president,visited the two countries from Sept 22 to 30.During the visit to the DRC,the delegation met with Edouard Mokolo

  15. Maternal mortality from hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeri, Sina; Dildy, Gary A

    2012-02-01

    Hemorrhage remains as one of the top 3 obstetrics related causes of maternal mortality, with most deaths occurring within 24-48 hours of delivery. Although hemorrhage related maternal mortality has declined globally, it continues to be a vexing problem. More specifically, the developing world continue to shoulder a disproportionate share of hemorrhage related deaths (99%) compared with industrialized nations (1%). Given the often preventable nature of death from hemorrhage, the cornerstone of effective mortality reduction involves risk factor identification, quick diagnosis, and timely management. In this monograph we will review the epidemiology, etiology, and preventative measures related to maternal mortality from hemorrhage.

  16. Problems in the Study of the Crimean Court Registries of the 17th–18th centuries »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.D. Rustemov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The first mention of the Crimean court registries – sijils – belong to the 1800s. At that time, translations of some texts were made, the content of these monuments was relatively minutely described and their historical and philological significance was evaluated. However, separate volumes of presented documents still have not been published. Neither comprehensive linguistic study nor description of terminology and style of these texts have not been made. Research objectives: study of the Crimean court registries of the 17th–18th centuries. One of the problems lying on the surface of this field of study of the Crimean Tatar language history and the right is the question about the compilers of these judicial materials. Whom we can consider the author or scribe of a court registry? How competent is an assertion that these books are kadiaskers books? Research materials: the court registries, kadylyk, kadiasker defters. The paper also raised the question of authenticity of the Crimean law and the two sources of the entire justice system of this Eastern European Turkic state: Sharia and actual Turkic law – Töre implemented subsequently in various legislative compilations, such as the Yasa of Chinggis Khan. Another issue of research of these monuments is the question of their content. Fedor Lashkov identified the Crimean records of Sharia courts as a sort of land records’ acts. Research results and novelty: As a result of a detailed study, the author found that its own jurisdiction and its own laws, which did not always coincide with the laws of the Ottoman Empire, functioned in the Crimean Khanate. Despite their historical and philological value as well as more than a century of study, Crimean court registries still contain many blank spots. This again points to the need for their early reading, translation into modern Turkish language and publication, which should be carried out in the Crimean Tatar and Russian languages.

  17. Mechanisms and Consequences of Ebolavirus-Induced Lymphocyte Apoptosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    common finding in many other hemorrhagic fever viruses, in- cluding Lassa , Marburg, Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever , and some Hantavirus infections... fever , resulting in death in up to 90% of infected humans. EBOVinfection induces massive bystander lymphocyte apoptosis; however, neither the cellular...Jonathan E. McDunn,‡ Richard S. Hotchkiss,‡ and Sina Bavari* Ebolavirus (EBOV) is a member of the filovirus family and causes severe hemorrhagic fever

  18. Immigration Visa Issuances and Grounds for Exclusion: Policy and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    order.30 The relevant executive order lists cholera; diphtheria; infectious tuberculosis; plague; smallpox; yellow fever ; viral hemorrhagic fevers ... Lassa , Marburg, Ebola, Crimean-Congo, South American, and others not yet isolated or named); severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS); and “[i...SAO procedures, consular officers send suspect names, identified by law enforcement and intelligence information ( originally certain visa applicants

  19. Immigration Policies and Issues on Health-Related Grounds for Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    viral hemorrhagic fevers ( Lassa , Marburg, Ebola, Crimean-Congo, South American, and others not yet isolated or named); severe acute respiratory...to a Presidential Executive Order.16 The relevant executive order lists cholera; diphtheria; infectious tuberculosis; plague; smallpox; yellow fever ...travelers for obvious signs and symptoms of quarantinable and communicable diseases, such as (1) fever , which could be detected by a flushed

  20. Databases of publications and observations - as a part of the Crimean Astronomical Virtual Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Shlyapnikov, A; Gorbunov, M

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the basic principles of formation of a database (DB) with information about objects and their physical characteristics from observations carried out at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory (CrAO) and published in "Izvestiya Krymskoi Astrofizicheskoi Observatorii" and other publications. The emphasis is placed on DBs that are not present in the most complete global library catalogs and data tables - VizieR (supported by the Strasbourg ADC). Separately, we consider the formation of a digital archive of observational data obtained at CrAO - as the interactive DB related to the DB of objects and publications. Examples of all the above DB as elements integrated into the Crimean Astronomical Virtual Observatory are presented in the paper. The operation with CrAO database is illustrated using tools of the International Virtual Observatory - Aladin, VOPlot, VOSpec jointly with VizieR DB and Simbad.

  1. Post-thyroidectomy hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godballe, Christian; Madsen, Anders Rørbaek; Pedersen, Henrik Baymler;

    2009-01-01

    risk factors for hemorrhage. Increased hospital stay and infection rates were found in patients treated with drainage. The median time for onset of postoperative hemorrhage was 3 h (range 0-105). Compared with international literature our incidence of post-thyroidectomy hemorrhage is relatively high....... Improvement might be reached by the exchange of experience between departments with focus on adequate surgical technique and careful hemostasis....

  2. Verbal Descriptions and Portraits of People in the Crimean Court Books of the 17th–18th centuries »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.D. Rustemov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents current issues of the style of Crimean legal documents (sidzhils of the 17th–18th centuries. The subject of research is the traditions of making verbal portraits of people, who appear in the court decisions of the Crimean Khanate. The describing of people in the legal practice of the Crimean Khanate wore a traditional character and was not applied to all participants of the process. It also spoke about class inequality in this Muslim country. Such inequality was reflected in similes and metaphors, which were used in the preparation of verbal portrait. Typically, the compilation of some conditional descriptions of people was applied to the slaves who, for various reasons, appeared in court. Usually it would be the case, considering the slave’s redemption or another way of their release.Another way to identify people in the legal documents of the Crimean Khanate was a posting of their name, father’s name and place of residence. For more precise information, sometimes their position was reported in terms that existed in the Crimea in the specified period. As we know, it was time of the Ottoman language and Ottoman terminology. This article contains some examples of judicial decisions for the first time translated into Russian. The author considers the problem of official style in the Crimean Turkic language, which reflected the process of forming and fixing the style of legal chancery in the Crimean court registries of the 17th–18th centuries. Characteristically, the Ottoman written tradition replaced that of the Golden Horde during this period of the Crimean Khanate’s history.

  3. AcEST: DK955327 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 40 0.080 tr|Q9IWI4|Q9IWI4_9VIRU Envelope glycoprotein OS=Crimean-Congo he... 40 0.10 tr|Q8QZG0|Q8QZG0_9VIRU... Envelope glycoprotein OS=Crimean-Congo he... 40 0.10 tr|Q035F5|Q035F5_LACC3 Predicted outer membrane protei...55 PAPAP-------QPATPAPAPQPTTQAAAPAAPAASQVSSESSFSSSSDGVLHSG 202 >tr|Q9IWI4|Q9IWI4_9VIRU Envelope glycoprotein OS=Crime...PAQPAFPQSATSTAAQDIYSSPTNRS 250 >tr|Q8QZG0|Q8QZG0_9VIRU Envelope glycoprotein OS=Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fe

  4. Cysticercosis in the Democratic Republic Of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Dorny

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cysticercosis, caused by Taenia solium eggs, is a zoonotic disease whose consequences can be severe especially in the cerebral localisation (neuorcysticercosis. Indeed, neurocysticercosis is the first cause of epilepsy amongst the infectious etiology group. Following the increase of epilepsy cases in Kinshasa and Bas-Congo, it was important to assess the fraction attributable to neurocysticercosis especially as data on cysticercosis in Democratic Republic Of Congo (DRC dating from 1970.A joint study between veterinary and human doctors was conducted in the provinces of Bas-Congo and Kinshasa between 2008 and 2010. Blood samples were collected from the general population, patients with epilepsy and pigs. These samples were analysed using ELISA antigen in the laboratory of the Institute of Tropical Medicine in Antwerp. Patients positive to ELISA antigen took the CT scan exam for the confirmation of neurocysticercosis. In the province of Kinshasa, of 530 epileptic patients, 6.3% were identified as neurocysticercosis cases. Out of a total of 498 pigs, 38.9% were positive for cysticercosis. In the province of Bas- Congo, of 943 inhabitants from Malanga village, 21.6% were positive with predominance in males (26.4% versus 17.5%. A total of 145 pigs from 5 villages were examined and 41.2% found positive.We can conclude that cysticercosis in the DRC has been neglected for a long time and cysticercosis could be a real major public health problem. Prospective studies addressing the consequences of cysticercosis in communities are needed in order to prevent epilepsy due to neurocysticercosis.

  5. Intraventricular hemorrhage of the newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bleeding. Grade 1 is also referred to as germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH). Grades 3 and 4 involve ... Saunders; 2015:chap 60. Volpe JJ. Intracranial hemorrhage: germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage. In Volpe JJ, ed. Neurology ...

  6. Hemorrhagic prepatellar bursitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donahue, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Musculoskeletal Section, Univ. of Miami/Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami, FL (United States); Turkel, D. [Dept. of Radiology, Musculoskeletal Section, Univ. of Miami/Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami, FL (United States); Mnaymneh, W. [Dept. of Orthopedics, Univ. of Miami/Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami, FL (United States); Ghandur-Mnaymneh, L. [Dept. of Pathology, Univ. of Miami/Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami, FL (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Simple prepatellar bursitis is easily diagnosed both clinically and by MRI. MRI shows the typical T1 and T2 lengthening of fluid within the bursa. However, because of complex MRI appearance of hemorrhage, chronic hemorrhagic bursitis and the size of the prepatellar mass the clinical and MRI appearance can be very different. (orig.)

  7. War, plague and exploitation in DR Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimčevska Antoaneta K.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Late in autumn 2006 one of the headlines in world media was the first democratic elections in DR Congo. They took place after 30 years of Mobutu Sese Seko’s dictatorship and bloody civil wars in the period 1996-2002. These conflicts, which took approximately 4 million human lives, are called "The First African World War". Elections were held but they did not guarantee the end of trouble for the divided and tormented people in the northeast of Congo, the real scene of bloodshed. The area is still turbulent because it abounds in mineral wealth - gold, diamonds and raw materials for nuclear technology. For a whole decade, unscrupulous actors of the African crisis were fighting there, for illegal profits (achievable in the chaos of bloodshed rather than for democracy, defense of tribal interests, security, etc. as they claimed. In the mines of Eastern Congo unprecedented exploitation of people is still going on, especially of children, victims of conflicts, who suffer in great numbers from violence, starvation and diseases. These slaves of the crisis make local "warlords" and their mentors rich. The looting of the mines has stabilized the crisis because it makes possible enormous accumulation of wealth among armed decision-makers - which also includes availability of countless slaves-miners who have lost everything except their bare lives. Eastern Congo is, however, one of world’s three old focuses of plague; wild exploitation of ores in the area of this endemic disease has activated a sleepy focus and added pneumonic plague to the burdens suffered by the population of the rich but ill-fated region. This was to be expected because endemic plague in the gold-bearing evil circumstances impedes safe mining - and this will be the crucial challenge in the future of Congo. This article is an anthropological outline of the area where gold, plague, weapons and incomparable suffering of people merge together just because of cynic greed producing abuse

  8. Search for the Ebola virus reservoir in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leirs, Herwig; Mills, James N.; Krebs, John W.

    1999-01-01

    A 3-month ecologic investigation was done to identify the reservoir of Ebola virus following the 1995 outbreak in Kikwit, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Efforts focused on the fields where the putative primary case had worked but included other habitats near Kikwit, Samples were collected from...... 3066 vertebrates and tested for the presence of antibodies to Ebola (subtype Zaire) virus: All tests were negative, and attempts to isolate Ebola virus were unsuccessful. The investigation was hampered by a lack of information beyond the daily activities of the primary case, a lack of information...... on Ebola virus ecology, which precluded the detailed study of select groups of animals, and sample-size limitations for rare species, The epidemiology of Ebola hemorrhagic fever suggests that humans have only intermittent contact with the virus, which complicates selection of target species. Further study...

  9. Will Passive Protection Save Congo Forests?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian L Galford

    Full Text Available Central Africa's tropical forests are among the world's largest carbon reserves. Historically, they have experienced low rates of deforestation. Pressures to clear land are increasing due to development of infrastructure and livelihoods, foreign investment in agriculture, and shifting land use management, particularly in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC. The DRC contains the greatest area of intact African forests. These store approximately 22 billion tons of carbon in aboveground live biomass, yet only 10% are protected. Can the status quo of passive protection - forest management that is low or nonexistent - ensure the preservation of this forest and its carbon? We have developed the SimCongo model to simulate changes in land cover and land use based on theorized policy scenarios from 2010 to 2050. Three scenarios were examined: the first (Historical Trends assumes passive forest protection; the next (Conservation posits active protection of forests and activation of the national REDD+ action plan, and the last (Agricultural Development assumes increased agricultural activities in forested land with concomitant increased deforestation. SimCongo is a cellular automata model based on Bayesian statistical methods tailored for the DRC, built with the Dinamica-EGO platform. The model is parameterized and validated with deforestation observations from the past and runs the scenarios from 2010 through 2050 with a yearly time step. We estimate the Historical Trends trajectory will result in average emissions of 139 million t CO2 year-1 by the 2040s, a 15% increase over current emissions. The Conservation scenario would result in 58% less clearing than Historical Trends and would conserve carbon-dense forest and woodland savanna areas. The Agricultural Development scenario leads to emissions of 212 million t CO2 year-1 by the 2040s. These scenarios are heuristic examples of policy's influence on forest conservation and carbon storage. Our results

  10. Will Passive Protection Save Congo Forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galford, Gillian L; Soares-Filho, Britaldo S; Sonter, Laura J; Laporte, Nadine

    2015-01-01

    Central Africa's tropical forests are among the world's largest carbon reserves. Historically, they have experienced low rates of deforestation. Pressures to clear land are increasing due to development of infrastructure and livelihoods, foreign investment in agriculture, and shifting land use management, particularly in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The DRC contains the greatest area of intact African forests. These store approximately 22 billion tons of carbon in aboveground live biomass, yet only 10% are protected. Can the status quo of passive protection - forest management that is low or nonexistent - ensure the preservation of this forest and its carbon? We have developed the SimCongo model to simulate changes in land cover and land use based on theorized policy scenarios from 2010 to 2050. Three scenarios were examined: the first (Historical Trends) assumes passive forest protection; the next (Conservation) posits active protection of forests and activation of the national REDD+ action plan, and the last (Agricultural Development) assumes increased agricultural activities in forested land with concomitant increased deforestation. SimCongo is a cellular automata model based on Bayesian statistical methods tailored for the DRC, built with the Dinamica-EGO platform. The model is parameterized and validated with deforestation observations from the past and runs the scenarios from 2010 through 2050 with a yearly time step. We estimate the Historical Trends trajectory will result in average emissions of 139 million t CO2 year-1 by the 2040s, a 15% increase over current emissions. The Conservation scenario would result in 58% less clearing than Historical Trends and would conserve carbon-dense forest and woodland savanna areas. The Agricultural Development scenario leads to emissions of 212 million t CO2 year-1 by the 2040s. These scenarios are heuristic examples of policy's influence on forest conservation and carbon storage. Our results suggest that 1

  11. Pulmonary Hemorrhage in Cryoglobulinemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Kirkpatrick

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary manifestations of cryoglobulinemia are uncommon and their clinical behaviour is unpredictable, ranging from mild dyspnea to life-threatening presentations. A patient with cryoglobulinemia who presented with hypoxic respiratory failure attributed to pulmonary hemorrhage is reported.

  12. Title:- retrobulbar hemorrhage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr.Gagan

    Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, AB Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental Sciences, Mangalore. 1. Department of .... technique of orbital decompression that involves fracturing the orbital ... hemorrhage after retrobulbar anesthesia.

  13. Recurrent intracerebral hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen jinsong; Lu jianhong

    2000-01-01

    Objective: In order to study the clinical manifestation and risk factor of recurrent intracerebral hemorrhage(ICH).Methods:The 256 patients were analysed who admitted to our hospital for intracerebral hemorrhage between 1995 and 1997.The 15(5 .86%)patients had a recurrent ICH.There were 9 men and 6 women and the mean age of the patients was 63.5 ± 6.4years at the first bleeding episode and 67.8± 8. 5 years at the second. The mean interval between the two bleeding episodes was 44.6 ± 12.5 months. The 73.3%patients were hypertensive .′The site of the first hemorrhage was ganglionic in 8 patients , ]ohar in six paients and brainstem in one .The recurrent hemorrhage occurred at a different location from the previous ICH.The most common pattern of recurrence was “ganglionic -ganglionic” (7 patients), lobar - ganglionic (3 patients), lobar-lobar(three patients), which was always observed in hypertensive patients. The outcome after the recurrent hemorrhage was usually poor. By comparison with 24 patients followed up to average 47.5± 18.7 months with isolated ICH without recurrence .Only lobar hematoma and a younger age were risk factors for recurrences whereas sex and previous hypertension were not. The mechanism of recurrence of ICH were multiple(hypertension, cerebral amyloid angiopathy).Contral of blood pressure and good living habit after the first hemorrhage may prevent ICH recurrences.

  14. Forest elephant crisis in the Congo Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Stephen; Strindberg, Samantha; Boudjan, Patrick; Makombo, Calixte; Bila-Isia, Inogwabini; Ilambu, Omari; Grossmann, Falk; Bene-Bene, Lambert; de Semboli, Bruno; Mbenzo, Valentin; S'hwa, Dino; Bayogo, Rosine; Williamson, Liz; Fay, Mike; Hart, John; Maisels, Fiona

    2007-04-01

    Debate over repealing the ivory trade ban dominates conferences of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). Resolving this controversy requires accurate estimates of elephant population trends and rates of illegal killing. Most African savannah elephant populations are well known; however, the status of forest elephants, perhaps a distinct species, in the vast Congo Basin is unclear. We assessed population status and incidence of poaching from line-transect and reconnaissance surveys conducted on foot in sites throughout the Congo Basin. Results indicate that the abundance and range of forest elephants are threatened from poaching that is most intense close to roads. The probability of elephant presence increased with distance to roads, whereas that of human signs declined. At all distances from roads, the probability of elephant occurrence was always higher inside, compared to outside, protected areas, whereas that of humans was always lower. Inside protected areas, forest elephant density was correlated with the size of remote forest core, but not with size of protected area. Forest elephants must be prioritised in elephant management planning at the continental scale.

  15. Forest elephant crisis in the Congo Basin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Blake

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Debate over repealing the ivory trade ban dominates conferences of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES. Resolving this controversy requires accurate estimates of elephant population trends and rates of illegal killing. Most African savannah elephant populations are well known; however, the status of forest elephants, perhaps a distinct species, in the vast Congo Basin is unclear. We assessed population status and incidence of poaching from line-transect and reconnaissance surveys conducted on foot in sites throughout the Congo Basin. Results indicate that the abundance and range of forest elephants are threatened from poaching that is most intense close to roads. The probability of elephant presence increased with distance to roads, whereas that of human signs declined. At all distances from roads, the probability of elephant occurrence was always higher inside, compared to outside, protected areas, whereas that of humans was always lower. Inside protected areas, forest elephant density was correlated with the size of remote forest core, but not with size of protected area. Forest elephants must be prioritised in elephant management planning at the continental scale.

  16. [Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fever viruses: update on filoviruses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, E; Baize, S; Gonzalez, J P

    2011-04-01

    The Ebola and Marburg viruses are the sole members of the Filoviridae family of viruses. They are characterized by a long filamentous form that is unique in the viral world. Filoviruses are among the most virulent pathogens currently known to infect humans. They cause fulminating disease characterized by acute fever followed by generalized hemorrhagic syndrome that is associated with 90% mortality in the most severe forms. Epidemic outbreaks of Marburg and Ebola viruses have taken a heavy toll on human life in Central Africa and devastated large ape populations in Gabon and Republic of Congo. Since their discovery in 1967 (Marburg) and 1976 (Ebola), more than 2,300 cases and 1,670 deaths have been reported. These numbers pale in comparison with the burden caused by malnutrition or other infectious disease scourges in Africa such as malaria, cholera, AIDS, dengue or tuberculosis. However, due to their extremely high lethality, association with multifocal hemorrhaging and specificity to the African continent, these hemorrhagic fever viruses have given rise to great interest on the part not only of the international scientific community but also of the general public because of their perceived potential as biological weapons. Much research has been performed on these viruses and major progress has been made in knowledge of their ecology, epidemiology and physiopathology and in development of vaccine candidates and therapeutic schemes. The purpose of this review is to present the main developments in these particular fields in the last decade.

  17. CPAFFC Delegation Visits Gabon, Republic of the Congo and Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the Gabon-China Friendship Association (GCFA), the Congolese Association of Friendship Among the Peoples (CAFP) and the Mzee Laurent Desire Kabila Foundation of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, CPAFFC Vice President Feng Zuoku led a friendship delegation to visit the above three countries from September 20 to October 2, 2007. The delegation met with Prime Minister Jean Eye-ghe Ndong, Senate President Rene Radembino

  18. The Crimean War (1855–1856: the Combat Operations in Rioni Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla G. Vazerova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the fighting in the Rioni region in the period of the Crimean war, 1855–1856 years. The attention is paid to the climatic and geographical description of the territory where the fighting took place. Rioni region was a secondary theater of operations during the Crimean war. The task of the allied troops consisted of having landed in Abkhazia to start a vigorous attack on Kutais and Tiflis in order to divert the Russian army from the besieging of the Kars fortress. Among the materials are the documents of the Central state historical archive of Georgia (Tbilisi, Georgia. The scientific publications on the topic of the study, published in pre-revolutionary and modern periods, have a significant importance. The authors conclude that the airborne operation in Rioni region began in the best terms for the allies, but the slowness of the Turkish troops and the active defense of russian led to delays in the operation before the onset of autumn rains. As a result of deterioration of the sanitary situation the landing operation was terminated without reaching the success.

  19. TRACES OF MEMORY. PRELIMINARY REMARKS ON IDENTITY AND BIOGRAPHY OF CRIMEAN TATARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Borowik

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the preliminary analysis of biographical interviews, taken with representatives of Crimean Tatars returning to Crimean Peninsula and settling in the places that they or their ancestors used to live before deportation. The research was conducted in summer of 2008 and 2009, 20 interviews were taken with consideration of age, sex, place of living and level of education. Traces of memory are understood in this article as repeatable elements of biographical narratives. By this virtue those repeated elements refer not only to individual identity but they also build collective identity, more precisely national in this case. The key element of the article is the third part of it where relations between memory and identity are explored in collected biographies. As it appeared in all life-stories deportation from Crimea and return after years are crucial elements of construction of biographies and in all cases it has a form of trajectories. The general conclusion is that memory of these painful events and celebration of it is functional for building the strong collective identity which is based on traditional values, religious and political integration of national minority.

  20. A Historical Survey of Military Health Services: The Crimean War and Florence Nigtingale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unal Demirtas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available During the Crimean War freezing cold and contagious diseases was more important than the Russian soldiers for the allied armies. Typhus, scorbut, cholera and malaria prepare the dead of a large number of soldiers. According to the resources, the contagious diseases led to death more than ten times of the military actions. That and #8217;s why, The European armies understood the importance of the treatment diseases in the war and the Crimean War became the beginning point in military health concept development. Florence Nightingale and a staff of 38 volunteers provide clean bedding, improve ventilation and sewage disposal, and reorganize everyday sanitary procedures at British barracks in Istanbul. She was an early theorist of sanitation and one of the founders of the modern nursing profession. Nightingale worked to improve sanitation, nutrition, and activity of patients at hospitals. Death rates were reduced dramatically with the introduction of such measures. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2014; 13(1.000: 1-6

  1. The Life and Afterlives of Captain Hedley Vicars: Evangelical Biography and the Crimean War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trev Broughton

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that one of the most influential responses to the Crimean War, and indeed one of the most widely known books of the mid-century, was the work of a woman: the middle-class evangelical Miss Catherine Marsh’s biography of her friend Captain Hedley Vicars. In this book (first published in December 1855, she forged an image of Crimean heroism compatible with Christian piety and good works, and in doing so provided a valued point of connection and identification for many combatant and non-combatant readers. This article explores the ways in which Marsh drew on the resources of memoir and memorial, as well as on the immediacy of war correspondence and the flexibility of print culture, to celebrate a militarized Christianity and a Christian military. A text combining soldierly masculinity with evangelical expressiveness was, however, open to multiple reappropriations and interpretations. As the article goes on to explore, some responses to the 'Memorials of Captain Hedley Vicars of the 97th' were straightforwardly affirmative; others sceptical, ambivalent, or even subversive.

  2. Modeling and mapping potential distribution of Crimean juniper (Juniperus excelsa Bieb.) using correlative approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, Kürşad; Şentürk, Özdemir; Mert, Ahmet; Negiz, Mehmet Güvenç

    2015-01-01

    Modeling and mapping potential distribution of living organisms has become an important component of conservation planning and ecosystem management in recent years. Various correlative and mechanistic methods can be applied to build predictive distributions of living organisms in terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Correlative methods used to predict species' potential distribution have been described as either group discrimination techniques or profile techniques. We attempted to determine whether group discrimination techniques could perform as well as profile techniques for predicting species potential distributions, using elevation (ELVN), parent material (ROCK), slope (SLOP), radiation index (RI) and topographic position index (TPI)) as explanatory variables. We compared potential distribution predictions made for Crimean juniper (Juniperus excelsa Bieb.) in the Yukan Gokdere forest district of the Mediterranean region, Turkey, applying four group discrimination techniques (discriminate analysis (DA), logistic regression analysis (LR), generalized addictive model (GAM) and classification tree technique (CT)) and two profile techniques (a maximum entropy approach to species distribution modeling (MAXENT), the genetic algorithm for rule-set prediction (GARP)). Visual assessments of the potential distribution probability of the applied models for Crimean juniper were performed by using geographical information systems (GIS). Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to objectively assess model performance. The results suggested that group discrimination techniques are better than profile techniques and, among the group discrimination techniques, GAM indicated the best performance.

  3. Mehmed Senai: A Crimean Historian at Sarai of Khan Islam Giray »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refat Rustem ogly Abduzhemilev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the creative work of Mehmed Senai – the Crimean chronicler at the serai of the khan Islam Geray III, as well as his chronicle “Tarih-i Islam Geray khan” (“History of the khan Islam Geray III”, 1651. The researcher gives biographical information about the author and a brief description of the source. The identity of the writer is defined and based on the text of the Preface to the Chronicle: background, education, position, religious status. The meaning of the pseudonym of Senai is under the study, the text of the chronogram in which it occurs is reproduced. Especially noted thing is the originality of the artistic structure of the Chronicle “Tarih-i Islam Geray khan”.The Chronicle “Tarih-i Islam Geray khan” is the panegyric to the Crimean khan Islam Geray whose reign represents the brilliant epoch in the history of the Crimean Khanate. The writing consists of the ceremonies of public appointments, episodes of military campaigns and making treaties, the text of khan Islam Geray’s pedigree (shejere, construction and repair of buildings. There is the brief information about the Chronicle and about M. Senai in “Catalogue of the Turkish Manuscripts in the British Museum” (1888. The primary work on writing was conducted by Polish orientalists who prepared the edition of the original text, its translation and processing, backed with comments. At the time of writing the Chronicle, Mehmed Senai was in his old age, he served as the kadi (religious judge. In his youth he worked as munshi (decorator of papers in the khan’s office. He got education in the Ottoman Empire, and was engaged in the implementation of diplomatic correspondence. The prospect of identification of the author on the basis of other sources is important to clarify the hypothesis of identifying M. Senai with such Crimean Tatar author as Dzhanmuhammed. The Chronıcle’s plot consists of the diary notes on the military expeditions

  4. Physiological and biochemical responses of Chlorella vulgaris to Congo red.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Zamora, Miriam; Perales-Vela, Hugo Virgilio; Flores-Ortíz, César Mateo; Cañizares-Villanueva, Rosa Olivia

    2014-10-01

    Extensive use of synthetic dyes in many industrial applications releases large volumes of wastewater. Wastewaters from dying industries are considered hazardous and require careful treatment prior to discharge into receiving water bodies. Dyes can affect photosynthetic activities of aquatic flora and decrease dissolved oxygen in water. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Congo red on growth and metabolic activity of Chlorella vulgaris after 96h exposure. Exposure of the microalga to Congo red reduced growth rate, photosynthesis and respiration. Analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence emission showed that the donor side of photosystem II was affected at high concentrations of Congo red. The quantum yield for electron transport (φEo), the electron transport rate (ETR) and the performance index (PI) also decreased. The reduction in the ability to absorb and use the quantum energy increased non-photochemical (NPQ) mechanisms for thermal dissipation. Overall, Congo red affects growth and metabolic activity in photosynthetic organisms in aquatic environments.

  5. DRAGON ROUGE: The Rescue of Hostages in the Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    to traditionalism in a rural Africian society was usually also accompanied by manifestations of witchcraft , magic, and sorcery to explain misfortune... Witchcraft , Sorcery, Magic, and other Psychological Phenomena and their Implications on Military and Paramilitary Operations in the Congo. Washington

  6. Disarming war, arming peace: The Congo crisis, Dag ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    leadership in the first Congo war, and apply in current attempts towards the .... repressive African regimes of the financial and military wherewithal to crack ..... strictly required to present their weapons in order to be granted access to the.

  7. Diagnostic Testing for Hemorrhagic Fevers in Pakistan: 2007–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Zahra; Atkinson, Barry; Jamil, Bushra; Samreen, Azra; Altaf, Lamia; Hewson, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Crimean–Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) and dengue virus (DENV) are endemic to Pakistan. Patients presenting with symptoms of fever, bleeding, and rash cannot be distinguished without appropriate testing. We report data on 354 samples tested for CCHFV at The Aga Khan University Hospital in Pakistan between 2007 and 2013. All samples were tested for the presence of CCHFV RNA. Some samples were also tested for DENV RNA, NS-1 antigen, and/or reactive immunoglobulin M antibodies. Of 354 clinical specimens screened for CCHFV, 52 specimens were positive, with 24 cases in 2013 alone. Most cases were from Sindh and Baluchistan, which border other CCHFV-endemic regions: Iran and Afghanistan. Among CCHFV-negative samples, 168 samples were tested for DENV, and 36% of these samples were found to be DENV-positive. Rapid differentiation of CCHFV and DENV can prevent nosocomial transmission and result in time and cost savings for patients and healthcare workers. PMID:25311694

  8. Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever (Marburg HF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Marburg hemorrhagic fever (Marburg HF) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... first recognized in 1967, when outbreaks of hemorrhagic fever occurred simultaneously in laboratories in Marburg and Frankfurt, ...

  9. Ebola hemorrhagic Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Mark W

    2014-01-01

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever is an often-fatal disease caused by a virus of the Filoviridae family, genus Ebolavirus. Initial signs and symptoms of the disease are nonspecific, often progressing on to a severe hemorrhagic illness. Special Operations Forces Medical Providers should be aware of this disease, which occurs in sporadic outbreaks throughout Africa. Treatment at the present time is mainly supportive. Special care should be taken to prevent contact with bodily fluids of those infected, which can transmit the virus to caregivers. 2014.

  10. Mycoremediation of Congo red dye by filamentous fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourav Bhattacharya

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Azo, anthroquinone and triphenylmethane dyes are the major classes of synthetic colourants, which are difficult to degrade and have received considerable attention. Congo red, a diazo dye, is considered as a xenobiotic compound, and is recalcitrant to biodegradative processes. Nevertheless, during the last few years it has been demonstrated that several fungi, under certain environmental conditions, are able to transfer azo dyes to non toxic products using laccases. The aim of this work was to study the factors influencing mycoremediation of Congo red. Several basidiomycetes and deuteromycetes species were tested for the decolourisation of Congo red (0.05 g/l in a semi synthetic broth at static and shaking conditions. Poor decolourisation was observed when the dye acted as the sole source of nitrogen, whereas semi synthetic broth supplemented with fertilizer resulted in better decolourisation. Decolourisation of Congo red was checked in the presence of salts of heavy metals such as mercuric chloride, lead acetate and zinc sulphate. Decolourisation parameters such as temperature, pH, and rpm were optimized and the decolourisation obtained at optimized conditions varied between 29.25- 97.28% at static condition and 82.1- 100% at shaking condition. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic analysis revealed bands with molecular weights ranging between 66.5 to 71 kDa, a characteristic of the fungal laccases. High efficiency decolourisation of Congo red makes these fungal forms a promising choice in biological treatment of waste water containing Congo red.

  11. Acute brain hemorrhage in dengue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Somsri Wiwanitkit; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is a tropical arboviral infection that can have severe hemorrhagic complication.Acute brain hemorrhage in dengue is rare and is a big challenge in neurosurgery.To perform surgery for management of acute brain hemorrhage in dengue is a controversial issue.Here, the authors try to summarize the previous reports on this topic and compare neurosurgery versus conservative management.

  12. Massive antenatal fetomaternal hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld; Koldkjaer, Ole; Berkowicz, Adela

    2005-01-01

    Massive fetomaternal hemorrhage (FMH) can lead to life-threatening anemia. Quantification based on flow cytometry with anti-hemoglobin F (HbF) is applicable in all cases but underestimation of large fetal bleeds has been reported. A large FMH from an ABO-compatible fetus allows an estimation...

  13. Major obstetric hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercier, Frederic J; Van de Velde, Marc

    2008-03-01

    Major obstetric hemorrhage remains the leading cause of maternal mortality and morbidity worldwide, and is associated with a high rate of substandard care. A well-defined and multidisciplinary approach that aims to act quickly and avoid omissions or conflicting strategies is key. The most common etiologies of hemorrhage are abruptio placenta, placenta previa/accreta, uterine rupture in the antepartum period and retained placenta, uterine atony, and genital-tract trauma in the postpartum period. Basic treatment of postpartum hemorrhage relies on manual removal of the placenta or manual exploration of the uterus plus bladder emptying and oxytocin administration. If this does not arrest bleeding, or if there is any suspicion of genital-tract trauma, examination of the vagina and cervix with appropriate valves and analgesia/anesthesia must follow quickly. Postpartum uterine atony resistant to oxytocin must be treated with prostaglandin within 15 to 30 minutes; uterine balloon tamponade can be also useful at this stage. Aggressive transfusion therapy and resuscitation are mandatory in major obstetric hemorrhage. Specific invasive treatment must be considered within no more than 30 to 60 minutes, if previous measures have failed -- and even earlier in some particular etiologies. The two main options are radiologic embolization and surgical artery ligations. Recombinant factor VIIa may also be considered, but should not delay the performance of a life-saving procedure such as embolization or surgery. Hysterectomy must be implemented when all other interventions have failed.

