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Sample records for creutz fermions cut-off

  1. Twisted mass, overlap and Creutz fermions. Cut-off effects at tree-level of perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cichy, K.; Kujawa, A.; Jansen, K.; Shindler, A.

    2008-02-01

    We study cutoff effects at tree-level of perturbation theory for maximally twisted mass Wilson, overlap and the recently proposed Creutz fermions. We demonstrate that all three kind of lattice fermions exhibit the expected O(a 2 ) scaling behaviour in the lattice spacing. In addition, the sizes of these cutoff effects are comparable for the three kinds of lattice fermions considered here. Furthermore, we analyze situations when twisted mass fermions are not exactly at maximal twist and when overlap fermions are studied in comparison to twisted mass fermions when the quark masses are not matched. (orig.)

  2. A comparison of the cut-off effects for twisted mass, overlap and Creutz fermions at tree-level of perturbation theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cichy, Krzysztof; Kujawa, Agnieszka [Adam Mickiewicz Univ., Poznan (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Gonzalez Lopez, Jenifer [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik]|[Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2008-11-15

    In this paper we investigate the cutoff effects at tree-level of perturbation theory for three different lattice regularizations of fermions - maximally twisted mass Wilson, overlap and Creutz fermions. We show that all three kinds of fermions exhibit the expected O(a{sup 2}) scaling behaviour in the lattice spacing. Moreover, the size of these cutoff effects for the considered quantities i.e. the pseudoscalar correlation function C{sub PS}, the mass m{sub PS} and the decay constant f{sub PS} is comparable for all of them. (orig.)

  3. A comparison of the cut-off effects for twisted mass, overlap and Creutz fermions at tree-level of perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cichy, Krzysztof; Kujawa, Agnieszka

    2008-11-01

    In this paper we investigate the cutoff effects at tree-level of perturbation theory for three different lattice regularizations of fermions - maximally twisted mass Wilson, overlap and Creutz fermions. We show that all three kinds of fermions exhibit the expected O(a 2 ) scaling behaviour in the lattice spacing. Moreover, the size of these cutoff effects for the considered quantities i.e. the pseudoscalar correlation function C PS , the mass m PS and the decay constant f PS is comparable for all of them. (orig.)

  4. Cut-off parameters in the one-dimensional two-fermion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apostol, M.

    1982-07-01

    It is shown that the usual cut-off procedure (α cut-off parameter) employed in the boson representation of the fermion field opepators of the one-djmensional two-fermion model (TFM) is an incorrect one as the computator of the hermitean-conjugate field operators at the same space-point fails to fulfil a certain relationship which was pointed out long ago by Jordan. The complete form of the boson representation (including the zero-mode) of a single fermion field and the correct values of the cut-off parameter α is reviewed following Jordan and generalized to the TFM. The cut-off parameter α corresponds to a bandwidth cut-off and Jordan's boson representation is exact only in the limit α → 0. The additional zero-mode terms make the exact solution of the backscattering and umklapp scattering problem to be valid only if a supplementary condition is imposed on the coupling constants. Using the present bosonization technique all the inconsistencies of the TFM are removed. The one-particle Green's function and response functions of the Tomonaga-Luttinger model (TLM) are calculated and found to be identical with those obtained by direct diagram summation. The energy gap appearing in the spectrum of the TFM with backscattering and umklapp scattering for certain values of the coupling constants is shown to be proportional to the momentum transfer cut-off γ -1 which has to be kept finite while α goes to zero. Under such conditions the anticommunication relations and Jordan's commutator are invariant under the canonical transformation on the boson operators that diagonalizes the Hamiltonian of the TLM. The charge-density response function of the TFM with backscattering is perturbationally calculated up to the first order. The cut-off α -1 applies in the same way to terms which differ only by their spin indices in the expression of this response function. The charge-density response function is also evaluated at low frequencies for the exactly soluble TFM with

  5. Backward running or absence of running from Creutz ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giedt, Joel; Weinberg, Evan

    2011-01-01

    We extract the running coupling based on Creutz ratios in SU(2) lattice gauge theory with two Dirac fermions in the adjoint representation. Depending on how the extrapolation to zero fermion mass is performed, either backward running or an absence of running is observed at strong bare coupling. This behavior is consistent with other findings which indicate that this theory has an infrared fixed point.

  6. Fermions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyle Peter

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We present results for the QED and strong isospin breaking corrections to the hadronic vacuum polarization using Nf = 2 + 1 Domain Wall fermions. QED is included in an electro-quenched setup using two different methods, a stochastic and a perturbative approach. Results and statistical errors from both methods are directly compared with each other.

  7. Cut-off Grade Optimization for Maximizing the Output Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Khodayari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the open-pit mining, one of the first decisions that must be made in production planning stage, after completing the design of final pit limits, is determining of the processing plant cut-off grade. Since this grade has an essential effect on operations, choosing the optimum cut-off grade is of considerable importance. Different goals may be used for determining optimum cut-off grade. One of these goals may be maximizing the output rate (amount of product per year, which is very important, especially from marketing and market share points of view. Objective of this research is determining the optimum cut-off grade of processing plant in order to maximize output rate. For performing this optimization, an Operations Research (OR model has been developed. The object function of this model is output rate that must be maximized. This model has two operational constraints namely mining and processing restrictions. For solving the model a heuristic method has been developed. Results of research show that the optimum cut-off grade for satisfying pre-stated goal is the balancing grade of mining and processing operations, and maximum production rate is a function of the maximum capacity of processing plant and average grade of ore that according to the above optimum cut-off grade must be sent to the plant.

  8. Enhanced CT perfusion cut-off sign in midgut volvulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henesch, Stephen M.; Jaramillo, Diego M.; Nance, Michael L.

    2006-01-01

    We present a case of malrotation with midgut volvulus in an infant in which we discovered a unique CT sign called the perfusion cut-off sign. We hope this case will help establish this crucial diagnosis in other cases. (orig.)

  9. Enhanced CT perfusion cut-off sign in midgut volvulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henesch, Stephen M.; Jaramillo, Diego M. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Nance, Michael L. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Surgery, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2006-04-15

    We present a case of malrotation with midgut volvulus in an infant in which we discovered a unique CT sign called the perfusion cut-off sign. We hope this case will help establish this crucial diagnosis in other cases. (orig.)

  10. Defining obesity cut-off points for migrant South Asians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J Gray

    Full Text Available Body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC are used to define cardiovascular and type 2 diabetes risk. We aimed to derive appropriate BMI and WC obesity cut-off points in a migrant South Asian population.4688 White Europeans and 1333 South Asians resident in the UK aged 40-75 years inclusive were screened for type 2 diabetes. Principal components analysis was used to derive a glycaemia, lipid, and a blood pressure factor. Regression models for each factor, adjusted for age and stratified by sex, were used to identify BMI and WC cut-off points in South Asians that correspond to those defined for White Europeans.For South Asian males, derived BMI obesity cut-off points equivalent to 30.0 kg/m(2 in White Europeans were 22.6 kg/m(2 (95% Confidence Interval (95% CI 20.7 kg/m(2 to 24.5 kg/m(2 for the glycaemia factor, 26.0 kg/m(2 (95% CI 24.7 kg/m(2 to 27.3 kg/m(2 for the lipid factor, and 28.4 kg/m(2 (95% CI 26.5 kg/m(2 to 30.4 kg/m(2 for the blood pressure factor. For WC, derived cut-off points for South Asian males equivalent to 102 cm in White Europeans were 83.8 cm (95% CI 79.3 cm to 88.2 cm for the glycaemia factor, 91.4 cm (95% CI 86.9 cm to 95.8 cm for the lipid factor, and 99.3 cm (95% CI 93.3 cm to 105.2 cm for the blood pressure factor. Lower ethnicity cut-off points were seen for females for both BMI and WC.Substantially lower obesity cut-off points are needed in South Asians to detect an equivalent level of dysglycemia and dyslipidemia as observed in White Europeans. South Asian ethnicity could be considered as a similar level of risk as obesity (in White Europeans for the development of type 2 diabetes.

  11. A PROBLEM OF CUTTING OFF THE LAMINATED SEMIS TYPE PLATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Ciofu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A problem often coped on many domains such as wood manufacturing, glass, plastics and metallic platework industry, is the shaping or cutting off a big plate in many pieces. With this purpose there are algorithms of optimizing for positioning the parts following to be cut off from a row plate. From mathematical point of view, in positioning the parts on a raw plate the number of solutions increase four times evrey time a new part is added, and in case of finding the best solution for about few hundreds of pieces or parts would require years of processing on the most performant computers nowadays – for an analogy remember the famous story with the rice beads which the King had to pay to the master teaching him the chess: twice more for each square of the chessboard; for the total quantity assessment, King ascertained that the crops in his whole life wouldn’t have been enough.

  12. Hemoglobin cut-off values in healthy Turkish infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmet Arvas; Emel Gür; DurmuşDoğan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Anemia is a widespread public health problem associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. This study was undertaken to determine the cut-off value of hemoglobin for infant anemia. Methods: A cross-sectional retrospective study was carried out at well-baby clinics of a tertiary care hospital. A total of 1484 healthy infants aged between 4 to 24 months were included in the study. The relationship of hemoglobin (Hb) levels with mother age, birth weight, weight gain rate, feeding, and gender was evaluated. Results: The Hb levels were assessed in four age groups (4 months, 6 months, 9-12 months, and 15-24 months) and the cut-off values of Hb were determined. Hb cut-off values (5th percentile for age) were detected as 97 g/L and 93 g/L at 4 months and 6 months, respectively. In older infants, the 5th percentile was 90.5 g/L and 93.4 g/L at 9-12 months and 15-24 months, respectively. The two values were lower than the World Health Organization criteria for anemia, which could partly due to the lack of information on iron status in our population. However, this difference highlights the need for further studies on normal Hb levels in healthy infants in developing countries. Hb levels of females were higher in all age groups; however, a statistically significant difference was found in gender in only 6 month-old infants. No statistically significant difference was found among Hb levels, mother's age, birth weight, weight gain rate, and nutritional status. Conclusion: Hb cut-off values in infants should be re-evaluated and be compatible with growth and development of children in that community.

  13. Environmental sampling: Issues for the cut-off regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fearey, B.L.

    1995-01-01

    The fissile material cut-off treaty (FMCT) initiative under the Conference on Disarmament mandate is envisioned to include certain aspects of environmental sampling and monitoring. One of the intents of this treaty is to bring certain non-NPT signatories (e.g., threshold states) under this treaty agreement along with the nuclear weapon states (NWSs). This paper provides a brief overview of some of the relevant issues that may be involved in the implementation and use of environmental monitoring for (1) verification of the cut-off regime declarations, (2) the detection of undeclared activities, and, (3) application in non-routine inspections. The intent is to provide backstopping information important for treaty negotiators. Specific issues addressed within this paper include signature sampling, differences in the proposed detection regime, potential signature integrators, specific examples and spoofing concerns. Many of these issues must be carefully considered and weighed in order to create a credibly verifiable inspection regime. Importantly, the cut-off treaty must enable nondiscriminatory implementation, while carefully assuring that nonproliferation treaty requirements are maintained (i.e., preventing unintentional release of critical weapons design information--potentially through environmental sampling and analysis)

  14. On the Cut-off Point for Combinatorial Group Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Paul; Klasner, N.; Wegener, I.

    1999-01-01

    is answered by 1 if Q contains at least one essential object and by 0 otherwise. In the statistical setting the objects are essential, independently of each other, with a given probability p combinatorial setting the number k ... group testing is equal to p* = 12(3 - 5), i.e., the strategy of testing each object individually minimizes the average number of queries iff p >= p* or n = 1. In the combinatorial setting the worst case number of queries is of interest. It has been conjectured that the cut-off point of combinatorial...

  15. Tentative Colistin Epidemiological Cut-Off Value for Salmonella spp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersø, Yvonne; Torpdahl, Mia; Zachariasen, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    . Interestingly, Salmonella Dublin and Salmonella Enteritidis belong to the same O-group (O:1, 9,12), suggesting that surface lipopolysaccharides (LPS) of the cell (O-antigen) play a role in colistin susceptibility. The epidemiological cut-off value of >2 mg/L for colistin suggested by European Committee...... on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) is placed inside the distribution for both Salmonella Dublin and Salmonella Enteritidis. All tested Salmonella Dublin isolates, regardless of MIC colistin value, had identical pmrA and pmrB sequences. Missense mutations were found only in pmrA in one Salmonella...

  16. Physical and cut-off effects of heavy sea quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Knechtli, Francesco; Bruno, Mattia; Finkenrath, Jacob; Leder, Björn; Marinkovic, Marina; Sommer, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    We simulate a theory with two dynamical O($a$) improved Wilson quarks whose mass $M$ ranges from a factor eight up to a factor two below the charm quark mass and at three values of the lattice spacing ranging from 0.066 to 0.034 fm. This theory is a prototype to study the decoupling of heavy quarks. We measure the mass and cut-off dependence of ratios of gluonic observables defined from the Wilson flow or the static potential. The size of the 1/$M$ corrections can be determined and disentangled from the lattice artifacts. The difference with the pure gauge theory is at the percent level when two quarks with a mass of the charm quark are present.

  17. Finite GUE Distribution with Cut-Off at a Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, P. L.

    2018-03-01

    We consider the totally asymmetric simple exclusion process with initial conditions generating a shock. The fluctuations of particle positions are asymptotically governed by the randomness around the two characteristic lines joining at the shock. Unlike in previous papers, we describe the correlation in space-time without employing the mapping to the last passage percolation, which fails to exists already for the partially asymmetric model. We then consider a special case, where the asymptotic distribution is a cut-off of the distribution of the largest eigenvalue of a finite GUE matrix. Finally we discuss the strength of the probabilistic and physically motivated approach and compare it with the mathematical difficulties of a direct computation.

  18. Lattice QCD with mixed action - Borici-Creutz valence quark on staggered sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Subhasish; Goswami, Jishnu; Chakrabarti, Dipankar

    2018-03-01

    Mixed action lattice QCD with Borici-Creutz valence quarks on staggered sea is investigated. The counter terms in Borici-Creutz action are fixed nonperturbatively to restore the broken symmetries. On symmetry restoration, the usual signatures of partial quenching / unitarity violation like negative scalar correlator are observed. The size of unitarity violation due to different discretization of valence and sea quark is determined by measuring Δmix.

  19. Explaining the use of attribute cut-off values in decision making by means of involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peschel, Anne O.; Grebitus, Carola; Colson, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    evidence on consumers’ heterogeneous use of attribute cut-offs with a unique focus on the relationship with consumer involvement, a key component in consumer choice theory. Behavioral data from an online choice experiment on beef steak employing shelf simulations are combined with questions defining...... a latent class model identifies several key consumer segments (e.g., a price sensitive group) based on their choice behavior and reveals that the relationship between involvement, cut-off use and cut-off violations is not uniform across consumer segments....... respondents’ attribute cut-off values and their validated Personal Involvement Inventory (PII). Evidence from the analysis indicates that consumers who are highly involved are more likely to exhibit attribute cut-off values and are less likely to violate their cut-off values. Further investigation using...

  20. On Computations of Duct Acoustics with Near Cut-Off Frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Thomas Z.; Povinelli, Louis A.

    1997-01-01

    The cut-off is a unique feature associated with duct acoustics due to the presence of duct walls. A study of this cut-off effect on the computations of duct acoustics is performed in the present work. The results show that the computation of duct acoustic modes near cut-off requires higher numerical resolutions than others to avoid being numerically cut off. Duct acoustic problems in Category 2 are solved by the DRP finite difference scheme with the selective artificial damping method and results are presented and compared to reference solutions.

  1. Critical test of isotropic periodic sum techniques with group-based cut-off schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nozawa, Takuma; Yasuoka, Kenji; Takahashi, Kazuaki Z

    2018-03-08

    Truncation is still chosen for many long-range intermolecular interaction calculations to efficiently compute free-boundary systems, macromolecular systems and net-charge molecular systems, for example. Advanced truncation methods have been developed for long-range intermolecular interactions. Every truncation method can be implemented as one of two basic cut-off schemes, namely either an atom-based or a group-based cut-off scheme. The former computes interactions of "atoms" inside the cut-off radius, whereas the latter computes interactions of "molecules" inside the cut-off radius. In this work, the effect of group-based cut-off is investigated for isotropic periodic sum (IPS) techniques, which are promising cut-off treatments to attain advanced accuracy for many types of molecular system. The effect of group-based cut-off is clearly different from that of atom-based cut-off, and severe artefacts are observed in some cases. However, no severe discrepancy from the Ewald sum is observed with the extended IPS techniques.

  2. Can semiquantitative measurements of SUVmax and cut-off values differentiate colorectal malignant from benign lessions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tram; Hess, Søren; Petersen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    , which also precludes a clinically significant cut-off value. The same applies to SUVpeak and SUVmean while TLG measures may be more indicative. CONCLUSION: Semi-quantitative measurements of SUVmax and cut-off values proved inadequate for differentiating colorectal malignancies from benign findings...

  3. Normal Limits of Electrocardiogram and Cut-Off Values for Left ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gender difference exists in some cut-off values for LVH. This study defined the normal limits for electrocardiographic variables for young adult Nigerians. Racial factor should be taken into consideration in interpretation of ECG. Keywords: Normal limits, Electrocardiogram, Cut-off values, Left ventricular hypertrophy, Young ...

  4. 76 FR 33161 - Installation and Use of Engine Cut-off Switches on Recreational Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... ``Proposed Rule'' and insert ``USCG-2009-0206'' in the ``Keyword'' box. Click ``Search,'' then click on the... ``read comments'' box, which will then become highlighted in blue. In the ``Keyword'' box, insert ``USCG... add definitions that describe the terms ``engine cut-off switch link,'' ``engine cut- off switch...

  5. Cut-off frequencies of circumferential horizontal shear waves in various functionally graded cylinder shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xiaoqin; Ren, Dawei; Cao, Xiaoshan; Wang, Ji

    2018-03-01

    In this study, cut-off frequencies of the circumferential SH waves in functionally graded piezoelectric-piezomagnetic material (FGPPM) cylinder shells with traction free, electrical and magnetic open boundary conditions are investigated analytically. The Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) method is employed for solving differential equations with variable coefficients for general cases. For comparison, Bessel functions and Kummer functions are used for solving cut-off frequency problems in homogenous and ideal FGPPM cylinder shells. It is shown that the WKB solution for the cut-off frequencies has good precise. The set of cut-off frequencies is a series of approximate arithmetic progressions, for which the difference is a function of the density and the effective elastic parameter. The relationship between the difference and the gradient coefficient is described. These results provide theoretical guidance for the non-destructive evaluation of curved shells based on the cut-off frequencies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of a high-quality cut-off wall using electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawachi, T.; Murahashi, H.

    1991-01-01

    Techniques to build a high-quality cut-off wall have been developed for storage facilities of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) as an emergency measures to prevent leakages. The cut-off wall is highly impermeable, nucleid-adsorptive and have long-term durability. Electrophoresis is used to form impermeable membrane of bentonite as main features of the cut-off wall. First of all, laboratory tests have been conducted to study ways of building barriers on site and to collect data on the barriers properties. Afterwards, on-site construction tests of a high-quality cut-off wall have been carried out. In this paper, we describe the process and results on the studies of the high-quality cut-off wall using electrophoresis

  7. Cut-off frequency of magnetostrictive materials based on permeability spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Hao; Zhang Tianli; Jiang Chengbao

    2012-01-01

    The loss behavior and cut-off frequency of TbDyFe alloy and TbDyFe/epoxy composite have been investigated by measuring their permeability spectra. The loss factor of TbDyFe alloy increases exponentially as the frequency goes up, while it is almost unchanged for the TbDyFe/epoxy composite. The loss factor value for the TbDyFe composite is only 4.3% of that for the monolithic TbDyFe alloy at high frequency of 10 kHz under the peak magnetic induction of 10 mT. The cut-off frequency of TbDyFe/epoxy composite is 6800 kHz, 3 orders of magnitude larger than that of TbDyFe alloy. The cut-off frequency is found to be the ferromagnetic resonance frequency and can be calculated from Snoek's law. - Highlights: ► The cut-off frequency of TbDyFe alloy and TbDyFe/epoxy composite has been investigated. ► Permeability spectra are used to study loss behavior and cut-off frequency. ► A mathematic formula is deduced to predict the cut-off frequency. ► TbDyFe/epoxy composite presents high cut-off frequency of 6800 kHz.

  8. Human papillomavirus testing in primary cervical screening and the cut-off level for hybrid capture 2 tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rebolj, Matejka; Bonde, Jesper; Njor, Sisse Helle

    2011-01-01

    To determine the trade-off between the sensitivity and the specificity for high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia at hybrid capture 2 cut-off values above the standard = 1 relative light units/cut-off level (rlu/co).......To determine the trade-off between the sensitivity and the specificity for high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia at hybrid capture 2 cut-off values above the standard = 1 relative light units/cut-off level (rlu/co)....

  9. The continuous cut-off method and the relativistic scattering of spin-1/2 particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolinszky, T.

    1979-07-01

    A high energy formula, obtained in the framework of the continuous cut-off approach, is shown to improve the correctness of the standard phase shift expression for Dirac scattering by two orders of magnitude in energy. (author)

  10. Surface effect theory in binary alloys: surfaces with cut-off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, V.; Silva, C.E.T.G. da; Moran-Lopez, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    A surface effect theory in binary alloys which ore ordered with surfaces with cut-off is presented. This theory is based in a model of pair interaction between first neighbours and includes long and short range effects. The (120) surface with sup(-) (110) monoatomic cut-off and terrace in the (110) planes of an alloy with body centered cubic structure is presented as example. Results for the concentrations in all the different surface sites are given. (L.C.) [pt

  11. Experimental research on the durability cutting tools for cutting-off steel profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristea Alexandru

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The production lines used for manufacturing U-shaped profiles are very complex and they must have high productivity. One of the most important stages of the fabrication process is the cutting-off. This paper presents the experimental research and analysis of the durability of the cutting tools used for cutting-off U-shaped metal steel profiles. The results of this work can be used to predict the durability of the cutting tools.

  12. Localization of fluctuation measurement by wave scattering close to a cut off layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, X.L.; Laurent, L.; Rax, J.M.; Lehner, T.

    1990-01-01

    The diagnostic of plasma fluctuations in tokamaks based on the scattering of an electromagnetic wave close to a cut off layer is investigated. A linear density profile is considered. An one-dimensional exact analysis is performed. Spatial and spectral localization of scattering process close to the cut off layer is studied and a modified Bragg rule is derived. The structure of pump and of scattered waves is analyzed. The diagnostic seems to be local and sensitive for low R fluctuations

  13. Correlation between Body Mass Index, Gender, and Skeletal Muscle Mass Cut off Point in Bandung

    OpenAIRE

    Richi Hendrik Wattimena; Vitriana; Irma Ruslina Defi

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To determine the average skeletal muscle mass (SMM) value in young adults as a reference population; to analyze the correlation of gender, and body mass index to the cut off point; and to determine skeletal muscle mass cut off points of population in Bandung, Indonesia. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 199 participants, 122 females and 77 males. The sampling technique used was the multistage random sampling. The participants were those who lived in four ma...

  14. Cut-off of electric consumption in France. Assessment of the cut-off potential by process modulation in industrial and tertiary sectors in metropolitan France. Final report + Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertholon, Marion; Streiff, Frederic; Marchal, David; Bouchet, Alexandre; Foucher, Julie-Anne; Hoffer, Alexandre; Millet, Bruno; Sorlier, Pierre; Peron, Nicolas; Creon, Nicolas; Lenet, Sylvain; Guillet, Frederic; Mounier, Cyril; Charton, Franck; Duclos, Herve; Lenain, Yves; MADEC, Marc; Lepretre, Pascale; Vasseur, Olivier; Rigard-Cerison, Aude; Guedou, Benjamin; Houvenagel, Olivier; Epelbaum, David; Briant, Marie-Helene; Osmont, Robin; Elasri, Sofia; Barreyre, Gildas; Adam, Julien

    2017-09-01

    This study mainly aims at characterising and assessing the cut-off potential in the French industrial and tertiary sectors by providing qualitative as well as quantitative elements, and by highlighting the different mechanisms of valorisation of existing and currently developed cut-off. It also proposes a comparison of the French context with that of some foreign countries (notably United Kingdom, Japan, and some regions of the USA). Thus, it comprises an identification and analysis of cut-off mechanisms and practices, an assessment of technical and technical-economic cut-off sources in France, and a discussion of economic and organisational brakes and obstacles to cut-off developments

  15. Classifying post-stroke fatigue: Optimal cut-off on the Fatigue Assessment Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Toby B; Mead, Gillian

    2017-12-01

    Post-stroke fatigue is common and has debilitating effects on independence and quality of life. The Fatigue Assessment Scale (FAS) is a valid screening tool for fatigue after stroke, but there is no established cut-off. We sought to identify the optimal cut-off for classifying post-stroke fatigue on the FAS. In retrospective analysis of two independent datasets (the '2015' and '2007' studies), we evaluated the predictive validity of FAS score against a case definition of fatigue (the criterion standard). Area under the curve (AUC) and sensitivity and specificity at the optimal cut-off were established in the larger 2015 dataset (n=126), and then independently validated in the 2007 dataset (n=52). In the 2015 dataset, AUC was 0.78 (95% CI 0.70-0.86), with the optimal ≥24 cut-off giving a sensitivity of 0.82 and specificity of 0.66. The 2007 dataset had an AUC of 0.83 (95% CI 0.71-0.94), and applying the ≥24 cut-off gave a sensitivity of 0.84 and specificity of 0.67. Post-hoc analysis of the 2015 dataset revealed that using only the 3 most predictive FAS items together ('FAS-3') also yielded good validity: AUC 0.81 (95% CI 0.73-0.89), with sensitivity of 0.83 and specificity of 0.75 at the optimal ≥8 cut-off. We propose ≥24 as a cut-off for classifying post-stroke fatigue on the FAS. While further validation work is needed, this is a positive step towards a coherent approach to reporting fatigue prevalence using the FAS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Epidemiological cut-off values for Flavobacterium psychrophilum MIC data generated by a standard test protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, P; Endris, R; Kronvall, G; Thomas, V; Verner-Jeffreys, D; Wilhelm, C; Dalsgaard, I

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiological cut-off values were developed for application to antibiotic susceptibility data for Flavobacterium psychrophilum generated by standard CLSI test protocols. The MIC values for ten antibiotic agents against Flavobacterium psychrophilum were determined in two laboratories. For five antibiotics, the data sets were of sufficient quality and quantity to allow the setting of valid epidemiological cut-off values. For these agents, the cut-off values, calculated by the application of the statistically based normalized resistance interpretation method, were ≤16 mg L(-1) for erythromycin, ≤2 mg L(-1) for florfenicol, ≤0.025 mg L(-1) for oxolinic acid (OXO), ≤0.125 mg L(-1) for oxytetracycline and ≤20 (1/19) mg L(-1) for trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole. For ampicillin and amoxicillin, the majority of putative wild-type observations were 'off scale', and therefore, statistically valid cut-off values could not be calculated. For ormetoprim/sulphadimethoxine, the data were excessively diverse and a valid cut-off could not be determined. For flumequine, the putative wild-type data were extremely skewed, and for enrofloxacin, there was inadequate separation in the MIC values for putative wild-type and non-wild-type strains. It is argued that the adoption of OXO as a class representative for the quinolone group would be a valid method of determining susceptibilities to these agents. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Raised BMI cut-off for overweight in Greenland Inuit--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Stig; Fleischer Rex, Karsten; Noahsen, Paneeraq; Sørensen, Hans Christian Florian; Mulvad, Gert; Laurberg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is associated with increased morbidity and premature death. Obesity rates have increased worldwide and the WHO recommends monitoring. A steep rise in body mass index (BMI), a measure of adiposity, was detected in Greenland from 1963 to 1998. Interestingly, the BMI starting point was in the overweight range. This is not conceivable in a disease-free, physically active, pre-western hunter population. This led us to reconsider the cut-off point for overweight among Inuit in Greenland. We found 3 different approaches to defining the cut-off point of high BMI in Inuit. First, the contribution to the height by the torso compared to the legs is relatively high. This causes relatively more kilograms per centimetre of height that increases the BMI by approximately 10% compared to Caucasian whites. Second, defining the cut-off by the upper 90-percentile of BMI from height and weight in healthy young Inuit surveyed in 1963 estimated the cut-off point to be around 10% higher compared to Caucasians. Third, if similar LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides are assumed for a certain BMI in Caucasians, the corresponding BMI in Inuit in both Greenland and Canada is around 10% higher. However, genetic admixture of Greenland Inuit and Caucasian Danes will influence this difference and hamper a clear distinction with time. Defining overweight according to the WHO cut-off of a BMI above 25 kg/m(2) in Greenland Inuit may overestimate the number of individuals with elevated BMI.