  14. Bacteriostatics of volatile organic compounds of Crimean pine and environmental meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalaya, Elena; Slepykh, Victor; Efimenko, Natalia; Povolotckaia, Nina

    2015-04-01

    Sanitary and hygienic properties of air saturated with volatile organic compounds of plants (VOC) have a fundamental importance for the biosphere. In particular, they make such a feature as the freshness of the air. The energy contained in VOC and made by Earth vegetation can be compared with the energy of lightning discharges in the atmosphere during the year [1]. The influence of natural environment on the dynamics of VOC developed by plants is also of current interest and is, in particular, important for resort study because VOC produced by the vegetation of the resort regions can be seen as a self-contained resort resource [2]. Dynamics of VOC evolution by Crimean pine (Pinus Pallasiana D.Don.) that is the forest forming breed of the resort region Caucasus Mineral Waters (Russia) has been studied by a microbiological method [1]. Dynamics of bacteriostatics was qualified by the extent of oppression of the VOC test- culture (Staphylococcus aureus 209p) of the pine in % in comparison with control. The needles for the experience were selected at noon in the middle of the summer. At the time of the needle selection meteorological indicators were fixed. As the result of the researches we got an empirical equation of dynamics of VOC bacteriostatics of the Crimean pine under the influence of total solar radiation (kW/m2) and relative air humidity (%). The coefficient of the multiple correlation of the VOC bacteriostatics of the Crimean pine, total solar radiation and relative air humidity makes: R=0,83 at the importance of F=7,53>F0 05=3,49. The coefficient of the multiple determination is R2=0,69. The equation is: y = - 35,1020 + 1,7193x + 175,6638p- 0,0181x2 + 0,6054 (xp) - 191,1319p2, where Y - is bacteriostatics (%); x - is relative humidity (%); p - is total solar radiation (kW/m2). The fixed parameters of the equation are: air humidity - 90-30%; total solar radiation - 0.20-1.0 kW/m2; bacteriostatics - 0-61%. The obtained results can be used in the resort study

  15. Lightning climatology in the Congo Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soula, S.; Kasereka, J. Kigotsi; Georgis, J. F.; Barthe, C.

    2016-09-01

    The lightning climatology of the Congo Basin including several countries of Central Africa is analysed in detail for the first time. It is based on data from the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN), for the period from 2005 to 2013. A comparison of these data with Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) data for the same period shows the relative detection efficiency of the WWLLN (DE) in the 2500 km × 2500 km region increases from about 1.70% in the beginning of the period to 5.90% in 2013, and it is in agreement with previous results for other regions of the world. However, the increase of DE is not uniform over the whole region. The average monthly flash rate describes an annual cycle with a strong activity from October to March and a low one from June to August, associated with the ITCZ migration but not exactly symmetrical on both sides of the equator. The zonal distribution of the lightning flashes exhibits a maximum between 1°S and 2°S and about 56% of the flashes are located south of the equator in the 10°S-10°N interval. The diurnal evolution of the flash rate has a maximum between 1400 and 1700 UTC, according to the reference year. The annual flash density and number of stormy days show a sharp maximum localized in the eastern part of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) regardless of the reference year and the period of the year. These maxima reach 12.86 fl km- 2 and 189 days, respectively, in 2013, and correspond to a very active region located at the rear of the Virunga mountain range at altitudes that exceed 3000 m. The presence of these mountains plays a role in the thunderstorm development along the year. The estimation of this local maximum of the lightning density by taking into account the DE, leads to a value consistent with that of the global climatology by Christian et al. (2003).

  16. Interpretation of History of the Crimean War as a Tool of Historical Memory Manipulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav N. Paramonov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article notes that historical memory represents a set of successive historical reports, myths, subjective reflections on the past events, as a set of pre-scientific, scientific, quasi-scientific and non-scientific knowledge and society’s mass ideas of the common past. The Russians perceive the past from the viewpoint of Russia-centrism and fragmentary nature. The fragmentary representations of the past, poor knowledge of the actual past events create preconditions for manipulating the historical memory and falsifying the events andphenomena. All anti-Russian propaganda campaigns of the 20th-21st centuries are rooted in the earlier period and are nothing more than the development of Russophobian ideas of European intellectuals of the 19th century. The Crimean, or, as it is often called in the West, the Eastern War, became one of the first severe information collisions in the modern history. The author defines the techniques of historical memory manipulation: withdrawal from the context; concealing the real picture of military actions; manipulations around the historic value of certain events or personalities; tendentious demonstration of military actions only through the prism of historians’ works and memoirs by one of the parties’ representatives; the use of anonymous statements; representation of views as facts; creating negative associations, underlining negative aspects; repetition of false claims over and over again until they are perceived as the truth; manipulation of statistical data; fabrication of sensational materials; incomplete information; information imbalances; disproportionate use of sources; false description of the sources as objective and neutral; juggling of the facts; false claims and accusations; demonization of individuals; humiliation and racism; embellishment; labeling, when Russian participants of the Crimean War are shown violent, aggressive, intolerant, and the military coalition are depicted as peaceful

  17. Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern; a Review Article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Saeed; Baratloo, Alireza; Rouhipour, Alaleh; Ghelichkhani, Parisa; Yousefifard, Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) was first reported in 1976 with two concurrent outbreaks of acute viral hemorrhagic fever centered in Yambuku (near the Ebola river), Democratic Republic of Congo, and in Nzara, Sudan. The current outbreak of the Ebola virus was started by reporting the first case in March 2014 in the forest regions of southeastern Guinea. Due to infection rates raising over 13,000% within a 6-month period, Ebola is now considered as a global public health emergency and on August 8(th), 2014 the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the epidemic to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. With more than 5000 involved cases and nearly 3000 deaths, this event has turned into the largest and most dangerous Ebola virus outbreak in the world. Based on the above-mentioned, the present article aimed to review the virologic characteristics, transmission, clinical manifestation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of Ebola virus disease.

  18. Palo Monte, um rito Congo em Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José da Silva Ribeiro

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Juntaram-se em Cuba a partir do século XVI africanos provenientes de toda a costa ocidental africana pertencentes a muitos grupos étnicos. Estes em contacto com as culturas em presença (autóctone, espanhola, portuguesa, africanas desenvolveram diversos sistemas de crença, rituais e práticas mágico-religiosas. No Século XIX o dia de Reis construía o momento mais alto da afirmação da cultura africana em Cuba. Estas manifestações eram acompanhadas da coroação de reis e rainhas Congo, figuras principais da festa e da vida social africana.Africans coming from all West Africa coasts from a large variety of ethnic groups gathered in Cuba since XVIth century. These, in contact with other cultures (native, Spanish, Portuguese, Africans developed some belief systems, rituals and magical-religious practices. On XIXth century the King’s day was the highest moment of affirmation of African culture in Cuba. These experiences were accompanied of king and queen’s crowning, principal figures of African festival and social life.

  19. Mortality after hemorrhagic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    González-Pérez, Antonio; Gaist, David; Wallander, Mari-Ann

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate short-term case fatality and long-term mortality after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) using data from The Health Improvement Network database. METHODS: Thirty-day case fatality was stratified by age, sex, and calendar year after ICH...... during the first year of follow-up compared with controls (ICH: hazard ratio [HR] 2.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.09-3.24, p year (ICH: HR 2.02, 95% CI 1.75-2.32, p ... and SAH using logistic regression. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to estimate the risk of death during the first year of follow-up and survivors at 1 year. RESULTS: Case fatality after ICH was 42.0%, compared with 28.7% after SAH. It increased with age (ICH: 29.7% for 20-49 years...

  20. Phenylpropanolamine and cerebral hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDowell, J.R.; LeBlanc, H.J.

    1985-05-01

    Computerized tomography, carotid angiograms, and arteriography were used to diagnose several cases of cerebral hemorrhage following the use of phenylpropanolamine. The angiographic picture in one of the three cases was similar to that previously described in association with amphetamine abuse and pseudoephedrine overdose, both substances being chemically and pharmacologically similar to phenylpropanolamine. The study suggests that the arterial change responsible for symptoms may be due to spasm rather than arteriopathy. 14 references, 5 figures.

  1. Who Blew the Balaklava Bugle?: The Charge of the Light Brigade and the Afterlife of the Crimean War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Kriegel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The signal event of the Crimean War, the Charge of the Light Brigade, transpired on 25 October 1854. Its reverberations would, however, last long after, as a battle that was waged in the popular press and in auction rooms across the twentieth century attests. The battle involved a bugle and its provenance. In question were two competing claims to have sounded the charge at the Battle of Balaklava, fought at the height of the Crimean War. Did the distinction belong to Trumpet Major William Brittain or to Trumpet Major Henry Joy? The case, which preoccupied family members and interested parties, was closed some fifty years ago in favour of Brittain’s partisans. Why did the contest attain such longevity? Why did it rage with such fervour? This article offers an answer beyond the simple question of provenance as it charts the twists and turns in the dispute, from the mid-nineteenth century through the moment of resolution in the 1960s. In the process, it attests to the politics of presence on the field of battle. It points, too, to the long afterlife of the Crimean War and the lingering shadow of the Victorian Age.

  2. AS ONE OF THE SOURCES OF TURKISH LITERATURE AFTER TANZĐMAT PERIOD WARS 1: CRIMEAN WAR (1853- 1856 /

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Ömer ÇAKIR

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Crimean War began in 1853 between the OttomanEmpire and Russia. Casus beli was the fact that theOttoman Empire did not accept the demands of Russia interms of holy places and protection of Christians. After awhile Russians destroyed Ottoman fleet largely with asudden raid in Sinop. When Constantinople becamedefenseless, England and French that did not this city tobe invaded by Russia due to their own interests alliedwith the Ottoman Empire in this war. The war betweenthe allied powers and Russia continued till 1856, in theend, Russian were defeated. The foreign soldiers comingto Constantinople during the war affected social andcultural life of the city. Therefore, for the first time aEuropean person type came out. Besides, Crimean Warfound reflection in the literature of that age and became atheme for the novels to be written in later days. Becauseof all this, one of the events source of Turkish Literatureafter Tanzimat Period is Crimean War. In our article, thereflections of the war were analyzed.

  3. The Armed Forces of the Ottoman Empire in the Crimean War: Evaluating in the Past and in the Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semen N. Osipovskiy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Military actions of allies in the Crimean War of 1853-1856 had the coalition character, and therefore it is quite problematic to evaluate the contribution of individual troops objectively. At the national historical schools, as well as in public opinion of the state, the army’s participation and its contribution in the course of military operations are actualized. This trend has been common both in the war years and today. The imaginary and the real successes of the army are highly appreciated, and it is impossible to do this without downgrading the role of allies in the coalition. The evaluation of Ottoman troops’ behavior during the Balaklava battle in the Crimean War may serve as an example of such ambiguity. This article deals with the problem of ambiguity of contribution made by the armed forces of the Ottoman Empire to the military operations of the Crimean war in the context of existing assessments. On the one hand, the behavior of the Ottoman forces does not give reasons for the low evaluation of their fighting qualities. On the other hand, current attempts to form an image of the Egyptian contingent as one of the main conflict factors seem to be very far from reality.

  4. Managing for timber and biodiversity in the Congo Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasi, Robert; Billand, Alain; van Vliet, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Multiple-use forest management is considered by many as a preferable alternative to single-use, generally timber-dominant, management models. In the Congo Basin rainforests, integration of timber and non-timber forest resources plays a key role in the subsistence and market economies of rural...... communities. This is however mainly occurring in ‘‘ordinary’’ forest lands and not in formally gazetted forest lands. In this paper we briefly explore the major land-uses in the Congo Basin and their actual or potential for multiple-use. We then focus on the most extant production system (industrial logging...

  5. Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: About CDC.gov . Share Compartir Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS) On this Page What ... is HFRS prevented? Suggested Reading What is hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome? Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome ( ...

  6. Post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, Christian; Wallén, Mia; Aakesson, Marie;

    2008-01-01

    Post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage (PTH) is a relatively common and potentially life-threatening complication. The objective of this study was to examine the rate of PTH and identify risk factors. A retrospective cohort study was carried out including all tonsillectomies (430 patients) performed...... as surgical technique" [relative risk (RR) = 5.3], "peritonsillar abscess as indication for surgery" (RR = 0.3) and "age equal to or above 15 years at the time of surgery" (RR = 5.4). It is concluded that patient age, PTA as indication for surgery and the use of coblation significantly affect the occurrence...

  7. Anosmia After Perimesencephalic Nonaneurysmal Hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greebe, Paut; Rinkel, Gabriel J. E.; Algra, Ale

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose-Anosmia frequently occurs after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage not only after clipping, but also after endovascular coiling. Thus, at least in part, anosmia is caused by the hemorrhage itself and not only by surgical treatment. However, it is unknown whether anosmia is rel

  8. Climate Change Impacts on the Congo Basin Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludwig, F.; Franssen, W.; Jans, W.W.P.; Kruijt, B.; Supit, I.

    2012-01-01

    This report presents analyses of climate change impacts in the Congo Basin on water for agriculture and hydropower, forest ecosystem functioning and carbon storage and impacts of climate variability and change on future economic development. To quantify the impacts of future climate we developed a m

  9. Annual Progress Report, FY 1980 (U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Frederick, MD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-10-01

    subjects infected with sandfly fever and subjects whose body temperatures are artificially elevated. The importance of assessing growth hormone’s...virus (Junin) Dengue fever virus Congo/Crimean hemorrhagic fever virus Sandfly fever virus Eastern encephalitis virus Western encephalitis virus...during a mild, self limiting viral disease ( Sandfly fever) were measured. This type of information is of vital importance if Biological Warfare (BW) is

  10. Medical Service: Quarantine Regulations of the Armed Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    tuberculosis, suspected smallpox, and suspected viral hemorrhagic fevers ( lassa , marburg, ebola, congo-crimean, and others not yet isolated or named). b. Those...disease. The quarantinable diseases are cholera, plague, and yellow fever . Note. The U.S. Public Health Service, under the authority of an Executive Order...always be accomplished during visits to and upon leaving ports where yellow fever , malaria, or other arthropod–borne diseases are known to exist

  11. What Controls Runoff Ratios in the Congo Basin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, M. T.; Wei, R.

    2014-12-01

    As the second-largest river globally, the Congo is a critical part of large-scale water, energy, and carbon cycles, and thus has a significant influence on regional climate. The runoff ratio is a coefficient relating runoff to precipitation; it is a parameter that integrates and summarizes upstream hydrologic processes. The Budyko equation depicts the expected partitioning of precipitation (P) into evapotranspiration (E) and runoff (R): P=R+E. It is hypothesized that radiation and precipitation are primary controls of the partitioning process; the effects of the surface control (e.g. soil and slope) are implicitly assumed to be minor. In this study, we explored thirty years of data in the Congo River basin. We will correlate the runoff ratio to a variety of factors, including precipitation, radiation and surface controls (e.g. soil, slope). Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) by pentad precipitation was used as primary precipitation data, and Climatic Research Unit (CRU) by data was used for comparison. For discharge and drainage area were derived from Global Runoff Data Centre (GRDC), and net radiation is from NASA Earth Observatory. Congo sub basins are analyzed as well. Interannual variability in the runoff ratio for the Congo basin ranged from 0.2 to 0.3, but was generally uncorrelated with precipitation. Runoff is generally uncorrelated with precipitation, whereas evapotranspiration calculated as residual (P-R) is highly correlated with precipitation, with E ranging from 1000 to 1300 mm per year, and P explaining 85% of the variance. Spatial variability was explored by analysis of long-term mean runoff ratio for 10 sub-basins. Spatially, both R and runoff ratio are highly correlated with P, with P explaining 59% of the variance in the runoff ratio. Physical mechanisms to explain these results are explored, and the implications for the Congo's role in partitioning rainfall over sub-Saharan Africa are discussed.

  12. REDD+ Policy Approaches in the Congo Basin: A Comparative Analysis of Cameroon and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalame Fobissie

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Congo Basin forests are a prime location for implementing REDD+. National REDD+ policy processes are ongoing and many REDD+ pilot initiatives are being demonstrated. However, the level of national engagement, progress and distribution of REDD+ activities varies considerably in the different Congo Basin countries. This study therefore uses a set of criteria to assess national and international policy initiatives and approaches for advancing REDD+ implementation in Cameroon and the Democratic Republic Congo (DRC, two countries where more than two thirds of the Congo Basin forests are concentrated. Our findings show that (i both countries have shown the highest political presence at the international climate negotiations but DRC has invested more in the size of its delegation and side events; (ii REDD+ donors, initiatives, and funding are disproportionately skewed towards DRC making it technically more advanced; (iii the high political interest and institutional reforms in DRC favors private sector investments in REDD+ programs; and (iv the REDD+ policy process is internally-driven in Cameroon with a strong national ownership, while it is externally-driven in DRC with weak national ownership. To advance REDD+, the government of DRC should embark on capacity building programs that ensure the transfer of REDD+ technical know-how from international to national actors while Cameroon needs to speed-up governance reforms and be more flexible in order to attract influential international REDD+ actors. This paper further provides specific recommendations.

  13. The National Liberation Struggle of the Balkan Peoples and the Crimean War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Belova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the stages of the national liberation struggle of the peoples of South- Eastern Europe against the Ottoman Empire. The Russian Empire supported the Christian population and helped the southern Slavs and the Greeks to get free from the Ottoman dependency. But Emperor Nicholas I opposed the revolution. The 1850s were marked by the strained political and economic relations between Russia, Turkey, Britain, France and other European States. The Bulgarian and the Greek bourgeoisie had moved from enlightment activity to the political one. Bulgarians, Serbs, Moldovans, Greeks joined the volunteers and defended national interests with the weapon in hands. During the Crimean war the Russian command created military units on the territory of the Danubian principalities. Volunteers fought on the Danube, in Moldavia and Wallachia, and the Crimea. They protected the borders, defended the bastions of Sevastopol. The subject of the research is the organization of volunteer groups, national and social composition of the groups. The role of volunteers was of an exclusive political significance. The number of volunteers in the ranks of Russian troops was insignificant. But the volunteers were guides of Russian policy in the Turkish lands. They represented the fighting core.

  14. British Icons and Catholic perfidy--Anglo-Saxon historiography and the battle for Crimean War nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, John S G; Bergin, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Taking as its starting point Carr's view that historical narrative reflects the preoccupations of the time in which it is written and Foucault's concept of consensual historical discourse as the outcome of a social struggle in which the victor suppresses or at least diminishes contrary versions of historical events in favour of their own, this paper traces and discusses the historical narrative of British nursing in the Crimean war and, in particular, three competing narratives that have arisen in the latter half of the 20th century and the first decade of the 21st. These are the established narrative surrounding Florence Nightingale, the new narrative surrounding Mary Seacole and an Irish narrative surrounding the role of the Sisters of Mercy. It is argued that the increased vehemence of the debate surrounding these narratives is representative of the changes that have taken place in British society. However, we also argue that the Irish narrative and its critique are reflective of deep-rooted Anglo-Protestant attitudes articulated by Nightingale and uncritically accepted by subsequent historians even in modern British historiography. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Embolization for gastrointestinal hemorrhages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraemer, S.C.; Goerich, J.; Rilinger, N.; Aschoff, A.J.; Vogel, J.; Brambs, H.J. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Ulm (Germany); Siech, M. [Dept. of Abdominal Surgery, University of Ulm (Germany)

    2000-05-01

    Retrospective evaluation of interventional embolization therapy in the treatment of gastrointestinal hemorrhage over a long-term observation period from 1989 to 1997. Included in the study were 35 patients (age range 18-89 years) with gastrointestinal bleeding (GI) referred for radiological intervention either primarily or following unsuccessful endoscopy or surgery. Sources of GI bleeding included gastric and duodenal ulcers (n = 7), diverticula (n = 3), erosion of the intestinal wall secondary to malignancy (n = 6), vascular malformations (n = 4), and hemorrhoids (n = 2), as well as from postoperative (n = 6), posttraumatic (n = 2), postinflammatory (n = 4) or unknown (n = 1) causes. Ethibloc (12 cases) or metal coils (14 cases) were predominantly used as embolisates. In addition, combinations of tissue adhesive and gelfoam particles and of coils and Ethibloc were used (six cases). Finally, polyvinyl alcohol particles, a coated stent, and an arterial wire dissection were utilized in one case each. Bleeding was stopped completely in 29 of 35 cases (83 %). In one case (3 %) the source of bleeding was recognized but the corresponding vessel could not be catheterized. In five other cases (14 %) there was partial success with reduced, though still persistent, bleeding. The rate of complications was 14 %, including four instances of intestinal ischemia with fatal outcome in the first years, and, later, one partial infarction of the spleen without serious consequences. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage can be controlled in a high percentage of patients, including the seriously ill and those who had previously undergone surgery, with the use of minimally invasive interventional techniques. The availability of minicoils instead of fluid embolization agents has reduced the risk of serious complications. (orig.)

  16. Hemostasis in Intracranial Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Deepak; Dua, Dharti; Torbey, Michel T.

    2017-01-01

    Spontaneous non-traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is associated with high morbidity and mortality throughout the world with no proven effective treatment. Majority of hematoma expansion occur within 4 h after symptom onset and is associated with early deterioration and poor clinical outcome. There is a vital role of ultra-early hemostatic therapy in ICH to limit hematoma expansion. Patients at risk for hematoma expansion are with underlying hemostatic abnormalities. Treatment strategy should include appropriate intervention based on the history of use of antithrombotic use or an underlying coagulopathy in patients with ICH. For antiplatelet-associated ICH, recommendation is to discontinue antiplatelet agent and transfuse platelets to those who will undergo neurosurgical procedure with moderate quality of evidence. For vitamin K antagonist-associated ICH, administration of 3-factor or 4-factor prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs) rather than fresh frozen plasma to patients with INR >1.4 is strongly recommended. For patients with novel oral anticoagulant-associated ICH, administering activated charcoal to those who present within 2 h of ingestion is recommended. Idarucizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody fragment against dabigatran (direct thrombin inhibitor) is approved by FDA for emergency situations. Administer activated PCC (50 U/kg) or 4-factor PCC (50 U/kg) to patients with ICH associated with direct thrombin inhibitors (DTI) if idarucizumab is not available or if the hemorrhage is associated with a DTI other than dabigatran. For factor Xa inhibitor-associated ICH, administration of 4-factor PCC or aPCC is preferred over recombinant FVIIa because of the lower risk of adverse thrombotic events. PMID:28360881

  17. Intracranial hemorrhage in late hemorrhagic disease of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooni, Puneet A; Singh, Daljit; Singh, Harmesh; Jain, B K

    2003-03-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical profile and outcome in late hemorrhagic disease of the newborn (HDN) with particular reference to intracranial hemorrhage. Infants (n = 42) presenting with late HDN from January 1998 to December 2001 were studied. Majority (76%) were in the age group of 1-3 months. All were term babies on exclusive breast-feeding and none received vitamin K at birth. 71% patients presented with intracranial hemorrhage, commonest site being intracerebral and multiple ICH. Visible external bleeding was noted in 1/3rd of patients only. Three patients expired. Late HDN is still an important cause of mortality and morbidity in developing countries where vitamin K prophylaxis is not routinely practiced. Isolated intracranial hemorrhage is a common mode of presentation.

  18. Hemorrhagic Lacrimation and Epistaxis in Acute Hemorrhagic Edema of Infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shireen Mreish

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy is an uncommon benign cutaneous vasculitis. Despite its worrisome presentation, it carries good prognosis with rarely reported systemic involvement. Management of these cases has been an area of debate with majority of physicians adopting conservative modalities. We report a case that presented with classic triad of rash, low grade fever, and peripheral edema along with two rarely reported manifestations in literature: hemorrhagic lacrimation and epistaxis.

  19. Intracranial hemorrhages and late hemorrhagic disease associated cholestatic liver disease

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Deficiency of vitamin K predisposes to early, classic or late hemorrhagic disease of the newborn (HDN); of which late HDN may be associated with serious and life-threatening intracranial hemorrhage. Late HDN is characterized intracranial bleeding in infants aged 1 week to 6 months due to severe vitamin K deficiency. Late HDN is still an important cause of mortality and morbidity in developing countries where vitamin K prophylaxis is not routinely practiced. Children with cholestatic liver dis...

  20. Pathogenesis of arenavirus hemorrhagic fevers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraz, Marie-Laurence; Kunz, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) caused by arenaviruses belong to the most devastating emerging human diseases and represent serious public health problems. Arenavirus VHFs in humans are acute diseases characterized by fever and, in severe cases, different degrees of hemorrhages associated with a shock syndrome in the terminal stage. Over the past years, much has been learned about the pathogenesis of arenaviruses at the cellular level, in particular their ability to subvert the host cell's innate antiviral defenses. Clinical studies and novel animal models have provided important new information about the interaction of hemorrhagic arenaviruses with the host's adaptive immune system, in particular virus-induced immunosuppression, and have provided the first hints towards an understanding of the terminal hemorrhagic shock syndrome. The scope of this article is to review our current knowledge on arenavirus VHF pathogenesis with an emphasis on recent developments.

  1. Let's Talk about Hemorrhagic Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Let's Talk About Hemorrhagic Stroke Updated:Dec 9,2015 About 13 percent of ... Should I Limit Sodium? How Do I Understand "Nutrition Facts" Labels? How Can I Quit Smoking? How ...

  2. Democratic Republic of Congo A Fertile Ground for Instability in the Great Lakes Region States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO-A FERTILE GROUND FOR INSTABILITY IN THE GREAT LAKES REGION STATES A thesis presented to the Faculty of...From - To) AUG 2016 – JUNE 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Democratic Republic of Congo-A Fertile Ground for Instability in the Great Lakes Region ...caused instability and chaos in the eastern provinces of the Congo, known as the Great Lakes Region . The DRC holds a strategic geographical position

  3. Labeo rosae (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) in the Congo basin: a relict distribution or a historical introduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Steenberge, M; Gajdzik, L; Chilala, A; Snoeks, J; Vreven, E

    2014-11-01

    Labeo rosae, a species with a native range in Southern Africa, was discovered in the Congo basin by re-identification of two museum specimens previously identified as Labeo mesops. The occurrence of this species in the upper Congo implies a range extension of the species of more than 1000 km. Although the species' distribution is mirrored by that of some other Cypriniformes, its occurrence in the Congo might be due to introduction by humans.

  4. Intraventricular Hemorrhage of the Newborn

    OpenAIRE

    1999-01-01

    Intraventricular hemorrhage IVH of the premature newborn is an important complication which determines its prognosis Intravascular vascular and extravascular factors should be considered in its etiology Cranial ultrasonography is the most suitable medical imagery technique IVH is graded from 1 to 4 according to its severity Prevention is the most crucial point in its management The literature and the management of IVH is reviewed Key words: Newborn Premature Intraventricular Hemorrhage

  5. Hemorrhagic complications in dermatologic surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunick, Christopher G.; Aasi, Sumaira Z.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to recognize, manage, and, most importantly, prevent hemorrhagic complications is critical to performing dermatologic procedures that have safe and high quality outcomes. This article reviews the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative factors and patient dynamics that are central to preventing such an adverse outcome. Specifically, the role that anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents, hypertension, and other medical conditions play in the development of postoperative hemorrhage are discussed. In addition, this article provides practical guidelines on managing bleeding during and after surgery. PMID:22515669

  6. Risky health seeking practice among pregnant women in rural Congo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hørby, Laila

    2007-01-01

    delays, Culture, Field and Capital, Democratic Republic Congo (DRC). Title: Risky health seeking practice, among pregnant women in rural Congo (DRC). Background Statement: Worldwide more than half a million women still die each year of pregnancy and childbirth related reasons. Most of these women live...... about 60 % of the women have a professional help at birth, and even fewer delivers in a health centre, which is far from the Unicef and WHO goal trying to combat high Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR). In the southern and rural part of DRC, is a small well equipped and well staffed dispensary and maternity...... professional assistance for normal pregnancy and delivery; delay in reaching an adequate medical facility, which includes accessibility, availability and cost of transportation and conditions of roads; and delays in obtaining the care needed to manage the situation. Following that I have analysed...

  7. Congophilicity (Congo red affinity) of different beta2-microglobulin conformations characterized by dye affinity capillary electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, N H; Sen, J W; Nissen, Mogens Holst

    2000-01-01

    The amyloidogenic protein beta-microglobulin was characterized by affinity capillary electrophoresis (CE). CE could separate conformational variants of beta2-microglobulin and with the amyloid-specific dye Congo red as a buffer additive it was possible to measure different Congo red-affinities of......The amyloidogenic protein beta-microglobulin was characterized by affinity capillary electrophoresis (CE). CE could separate conformational variants of beta2-microglobulin and with the amyloid-specific dye Congo red as a buffer additive it was possible to measure different Congo red...

  8. The Democratic Republic of Congo: Background and Current Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    Seko began in the city of Goma in the mid-1990s. The second rebellion in the late 1990s began also in eastern Congo. The root causes of the current...Democratic Rally (RCD- Goma ), the Movement for the Congolese Liberation (MLC), and representatives of the unarmed political groups. The agreement...from the border until a solution is found. In January 2007, several dozen rebel groups and the DRC government signed the Goma Accord, primarily

  9. Opportunities for hydrologic research in the Congo Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsdorf, Douglas; Beighley, Ed; Laraque, Alain; Lee, Hyongki; Tshimanga, Raphael; O'Loughlin, Fiachra; Mahé, Gil; Dinga, Bienvenu; Moukandi, Guy; Spencer, Robert G. M.

    2016-06-01

    We review the published results on the Congo Basin hydrology and summarize the historic and ongoing research. Annual rainfall is ~1900 mm/yr along an east-west trend across the basin, decreasing northward and southward to ~1100 mm/yr. Historic studies using lysimeters, pans, and models suggest that the annual potential evapotranspiration varies little across the basin at 1100 to 1200 mm/yr. Over the past century, river discharge data have been collected at hundreds of stream gauges with historic and recent data at 96 locations now publicly available. Congo River discharge at Kinshasa-Brazzaville experienced an increase of 21% during the 1960-1970 decade in comparison to most other decades. Satellite altimetry measurements of high and low flows show that water levels in the "Cuvette Centrale" wetland are 0.5 m to 3.0 m higher in elevation than the immediately adjacent Congo River levels. Wetland water depths are shallow at about a meter and there does not appear to be many sizable channels across the "Cuvette"; thus, wetland flows are diffusive. Cuvette waters alone are estimated to emit about 0.5 Pg CH4 and CO2 equivalents/yr, an amount that is significant compared to global carbon evasions. Using these results, we suggest seven hypotheses that focus on the source of the Cuvette waters and how these leave the wetland, on the river discharge generated by historic rainfall, on the connection between climate change and the rainfall-runoff generated by the migrating "tropical rainbelt," on deforestation and hydroelectric power generation, and on the amount of carbon emitted from Congo waters.

  10. Labour force participation of married women in China and Congo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KAMITEWOKO Edwige; JIN Xiang-rong

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this investigation was to find the major determinants of married women participation in the urban area labour force in Zhejiang (China) and Brazzaville (Congo). The methodology used in this study is correct and the resulting conclusion is that the participation of married women basically depends on her personal and family characteristics. Age, education,presence of additional adult in the family are important factors in Brazzaville and Zhejiang. However, the number of children significantly affects only Brazzaville urban married women.

  11. A Model of System and Strategic Financial Analysis of the Crimean Health Resorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Anatolyevich Malyshenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of the research is the system of strategically focused financial analysis regarding an assessment of the financial condition of the enterprise. The hypothesis of the study is to assume the possibility of developing the financial and strategic model of the comprehensive assessment of the financial condition taking into account the integrated impact of environmental factors (general for the most Crimean health resorts. The methodology of the work is based on the most general principles of system analysis. The basic method of the research is the matrix method as the most common one for the system analysis. The graphical and statistical methods are also used. The result of the work is the comprehensive method of financial analysis developed as a model based on the matrix relation between the original visual profile of the internal environment and the dynamic type of external environment. The difference of the visual model of financial state from the existing graphic methods consists in fixing of the new strategic types of financial state on the basis of financial stability in visually grouped areas of financial coefficients in theme groups (configurationsprofiles with certain combinations of the forms and sizes. The new analytical instrument of «frigate model» can be applied in all analytical activities of the health resorts departments related to the analytical assessment of financial state. The advantage of «frigate model» in comparison with a classical method of the forming of the types of financial condition is that the proposed model allows to allocate more differentiated types and in addition, to identify the stages of enterprise life cycle based on the relative indicators of the analysis of financial state (objects-coefficients, and not just on the financial management. Through this, the consistency of interaction between the financial analysis and management is achieved.

  12. Literary Depictions i n Ghazavâtnâmahs That Adress the Crimean War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kürşat Şamil ŞAHİN

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Crimean War that started in 1853 between the Ottoman Empire and Russia lasted until 1856. It ended with the defeat of the Russians as England and France sided with the Ottoman Empire. A great number of work has been written then and since about this war which deeply affect our social and politica l life. Among these, there are ghazavâtnâmahs that describe what happened down - to - line, usually by the pen of the poets and writers who closely witnessed the war. The causes of war, the preparations, what happened at the time of expedition and measures tha t were taken, the outcome of the events during the war and afterwards are all brought into sharp relief in most of these works. Whether in verse, prose or mixed typed, these works of art have gradually increased after 15 th century in Turkish literature. Th is genre has decreased by the Ottoman Empire began to decline and the raids were scarce; and it totally disappeared after the tradition of ghaza were ceased. In this study the literary depictions in - the last examples of the genre - Salih Hayri’s Kırım Zafe rnamesi (Hayrâbât, Ahmed Rızâ Trabzonî’s Manzume - i Sivastopol and Süleyman Şâdî’s Muzaffernâme are presented. There are not many studies that focus on literary depictions in ghazavâtnâmahs, particularly on literary war depictions. The characteristics of t hese literary depictions are tried to be explained with reference to ghazavâtnâmahs belonging to the Empire's last era.

  13. Statins and intracerebral hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Haiping; Hu Zhiping; Lu Wei

    2014-01-01

    Objective To briefly review the literature regarding the impact of statins on the prevention and treatment of stroke,especially on intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH).We described statins' effects,mechanism of ICH,serum total cholesterol and ICH,and the relationship between statins and ICH.Data sources All articles used in this review were mainly searched from the PubMed database with no limitations of language and year of publication.Study selection Randomized controlled studies,prospective cohort studies,animal experiments,and meta-analysis articles related to this topic in the past decade were selected.Results Statins play an important role in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases and also have an impact on the treatment of vascular diseases.There still exist controversies about the relationship between statins and ICH.More clinical and experimental trials indicate that statins do not increase the risk of ICH.Conclusion A low or a regular dose of statins would not increase the risk of ICH.