  18. Lactate clearance cut off for early mortality prediction in adult sepsis and septic shock patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinto, R.; Widodo, D.; Pohan, H. T.

    2018-03-01

    Previous lactate clearance cut off for early mortality prediction in sepsis and septic shock patient was determined by consensus from small sample size-study. We investigated the best lactate clearance cut off and its ability to predict early mortality in sepsis and septic shock patients. This cohort study was conducted in Intensive Care Unit of CiptoMangunkusumo Hospital in 2013. Patients’ lactate clearance and eight other resuscitationendpoints were recorded, and theoutcome was observed during the first 120 hours. The clearance cut off was determined using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, and its ability was investigated with Cox’s proportional hazard regression analysis using other resuscitation endpoints as confounders. Total of 268 subjects was included, of whom 70 (26.11%) subjects died within the first 120 hours. The area under ROC of lactate clearance to predict early mortality was 0.78 (95% % confidence interval [CI] 0.71-0.84) with best cut off was <7.5% (sensitivity and specificity 88.99% and 81.4% respectively). Compared with group achieving lactate clearance target, group not achieving lactate clearance target had to increase early mortality risk (adjusted hazard ratio 13.42; 95%CI 7.19-25.07). In conclusion, the best lactate clearance cut off as anearly mortality predictor in sepsis and septic shock patients is 7.5%.

  19. BANKRUPTCY PREDICTION MODEL WITH ZETAc OPTIMAL CUT-OFF SCORE TO CORRECT TYPE I ERRORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Iwan

    2005-06-01

    This research has successfully attained the following results: (1 type I error is in fact 59,83 times more costly compared to type II error, (2 22 ratios distinguish between bankrupt and non-bankrupt groups, (3 2 financial ratios proved to be effective in predicting bankruptcy, (4 prediction using ZETAc optimal cut-off score predicts more companies filing for bankruptcy within one year compared to prediction using Hair et al. optimum cutting score, (5 Although prediction using Hair et al. optimum cutting score is more accurate, prediction using ZETAc optimal cut-off score proved to be able to minimize cost incurred from classification errors.

  20. Vertical cut-off walls for the containment of contaminated ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jessberger, H.L.; Krubasik, K.; Beine, R.A.

    1997-01-01

    Vertical cut-off walls are widely used for the containment of contaminated sites, where a capping system is not sufficient for the protection of groundwater. Various types of cut-off walls are introduced and new developments are prescribed. Design and testing principles are outlined. Containment techniques are the appropriate measure for old landfills and abandoned industrial sites with contaminated ground and groundwater, too, since the shortage of financial resources in many countries classifies clean-up techniques as too cost intensive in most cases

  1. Secondary proton production at small atmospheric depths as a function of the geomagnetic cut-off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papini, P. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Grimani, C. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); Stephens, S.A. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements)

    1995-09-01

    A detailed calculation of the energy spectrum of secondary protons in the atmosphere is being carried out in the energy range 20 MeV - 40 GeV. In this calculation, it is taken into account all processes leading to the production of secondary protons as a function of the atmospheric depth has been calculated using all relevant energy loss processes. In this paper, it is examine the effect of the geomagnetic cut-off on the spectral shape of secondary protons specially at energies below the geomagnetic cut-off for small atmospheric depths.

  2. Establishing pathological cut-offs for lateral ventricular volume expansion rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael G. Dwyer

    Full Text Available Background: A percent brain volume change (PBVC cut-off of −0.4% per year has been proposed to distinguish between pathological and physiological changes in multiple sclerosis (MS. Unfortunately, standardized PBVC measurement is not always feasible on scans acquired outside research studies or academic centers. Percent lateral ventricular volume change (PLVVC is a strong surrogate measure of PBVC, and may be more feasible for atrophy assessment on real-world scans. However, the PLVVC rate corresponding to the established PBVC cut-off of −0.4% is unknown. Objective: To establish a pathological PLVVC expansion rate cut-off analogous to −0.4% PBVC. Methods: We used three complementary approaches. First, the original follow-up-length-weighted receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis method establishing whole brain atrophy rates was adapted to a longitudinal ventricular atrophy dataset of 177 relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS patients and 48 healthy controls. Second, in the same dataset, SIENA PBVCs were used with non-linear regression to directly predict the PLVVC value corresponding to −0.4% PBVC. Third, in an unstandardized, real world dataset of 590 RRMS patients from 33 centers, the cut-off maximizing correspondence to PBVC was found. Finally, correspondences to clinical outcomes were evaluated in both datasets. Results: ROC analysis suggested a cut-off of 3.09% (AUC = 0.83, p < 0.001. Non-linear regression R2 was 0.71 (p < 0.001 and a − 0.4% PBVC corresponded to a PLVVC of 3.51%. A peak in accuracy in the real-world dataset was found at a 3.51% PLVVC cut-off. Accuracy of a 3.5% cut-off in predicting clinical progression was 0.62 (compared to 0.68 for PBVC. Conclusions: Ventricular expansion of between 3.09% and 3.51% on T2-FLAIR corresponds to the pathological whole brain atrophy rate of 0.4% for RRMS. A conservative cut-off of 3.5% performs comparably to PBVC for clinical outcomes. Keywords: Brain atrophy

  3. Using Cut-off grade isograms to delineate ore body and calculate parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yongfeng; Zhu Xiaobing; Deng Yonghui

    2014-01-01

    Taking a uranium mine for an example, using cut-off grade isograms to achieve automatic delineation of ore body and calculation of parameters are explored. With center line of catalog sampling as baseline, the number of sampling and length of sampling constructing rectangular grid and grade as elevation value, isograms of cut-off grade were drawn, thus achieving the delineation of the ore body. Then, the other parameters of the ore body can be calculated. Compared with the traditional hand drawing method, the work efficiency was greatly improved, and the material inquiry was more convenient. (authors)

  4. Secondary proton production at small atmospheric depths as a function of the geomagnetic cut-off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papini, P.; Grimani, C.; Stephens, S.A.

    1995-01-01

    A detailed calculation of the energy spectrum of secondary protons in the atmosphere is being carried out in the energy range 20 MeV - 40 GeV. In this calculation, it is taken into account all processes leading to the production of secondary protons as a function of the atmospheric depth has been calculated using all relevant energy loss processes. In this paper, it is examine the effect of the geomagnetic cut-off on the spectral shape of secondary protons specially at energies below the geomagnetic cut-off for small atmospheric depths

  5. Selective Binding, Self-Assembly and Nanopatterning of the Creutz-Taube Ion on Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingling Hang

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The surface attachment properties of the Creutz-Taube ion, i.e., [(NH35Ru(pyrazineRu(NH35]5+, on both hydrophilic and hydrophobic types of surfaces were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The results indicated that the Creutz-Taube ions only bound to hydrophilic surfaces, such as SiO2 and –OH terminated organic SAMs on gold substrates. No attachment of the ions on hydrophobic surfaces such as –CH3 terminated organic SAMs and poly(methylmethacrylate (PMMA thin films covered gold or SiO2 substrates was observed. Further ellipsometric, atomic force microscopy (AFM and time-dependent XPS studies suggested that the attached cations could form an inorganic analog of the self-assembled monolayer on SiO2 substrate with a “lying-down” orientation. The strong electrostatic interaction between the highly charged cations and the anionic SiO2 surface was believed to account for these observations. Based on its selective binding property, patterning of wide (~200 nm and narrow (~35 nm lines of the Creutz-Taube ions on SiO2 surface were demonstrated through PMMA electron resist masks written by electron beam lithography (EBL.

  6. Chronic kidney disease : Defining clinical cut-offs for albumin:creatinine ratio

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Stephan J L

    2013-01-01

    Albuminuria is rapidly gaining recognition as a marker of the presence and of the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In a new study, Naresh et al. attempt to define cut-off values for percentage change in urinary albumin:creatinine ratio that reflect changes in CKD status rather than

  7. Prevalensi Sarkopenia pada Lansia di Komunitas (Community Dwelling berdasarkan Dua Nilai Cut-off Parameter Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitriana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia, aging muscle mass loss, and function syndromes can lead to decreased quality of life and increased elderly mortality. The availability of various screening methods and operational definitions in different studies has produced different findings of sarcopenia prevalence. The purpose of this study was to discover the prevalence of sarcopenia in Indonesian community-dwelling elderly based on muscle mass measured by bioimpedance analysis, handgrip strength using hand dynamometer, and physical performance based on six minutes walking test with two different cut-off point parameters of sarcopenia, i.e. the cut-off point recommended by Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS and the cut-off point based on the reference used in Taiwan elderly population reference due to the lack of references for Indonesian elderly population. A cross-sectional study was conducted to 229 participants (71 men and 158 women from the community-dwelling elderly population between August and December 2014 in Bandung and Jatinangor. The results of the study showed that the sarcopenia prevalence in this study based on AWGS was 9.1% (7.4% in men and 1.7% in women while the prevalence based on the Taiwan reference revealed a prevalence of 40.6% (20.1% in men and 20.5% in women. This highly different prevalences shows the importance of defining a specific cut-off point for elderly population in community-dwelling Indonesia to get a more accurate sarcopenia prevalence.

  8. Poverty and cutting off the power: Evaluation of the social contract of the Electricite de France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wodon, Q. T.

    2003-01-01

    Measures put in place by the French Electric Utility, Electricite de France (EDF) to assist those in default of payment of their electricity bills are evaluated. When introduced in 1996, it was expected that the new measures would reduce the necessity of cutting off power to the poor by one third. Notwithstanding these expectations and some progress in reducing the rate of power cut-off, the number of instances where service was denied, has risen. The evaluation is based on the annual survey of poor clients of the EDF undertaken by the Polling Institute Lavialle. The annual survey concerns itself chiefly with the attitude towards the service and the quality of dialogue between the Utility and its clients. The analysis resulted in three conclusions: (1) EDF appears to make progress in dealing with the problem based on evidence of higher client satisfaction and lower rate of cutting off power; (2) there is evidence of important beneficial changes in the policies of local EDF centres; and (3) there is noticeable evidence of improved coordination with social services agencies and higher quality of information made available; both these factors should contribute to higher client satisfaction. In general, EDF is to be congratulated for their efforts to date, for commissioning the survey and for participating in the evaluation. Nevertheless, in France the instances of cutting off electricity to poor households is still a fact of life, despite the commitment and the new measures put in place by EDF. 21 refs., 7 tabs., 1 fig

  9. Establishing Streptomycin Epidemiological Cut-Off Values for Salmonella and Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Migura, Lourdes Garcia; Sunde, Marianne; Karlsmose, Susanne

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to elucidate the accuracy of the current streptomycin epidemiological cut-off value (ECOFF) for Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. A total of 236 Salmonella enterica and 208 E. coli isolates exhibiting MICs between 4 and 32 mg/L were selected from 12 countries. Isolates...

  10. Epidemiological cut-off values for Flavobacterium psychrophilum MIC data generated by a standard test protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, P.; Endris, R.; Kronvall, G.

    2016-01-01

    -1 for florfenicol, ≤0.025 mg L-1 for oxolinic acid (OXO), ≤0.125 mg L-1 for oxytetracycline and ≤20 (1/19) mg L-1 for trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole. For ampicillin and amoxicillin, the majority of putative wild-type observations were 'off scale', and therefore, statistically valid cut-off values...

  11. Cut-off values of distal forearm bone density for the diagnosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The objective of this study was to establish a triage cut-off point or threshold for peripheral bone mineral density (BMD), applicable to black postmenopausal women, and that could be used as a screening method to differentiate between women with normal BMD, and those with possible central osteoporosis.

  12. Normal Limits of Electrocardiogram and Cut-Off Values for Left ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    The cut-off values for Sokolow-Lyon, Cornell and Araoye criteria for assessment of left ventricular hypertrophy. (LVH) were higher than those previously in ... MATERIALS AND METHODS. This was a cross-sectional descriptive ..... criteria, Araoye code system and Ogunlade criterion were derived from the addition of two or ...