  14. Quantitative Intracerebral Hemorrhage Localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschelli, John; Ullman, Natalie L.; Sweeney, Elizabeth M.; Eloyan, Ani; Martin, Neil; Vespa, Paul; Hanley, Daniel F.; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose The location of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is currently described in a qualitative way; we provide a quantitative framework for estimating ICH engagement and its relevance to stroke outcomes. Methods We analyzed 111 patients with ICH from the MISTIE II clinical trial. We estimated ICH engagement at a population level using image registration of CT scans to a template and a previously labeled atlas. Predictive regions of NIHSS and GCS stroke severity scores, collected at enrollment, were estimated. Results The percent coverage of the ICH by these regions strongly outperformed the reader-labeled locations. The adjusted R2 almost doubled from 0.129 (reader-labeled model) to 0.254 (quantitative-location model) for NIHSS and more than tripled from 0.069 (reader-labeled model) to 0.214 (quantitative-location model). A permutation test confirmed that the new predictive regions are more predictive than chance: p<.001 for NIHSS and p<.01 for GCS. Conclusions Objective measures of ICH location and engagement using advanced CT imaging processing provide finer, objective, and more quantitative anatomic information than that provided by human readers. PMID:26451031

  15. Notes of John Smith as a Source for the Crimean Khanate History in the early 17th century »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.I. Khrapunov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the account of Tataria collected by famous English adventurer John Smith. In 1602, Smith, a mercenary in Transylvania, was captivated by pillagers and, later, sold into slavery. In spring of 1603 he found himself a slave somewhere in the Azov Sea Area, in the land of the Crimean Khanate. A few months later, Smith succeeded to escape, he reached the Moscow czar’s country, and whence returned to Transylvania. Twenty years after, Smith published his life story in short (1625 and then long version (1630. A considerable part of the story was the account of the author’s adventures among the Turks and the Tatars. Smith widely used other travellers’ accounts (William Biddulph, Antony Jenkinson, William of Rubruck, and Martin Broniovius, collected by famous Samuel Purchas, the first publisher of Smith’s own story. Now we can determine original materials by Smith, based on his personal experience, which describe the Crimean Khanate’s daily life and warfare.

  16. Modelling the Congo basin ecosystems with a dynamic vegetation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dury, Marie; Hambuckers, Alain; Trolliet, Franck; Huynen, Marie-Claude; Haineaux, Damien; Fontaine, Corentin M.; Fayolle, Adeline; François, Louis

    2014-05-01

    The scarcity of field observations in some parts of the world makes difficult a deep understanding of some ecosystems such as humid tropical forests in Central Africa. Therefore, modelling tools are interesting alternatives to study those regions even if the lack of data often prevents sharp calibration and validation of the model projections. Dynamic vegetation models (DVMs) are process-based models that simulate shifts in potential vegetation and its associated biogeochemical and hydrological cycles in response to climate. Initially run at the global scale, DVMs can be run at any spatial scale provided that climate and soil data are available. In the framework of the BIOSERF project ("Sustainability of tropical forest biodiversity and services under climate and human pressure"), we use and adapt the CARAIB dynamic vegetation model (Dury et al., iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry, 4:82-99, 2011) to study the Congo basin vegetation dynamics. The field campaigns have notably allowed the refinement of the vegetation representation from plant functional types (PFTs) to individual species through the collection of parameters such as the specific leaf area or the leaf C:N ratio of common tropical tree species and the location of their present-day occurrences from literature and available database. Here, we test the model ability to reproduce the present spatial and temporal variations of carbon stocks (e.g. biomass, soil carbon) and fluxes (e.g. gross and net primary productivities (GPP and NPP), net ecosystem production (NEP)) as well as the observed distribution of the studied species over the Congo basin. In the lack of abundant and long-term measurements, we compare model results with time series of remote sensing products (e.g. vegetation leaf area index (LAI), GPP and NPP). Several sensitivity tests are presented: we assess consecutively the impacts of the level at which the vegetation is simulated (PFTs or species), the spatial resolution and the initial land

  17. Intracranial hemorrhages and late hemorrhagic disease associated cholestatic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Per, Hüseyin; Arslan, Duran; Gümüş, Hakan; Coskun, Abdulhakim; Kumandaş, Sefer

    2013-01-01

    Deficiency of vitamin K predisposes to early, classic or late hemorrhagic disease of the newborn (HDN); of which late HDN may be associated with serious and life-threatening intracranial hemorrhage. Late HDN is characterized intracranial bleeding in infants aged 1 week to 6 months due to severe vitamin K deficiency. Late HDN is still an important cause of mortality and morbidity in developing countries where vitamin K prophylaxis is not routinely practiced. Children with cholestatic liver disease are at risk for developing secondary vitamin K deficiency because of fat malabsorbtion and inadequate dietary intake. In this study, we described 11 infants with cholestatic liver disease with different etiologies exhibiting intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). Six patients underwent surgical evacuation of ICH, following the administration of vitamin K and/or fresh frozen plasma. The possibility of cholestatic liver disease should be considered in the treatment of ICH due to vitamin K deficiency.

  18. Human Seroprevalence indicating Hantavirus Infections in Tropical Rainforests of Côte d´Ivoire and Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter T Witkowski

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses are members of the Bunyaviridae family carried by small mammals and causing human hemorrhagic fevers worldwide. In Western Africa, where a variety of hemorrhagic fever viruses occurs, indigenous hantaviruses have been molecularly found in animal reservoirs such as rodents, shrews, and bats since 2006. To investigate the human contact to hantaviruses carried by these hosts and to assess the public health relevance of hantaviruses for humans living in the tropical rainforest regions of Western and Central Africa, we performed a cross-sectional seroprevalence study in the region of Taï National Park in Côte d´Ivoire and the Bandundu region near the Salonga National Park in the Democratic Republic of Congo. Serum samples were initially screened with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays using nucleoproteins of several hantaviruses as diagnostic antigens. Positive results were confirmed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence testing.Seroprevalence rates of 3.9% (27/687 and 2.4% (7/295, respectively, were found in the investigated regions in Côte d´Ivoire and the Democratic Republic of Congo. In Côte d´Ivoire, this value was significantly higher than the seroprevalence rates previously reported from the neighboring country Guinea as well as from South Africa. Our study indicates an exposure of humans to hantaviruses in West and Central African tropical rainforest areas. In order to pinpoint the possible existence and frequency of clinical disease caused by hantaviruses in this region of the world, systematic investigations of patients with fever and renal or respiratory symptoms are required.

  19. Attending 22nd General Assembly of CONGO and World Summit on Information Society

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>ACPAFFC delegation headed by its vice presi-dent Li Xiaolin attended the 22nd General Assembly of the Conference of NGOs (CONGO) and the World Summit on the Information Society in Geneva from December 4 to 12, 2003.CONGO, founded in

  20. Collaboration between Higher Education and Labor Market in Kinshasa, DR Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etshim, Rachal

    2017-01-01

    The transition of new graduate students from school to the labor market in Democratic Republic of Congo has been a major topic for debate over the last twenty years. This study identifies the factors affecting collaboration between higher education and the labor market in Kinshasa, the Capital city of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Even though…

  1. Intracerebral hemorrhage and cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Li; Reijmer, Yael D; Charidimou, Andreas; Cordonnier, Charlotte; Viswanathan, Anand

    2016-05-01

    Vascular cognitive impairment and vascular dementia are composed of cognitive deficits resulted from a range of vascular lesions and pathologies, including both ischemic and hemorrhagic. However the contribution of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage presumed due to small vessel diseases on cognitive impairment is underestimated, in contrast to the numerous studies about the role of ischemic vascular disorders on cognition. In this review we summarize recent findings from clinical studies and appropriate basic science research to better elucidate the role and possible mechanisms of intracerebral hemorrhage in cognitive impairment and dementia. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Vascular Contributions to Cognitive Impairment and Dementia edited by M. Paul Murphy, Roderick A. Corriveau and Donna M. Wilcock.

  2. Fatal hemorrhage in irradiated esophageal cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemoto, Kenji; Takai, Yoshihiro; Ogawa, Yoshihiro; Kakuto, Yoshihisa; Ariga, Hisanori; Matsushita, Haruo; Wada, Hitoshi; Yamada, Shogo [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Radiology

    1998-09-01

    Between 1980 and 1994, 423 patients with esophageal cancer were given curative radiation therapy. Of these patients, 31 died of massive hemorrhage and were used as the subjects of analysis in this study. The incidence of massive hemorrhage in all patients was 7% (31/423). In the 31 patients who died of massive hemorrhage, 27 had local tumors and two had no tumors at hemorrhage (two unknown cases). The mean time interval from the start of radiation to hemorrhage was 9.2 months. In 9 autopsy cases the origin of hemorrhage was a tear of the aorta in 5 cases, necrotic local tumor in 3 cases and esophageal ulcer in 1 case. The positive risk factors for this complication seemed to be excess total dose, infection, metallic stent, and tracheoesophageal fistula. Chest pain or sentinel hemorrhage proceeding to massive hemorrhage was observed in about half of the patients. (orig.)

  3. [Infratentorial hemorrhage following supratentorial surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomii, M; Nakajima, M; Ikeuchi, S; Ogawa, T; Abe, T

    1999-10-01

    Hemorrhage in regions remote from the site of initial intracranial operations is rare, but does occur. We report three cases of cerebellar hemorrhage that developed after supratentorial surgery, all of which had similar clinical findings and CT images. The first case was a 37-year-old man with a craniopharyngioma in the suprasellar lesion. Partial removal of the tumor was performed through frontal craniotomy and the translaminaterminals approach. A large quantity of cerebospinal fluid (CSF) was suctioned from the third ventricle during the operation, resulting in marked brain shrinkage. The second and third cases were 34- and 51-year-old women with unruptured right middle cerebral aneurysms. Clipping of the aneurysms through the pterional approach was performed in both cases. In the second case, CSF was suctioned in large quantity from the carotid and prechiasmal cistern at the operation, resulting in marked brain shrinkage. In the third case, however, only a small volume of CSF was suctioned from the carotid and prechiasmal cistern during the operation, and no marked brain shrinkage was observed. CT scan showed that the hematomas were located mainly in the subdural or the subarachnoid spaces over the cerebellar hemisphere and partially extending into the cerebellar cortex. The mechanism of cerebellar hemorrhage in these series of patients was thought to be multifactorial. The possible etiology for cerebellar hemorrhage in the three cases presented was examined, including the role of CSF suction during surgery and disturbance of venous circulation in the posterior fossa. Suction of the CSF may cause intracranial hypotension. Further reduction of intracranial pressure leads to an increased transluminal venous pressure. There was no episode of hypertension or disturbed blood coagulation during or after the operation. The preoperative angiogram also revealed no abnormality at the region of the posterior fossa. Neuroimaging of infratentorial hemorrhage after

  4. [Sheehan's syndrome after obstetric hemorrhage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-López, L; Pons-Canosa, V; Juncal-Díaz, J L; Núñez-Centeno, M B

    2014-12-01

    Sheehan's syndrome is described as panhypopituitarism secondary to a pituitary hypoperfusion during or just after obstetric hemorrhage. Advances in obstetric care make this syndrome quite unusual, but some cases are reported in underdeveloped countries. Clinical presentation may change depending on the severity of the hormone deficiencies. The diagnosis is clinical, but abnormalities are observed in the magnetic resonance in up to 70% of patients. We present a case of a woman with hypotension, hypothermia and edemas in relation to a previous massive postpartum hemorrhage. Failure in lactation was the clue to the diagnosis. A review of its main features, its diagnosis and treatment in the current literature is also presented.

  5. Symptomatic Tarlov Cyst Following Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Woo Keun; Cho, Keun-Tae; Hong, Seung-Koan

    2011-01-01

    Most of Tarlov or perineurial cysts remain asymptomatic throughout the patient's life. The pathogenesis is still unclear. Hemorrhage has been suggested as one of the possible causes and trauma with resultant hemorrhage into subarachnoid space has been suggested as an origin of these cysts. However, Tarlov cysts related to spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been reported. The authors report a case of Tarlov cyst which was symptomatic following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  6. Symptomatic tarlov cyst following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Woo Keun; Cho, Keun-Tae; Hong, Seung-Koan

    2011-08-01

    Most of Tarlov or perineurial cysts remain asymptomatic throughout the patient's life. The pathogenesis is still unclear. Hemorrhage has been suggested as one of the possible causes and trauma with resultant hemorrhage into subarachnoid space has been suggested as an origin of these cysts. However, Tarlov cysts related to spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been reported. The authors report a case of Tarlov cyst which was symptomatic following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  7. Tentorial hemorrhage associated with vacuum extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, L.T. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung (Taiwan, Province of China); Lui, C.C. [Diagnostic Radiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung (Taiwan, Province of China)

    1995-11-01

    Neuroimages of tentorial hemorrhage associated with vacuum extraction have been rarely reported. The authors present the case of a 5-day-old newborn with this entity. CT showed retrocerebellar hemorrhage and MRI demonstrated tentorial hemorrhage extending inferiorly over the cerebellum and superiorly over the occipital regions. We believe that these imaging modalities are helpful in delineating the extent of the hemorrhage and assessing the prognosis. (orig.)

  8. BIOSORPTION OF CONGO RED BY HYDROGEN PEROXIDE TREATED TENDU WASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Nagda ، V. S. Ghole

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Solid wastes from agro-industrial operations can be recycled as non-conventional adsorbents if they are inert and harmless and reduce the cost of wastewater treatment. Tendu leaf Diospyros melanoxylon is the second largest forest product in India after timber and is exclusively used in making local cigarette called Bidi. Waste leaf cutting remaining after making cigarette was used in present study as a biosorbent for the removal of Congo red dye from aqueous solution. It was treated with hydrogen peroxide to obtain biosorbent with increased adsorption capacity. Batch type experiments were conducted to study the influence of different parameters such as pH, initial dye concentration and dosage of adsorbent on biosorption evaluated. The adsorption occured very fast initially and attains equilibrium within 60 min at pH= 6.2 and the equilibrium attained faster after hydrogen peroxide modification. Kinetic studies showed that the biosorption of Congo red on tendu waste followed pseudo-second-order rate equation. The data fitted well to Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Comparison was done on the extent of biosorption between untreated and treated forms of the tendu waste. The maximum adsorption capacity for untreated tendu waste was found to be 46.95 mg/g, which was enhanced by 2.8 times after hydrogen peroxide treatment and was found to be 134.4 mg/g. The adsorption process was in conformity with Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms for Congo red adsorption from aqueous solution. The study demonstrated use of milder chemical treatment of tendu waste to obtain a biosorbent with enhanced dye removal capacity.

  9. Lightning climatology in the Congo Basin: methodology and first results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kigotsi, Jean; Soula, Serge; Georgis, Jean-François; Barthe, Christelle

    2016-04-01

    The global climatology of lightning issued from space observations (OTD and LIS) clearly showed the maximum of the thunderstorm activity is located in a large area of the Congo Basin, especially in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The first goal of the present study is to compare observations from the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) over a 9-year period (2005-2013) in this 2750 km × 2750 km area. The second goal is to analyse the lightning activity in terms of time and space variability. The detection efficiency (DE) of the WWLLN relative to LIS has increased between 2005 and 2013, typically from about 1.70 % to 5.90 %, in agreement with previous results for other regions of the world. The mean monthly flash rate describes an annual cycle with a maximum between November and March and a minimum between June and August, associated with the ICTZ migration but not exactly symmetrical on both sides of the equator. The diurnal evolution of the flash rate has a maximum between 1400 and 1700 UTC, depending on the reference year, in agreement with previous works in other regions of the world. The annual flash density shows a sharp maximum localized in eastern DRC regardless of the reference year and the period of the year. This annual maximum systematically located west of Kivu Lake corresponds to that previously identified by many authors as the worldwide maximum which Christian et al. (2013) falsely attributed to Rwanda. Another more extended region within the Congo Basin exhibits moderately large values, especially during the beginning of the period analyzed. A comparison of both patterns of lightning density from the WWLLN and from LIS allows to validate the representativeness of this world network and to restitute the total lightning activity in terms of lightning density and rate.

  10. Background Report on Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Tracy A [ORNL

    2011-05-01

    Each month, approximately 45,000 people die from violence, hunger, disease, and other effects of displacement as a result of war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The country is often said to be plagued by a 'resource curse.' During each period in history since its discovery by the West, the DRC has possessed the resources the world craves and the world has sought these without regard for the consequences to the Congolese people. The catastrophic consequences of Congo's history of natural resource exploitation are the direct and indirect death of millions of Congolese people. The current war in Congo is multi-causal in nature but explanations are often reduced to describing it as an ethic conflict based on objective grievance. Objective grievance such as inequality, ethnic tensions, land disputes, and lack of democracy do exist, but they are neither necessary nor sufficient to explain the cause of the violent conflict, and more importantly, they fall short in explaining why this conflict has continued for years. The reality is the conflict is an economic war in which the trade of conflict minerals, gold and the 3Ts (tin, tantalum, tungsten), is directly linked to the financial sustainability of the groups fighting each other in eastern DRC. Objective grievance is a by-product of the conflict, used to create a false but plausible moral justification to continue violence. This paper examines the history of conflict in the DRC and the socio-economic variables contributing to the current war fought over conflict minerals.

  11. Cardiac abnormalities after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilt, I.A.C. van der

    2016-01-01

    Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage(aSAH) is a devastating neurological disease. During the course of the aSAH several neurological and medical complications may occur. Cardiac abnormalities after aSAH are observed often and resemble stress cardiomyopathy or Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy(Broken Heart Syn

  12. Reducing postpartum hemorrhage in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Lalonde, A

    2005-01-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. This is being addressed by leading professional organizations, which point to the importance of a skilled attendant at birth. But they also emphasize that the active management of the third stage of labo...

  13. Adrenal hemorrhage in a newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdu, Arebu T; Kriss, Vesna M; Bada, Henrietta S; Reynolds, Eric W

    2009-09-01

    Sometimes in the course of care in a neonatal intensive care unit, there may be a rush to intervene in cases where limited intervention is actually the correct course. One such example is that of neonatal adrenal hemorrhage. We present the case of a male term neonate with shock, metabolic acidosis, distended abdomen, and falling hematocrit. His prenatal and delivery histories were uneventful except for a nuchal cord. Apgar scores were 9 and 9. Because of his dramatic presentation, certain members of the medical team suggested immediate surgical intervention. However, a calm and careful evaluation revealed the true diagnosis and course of action. Ultrasound of the abdomen showed a mass between the liver and kidney, but the origin was difficult to identify. A computed tomography scan supported the diagnosis of right adrenal hemorrhage. His serum cortisol level was normal. The patient was managed conservatively and discharged home after a 1-week stay in the hospital. Subsequent abdominal ultrasound showed resolving adrenal hemorrhage with minimal calcification. A review of the pertinent literature is presented. Physicians should remember adrenal hemorrhage when evaluating a newborn infant with shock, acidosis, abdominal distention, and falling hematocrit and that conservative management is usually indicated.

  14. Cretaceous and Jurassic intrusions in Crimean Mountains: The first data of U-Pb (SIMS SHRIMP) dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozova, E. B.; Sergeev, S. A.; Savelev, A. D.

    2017-05-01

    U-Pb geochronological studies of igneous rocks of the Crimean Mountains were carried out for the first time. The ages of magma crystallization determined for gabbro-dolerites of the Dzhidair and Pervomaiskii intrusions point to the injection of these rocks during the Middle Jurassic Aalenian-Bajocian stage of magmatism. The Berriasian-Valanginian and Aptian age of sill-like bodies within the mass of volcanogenic-sedimentary rocks presumes the necessity to reconsider the common notion of an exclusively Albian magmatic event during the Cretaceous. High-precision U-Pb dating of magma intrusions allowed us to verify the age of Middle Jurassic magmatism and to distinguish the new Early Cretaceous Berriasian-Valanginian magmatism stage of basic composition.

  15. The Patriotic Enthusiasm during the Crimean War (1853–1856 аs a Factor of Modernization Turn in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxim N. Krot

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Since ancient times, the war for the states were not only way to solve foreign policy problems, a source of enrichment and strengthening of its position in the world. Armed conflicts have been and continue to be an essential element of internal policy factor that has huge impact on the social life, which is capable both added to the existing political regime, and crush him. With the growth of national consciousness that took place in Europe in the era of modern times, the society ceases to be a silent participant in armed confrontations, actively expressing your opinion by supporting or condemning the actions of their government. It is well known that the Crimean War was a turning point in the domestic policy of Russia in the XIX century, demonstrating the backwardness of Russia from the European powers, and triggering a wave of criticism of the previous political system, which largely pushed the authorities to carry out the Great Reforms. However, the problem remains little-studied effect of this war on Russian society, and it caused her a patriotic enthusiasm, which had a variety of manifestations: from the wide volunteerism and financial donations to the army to develop the concept of the country's transformation. The surge of patriotism era of the Crimean War was the initial phase of a broad social and political upswing that has gripped Russian society in the second half of the 1850-s and contributed to a new stage of modernization of the country. The article is devoted to the problem of beginning, especially major manifestations and forms of patriotic enthusiasm.

  16. Glycemia in Spontaneous Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Clinical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvis-Miranda Hernando

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous cerebral hemorrhage or intracranial hemorrhage accounts for 10-15% of all strokes. Intracranial hemorrhage is much less common than ischemic stroke, but has higher mortality and morbidity, one of the leading causes of severe disability. Various alterations, among these the endocrine were identified when an intracerebral hemorrhage, these stress-mediated mechanisms exacerbate secondary injury. Deep knowledge of the injuries which are directly involved alterations of glucose, offers insight as cytotoxicity, neuronal death and metabolic dysregulations alter the prognosis of patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage.

  17. Detecting Ebola with limited laboratory access in the Democratic Republic of Congo: evaluation of a clinical passive surveillance reporting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbaugh, Hayley R; Kuang, Brandon; Gadoth, Adva; Alfonso, Vivian H; Mukadi, Patrick; Doshi, Reena H; Hoff, Nicole A; Sinai, Cyrus; Mossoko, Mathias; Kebela, Benoit Ilunga; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Wemakoy, Emile Okitolonda; Rimoin, Anne W

    2017-09-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) can be clinically severe and highly fatal, making surveillance efforts for early disease detection of paramount importance. In areas with limited access to laboratory testing, the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR) strategy in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) may be a vital tool in improving outbreak response. Using DRC IDSR data from the nation's four EVD outbreak periods from 2007-2014, we assessed trends of Viral Hemorrhagic Fever (VHF) and EVD differential diagnoses reportable through IDSR. With official case counts from active surveillance of EVD outbreaks, we assessed accuracy of reporting through the IDSR passive surveillance system. Although the active and passive surveillance represent distinct sets of data, the two were correlated, suggesting that passive surveillance based only on clinical evaluation may be a useful predictor of true cases prior to laboratory confirmation. There were 438 suspect VHF cases reported through the IDSR system and 416 EVD cases officially recorded across the outbreaks examined. Although collected prior to official active surveillance cases, case reporting through the IDSR during the 2007, 2008 and 2012 outbreaks coincided with official EVD epidemic curves. Additionally, all outbreak areas experienced increases in suspected cases for both malaria and typhoid fever during EVD outbreaks, underscoring the importance of training health care workers in recognising EVD differential diagnoses and the potential for co-morbidities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Adventures in Infectious Diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher-Hoch, Susan [University of Texas School of Public Health

    2011-11-01

    Dr. Susan Fisher-Hoch, Virologist and Epidemiologist, will discuss her research and travels associated with viral hemorrhagic fevers. From the Ebola outbreak in Reston, Virginia to outbreaks of Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever in South Africa, Senegal, and Saudi Arabia, Dr. Fisher-Hoch has studied and tracked the pathophysiology of these viral diseases. These studies have led her from the Center for Disease Control in the United States, to Lyon, France where she was instrumental in designing, constructing, and rendering operational a laboratory capable of containing some of the world's most dangerous diseases.

  19. The Congo Clawless Otter: State of Knowledge and Needs for Further Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Jacques

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the 4 African otter species, the Congo clawless otter (Aonyx congicus is the least known because of the remoteness of its Central African equatorial rainforest range. Its distribution, status, and biology in the field are now being investigated and preliminary results are introduced. Two missions in Gabon, followed by one in Congo, allowed us to gather local information, to find tracks and to identify otters in their habitat. Further, we were able to start developing a network to gather more information about the 2 otter species present in this region. The current distribution of the Congo clawless otter (Gabon, Congo, Republic Democratic of Congo, south of Cameroon and RCA, north of Angola, and probably west of Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi was mapped from this information network as well as from the locality data of museum specimens. Data about its biology and current status were gathered from local sources and from field biologists working in Gabon and Congo. Threats seem mainly to be deforestation, hunting for bush meat and use for witchcraft materials. Four visits to the collections of natural history museums of London, New York, Paris, and Tervueren (Belgium, provided useful criteria to differentiate Congo clawless otter from Cape clawless otter (Aonyx. capensis. A possible sympatric overlap zone may occur between these species and might imply hybridization. However, this needs to be studied further.

  20. Intracranial hemorrhage due to late hemorrhagic disease in two siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Per, Hüseyin; Kumandaş, Sefer; Ozdemir, Mehmet Akif; Gümüş, Hakan; Karakukcu, Musa

    2006-07-01

    Deficiency of vitamin K predisposes to early, classic or late hemorrhagic disease of the newborn (HDN); late HDN may be associated with serious and life-threatening intracranial hemorrhage. Late HDN is characterized by intracranial bleeding in infants aged 1 week to 6 months due to severe vitamin K deficiency, occurring particularly in exclusively breastfed infants. Late HDN is still an important cause of mortality and morbidity in developing countries where vitamin K prophylaxis is not routinely practiced. In this study, we report on two siblings with intracranial bleeding who were fully breastfed without a routine supplementation of vitamin K. Vitamin K should be given to all newborns as a single, intramuscular dose of 1 mg.

  1. Dengue hemorrhagic fever: A rare cause of pituitary tumor hemorrhage and reversible vision loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vimal Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue hemorrhagic fever leading to hemorrhage in pituitary adenoma is not reported till date: We herein report the first case of bilateral visual loss secondary to pituitary adenoma hemorrhage associated with dengue hemorrhagic fever. Urgent transnasal trans sphenoidal decompression of the macroadenoma prevented permanent visual loss in this patient. Pituitary apoplexy should be considered as differential diagnosis of visual deterioration apart from retinal hemorrhage, maculopathy, and optic neuropathy in cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever. Early decompression of optic nerves helped in the restoration of vision.

  2. Recent progress in hemorrhagic moyamoya disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Ming; Duan, Lian

    2015-04-01

    Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a chronic progressive cerebrovascular disease, which can be divided into three types: ischemic, hemorrhagic, and asymptomatic. Hemorrhagic MMD has attracted considerable attention due to its distinctive imaging features and the controversy over the treatment. This report presents a comprehensive review of the literature on hemorrhagic MMD, focusing on the epidemiological characteristics, etiology and pathogenesis, imaging features, predictors of hemorrhage, and treatment options and their efficacy of hemorrhagic MMD. Hemorrhagic MMD mainly occurs in adult patients in Asian countries, and many factors may contribute to the etiology and development of this disease. Hemorrhagic MMD has two major imaging features: the dilatation and abnormal branching of anterior choroidal artery or posterior communicating artery, and multiple microbleeds, which may predict subsequent hemorrhage. The treatment for hemorrhagic MMD is not standardized, and large sample prospective randomized clinical trials may help to determine which method is better. In hemorrhagic MMD patients, more attention should be paid to cognitive function and quality of life, and these assessments should be included in the evaluation of effectiveness of treatment modalities.

  3. Intracranial Hemorrhage Annotation for CT Brain Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Hau Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we created a decision-making model to detect intracranial hemorrhage and adopted Expectation Maximization(EM segmentation to segment the Computed Tomography (CT images. In this work, basically intracranial hemorrhage is classified into two main types which are intra-axial hemorrhage and extra-axial hemorrhage. In order to ease classification, contrast enhancement is adopted to finetune the contrast of the hemorrhage. After that, k-means is applied to group the potential and suspicious hemorrhagic regions into one cluster. The decision-making process is to identify whether the suspicious regions are hemorrhagic regions or non-regions of interest. After the hemorrhagic detection, the images are segmented into brain matter and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF by using expectation-maximization (EM segmentation. The acquired experimental results are evaluated in terms of recall and precision. The encouraging results have been attained whereby the proposed system has yielded 0.9333 and 0.8880 precision for extra-axial and intra-axial hemorrhagic detection respectively, whereas recall rate obtained is 0.9245 and 0.8043 for extra-axial and intra-axial hemorrhagic detection respectively.

  4. rett produc Congo ted cas ced in to: Nsam ssava two tra m

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny

    d beverages zation of con .... Among the local beverages consumed in Congo is palm wine. ... fermentation is alcoholic) (Brassir, 1962; Faparusi and. Brassir, 1972 ..... Asian Symposium on non-salted soybean fermentation, Tsukuba,. Japan ...

  5. The Adf Insurgency Network in the Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo: Spillover Effects Into Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    30 4. Peace Deal of 2003 ..............................................................................30 5. Goma Peace Agreement of 2008...31 6. Goma Peace Accord of 2009...of two factions: RCD- Goma backed by Rwanda, 133 Autesserre, The Trouble with the Congo, 48. 134 The

  6. One step effective removal of Congo Red in chitosan nanoparticles by encapsulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alver, Erol; Bulut, Mehmet; Metin, Ayşegül Ülkü; Çiftçi, Hakan

    2017-01-01

    Chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) were prepared with ionotropic gelation between chitosan and tripolyphosphate for the removal of Congo Red. The production of chitosan nanoparticles and the dye removal process was carried out in one-step. The removal efficiency of Congo Red by encapsulation within chitosan from the aqueous solution and its storage stability are examined at different pH values. The influence of some parameters such as the initial dye concentration, pH value of the dye solution, electrolyte concentration, tripolyphosphate concentration, mixing time and speed on the encapsulation is examined. Congo Red removal efficiency and encapsulation capacity of chitosan nanoparticles were determined as above 98% and 5107 mg Congo Red/g chitosan, respectively.

  7. Effective community-based protection programming: lessons from the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Nunn

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Oxfam’s work with local communities in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo has prompted the organisation to develop guidance for themselves and for others working in similar situations.

  8. Adsorption of Congo Red onto Lignocellulose/Montmorillonite Nanocomposite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yahong; XUE Zhenhua; WANG Ximing; WANG Li; WANG Aiqin

    2012-01-01

    Lignocellulose/montmorillonite (LNC/MMT) nanocomposites were prepared and characterized by FTIR and XRD.The adsorption of congo red (CR) on LNC/MMT nanocomposite was studied in detail.The effects of contact temperature,pH value of the dye solutions,contact time and concentration of dye solutions on the adsorption capacities of lignocellulose (LNC),montmorillonite (MMT) and the nanocomposite were investigated.The adsorption kinetics and isotherms and adsorption thermodynamics of the nanocomposite for CR were also studied.The results show that the adsorption capacity of LNC/MMT nanocomosite is higher than that of LNC and MMT.All the adsorption processes fit very well with the pseudo-second-order and the Langmuir equation.From thermodynamic studies,it is seen that the adsorption is spontaneous and endothermic.

  9. The bushmeat market in Kisangani, Democratic Republic of Congo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Vliet, Nathalie; Nebesse, Casimir; Gambalemoke, Sylvestre

    2012-01-01

    Given the important contribution of urban consumption in bushmeat trade, information on bushmeat sales in urban markets can provide valuable insights for understanding the dynamics of this trade and its implications for conservation and food security. We monitored bushmeat traded in the market...... bushmeat was one of the cheapest sources of protein available year-round, together with caterpillars, which were only available during the rainy season, and pork. Prices of other domestic meat were significantly higher. This study identified an increase in the market of highly threatened species...... of Kisangani (the provincial capital of the Province Orientale in the Democratic Republic of Congo) and compared data collected in surveys in 2002 and 2008–2009. In both periods more than two-thirds of the carcasses sold were of rodents and ungulates. From 2002 to 2008–2009 the number of carcasses increased...

  10. A Case of Sudden Deafness with Intralabyrinthine Hemorrhage Intralabyrinthine Hemorrhage and Sudden Deafness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Park, Jeong Jin; Jeong, Se Won; Lee, Jae Wook; Han, Su-Jin

    2015-01-01

    .... The prognosis SSNHL by intralabyrintine hemorrhage is generally known to be poor. We report a case of sudden deafness with intralabyrintine hemorrhage who has a history of anticoagulant administration, with a review of literature.

  11. Lightning climatology in the Congo Basin: detailed analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soula, Serge; Kigotsi, Jean; Georgis, Jean-François; Barthe, Christelle

    2016-04-01

    The lightning climatology of the Congo Basin including several countries of Central Africa is analyzed in detail for the first time. It is based on World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) data for the period from 2005 to 2013. A comparison of these data with the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) data for the same period shows the WWLLN detection efficiency (DE) in the region increases from about 1.70 % in the beginning of the period to 5.90 % in 2013, relative to LIS data, but not uniformly over the whole 2750 km × 2750 km area. Both the annual flash density and the number of stormy days show sharp maximum values localized in eastern of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and west of Kivu Lake, regardless of the reference year and the period of the year. These maxima reach 12.86 fl km-2 and 189 days, respectively, in 2013, and correspond with a very active region located at the rear of the Virunga mountain range characterised with summits that can reach 3000 m. The presence of this range plays a role in the thunderstorm development along the year. The estimation of this local maximum of the lightning density by taking into account the DE, leads to a value consistent with that of the global climatology by Christian et al. (2003) and other authors. Thus, a mean maximum value of about 157 fl km-2 y-1 is found for the annual lightning density. The zonal distribution of the lightning flashes exhibits a maximum between 1°S and 2°S and about 56 % of the flashes located below the equator in the 10°S - 10°N interval. The diurnal evolution of the flash rate has a maximum between 1400 and 1700 UTC, according to the reference year, in agreement with previous works in other regions of the world.

  12. FOOD CONSUMPTION AND PREFERENCES OF THE BONGANDO PEOPLE IN THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO

    OpenAIRE

    YAMAGUCHI, Ryota

    2015-01-01

    People living in the Congo basin forest have developed a variety of ways to use natural resources. Thus, the increase in conservation projects must be accompanied by efforts to clarify the livelihood-related conditions of local people. This paper provided a detailed investigation of the utilization of natural resources by the Bongando people living in the great ape habitat of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). Specifically, the paper examined food acquisition and consumption based on...

  13. Dragon Operations: Hostage Rescues in the Congo, 1964-1965 (Leavenworth Papers, Number 14)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    Carper , they ran into a firefight. Carper , another missionary from Kilometer 8, was anxious to get to the mission, but· their Congolese driver refused...and Barbara A. Wilson, "The Congo (Republic of the Congo-Leopoldville) Since January 1964," in Research Notes on Insurgency Potential in Africa...Vandewalle interview; and Laurent interview. 65. Rattan. " Bukavu to Stanleyville," 67-68; Rattan interview; Delbert Carper , interview with Reader’s

  14. Republic of Congo; Joint Advisory Note on the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper: Annual Progress Report

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2010-01-01

    This Joint Staff Advisory Note reviews the first annual progress report (APR) on implementation of the Poverty Reduction Strategy (PRS) in the Republic of Congo. The adoption of Congo’s first full Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper was an important step toward consolidating macroeconomic stability and improved political and economic governance. The APR takes stock of the first year of PRS monitoring and implementation, and provides an update on the poverty diagnosis, and elaborates on the cen...

  15. Energy from forests in the countries of the Congo Basin; L'energie forestiere dans les pays du bassin du Congo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boundzanga, G.C. [Centre National d' Inventaire et d' Amenagement des Ressources Forestieres et Fauniques du Zaire (Zaire); Loumeto, J. [Brazzaville Univ., Brazzaville (Congo, The Democratic Republic of the). Faculty of Science

    2009-07-15

    Deforestation and overexploitation of timber in the forests of the Congo Basin in Central Africa has resulted in environmental damage. This article listed the consumption of wood energy for Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Gabon, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Equatorial Guinea and emphasized the need to create a process to enable better management of forest resources by assigning more transparent concessions and establishing standards for the regeneration of the forest. Wood energy continues to be used in urban centres despite advances being made to promote the use of butane gas. As such, the ecological damage is visible in densely populated areas despite the fact that vast amounts of land would be well suited for tree plantations. 2 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  16. [Approach to sexuality in an AIDS context in Congo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtois, R; Mullet, E; Malvy, D

    2001-01-01

    The pandemic due to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is extensive in Sub-Saharan Africa and especially in Congo. Congo is a small country on the Atlantic coast and characterized by plentiful equatorial forests and low population density (essentially urban). In Congo, there is a high prevalence of HIV. The social and economic consequences of AIDS add to those of a recent civil war in 1997. There were fratricidal confrontations before and after this period. These confrontations have led to a massive exodus of the inhabitants of the capital, Brazzaville, to the forests and neighbouring cities, essentially towards Pointe-Noire. Pointe-Noire, chief place of the region of Kouilou, in the South of the country, is the second city of Congo and the economic Capital. It is undoubtedly for this reason that it has been globally saved. In this context, a sanitary policy of prevention of sexual risky behavior can appear as a challenge. While it supposes a better knowledge of the sexual activity of the young people, it cannot be dissociated from the analysis of the other factors. These factors can be of socio-economic political or cultural order. Thus the influence of cultural variables in the field of sexuality is certainly preponderant in African countries, where sexuality is taboo. Sexuality is a private matter (personal intimacy and the couple), but concerns also the family (in the sense of membership in an extended domestic group or in a system of relationship) in its aspects related to procreation and to the social field (power, alliances). Such individual behaviour can be lived as a questioning of the social order. In this article, the authors question the place of sexuality in Congo, particularly based on the work of anthropologists [2, 6, 7, 9]. Research in the field of sexuality at adolescence is rather recent in France and investigations that have been done in Congo these last ten years do not exist. Meetings and exchanges in 1998 with high-school pupils and

  17. Characterization of Terrestrial Water Dynamics in the Congo Basin Using GRACE and Satellite Radar Altimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Lyongki; Beighley, R. Edward; Alsdorf, Douglas; Jung, Hahn Chul; Shum, C. K.; Duan, Jianbin; Guo, Junyi; Yamazaki, Dai; Andreadis, Konstantinos

    2011-01-01

    The Congo Basin is the world's third largest in size (approximately 3.7 million km^2), and second only to the Amazon River in discharge (approximately 40,200 cms annual average). However, the hydrological dynamics of seasonally flooded wetlands and floodplains remains poorly quantified. Here, we separate the Congo wetland into four 3 degree x 3 degree regions, and use remote sensing measurements (i.e., GRACE, satellite radar altimeter, GPCP, JERS-1, SRTM, and MODIS) to estimate the amounts of water filling and draining from the Congo wetland, and to determine the source of the water. We find that the amount of water annually filling and draining the Congo wetlands is 111 km^3, which is about one-third the size of the water volumes found on the mainstem Amazon floodplain. Based on amplitude comparisons among the water volume changes and timing comparisons among their fluxes, we conclude that the local upland runoff is the main source of the Congo wetland water, not the fluvial process of river-floodplain water exchange as in the Amazon. Our hydraulic analysis using altimeter measurements also supports our conclusion by demonstrating that water surface elevations in the wetlands are consistently higher than the adjacent river water levels. Our research also highlights differences in the hydrology and hydrodynamics between the Congo wetland and the mainstem Amazon floodplain.

  18. ADSORPSI CONGO RED PADA HUMIN HASIL ISOLASI DARI TANAH HUTAN DAMAR BATURRADEN PURWOKERTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Andreas

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Congo red is one of dyes-stuff in textile industry wastwater. If it is thrown directly without waste management process, the dyes could pollute environtment, especially soil. Humin has OH phenolic and carboxylic functional group which can interacted with congo red. The aim of this study is recognize humin characteristic from the soil of Baturraden resin forest, determine the adsorption capacity and isotherm adsorption pattern of congo red by humin from the soil of Baturraden resin forest. Humin in this study is isolated from the soil of Baturraden resin forest. soil cleared of gravel and dirt, then it extracted by using NaOH of nitrogen atmosphere and purified to applies mixture HCl:HF. Humin that is obtained is used to be interacted with dyes with various contact time, various of pH and concentration of congo red so that the adsorption capacities and isotherm adsorption pattern can be obtained. Result of the study showed that the humin has water content 34.92 %, dust content 8.64 %, total acidity 475 cmol/Kg, carboxylic rate 272.5 cmol/Kg, and OH Phenolic rate 202.5 cmol/Kg. The optimum contact time of congo red adsorption by humin is 40 minutes, with optimum pH is 7, adsorption capacities 57.14 mg/g and isotherm adsorption pattern of congo red by humin is follow the pattern of Langmuir isotherm adsorption.

  19. Soil phosphorus dynamics as affected by Congo grass and P fertilizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciro Antonio Rosolem

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Some plant species can change soil phosphorus (P availability and this may be an important tool in managing tropical high fixing phosphorus soils. An experiment was conducted to evaluate phosphorus transformations in the soil and phosphatase activity during periods of Congo grass (Brachiaria ruziziensis, Germain et Evrard growth in two tropical soils receiving 20, 40, 80, 160 mg dm-3 of inorganic P. Plants were grown for 84 days in 8-L pots. Acid phosphatase activity, P in the microbial mass, soil organic and inorganic P and P accumulation by Congo grass were evaluated. Phosphorus fertilization increased soil P availability, Congo grass yields and P accumulation in the plant. On average, less labile P forms in the soil were not changed by Congo grass; however, the P in the soil extracted with HCl (P-Ca - non labil form decreased. This decrease may have resulted from the combination of the presence of grass and phosphatase capacity to dissolve less available P in the soil. Thus, soil exploration by Congo grass roots and the subsequent extraction of calcium phosphate may have increased the P concentration in the plant tissue. Despite the decrease in the P extracted from the soil with HCl resulting in increased labile P forms in the soil, the effect of Congo grass on the availability of P depends on the soil type.

  20. Congo grass grown in rotation with soybean affects phosphorus bound to soil carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Merlin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The phosphorus supply to crops in tropical soils is deficient due to its somewhat insoluble nature in soil, and addition of P fertilizers has been necessary to achieve high yields. The objective of this study was to examine the mechanisms through which a cover crop (Congo grass - Brachiaria ruziziensis in rotation with soybean can enhance soil and fertilizer P availability using long-term field trials and laboratory chemical fractionation approaches. The experimental field had been cropped to soybean in rotation with several species under no-till for six years. An application rate of no P or 240 kg ha-1 of P2O5 had been applied as triple superphosphate or as Arad rock phosphate. In April 2009, once more 0.0 or 80.0 kg ha-1 of P2O5 was applied to the same plots when Congo grass was planted. In November 2009, after Congo grass desiccation, soil samples were taken from the 0-5 and 5-10 cm depth layer and soil P was fractionated. Soil-available P increased to the depth of 10 cm through growing Congo grass when P fertilizers were applied. The C:P ratio was also increased by the cover crop. Congo grass cultivation increased P content in the soil humic fraction to the depth of 10 cm. Congo grass increases soil P availability by preventing fertilizer from being adsorbed and by increasing soil organic P.

  1. Congo Red Interactions with Curli-Producing E. coli and Native Curli Amyloid Fibers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney Reichhardt

    Full Text Available Microorganisms produce functional amyloids that can be examined and manipulated in vivo and in vitro. Escherichia coli assemble extracellular adhesive amyloid fibers termed curli that mediate adhesion and promote biofilm formation. We have characterized the dye binding properties of the hallmark amyloid dye, Congo red, with curliated E. coli and with isolated curli fibers. Congo red binds to curliated whole cells, does not inhibit growth, and can be used to comparatively quantify whole-cell curliation. Using Surface Plasmon Resonance, we measured the binding and dissociation kinetics of Congo red to curli. Furthermore, we determined that the binding of Congo red to curli is pH-dependent and that histidine residues in the CsgA protein do not influence Congo red binding. Our results on E. coli strain MC4100, the most commonly employed strain for studies of E. coli amyloid biogenesis, provide a starting point from which to compare the influence of Congo red binding in other E. coli strains and amyloid-producing organisms.

  2. The Afterlife of Thomas Campbell and ‘The Soldier’s Dream’ in the Crimean War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Chun Ho

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Studies of Crimean War poetry tend to focus on Alfred Tennyson’s celebrated war poem ‘The Charge of the Light Brigade’ (1854, a civilian poetic rewriting of 'The Times'’s despatches. While recent scholarship has highlighted the impact of modern forms of reportage on artistic representations of the Crimean War, this article will argue that the two-year military campaign waged at a long distance was not only a media war but also a literary one, during which civilians drew on established forms of war poetry to make sense of the pressing issues provoked by the conflict overseas. This literary war was manifest in the myriad ways armchair poets and artists rewrote Thomas Campbell’s ‘The Soldier’s Dream’ (1804 to address the reading public’s anxieties and expectations about the welfare of the common soldier. The rewritings of Campbell’s poem this article will consider include: 'Punch'’s ‘The Soldier’s Dream’ alongside an accompanying cartoon by John Tenniel of 1 April 1854; the poem ‘A Night on the Heights’, penned by the pseudonymous poet ‘Private Jones’ in 'Tait’s Edinburgh Magazine' in December 1854; a piece of commemorative pottery designed by George Eyre in January 1855; and Part III of Tennyson’s ‘Maud’, published in 'Maud and Other Poems' in July 1855. By examining these works at specific moments of the conflict, I will demonstrate that mid-Victorians deployed Campbell’s dream-vision framework to negotiate the soldier’s public duties and private emotions, as well as the government’s responsibilities for the soldier and his family. While in general mid-century commentators utilized Campbell’s dream vision to foreground a benign government’s efforts to care for the soldier, Tennyson’s conclusion of ‘Maud’' 'offered an ironic rendition of this interpretation. Instead, a civilian’s dream of fighting a glorious war becomes a nightmarish vision of the government’s military incompetence

  3. [Gastrontestinal hemorrhage following thoracic surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durić, O; Tvrtković, R; Budalica, M

    1976-01-01

    The authors discuss eight cases who suffered hemorrhaging stress ulcers out of 200 cases on whom Thoracotomies were performed. Presented is the common factor of the onset of this complication, it's diagnosis, and therapy. Listed below are the diagnoses and operative procedures used on these eight patients. Cysta Aerea Permagna Lobi Inf. Pulm. Dexter/operation: Mytomis Longitudinalis Ooesophagi. Caverna Bronchiectatica Permagna Lobi Inferior Pulmo Dexter/operation: Lobestomia Typica. Echinococcus Heaptis Complicatus, Empyema Pleurae Dexter/opetation: Decorticatio. Haemathorax Spontaneous Lobus Sinister/operation: Decorticatio Pleurae Sinister. Echi Comp. Cupolae Hepatis Permagnus/operation: Thoracotomia Phrenotomia, evacuatio, Triplex Drainage. Bronchiectasiae Lobi Medius et Inferior Pulmo Dexter/operation: Biblobectomia Typica. Carcinoma Bronchi Lobi Inferior Pulmo Dexter/operation: Lobectomia Typica. Gastric problems had troubled four of these eight patients in their past history. Bleeding in three patients occurred three days postoperatively, and in the remaining five, thirty days following their operation. Six patients had to be treated conservatively because of serious contraindications to reoperation. Four of them expired. Autopsy revealed: Pyothorax, Dehiscention Bronchi, Empyema, and Gastritis Errosiva with multiulcerations, hemoragia, and dilatation of the right heart. Two patients with recent stress ulcers were reoperated on, and were cured. The authors estimate that the occurrence of hemorrhaging stress ulcer following thoracic surgery are basically due to Hypoxia. The chain of events whic brought about the stress ulcer, however, began even before the operation, continued throughout the operation, and appeared postoperatively due to postoperative complications. The authors point out that these complications can be foreseen (early and late), but firstly, an attempt should be made to treat the patient with conservative therapy. Inasmuch as the hemorrhaging

  4. Pulmonary hemorrhage resulting from leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Razuk Filho

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world, although the mechanisms responsible for the pathogenesis of spirochetes of the genus Leptospira are largely unknown. Human infection occurs either by direct contact with infected animals or indirectly, through contact with water or soil contaminated with urine, as the spirochetes easily penetrate human skin. The present report exposes the case of a female patient, diagnosed with leptospirosis after having had contact with a dog infected by Leptospira sp. that developed pulmonary hemorrhage, acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute renal failure.

  5. Subarachnoid hemorrhage in pituitary tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashis Patnaik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH is the bleeding into the subarachnoid space containing cerebrospinal fluid. The most common cause of SAH is trauma. Rupture of aneurysms, vascular anomalies, tumor bleeds and hypertension are other important etiologies. SAH in the setting of pituitary tumor can result from various causes. It can be due to intrinsic tumor related pathology, injury to surrounding the vessel during the operative procedure or due to an associated aneurysm. We discuss the pathological mechanisms and review relevant literature related to this interesting phenomenon. Early and accurate diagnosis of the cause of the SAH in pituitary tumors is important, as this influences the management.

  6. Risks and prevention of nosocomial transmission of rare zoonotic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, D J; Rutala, W A

    2001-02-01

    Americans are increasingly exposed to exotic zoonotic diseases through travel, contact with exotic pets, occupational exposure, and leisure pursuits. Appropriate isolation precautions are required to prevent nosocomial transmission of rare zoonotic diseases for which person-to-person transmission has been documented. This minireview provides guidelines for the isolation of patients and management of staff exposed to the following infectious diseases with documented person-to-person transmission: Andes hantavirus disease, anthrax, B virus infection, hemorrhagic fevers (due to Ebola, Marburg, Lassa, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Argentine hemorrhagic fever, and Bolivian hemorrhagic fever viruses), monkeypox, plague, Q fever, and rabies. Several of these infections may also be encountered as bioterrorism hazards (i.e., anthrax, hemorrhagic fever viruses, plague, and Q fever). Adherence to recommended isolation precautions will allow for proper patient care while protecting the health care workers who provide care to patients with known or suspected zoonotic infections capable of nosocomial transmission.

  7. How I treat patients with massive hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Pär I; Stensballe, Jakob; Oliveri, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Massive hemorrhage is associated with coagulopathy and high mortality. The transfusion guidelines up to 2006 recommended that resuscitation of massive hemorrhage should occur in successive steps using crystalloids, colloids and red blood cells (RBC) in the early phase, and plasma and platelets in...

  8. Safety of anticoagulation after hemorrhagic infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessin, M S; Estol, C J; Lafranchise, F; Caplan, L R

    1993-07-01

    Cerebral hemorrhagic infarction visualized on CT, secondary to embolic stroke in an anticoagulated individual, is usually associated with clinically stable or improving neurologic signs; fear of transforming the hemorrhagic infarction into a hematoma, however, usually prompts cessation of anticoagulation until the blood has cleared on CT, despite the recognized risk of recurrent embolism during this non-anticoagulated period. We now report our experience with 12 patients with hemorrhagic infarction who remained anticoagulated. Eleven men and one woman, ages 33 to 77, developed hemorrhagic infarction while on heparin, warfarin, or both, for prevention of recurrent embolism. Patients were either continued on uninterrupted anticoagulation from stroke onset (n = 6), or anticoagulation was withheld for several days and then resumed (n = 4), or it was withheld for 5 and 14 days (n = 2) after stroke onset and then continued uninterrupted despite the CT appearance of hemorrhagic infarction. Eleven patients had a definite cardioembolic source for stroke (atrial fibrillation, seven; ventricular thrombus, two; and ventricular dyskinesia, two). One patient had carotid occlusion with local intra-arterial embolism. Hemorrhagic infarcts varied in size and were located in the middle cerebral artery territory in 11 patients and posterior cerebral artery territory in one. All patients remained clinically stable or improved on anticoagulation. Serial CTs showed fading hemorrhagic areas. When the risk of recurrent embolism is high, anticoagulation may be safely used in some patients with hemorrhagic infarction.

  9. First Outbreak of Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Mahbubur; Rahman, Khalilur; Siddque, A. K.; Shoma, Shereen; A. H. M. Kamal; Ali, K.S.; Nisaluk, Ananda; Breiman, Robert F

    2002-01-01

    During the first countrywide outbreak of dengue hemorrhagic fever in Bangladesh, we conducted surveillance for dengue at a hospital in Dhaka. Of 176 patients, primarily adults, found positive for dengue, 60.2% had dengue fever, 39.2% dengue hemorrhagic fever, and 0.6% dengue shock syndrome. The Dengue virus 3 serotype was detected in eight patients.

  10. Placenta previa and maternal hemorrhagic morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbins, Karen J; Einerson, Brett D; Varner, Michael W; Silver, Robert M

    2017-02-21

    Placenta previa is associated with maternal hemorrhage, but most literature focuses on morbidity in the setting of placenta accreta. We aim to characterize maternal morbidity associated with previa and to define risk factors for hemorrhage. This is a secondary cohort analysis of the NICHD Maternal-Fetal Medicine Units Network Cesarean Section Registry. This analysis included all women undergoing primary Cesarean delivery without placenta accreta. About 496 women with previa were compared with 24,201 women without previa. Primary outcome was composite maternal hemorrhagic morbidity. Non-hemorrhagic morbidities and risk factors for hemorrhage were also evaluated. Maternal hemorrhagic morbidity was more common in women with previa (19 versus 7%, aRR 2.6, 95% CI 1.9-3.5). Atony requiring uterotonics (aRR 3.1, 95% CI 2.0-4.9), red blood cell transfusion (aRR 3.8, 95% CI 2.5-5.7), and hysterectomy (aRR 5.1, 95% CI 1.5-17.3) were also more common with previa. For women with previa, factors associated with maternal hemorrhage were pre-delivery anemia, thrombocytopenia, diabetes, magnesium use, and general anesthesia. Placenta previa is an independent risk factor for maternal hemorrhagic morbidity. Some risk factors are modifiable, but many are intrinsic to the clinical scenario.

  11. Upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Superwarfarins are a class of rodenticides. Gastrointestinal hemorrhage is a fatal complication of superwarfarin poisoning, requiring immediate treatment. Here, we report a 55-year-old woman with tardive upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage caused by superwarfarin poisoning after endoscopic cold mucosal biopsy.

  12. Spontaneous bilateral adrenal hemorrhage following cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahan, Meryl; Lim, Chetana; Salloum, Chady; Azoulay, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Postoperative bilateral adrenal hemorrhage is a rare but potentially life-threatening complication. This diagnosis is often missed because the symptoms and laboratory results are usually nonspecific. We report a case of bilateral adrenal hemorrhage associated with acute primary adrenal insufficiency following laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The knowledge of this uncommon complication following any abdominal surgery allows timey diagnosis and rapid treatment.

  13. Dormant stages of crustaceans as a mechanism of propagation in the extreme and unpredictable environment in the Crimean hypersaline lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadrin, Nickolai V.; Anufriieva, Elena V.; Amat, Francisco; Eremin, Oleg Yu.

    2015-11-01

    A pool of dormant stages of planktonic organisms in saline lakes is a substantial component in the plankton communities; we need to take it into account to understand plankton dynamics. Hypersaline water bodies in Crimea, the largest peninsula in the Black Sea, constitute a very characteristic and peculiar habitat type in the region. We examined the presence of crustacean resting stages in sediments of dried up sites of the Crimean hypersaline lakes. Sediment samples were taken in 9 different lakes. Experiments performed on the hatching of these resting stages showed the presence of Moina salina (Cladocera), parthenogenetic Artemia and Artemia urmiana (Anostraca), Eucypris mareotica ( inflata) (Ostracoda), and Cletocamptus retrogressus (Harpacticoida). Comparing the experimental results obtained with clean dried brine shrimp cysts and those kept in sediment samples, it was noted that clean cysts hatched much faster than those from sediments did. Some components in bottom sediments slow down and desynchronize hatching from resting eggs in different groups of crustaceans. The sediments of different lakes inhibited the nauplii output from Artemia and ostracod resting eggs to different degrees. More data are needed before we can discuss the reasons of this inhibition. The nonsynchronous output of active stages from the bottom resting ones may be an adaptation that allows crustacean species to exist in extreme and unpredictably changing environments, avoiding the risk that all may emerge at once under unsuitable conditions.

  14. Troponin elevation in subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ioannis N Mavridis; Maria Meliou; Efstratios-Stylianos Pyrgelis

    2015-01-01

    Troponin (tr) elevation in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) patients is often difficult to be appropriately assessed by clinicians, causing even disagreements regarding its management between neurosurgeons and cardiologists. The purpose of this article was to review the literature regarding the clinical interpretation of tr elevation in SAH. We searched for articles in PubMed using the key words:“troponin elevation”and“subarachnoid hemorrhage”. All of them, as well as relative neurosurgical books, were used for this review. Some type of cardiovascular abnormality develops in most SAH patients. Neurogenic stunned myocardium is a frequent SAH complication, due to catecholamine surge which induces cardiac injury, as evidenced by increased serum tr levels, electrocardiographic (ECG) changes and cardiac wall motion abnormalities. Tr elevation, usually modest, is an early and specific marker for cardiac involvement after SAH and its levels peak about two days after SAH. Cardiac tr elevation predictors include poor clinical grade, intraventricular hemorrhage, loss of consciousness at ictus, global cerebral edema, female sex, large body surface area, lower systolic blood pressure, higher heart rate and prolonged Q-Tc interval. Elevated tr levels are associated with disability and death (especially tr>1μg/L), worse neurological grade, systolic and diastolic cardiac dysfunction, pulmonary congestion, longer intensive care unit stay and incidence of vasospasm. Tr elevation is a common finding in SAH patients and constitutes a rightful cause of worry about the patients’ cardiac function and prognosis. It should be therefore early detected, carefully monitored and appropriately managed by clinicians.

  15. Recurrent bleeding after perimesencephalic hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauw, Frans; Velthuis, Birgitta K; Kizilates, Ufuk; van der Schaaf, Irene C; Rinkel, Gabriel J E; Vergouwen, Mervyn D I

    2017-08-31

    Perimesencephalic hemorrhage (PMH) is a type of subarachnoid hemorrhage with excellent long-term outcomes. Only one well-documented case of in-hospital rebleeding after PMH is described in the literature, which occurred after initiating antithrombotic treatment because of myocardial ischemia. In this case report we describe a patient with PMH without antithrombotic treatment who had two episodes of recurrent bleeding on the day of ictus. In order to validate the radiological findings we conducted a case-control study. Six neuroradiologists and two neuroradiology fellows performed a blinded assessment of serial unenhanced head CT scans of eight patients with a perimesencephalic bleeding pattern (1 index patient, 6 patients with PMH, 1 patient with a perimesencephalic bleeding pattern and basilar artery aneurysm) to investigate a potential increase in amount of subarachnoid blood. A 56-year-old woman with a perimesencephalic bleeding pattern and negative CT angiography had after the onset headache two episodes with a sudden increase of the headache. Blinded assessment of serial head CTs of eight patients with a perimesencephalic bleeding pattern identified the patient who was clinically suspected to have two episodes of recurrent bleeding to have an increased amount of subarachnoid blood on two subsequent CT scans. Recurrent bleeding after PMH may also occur in patients not treated with antithrombotics. Even after early rebleeding, prognosis of PMH is excellent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A case of idiopathic omental hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshimitsu Hosotani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With the exception of trauma, intraperitoneal hemorrhage in young women is caused by the high frequency of ectopic pregnancy and ovarian bleeding. Here, we describe a case of idiopathic omental hemorrhage, which is a rare cause of intraperitoneal hemorrhage. Intraperitoneal hemorrhage was suspected in a 38-year-old Japanese woman based on contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Her last menstrual period was 23 days prior, and ovarian bleeding was considered based on bloody ascites revealed by culdocentesis. She underwent emergency surgery for hypovolemic shock. Although both ovaries were of normal size and no abnormal findings were observed, we performed a partial omentectomy because multiple clots were attached only to the greater omentum. Postoperatively, no rebleeding occurred, and she was discharged 11 days after the surgery. Because she did not have a clear history of trauma and underlying disease, idiopathic omental hemorrhage was diagnosed.

  17. Migraine and risk of hemorrhagic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaist, David; González-Pérez, Antonio; Ashina, Messoud

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We investigated the association between hemorrhagic stroke and migraine using data from The Health Improvement Network database. FINDINGS: We ascertained 1,797 incident cases of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and 1,340 of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Density-based sampling was used...... to select 10,000 controls free from hemorrhagic stroke. Using unconditional logistic regression models, we calculated the risk of hemorrhagic stroke associated with migraine, adjusting for age, sex, calendar year, alcohol, body mass index, hypertension, previous cerebrovascular disease, oral contraceptive...... use, and health services utilization.The risk (odds ratio [OR]) of ICH among migraineurs was 1.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.9-1.5), and of SAH was (1.2, 95% CI 0.9-1.5). The association with ICH was stronger for migraine diagnosed ≥20 years prior to ICH (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.0-2.4), but not with SAH...

  18. Lesula: a new species of Cercopithecus monkey endemic to the Democratic Republic of Congo and implications for conservation of Congo's central basin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Hart

    Full Text Available In June 2007, a previously undescribed monkey known locally as "lesula" was found in the forests of the middle Lomami Basin in central Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC. We describe this new species as Cercopithecus lomamiensis sp. nov., and provide data on its distribution, morphology, genetics, ecology and behavior. C. lomamiensis is restricted to the lowland rain forests of central DRC between the middle Lomami and the upper Tshuapa Rivers. Morphological and molecular data confirm that C. lomamiensis is distinct from its nearest congener, C. hamlyni, from which it is separated geographically by both the Congo (Lualaba and the Lomami Rivers. C. lomamiensis, like C. hamlyni, is semi-terrestrial with a diet containing terrestrial herbaceous vegetation. The discovery of C. lomamiensis highlights the biogeographic significance and importance for conservation of central Congo's interfluvial TL2 region, defined from the upper Tshuapa River through the Lomami Basin to the Congo (Lualaba River. The TL2 region has been found to contain a high diversity of anthropoid primates including three forms, in addition to C. lomamiensis, that are endemic to the area. We recommend the common name, lesula, for this new species, as it is the vernacular name used over most of its known range.

  19. Gestion participative du sanctuaire de gorilles de plaine de l'ouest (Gorilla gorilla gorilla de Lossi en République du Congo- Brazzaville: première analyse de résultats et des contraintes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbété, RA.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Participative Management of the Sanctuary of Western Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla of Lossi in Republic of Congo-Brazzaville: Preliminary Results and Constraints Analysis. The gorilla sanctuary of Lossi experiments the synergy between scientific research and nature conservation. Three partners are involved in a management participative process. These partners include the Republic of Congo, the local community of Lossi and the European programme on the forest ecosystems in Central Africa. An investigation was carried out on the sanctuary of Lossi in 2003, in order to study in situ the effects generated by the participative management and to identify the constraints linked to the participative approach. The work of primatologists allowed the habituation of the gorillas to the human presence and opened eyesight tourism of western lowland gorillas. A camp for tourists and the access road to the sanctuary have been constructed. The tourism generated jobs in favour of the local population which is also a take-partner of contracts on road repairing. The income from the tourism allowed the construction of a health centre. However, the works of researchers and tourism activities failed during the outbreaks of the Ebola hemorrhagic fever and during the three civil war episodes. The consolidation and the long term of this process of co-management of natural resources of Lossi remains the establishment of a management that should include conservation, rural development and scientific research, with equitably in the distribution of gain between the partnerses.

  20. The riverine source of CH4 and N2O from the Republic of Congo, western Congo Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upstill-Goddard, Robert C.; Salter, Matthew E.; Mann, Paul J.; Barnes, Jonathan; Poulsen, John; Dinga, Bienvenu; Fiske, Gregory J.; Holmes, Robert M.

    2017-05-01

    We discuss concentrations of dissolved CH4, N2O, O2, NO3- and NH4+, and emission fluxes of CH4 and N2O for river sites in the western Congo Basin, Republic of Congo (ROC). Savannah, swamp forest and tropical forest samples were collected from the Congo main stem and seven of its tributaries during November 2010 (41 samples; wet season) and August 2011 (25 samples; dry season; CH4 and N2O only). Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN: NH4++ NO3-; wet season) was dominated by NO3- (63 ± 19 % of DIN). Total DIN concentrations (1.5-45.3 µmol L-1) were consistent with the near absence of agricultural, domestic and industrial sources for all three land types. Dissolved O2 (wet season) was mostly undersaturated in swamp forest (36 ± 29 %) and tropical forest (77 ± 36 %) rivers but predominantly supersaturated in savannah rivers (100 ± 17 %). The dissolved concentrations of CH4 and N2O were within the range of values reported earlier for sub-Saharan African rivers. Dissolved CH4 was found to be supersaturated (11.2-9553 nmol L-1; 440-354 444 %), whereas N2O ranged from strong undersaturation to supersaturation (3.2-20.6 nmol L-1; 47-205 %). Evidently, rivers of the ROC are persistent local sources of CH4 and can be minor sources or sinks for N2O. During the dry season the mean and range of CH4 and N2O concentrations were quite similar for the three land types. Wet and dry season mean concentrations and ranges were not significant for N2O for any land type or for CH4 in savannah rivers. The latter observation is consistent with seasonal buffering of river discharge by an underlying sandstone aquifer. Significantly higher wet season CH4 concentrations in swamp and forest rivers suggest that CH4 can be derived from floating macrophytes during flooding and/or enhanced methanogenesis in adjacent flooded soils. Swamp rivers also exhibited both low (47 %) and high (205 %) N2O saturation but wet season values were overall significantly lower than in either tropical forest or

  1. Russia and Mexico in the 19th – Beginning of the 20th Century: on the Crimean War’s Influence on Russia-Mexico Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Yu. Redkina

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the prerequisites and establishment of the first Russia-Mexico contacts, which took place after the Crimean War (1853-1856. It was revealed that Mexico’s interest in the collaboration with Russia began to reveal in a higher degree after the Crimean War. The factors, which had led to the diplomatic rapprochement of the two states, include the Mexico’s search for allies in the contradiction to increased aggression of European states and the USA in the Central American region, and the increase of Russian intellectuals’ emigration, resettlement of religious groups of the Old Russian sectarians to the region. At the turn of 19th – 20th centuries many Russian travelers and writers, such as S.D. Protopopov and K.D. Balmont, visited Mexico for the purpose of studying the culture of ancients Indians, who lived in Central America during many centuries before the Spanish colonization. Besides of the impressions on ancient Indian culture, these travelers described the life of ordinary Mexican people of that time. They mentioned their poverty and hopelessness in the years of Porfirio Dias’s dictatorship. Nevertheless, political and cultural contacts had begun to established in the late 19th century between the Russian Empire and Mexico, because after the Crimean War the Mexico’s interest to Russians increased. In addition, Russia tried to strengthen its position in Central American region. In total, these factors had led to the strengthening of political, social and cultural contacts between Russia and Mexico.

  2. The Efforts to Reintroduce the Mongol Tradition in the Crimean Khanate at the beginning of the 17th century: Baysa, Tat ve Tavgach »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dariusz Kołodziejczyk

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The author examines the different ways, by which foreign borrowings were adopted in the Office of the Crimean Khanate. On the one hand, Tatars adopted specimens from the Moscow and Polish-Lithuanian Chancelleries (e.g. pendant seal, on the other hand, they sought to maintain and even restore ancient terminology related to the Genghisid and Central Asian tradition. Baysa with inscription providing certain rights and privileges on behalf of the ruler was used in the Genghisid Empire and ulus of Jochi. The first Crimean Tatar document, where we meet the term baysa, is a Charter of Shert sent by khan Mehmed III Giray to tsar Mikhail Fedorovich Romanov in September 1624. In 1634, Janibek Giray also wrote about the “golden baysa” apparently as a synonym of seal. Until the mid–17th century, mention of baysa occurs only in the text of the Crimean Charters of Shert sent to Moscow. From 1654, charters with a golden baysa was sent to the Polish king as well. A new form of solemn khan’s charters began to change under the influence of the development of office practice in Moscow and Warsaw. In the same period in the khan’s intitulation appears the formula “the great Padishah of Tat ve Tavgach” – new elements related to the Genghisid and ancient Turkic tradition of Central Asia. Consequently, according to the author, the latter change could be associated with the activities of Shahin Giray and his stay in Persia, or this innovation was imported from the Siberian Khanate.

  3. The state of emergency care in Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Malemo Kalisya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC is the second largest country on the African continent with a population of over 70 million. It is also a major crossroad through Africa as it borders nine countries. Unfortunately, the DRC has experienced recurrent political and social instability throughout its history and active fighting is still prevalent today. At least two decades of conflict have devastated the civilian population and collapsed healthcare infrastructure. Life expectancy is low and government expenditure on health per capita remains one of the lowest in the world. Emergency Medicine has not been established as a specialty in the DRC. While the vast majority of hospitals have emergency rooms or salle des urgences, this designation has no agreed upon format and is rarely staffed by doctors or nurses trained in emergency care. Presenting complaints include general and obstetric surgical emergencies as well as respiratory and diarrhoeal illnesses. Most patients present late, in advanced stages of disease or with extreme morbidity, so mortality is high. Epidemics include HIV, cholera, measles, meningitis and other diarrhoeal and respiratory illnesses. Lack of training, lack of equipment and fee-for-service are cited as barriers to care. Pre-hospital care is also not an established specialty. New initiatives to improve emergency care include training Congolese physicians in emergency medicine residencies and medic ranger training within national parks.