  13. Effect of the cut off frequency on rough point and flat surface contacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng, Fan Ming

    2012-01-01

    In the past years, contact between two bodies has been studied from various ways that do not consider the cut off frequency effect on the contact mechanism. This paper reports the correlation between rough point contact and flat surface contact at different cut off frequencies of filter. The similarity and difference between the two types of contact mechanisms are presented for materials with linear or elastic perfectly plastic deformation. The conjugate gradient method (CGM) is used for analysing the rough point contact, while the rough flat surface contact is studied with an improved CGM in which the influence coefficient for the elastic deformation of the rough flat surface is obtained with finite element method. Numerical results show that for the above two types of contacts, their von Mises stress and maximum shear stress are greatly affected by the cut-off frequency of a high pass filter. Moreover, a decrease in the cut-off frequency leads to an increase in the contact area and a decrease in the approach for the rough flat surface contact, while the opposite variations is for the point contact between rough bodies with the small radii

  14. The normative score and the cut-off value of the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonosu, Juichi; Takeshita, Katsushi; Hara, Nobuhiro; Matsudaira, Ko; Kato, So; Masuda, Kazuhiro; Chikuda, Hirotaka

    2012-08-01

    The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) is one of the most common scoring systems used for patients with low back pain (LBP). Although the normative score of the ODI was reported to be 10.19 in a review article, no study has calculated the normative score after adjusting the value based on the age distribution. In addition, none of the previous studies has estimated the cut-off value which separates LBP with disability from LBP without disability. The purpose of this study was to estimate the normative score by adjusting the data for age distribution in Japan, and to determine the cut-off value which separates LBP with disability from LBP without disability. We conducted an internet survey on LBP using the Japanese version of the ODQ. A total of 1,200 respondents, composed of 100 males and 100 females in each age group (from the 20s to 70s), participated in this study. We also asked them to provide information about their backgrounds. We estimated the normative score after correcting for the age distribution of Japan. We also estimated the ODI of those with or without disability, the factors associated with the ODI, and the cut-off value which separates LBP with disability from LBP without disability. The participants' backgrounds were similar to the national survey. The normative score of the ODI was estimated at 8.73. The ODI of the LBP with disability group was 22.07. Those with sciatica and obese subjects showed higher ODI than those without. The optimal cut-off value was estimated to be 12. We defined the normative score and the cut-off value of the ODI.

  15. A geometric classification of traveling front propagation in the Nagumo equation with cut-off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovic, N

    2011-01-01

    An important category of solutions to reaction-diffusion systems of partial differential equations is given by traveling fronts, which provide a monotonic connection between rest states and maintain a fixed profile when considered in a co-moving frame. Reaction-diffusion equations are frequently employed in the mean-field (continuum) approximation of discrete (many-particle) models; however, the quality of this approximation deteriorates when the number of particles is not sufficiently large. The (stochastic) effects of this discreteness have been modeled via the introduction of (deterministic) 'cut-offs' that effectively deactivate the reaction terms at points where the particle concentration is below a certain threshold. In this article, we present an overview of the effects of such a cut-off on the front propagation dynamics in a prototypical reaction-diffusion system, the classical Nagumo equation. Our analysis is based on the method of geometric desingularization ('blow-up'), in combination with dynamical systems techniques such as invariant manifolds and normal forms. Using these techniques, we categorize front propagation in the cut-off Nagumo equation in dependence of a control parameter, and we classify the corresponding propagation regimes ('pulled,' 'pushed,' and 'bistable') in terms of the bifurcation structure of a projectivized system of equations that is obtained from the original traveling front problem, after blow-up. In particular, our approach allows us to determine rigorously the asymptotics (in the cut-off parameter) of the correction to the front propagation speed in the Nagumo equation that is due to a cut-off. Moreover, it explains the structure of that asymptotics (logarithmic, superlinear, or sublinear) in dependence of the front propagation regime. Finally, it enables us to calculate the corresponding leading-order coefficients in the resulting expansions in closed form.

  16. Raised BMI cut-off for overweight in Greenland Inuit – a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Stig; Fleischer Rex, Karsten; Noahsen, Paneeraq; Sørensen, Hans Christian Florian; Mulvad, Gert; Laurberg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with increased morbidity and premature death. Obesity rates have increased worldwide and the WHO recommends monitoring. A steep rise in body mass index (BMI), a measure of adiposity, was detected in Greenland from 1963 to 1998. Interestingly, the BMI starting point was in the overweight range. This is not conceivable in a disease-free, physically active, pre-western hunter population. Objective This led us to reconsider the cut-off point for overweight among Inuit in Greenland. Design and findings We found 3 different approaches to defining the cut-off point of high BMI in Inuit. First, the contribution to the height by the torso compared to the legs is relatively high. This causes relatively more kilograms per centimetre of height that increases the BMI by approximately 10% compared to Caucasian whites. Second, defining the cut-off by the upper 90-percentile of BMI from height and weight in healthy young Inuit surveyed in 1963 estimated the cut-off point to be around 10% higher compared to Caucasians. Third, if similar LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides are assumed for a certain BMI in Caucasians, the corresponding BMI in Inuit in both Greenland and Canada is around 10% higher. However, genetic admixture of Greenland Inuit and Caucasian Danes will influence this difference and hamper a clear distinction with time. Conclusion Defining overweight according to the WHO cut-off of a BMI above 25 kg/m2 in Greenland Inuit may overestimate the number of individuals with elevated BMI. PMID:23986904

  17. Raised BMI cut-off for overweight in Greenland Inuit – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stig Andersen

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity is associated with increased morbidity and premature death. Obesity rates have increased worldwide and the WHO recommends monitoring. A steep rise in body mass index (BMI, a measure of adiposity, was detected in Greenland from 1963 to 1998. Interestingly, the BMI starting point was in the overweight range. This is not conceivable in a disease-free, physically active, pre-western hunter population. Objective. This led us to reconsider the cut-off point for overweight among Inuit in Greenland. Design and findings. We found 3 different approaches to defining the cut-off point of high BMI in Inuit. First, the contribution to the height by the torso compared to the legs is relatively high. This causes relatively more kilograms per centimetre of height that increases the BMI by approximately 10% compared to Caucasian whites. Second, defining the cut-off by the upper 90-percentile of BMI from height and weight in healthy young Inuit surveyed in 1963 estimated the cut-off point to be around 10% higher compared to Caucasians. Third, if similar LDL-cholesterol and triglycerides are assumed for a certain BMI in Caucasians, the corresponding BMI in Inuit in both Greenland and Canada is around 10% higher. However, genetic admixture of Greenland Inuit and Caucasian Danes will influence this difference and hamper a clear distinction with time. Conclusion. Defining overweight according to the WHO cut-off of a BMI above 25 kg/m2 in Greenland Inuit may overestimate the number of individuals with elevated BMI.

  18. Determination of a saliva cotinine cut-off to distinguish pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2007-01-01

    Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women. This consti...

  19. Waist circumference cut-off points for identification of abdominal obesity among the tunisian adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouguerra, R; Alberti, H; Smida, H; Salem, L B; Rayana, C B; El Atti, J; Achour, A; Gaigi, S; Slama, C B; Zouari, B; Alberti, K G M M

    2007-11-01

    Waist circumference (WC) is a convenient measure of abdominal adipose tissue. It itself is a cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes-risk factor and is strongly linked to other CVD risk factors. There are, however, ethnic differences in the relationship of WC to the other risk factors. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal cut-off points of WC and body mass index (BMI) at which cardiovascular risk factors can be identified with maximum sensitivity and specificity in a representative sample of the Tunisian adult population and to investigate any correlation between WC and BMI. We used a sample of the Tunisian National Nutrition Survey, a cross-sectional population-based survey, conducted in 1996 on a large nationally representative sample, which included 3435 adults (1244 men and 2191 women) of 20 years or older. WC, BMI, blood pressure and fasting blood measurements (plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglycerides) were recorded. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was used to identify optimal cut-off values of WC and BMI to identify with maximum sensitivity and specificity the detection of high blood pressure, hyperglycaemia, high blood cholesterol and hypertriglyceridaemia. ROC curve analysis suggested WC cut-off points of 85 cm in men and 85 cm in women for the optimum detection of high blood pressure, diabetes and dyslipidaemia. The optimum BMI cut-off points for predicting cardiovascular risk factors were 24 kg/m(2) in men and 27 kg/m(2) in women. The cut-off points recommended for the Caucasian population differ from those appropriate for the Tunisian population. The data show a continuous increase in odds ratios of each cardiovascular risk factor, with increasing level of WC and BMI. WC exceeding 85 cm in men and 79 cm in women correctly identified subjects with a BMI of >/=25 kg/m(2), sensitivity of >90% and specificity of >83%. Based on the ROC analysis, we suggest a WC of 85 cm for both men and women as appropriate cut-off

  20. Fast beam cut-off method in RF-knockout extraction for spot-scanning

    CERN Document Server

    Furukawa, T

    2002-01-01

    An irradiation method with magnetic scanning has been developed in order to provide accurate irradiation even for an irregular target shape. The scanning method has strongly required a lower ripple of the beam spill and a faster response to beam-on/off in slow extraction from a synchrotron ring. At HIMAC, RF-knockout extraction has utilized a bunched beam to reduce the beam-spill ripple. Therefore, particles near the resonance can be spilled out from the separatrices by synchrotron oscillation as well as by a transverse RF field. From this point of view, a fast beam cut-off method has been proposed and verified by both simulations and experiments. The maximum delay from the beam cut-off signal to beam-off has been improved to around 60 mu s from 700 mu s by a usual method. Unwanted dose has been considerably reduced by around a factor of 10 compared with that by the usual method.

  1. Casimir effect in a d-dimensional flat spacetime and the cut-off method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svaiter, N.F.; Svaiter, B.F.

    1989-01-01

    The CasiMir efeect in a D-dimensional spacetime produced by a Hermitian massless scalar field in the presence of a pair of perfectly reflecting parallel flat plates is discussed. The exponential cut-off regularization method is employed. The regularized vacuum energy and the Casimir energy of this field are evaluated and a detailed analysis of the divergent terms in the regularized vacuum energy is carried out. The two-dimensional version of the Casimir effect is discussed by means of the same cut-off method. A comparison between the above method and the zeta function regularization procedure is presented in a way which gives the unification between these two methods in the present case. (author) [pt

  2. Flocking of the Motsch-Tadmor Model with a Cut-Off Interaction Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chunyin

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we study the flocking behavior of the Motsch-Tadmor model with a cut-off interaction function. Our analysis shows that connectedness is important for flocking of this kind of model. Fortunately, we get a sufficient condition imposed only on the model parameters and initial data to guarantee the connectedness of the neighbor graph associated with the system. Then we present a theoretical analysis for flocking, and show that the system achieves consensus at an exponential rate.

  3. The Cut-off Value of Blood Mercury Concentration in Relation to Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Hoon Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background : Increased blood mercury concentration is associated with inflammation, and chronic inflammation can cause insulin resistance. We examined the cut-off value of blood mercury in relation to an increased score on the homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR. Methods : We used data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008–2010. Relevant data from 5,184 subjects (2,523 men and 2,661 women were analyzed cross-sectionally. General linear analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between HOMA-IR score and blood mercury concentration. In addition, we determined the cut-off value of blood mercury concentration in relation to increased HOMA-IR score (> 2.34 using an ROC curve. Results : The mean value of blood mercury concentration in men and women was 5.88 μg/L and 4.11 μg/L, respectively. In men, comparing to the first quartile, HOMA-IR score increased significantly in the third and fourth blood mercury quartiles. In women, however, the increase in HOMA-IR score was not significant. The cut-off value that best represented the association between increased HOMA-IR score and blood mercury concentration in men was found to be 4.71 μg/L. Conclusion : Blood mercury concentration was associated with increased HOMA-IR score in men, and the cut-off value of blood mercury concentration that was correlated with increased HOMA-IR score was around 4.71 μg/L.

  4. The analytic regularization ζ function method and the cut-off method in Casimir effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svaiter, N.F.; Svaiter, B.F.

    1990-01-01

    The zero point energy associated to a hermitian massless scalar field in the presence of perfectly reflecting plates in a three dimensional flat space-time is discussed. A new technique to unify two different methods - the ζ function and a variant of the cut-off method - used to obtain the so called Casimir energy is presented, and the proof of the analytic equivalence between both methods is given. (author)

  5. Rise time of proton cut-off energy in 2D and 3D PIC simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaei, J.; Gizzi, L. A.; Londrillo, P.; Mirzanejad, S.; Rovelli, T.; Sinigardi, S.; Turchetti, G.

    2017-04-01

    The Target Normal Sheath Acceleration regime for proton acceleration by laser pulses is experimentally consolidated and fairly well understood. However, uncertainties remain in the analysis of particle-in-cell simulation results. The energy spectrum is exponential with a cut-off, but the maximum energy depends on the simulation time, following different laws in two and three dimensional (2D, 3D) PIC simulations so that the determination of an asymptotic value has some arbitrariness. We propose two empirical laws for the rise time of the cut-off energy in 2D and 3D PIC simulations, suggested by a model in which the proton acceleration is due to a surface charge distribution on the target rear side. The kinetic energy of the protons that we obtain follows two distinct laws, which appear to be nicely satisfied by PIC simulations, for a model target given by a uniform foil plus a contaminant layer that is hydrogen-rich. The laws depend on two parameters: the scaling time, at which the energy starts to rise, and the asymptotic cut-off energy. The values of the cut-off energy, obtained by fitting 2D and 3D simulations for the same target and laser pulse configuration, are comparable. This suggests that parametric scans can be performed with 2D simulations since 3D ones are computationally very expensive, delegating their role only to a correspondence check. In this paper, the simulations are carried out with the PIC code ALaDyn by changing the target thickness L and the incidence angle α, with a fixed a0 = 3. A monotonic dependence, on L for normal incidence and on α for fixed L, is found, as in the experimental results for high temporal contrast pulses.

  6. Clinically Relevant Cut-off Points for the Diagnosis of Sarcopenia in Older Korean People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Yu-Ri; Joh, Ju-Youn; Kim, Yeon-Pyo

    2017-11-09

    The optimal criteria applied to older Korean people have not been defined. We aimed to define clinically relevant cut-off points for older Korean people and to compare the predictive validity with other definitions of sarcopenia. Nine hundred and sixteen older Koreans (≥65 years) were included in this cross-sectional observational study. We used conditional inference tree analysis to determine cut-off points for height-adjusted grip strength (GS) and appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM), for use in the diagnosis of sarcopenia. We then compared the Korean sarcopenia criteria with the Foundation for the National Institutes of Health and Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia criteria, using frailty, assessed with the Korean Frailty Index, as an outcome variable. For men, a residual GS (GSre) of ≤ 0.25 was defined as weak, and a residual ASM (ASMre) of ≤ 1.29 was defined as low. Corresponding cut-off points for women were a GSre of ≤ 0.17 and an ASMre of ≤ 0.69. GSre and ASMre values were adjusted for height. In logistic regression analysis with new cut-off points, the adjusted odds ratios for pre-frail or frail status in the sarcopenia group were 3.23 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.33-7.83) for the men and 1.74 (95% CI 0.91-3.35) for the women. In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the unadjusted area under the curve for Korean sarcopenia criteria in men and women were 0.653 and 0.608, respectively (p sarcopenia in older Korean people. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Correlation between Body Mass Index, Gender, and Skeletal Muscle Mass Cut off Point in Bandung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richi Hendrik Wattimena

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the average skeletal muscle mass (SMM value in young adults as a reference population; to analyze the correlation of gender, and body mass index to the cut off point; and to determine skeletal muscle mass cut off points of population in Bandung, Indonesia. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 199 participants, 122 females and 77 males. The sampling technique used was the multistage random sampling. The participants were those who lived in four major regions in Bandung, Indonesia: Sukajadi, Cicadas, Buah Batu, and Cibaduyut. Results: The average appendicular skeletal mass index (ASMI in females and males based on body mass index (BMI were identified. The average ASMI values for normal BMI in females was 5.982±0.462 kg/m2 while the average ASMI values normal BMI for males was 7.581±0.744 kg/m2 Conclusions: A correlation between BMI and ASMI that was considered statistically significant was found in females (0.7712; p<0.05 and a very significant correlation was seen in males (0.870; p<0.05. The cut off points were defined by the normal BMI, which were 5.059 for females and 6.093 for males.

  8. Equilibrium properties of blackbody radiation with an ultraviolet energy cut-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Dheeraj Kumar; Chandra, Nitin; Vaibhav, Vinay

    2017-10-01

    We study various equilibrium thermodynamic properties of blackbody radiation (i.e. a photon gas) with an ultraviolet energy cut-off. We find that the energy density, specific heat etc. follow usual acoustic phonon dynamics as have been well studied by Debye. Other thermodynamic quantities like pressure, entropy etc. have also been calculated. The usual Stefan-Boltzmann law gets modified. We observe that the values of the thermodynamic quantities with the energy cut-off is lower than the corresponding values in the theory without any such scale. The phase-space measure is also expected to get modified for an exotic spacetime appearing at Planck scale, which in turn leads to the modification of Planck energy density distribution and the Wien's displacement law. We found that the non-perturbative nature of the thermodynamic quantities in the SR limit (for both unmodified and modified cases), due to nonanalyticity of the leading term, is a general feature of the theory accompanied with an ultraviolet energy cut-off. We have also discussed the possible modification in the case of Big Bang and the Stellar objects and have suggested a table top experiment for verification in effective low energy case.

  9. A study of full width at half maximum (FWHM) according to the filter's cut off level in SPECT camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Soung Ock; Kwon, Soo Il

    2003-01-01

    Filtering is necessary to reduce statistical noise and to increase image quality in SPECT images. Noises controlled by low-pass filter designed to suppress high spatial frequency in SPECT image. Most SPECT filter function control the degree of high frequency suppression by choosing a cut off frequency. The location of cut off frequency determines the affect image noise and spatial resolution. If select the low cut off frequency, its provide good noise suppression but insufficient image quantity and high cut off frequencies increase the image resolution but insufficient noise suppression. The purpose of this study was to determines the optimum cut off level with comparison of FWHM according to cut off level in each filters-Band-limited, Sheep-logan, Sheep-logan Hanning, Generalized Hamming, Low pass cosine, Parazen and Butterworth filter in SPECT camera. We recorded image along the X, Y, Z-axis with 99m TcO 4 point source and measured FWHM by use profile curve. We find averaged length is 9.16 mm ∼ 18.14 mm of FWHM in X, Y, and Z-axis, and Band-limited and Generalized Hamming filters measures 9.16 mm at 0.7 cycle/pixel cut off frequency

  10. Systematic review of the evidence for Trails B cut-off scores in assessing fitness-to-drive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Mononita; Molnar, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Fitness-to-drive guidelines recommend employing the Trail Making B Test (a.k.a. Trails B), but do not provide guidance regarding cut-off scores. There is ongoing debate regarding the optimal cut-off score on the Trails B test. The objective of this study was to address this controversy by systematically reviewing the evidence for specific Trails B cut-off scores (e.g., cut-offs in both time to completion and number of errors) with respect to fitness-to-drive. Systematic review of all prospective cohort, retrospective cohort, case-control, correlation, and cross-sectional studies reporting the ability of the Trails B to predict driving safety that were published in English-language, peer-reviewed journals. Forty-seven articles were reviewed. None of the articles justified sample sizes via formal calculations. Cut-off scores reported based on research include: 90 seconds, 133 seconds, 147 seconds, 180 seconds, and Trails B cut-offs of 3 minutes or 3 errors (the '3 or 3 rule'). Major methodological limitations of this body of research were uncovered including (1) lack of justification of sample size leaving studies open to Type II error (i.e., false negative findings), and (2) excessive focus on associations rather than clinically useful cut-off scores.

  11. Defining a BMI Cut-Off Point for the Iranian Population: The Shiraz Heart Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Babai

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluated and redefined the optimum body mass index (BMI cut-off point for the Iranian population based on metabolic syndrome (MeS risk factors. We further evaluated BMI cut-off points with and without waist circumference (WC as a cofactor of risk and compared the differences. This study is part of the largest surveillance programs conducted in Shiraz, Iran, termed the Shiraz Heart study. Our study sample included subjects between the ages of 20 to 65 years old. After excluding pregnant women, those with missing data and those with comorbid disease, a total of 12283 made up the study population. The participants underwent a series of tests and evaluations by trained professionals in accordance with WHO recommendations. Hypertension, abnormal fasting blood sugar (FBS, triglyceride (TG and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL (in the context of the definition of metabolic syndrome were prevalent among 32.4%, 27.6%, 42.1 and 44.2% of our participants, respectively. Women displayed higher rates of overall obesity compared to men (based on the definition by the WHO as higher than 30 kg/m2. Regarding MeS, 38.9% of our population had the all symptoms of MeS which was more prevalent among women (41.5% vs. 36%. When excluding WC in the definition of MeS, results showed that males tend to show a higher rate of metabolic risk factors (19.2% vs. 15.6%. Results of multivariate analysis showed that parallel to an increase in BMI, the odds ratio (OR for acquiring each component of the metabolic syndrome increased (OR = 1.178; CI: 1.166-1.190. By excluding WC, the previous OR decreased (OR = 1.105; CI: 1.093-1.118. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve analysis showed that the optimum BMI cut-off point for predicting metabolic syndrome was 26.1 kg/m2 and 26.2 kg/m2 [Accuracy (Acc = 69% and 61%, respectively] for males and females, respectively. The overall BMI cut-off for both sexes was 26.2 kg/m2 (Acc = 65% with sensitivity and

  12. Determination of a saliva cotinine cut-off to distinguish pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne K; Kjaergaard, Hanne; Møller, Lars F

    2007-01-01

    Objective validation of smoking status is necessary. Earlier studies have used saliva cotinine concentrations between 14.2 and 30 ng/ml as cut-off values to distinguish pregnant smokers from non-smokers. However, these cut-offs derive from studies including men and non-pregnant women....... This constitutes a problem, as recent studies have reported an accelerated metabolism in pregnant smokers. The aim of this study was to determine the optimum cut-off cotinine level distinguishing pregnant smokers from pregnant non-smokers....

  13. Defining Glaucomatous Optic Neuropathy from a Continuous Measure of Optic Nerve Damage - The Optimal Cut-off Point for Risk-factor Analysis in Population-based Epidemiology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramdas, Wishal D.; Rizopoulos, Dimitris; Wolfs, Roger C. W.; Hofman, Albert; de Jong, Paulus T. V. M.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Jansonius, Nomdo M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Diseases characterized by a continuous trait can be defined by setting a cut-off point for the disease measure in question, accepting some misclassification. The 97.5th percentile is commonly used as a cut-off point. However, it is unclear whether this percentile is the optimal cut-off

  14. Efficient Closed Form Cut-Off Planes and Propagation Planes Characteristics for Dielectric Slab Loaded Boundary Value Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Zafar, Junaid

    2012-01-01

    The geometrical relationship between the cut-off and propagating planes of any waveguide system is a prerequisite for any design process. The characterization of cut-off planes and optimisation are challenging for numerical methods, closed-form solutions are always preferred. In this paper Maxwells coupled field equations are used to characterise twin E-plane and H-plane slab loaded boundary value problems. The single mode bandwidths and dispersion characteristics of these structures are pres...

  15. Cut-off effect of radical TEMPO derivatives in olive oil-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez de Arbina, Amaia; Rezende, Marcos Caroli; Aliaga, Carolina

    2017-06-01

    Three oil-in-water emulsions were prepared from mixtures of olive oil and Tween 20 in water. The effectiveness of a series of radical 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinoxyl (TEMPO) derivatives of variable lipophilicity in reactions with antioxidant Trolox, and as pyrene-fluorescence quenchers, was compared in the three emulsions. A "cut-off" effect was observed for the pyrene quenching by the probes, but not for their reaction with Trolox. The results were rationalized in terms of the amphiphobic nature of the probes, and the different locations of probe, pyrene and Trolox in the three-phase microheterogeneous systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. European quality assurance and quality control for cut-off walls and caps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jefferis, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    Cut-off walls and caps both may be seriously compromised by small areas of substandard materials or work. Quality assurance/quality control is therefore of crucial importance and the paper sets out the issues that need to be addressed when designing a quality plan for a containment. Consideration is given to the purpose of the containment, the parameters to be controlled, specifications and standards and tests on raw and manufactured materials and on the in-situ containment. It is not the purpose of the paper to give detailed test procedures but rather to identify the questions that must be answered to develop a quality plan

  17. Refining Game Addiction Questionnairs: Evidence for a natural cut-off point?

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Rune Kristian

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents data from a pilot study, which was designed to illuminate critical flaws in the currently used instruments used to measure the prevalence of ‘computer game addiction’. The study found that the prevalence rate could be set anywhere between 23% and 0,6% depending on how the data set is scored. Thus demonstrating how an arbitrarily set of cut-off point in prevalence studies can yield wildly varying prevalence rates. The data further show that making implicit assumptions about...

  18. Attenuation bands and cut-off frequencies for ELF electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauch, J.L.; Lefeuvre, F.; Cerisier, J.C.; Berthelier, J.J.; Boud'ko, N.; Michailova, G.; Kapustina, O.

    1985-01-01

    The propagation characteristic of ELF (10 Hz - 1500 Hz) electromagnetic waves observed on ARCAD 3, in three different zones: low L value (L 6). Unambiguous determinations of the wave normal directions are obtained from the interpretations of the measurements of four (3 magnetic, 1 electric) wave field components. The technique that is used, is based on the Means method in the cases of highly polarized waves and on the Storey and Lefeuvre WDF method in the other cases. A particular emphasis is put on the propagation characteristics of the waves, in a multiple ion plasma, and on the cut-off frequencies which appear at and below the local proton gyrofrequency

  19. Effective moments of inertia and spin cut off parameters in Hf isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razavi, R.; Sharifzadeh, N.; Farahmand, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    In all statistical theories the nuclear level density is the most characteristic quantity and plays a major role in the study of nuclear structure. Most experimental data on nuclear level density have been analyzed with analytical functions of the level density. On the basis of statistical models, the effective moments of inertia and spin cut off parameters have been determined for 176 Hf, 178 Hf and 180 Hf nuclei from extensive and complete level schemes and neutron resonance densities in low excitation energy levels. Then, moments of inertia of these nuclei have been determined by nuclear rotational model. The results have been compared with their corresponding rigid body value

  20. Prospects for a fissile material cut-off: Achieving a successful NPT review process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinowski, M.

    1999-01-01

    Finding new and creative ways to overcome the current deadlock in progress in nuclear arms control became the most important question in the past year. For a long time it had been expected that after the conclusion of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty, the next step would be to ban production of fissile materials for weapon purposes. Three strategies are proposed for reaching relevant cut-off agreements. First suggests possible fore for achievement of relevant agreements, second is the proposal to begin with international register of inventories and production capabilities for all relevant nuclear materials, and the third one is ti identify equivalent steps obligatory for all the parties involved

  1. Azimuth cut-off model for significant wave height investigation along coastal water of Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marghany, Maged; Ibrahim, Zelina; Van Genderen, Johan

    2002-11-01

    The present work is used to operationalize the azimuth cut-off concept in the study of significant wave height. Three ERS-1 images have been used along the coastal waters of Terengganu, Malaysia. The quasi-linear transform was applied to map the SAR wave spectra into real ocean wave spectra. The azimuth cut-off was then used to model the significant wave height. The results show that azimuth cut-off varied with the different period of the ERS-1 images. This is because of the fact that the azimuth cut-off is a function of wind speed and significant wave height. It is of interest to find that the significant wave height modeled from azimuth cut-off is in good relation with ground wave conditions. It can be concluded that ERS-1 can be used as a monitoring tool in detecting the significant wave height variation. The azimuth cut-off can be used to model the significant wave height. This means that the quasi-linear transform could be a good application to significant wave height variation during different seasons.