  4. Ocular pentastomiasis in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihály Sulyok

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Ocular pentastomiasis is a rare infection caused by the larval stage of pentastomids, an unusual group of crustacean-related parasites. Zoonotic pentastomids have a distinct geographical distribution and utilize reptiles or canids as final hosts. Recently, an increasing number of human abdominal infections have been reported in Africa, where pentastomiasis is an emerging, though severely neglected, tropical disease. Here we describe four ocular infections caused by pentastomids from the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Two cases underwent surgery and an Armillifer grandis infection was detected by morphological and molecular approaches. Thus far, 15 other cases of ocular pentastomiasis have been reported worldwide. Twelve cases were caused by Armillifer sp., recorded almost exclusively in Africa, where such infections occur as a consequence of hunting and consuming snakes, their final hosts. Seven further cases were caused by Linguatula serrata, a cosmopolitan pentastomid whose final hosts are usually canids. Intraocular infections caused permanent visual damage in 69% and a total loss of vision in 31% of reported cases. In contrast, ocular adnexal cases had a benign clinical course. Further research is required to estimate the burden, therapeutic options and pathogenesis of this neglected disease.

  5. Diet and kwashiorkor: a prospective study from rural DR Congo

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    Hallgeir Kismul

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of kwashiorkor remains enigmatic and longitudinal studies examining potential causes of kwashiorkor are scarce. Using historical, longitudinal study data from the rural area of Bwamanda, Democratic Republic of Congo, we investigated the potential causal association between diet and the development of kwashiorkor in 5 657 preschool children followed 3-monthly during 15 months. We compared dietary risk factors for kwashiorkor with those of marasmus. Kwashiorkor was diagnosed as pitting oedema of the ankles; marasmus as abnormal visibility of skeletal structures and palpable wasting of the gluteus muscle. A 24-h recall was administered 3-monthly to record the consumption of the 41 locally most frequent food items. We specified Hanley–Miettinen smooth-in-time risk models containing potential causal factors, including food items, special meals prepared for the child, breastfeeding, disease status, nutritional status, birth rank, age, season and number of meals. Bayesian Information Criteria identified the most plausible causal model of why some children developed kwashiorkor. In a descriptive analysis of the diet at the last dietary assessment prior to development of kwashiorkor, the diet of children who developed kwashiorkor was characterized by low consumption of sweet potatoes, papaya and “other vegetables” [0.0% , 2.3% (95% CI [0.4, 12.1] and 2.3% (95% CI [0.4, 12.1

  6. Late hemorrhagic disease of newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, I E; Rao, S D Subba

    2003-03-01

    The clinical features of 14 infants diagnosed with late hemorrhagic disease of newborn (LHDN), of which 10 did not receive vitamin K prophylaxis, are presented. All infants were exclusively breast-fed and 12 did not have any underlying illness to explain the abnormal coagulation profile. The common presenting symptoms were seizures (71%), vomiting (57%), poor feeding (50%) and altered sensorium (36%). Physical examination shared pallor in all infants and a bulging anterior fontanel in 64%. Intracranial bleed was the predominant manifestation (93%), with CT scan showing intracranial bleed in 78%. Eight infants (57%) succumbed to their illness, while 36%had neurological sequelae. Since LHDN leads to significant morbidity and mortality, it should be prevented by providing vitamin K prophylaxis to all newborns.

  7. Troponin elevation in subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis N. Mavridis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Troponin (tr elevation in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH patients is often difficult to be appropriately assessed by clinicians, causing even disagreements regarding its management between neurosurgeons and cardiologists. The purpose of this article was to review the literature regarding the clinical interpretation of tr elevation in SAH. We searched for articles in PubMed using the key words: “troponin elevation” and “subarachnoid hemorrhage”. All of them, as well as relative neurosurgical books, were used for this review. Some type of cardiovascular abnormality develops in most SAH patients. Neurogenic stunned myocardium is a frequent SAH complication, due to catecholamine surge which induces cardiac injury, as evidenced by increased serum tr levels, electrocardiographic (ECG changes and cardiac wall motion abnormalities. Tr elevation, usually modest, is an early and specific marker for cardiac involvement after SAH and its levels peak about two days after SAH. Cardiac tr elevation predictors include poor clinical grade, intraventricular hemorrhage, loss of consciousness at ictus, global cerebral edema, female sex, large body surface area, lower systolic blood pressure, higher heart rate and prolonged Q-Tc interval. Elevated tr levels are associated with disability and death (especially tr >1 μg/L, worse neurological grade, systolic and diastolic cardiac dysfunction, pulmonary congestion, longer intensive care unit stay and incidence of vasospasm. Tr elevation is a common finding in SAH patients and constitutes a rightful cause of worry about the patients' cardiac function and prognosis. It should be therefore early detected, carefully monitored and appropriately managed by clinicians.

  8. Redescriptions of three species of freshwater crabs from the Democratic Republic of Congo, Central Africa (Brachyura: Potamoidea: Potamonautidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumberlidge, Neil

    2015-06-16

    The taxonomy of three species of freshwater crabs from the Upper Congo River in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Potamonautes congoensis (Rathbun, 1921), P. langi (Rathbun, 1921), and P. stanleyensis (Rathbun, 1921), is revised based on examination of the holotypes. Updated diagnoses, illustrations, and distribution maps are provided for these species, and their conservation status is discussed.

  9. An estimate of the costs of an effective system of protected areas in the Niger Delta - Congo Basin Forest Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the costs of implementing a biodiversity conservation vision for the Niger Delta-Congo Basin Forest Region, a region covering the forests from Nigeria across Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea (EG), Gabon, Central African Republic (CAR), Congo and the Democratic Republic

  10. Treatment of TBI and Concomitant Hemorrhage with Ghrelin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    battlefield setting. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Traumatic brain injury ; hemorrhagic shock; ghrelin; treatment 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: U 17...hemorrhagic shock. 2. Ghrelin treatment improves sensorimotor and reflex function after traumatic brain injury and uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock...3. Ghrelin treatment reduces cortical apoptosis after traumatic brain injury and uncontrolled hemorrhagic shock. 4. Ghrelin treatment

  11. Subconjunctival hemorrhage: risk factors and potential indicators

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    Tarlan B

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bercin Tarlan,1 Hayyam Kiratli21Department of Ophthalmology, Kozluk State Hospital, Batman, Turkey; 2Ocular Oncology Service, Hacettepe University Schoolof Medicine, Ankara, TurkeyAbstract: Subconjunctival hemorrhage is a benign disorder that is a common cause of acute ocular redness. The major risk factors include trauma and contact lens usage in younger patients, whereas among the elderly, systemic vascular diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and arteriosclerosis are more common. In patients in whom subconjunctival hemorrhage is recurrent or persistent, further evaluation, including workup for systemic hypertension, bleeding disorders, systemic and ocular malignancies, and drug side effects, is warranted.Keywords: subconjunctival hemorrhage, contact lens, hypertension, red eye

  12. Meckel's cave meningiomas with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, G A; Herz, D A; Leeds, N; Strully, K

    1975-06-01

    Two patients with Meckel's Cave meningiomas were initially hospitalized as a result of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Four-vessel angiography was necessary to exclude other causes of bleeding while demonstrating these lesions. Apoplectic presentation in both cases led to early diagnosis and successful surgical therapy. A review of the literature reveals subarachnoid hemorrhage to be a rarity in association with meningiomas. The two patients currently reported are believed to be the only examples on record of hemorrhagic meningiomas arising from the region of Meckel's Cave.

  13. Hemorrhagic chondroid chordoma mimicking pituitary apoplexy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.J.; Kalnin, A.J.; Holodny, A.I. [Dept. of Radiology, University Hospital, Newark, NJ (United States); Schulder, M.; Grigorian, A. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, University Hospital, Newark, NJ (United States); Sharer, L.R. [Dept. of Pathology, University Hospital, Newark, NJ (United States)

    1998-11-01

    We describe a hemorrhagic chondroid chordoma involving the sella turcica with suprasellar extension. The CT and MRI appearances mimiked a hemorrhagic pituitary adenoma. Chondroid chordoma is a variant composed of elements of both chordoma and cartilaginous tissue. An uncommon bone neoplasm, located almost exclusively in the spheno-occipital region, it is usually not considered in the differential diagnosis of a tumor with acute hemorrhage in the sellar region. We discuss the clinical and radiological characteristics which may allow one to differentiate chondroid chordoma from other tumors of this area. (orig.) With 3 figs., 9 refs.

  14. Biosorption Kinetic Models on the Removal of Congo red onto Unripe Calamansi (Citrus microcarpa peels

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    Derick Erl P. Sumalapao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Unripe calamansi peels were prepared and used as a bioadsorbent in the removal of congo red from an aqueous solution using batch adsorption studies. The efficiency of adsorption was evaluated by varying adsorbent dose and contact time. The removal of congo red increased at higher adsorbent dose and longer contact time. The overall rate of adsorption processes appeared to be in accordance with the pseudo-second order reaction mechanism. Higher initial adsorption rate, extent of surface coverage, and activation energy were favored at a lower adsorbent dose, while the intraparticle diffusion was relatively faster at a higher adsorbent dose. The intraparticle diffusion, Elovich, and MacArthur-Wilson modelswere adequate in describing the chaotic behavior of the kinetic processes involved in the removal of congo red dye onto unripe calamansi peels.

  15. Rape as a weapon of war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Carly

    2012-01-01

    The Democratic Republic of the Congo has been appropriately acknowledged as "the rape capital of the world." While the country has been trapped in conflict, the use of rape as a weapon of war has been rampant and unyielding. The sexual violence inflicted upon women has been nothing less than brutal and destructive, physically, socially, and psychologically. This paper analyzes the use of rape as a weapon of war in the Congo, taking into context the ongoing war, cultural and social situations that facilitate its existence, and the many consequences the victims are forced to endure. Drawing information from various academic journals, articles, and field research from international organizations, this paper paints a concise picture of the sexual atrocities occurring in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

  16. Origins, seasonality, and fluxes of organic matter in the Congo River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Robert G. M.; Hernes, Peter J.; Dinga, Bienvenu; Wabakanghanzi, Jose N.; Drake, Travis W.; Six, Johan

    2016-07-01

    The Congo River in central Africa represents a major source of organic matter (OM) to the Atlantic Ocean. This study examined elemental (%OC, %N, and C:N), stable isotopic (δ13C and δ15N), and biomarker composition (lignin phenols) of particulate OM (POM) and dissolved OM (DOM) across the seasonal hydrograph. Even though the Congo exhibits an extremely stable intra-annual discharge regime, seasonal variability in OM composition was evident. DOM appears predominantly derived from vascular plant inputs with greater relative contribution during the rising limb and peak in discharge associated with the major November-December discharge maximum. Generally, POM appears to be sourced from soil-derived mineral-associated OM (low C:N, low Λ8, and higher (Ad:Al)v) but the relative proportion of fresh vascular plant material (higher C:N, higher Λ8, and lower (Ad:Al)v) increases with higher discharge. During the study period (September 2009 to November 2010) the Congo exported 29.21 Tg yr-1 of total suspended sediment (TSS), 1.96 Tg yr-1 of particulate organic carbon (POC), and 12.48 Tg yr-1 of dissolved organic carbon. The Congo exports an order of magnitude lower TSS load in comparison to other major riverine sources of TSS (e.g., Ganges and Brahmaputra), but due to its OM-rich character it actually exports a comparable amount of POC. The Congo is also 2.5 times more efficient at exporting dissolved lignin per unit volume compared to the Amazon. Including Congo dissolved lignin data in residence time calculations for lignin in the Atlantic Ocean results in an approximately 10% reduction from the existing estimate, suggesting that this material is more reactive than previously thought.

  17. Incidence of Intraventricular Hemorrhage and Post Hemorrhagic Hydrocephalus in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Sajjadian

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available "nGerminal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH is the most common variety of neonatal intracranial hemorrhage and is characteristics of the premature infant. The importance of the lesion relates not only to its high incidence but to their attendant complications (IC: hydrocephalus. Brain sonography is the procedure of choice in diagnosis of germinal matrix- intraventricular hemorrhage and hydrocephalus. In this study we have used brain sonography for detection of intraventricular hemorrhage and post hemorrhagic hydrocephalus and their incidences. The studied population was consisted of premature neonate (birth weight equal or less than 1500g and gestational age equal or less than 37 weeks who admitted in Mofid Hospital NICU (Tehran, Iran during a one year period. For all neonate (including criteria brain sonography in first week of life was done and in presence of IVH, serial Brain sonography was done weekly for detection of hydrocephalus. A total of 57 neonate entered the study. Intraventicular-germinal matrix hemorrhage was seen in 64.4% (35 patients. Forty percent of patients with intraventricular-germinal matrix hemorrhage had grade I, 11% grade II, 25.7% grade III, 2.8% grade VI. Hydrocephalus was detected in 20 percent of patients who had intraventricular-germinal matrix hemorrhage. That incidence of IVH in our study in comparison with other area and situation is higher. Hydrocephaly had direct relation with severity of IVH. This shows that with control of risk factor of IVH, we can control Post hemorrhagic hydrocephalus.

  18. Intraplate compressional deformation in West-Congo and the Congo basin: related to ridge-puch from the South Atlantic spreading ridge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delvaux, Damien; Everaerts, Michel; Kongota Isasi, Elvis; Ganza Bamulezi, Gloire

    2016-04-01

    After the break-up and separation of South America from Africa and the initiation of the South-Atlantic mid-oceanic ridge in the Albian, at about 120 Ma, ridge-push forces started to build-up in the oceanic lithosphere and were transmitted to the adjacent continental plates. This is particularly well expressed in the passive margin and continental interior of Central Africa. According to the relations of Wiens and Stein (1985) between ridge-push forces and basal drag in function of the lithospheric age of oceanic plates, the deviatoric stress reaches a compressional maximum between 50 and 100, Ma after the initiation of the spreading ridge, so broadly corresponding to the Paleocene in this case (~70-20 Ma). Earthquake focal mechanism data show that the West-Congo margin and a large part of the Congo basin are still currently under compressional stresses with an horizontal compression parallel to the direction of the active transform fracture zones. We studied the fracture network along the Congo River in Kinshasa and Brazzaville which affect Cambrian sandstones and probably also the late Cretaceous-Paleocene sediments. Their brittle tectonic evolution is compatible with the buildup of ridge-push forces related to the South-Atlantic opening. Further inland, low-angle reverse faults are found affecting Jurassic to Middle Cretaceous cores from the Samba borehole in the Congo basin and strike-slip movements are recorded as a second brittle phase in the Permian cores of the Dekese well, at the southern margin of the Congo basin. An analysis of the topography and river network of the Congo basin show the development of low-amplitude (50-100 m) long wavelengths (100-300 km) undulations that can be interpreted as lithospheric buckling in response to the compressional intraplate stress field generated by the Mid-Atlantic ridge-push. Wiens, D.A., Stein, S., 1985. Implications of oceanic intraplate seismicity for plate stresses, driving forces and theology. Tectonophysics

  19. Delayed Intracerebral Hemorrhage Secondary to Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Chen, Yi-Li; Yang, Shu-Xu; Wang, Yi-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt is a routine procedure for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion, and is associated with many complications. A delayed hemorrhage after the VP shunt surgery, however, is quite rare. In this study, we report a case involving late-onset hemorrhage. The 67-year-old male patient with a history of head trauma and brain surgery underwent a VP shunt placement for hydrocephalus. The surgery course was uneventful and no bleeding was revealed in the first computed tomographic (CT) scan after the procedure. However, a massive intraparenchymal and intraventricular hemorrhage occurred 8 h following adjustment of the valve system on the 8th day after surgery. Erosion of the vasculature by catheter cannulation and a sudden reduction of CSF pressure after downregulation of the valve could be one of the possible causes of the intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). PMID:26632700

  20. Factor XIII Deficiency and Intracranial Hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    1990-01-01

    A 38 month old boy with excessive bleeding following circumcision as a newborn and two episodes of intracranial hemorrhage at four months and at 85 months of age is reported from the Scott and White Clinic, Temple, TX.

  1. Aspirin-Induced Neonatal Intracranial Hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    1994-01-01

    A term newborn infant with intracranial hemorrhage associated with maternal acetylsalicylic acid ingestion before delivery is reported from the Departments of Pediatrics and Neurology, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA.

  2. [Hemorrhagic complications of anti-vitamin K].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hajje, A; Calop, N; Bosson, J L; Calop, J; Allenet, B

    2009-03-01

    Adverse events related to oral anticoagulants represent a major public health problem. Hemorrhagic episodes are the most frequent complications and can be life-threatening. A 10 month prospective survey on all cases treated with anti-vitamin K (AVK), and admitted to emergency room of CHU Grenoble, was conducted to identify the hemorrhagic adverse drug events (HADE). The evaluation support was a directive questionnaire and consisted of 3 parts: patient characteristics, patient's medicated treatment and the hemorrhagic event. 216 patients treated with AVK were identified and 68 of them presented a hemorrhagic adverse drug event. 60 patients older than 65 years out of 158, presented HADE (38%); versus 8 patients or = 5, 79% developed HADE versus 16% in the group who had their INR AVK were significant. Concerning missed dose, 48 patients declared taking the missed dose with the next dose or when they remembered: 35% of them developed HADE (p = 0.49).

  3. Splenic Involvement in Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu Takamatsu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 33-year-old man who presented with prolonged epigastric pain was referred to our hospital. He had experienced recurrent epistaxis and had a family history of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed splenomegaly and a 9 cm hypervascular mass in his spleen. Computed tomography also showed a pulmonary arteriovenous malformation and heterogeneous enhancement of the liver parenchyma, suggesting the presence of arteriosystemic shunts and telangiectases. Based on these findings, the patient was definitely diagnosed with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia according to Curaçao criteria. He underwent splenectomy, and his symptoms disappeared after surgery. Pathological examination of the resected specimen revealed that the hypervascular lesion of the spleen was not a tumor but was composed of abnormal vessels associated with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. Symptomatic splenic involvement may be a rare manifestation of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia but can be revealed by imaging modalities.

  4. Previously undiagnosed hemophilia patient with intracerebral hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eray Atalay

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial bleeding in hemophilia patients is a rare but a mortal complication. Diagnosis of hemophilia in adulthood is an uncommon occurrence. In this case report an adult patient with intracranial hemorrhage is presented.

  5. Current management of massive hemorrhage in trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Pär I; Stensballe, Jakob; Ostrowski, Sisse R

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Hemorrhage remains a major cause of potentially preventable deaths. Trauma and massive transfusion are associated with coagulopathy secondary to tissue injury, hypoperfusion, dilution, and consumption of clotting factors and platelets. Concepts of damage control surgery have evolved...

  6. ADSORPTION OF CONGO RED DYE ON HAZELNUT SHELLS AND DEGRADATION WITH Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo A. Carletto

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work concerns the experimental evaluation of hazelnut shells as a low cost natural biosorbent. Adsorption of the direct azo dye Congo Red was performed within a concentrations range of 50-5000 mg/L. Hazelnut shells were employed as organic support for Phanerochaete chrysosporium cultures to study the best cultural medium composition for the MnP production. The capability of Phanerochaete chrysosporium to take macronutrients as carbon and nitrogen from hazelnut shells was demonstrated. Cultures of Phanerochaete chrysosporium were carried out with hazelnut shells coming from Congo Red adsorption tests, showing that 43% of the adsorbed dye was degraded.

  7. [Sexual violence in Congo-Kinshasa: necessity of decriminalizing abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalonda, J C Omba

    2012-01-01

    The sexual violence's committed in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) are from their scales and consequences on women, real public health, politico-legal, and socio-economical challenges. More than a million of women have been victims of sexual violence on a period of less than fifteen years. Systematic rapes of women were used as war weapon by different groups involved in the Congolese war. Sexual violence against women has impacted public health by spreading sexually transmissible diseases including HIV/AIDS, causing unwanted pregnancies, leading to the gynaecological complications of rape-related injuries, and inflicting psychological trauma on the victims. Despite high level of unwanted pregnancies observed, the Congolese law is very restrictive and interdict induced abortion. This paper presents three arguments which plead in favour of legalizing abortion in DRC: 1) a restrictive law on abortion forces women to use unsafe abortion and increase incidence of injuries and maternal mortality ; 2) DRC has ratified the universal Declaration of human rights, the African union charter, and has than to promote equality between sexes, in this is included women reproductive rights; 3) an unwanted birth is an additional financial charge for a woman, a factor increasing poverty and psychologically unacceptable in case of rape. From the politico-legal point of view, ending rape impunity and decriminalizing abortion are recommended. Decriminalizing abortion give women choice and save victims and pregnant women from risks related to the pregnancy, a childbirth, or an eventual unsafe abortion. These risks increase the maternal mortality already high in DRC (between 950 and 3000 for 100000 live births).

  8. Pulmonary hemorrhage resulting from roller coaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ming; Tian, Qing; Shen, Hong

    2011-03-01

    Roller coasters are probably one of the more popular rides at amusement parks around the world, and there are few reported injuries. We report a case of symmetric diffuse upper lobe hemorrhage resulting from roller coaster in a previously healthy woman. The clinical course, management, and etiology of her case are discussed; and the literature is reviewed. To our knowledge, pulmonary hemorrhage in this setting has not yet been described.

  9. Argentine hemorrhagic fever: a primate model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissenbacher, M C; Calello, M A; Colillas, O J; Rondinone, S N; Frigerio, M J

    1979-01-01

    Experimental Junin virus infection of a New World primate, Callithrix jacchus, was evaluated. The virus produced anorexia, loss of weight, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, and hemorrhagic and neurological symptoms and terminated in death. Virus was recovered from urine, blood samples and all tissues taken at autopsy. These preliminary observations show that several aspects of the experimental disease in C. jacchus are quite similar to severe natural Argentine hemorrhagic fever of man.

  10. Spontaneous Splenic Hemorrhage in the Newborn

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous splenic hemorrhage in the newborn is a rare entity. The presentation is usually with a triad of bleeding, abdominal distension, and hemoperitoneum. Rapid diagnosis is essential as left untreated, death is inevitable. We present a case with an unusual initial presentation of a scrotal hematocele and ultrasonography suggesting an adrenal hemorrhage. At laparotomy, splenic preservation was unsuccessful, and therefore, splenectomy was performed. The child recovered well from the proce...

  11. Ultrasound diagnosis of adrenal hemorrhage in meningococcemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarnaik, A.P.; Sanfilippo, D.J.K.; Slovis, T.L.

    1988-07-01

    Adrenal hemorrhage (AH) is a well-described complication of the neonatal period, anticoagulant therapy, and overwhelming bacterial infection especially with N. meningitis. Until recently the diagnosis of acute AH was based predominantly on autopsy findings. Ultrasound and computed tomography examinations have been successfully used for antemortem detection of AH in neonates and anticoagulated patients. We report two patients with fulminant meningococcal infection who demonstrated bilateral adrenal hemorrhages on ultrasonography.

  12. Cataleptic postures in thalamic hemorrhage: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saposnik Gustavo

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of catalepsy associated with thalamic hemorrhage. A 72 year-old hypertensive woman had acute onset of right-sided weakness and speech disturbances. She was on anticoagulants because of aortic valve replacement. When postures were imposed, the patient maintained the left upper limb raised for several minutes, even in uncomfortable or bizarre positions. A CT scan of the head revealed a left thalamic hemorrhage. Cataleptic postures have been reported in few cases with acute stroke.

  13. Reperfusion hemorrhage following superior mesenteric artery stenting.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moore, Michael

    2012-02-03

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stent placement is now an established treatment option for chronic mesenteric ischemia and is associated with low mortality and morbidity rates. We present a case of reperfusion hemorrhage complicating endovascular repair of superior mesenteric artery stenosis. Although a recognized complication following repair of carotid stenosis, hemorrhage has not previously been reported following mesenteric endovascular reperfusion. We describe both spontaneous cessation of bleeding and treatment with coil embolization.

  14. Closed-Loop Resuscitation of Hemorrhagic Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-21

    of care arterial blood pressure. We collected data from hemorrhaged sheep experiments (funded by this ONR grant), and from a series of hemorrhaged...ongoing, and is the focus of engineering graduate student Ben Voigt. 9) We continued close collaborations with the Institute of Surgical Research on...finger), and pigs (tail). This provides the opportunity to perform testing in reproducible animal models. CareTaker will have to be tested in patients

  15. Isolated trochlear nerve palsy with midbrain hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Midbrain hemorrhage causing isolated fourth nerve palsy is extremely rare. Idiopathic, traumatic and congenital abnormalities are the most common causes of fourth nerve palsy. We report acute isolated fourth nerve palsy in an 18-year-old lady due to a midbrain hemorrhage probably due to a midbrain cavernoma. The case highlights the need for neuroimaging in selected cases of isolated trochlear nerve palsy.

  16. THE CRIMEAN PENINSULA IN THE FIRST QUARTER OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY AS AN INTEGRAL PART OF THE HISTORY OF THE RUSSIAN STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusup M. HUSEYNOV

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the history of the Crimean Peninsula in the first quarter of the nineteenth century. This period characterized as the time of the tsarist policy of the Crimea. This policy resulted in the aggravation of contradictions between the Crimean Tatar people with the settlers. Trying to resolve this negative circumstance, the tsarist administration has undertaken a series of reforms, which has somewhat mitigated this problem. This article also explains the rise in the economic development of the Peninsula in the first quarter of the XIX century, which was inextricably linked with the influence of Russian capital in the Crimea. Not neglected by the author remains the policy of Russia towards improving the infrastructure of the region. In 1826 was built the road from Simferopol to Alushta, in 1837, continued to Yalta, and in 1848 – to Sevastopol. In 1848, on the border of the southern coast of the Crimea and the Northern slope of the mountains built Baidar gate. 

  17. The most widespread glazed imports of Crimean production and some issues relating to East European trade in the 14th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei G. Bocharov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The authors examine morphological and technological features and distribution of the four most massive types of glazed closed vessels produced in towns of south-eastern Crimea (Solkhat, Kaffa, Sudak. Starting from the late 13th – early 14th centuries, the Crimean producers of glazed ceramics had reached a far better development compared to other ceramic centers of the Golden Horde. For almost 50–70 years the Crimean glazed ceramics had dominated the whole territory of Eastern Europe. The most common finds are pharmaceutical amphorae, albarello and two types of jars – the stamped jars and the wine jars with a narrow long body. The authors illustrated informational capacities of the analysis of massive finds, which is a good tool to obtain some new historical information, particularly, to study European trade in the best years of the Golden Horde towns. They showed how studying archaeological stuff can substantially complement the written accounts about the trade crisis after the events in Azak (Tana in September 1343.

  18. Impaired Fracture Healing after Hemorrhagic Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Lichte

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Impaired fracture healing can occur in severely injured patients with hemorrhagic shock due to decreased soft tissue perfusion after trauma. We investigated the effects of fracture healing in a standardized pressure controlled hemorrhagic shock model in mice, to test the hypothesis that bleeding is relevant in the bone healing response. Male C57/BL6 mice were subjected to a closed femoral shaft fracture stabilized by intramedullary nailing. One group was additionally subjected to pressure controlled hemorrhagic shock (HS, mean arterial pressure (MAP of 35 mmHg for 90 minutes. Serum cytokines (IL-6, KC, MCP-1, and TNF-α were analyzed 6 hours after shock. Fracture healing was assessed 21 days after fracture. Hemorrhagic shock is associated with a significant increase in serum inflammatory cytokines in the early phase. Histologic analysis demonstrated a significantly decreased number of osteoclasts, a decrease in bone quality, and more cartilage islands after hemorrhagic shock. μCT analysis showed a trend towards decreased bone tissue mineral density in the HS group. Mechanical testing revealed no difference in tensile failure. Our results suggest a delay in fracture healing after hemorrhagic shock. This may be due to significantly diminished osteoclast recruitment. The exact mechanisms should be studied further, particularly during earlier stages of fracture healing.

  19. Occult hemorrhage in children with severe ITP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Adolfo; Buchanan, George R

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about the frequency and significance of clinically unapparent or occult hemorrhage in ITP. Therefore, we prospectively explored the sites and frequency of occult bleeding in children with severe ITP at diagnosis or upon symptomatic relapse in a prospective, single-institution cohort study of patients ≤ 18 years of age and a platelet count ≤ 10,000/mm(3) . Data collected included bleeding severity assessment, urinalysis, fecal occult blood testing, and non-contrast brain MRI. Stool and urine samples were tested within 7 days of diagnosis or symptomatic relapse. Three months after diagnosis or relapse a noncontrast brain MRI evaluated hemosiderin deposits resulting from prior localized hemorrhage. Fifty-two ITP patients were enrolled with a mean platelet count of 4,000/mm(3) . A significant occurrence of occult hemorrhage was identified in the urine (27%) compared with clinically overt hematuria (0.91%, P occult bleeding in the urinary tract. There was no relationship between occult hemorrhage and bleeding manifestations on physical examination. Occult hemorrhage was not a harbinger of subsequent bleeding. Our findings suggest that occult hemorrhage occurs with greater frequency than overt bleeding in children with severe ITP. CNS microbleeding is a potential risk in this patient population. Assessment of brain microbleeds and microscopic hematuria in this patient population require additional study.

  20. Hemorrhagic aspects of Gaucher disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Hanna

    2014-10-01

    Gaucher disease (GD) is an inherited lysosomal disorder, originating from deficient activity of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GCase). Normally, GCase hydrolyzes glucocerebroside (GC) to glucose and ceramide; however, impaired activity of this enzyme leads to the accumulation of GC in macrophages, termed "Gaucher cells." Gaucher disease is associated with hepatosplenomegaly, cytopenias, skeletal complications and in some forms involves the central nervous system. Coagulation abnormalities are common among GD patients due to impaired production and chronic consumption of coagulation factors. Bleeding phenomena are variable (as are other symptoms of GD) and include mucosal and surgical hemorrhages. FOUR MAIN ETIOLOGICAL FACTORS ACCOUNT FOR THE HEMOSTATIC DEFECT IN GD: thrombocytopenia, abnormal platelet function, reduced production of coagulation factors, and activation of fibrinolysis. Thrombocytopenia relates not only to hypersplenism and decreased megakaryopoiesis by the infiltrated bone marrow but also to immune thrombocytopenia. Autoimmunity, especially the induction of platelet antibody production, might cause persistent thrombocytopenia. Enzyme replacement therapy reverses only part of the impaired coagulation system in Gaucher disease. Other therapeutic and supportive measures should be considered to prevent and/or treat bleeding in GD. Gaucher patients should be evaluated routinely for coagulation abnormalities especially prior to surgery and dental and obstetric procedures.

  1. Tamoxifen treatment for intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qing; Guan, Jian; Wu, Gang; Xi, Guohua; Keep, Richard F; Hua, Ya

    2011-01-01

    Tamoxifen is a selective estrogen receptor modulator. In this study we investigated whether or not tamoxifen reduces intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced brain injury in rats. In all experiments, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats received an injection of 100 μL autologous whole blood into the right basal ganglia. In the first set of experiments, rats were treated with tamoxifen (2.5 mg/kg or 5 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle 2 and 24 h after ICH and were killed at day 3 for brain edema measurement. In the second set of experiments, rats were treated with tamoxifen (5 mg/kg) or vehicle and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and behavior tests were performed at days 1, 7, 14 and 28. Rats were killed at day 28 for brain histology. We found that tamoxifen at 5 but not at 2.5 mg/kg reduced perihematomal brain edema at day 3 (ptamoxifen reduced caudate atrophy at day 28 (pTamoxifen also improved functional outcome (ptamoxifen-treated rats. However, two out of five rats treated with tamoxifen developed hydrocephalus. These results suggest that tamoxifen has neuroprotective effects in ICH, but the cause of hydrocephalus development following tamoxifen treatment needs to be examined further.

  2. Hemorrhagic Aspects of Gaucher Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Rsenbaum

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gaucher disease (GD is an inherited lysosomal disorder, originating from deficient activity of the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GCase. Normally, GCase hydrolyzes glucocerebroside (GC to glucose and ceramide; however, impaired activity of this enzyme leads to the accumulation of GC in macrophages, termed “Gaucher cells.” Gaucher disease is associated with hepatosplenomegaly, cytopenias, skeletal complications and in some forms involves the central nervous system. Coagulation abnormalities are common among GD patients due to impaired production and chronic consumption of coagulation factors. Bleeding phenomena are variable (as are other symptoms of GD and include mucosal and surgical hemorrhages. Four main etiological factors account for the hemostatic defect in GD: thrombocytopenia, abnormal platelet function, reduced production of coagulation factors, and activation of fibrinolysis. Thrombocytopenia relates not only to hypersplenism and decreased megakaryopoiesis by the infiltrated bone marrow but also to immune thrombocytopenia. Autoimmunity, especially the induction of platelet antibody production, might cause persistent thrombocytopenia. Enzyme replacement therapy reverses only part of the impaired coagulation system in Gaucher disease. Other therapeutic and supportive measures should be considered to prevent and/or treat bleeding in GD. Gaucher patients should be evaluated routinely for coagulation abnormalities especially prior to surgery and dental and obstetric procedures.

  3. Spinal syringomyelia following subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Kinya; Uchiyama, Takuya; Nakano, Naoki; Fukawa, Norihito; Yamada, Kimito; Yabuuchi, Tomonari; Kato, Amami

    2012-04-01

    Subarachnoid blood has been reported as a cause of chronic spinal arachnoiditis. Although syringomyelia has been thought to be caused by spinal arachnoiditis, reports of syringomyelia following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are very rare. We describe two patients with syringomyelia associated with chronic spinal arachnoiditis following SAH. From January 2001 to December 2010, 198 patients with aneurysmal SAH were treated at Kinki University School of Medicine. Two of the 198 patients had syringomyelia following aneurysmal SAH; thus the rate of syringomyelia associated with aneurysmal SAH was 1.0%. Patient 1 was a 54-year-old woman who presented with back pain, back numbness and gait disturbance 20 months after SAH. Her MRI revealed syringomyelia of the spinal cord from C2 to T10. She underwent shunting of the syrinx to the subarachnoid space. Patient 2 was a 49-year-old man, who was admitted to the hospital with headache, diplopia, hoarseness, dysphagia and ataxia five months after SAH. MRI revealed syringomyelia from the medulla oblongata to C6, and an enlargement of the lateral and fourth ventricles. After foramen magnum decompression and C1 laminectomy, a fourth ventricle-subarachnoid shunt was placed by insertion of a catheter. Spinal arachnoiditis and spinal syringomyelia are rare but important chronic complications after SAH.

  4. Undiagnosed Acute Viral Febrile Illnesses, Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    yellow fever , Rift Valley fever , chikungunya, Ebola, and Marburg viruses but not to Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic...Lassa fever . We tested for IgM to dengue virus (DENV), West Nile vi- rus (WNV), yellow fever virus (YFV), Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), chikungunya...total (%) Dengue 11/253 (4.3) 6/250 (2.4) West Nile 7/253 (2.8) 3/250 (1.2) Yellow fever 5/201 (2.5) 5/201 (2.5) Rift Valley fever 5/253 (2.0)

  5. [Ixodid ticks in the mountainous part of the Crimea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markeshin, S Ia; Evstaf'ev, I L; Kovin, V V; Evstratov, Iu V

    1992-01-01

    About a hundred of patients with tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) were recorded over the latest decade in the Crimea, and 60 TBE virus strains were isolated from the ticks collected on the peninsula. The results of studies carried out in 1986-1990 helped define the borders of 4 local natural foci of TBE, study their acarifauna, detect the principal TBE vector--Ixodes ricinus (with a mean virophority of 0.6%), and distinguish two foci with a combination of TBE and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever.

  6. Synthesis of Nucleoside Mono- and Dialdehydes as Antiviral Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-15

    Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever VSV Vesicular Stomatitis Virus AD2 Adenovirus Type 2 VV Vaccinia FeLV Feline Leukemia Virus HIV Human Immunodeficiency...8217-unsaturaited adenosin*-2’,3’-diLsdehyde ahowed excellent activity against vesicular stomatitis virus. 20. DISTRIBUTION /AVAILABILITY OF ABSTRACT 21... stomatitis virus. F’; Accession oro NTIS GFL&lDTIC TAM .t ,i bt On. - i t--tributton/ Av~tlmbility CoJ03 P, ... ,Avmil nrl/or . . i u1st ý ps~lal "’" PL

  7. Evaluation of sugar-cane bagasse as bioadsorbent in the textile wastewater treatment contaminated with carcinogenic congo red dye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Sartório Raymundo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A methodology involving sugar cane bagasse bioadsorbent was developed in order to remove the carcinogenic congo red dye from aqueous medium. The results showed high efficiency with retention of 64 ± 6% in synthetic congo red solution and 94 ± 5% in effluent enriched with congo red, at 10.0 g of the bioadsorbent. The adsorption system provided a maximum adsorption capacity of 4.43 mg/g. Tests showed independence adsorption properties, when compared with the column flow rates. The treatment units could be operated with flexibility. From the results, it was possible to conclude that sugar cane bagasse could be an adequate bioadsorbent.Neste trabalho foi desenvolvida uma metodologia de remoção do corante carcinogênico congo red de sistemas aquosos. Os resultados mostraram uma elevada eficiência de remoção sendo de 64 ± 6% para soluções sintéticas de vermelho congo, e 94 ± 5% para efluente industrial enriquecido com vermelho congo utilizando 10 g de bioadsorvente. A capacidade máxima adsotiva encontrada foi de 4,43 mg/g. Os testes de percolação revelaram independência das porcentagens adsortivas em relação às vazões das colunas. Estes resultados indicam viabilidade de uso do bagaço de cana-de-açucar no tratamento de efluentes contendo o congo red.

  8. 75 FR 13672 - Implementation of Both the Understandings Reached at the 2009 Australia Group (AG) Plenary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-23

    ..., as follows: a.1. Chikungunya virus; a.2. Congo-Crimean haemorrhagic fever virus (a.k.a. Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus); a.3. Dengue fever virus; a.4. Eastern equine encephalitis virus; a.5. Ebola virus; a.6. Hantaan virus; a.7. Junin virus; a.8. Lassa fever virus; a.9. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis...

  9. A Case of Sudden Deafness with Intralabyrinthine Hemorrhage Intralabyrinthine Hemorrhage and Sudden Deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong Jin; Jeong, Se Won; Lee, Jae Wook; Han, Su-Jin

    2015-12-01

    Sudden hearing deterioration may occur in our population, but it is difficult to explain the exact pathophysiology and the cause. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is usually useful to evaluate neural lesions such as acoustic schwannoma and hemorrhage in labyrinth. Recently some cases of SSNHL caused by intralabyrintine hemorrhage were reported by the advance of MRI. In the case of intralabyrintine hemorrhage, MRI showed a hyperintense signal in the labyrinth on the pre-contrast and contrast enhanced T1-weighted image and relatively weak intensity on T2-weighted image. The prognosis SSNHL by intralabyrintine hemorrhage is generally known to be poor. We report a case of sudden deafness with intralabyrintine hemorrhage who has a history of anticoagulant administration, with a review of literature.

  10. Supernova hemorrhage: obliterative hemorrhage of brain arteriovenous malformations following γ knife radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Matthew D; Hetts, Steven W; Young, William L; Halbach, Van V; Dowd, Christopher F; Higashida, Randall T; English, Joey D

    2012-09-01

    Hemorrhage represents the most feared complication of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) in both untreated patients and those treated with gamma knife radiosurgery. Radiosurgery does not immediately lead to obliteration of the malformation, which often does not occur until years following treatment. Post-obliteration hemorrhage is rare, occurring months to years after radiosurgery, and has been associated with residual or recurrent AVM despite prior apparent nidus elimination. Three cases are reported of delayed intracranial hemorrhage in patients with cerebral AVMs treated with radiosurgery in which no residual AVM was found on catheter angiography at the time of delayed post-treatment hemorrhage. That the pathophysiology of these hemorrhages involves progressive venous outflow occlusion is speculated and the possible mechanistic link to subsequent vascular rupture is discussed.

  11. Colonial Exploitation and Economic Development: The Belgian Congo and the Netherlands Indies Compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frankema, E.H.P.; Buelens, F.

    2013-01-01

    This volume discusses the comparative legacy of colonial rule in the Netherlands Indies and Belgian Congo during the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Whereas the Indonesian economy progressed rapidly during the last three decades of the twentieth century and became a self-reliant and assertive

  12. An outbreak of West Nile fever among migrants in Kisangani, Democratic Republic of Congo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.A. Nur; J. Groen (Jan); H. Heuvelmans; W. Tuynman; C. Copra (Cederick); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractIn February 1998, an outbreak of acute febrile illness was reported from the Kapalata military camp in Kisangani, the Democratic Republic of Congo. The illness was characterized by an acute onset of fever associated with severe headache, arthralgia, backache, neurologic

  13. An outbreak of West Nile fever among migrants in Kisangani, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Y.A. Nur; J. Groen (Jan); H. Heuvelmans; W. Tuynman; C. Copra (Cederick); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractIn February 1998, an outbreak of acute febrile illness was reported from the Kapalata military camp in Kisangani, the Democratic Republic of Congo. The illness was characterized by an acute onset of fever associated with severe headache, arthralgia, backache, neurologic signs, abdominal

  14. Institutional aspects of artisanal mining in forest landscapes, western Congo Basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schure, J.; Ingram, V.; Tieguhong, J.C.; Ndikumagenge, C.; Runge, J.; Shikwati, J.

    2011-01-01

    This contribution examines the multiple impacts of artisanal mining in the high-biodiversity forest of the Congo Basin’s Sangha Tri-National Landscape (TNS), and proposes measures for improving livelihoods in the area. It was concluded from a literature review, interviews and site visits that: diamo

  15. A model to predict when a cholera outbreak might hit the Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2014-09-01

    In 2011, as many as 600,000 people in 58 countries contracted cholera, with thousands succumbing to the disease. In most countries, cholera is rare. In others, like the Democratic Republic of the Congo, cholera is an endemic threat, always lurking in the background waiting for the right set of conditions to spark an outbreak.

  16. Phytochemical analysis and biological evaluation of selected African propolis samples from Cameroon and Congo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papachroni, D.; Graikou, K.; Kosalec, I.; Damianakos, H.; Ingram, V.J.; Chinou, I.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was the chemical analysis of four selected samples of African propolis (Congo and Cameroon) and their biological evaluation. Twenty-one secondary metabolites belonging to four different chemical groups were isolated from the 70% ethanolic extracts of propolis and their st

  17. African Swine Fever Virus p72 Genotype IX in Domestic Pigs, Congo, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchuelo, Raquel; Pelayo, Virginia; Poudevigne, Frédéric; Leon, Tati; Nzoussi, Jacques; Bishop, Richard; Pérez, Covadonga; Soler, Alejandro; Nieto, Raquel; Martín, Hilario; Arias, Marisa

    2011-01-01

    African swine fever virus p72 genotype IX, associated with outbreaks in eastern Africa, is cocirculating in the Republic of the Congo with West African genotype I. Data suggest that viruses from eastern Africa are moving into western Africa, increasing the threat of outbreaks caused by novel viruses in this region. PMID:21801650

  18. Ethnicity, Education, and Fertility Transition in Kinshasa, Congo. Working Paper 2-97-1. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, David; Tambashe, B. Oleko

    Substantial ethnic differences in fertility were documented in the Congo in the mid-1950s. These differences, apparent as well among women residing in Kinshasa, the capital, were linked to variations across ethnic groups in the incidence of venereal diseases and sterility. By the mid-1970s ethnic differences in fertility had diminished but were…

  19. Antimicrobial Drug Resistance of Vibrio cholerae, Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwanda, Berthe; Moore, Sandra; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Kabangwa, Ickel Kakongo; Ndjakani, Daniel Yassa; Mutreja, Ankur; Thomson, Nicholas; Thefenne, Helene; Garnotel, Eric; Tshapenda, Gaston; Kakongo, Denis Kandolo; Kalambayi, Guy; Piarroux, Renaud

    2015-05-01

    We analyzed 1,093 Vibrio cholerae isolates from the Democratic Republic of the Congo during 1997-2012 and found increasing antimicrobial drug resistance over time. Our study also demonstrated that the 2011-2012 epidemic was caused by an El Tor variant clonal complex with a single antimicrobial drug susceptibility profile.

  20. The context and dynamics of the war in Congo-Kinshasa since ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Much of the weakness of the state structures to implement policies was related to ... features of the rule of Mobutu included no clear distinction between public and private .... However, Western countries, the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund began .... Kabila as the new ruler of Congo-Kinshasa in May 1997.

  1. Discoloration of Congo Red by Rod-Plate Dielectric Barrier Discharge Processes at Atmospheric Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haixia; Fang, Zhi; Zhou, Tong; Lu, Chen; Xu, Yanhua

    2016-05-01

    A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor with a rod-plate electrode configuration was used for the oxidative decomposition of Congo red dye in an aqueous solution. Plasma was generated in the gas space above the water interface under atmospheric pressure. Discharge characteristics were analyzed by voltage-current waveforms. Effects of applied voltage, initial conductivity, and initial concentration were also analyzed. Congo red discoloration increased with increased applied voltage and decreased conductivity. The initial conductivity significantly influenced the Congo red discoloration. Under the same conditions, the highest discoloration rate was obtained at 25 mg/L. The presence of ferrous ions in the solutions had a substantial positive effect on Fenton dye degradation and flocculation. At an applied voltage of 20 kV, about 100% of dye was degraded after 4 min of Fe2+/DBD treatment. Results showed that adding a certain dosage of hydrogen peroxide to the wastewater could enhance the discoloration rate. Possible pathways of Congo red discoloration by DBD plasma were proposed based on GC/MS, FTIR, and UV-vis spectroscopy analyses. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51377075), the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province of China (Nos. BK20131412, BK20150951)

  2. Discoloration of Congo Red by Rod-Plate Dielectric Barrier Discharge Processes at Atmospheric Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Haixia; FANG Zhi; ZHOU Tong; LU Chen; XU Yanhua

    2016-01-01

    A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor with a rod-plate electrode configuration was used for the oxidative decomposition of Congo red dye in an aqueous solution.Plasma was generated in the gas space above the water interface under atmospheric pressure.Discharge characteristics were analyzed by voltage-current waveforms.Effects of applied voltage,initial conductivity,and initial concentration were also analyzed.Congo red discoloration increased with increased applied voltage and decreased conductivity.The initial conductivity significantly influenced the Congo red discoloration.Under the same conditions,the highest discoloration rate was obtained at 25 mg/L.The presence of ferrous ions in the solutions had a substantial positive effect on Fenton dye degradation and flocculation.At an applied voltage of 20 kV,about 100%of dye was degraded after 4 min of Fe2+/DBD treatment.Results showed that adding a certain dosage of hydrogen peroxide to the wastewater could enhance the discoloration rate.Possible pathways of Congo red discoloration by DBD plasma were proposed based on GC/MS,FTIR,and UV-vis spectroscopy analyses.

  3. Fatness and muscularity as risk indicators of child mortality in rural Congo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van den Broeck; R. Eeckels; A.C.S. Hokken-Koelega (Anita)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship of anthropometrical indicators of fatness and muscularity with mortality in children in a rural African community. BACKGROUND: A prospective cohort study was carried out in the rural health zone of Bwamanda, Northern Congo using a

  4. Democratic Republic of Congo Reforming the Public Service Wage System : Background Paper

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    The civil service management model in the Demorcatic Republic of Congo (DRC) still conforms to the old institutional order. The legislation governing employment in the public sector is unchanged and still responds to centralized administration. The public administration categorizes public employees in two main groups: civil servants and local public employees. Civil servants are governed b...

  5. "New Education" for the Congo? The Indigenist Approach, New Education and Prescriptive Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depaepe, Marc; Simon, Frank; Vinck, Honoré

    2015-01-01

    This article responds to a question put forward approximately a decade ago by the history of education research group at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven: Did the child-centred ideas of New Education, as promoted by Ovide Decroly, influence the education policy in the former Belgian colony of Congo? Naturally, ideas were circulating that could…

  6. Mapping monkeypox transmission risk through time and space in the Congo Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Yoshinori J.; Lash, R. Ryan; Carroll, Darin S.; Damon, Inger K.; Karem, Kevin L.; Reynolds, Mary G.; Osorio, Jorge E.; Rocke, Tonie E.; Malekani, Jean; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Formenty, Pierre; Peterson, A. Townsend

    2013-01-01

    Monkeypox is a major public health concern in the Congo Basin area, with changing patterns of human case occurrences reported in recent years. Whether this trend results from better surveillance and detection methods, reduced proportions of vaccinated vs. non-vaccinated human populations, or changing environmental conditions remains unclear. Our objective is to examine potential correlations between environment and transmission of monkeypox events in the Congo Basin. We created ecological niche models based on human cases reported in the Congo Basin by the World Health Organization at the end of the smallpox eradication campaign, in relation to remotely-sensed Normalized Difference Vegetation Index datasets from the same time period. These models predicted independent spatial subsets of monkeypox occurrences with high confidence; models were then projected onto parallel environmental datasets for the 2000s to create present-day monkeypox suitability maps. Recent trends in human monkeypox infection are associated with broad environmental changes across the Congo Basin. Our results demonstrate that ecological niche models provide useful tools for identification of areas suitable for transmission, even for poorly-known diseases like monkeypox.

  7. African Swine Fever Virus p72 Genotype IX in Domestic Pigs, Congo, 2009

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    African swine fever virus p72 genotype IX, associated with outbreaks in eastern Africa, is cocirculating in the Republic of the Congo with West African genotype I. Data suggest that viruses from eastern Africa are moving into western Africa, increasing the threat of outbreaks caused by novel viruses in this region.

  8. African swine fever virus p72 genotype IX in domestic pigs, Congo, 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Carmina; Anchuelo, Raquel; Pelayo, Virginia; Poudevigne, Frédéric; Leon, Tati; Nzoussi, Jacques; Bishop, Richard; Pérez, Covadonga; Soler, Alejandro; Nieto, Raquel; Martín, Hilario; Arias, Marisa

    2011-08-01

    African swine fever virus p72 genotype IX, associated with outbreaks in eastern Africa, is cocirculating in the Republic of the Congo with West African genotype I. Data suggest that viruses from eastern Africa are moving into western Africa, increasing the threat of outbreaks caused by novel viruses in this region.

  9. Scorpion envenomation in pygmies from Democratic Republic of Congo, the example of Pelenge Center, Lomela, DRC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Biezakala Mudiandambu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In a survey among the pygmies of central Democratic Republic of Congo, the incidence of scorpion stings seemed very high with a severity greater than expected. Species responsible were not identified. Specific studies are needed to clarify the risk emerging in the equatorial African forest.

  10. Phytochemical analysis and biological evaluation of selected African propolis samples from Cameroon and Congo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papachroni, D.; Graikou, K.; Kosalec, I.; Damianakos, H.; Ingram, V.J.; Chinou, I.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was the chemical analysis of four selected samples of African propolis (Congo and Cameroon) and their biological evaluation. Twenty-one secondary metabolites belonging to four different chemical groups were isolated from the 70% ethanolic extracts of propolis and their

  11. Outgassing from the Congo River Basin: a Major Source of Atmospheric CH4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, M. E.; Mann, P. J.; Dinga, B.; Poulsen, J.; Barnes, J.; Fiske, G.; Upstill-Goddard, R. C.; Holmes, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    Methane (CH4) is a major greenhouse gas and although its production by human activities now exceeds that by natural sources, the single largest source in the global CH4 budget is natural production in wetlands. Recent studies have highlighted the potential importance of tropical regions as a significant source of tropospheric CH4 although large uncertainties remain. A major part of the uncertainty is that many important source regions remain at best only poorly investigated. One such region is the Congo River basin. Although recent satellite-derived measurements have highlighted the potentially large contribution of the Congo basin (25.7 ± 1.7 Tg CH4 y-1) to overall wetland emissions, political instability and limited infrastructure have severely inhibited in situ sampling of this region. Here we report surface water measurements of dissolved methane from a range of streams and rivers throughout a ˜ 260,600 km2 quadrant of the low-gradient central Congo basin collected in November 2010 and August 2011. We estimated regional CH4 emissions by partitioning the basin into distinct landcover types using satellite-derived estimates of seasonal water coverage and land-cover type. Scaling-up these estimates, we demonstrate that the Congo River basin, and in particular its wetland regions, are a globally significant atmospheric source of CH4. These wetland regions are now under threat from deforestation and degradation, highlighting the critical need for improved regional CH4 budgets to inform future policy decisions within the region.

  12. Há uma luz no coração das trevas? Guerra e paz no Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Döpcke

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A partir de uma análise do livro “Coração das Trevas”, de Joseph Conrad, o presente artigo busca delinear as principais características da calamitosa situação vivida pela República do Congo.

  13. Salmonella typhi in the democratic republic of the congo: fluoroquinolone decreased susceptibility on the rise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Octavie Lunguya

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Drug resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (Salmonella Typhi to first-line antibiotics is emerging in Central Africa. Although increased use of fluoroquinolones is associated with spread of resistance, Salmonella Typhi with decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility (DCS has rarely been reported in Central Africa. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: As part of a microbiological surveillance study in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DR Congo, Salmonella Typhi isolates from bloodstream infections were collected prospectively between 2007 and 2011. The genetic relationship of the Salmonella Typhi isolates was assessed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. The antimicrobial resistance profile of the isolates was determined and mutations associated with DCS were studied. In total, 201 Salmonella Typhi isolates were collected. More than half of the Salmonella Typhi isolates originated from children and young adults aged 5-19. Thirty different PFGE profiles were identified, with 72% of the isolates showing a single profile. Multidrug resistance, DCS and azithromycin resistance were 30.3%, 15.4% and 1.0%, respectively. DCS was associated with point mutations in the gyrA gene at codons 83 and 87. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study describes the first report of widespread multidrug resistance and DCS among Salmonella Typhi isolates from DR Congo. Our findings highlight the need for increased microbiological diagnosis and surveillance in DR Congo, being a prerequisite for rational use of antimicrobials and the development of standard treatment guidelines.

  14. Phytochemical analysis and biological evaluation of selected African propolis samples from Cameroon and Congo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papachroni, D.; Graikou, K.; Kosalec, I.; Damianakos, H.; Ingram, V.J.; Chinou, I.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was the chemical analysis of four selected samples of African propolis (Congo and Cameroon) and their biological evaluation. Twenty-one secondary metabolites belonging to four different chemical groups were isolated from the 70% ethanolic extracts of propolis and their st

  15. Managing Water Resource Challenges in the Congo River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloysius, N. R.

    2015-12-01

    Water resources in the tropical regions are under pressure from human appropriation and climate change. Current understanding of interactions between hydrology and climate in the tropical regions is inadequate. This is particularly true for the Congo River Basin (CRB), which also lacks hydroclimate data. Global climate models (GCM) show limited skills in simulating CRB's climate, and their future projections vary widely. Yet, GCMs provide the most credible scenarios of future climate, based upon which changes in water resources can be predicted with coupled hydrological models. The objectives of my work are to i) elucidate the spatial and temporal variability of water resources by developing a spatially explicit hydrological model suitable for describing key processes and fluxes, ii) evaluate the performance of GCMs in simulating precipitation and temperature and iii) develop a set of climate change scenarios for the basin. In addition, I also quantify the risks and reliabilities in smallholder rain-fed agriculture and demonstrates how available water resources can be utilized to increase crop yields. Key processes and fluxes of CRB's hydrological cycle are amply characterized by the hydrology model. Climate change projections are evaluated using a multi-model ensemble approach under different greenhouse gas emission scenarios. The near-term projections of climate and hydrological fluxes are not affected by emission scenarios. However, towards the mid-21st century, projections are emission scenario dependent. Available freshwater resources are projected to increase in the CRB, except in the semiarid southeast. These increases present new opportunities and challenges for augmenting human appropriation of water resources. By evaluating agricultural water requirements, and timing and availability of precipitation, I challenge the conventional wisdom that low agriculture productivities in the CRB are primarily attributable to nutrient limitation. Results show that

  16. MR detection of retinal hemorrhages: correlation with graded ophthalmologic exam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beavers, Angela J.; Allbery, Sandra M. [University of Nebraska Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Omaha, NE (United States); Children' s Hospital and Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Omaha, NE (United States); Stagner, Anna M.; Hejkal, Thomas W. [University of Nebraska Medical Center, Department of Ophthalmology, Omaha, NE (United States); Children' s Hospital and Medical Center, Department of Ophthalmology, Omaha, NE (United States); Lyden, Elizabeth R. [University of Nebraska Medical Center, College of Public Health, Omaha, NE (United States); Haney, Suzanne B. [Children' s Hospital and Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Omaha, NE (United States); University of Nebraska Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Omaha, NE (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Dilated fundoscopic exam is considered the gold standard for detecting retinal hemorrhage, but expertise in obtaining this exam is not always immediately available. MRI can detect retinal hemorrhages, but correlation of the grade or severity of retinal hemorrhage on dilated fundoscopic exam with retinal hemorrhage visibility on MRI has not been described. To determine the value of standard brain protocol MRI in detecting retinal hemorrhage and to determine whether there is any correlation with MR detection of retinal hemorrhage and the dilated fundoscopic exam grade of hemorrhage. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 77 children <2 years old who were seen for head trauma from April 2007 to July 2013 and had both brain MRI and dilated fundoscopic exam or retinal camera images. A staff pediatric radiologist and radiology resident reviewed the MR images. Retinal hemorrhages were graded by a chief ophthalmology resident on a 12-point scale based on the retinal hemorrhage type, size, location and extent as seen on review of retinal camera images and detailed reports by ophthalmologists. Higher scores indicated increased severity of retinal hemorrhages. There was a statistically significant difference in the median grade of retinal hemorrhage examination between children who had retinal hemorrhage detected on MRI and children who did not have retinal hemorrhage detected on MRI (P = 0.02). When examination grade was categorized as low-grade (1-4), moderate-grade (5-8) or high-grade (>8) hemorrhage, there was a statistically significant association between exam grade and diagnosis based on MRI (P = 0.008). For example, only 14% of children with low-grade retinal hemorrhages were identified on MRI compared to 76% of children with high-grade hemorrhages. MR detection of retinal hemorrhage demonstrated a sensitivity of 61%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 63%. Retinal hemorrhage was best seen on the gradient

  17. Evaluation of sugar-cane bagasse as bioadsorbent in the textile wastewater treatment contaminated with carcinogenic congo red dye

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Sartório Raymundo; Romina Zanarotto; Marciela Belisário; Madson de Godoi Pereira; Joselito Nardy Ribeiro; Araceli Verónica Flores Nardy Ribeiro

    2010-01-01

    A methodology involving sugar cane bagasse bioadsorbent was developed in order to remove the carcinogenic congo red dye from aqueous medium. The results showed high efficiency with retention of 64 ± 6% in synthetic congo red solution and 94 ± 5% in effluent enriched with congo red, at 10.0 g of the bioadsorbent. The adsorption system provided a maximum adsorption capacity of 4.43 mg/g. Tests showed independence adsorption properties, when compared with the column flow rates. The treatment uni...

  18. The Congo Trap: MONUSCO Islands of Stability in the Sea of Instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Barrera

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available 2014 was a hopeful year for the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC. The M23 movement had been defeated in military operations in which one of the last peacekeeping experiments, the UN Force Intervention Brigade, had played a decisive role. A third UN stabilization plan, the ‘islands of stability’ was proposed to continue the stabilization of a country considered in a post-conflict phase. However, the number of internally displaced persons (IDPs has almost tripled in the country since 2007. This article will argue that DRC is still immersed into an old social conflict that existed before the Congo Wars and the roots of which are not being addressed. It will argue that the United Nations Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO and the ‘islands of stability’ strategy can address some of the secondary causes of the Congo conflict, such as its internationalization, the presence in DRC of foreign armed groups or the ‘blood minerals’, but cannot address its primary causes: land struggles, an old cycle of violence and the fragmentation of the Congolese society and political elite that is jeopardizing the restoration of the state authority. The huge dimensions of each of these factors make the Congo conflict ‘one of the most complex and intricate environments ever faced by a peacekeeping mission’, for which MONUSCO’s mandate, resources and stabilization strategy do not seem powerful enough. When the UN organized the 2006 elections legitimized a ‘spoiler state’, the bottleneck of all the reforms needed to stabilize the country. The UN fell thus into a trap and became part of the conflict. Lessons learned should be taken for future UN operations.

  19. Computed tomography and intracranial hemorrhages in the neonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Iekado; Kushida, Yoshimasa; Shishido, Masaru; Nagasawa, Sadatsugu; Seiki, Yoshikatsu (Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1983-02-01

    Thirty-two of 290 neonates admitted to the Perinatal Intensive Care Unit, Toho University Medical School, were examined by CT scan because of tentative clinical diagnosis of intracranial hemorrhage. CT scanner employed in this study was TCT-60 A from the Toshiba The Electric Co., Ltd. Fourteen cases (44%) were confirmed by the CT scan to have intracranial hemorrhage. Four cases had hemorrhage in the ventricle, while the remaining ten cases had subarachnoid hemorrhage. Subdural hemorrhage was not revealed in our series. Three of the four cases with intraventricular hemorrhage showed a typical subependymal germinal matrix hemorrhage. The prognosis of intraventricular hemorrhage in neonates seemed to be poor; two of the four cases died within a week. Their body weight at birth was apparently under the standard, and their Apgar score was 3 points. The subarachnoid hemorrhage was the main type of intracranial neonatal hemorrhages. In our series, it was constituted approximately 70% of the intracranial hemorrhages. The CT images of the subarachnoid hemorrhage in neonate were greatly different from those in adults. An irregular, wide high-density area around the falxtentorial junction was characteristic of the CT in many neonatal subarachnoid hemorrhages. In severe subarachnoid hemorrhages, a characteristic Y-shaped, high-density figure was demonstrated. In cases of subarachnoid hemorrhage from the deep venous system, high-density spreading immediately ventral to the falx-tentrium junction was demonstrated. These high-density areas due to blood in the subarachnoid space rapidly disappeared with the lapse of time. On the other hand, high-density areas in cerebral cisterns and/or fissures were rarely demonstrated in neonatal subarachnoid hemorrhages. The prognosis of subarachnoid hemorrhage in neonates was fairly good in the sense of life and cerebral functions.

  20. The presence of Praomys, Lophuromys, and Deomys species (Muridae, Mammalia) in the forest blocks separated by the Congo River and its tributaries (Kisangani region, Democratic Republic of Congo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katuala, Pionus G B; Kennis, Jan; Nicolas, Violaine

    2008-01-01

    that the importance of the rivers as a barrier differs for the studied species. For example, P. misonnei was only collected from the right bank of the Congo, while P. lukolelae appears to be restricted to the left bank. In contrast, Praomys identified as P. mutoni or as members of the P. jacksoni species complex...... are collected on both sides of the Congo River. In contrast, all Lophuromys species were collected in a limited number of sampling sites only. L. dudui and L. luteogaster were only collected along the right bank of the Congo River, and the latter species appears to be restricted to the right bank of the Lindi...... that are either separated by the Congo River or its tributaries. A total of 42,466 trapping nights resulted in the collection of 1185 Praomys, 233 Lophuromys and 209 Deomys ferrugineus. We observed that in almost all cases the studied species appear to have restricted distribution ranges, and that it is likely...

  1. Hemorrhagic Colloid Cyst Presenting with Acute Hydrocephaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhavan, Reza; Zandi, Behrouz; Pezeshki-Rad, Masoud; Farrokh, Donya

    2017-01-01

    Colloid cysts are benign slow-growing cystic lesions located on the roof of the third ventricle that usually present with symptoms related to gradual rise of intracranial pressure. They mostly remain asymptomatic and sometimes grow progressively and cause diverse symptoms associated with increased intracranial pressure such as headache, diplopia, and sixth cranial nerve palsy. Here we report a 47-year-old female who presented to the emergency department with acute severe headache and nausea/vomiting. On MRI examination acute hydrocephaly due to hemorrhagic colloid cyst was detected. Acute hemorrhage in colloid cysts is extremely rare and may present with symptoms of acute increase in the intracranial pressure. Intracystic hemorrhage is very rarely reported as a complication of colloid cyst presenting with paroxysmal symptoms of acute hydrocephaly. PMID:28210514

  2. Mediastinal hemorrhage: An evaluation of radiographic manifestations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woodring, J.H.; Loh, F.K.; Kryscio, R.J.

    1984-04-01

    Eleven common radiographic signs of mediastinal hemorrhage were evaluated by two observers for the following three patient groups: normal subjects, patients with mediastinal hemorrhage and no arterial injury, and patients with major thoracic arterial injury. Supine chest radiographs were studied in all cases. Four major conclusions can be made based upon these finding. M/C ratio (mediastinal width to chest width), tracheal deviation, left hemothorax, paraspinal line widening, and aorto-pulmonary window opacification do not reliably separate these three groups of patients. The diagnosis of mediastinal hemorrhage may be made if the aortic contour is abnormal or if one of the following signs is positive: abnormal mediastinal width, apical cap, widening of the right paratracheal stripe, or deviation of the nasogastric tube. Due to interobserver variation, there is good agreement between observers for the following four signs only: transverse mediastinal width, tracheal deviation, nasogastric tube deviation, nasogastric tube deviation, and right paratracheal stripe widening.

  3. Pharm GKB: Conjunctivitis, Acute Hemorrhagic [PharmGKB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available NDFRT: Conjunctivitis, Acute Hemorrhagic (N0000000834) Common Searches Search Medline Plus Search CTD Pharm GKB: Conjunctivitis, Acute Hemorrhagic ... ...Overview Alternate Names: PharmGKB Accession Id: PA166048914 External Vocabularies

  4. The Systematist's Muse – two new damselfly species from 'Elisabetha' in the Congo Basin (Odonata: Chlorocyphidae, Platycnemididae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, K.-D.B.

    2008-01-01

    Platycypha eliseva spec. nov. and Mesocnemis saralisa spec. nov. are described from Lokutu (formerly Elisabetha) in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The taxonomy and distribution of Platycypha and Mesocnemis are discussed and keys are provided for the males.

  5. Perceived ethical leadership in relation to employees’ organisational commitment in an organisation in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mitonga-Monga, Jeremy; Cilliers, Frans

    2016-01-01

    ... quantitative survey approach was used, with a non-probability purposive sample of 839 employees from a railway organisation in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The results indicate that ethical ...

  6. The Systematist's Muse – two new damselfly species from 'Elisabetha' in the Congo Basin (Odonata: Chlorocyphidae, Platycnemididae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, K.-D.B.

    2008-01-01

    Platycypha eliseva spec. nov. and Mesocnemis saralisa spec. nov. are described from Lokutu (formerly Elisabetha) in the Democratic Republic of Congo. The taxonomy and distribution of Platycypha and Mesocnemis are discussed and keys are provided for the males.

  7. Electrocardiographic abnormalities in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommargren, Claire E

    2002-01-01

    Subarachnoid hemorrhage is a serious neurological disorder that is often complicated by the occurrence of electrocardiographic abnormalities unexplained by preexisting cardiac conditions. These morphological waveform changes and arrhythmias often are unrecognized or misinterpreted, potentially placing patients at risk for inappropriate management. Many previous investigations were retrospective and relied on data collected in an unsystematic manner. More recent studies that included use of serial electrocardiograms and Holter recordings have provided new insight into the high prevalence of electrocardiographic changes in subarachnoid hemorrhage. Research on the prevalence, duration, and clinical significance of these electrocardiographic abnormalities and on associated factors and etiological theories is reviewed.

  8. Cryptococcal meningitis presenting as pseudosubarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Romy; Gonzalez-Toledo, Eduardo; Jaffe, Stephen L

    2008-12-01

    A 50-year-old man presented with progressive visual loss, headache, and two days of confusion. A computed tomography of his head suggested subarachnoid hemorrhage with accompanying right parietal ischemic infarction. The magnetic resonance image was consistent with right parietal perisulcal pial and superficial cortical inflammation; a subjacent vasogenic edema with a 1 cm diameter abscess was also present. Funduscopy revealed bilateral multifocal choroidal lesions and retinal perivascular sheathing. He was diagnosed with pseudosubarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to cryptococcal meningitis and choroidal microabscesses with retinal inflammation after a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination revealed cryptococcal yeast forms, as well as high titers of CSF cryptococcal antigen, but no CSF red blood cells.

  9. Nursing experience of patients with epidemic hemorrhagic fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-yan ZHANG

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the nursing methods of patients with epidemic hemorrhagic fever. Methods: Through careful nursing, 1 case of patients with epidemic hemorrhagic fever, summed up the experience. Results: Patients with epidemic hemorrhagic fever were 2 days later improved, within 6 months to fully recover. Conclusion: With proper treatment and careful nursing, patients with epidemic hemorrhagic fever are able to fully recover.

  10. Acute viral hemorrhage disease:A summary on new viruses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Somsri Wiwanitkit; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2015-01-01

    Acute hemorrhagic disease is an important problem in medicine that can be seen in many countries, especially those in tropical world. There are many causes of acute hemorrhagic disease and the viral infection seems to be the common cause. The well-known infection is dengue, however, there are many new identified viruses that can cause acute hemorrhagic diseases. In this specific short review, the authors present and discuss on those new virus diseases that present as “acute hemorrhagic fever”.