  2. Age-adjusted high-sensitivity troponin T cut-off value for risk stratification of pulmonary embolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeberich, Anja; Seeber, Valerie; Jiménez, David; Kostrubiec, Maciej; Dellas, Claudia; Hasenfuß, Gerd; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Pruszczyk, Piotr; Konstantinides, Stavros; Lankeit, Mareike

    2015-05-01

    High-sensitivity troponin T (hsTnT) helps in identifying pulmonary embolism patients at low risk of an adverse outcome. In 682 normotensive pulmonary embolism patients we investigate whether an optimised hsTnT cut-off value and adjustment for age improve the identification of patients at elevated risk. Overall, 25 (3.7%) patients had an adverse 30-day outcome. The established hsTnT cut-off value of 14 pg·mL(-1) retained its high prognostic value (OR (95% CI) 16.64 (2.24-123.74); p=0.006) compared with the cut-off value of 33 pg·mL(-1) calculated by receiver operating characteristic analysis (7.14 (2.64-19.26); pvalue of 45 pg·mL(-1) but not the established cut-off value of 14 pg·mL(-1) predicted an adverse outcome. An age-adjusted hsTnT cut-off value (≥14 pg·mL(-1) for patients aged risk (12.4% adverse outcome). Risk assessment of normotensive pulmonary embolism patients was improved by the introduction of an age-adjusted hsTnT cut-off value. A three-step approach helped identify patients at higher risk of an adverse outcome who might benefit from advanced therapy. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  3. Optimised cut-off function for Tersoff-like potentials for a BN nanosheet: a molecular dynamics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Rajesh; Rajasekaran, G; Parashar, Avinash

    2016-01-01

    In this article, molecular dynamics based simulations were carried out to study the tensile behaviour of boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs). Four different sets of Tersoff potential parameters were used in the simulations for estimating the interatomic interactions between boron and nitrogen atoms. Modifications were incorporated in the Tersoff cut-off function to improve the accuracy of results with respect to fracture stress, fracture strain and Young’s modulus. In this study, the original cut-off function was optimised in such a way that small and large cut-off distances were made equal, and hence a single cut-off distance was used with all sets of Tersoff potential parameters. The single value of cut-off distance for the Tersoff potential was chosen after analysing the potential energy and bond forces experienced by boron and nitrogen atoms subjected to bond stretching. The simulations performed with the optimised cut-off function help in identifying the Tersoff potential parameters that reproduce the experimentally evaluated mechanical behaviour of BNNSs. (paper)

  4. Scanning tunnelling microscope light emission: Finite temperature current noise and over cut-off emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalathingal, Vijith; Dawson, Paul; Mitra, J

    2017-06-14

    The spectral distribution of light emitted from a scanning tunnelling microscope junction not only bears its intrinsic plasmonic signature but is also imprinted with the characteristics of optical frequency fluc- tuations of the tunnel current. Experimental spectra from gold-gold tunnel junctions are presented that show a strong bias (V b ) dependence, curiously with emission at energies higher than the quantum cut-off (eV b ); a component that decays monotonically with increasing bias. The spectral evolution is explained by developing a theoretical model for the power spectral density of tunnel current fluctuations, incorporating finite temperature contribution through consideration of the quantum transport in the system. Notably, the observed decay of the over cut-off emission is found to be critically associated with, and well explained in terms of the variation in junction conductance with V b . The investigation highlights the scope of plasmon-mediated light emission as a unique probe of high frequency fluctuations in electronic systems that are fundamental to the electrical generation and control of plasmons.

  5. A specially designed cut-off gamma camera for high resolution SPECT of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, S.A.; Bergstrand, G.; Bergstedt, H.; Berg, J.; Flygare, O.; Schnell, P.O.; Anderson, N.; Lagergren, C.

    1984-01-01

    A modern gamma camera system for Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) has been modified in order to optimize examinations of the head. By cutting off a part of the detector housing at one edge, it has been possible to rotate the camera close to the skull, still covering the entire brain and the skull base. The minimum radius of rotation used was thereby reduced, in the mean, from 21.2 cm to 13.0 cm in examination of 18 patients. In combination with an adjustment of the 64 x 64 acquisition matrix to a field of view of 26x26 cm/sup 2/, the spatial resolution improved from 18.6 mm (FWHM) to 12.6 +- 0.3 mm (FWHM) using the conventional LEGP-collimator and to 10.4 +- 0.3 mm (FWHM) using the LEHR-collimator. No other modification than a slight cut of the light guide was made in the internal construction of the camera. Thus, the physical properties of the detector head are not essentially changed from those of a non-modified unit. The improved spatial resolution of the cut-off camera SPECT-system implies certain clinical advantages in studies of the brain, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-space and the skull base

  6. Defining the optimal cut-off values for liver enzymes in diagnosing blunt liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Tomohide; Hamada, Hirohisa; Nishida, Masamichi; Naess, Paal A; Gaarder, Christine; Sakamoto, Tetsuya

    2016-01-25

    Patients with blunt trauma to the liver have elevated levels of liver enzymes within a short time post injury, potentially useful in screening patients for computed tomography (CT). This study was performed to define the optimal cut-off values for serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in patients with blunt liver injury diagnosed with contrast enhanced multi detector-row CT (CE-MDCT). All patients admitted from May 2006 to July 2013 to Teikyo University Hospital Trauma and Critical Care Center, and who underwent abdominal CE-MDCT within 3 h after blunt trauma, were retrospectively enrolled. Using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, the optimal cut-off values for AST and ALT were defined, and sensitivity and specificity were calculated. Of a total of 676 blunt trauma patients 64 patients were diagnosed with liver injury (Group LI+) and 612 patients without liver injury (Group LI-). Group LI+ and LI- were comparable for age, Revised Trauma Score, and Probability of survival. The groups differed in Injury Severity Score [median 21 (interquartile range 9-33) vs. 17 (9-26) (p tool for CT scan in patients otherwise eligible for observation only or as a transfer criterion to a facility with CT scan capability.

  7. Proceedings from the Fissile Material Cut-off seminar in Stockholm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbman, G.

    1998-01-01

    The Swedish Defence Research Establishment hosted an international expert seminar on the subject of verifying a prohibition of the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons purpose (cut-off) in Stockholm, June 3-5 1998. The objective of the seminar was to provide an opportunity for informal discussions among scientific and technical experts on various technical matters relating to the verification of a future Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT). A stated aim of the seminar was to keep issues of scope to a minimum. Invited speakers and commentators were given an opportunity to present their views as written contributions. The present seminar proceedings are essentially the result of these views. In addition, short summaries of the discussions following each session are included. Although an attempt was made to be as complete and accurate as possible in reproducing these discussions, the editors apologise if some important points or statements have been omitted. If so, the main reason is that the documentation of the discussions were based on written notes, not taped recordings. Eight longer contributions have been separately indexed

  8. Physical Activity Questionnaire for children and adolescents: English norms and cut-off points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Christine; Ogunleye, Ayodele A; Sandercock, Gavin R H

    2013-08-01

    The Physical Activity Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents (PAQ-C/-A) provides general estimates of physical activity levels. Following recent expert recommendations for using the PAQ for population surveillance, the aim of this paper was twofold: first, to describe normative PAQ data for English youth; and second, to determine a criterion-referenced PAQ-score cut-off point. Participants (n = 7226, 53% boys, 10-15 years) completed an anglicized version of the PAQ. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak ) was predicted from PACER lap count according to latest FITNESSGRAM standards and categorized into "at-risk" and "no-risk" for metabolic syndrome. ROC curves were drawn for each age-sex group to identify PAQ scores, which categorized youth into "sufficiently active" versus "low-active" groups, using cardiorespiratory fitness as the criterion-referenced standard. PAQ scores were higher in boys than in girls and declined with age. Mean PAQ score was a significant, albeit relatively weak (area under the curve PAQ scores of ≥2.9 for boys and ≥2.7 for girls were identified as cut-off points, although it may be more appropriate to use lower, age-specific PAQ scores for girls of 13, 14 and 15 years (2.6, 2.4, 2.3, respectively). The normative and criterion-referenced PAQ values may be used to standardize and categorize PAQ scores in future youth population studies. © 2013 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2013 Japan Pediatric Society.

  9. Open Skies and monitoring a fissile materials cut-off treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allentuck, J.; Lemley, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    The Treaty on Open Skies (Open Skies) is intended among other things to provide, in the words of its preamble, means ''to facilitate the monitoring of compliance with existing or future arms control agreements.'' Open Skies permits overflights of the territory of member states by aircraft equipped with an array of sensors of various types. Their types and capabilities are treaty-limited. To find useful application in monitoring a cut-off treaty Open Skies would need to be amended. The number of signatories would need to be expanded so as to provide greater geographical coverage, and restrictions on sensor-array capabilities would need to be relaxed. To facilitate the detection of impending violations of a cut-off convention by Open Skies overflights, the data base provided by parties to the former should include among other things an enumeration of existing and former fuel cycle and research facilities including those converted to other uses, their precise geographic location, and a site plan

  10. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC to Determine Cut-Off Points of Biomarkers in Lung Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi L. Weiss

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of biomarkers in disease prognosis continues to be an important investigation in many cancer studies. In order for these biomarkers to have practical application in clinical decision making regarding patient treatment and follow-up, it is common to dichotomize patients into those with low vs. high expression levels. In this study, receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves, area under the curve (AUC of the ROC, sensitivity, specificity, as well as likelihood ratios were calculated to determine levels of growth factor biomarkers that best differentiate lung cancer cases versus control subjects. Selected cut-off points for p185erbB-2 and EGFR membrane appear to have good discriminating power to differentiate control tissues versus uninvolved tissues from patients with lung cancer (AUC = 89% and 90%, respectively; while AUC increased to at least 90% for selected cut-off points for p185erbB-2 membrane, EGFR membrane, and FASE when comparing between control versus carcinoma tissues from lung cancer cases. Using data from control subjects compared to patients with lung cancer, we presented a simple and intuitive approach to determine dichotomized levels of biomarkers and validated the value of these biomarkers as surrogate endpoints for cancer outcome.

  11. Proceedings from the Fissile Material Cut-off seminar in Stockholm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbman, G. [ed.

    1998-07-01

    The Swedish Defence Research Establishment hosted an international expert seminar on the subject of verifying a prohibition of the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons purpose (cut-off) in Stockholm, June 3-5 1998. The objective of the seminar was to provide an opportunity for informal discussions among scientific and technical experts on various technical matters relating to the verification of a future Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT). A stated aim of the seminar was to keep issues of scope to a minimum. Invited speakers and commentators were given an opportunity to present their views as written contributions. The present seminar proceedings are essentially the result of these views. In addition, short summaries of the discussions following each session are included. Although an attempt was made to be as complete and accurate as possible in reproducing these discussions, the editors apologise if some important points or statements have been omitted. If so, the main reason is that the documentation of the discussions were based on written notes, not taped recordings. Eight longer contributions have been separately indexed.

  12. Projection systems with a cut-off line for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloos, G.; Eichhorn, K.

    2005-08-01

    The lighting systems of a car provide a variety of challenges from the point of view of illumination science and technology. Engineering work in this field has to deal both with reflector and lens design as well as with opto-mechanical design and sensor technology. It has direct implications on traffic safety and the efficiency in which energy is used. Therefore, these systems are continuously improved and optimized. In this context, adaptive systems that we investigate for automotive applications gain increasing importance. The properties of the light distribution in the vicinity of the cut-off line are of key importance for the safe and efficient operation of automotive headlamps. An alternative approach is proposed to refine the description of these properties in an attempt to make it more quantitative. This description is intended to facilitate intercomparison between different systems and/or to study environmental influences on the cut-off line of a system under investigation. Designing projection systems it is necessary to take a delicate trade-off between efficiency, light-distribution characteristics, mechanical boundary conditions, and legal requirements into account. Considerations and results on optical properties of three-axial reflectors in dependence of layout parameters will be given. They can serve as a guideline for the optical workshop and for free-form optimization.

  13. The warm dark matter halo mass function below the cut-off scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Raul E.; Hahn, Oliver; Abel, Tom

    2013-10-01

    Warm dark matter (WDM) cosmologies are a viable alternative to the cold dark matter (CDM) scenario. Unfortunately, an accurate scrutiny of the WDM predictions with N-body simulations has proven difficult due to numerical artefacts. Here, we report on cosmological simulations that, for the first time, are devoid of those problems, and thus are able to accurately resolve the WDM halo mass function well below the cut-off. We discover a complex picture, with perturbations at different evolutionary stages populating different ranges in the halo mass function. On the smallest mass scales we can resolve, identified objects are typically centres of filaments that are starting to collapse. On intermediate mass scales, objects typically correspond to fluctuations that have collapsed and are in the process of relaxation, whereas the high-mass end is dominated by objects similar to haloes identified in CDM simulations. We then explicitly show how the formation of low-mass haloes is suppressed, which translates into a strong cut-off in the halo mass function. This disfavours some analytic formulations that predict a halo mass function that would extend well below the free streaming mass. We argue for a more detailed exploration of the formation of the smallest structures expected to form in a given cosmology, which, we foresee, will advance our overall understanding of structure formation.

  14. Revisiting AdS/CFT at a finite radial cut-off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, Gautam; Nayak, Pranjal [Department of Theoretical Physics,Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005 (India)

    2016-12-22

    We revisit AdS/CFT at a finite radial cut-off, specifically in the context of double trace perturbations, O{sub n}= O(x)(∂{sup 2}){sup n}O(x), with arbitrary powers n. As well-known, the standard GKPW prescription, applied to a finite radial cut-off, leads to contact terms in correlators. de Haro et al. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s002200100381 introduced bulk counterterms to remove these. This prescription, however, yields additional terms in the correlator corresponding to spurious double trace deformations. Further, if we view the GKPW prescription coupled with the prescription in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s002200100381, in terms of a boundary wavefunction, we find that it is incompatible with radial Schrödinger evolution (in the spirit of holographic Wilsonian RG). We consider a more general wavefunction satisfying the Schrödinger equation, and find that generically such wavefunctions generate both (a) double trace deformations and (b) contact terms. However, we find that there exist special choices of these wavefunctions, amounting to a new AdS/CFT prescription at a finite cut-off, so that both (a) and (b) are removed and we obtain a pure power law behaviour for the correlator. We compare these special wavefunctions with a specific RG scheme in field theory. We give a geometric interpretation of these wavefunctions; these correspond to some specific smearing of boundary points in the Witten diagrams. We present a comprehensive calculation of exact double-trace beta-functions for all couplings O{sub n} and match with a holographic computation using the method described above. The matching works with a mapping between the field theory and bulk couplings; such a map is highly constrained because the beta-functions are quadratic and exact on both sides. Our discussions include a generalization of the standard double-trace Wilson-Fisher flow to the space of the infinite number of couplings.

  15. Third molar cut-off value in assessing the legal age of 18 in Saudi population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlQahtani, Sakher; Kawthar, Alemad; AlAraik, Ayman; AlShalan, Ahmad

    2017-03-01

    Teeth plays a major role in forensic sciences especially in age assessment of an individual, which can be used to aid in criminal or civil matters. The importance of teeth comes from their ability to survive inhumation well and because they are hardly affected by exogenous and endogenous factors. Third molars are the only teeth still developing after the age of 14 years and during the legal age of adulthood, which is 18 years. The consequences of criminal violation can strongly affect the individual's life, it is important to set different parameters to decide whether an individual is a minor or an adult in the absence of documents. Depending on the different legal requirement, such parameters can set above 90% probability for criminal matters and from 51% to civil matters. The aim of this research was to find the cut-off value of third molar development for the legal age of 18 amongst Saudi individuals using the third molar maturity index method by Cameriere et al. (2008) [17]. This was a cross sectional study on 300 archived orthopantomogram (OPG) of healthy Saudi patients between the ages 14 and 22 years attending the Dental Hospital at King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. All OPGs were taken by PLANMECA - ProMax machine and evaluated by the Romaxis software. The inclusion criteria were good quality OPGs taken during the course of treatment. All patients were healthy with no systemic diseases or disorders with the presence of third molars and clear root apex. The lower left mandibular third molar (LL3rdM) was assessed using third molar maturity index (I3m) to determine if the individual is younger or older than 18 years old. The cut-off value of I3m for the Saudi population was (I3mage of adulthood in Saudi population and the cut-off value of I3m is similar to other populations. Although dental age assessment by means of third molar development is useful, it still has its limitation because of its variation in position, morphology and development

  16. Simulation of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumor cells using ising model on the Creutz Cellular Automaton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Züleyha, Artuç; Ziya, Merdan; Selçuk, Yeşiltaş; Kemal, Öztürk M.; Mesut, Tez

    2017-11-01

    Computational models for tumors have difficulties due to complexity of tumor nature and capacities of computational tools, however, these models provide visions to understand interactions between tumor and its micro environment. Moreover computational models have potential to develop strategies for individualized treatments for cancer. To observe a solid brain tumor, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), we present a two dimensional Ising Model applied on Creutz cellular automaton (CCA). The aim of this study is to analyze avascular spherical solid tumor growth, considering transitions between non tumor cells and cancer cells are like phase transitions in physical system. Ising model on CCA algorithm provides a deterministic approach with discrete time steps and local interactions in position space to view tumor growth as a function of time. Our simulation results are given for fixed tumor radius and they are compatible with theoretical and clinic data.

  17. Influence of Different Cut-Off Values on the Diagnosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Liepelt-Scarfone

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparable to Alzheimer's disease, mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson's disease (PD-MCI is associated with an increased risk for dementia. However different definitions of PD-MCI may have varying predictive accuracy for dementia. In a cohort of 101 nondemented Parkinson patients who underwent neuropsychological testing, the frequency of PD-MCI subjects and PD-MCI subtypes (i.e., amnestic/nonamnestic was determined by use of varying healthy population-based cut-off values. We also investigated the association between defined PD-MCI groups and ADL scales. Varying cut-off values for the definition of PD-MCI were found to affect frequency of PD-MCI subjects (9.9%–92.1% and, maybe more important, lead to a “shift” of proportion of detected PD-MCI subtypes especially within the amnestic single-domain subtype. Models using a strict cut-off value were significantly associated with lower ADL scores. Thus, the use of defined cut-off values for the definition of PD-MCI is highly relevant for comparison purposes. Strict cut-off values may have a higher predictive value for dementia.

  18. Prevalence and risk factors with overweight and obesity among Vietnamese adults: Caucasian and Asian cut-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinh, Oanh T H; Nguyen, Nguyen D; Phongsavan, Philayrath; Dibley, Michael J; Bauman, Adrian E

    2009-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and factors associated with overweight/obesity among adults in Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) using Caucasian and Asian cut-offs. A cross-sectional survey. In 2005, 1,971 adults aged 25-64 years in HCMC were randomly selected using a proportional to population size sampling method to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity, measured by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference. Multivariable logistic models were used to examine associations between overweight/obesity and socioeconomic status, health-related behaviors, and biochemical indices of chronic disease risk. The prevalence of overweight and obesity using the Caucasian BMI cut-offs were 13.9% and 1.8% respectively, and those with the Asian BMI cut-offs were 27.5% and 5.7%, respectively. The abdominal adiposity rates were higher than the BMI overweight and obesity rates in women, but not in men. Increasing age, low education, high household wealth index, high levels of sitting and reclining time, cholesterol and high blood pressure were significantly associated with overweight and obesity. Current smoking and sedentary leisure time was significantly negatively associated with this status in men. Associations between overweight/obesity and metabolic disorders were evident using both cut-offs. Asian cut-offs identified more risk factors and therefore could be considered for defining at-risk groups. The results highlight the importance of intervention programs to prevent overweight/obesity in young adults.

  19. The Cut-off Values of Triglycerides and Glucose Index for Metabolic Syndrome in American and Korean Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Shinje; Park, Joon Sung; Ahn, Youhern

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to establish ethnic- and gender-specific cut-off values of triglycerides and glucose index (TyG index) for clinical usefulness in a representative sample of Mexican American, Non-Hispanic White, Non-Hispanic Black, and Korean adolescents. The data were collected from datasets of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 1999 and 2012, and the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey between 2005 and 2013. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to find valid cut-off values of the TyG index for metabolic syndrome. The total number of eligible participants was 3,164 in the US and 4,873 in Korea. The optimal cut-off value with the Cook et al. definition revealed 8.55 in Mexican American, 8.55 in Non-Hispanic White, 8.35 in Non-Hispanic Black, and 8.45 in Korean, respectively. The cut-off value with the de Ferranti et al. definition was 8.45, 8.45, 8.15, and 8.35, and the cut-off value with the International Diabetes Federation definition was 8.65, 8.65, 8.15, and 8.55, respectively. These findings may be clinically useful for evaluating insulin resistance for determining metabolic abnormalities in adolescents.

  20. Derivation of the cut-off length from the quantum quadratic enhancement of a mass in vacuum energy constant Lambda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Kimichika; Sato, Hikaru

    2018-04-01

    Ultraviolet self-interaction energies in field theory sometimes contain meaningful physical quantities. The self-energies in such as classical electrodynamics are usually subtracted from the rest mass. For the consistent treatment of energies as sources of curvature in the Einstein field equations, this study includes these subtracted self-energies into vacuum energy expressed by the constant Lambda (used in such as Lambda-CDM). In this study, the self-energies in electrodynamics and macroscopic classical Einstein field equations are examined, using the formalisms with the ultraviolet cut-off scheme. One of the cut-off formalisms is the field theory in terms of the step-function-type basis functions, developed by the present authors. The other is a continuum theory of a fundamental particle with the same cut-off length. Based on the effectiveness of the continuum theory with the cut-off length shown in the examination, the dominant self-energy is the quadratic term of the Higgs field at a quantum level (classical self-energies are reduced to logarithmic forms by quantum corrections). The cut-off length is then determined to reproduce today's tiny value of Lambda for vacuum energy. Additionally, a field with nonperiodic vanishing boundary conditions is treated, showing that the field has no zero-point energy.

  1. From Newton's Law to the Linear Boltzmann Equation Without Cut-Off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayi, Nathalie

    2017-03-01

    We provide a rigorous derivation of the linear Boltzmann equation without cut-off starting from a system of particles interacting via a potential with infinite range as the number of particles N goes to infinity under the Boltzmann-Grad scaling. More particularly, we will describe the motion of a tagged particle in a gas close to global equilibrium. The main difficulty in our context is that, due to the infinite range of the potential, a non-integrable singularity appears in the angular collision kernel, making no longer valid the single-use of Lanford's strategy. Our proof relies then on a combination of Lanford's strategy, of tools developed recently by Bodineau, Gallagher and Saint-Raymond to study the collision process, and of new duality arguments to study the additional terms associated with the long-range interaction, leading to some explicit weak estimates.

  2. Flow rates through earthen, geomembrane ampersand composite cut-off walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tachavises, C.; Benson, C.H.

    1997-01-01

    Flow rates through soil-bentonite (SIB), geomembrane (GM), and composite geomembrane-soil (CGS) cut-off walls were determined using a numerical model of ground water flow. Various geological and wall conditions were simulated. Results of the simulations show that flow rates past all wall types are affected by hydraulic conductivities of the aquifer and underlying confining layer. Flow rates past GM walls with perfect joints are very low, provided the confining layer has low hydraulic conductivity. However, if a small fraction of the joints are defective, GM walls can be ineffective in blocking flow. CGS walls with a low hydraulic conductivity shell are less sensitive to joint defects. CGS walls with good shells typically have lower flow rates than SB and GM walls, even if the CGS wall contains defective joints

  3. The influence of cut off lows on sulfate burdens over the North Atlantic during April, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benkovitz, C.M.; Miller, M.A.; Schwartz, S.E.; Kwon, O.U.

    2001-01-14

    The authors have presented examples from a modeling study of the development of sulfur burdens over North America, the North Atlantic Ocean and Europe during April, 1987 using observation-derived meteorological data to represent the actual conditions for this period, focusing on the influence of cut-off lows on SO{sub 2} and sulfate column burdens over the North Atlantic Ocean. The analysis demonstrates that these systems can serve either as sources or sinks of sulfate, and that the major factor governing their resulting effect is the position during its formative stages relative to (a) sources of moisture, and (b) sulfur emissions, which regulates the availability of sulfur, cloud liquid water for sulfur oxidation, and the amount of precipitation for sulfate removal produced in the later stages of the life cycle.

  4. Percentile curves for body fatness and cut-offs to define malnutrition in Russians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, D. V.; Rudnev, S. G.; Starunova, O. A.; Eryukova, T. A.; Kolesnikov, V. A.; Ponomareva, E. G.; Soboleva, N. P.; Sterlikov, S. A.

    2013-04-01

    Here, we report first results of the large-scale ongoing bioelectrical impedance body composition study in Russians. By the end of 2012, 216 out of 800 Russian Health Centres submitted raw bioimpedance data on 844,221 adults and children aged 5-80 years, representing nearly 0.6% of the Russian population, who were accessed cross-sectionally using the same type of bioimpedance meter, ABC-01 Medas. Estimates of overweight, obesity, and normal weight obesity prevalence in the general population, as well as characteristics of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the conventional WHO BMI-based criteria of obesity depending on age are obtained. The smoothed reference centile curves for percentage fat mass are constructed, and localized cut-offs for fatness and thinness are provided that can be used both at the individual and epidemiological levels.

  5. Determination of the stresses and displacements in the cut off curtain body executed by the > method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snisarenko, V.I.; Mel'nikov, A.I.

    1994-01-01

    Construction of the cut-off-curtain (COC) is analyzed as a possible variant to reduce the rate of radioactive horizontal migration. Such constructions can be executed by the > method. The theoretical analysis of the stress-strained state of the carried out using the methods of the theory of elasticity and of the limit equilibrium of the strewing medium. Theoretical dependences are obtained and formulas for practical calculations of the COC-body stress-strained state in the depth intervals which are of practical interest are suggested. The dependences obtained may be used to calculate the consolidation parameters and filtration coefficients, to choose materials for the COC body, geometrical size and film elements included

  6. Refining Game Addiction Questionnairs: Evidence for a natural cut-off point?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rune Kristian

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents data from a pilot study, which was designed to illuminate critical flaws in the currently used instruments used to measure the prevalence of ‘computer game addiction’. The study found that the prevalence rate could be set anywhere between 23% and 0,6% depending on how the data...... is unique in the field of prevalence studies of computer game addiction both in its design and its findings. The findings and conclusions need to be addressed by future research in the area.......’ from ‘addicted gamers’ by making implicit assumptions about negative effects explicit will cause prevalence rates to drop even further. Unexpectedly, the data from this modified questionnaire provides preliminary evidence for a natural cut-off point that clearly separates addicted play from normal play...

  7. Percentile curves for body fatness and cut-offs to define malnutrition in Russians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaev, D V; Eryukova, T A; Kolesnikov, V A; Rudnev, S G; Starunova, O A; Ponomareva, E G; Soboleva, N P; Sterlikov, S A

    2013-01-01

    Here, we report first results of the large-scale ongoing bioelectrical impedance body composition study in Russians. By the end of 2012, 216 out of 800 Russian Health Centres submitted raw bioimpedance data on 844,221 adults and children aged 5–80 years, representing nearly 0.6% of the Russian population, who were accessed cross-sectionally using the same type of bioimpedance meter, ABC-01 Medas. Estimates of overweight, obesity, and normal weight obesity prevalence in the general population, as well as characteristics of diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the conventional WHO BMI-based criteria of obesity depending on age are obtained. The smoothed reference centile curves for percentage fat mass are constructed, and localized cut-offs for fatness and thinness are provided that can be used both at the individual and epidemiological levels.