  11. [The development of the medical information system for the improvement of the quality of work of the Crimean spa and health resorts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezhov, V V; Grigor'ev, P E; Mizin, V I; Andriyashek, Yu I; Gol'dberg, D L; Olenchuk, A V

    2016-01-01

    The Crimea has the enormous potential for the health promotion activities. However, neither the profile of these activities nor the demand for the socio-medical services is clearly defined for the majority of the local spa and health resort facilities. The possibilities of modern information technology are not used in the full measure either. The objective of the present work was to elaborate the new medical information system and demonstrate its effectiveness. In addition, the article describes the main advantages of the system for the optimization of healthcare in the Crimean spa and health resort facilities. We reviewed and analyzed various literature publications, legal framework, standards, regulations, guidelines, and questionnaire survey data obtain at 50 spa and health resort facilities of the Crimea. The results of the assessment indicate the necessity of the systematic approach to the analysis of the quality of medical care and the process of its further development. Statistical and mathematical methods were used to elaborate the medical information system for the optimization of the activities of the Crimean spa and health resorts. The distinctive features of the proposed information system are modularity and the possibility of flexible adjustment to the conditions of individual settings, one-step data loading with the subsequent multiple application for the formulation of documents, automated filling of records in compliance with the medical standards, and taking into consideration the possible changes in or amendments to the form of the documents. The data obtained in the course of project implementation were used for the first time in the Republic of Crimea to design, substantiate, and recommend for the practical application the algorithm for the comprehensive estimation of the results of treatment of the patients based at the spa and health resort facilities with due regard for the specific regional conditions.

  12. SURGICAL TACTICS REGARDING CEREBRAL METASTASES WITH HEMORRHAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Prozorenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral metastases occur with 10 to 30 % of all oncological patients. Hemorrhages into cerebral metastases are one of the most dangerous complications of the metastatic process. With that, cerebral metastases of such widespread solid malignant tumors as melanoma, kidney cancer, germ cell tumors, less frequently, lung cancer and breast cancer are prone to hemorrhages. The purpose of the work is to improve the results of surgical treatment of patients with brain metastases complicated with hemorrhages.Materials  and  methods. Surgical  treatment  of  69  patients  with  brain  metastases complicated  with  hemorrhages was  performed in N.N. Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center. Hemorrhage on the macroscopic level was confirmed intraoperatively and in accordance with the results of the morphological study of surgical drugs. Total microsurgical resection of one or several cerebral metastases with hemor rhages was performed regarding all patients studied. The time interval of observation of patients after the surgical treatment comprises 1 to 72 months. There were 27 women and 42 men. The age range was from 18 to 74 y.o. Besides, the state of veins of lower extremities and the state of the coagulation blood system in accordance with the data of coagulograms was studies. The analysis of the macrostructure and the microstructure of metastases with hemorrhages as well as the morphological study of the brain tissue adjacent to hematomas was performed with a morphological study and histological techniques. The patients were distributed in accordance with the RPA (recursive partitioning analysis classes: I class (n = 7, II class (n = 39, III class (n = 23; in accordance with the hemorrhage type: intratumoral type (26 metastases, perifocal type (20, mixed type (32; in accordance with the histological principle: melanoma (n = 25, lung cancer (n = 13, kidney cancer (n = 17, breast cancer (n = 4, colorectal cancer (n = 1, soft tissue sarcoma (n

  13. A hospital survey of the clinical features of diabetes in Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottini, G; D'Avola, D; Dimbelolo, J C; Lumu, R; Gallizioli, E; Nisita, J; Manfrini, S; De Clerck, M; Pozzilli, P

    2003-08-01

    The occurrence of diabetes mellitus is increasing throughout the world, both in industrialised nations and in developing countries. While this disease is not a leading cause of death in developing country populations, it must nevertheless be considered for its social and economic impact. This study examines the clinical and epidemiological situation of diabetes mellitus in the city of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo, as based on data from two city hospitals: Saint Joseph's Hospital (SJH) and the Centre Hospitalier Monkole (CHM), two urban health facilities typical of those developing countries. The results show that diabetes is a real public health problem in Congo. Average blood glucose levels were above 300 mg/dl in 44.4% of patients at SJH and 41.5% at CHM, and hypertension (> or = 140/90 mmHg) was reported in 35.8% of patients at SJH and 20% at CHM. The management of diabetes and, in particular, its complications is suffering because of some cultural influences but mainly economic ones. In fact, incidence of disease complications is closely linked to the financial status of patients and facilities. SJH, which serves mainly the low-income community, has a greater incidence of severe diabetes-associated complications than CHM, which treats patients with a higher mean income level. SJH hospitalised patients had a 24.7% incidence of diabetic foot with 3 amputations as compared to only a 10% incidence and no amputations for CHM hospitalised patients. At SJH, 17.3% of patients died during the study, while at CHM none died. Overall, differences in the prevalence of complications between SJH and CHM patients were found not to be significant. For the large majority of Congo population, education on diabetes is not available, and due to the failure of the national health system, access to treatment is impossible. Furthermore, because most diabetic people in Congo go untreated, the mortality rate for the disease is high. Congo would greatly benefit from a national

  14. Subarachnoid hemorrhage after aneurysm surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gilberto Carlotti Junior

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available The surgical treatment of intracranial aneurysms by clipping is recognized as effective and definitive. However some cases that suffered a new subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH some time after they were submitted to aneurysm clipping have raised doubts about the concept of "cure"after this treatment. Eleven patients previously submitted to aneurysm clipping who presented a new SAH were analyzed. The time elapsed from surgery to SAH varied from 3 to 10 years. After SAH four patients had a poor outcome. The new episode of SAH occurred due to intrinsic factors of the cerebral vasculature: 1. a weak point of the vessel wall near the previous aneurysm, 2. a weak point of another vessel far from the previous aneurysm, 3. a previous infundibular dilation of the posterior communicating artery; and due to technical problems: 1. aneurysm not identified during the previous treatment, 2. aneurysm deliberately left untreated, 3. persistence of the aneurysm due to inappropriate surgery, 4. persistency of part of the aneurysm neck after clipping and 5. slipping of the clip from the neck of the aneurysm. The measures to prevent new SAH after surgery start with adequate preoperative angiographic studies, a careful inspection of the position of the clip and emptying of the aneurysm. Early angiography studies may reveal a persistent neck and later ones may reveal newly developed aneurysms. In conclusion, SAH after aneurysm clipping is a late and severe phenomenon and the concept of "cure" after this surgery should be interpreted with caution.O tratamento cirúrgico dos aneurismas cerebrais através de sua clipagem é reconhecido como eficaz e definitivo. Entretanto alguns casos sofrem nova hemorragia algum tempo após a cirurgia, deixando dúvidas sobre a "cura" pelo tratamento. Onze pacientes submetidos anteriormente a clipagem do aneurisma e que apresentaram nova hemorragia foram analisados. O intervalo de tempo da cirurgia para a nova hemorragia foi de 3 a 10 anos

  15. Dengue hemorrhagic fever complicated by pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Ricardo Gonzalez Fontal

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis is an atypical complication of dengue fever and is rarely described. We are reporting a case of dengue hemorrhagic fever complicated by acute pancreatitis in a patient with history of diabetes mellitus type 1 and end stage renal disease on hemodialysis.

  16. Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in Saudi Arabia

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-28

    This podcast looks at the epidemiologic characteristics of Alkhurma Hemorrhagic Fever in humans in Najran City, Saudi Arabia. CDC epidemiologist Dr. Adam MacNeil discusses the severity and risk factors for the illness.  Created: 10/28/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/17/2010.

  17. [Arbovirus causing hemorrhagic fever at IMSS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarrete-Espinosa, Joel; Gómez-Dantés, Héctor

    2006-01-01

    To know the arbovirus causing hemorrhagic fever in patients at the Mexican Institute of Social Security. A follow-up study was made in patients with probable diagnosis of hemorrhagic dengue. Blood samples were taken to look for dengue fever, yellow fever and San Luis, Tonate and Mayaro encephalitis viruses. Frequencies and proportions of the interest variables were analyzed. 35 patients were studied. Isolation and PCR results of the 13 samples were negative in 12 of them and positive to denguevirus-3 in one of them. The determination of IgM was positive for dengue fever in 25 cases; 2 were positive to Mayaro virus and 8 were negative to what was looked for. Hemorrhages and thrombocytopenia were more frequent in patients infected with dengue and Mayaro viruses; jaundice and encephalopathy were more frequent in the latter, and renal dysfunction, in patients with a negative result. Evolution was satisfactory in all cases, except for one (Mayaro), which presented hemorrhages, thrombocytopenia, jaundice and encephalopathy that lead to death. The results show the risk of appearance and dissemination of several vector-born diseases in Mexico. Thus, they require intensive epidemiological surveillance to identify them and to know their real occurrence and specific clinical profile.

  18. Prior Exercise Alters Responses to Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    similarly in both groups. Posthemorrhage lactate and glucose concentrations were lower in exercise. The increase in plasma epinephrine was reduced in...exercise, with significantly lower levels in epinephrine and norepinephrine noted posthemorrhage. Vasopressin levels and plasma renin activity were...of a patient with hemorrhage caused by traumatic injuries. KEYWORDS—Cardiac output, blood pressure, vasopressin, catecholamines, plasma renin activity

  19. Unilateral adrenal hemorrhagic infarction in essential thrombocythemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnet, G; Lambert, M; Annet, L; Lefebvre, C

    2015-12-01

    Adrenal hemorrhage is a rare disease associated with various conditions. We report a case of a 68-year-old woman with abdominal and back pain. The diagnostic work-up showed a left adrenal gland infarction associated with essential thrombocythemia. Treatment consisted in painkillers and treating the underlying condition in order to prevent further thrombotic events.

  20. [Selective embolization to treat obstetric hemorrhage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer Puchol, M D; Lanciego, C; Esteban, E; Ciampi, J J; Edo, M A; Ferragud, S

    2014-01-01

    To describe cases of obstetric hemorrhage that have called for selective intra-arterial embolization and the different embolization techniques used. To assess the clinical outcomes and postprocedural fertility. We studied 27 women with obstetric hemorrhage. In 24 patients, embolization was performed by catheterizing both uterine arteries and in 2 patients only one uterine artery was catheterized (pseudoaneurysm). The materials used for embolization consisted of Spongostan in 17/27, particles in 9/27, and coils in 1/27. Clinical follow-up included an analysis of early and late complications and of postprocedural fertility. Hemorrhage was classified as primary (25/27) or secondary (2/27). The cause of bleeding was vaginal delivery (20), cesarean sections (5), abortion (1), and cervical ectopic pregnancy (1). The initial technical success rate was 100% and the clinical success rate was 92.6% (25 of the 27 patients). Bleeding ceased and the outcome was satisfactory in 25 patients. During clinical follow-up ranging from one to seven years, 23 patients had normal menstruation and 6 patients completed 7 full-term pregnancies. Intra-arterial embolization for obstetric hemorrhage leads to good outcomes and few complications and it preserves fertility. Copyright © 2011 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Continuous EEG Monitoring in Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondziella, Daniel; Friberg, Christian Kærsmose; Wellwood, Ian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Continuous EEG (cEEG) may allow monitoring of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) for delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and seizures, including non-convulsive seizures (NCSz), and non-convulsive status epilepticus (NCSE). We aimed to evaluate: (a) the diagnostic...

  2. Unraveling the distinctive features of hemorrhagic and non-hemorrhagic snake venom metalloproteinases using molecular simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Raoni Almeida; Díaz, Natalia; Nagem, Ronaldo Alves Pinto; Ferreira, Rafaela Salgado; Suárez, Dimas

    2016-01-01

    Snake venom metalloproteinases are important toxins that play fundamental roles during envenomation. They share a structurally similar catalytic domain, but with diverse hemorrhagic capabilities. To understand the structural basis for this difference, we build and compare two dynamical models, one for the hemorrhagic atroxlysin-I from Bothrops atrox and the other for the non-hemorraghic leucurolysin-a from Bothrops leucurus. The analysis of the extended molecular dynamics simulations shows some changes in the local structure, flexibility and surface determinants that can contribute to explain the different hemorrhagic activity of the two enzymes. In agreement with previous results, the long Ω-loop (from residue 149 to 177) has a larger mobility in the hemorrhagic protein. In addition, we find some potentially-relevant differences at the base of the S1' pocket, what may be interesting for the structure-based design of new anti-venom agents. However, the sharpest differences in the computational models of atroxlysin-I and leucurolysin-a are observed in the surface electrostatic potential around the active site region, suggesting thus that the hemorrhagic versus non-hemorrhagic activity is probably determined by protein surface determinants.

  3. Effects of hemorrhage on cytokine gene transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenkar, R; Abraham, E

    1993-08-01

    Injury and blood loss are often followed by infection and the rapid development of organ system dysfunction, frequently involving mucosal sites, such as the lung and intestine. To examine possible mechanisms contributing to these conditions, we used semiquantitative polymerase chain reactions to determine cytokine mRNA expression among cellular populations isolated from mucosal and systemic anatomic sites of mice at predetermined time points following 30% blood volume hemorrhage with resuscitation 1 hr later. Within 1 hr after hemorrhage, significant increases were observed in mRNA levels for IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, IL-5, and TGF-beta in intraparenchymal pulmonary mononuclear cells. The levels of TGF-beta transcripts among alveolar macrophages were increased 1 hr following blood loss, and increase in IL-1 alpha transcripts was found starting 2 hr posthemorrhage. Cells from Peyer's patches showed significant increases in mRNA levels for IL-1 beta, IL-2, IL-5, IL-6, IFN-gamma, and TGF-beta during the 4 hr following hemorrhage. Significant increases in mRNA levels for IL-1 beta, TNF-alpha, and TGF-beta were present within 4 hr of blood loss among cells isolated from mesenteric lymph nodes. The expression of mRNA for most cytokines was not significantly altered in splenocytes or peripheral blood mononuclear cells at any time point following hemorrhage. These experiments demonstrate that blood loss, even if resuscitated, produces significant increases in proinflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokine gene transcription as early as 1 hr following hemorrhage. These posthemorrhage alterations in cytokine mRNA expression were particularly prominent at mucosal sites, suggesting a mechanism for the increased incidence of pulmonary and intestinal involvement in organ system failure following severe blood loss and injury.

  4. Predictors of Hemorrhage Volume after Intravenous Thrombolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shon, Sang Hyun; Heo, Sung Hyuk; Kim, Bum Joon; Choi, Hye-Yeon; Kwon, Youngnam; Yi, Sang Hun; Lee, Ji Sung; Kim, Young Seo; Kim, Hyun Young; Koh, Seong-Ho; Chang, Dae-Il

    2016-10-01

    Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) is one of the most feared complications after administration of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (IV rtPA). The aim of this study was to determine correlations between hemorrhage volume (HV) after IV rtPA treatment and risk factors for sICH. We analyzed 318 patients from the stroke registries of 4 hospitals in Korea. We confirmed hemorrhage by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging within 36 hours. Patient groups were classified by HV (0, 0-10, 10-25, and greater than 25 mL). Based on the HV, we evaluated the following: (1) predictors for hemorrhage; (2) rates of sICH according to various sICH definitions; and (3) 3-month functional outcomes after IV rtPA treatment. Among the 318 patients, hemorrhage occurred in 72 patients. HV was significantly correlated with atrial fibrillation (OR = 3.38, 95% CI = 1.87-6.09), early CT changes (OR = 3.17, 95% CI = 1.69-5.93), and dense artery sign (OR = 1.90, 95% CI = 1.07-3.39). Compared with the groups with HV less than 25 mL, patients with an HV of greater than 25 mL were more likely to have higher mortality rates (33.3% versus 11.8%) and worse outcomes at 3 months (good: 8.3% versus 50.3%; excellent: 0% versus 33.7%). HV after IV rtPA is an important predictor of clinical outcomes. Atrial fibrillation, early CT changes, and dense artery sign were significantly associated with large HVs; therefore, these patient factors might be considered before and after thrombolytic treatment. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Hemorrhagic Cholecystitis in an Elderly Patient Taking Aspirin and Cilostazol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Morris

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhage is a rare complication of acute cholecystitis. Patients who develop this complication often are receiving anticoagulation therapy or have a pathologic coagulopathy. We present a case of an elderly patient who developed hemorrhagic cholecystitis while taking aspirin and cilostazol, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. The patient underwent an emergent abdominal exploration. A large, blood-filled gallbladder was found along with a large hematoma between the liver and gallbladder. We also briefly review the literature regarding hemorrhagic cholecystitis, hemorrhage into the biliary tree, and hemorrhage as a complication of aspirin and phosphodiesterase inhibitor therapy.

  6. Persistence of high fertility in tropical Africa: the case of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romaniuk, Anatole

    2011-01-01

    The article explores how geography, history, and society have shaped childbearing behaviors over the last half-century, and how they are now being reshaped by modernity and the exigencies of urban life, in the democratic Republic of the Congo. The decline of prolonged postpartum abstinence and involuntary childlessness initially raised fertility to high levels (6–7 children per woman). More recently, socioeconomic differentials in fertility have emerged, suggesting that the country may be entering a phase of fertility decline. A full-blown transition, however, seems still a remote prospect. Supported both by cultural traditions and by economic rationality, Congo's people remain largely convinced of the benefits of many children for their own and their kin's security. While an eventual fertility transition may be taken for granted, the article examines the many hurdles, contradictions, and tensions that will have to be overcome to achieve that outcome.

  7. Phytochemical analysis and biological evaluation of selected African propolis samples from Cameroon and Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papachroni, Danai; Graikou, Konstantia; Kosalec, Ivan; Damianakos, Harilaos; Ingram, Verina; Chinou, Ioanna

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was the chemical analysis of four selected samples of African propolis (Congo and Cameroon) and their biological evaluation. Twenty-one secondary metabolites belonging to four different chemical groups were isolated from the 70% ethanolic extracts of propolis and their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral evidence. Three triterpenes and two diprenyl-flavonoids were identified from Congo propolis, which has been investigated for the first time, while thirteen triterpenes, three diprenyl-flavonoids, two monoterpenic alcohols and one fatty acid ester have been identified from Cameroon propolis samples. To our knowledge, the identified diprenyl-flavonoids, as well as five of the isolated and determined triterpenes, are reported for the first time in propolis. Moreover, the total polyphenol content was estimated in all extracts and the antimicrobial activities of all four extracts were studied against six Gram-positive and -negative bacteria and three pathogenic fungi, showing an interesting antibacterial profile.

  8. Estado Livre do Congo: imperialismo, a roedura geopolítica (1885-1908)

    OpenAIRE

    Martinho Camargo Milani

    2011-01-01

    O presente trabalho tem por finalidade relatar a importância da Sociedade Geográfica Real Belga na exploração imperialista efetuada pela Bélgica na região do Congo africano entre 1885 e 1908. Em verdade, o Congo era uma colônia privada do rei da Bélgica, Leopoldo II. Durante o século XIX foram fundadas diversas Sociedades Geográficas pelo mundo, entre elas a Belga que apareceu em 1876, no período de institucionalização da ciência geográfica. Entender a História Africana no final do século XIX...

  9. Semantiche del terrore, della morte e della speranza nell’Est del Congo (Ituri, Kivu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Beneduce

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Due definizioni di immaginario saranno tenute presenti in queste pagine, rivolte ad analizzare il senso della violenza nella Repubblica Democratica del Congo (d’ora innanzi RDC o semplicemente Congo: l’una risalente a Castoriadis (1975, p. 245, per il quale l’immaginario contiene il razionale secondo una relazione indistinta e fondamentale, anzi ne è funzione e forma; l’altra a Deleuze. La prima è qui ripresa soprattutto nella formulazione offertane da Mbembe (2000, p. 203: “un insieme di segni interrelati che si presentano, in qualunque circostanza, come significato indiscutibile e indiscusso”. La seconda riconosce il carattere per eccellenza dell’immaginario nell’impossibilità di discernere, al suo interno, fra reale e irreale (Deleuze 1990, p. 92.

  10. Cutting the Flesh: Surgery, Autopsy and Cannibalism in the Belgian Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Sokhieng

    2017-04-01

    Within the colonial setting of the Belgian Congo, the process of cutting the body, whether living or dead, lent itself to conflation with cannibalism and other fantastic consumption stories by both Congolese and Belgian observers. In part this was due to the instability of the meaning of the human body and the human corpse in the colonial setting. This essay maps out different views of the cadaver and personhood through medical technologies of opening the body in the Belgian Congo. The attempt to impose a specific reading of the human body on the Congolese populations through anatomy and related Western medical disciplines was unsuccessful. Ultimately, practices such as surgery and autopsy were reinterpreted and reshaped in the colonial context, as were the definitions of social and medical death. By examining the conflicts that arose around medical technologies of cutting human flesh, this essay traces multiple parallel narratives on acceptable use and representation of the human body (Congolese or Belgian) beyond its medical assignation.

  11. Characterisation of a Giant Lemon Grass Acclimatised in the Congo-Brazzaville

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loumouamou Aubin Nestor

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study to investigate the essential oil of the giant variety of lemon grass (Poaceae obtained from farmers in Congo-Kinshasa and tested in Congo-Brazzaville. Chemical analysis, by GC and GCMS, of the essential oil from different parts of the plant, extracted at different stages of growth, revealed the very high stability of the citral chemotype (>80%; giving it the status of interesting species for the production of citral oil. However, it could not be identified to any of the oil-yielding grasses already described in the literature. Like Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf it produces an essential oil containing more than 80% citral, but displays morphological characteristics of vigorous grasses. The botanical description of the plant and the chemical composition of its oil identify it to Cymbopogon densiflorus (Steud Stapf.

  12. High prevalence of syphilis among demobilized child soldiers in Eastern Congo: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutala Prosper

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Syphilis, a known major public health issue for soldiers during periods of conflict, is exacerbated in the Democratic Republic of Congo due to widespread sexual violence. However, there has been no previous study to determine the extent of this problem. Therefore, we determined the prevalence of syphilis among young demobilized soldiers. Methods Screening of syphilis using the rapid plasma reagin test and the Treponema pallidum hemagglutination assay was conducted in three transit sites of soldier reintegration in 2005. The Fisher Exact probability test was used to compare results. Results The prevalence of syphilis was found to be 3.4%, with almost equal distribution in respect to sex, location. Conclusion Syphilis continues to be highly prevalent in demobilized child soldiers in Eastern Congo. Syphilis screening tests are recommended.

  13. Transnational childrearing and the preservation of transnational identity in Brazzaville, Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on ethnographic research conducted at two ends of an intra- Africa migration flow (Mali and the Republic of Congo), in this article I examine the role of childrearing practices in the maintenance of transnationalism. I consider different approaches to transnational childrearing by migrant parents and their reasons for adopting them, and delineate three common modes. The most widespread and socially validated approach is to send children home from Congo to their parents’ places of origin, where child fostering is widespread, to be raised by relatives for long periods; this approach increases the durability of transnational ties. I use childrearing approaches as an analytical lens to demonstrate the complementarity of multiple forms of domestic organization, mobility and settlement in the intergenerational production and transmission of durable transnational identities. By arguing for greater focus on phenomena such as transnational childrearing, I seek to promote a broader conceptualization of transnationalism. PMID:23935404

  14. Evaluation of Aluminium Dross as Adsorbent for Removal of Carcinogenic Congo Red Dye in Wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Mohamad Zulfika Hazielim b.; Zauzi, Nur Syuhada Ahmad; Baini, Rubiyah; Sutan, Norsuzailina Mohamed; Rezaur Rahman, Md

    2017-06-01

    In this study, aluminium dross waste generated from aluminium smelting industries was employed as adsorbent in removing of congo red dye in aqueous solution. The raw aluminium dross as adsorbent was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) for surface area and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) Spectroscopy. Adsorption experiments were carried out by batch system at different adsorbent mass, pH, and initial dye concentration. The results showed that the per cent removal of dye increased as adsorbent mass increased. It was found that 0.4 gram of adsorbent can remove approximately 100 % of dye at pH 9 for dye concentration 20 and 40 ppm. Therefore, it can be concluded that raw aluminium dross without undergone any treatment can be effectively used for the adsorption of congo red in textile wastewater related industries.

  15. CRIMEAN TURKS IN SEVİNÇ ÇOKUM’S NOVEL TITLED HİLAL GÖRÜNÜNCE SEVİNÇ ÇOKUM’UN HİLAL GÖRÜNÜNCE ROMANINDA KIRIM TÜRKLERİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayvaz MORKOÇ

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sevinç Çokum’s novel “Hilal Görününce” reveals the condition ofCrimean Turks during Ottoman-Russian war made between 1853 and1856. The novel which was written by the Çokum after making anintensive preliminary preparation period depicts wishes, dreams andexpectations of Crimean Turks at that time as well as bearing a richcontent belonging to Crimean Turks.In this article, considering the novel “Hilal Görününce”, CrimeanTurks will be handled and their wishes and expectations will bedetermined; their approaches towards the concepts of motherland andnation will be determined; and assessments will be made in relation totheir social and cultural features. Sevinç Çokum’un Hilal Görününce romanı, Kırım Türklerinin 1853- 1856 yılları arasında cereyan eden Osmanlı-Rus savaşı sırasındaki ve savaş sonrasındaki durumunu gözler önüne sermektedir. Yazarın, yoğunbir ön hazırlık sonrası kaleme aldığı eser, Kırım Türklerine ait zengin bir içerik taşımakla birlikte, onların istek, hayal ve beklentilerini de dile getirmektedir.Bu makalede Hilal Görününce romanından hareketle Kırım Türkleriele alınacak, onların vatan, millet kavramlarına yaklaşımları irdelenecek,toplumsal ve kültürel özellikleri hakkında bazı tespitlerde bulunulacaktır.

  16. Fatal Chromobacterium violaceum bacteraemia in rural Bandundu, Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bottieau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe the first case of bacteraemia caused by Chromobacterium violaceum in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. This diagnosis was made in an apparently healthy adult who was admitted to a rural hospital of the province of Bandundu with severe community-acquired sepsis. The patient developed multi-organ failure and died; to our knowledge, this is the first reported fatal case in an adult in Africa.

  17. Early to middle Miocene foraminifera from the deep-sea Congo Fan, offshore Angola

    OpenAIRE

    Kender, S; Kaminski, M.A.; Jones, R W

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of a 630m section of an exploration well penetrating the distal part of the Congo Fan (~2000m water depth) yielded high abundance and diversity assemblages of agglutinated and calcareous benthic foraminifera. Planktonic foraminifera constrain the age to Early – Middle Miocene, and \\delta 18O records reveal the Mi1 (~16.3 Ma) isotopic shift. Relatively few taxonomic studies of deep-water calcareous and agglutinated benthic foraminifera exist from this time period in this loca...

  18. TABOO OF EATING BONOBO AMONG THE BONGANDO PEOPLE IN THE WAMBA REGION, DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF CONGO

    OpenAIRE

    Lingomo, Bongoli; Kimura, Daiji

    2009-01-01

    Among the Bongando, an ethnic group living in and around the village of Wamba, a well-known base for research on the bonobo (Pan paniscus) in the Democratic Republic of Congo, it has traditionally been taboo to eat bonobo. In Bongando folk taxonomy, bonobos are categorized not as animals, but as human beings. The resemblance of bonobo bodily characteristics and behaviors to those of humans is the main reason for this categorization. While this recognition has helped in the conservation of thi...

  19. Arterial spin-labeling MR imaging of cerebral hemorrhages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguchi, Tomoyuki [Department of Radiology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Saga University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Saga (Japan); Nishihara, Masashi; Egashira, Yoshiaki; Azama, Shinya; Hirai, Tetsuyoshi; Kitano, Isao; Irie, Hiroyuki [Saga University, Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Saga (Japan); Yakushiji, Yusuke [Saga University, Department of Neurology, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Saga (Japan); Kawashima, Masatou [Saga University, Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine and Graduate School of Medicine, Saga (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    The purpose of this study is to identify the characteristics of brain perfusion measured by arterial spin-labeling magnetic resonance imaging (ASL-MRI) in cerebral hemorrhages. Brain blood flow values (CBF-ASL values) for cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres and segmented cerebral regions were measured by ASL-MRI in 19 putaminal hemorrhage patients and 20 thalamic hemorrhage patients in acute or subacute stages. We assessed the lateralities of CBF-ASL values and the relationships between CBF-ASL values and other imaging findings and clinical manifestations. Both the 19 putaminal hemorrhage patients and the 20 thalamic hemorrhage patients had significantly low CBF-ASL values of the contralateral cerebellum in subacute stage, suggesting that ASL-MRI might delineate crossed cerebellar diaschisis (CCD). Ipsilateral low CBF-ASL values were observed in frontal lobes and thalami with a putaminal hemorrhage and lentiform nuclei, temporal lobes, and parietal lobes with a thalamic hemorrhage, suggesting that ASL-MRI showed the ipsilateral cerebral diaschisis (ICD). In the putaminal hemorrhage patients, the hematoma volume negatively affected both the bilateral cerebellar and cerebral hemispheric CBF-ASL values. In the thalamic hemorrhage patients, a concomitant intraventricular hemorrhage caused low cerebral hemispheric CBF-ASL values. The use of ASL-MRI is sensitive to the perfusion abnormalities and could thus be helpful to estimate functional abnormalities in cerebral hemorrhage patients. (orig.)

  20. Angiographic findings in 2 children with cerebral paragonimiasis with hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi; Chen, Jingyu; Miao, Hongpin; Li, Fei; Feng, Hua; Zhu, Gang

    2013-05-01

    Hemorrhagic events associated with cerebral paragonimiasis are not rare, especially in children and adolescents; however, angiographic evidence of cerebrovascular involvement has not been reported. The authors describe angiographic abnormalities of the cerebral arteries seen in 2 children in whom cerebral paragonimiasis was associated with hemorrhagic stroke. The patients presented with acute intracerebral and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Angiography revealed a beaded appearance and long segmental narrowing of arteries, consistent with arteritis. In both patients, involved vessels were seen in the area of the hemorrhage. The vascular changes and the hemorrhage, together with new lesions that developed close to the hemorrhage and improved after praziquantel treatment, were attributed to paragonimiasis. Further study of the frequency and mechanism of hemorrhagic cerebrovascular complications associated with cerebral paragonimiasis is needed.

  1. Characterization of hemorrhages in the tenderloins of slaughter pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich-Jørgensen, Kristine; McEvoy, Fintan; Larsen, Helle Daugaard;

    2016-01-01

    Muscle hemorrhages are regularly observed in especially the tip of the tenderloin muscles of slaughter pigs. In order to characterize the hemorrhages, a macro- and microscopic examination of tenderloins with (n = 5) and without (n = 4) hemorrhages and the associated vertebral column was carried out....... Furthermore, all columns were radiographed and two were CT scanned. Histologically, the muscle hemorrhages contained cells from bone marrow and growth line cartilage. Ventral epiphysiolysis in either the cranial or caudal epiphysis of the first lumbar vertebrae (L1) in 8 out of the 9 vertebral columns...... was present. In the 5 cases with tenderloin hemorrhage, similar hemorrhage with growth line cartilage was found within the fracture of the epiphysis. The hemorrhages develop secondarily to epiphysiolysis in the lumbar vertebrae, where the tenderloin attaches to the spine. The lesions probably develop around...

  2. Recurrent craniospinal subarachnoid hemorrhage in cerebral amyloid angiopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA usually manifests as cerebral hemorrhage, especially as nontraumatic hemorrhages in normotensive elderly patients. Other manifestations are subarachnoid (SAH, subdural, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH and superficial hemosiderosis. A 52-year-old hypertensive woman presented with recurrent neurological deficits over a period of 2 years. Her serial brain magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography scans showed recurrent SAH hemorrhage, and also intracerebral, IVH and spinal hemorrhage, with superficial siderosis. Cerebral angiograms were normal. Right frontal lobe biopsy showed features of CAA. CAA can present with unexplained recurrent SAH hemorrhage, and may be the initial and prominent finding in the course of disease in addition to superficial cortical siderosis and intracerebal and spinal hemorrhages.

  3. CLINICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF CEREBRAL INTRAVENTRICULAR HEMORRHAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Vlasyuk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inconsistency of the current classification of cerebral intraventricular hemorrhages is discussed in the article. The author explains divergence of including of the subependymal (1st stage and intracerebral (4th stage hemorrhages into this classification. A new classification of cerebral intraventricular hemorrhages including their origin, phases and stages is offered. The most common origin of intraventricular hemorrhages is subependymal hemorrhage (82,2%. Two phases of hemorrhage were distinguished: bleeding phase and resorption phase. Stages of intraventricular hemorrhages reflecting the blood movement after the onset of bleeding are the following: 1 — infill of the up to ½ of the lateral ventricles without their enlargement; 2 — infill of more than ½ of the lateral ventricles with their enlargement; 3 — infill of the IV ventricle, of the cerebellomedullary cistern and its dislocation into the subarachnoid space of the cerebellum, pons varolii, medulla oblongata and spinal cord.

  4. Isotherm, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Characteristics for Adsorption of Congo Red by Activated Carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Jib [Kongju National University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Batch experiment studies were carried out for adsorption of congo red using granular activated carbon with various parameters such as activated carbon dose, pH, initial dye concentration, temperature and contact time. Equilibrium experimental data are fitted to the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubin-Radushkevich isotherm equations. From Freundlich's separation factor (1/n) estimated, adsorption could be employed as effective treatment method for adsorption of congo red from aqueous solution. Base on Temkin constant (B) and Dubinin-Radushkevich constant (E), this adsorption process is physical adsorption. Adsorption kinetics has been tested using pseudo-first order and pseudo second order models. The results followed pseudo second order model with good correlation. Adsorption process of congo red on granular activated carbon was endothermic (ΔH=42.036 kJ/mol) and was accompanied by decrease in Gibbs free energy (ΔG=-2.414 to -4.596 kJ/mol) with increasing adsorption temperature.

  5. Unstructured-mesh modeling of the Congo river-to-sea continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bars, Yoann Le; Vallaeys, Valentin; Deleersnijder, Éric; Hanert, Emmanuel; Carrere, Loren; Channelière, Claire

    2016-04-01

    With the second largest outflow in the world and one of the widest hydrological basins, the Congo River is of a major importance both locally and globally. However, relatively few studies have been conducted on its hydrology, as compared to other great rivers such as the Amazon, Nile, Yangtze, or Mississippi. The goal of this study is therefore to help fill this gap and provide the first high-resolution simulation of the Congo river-estuary-coastal sea continuum. To this end, we are using a discontinuous-Galerkin finite element marine model that solves the two-dimensional depth-averaged shallow water equations on an unstructured mesh. To ensure a smooth transition from river to coastal sea, we have considered a model that encompasses both hydrological and coastal ocean processes. An important difficulty in setting up this model was to find data to parameterize and validate it, as it is a rather remote and understudied area. Therefore, an important effort in this study has been to establish a methodology to take advantage of all the data sources available including nautical charts that had to be digitalized. The model surface elevation has then been validated with respect to an altimetric database. Model results suggest the existence of gyres in the vicinity of the river mouth that have never been documented before. The effect of those gyres on the Congo River dynamics has been further investigated by simulating the transport of Lagrangian particles and computing the water age.

  6. Shift in the chemical composition of dissolved organic matter in the Congo River network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Thibault; Bouillon, Steven; Darchambeau, François; Massicotte, Philippe; Borges, Alberto V.

    2016-09-01

    The processing of terrestrially derived dissolved organic matter (DOM) during downstream transport in fluvial networks is poorly understood. Here, we report a dataset of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and DOM composition (stable carbon isotope ratios, absorption and fluorescence properties) acquired along a 1700 km transect in the middle reach of the Congo River basin. Samples were collected in the mainstem and its tributaries during high-water (HW) and falling-water (FW) periods. DOC concentrations and DOM composition along the mainstem were found to differ between the two periods because of a reduced lateral mixing between the central water masses of the Congo River and DOM-rich waters from tributaries and also likely because of a greater photodegradation during FW as water residence time (WRT) increased. Although the Cuvette Centrale wetland (one of the world's largest flooded forests) continuously releases highly aromatic DOM in streams and rivers of the Congo Basin, the downstream transport of DOM was found to result in an along-stream gradient from aromatic to aliphatic compounds. The characterization of DOM through parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) suggests that this transition results from (1) the losses of aromatic compounds by photodegradation and (2) the production of aliphatic compounds by biological reworking of terrestrial DOM. Finally, this study highlights the critical importance of the river-floodplain connectivity in tropical rivers in controlling DOM biogeochemistry at a large spatial scale and suggests that the degree of DOM processing during downstream transport is a function of landscape characteristics and WRT.

  7. Photocatalytic degradation of Congo red using Carissa edulis extract capped zinc oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowsiya, J; Madhumitha, G; Al-Dhabi, Naif Abdullah; Arasu, Mariadhas Valan

    2016-09-01

    The use of plant extract to synthesize nanoparticle has been considered as one of the eco-friendly method. Additionally, it is a strong alternate for conventional methods which includes chemical and physical approach. In this study, microwave assisted extraction of Carissa edulis (C. edulis) at 70°C and 400W was used to extract the secondary metabolites. Further, the metabolites were used as capping agent and Zn (NO3)2 as the metal precursor to synthesize ZnO nanoparticles (ZnO NPs). UV-Vis spectroscopy, FT-IR, XRD, SEM and HR-TEM were used for the characterization of nanoparticles. The Surface Plasmon Resonance around 358nm from the UV-Vis spectroscopy result represents the ZnO NPs formation. The FT-IR confirms the presence of functional groups that acts as the capping agent for the synthesis of ZnO NPs. The crystalline structure of nanoparticles is revealed in the XRD result, morphology showed by SEM results and the size of the ZnO NPs were predicted by HR-TEM. We have carried out the photocatalytic degradation of Congo red at 365nm in photo reactor using ZnO NPs. The result from the photocatalytic degradation Congo red showed rate constant is (-k) 0.4947 with 97% of degradation. This is our first attempt on the C. edulis extract on ZnO NPs preparation and Congo red dye degradation revels that ZnO NPs exhibit good photocatalytic property.

  8. Linking carbon storage with functional diversity in tropical rainforest in the central Congo Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeeck, Hans; Kearsley, Elizabeth; Bauters, Marijn; Beeckman, Hans; Huygens, Dries; Steppe, Kathy; Boeckx, Pascal

    2015-04-01

    This presentation will show an overview of results of the COBIMFO project (Congo basin integrated monitoring for forest carbon mitigation and biodiversity). In the framework of this project we have established 21 permanent 1 ha sampling plots in different forest types in the Yangambi reserve. This UNESCO Man and Biosphere reserve has an area of more than 6000 km² and is located in the heart of the Congo Basin near the Yangambi research station (DR Congo). Analysis of the inventory data of these plots revealed that carbon stocks in mature forests in this area of the Congo Basin are significantly lower (24%) than stocks recorded in the outer regions of the basin. These lower stocks are attributed to a lower maximal tree height (Kearsley et al. 2013). In addition to the carbon inventories we collected leaf and wood samples on all species within 95% basal area of each of the Yangambi plots. A total of 995 individuals were sampled, covering 123 tree species. On the samples we measured 15 traits related to leaf and wood morphology and functioning. In the presented study, relationships between the observed functional diversity and biomass are analysed. One of the remarkable results of our analysis is that species with a high functional distinctiveness have a low contribution to the basal area and the carbon stocks. In contrast, species with a high contribution to the carbon stock have a low contribution to the functional diversity. Similar patterns have been observed elsewhere (e.g. Amazon basin), but are now for the first time confirmed for central African rainforest. Finally, we also present the first results of an analysis of carbons stocks and functional diversity in tropical plantations from a unique 70-years old tree diversity experiment that was established during the colonial period at the Yangambi research station. Kearsley, E., de Haulleville, T., Hufkens, K., Kidimbu, A., Toirambe, B., Baert, G., Huygens, D., Kebede, Y., Defourny, P., Bogaert, J., Beeckman, H

  9. Intracranial drug delivery for subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Robert Loch; Leung, Ming; Tice, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Tice and colleagues pioneered site-specific, sustained-release drug delivery to the brain almost 30 years ago. Currently there is one drug approved for use in this manner. Clinical trials in subarachnoid hemorrhage have led to approval of nimodipine for oral and intravenous use, but other drugs, such as clazosentan, hydroxymethylglutaryl CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) and magnesium, have not shown consistent clinical efficacy. We propose that intracranial delivery of drugs such as nimodipine, formulated in sustained-release preparations, are good candidates for improving outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage because they can be administered to patients that are already undergoing surgery and who have a self-limited condition from which full recovery is possible.

  10. Infection control during filoviral hemorrhagic fever outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Raabe Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Breaking the human-to-human transmission cycle remains the cornerstone of infection control during filoviral (Ebola and Marburg hemorrhagic fever outbreaks. This requires effective identification and isolation of cases, timely contact tracing and monitoring, proper usage of barrier personal protection gear by health workers, and safely conducted burials. Solely implementing these measures is insufficient for infection control; control efforts must be culturally sensitive and conducted in a transparent manner to promote the necessary trust between the community and infection control team in order to succeed. This article provides a review of the literature on infection control during filoviral hemorrhagic fever outbreaks focusing on outbreaks in a developing setting and lessons learned from previous outbreaks. The primary search database used to review the literature was PUBMED, the National Library of Medicine website.

  11. Damage control resuscitation for massive hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osaree Akaraborworn

    2014-01-01

    Hemorrhage is the second most common cause of death among trauma patients and almost half of the deaths occur within 24 hours after arrival.Damage control resuscitation is a new paradigm for patients with massive bleeding.It consists of permissive hypotension,hemostatic resuscitation and transfusion strategies,and damage control surgery.Permissive hypotension seems to have better results before the bleeding is controlled.The strategy of fluid resuscitation is minimizing crystalloid infusion and increasing early transfusion with a high ratio of fresh frozen plasma to packed red cells.Damage control surgery is done when the patient's condition is unfit for definitive surgery.Hemorrhage and contamination control with temporary abdominal closure is performed before transferring the patients to intensive care unit and the operating room for a permanent laparotomy.

  12. Anaplastic Medullary Ependymoma Presenting as Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Nicastro

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A-41-year old man presented with violent thunderclap headache and a bilateral proprioceptive sensibility deficit of the upper limbs. Cerebral CT scan and MRI were negative. Lumbar puncture confirmed subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH, but cerebral angiography was negative. Three months later, the patient presented with paraparesis, and a thorough work-up revealed a diffuse, anaplastic extramedullary C7-D10 ependymoma with meningeal carcinomatosis considered the source of hemorrhage. The patient went through a D5-D8 laminectomy, temozolomide chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. The situation remained stable for a few months. In this paper, we would like to emphasize that spinal masses should be considered in cases of SAH with negative diagnostic findings for aneurysms or arteriovenous malformation.

  13. Meningioma with hemorrhagic onset: Two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukul Vij

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Haemorrhage is a rare complication of meningiomas that can occur spontaneously, after embolization, stereotactic radiation and perioperatively. Our first case was a 16 year old male, admitted with spastic quadriparesis, and retention of urine. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI revealed anteriorly placed cervical intradural extramedullary mass. Patient underwent emergency surgery following sudden worsening of neurological symptoms and intratumoral bleed was noted peroperatively. Tumor was labeled as angiomatous meningioma with hemorrhage. The second case was of a 45 year female who presented with history of sudden onset weakness in right upper and lower limb followed by unconsciousness. MRI revealed heterogeneous lesion in left parasagittal area with intratumoral bleed. Left frontal craniotomy with tumour decompression was performed. Tumour was labelled as meningothelial meningioma with haemorrhage. Meningiomas with hemorrhagic onset remain rare, and pathophysiology is still incompletely understood. Prevention and outcome of intratumoral haemorrhage highly depends on early diagnosis and adequate treatment.

  14. Pathophysiology of cyclic hemorrhagic ascites and endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ussia, Anastasia; Betsas, George; Corona, Roberta; De Cicco, Carlo; Koninckx, Philippe R

    2008-01-01

    Massive hemorrhagic ascites (4470 mL, range 1-10 L) in women with endometriosis is a rare condition occurring predominantly in black women. Of the 43 case reports published, 42 are compatible with the hypothesis that the hemorrhagic ascites is predominantly a consequence of excessive ovarian transudation similar to a Meigs syndrome. Indeed, bilateral ovariectomy cures the condition without recurrences, whereas after unilateral ovariectomy or cystectomy recurrence rate is more than 50%; during ovarian suppression by luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist ascites disappears, but reappears after treatment. Superficial pelvic endometriosis also contributes to the ascites because after superficial endometriosis destruction the recurrence rate is only 4 in 14. Based on these data, it is suggested, to scrutinize the ovaries for tumors given the analogy with Meigs syndrome. In women desiring fertility, conservative treatment with destruction of endometriosis only can be attempted given the cure rate of some 20%. It is unknown what the effect of ovulation induction would be.

  15. Vitamin K deficiency and hemorrhage in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, F R

    1995-09-01

    Hemorrhage in the infant from vitamin K deficiency is still a concern in pediatrics. Vitamin K given intramuscularly will largely prevent hemorrhagic disease in the newborn, even in infants who are exclusively breast-fed and are thus at the greatest risk for bleeding. The vitamin K content of human milk is very low compared with standard infant formulas. Results with oral vitamin K prophylaxis, currently used in some countries following the association found in a single report between childhood cancer and intramuscular vitamin K, are far more controversial. Any role of vitamin K in the prevention of IVH in premature infants has not been sufficiently demonstrated. Ongoing developments in this field will lead to improved methods of detecting early vitamin K deficiency and perhaps suitable alternatives to intramuscular vitamin K prophylaxis in the newborn.

  16. Clinical investigation of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiwaki, Shinji; Araki, Hiroshi; Takada, Jun; Watanabe, Naoki; Asano, Takahiko; Iwashita, Masahide; Tagami, Atsushi; Hatakeyama, Hiroo; Hayashi, Takao; Maeda, Teruo; Saito, Koshiro

    2010-07-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) hemorrhage after percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) is sometimes reported as one of the serious complications. Our purpose was to clarify the cause of upper GI hemorrhage after PEG. We retrospectively investigated the causes of upper GI hemorrhage among a total of 416 patients out of 426 consecutive patients who underwent PEG in our institution, excluding 10 patients who showed upper GI tumors on PEG placement. Among 17 patients who developed upper GI hemorrhage after PEG, three and four patients showed PEG tube placement and replacement-related hemorrhage, respectively; these lesions were vascular or mucosal tears around the gastrostomy site. Ten patients experienced 12 episodes of upper GI hemorrhage during PEG tube feeding. The lesions showing bleeding were caused by reflux esophagitis (five patients), gastric ulcer (two patients), gastric erosion due to mucosal inclusion in the side hole of the internal bolster (two patients), and duodenal diverticular hemorrhage (one patient). Anticoagulants were administered in six patients, including four patients with replacement-related hemorrhage and one patient each with reflux esophagitis and gastric ulcer. Reflux esophagitis was the most frequent reason for upper GI hemorrhage after PEG. The interruption of anticoagulants should be considered for the prevention of hemorrhage on the placement as well as replacement of a gastrostomy tube.

  17. Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy From Acute Baking Soda Ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Adrienne; Brown, Alisha; Valento, Matthew

    2016-09-01

    Baking soda is a readily available household product composed of sodium bicarbonate. It can be used as a home remedy to treat dyspepsia. If used in excessive amounts, baking soda has the potential to cause a variety of serious metabolic abnormalities. We believe this is the first reported case of hemorrhagic encephalopathy induced by baking soda ingestion. Healthcare providers should be aware of the dangers of baking soda misuse and the associated adverse effects.

  18. Renal hemorrhagic actinomycotic abscess in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smid, Marcela C; Bhardwaj, Neha R; Di Giovanni, Laura M; Eggener, Scott; Torre, Micaela Della

    2014-02-18

    Actinomyces israelii is a gram-positive, filamentous anaerobic bacteria colonizing the oral and gastrointestinal tracts. Retroperitoneal actinomycotic abscess is uncommon and its rare presentation as a hemorrhagic mass may be confused with malignancy. We present a case of this unusual infection complicating pregnancy. Increased awareness of actinomycotic abscess in the differential diagnosis of renal mass concerning for malignancy is critical to early recognition and treatment of this rare infection and most importantly, avoidance of unnecessary surgical intervention.

  19. Renal hemorrhagic actinomycotic abscess in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela C. Smid

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Actinomyces israelii is a gram-positive, filamentous anaerobic bacteria colonizing the oral and gastrointestinal tracts. Retroperitoneal actinomycotic abscess is uncommon and its rare presentation as a hemorrhagic mass may be confused with malignancy. We present a case of this unusual infection complicating pregnancy. Increased awareness of actinomycotic abscess in the differential diagnosis of renal mass concerning for malignancy is critical to early recognition and treatment of this rare infection and most importantly, avoidance of unnecessary surgical intervention.

  20. Renal Hemorrhagic Actinomycotic Abscess in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Actinomyces israelii is a gram-positive, filamentous anaerobic bacteria colonizing the oral and gastrointestinal tracts. Retroperitoneal actinomycotic abscess is uncommon and its rare presentation as a hemorrhagic mass may be confused with malignancy. We present a case of this unusual infection complicating pregnancy. Increased awareness of actinomycotic abscess in the differential diagnosis of renal mass concerning for malignancy is critical to early recognition and treatment of this rare in...

  1. Acute atrial fibrillation during dengue hemorrhagic fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veloso Henrique Horta

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever is a viral infection transmitted by the mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Cardiac rhythm disorders, such as atrioventricular blocks and ventricular ectopic beats, appear during infection and are attributed to viral myocarditis. However, supraventricular arrhythmias have not been reported. We present a case of acute atrial fibrillation, with a rapid ventricular rate, successfully treated with intravenous amiodarone, in a 62-year-old man with dengue hemorrhagic fever, who had no structural heart disease.

  2. Hemorrhagic pulmonary leptospirosis; Leptospirosis hemorragica pulmonar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, V.; Lopez, P. [Complejo Hospitalario Nuestra Senora de la Candelaria. Sant Cruz de Tenerife (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Leptospirosis is an infectious disease characteristic of humid eastern countries. It is relatively uncommon in the West. it usually presents with either hepatorenal or pulmonary involvement, two forms which generally overlap to a certain degree. We report a case of severe onset hemorrhagic pulmonary leptospirosis in a man who, during the course of the disease, presented multi systemic embolism (spleen, kidney and central nervous system). (Author) 11 refs.

  3. Asymptomatic endoalveolar hemorrhage in a young male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Kafyeke

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a young male affected by granulomatosis with polyangiitis presenting with non-specific complaints and complicated by the occurrence of a diffuse endoalveolar hemorrhage characterized by atypical clinical and radiological features. The importance of a rapid and aggressive diagnostic and therapeutic approach has to be strongly underlined. Available data regarding prevalence, clinical and radiological characteristics and treatment of this uncommon manifestation have also been hereby reviewed.

  4. Pure Sensory Stroke due to Lenticulocapsular Hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨益阶; 王国瑾; 潘松青

    2003-01-01

    @@ Pure sensory stroke (PSS) caused by lenticulo-capsular hemorrhage is rare. In this article, we re-ported 4 patients with PSS due to lenticulocapsularhemorrhage, including 3 men and 1 woman (mean age,58 years; range, 54 to 65 years), whose lesions couldbe identified by head computed tomographic (CT)scan and clinical findings correlated with the radio-logical lesions. All patients except 1 had hyperten-sion.

  5. Pontine hemorrhage in a patient with pheochromocytoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scardigli, K; Biller, J; Brooks, M H; Cespedes, L E; Posniak, H V

    1985-02-01

    A 24-year-old woman with a two-year history of hypertension was hospitalized for coma and quadriplegia secondary to pontine hemorrhage. A seven-year history of intermittent severe headaches, diaphoresis, and anxiety together with persistent severe hypertension led to the diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. This unusual but devastating manifestation of pheochromocytoma illustrates the importance of excluding remedial forms of hypertension in young patients before initiating antihypertensive therapy.

  6. Management of variceal hemorrhage:current status

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Yu; LI Zhao-shen

    2009-01-01

    @@ Despite much progress has been made in treatment and research in recent decades,variceal hemorrhage is still one of the most severe complications of liver cirrhosis.1 Studies of the natural history of gastroesophageal varices indicate that gastroesophageal varices are present in about half of cirrhotic patients when endoscopy is performed at the time of the diagnosis of cirrhosis.The presence of gastroesophageal varices correlates with the severity of liver disease.

  7. Umbilical Cord Segmental Hemorrhage and Fetal Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larciprete, Giovanni; Romanini, Maria Elisabetta; Arduini, Domenico; Cirese, Elio; Slowikowska-Hilczer, Jolanta; Kula, Krzysztof

    2006-01-01

    We describe an unexplained case of umbilical cord segmental hemorrhage linked with meconium-stained amniotic fluid. A severely asphyxiated infant was delivered at term by Caesarean section. There were poor prognostic signs on fetal cardiotocography with rupture of membranes with meconium-stained amniotic fluid. The pathophysiologic mechanism in this case is still unknown, even if we argued a possible role of the umbilical cord shortness. PMID:23674981

  8. A model of subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liao-liaoLI; Xiao-liangWANG

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To build a simple and repeatable animal model of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). METHODS: SAH was introduced by passing a nylon thread up through the right internal carotid artery and piercing a hone in the right anterior cerebral artery. At 12 and 24 h, the rats were evaluated with rotarod test and the behavior scale (5-point scale). RESULTS: The ratswere trained through rotarod test and then randomly divided into

  9. Hemorrhagic Encephalopathy From Acute Baking Soda Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrienne Hughes

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Baking soda is a readily available household product composed of sodium bicarbonate. It can be used as a home remedy to treat dyspepsia. If used in excessive amounts, baking soda has the potential to cause a variety of serious metabolic abnormalities. We believe this is the first reported case of hemorrhagic encephalopathy induced by baking soda ingestion. Healthcare providers should be aware of the dangers of baking soda misuse and the associated adverse effects.

  10. Endoscopic band ligation for colonic diverticular hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Naoki; Setoyama, Takeshi; Deshpande, Gautam A; Omata, Fumio; Matsuda, Michitaka; Suzuki, Shoko; Uemura, Masayo; Iizuka, Yusuke; Fukuda, Katsuyuki; Suzuki, Koyu; Fujita, Yoshiyuki

    2012-02-01

    The number of sample cases of colonic diverticular hemorrhage treated with endoscopic band ligation (EBL) has been small to date. To elucidate the safety and efficacy of EBL for colonic diverticular hemorrhage. Retrospective study. General hospital. A total of 29 patients with 31 colonic diverticula with stigmata of recent hemorrhage (SRH). Urgent colonoscopy was performed after bowel preparation. When diverticula with SRH were identified, marking with hemoclips was done near the diverticula. The endoscope was removed and reinserted after a band-ligator device was attached to the tip of endoscope. At first, EBL was attempted. In patients who could not be treated with EBL, epinephrine injection or endoscopic clipping was performed. Procedure time, rate of hemostasis and rebleeding, complications. The mean procedure time was 47 ± 19 minutes. EBL was successfully completed in 27 colonic diverticula (87%); except in 3 diverticula with a small orifice and large dome and 1 diverticula in which the orifice was too large. Early rebleeding after EBL occurred in 3 of 27 cases (11%). Although 2 cases of sigmoid rebleeding could be managed by repeat EBL or conservatively, right hemicolectomy was performed in 1 ascending diverticulum, in which the bleeding source was not identified on repeat colonoscopy. Scar formation at previously banded diverticula was identified in 7 of 11 patients who underwent follow-up colonoscopy. There were no complications after EBL in any of the patients. Retrospective study. EBL is a safe and effective treatment for colonic diverticular hemorrhage, and colonic diverticula resolve after EBL. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical features of multiple spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao CHANG

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To analyze the clinical features of multiple spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhages (MICH. Methods Conservative therapy, puncture and drainage, hematoma removal and/or decompressive craniectomy were used in the treatment of 630 intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH patients, who were divided into 2 groups: 30 cases with MICH and another 600 cases with solitary intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH. Three months after onset, modified Rankin Scale (mRS was used to evaluate the prognosis of all cases. Results Compared with patients in SICH group, the occurrence rate of hypertension > 5 years (P = 0.008, diabetes mellitus (P = 0.024, hypercholesterolemia (P = 0.050 and previous ischemic stroke (P = 0.026 were all significantly higher in MICH group. The mean arterial pressure (MAP level (P = 0.002 and the incidence of limb movement disorder (P = 0.000 were significantly higher in patients with MICH than those with SICH. Basal ganglia and thalamus were the predilection sites of hematoma (P = 0.001. Patients with MICH had worse prognosis compared to those with SICH 3 months after onset (P = 0.006. Conclusions Hypertension > 5 years, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia and ischemic stroke were identified to be the pathophysiological basis of MICH in this study. All patients with MICH had more serious clinical manifestations after onset and worse prognosis. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.01.008

  12. Two cases of asymptomatic massive fetomaternal hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peedin, Alexis R; Mazepa, Marshall A; Park, Yara A; Weimer, Eric T; Schmitz, John L; Raval, Jay S

    2015-04-01

    Evaluation of fetomaternal hemorrhage (FMH) in the immediate postpartum period is critical for the timely administration of Rh immunoglobulin (RhIG) prophylaxis to minimize the risk of alloimmunization in D-negative mothers of D-positive newborns. We report a series of two clinically-unsuspected cases of massive FMHs identified at our university medical center. Retrospective records of two cases of massive FMH were investigated using the electronic medical record. After positive fetal bleed screens, flow cytometric analysis for hemoglobin F was performed to quantify the volume of the hemorrhages in both cases. Flow cytometric enumeration with anti-D was also performed in one case. The two patients had 209.5 and 75 mL of fetal blood in circulation, resulting in 8 and 4 doses of RhIG administered, respectively. For the former patient, flow cytometric analysis with anti-D ruled out hereditary persistence of fetal hemoglobin and supported the fetal origin of the red cells. Due to the clinically-silent nature of both hemorrhages, further evaluation of the newborns' blood was not performed. These cases highlight the importance of rapidly obtaining accurate measurements of fetal blood loss via flow cytometric analysis in cases of FMH, particularly in clinically-unsuspected cases, to ensure timely administration of adequate immunoprophylaxis to D-negative mothers.

  13. Hemorrhage after transoral robotic-assisted surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, Scott A; White, Hilliary N; Kejner, Alexandra E; Rosenthal, Eben L; Carroll, William R; Magnuson, J Scott

    2013-07-01

    An increasing number of head and neck surgeons have begun using transoral robotic-assisted surgery. Our objective was to examine the postoperative bleeding complications we have encountered to determine risk factors and to discuss the topic of hemorrhage control. Case series with chart review. Medical records were reviewed in 147 consecutive patients undergoing transoral robotic-assisted surgery for any indication at one tertiary academic medical center between March 2007 and September 2011. Eleven of 147 (7.5%) patients undergoing transoral robotic-assisted surgery experienced some degree of postoperative hemorrhage, with 9 patients requiring reoperation for examination and/or control of bleeding. Bleeding occurred at a mean of 11.1 ± 9.2 days after initial operation. Eight of 11 (72%) patients who bled were on antithrombotic medication (anticoagulants or antiplatelet agents) for other medical comorbidities. The postoperative hemorrhage rate in patients taking antithrombotic medication (8/48 patients = 17%) was significantly higher than in those not taking antithrombotics (3/99 patients = 3%), P = .0057. While the bleeding rate in salvage surgery (3/29 = 10.3%) was slightly higher than in primary surgery (8/118 = 6.8%), this difference did not reach statistical significance. Potential for postoperative bleeding in association with antithrombotic medications in patients undergoing transoral robotic-assisted surgery should be recognized. Various effective techniques for management of these patients without robotic assistance were demonstrated.

  14. Remote cerebellar hemorrhage after lumbar spinal surgery

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    Cevik, Belma [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Fevzi Cakmak Cad. 10. sok. No: 45, Bahcelievler, Ankara 06490 (Turkey)], E-mail: belmac@baskent-ank.edu.tr; Kirbas, Ismail; Cakir, Banu; Akin, Kayihan; Teksam, Mehmet [Baskent University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Fevzi Cakmak Cad. 10. sok. No: 45, Bahcelievler, Ankara 06490 (Turkey)

    2009-04-15

    Background: Postoperative remote cerebellar hemorrhage (RCH) as a complication of lumbar spinal surgery is an increasingly recognized clinical entity. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of RCH after lumbar spinal surgery and to describe diagnostic imaging findings of RCH. Methods: Between October 1996 and March 2007, 2444 patients who had undergone lumbar spinal surgery were included in the study. Thirty-seven of 2444 patients were scanned by CT or MRI due to neurologic symptoms within the first 7 days of postoperative period. The data of all the patients were studied with regard to the following variables: incidence of RCH after lumbar spinal surgery, gender and age, coagulation parameters, history of previous arterial hypertension, and position of lumbar spinal surgery. Results: The retrospective study led to the identification of two patients who had RCH after lumbar spinal surgery. Of 37 patients who had neurologic symptoms, 29 patients were women and 8 patients were men. CT and MRI showed subarachnoid hemorrhage in the folia of bilateral cerebellar hemispheres in both patients with RCH. The incidence of RCH was 0.08% among patients who underwent lumbar spinal surgery. Conclusion: RCH is a rare complication of lumbar spinal surgery, self-limiting phenomenon that should not be mistaken for more ominous pathologic findings such as hemorrhagic infarction. This type of bleeding is thought to occur secondary to venous infarction, but the exact pathogenetic mechanism is unknown. CT or MRI allowed immediate diagnosis of this complication and guided conservative management.

  15. Hemorrhage control by microsecond electrical pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, Yossi; Manivanh, Richard; Dalal, Roopa; Huie, Phil; Wang, Jenny; Brinton, Mark; Palanker, Daniel

    2013-02-01

    Non-compressible hemorrhages are the most common preventable cause of death on battlefield or in civilian traumatic injuries. We report the use of sub-millisecond pulses of electric current to induce rapid constriction in femoral and mesenteric arteries and veins in rats. Extent of vascular constriction could be modulated by pulse duration, amplitude and repetition rate. Electrically-induced vasoconstriction could be maintained at steady level until the end of stimulation, and blood vessels dilated back to their original size within a few minutes after the end of stimulation. At higher settings, a blood clotting could be introduced, leading to complete and permanent occlusion of the vessels. The latter regime dramatically decreased the bleeding rate in the injured femoral and mesenteric arteries, with a complete hemorrhage arrest achieved within seconds. The average blood loss from the treated femoral artery was about 7 times less than that of a non-treated control. This new treatment modality offers a promising approach to non-damaging control of bleeding during surgery, and to efficient hemorrhage arrest in trauma patients.

  16. Anxiety and depression after spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Paul Graham; Wilson, J T Lindsay; Dunn, Laurence

    2004-01-01

    Relatively little attention has been paid to emotional outcome after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This study assessed levels of anxiety and depression among SAH survivors and related these to clinical indices. Seventy SAH patients from a consecutive series of neurosurgical admissions participated in semistructured assessments of functional outcome; 52 of the patients also returned standardized measures of emotional outcome. These data were compared with clinical indices collected during the initial hospital admission. Moderate to severe levels of anxiety were present in approximately 40% of patients 16 months after hemorrhage, with approximately 20% experiencing moderate to severe levels of depression. Although anxiety was more likely to be reported at interview by those with an SAH of Fisher Grade 4, the standardized measures of anxiety and depression were not associated with severity of hemorrhage or any other clinical variables. Both anxiety and depression were significantly associated with outcome indices such as return to work and engagement in social activities. Anxiety is a significant and lasting problem for approximately 40% of survivors of SAH. It is suggested that measures taken to prevent or treat such anxiety among survivors of SAH may serve to significantly improve functional outcome.

  17. Computed tomography in hypertensive cerebellar hemorrhage

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    Nose, T.; Maki, Y.; Ono, Y.; Yoshizawa, T.; Tsuboi, K. (Tsukuba Univ., Sakura, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1981-11-01

    Fourteen cases of cerebellar hemorrhage were analysed from the point of CT-scan, and the following results were obtained. 1. The number of cases of cerebellar hemorrhage forms 4.4% of that of total intracranial hemorrhage. 2. Most of the cerebellar hematomas extend upward. Downward extension is rare. 3. In acute dead cases hematomas are 5 cm or more in diameter and lie over bilateral hemispheres with the extension to third or fourth ventricles in CT-scans. 4. Slowly progressive cases are detriorated by the secondary hydrocephalus. 5. In mild cases hematomas are 3cm or less in diameter on CT-scans and the hematoma evacuation is not indicated for these cases. 6. The shunt operation alone is sufficient for the life saving of the slowly progressive cases, but the hematoma evacuation is indicated in these cases if the functional prognosis is taken into consideration. 7. Immediate hematoma evacuation together with the ventricular drainage is considered to be effective for the life saving of the acute fulminant cases.

  18. Rehabilitation Outcomes: Ischemic versus Hemorrhagic Strokes

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    Robert Perna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes have different pathophysiologies and possibly different long-term cerebral and functional implications. Hemorrhagic strokes expose the brain to irritating effects of blood and ischemic strokes reflect localized or diffuse cerebral vascular pathology. Methods. Participants were individuals who suffered either an ischemic (n=172 or hemorrhagic stroke (n=112 within the past six months and were involved in a postacute neurorehabilitation program. Participants completed three months of postacute neurorehabilitation and the Mayo Portland Adaptability Inventory-4 (MPAI-4 at admission and discharge. Admission MPAI-4 scores and level of functioning were comparable. Results. Group ANOVA comparisons show no significant group differences at admission or discharge or difference in change scores. Both groups showed considerably reduced levels of productivity/employment after discharge as compared to preinjury levels. Conclusions. Though the pathophysiology of these types of strokes is different, both ultimately result in ischemic injuries, possibly accounting for lack of findings of differences between groups. In the present study, participants in both groups experienced similar functional levels across all three MPAI-4 domains both at admission and discharge. Limitations of this study include a highly educated sample and few outcome measures.

  19. Un guide colonial. Le Guide du Voyageur au Congo belge et au Ruanda-Urundi A colonial guidebook. Travel guide to Belgian Congo and Ruanda-Urundi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Nicolaï

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Le Guide, qui a connu cinq éditions pendant les dix dernières années du Congo belge, est un archétype du guide colonial. L’article rappelle d’abord la naissance du tourisme en Afrique centrale et ses caractéristiques. Fasciné longtemps par les mythes des Monts de la Lune et des sources du Nil, le tourisme congolais est, au départ, essentiellement élitiste, orienté surtout vers la grande chasse sportive. Gorilles de montagne, ascensions du Ruwenzori, danseurs Tutsi, Parc National Albert, pêcheurs wagenia deviennent les icônes d’un tourisme attiré en ordre principal par le Kivu, les Grands Lacs, Stanleyville et secondairement le Katanga. Le premier guide, édité par Vicicongo, en 1934, s’intitule d’ailleurs Congo-Nil. Tous ces mythes et ces décors se retrouvent dans quelques grands films américains d’aventure du début des années 50.L’article décrit ensuite la genèse du Guide, ses caractéristiques générales, son plan, son contenu. Beaucoup d’informations générales, pas de véritables circuits mais plutôt des itinéraires routiers. Produit par les services officiels d’information de la Colonie, le Guide a, parmi ses objectifs, de montrer la persistance et les résultats de l’action civilisatrice de la Belgique. Il affirme que le Congo n’est pas un pays d’art ni d’histoire et accorde donc une part prépondérante au milieu naturel. Il fournit une image tronquée de son histoire et exprime sur ses habitants les préjugés de l’époque.L’article se termine par quelques réflexions sur les tentatives d’un reporter d’une chaîne de télévision et d’un photographe d’utiliser le Guide de 1958 pour parcourir le pays un demi-siècle plus tard.The Travel Guide to Belgian Congo and Ruanda-Urundi, of which five editions were released during the last ten years of Belgian Congo, is an archetypal colonial guide.The paper first highlights the emergence and the features of tourism in Central Africa

  20. Evaluation of Adsorption Capacity of Low Cost Adsorbent for the Removal of Congo Red Dye from Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dattatraya Jirekar

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Vigna unguiculata seed husk powder has been investigated as low cost adsorbent for the removal of hazardous chemicals like Congo Red (CR dye from aqueous solution. Various parameters such as effect of contact time, initial CR dye concentration, adsorbent dose, effect of pH, zero-point pH were studied. Batch adsorption technique was employed to optimize the process parameter. The result indicated that, the percentage adsorption of Congo Red increased with increase in contact time, dose of adsorbent and initial concentration of Congo Red and decreased with addition of salt. The adsorption of Congo Red was 78% at the optimum pH of 6. Adsorption equilibrium was found to be reached in 24 h for 5 to 25 g/50 mL Congo red concentrations. The Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were found to provide an excellent fitting of the adsorption data.  The adsorption of CR follows Second order rate kinetics. Thermodynamic parameter (δGo showed that it was an exothermic process. This adsorbent was found to be effective and economically attractive. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.17807/orbital.v8i5.834