  8. India and the fissile material cut-off treaty: policy options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nayan, Rajiv

    2011-01-01

    The international community inside and outside the Conference of Disarmament is underscoring the need for concluding a fissile material cut-off treaty (FMCT). The Indian government, for a long period, has been sponsoring the idea. Notwithstanding the international stagnation, the issue has been instigating periodic debate in India on the Indian approach. The periodic revival of the issue requires that India revisit its policy on fissile material production as well as its approach towards a possible EVICT. This article examines the question: should India's approach to conclude an FMCT be within the UN institutional framework? The new international reality is pushing for a new context, new realignments and a fresh outlook for an FMCT. India should take its own time to support conclusion of an FMCT so that its national interests and security are not adversely affected. (author)

  9. ELISA validation and determination of cut-off level for chloramphenicol residues in honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biernacki Bogumił

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An analytical validation of a screening ELISA for detection of chloramphenicol (CAP in honey was conducted according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and Guidelines for the Validation of Screening Methods for Residues of Veterinary Medicines. The analyte was extracted from honey with a water and ethyl acetate mixture, and CAP concentrations were measured photometrically at 450 nm. The recovery rate of the analyte from spiked samples was 79%. The cut-off level of CAP in honey as the minimum recovery (0.17 units was established. Detection capability (CCβ was fixed at 0.25 μg kg−1. No relevant interferences between matrix effects and structurally related substances including florfenicol and thiamphenicol were observed. The ELISA method should be useful for determination of CAP residues in honey monitoring.

  10. Verification arrangements for the proposed fissile material cut-off treaty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bragin, V.

    2001-01-01

    Since the mid-1950's, an agreement to terminate the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons has been on the agenda. On December 16, 1993, the UNGA adopted Resolution A/RES/48/75/L which recommends ''the negotiation in the most appropriate international forum of a non-discriminatory, multilateral and internationally and effectively verifiable treaty banning the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons and other nuclear explosive devices''. The proposed Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT) is still one of the most important items on the multilateral disarmament and non-proliferation agenda. Successful achievement of the FMCT would be an important step towards the goal of eliminating nuclear weapons. (author)

  11. High cut-off membranes in acute kidney injury and continuous renal replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Zaccaria; Romagnoli, Stefano; Ronco, Claudio

    2017-11-24

    Innovation in continuous renal replacement therapies (CRRT) utilized to treat acute kidney injury (AKI) and sepsis, has brought new machines and techniques. Part of these new advances are due to the availability of innovative biomaterials and the construction of membranes with larger pores and wide distribution of pore sizes. This includes the creation of a new generation of high cut-off membranes whose utilization in clinical practice is promising for the wide spectrum of solutes that are removed during extracorporeal therapies.However, the enlargement of pore diameters brings some loss of albumin during treatment and this effect is still under evaluation, since there is a possibility that this is detrimental for the patient. A thorough review of the available clinical literature is reported in this paper with a reappraisal of the potential application of these new technologies.

  12. Measurement of current drive profile using electron cyclotron wave attenuation near the O-mode cut-off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fidone, I.

    1991-01-01

    A method for determining the radial profile of the lower-hybrid current drive in tokamaks uing electron-cyclotron attenuation of the O-mode for frequencies ω near the cut-off frequency is discussed. The basic idea is that for a given wave frequency, the cut-off plays the role of a spatial filter selecting a variable portion of the non-inductive current. It is shown that the incremental attenuation resulting from a small increase of ω displays specific features related to the current density near the cut-off point. Using the relation between the wave damping and the current density it is possible to determine the radial profile of the current drive from the wave attenuation measurements. A numerical application is also presented for plasma parameters in the reactor regime

  13. Fatigue life analysis of cracked gas receiver of emergency cut-off system in gas gathering station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Junzhi; Zhou, Jiyong; Li, Siyuan

    2017-06-01

    Small-scale air compressor and gas receiver are used as the driving gas of the emergency cut-off system in gas gathering station. Operation of block valve is ensured by starting and stopping compressor automatically. The frequent start-stop of compressor and the pressure fluctuation pose a threat to the service life of gas receiver, and then affect normal operation of the emergency cut-off system and security of gas gathering station. In this paper, the fatigue life of a pressure vessel with axial semi-elliptical surface crack in the inner wall is analyzed under the varying pressure by means of the theory of fracture mechanics. The influences of the amplitude of pressure fluctuation and the initial crack size on the residual life of gas receiver are discussed. It provides a basis for setting the working parameters of gas receiver of emergency cut-off system and determining the maintenance cycle.

  14. Four fermion interaction near four dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinn-Justin, J.

    1991-01-01

    It is known that field theories with attractive four-point fermion interactions can produce scalar bound states: Fermion mass generation by spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking associated with such fermion bound states provides an attractive mechanism for building models of composite Higgs bosons. The ratio of fermion and boson masses can then be predicted while it seems to be a free parameter in similar models where a boson field explicitly appears in the action. The main problem is that the corresponding models are renormalizable only in two dimensions, in contrast with models with explicit bosons. Many fermion models with four-point interaction are asymptotically free in two dimensions and then behave also like renormalizable models in higher dimensions, at least within the framework of some 1/N expansion. On the other hand mass ratio predictions also follow in the models with explicit bosons, when they have an IR fixed point, from the additional natural assumption that coupling constants have generic values at the cut-off scale. To the model with a four fermion interaction one can associate an effective model containing an additional scalar field, renormalizable in four dimensions, which has the same large distance, small momentum physics, at least to all orders in some 1/N expansion. Even the leading corrections corresponding to irrelevant or marginal operators are identical. This property is important in four dimensions where the IR fixed point coupling constants vanish: The correction amplitudes can be varied by changing the coupling constants in the renormalizable model and the cut-off function in the perturbatively non-renormalizable model. We shall consider here for definiteness only the Gross-Neveu model but it will be clear that the arguments are more general

  15. Fractional fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackiw, R.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge

    1984-01-01

    The theory of fermion fractionization due to topologically generated fermion ground states is presented. Applications to one-dimensional conductors, to the MIT bag, and to the Hall effect are reviewed. (author)

  16. Age-adjusted D-dimer cut-off in the diagnostic strategy for deep vein thrombosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Hvas, Anne-Mette

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have indicated that use of an age-adjusted D-dimer cut-off value for patients above 50 years increases utility of the diagnostic strategy for pulmonary embolism. Evidence for the same approach regarding diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is, however, unclear. MATERIALS...... AND METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted following the PRISMA Statement guideline to gather the existing knowledge on the use of an age-adjusted D-dimer cut-off in the diagnostic strategy for DVT. Studies were extracted from Medline and the Cochrane Library. The search period ended...

  17. [Research progress on the clinical value of Ki-67 in breast cancer and its cut-off definition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qing; Wu, Kejin

    2015-08-01

    Ki-67 has an important application value in clinical practice. However, it is still a little tough in clinical application because of the debate on the cut-off definition of Ki-67 index. This review summarizes most studies on the prognostic and predictive value of Ki-67, analyzes the reasons for the discrepancies among the studies cited, and presents the necessity and clinical significance of scientifically defining the cut-off of Ki-67 index, providing a theoretical basis for Ki-67 in clinical application.

  18. Four-fermion interaction near four dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinn-Justin, J.

    1991-01-01

    A large class of models with four-fermion interactions is known to be renormalizable and asymptotically free in two dimensions. It has been noticed very early, in the example of the U(N)-invariant Gross-Neveu model and within the framework of the 1/N expansion, that then these models behave also like renormalizable models in higher dimensions. Some of them are thus natural candidates for composite models of scalar particles like for example the Higgs boson. An important question, however, has to be answered: Are these models more predictive, in four dimensions, than the effective models containing the bosons explicitly? We shall show here that, like for the non-linear σ-model which has been investigated earlier, the answer, at least in some perturbative sense, is negative for a large class of models. The reason can be easily understood: These models are more short-distance sensitive than normal renormalizable models. The new parameters are hidden in the cut-off procedure. In particular in some models the fermions receive masses by spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking. The property that ratio of fermion and boson masses can be predicted is simply a consequence of the IR freedom of both type of models and the natural assumption that coupling constants have generic values at the cut-off scale. We shall consider in this article for definiteness the Gross-Neveu model but it will be clear that the arguments are rather general. (orig.)

  19. Interacting fermions on a random lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perantonis, S.J.; Wheater, J.F.

    1988-01-01

    We extend previous work on the properties of the Dirac lagrangian on two-dimensional random lattices to the case where interaction terms are included. Although for free fermions the chiral symmetry of the doubles is spontaneously broken by their interaction with the lattice and tehy decouple from long-distance physics, our results in this paper show that all is undone by quantum corrections in an interacting field theory and taht the end result is very similar to what is found with Wilson fermions. Two field-theoretical models with interacting fermions are studied by perturbation expansion in the field theory coupling constant. These are a model with one fermion and one boson species interacting via a scalar Yukawa coupling and the massive Thirring model. It is shown that on the random lattice ultraviolet finite diagrams and finite parts of ultraviolet divergent diagrams have the correct continuum limit. Ultraviolet divergent parts can be removed by the same renormalisation procedure as in the continuum, but do not exhibit the same dependence on the lagrangian mass. In the case of the massive Thirring model this causes a fermion mass correction of order the cut-off scale, which breaks the chiral symmetry of the remaining light fermion; there is consequently a fine-tuning problem. In the context of the same model we discuss the effect of the Goldstone boson associated with the spontaneous breakdown of the chiral symmetry of the doubles on two-dimensional models with vector couplings. (orig.)

  20. Appropriate body mass index cut-offs to determine thinness, overweight and obesity in South Asian children in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, J.A. de; Dommelen, P. van; Middelkoop, B.J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Asian populations have an increased risk of developing cardiometabolic disorders at a lower body mass index (BMI) than other ethnic groups. Therefore, lower adult BMI cut-offs to determine overweight and obesity are recommended to assess the associated health risks for Asian (23 and 27.5

  1. Sinus cut-off sign: A helpful sign in the CT diagnosis of diaphragmatic rupture associated with pleural effusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaya, Seyda Ors; Karabulut, Nevzat; Yuncu, Gokhan; Sevinc, Serpil; Kiroglu, Yilmaz

    2006-01-01

    The objective of our study was to describe the 'sinus cut-off' sign at CT in the diagnosis of diaphragmatic rupture in patients with blunt abdominal trauma complicated with pleural effusion, and evaluate its utility in an experimental model. Between January 2004 and March 2005, we observed an unusual interruption of costophrenic sinus at CT in three patients with blunt abdominal trauma accompanied with pleural effusion. This observation prompted us to evaluate the utility of this sign in an experimental model. Laparotomically, we created 2 cm diapragmatic lacerations at each hemidiaphragm in two rabbits and pushed up the abdominal viscera with omentum through the defect. To simulate hemothorax, we also injected 5-10 mL of diluted contrast material into the pleural space. Using a dual-slice helical CT scanner, limited thoracoabdominal CT examination was performed before and after injection of intrapleural contrast material. The images were analyzed for the presence of CT signs for diaphragmatic injury. The left posterior costophrenic sulcus was interrupted in all of the three patients with left pleural effusion. While it was associated with other findings of diaphragmatic injury, the 'sinus cut-off sign' was the sole finding in one patient. The sinus cut-off sign was observed on the CT scans of 100% of the rabbits with a left and right sided diaphragmatic rupture. The 'sinus cut-off sign' is useful and can increase the CT detection of acute diaphragmatic injury associated with pleural effusion

  2. Quantum fields and Poisson processes: Interaction of a cut-off boson field with a quantum particle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, J.; Rideau, G.; Gaveau, B.

    1985-01-01

    The solution of the Schroedinger equation for a boson field interacting with a quantum particle is written as an expectation on a Poisson process counting the variations of the boson-occupation numbers for each momentum. An energy cut-off is needed for the expectation to be meaningful. (orig.)

  3. Spectrally selective solar absorber with sharp and temperature dependent cut-off based on semiconductor nanowire arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Zhou, Lin; Zheng, Qinghui; Lu, Hong; Gan, Qiaoqiang; Yu, Zongfu; Zhu, Jia

    2017-05-01

    Spectrally selective absorbers (SSA) with high selectivity of absorption and sharp cut-off between high absorptivity and low emissivity are critical for efficient solar energy conversion. Here, we report the semiconductor nanowire enabled SSA with not only high absorption selectivity but also temperature dependent sharp absorption cut-off. By taking advantage of the temperature dependent bandgap of semiconductors, we systematically demonstrate that the absorption cut-off profile of the semiconductor-nanowire-based SSA can be flexibly tuned, which is quite different from most of the other SSA reported so far. As an example, silicon nanowire based selective absorbers are fabricated, with the measured absorption efficiency above (below) bandgap ˜97% (15%) combined with an extremely sharp absorption cut-off (transition region ˜200 nm), the sharpest SSA demonstrated so far. The demonstrated semiconductor-nanowire-based SSA can enable a high solar thermal efficiency of ≳86% under a wide range of operating conditions, which would be competitive candidates for the concentrated solar energy utilizations.

  4. A general equation to obtain multiple cut-off scores on a test from multinomial logistic regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersabé, Rosa; Rivas, Teresa

    2010-05-01

    The authors derive a general equation to compute multiple cut-offs on a total test score in order to classify individuals into more than two ordinal categories. The equation is derived from the multinomial logistic regression (MLR) model, which is an extension of the binary logistic regression (BLR) model to accommodate polytomous outcome variables. From this analytical procedure, cut-off scores are established at the test score (the predictor variable) at which an individual is as likely to be in category j as in category j+1 of an ordinal outcome variable. The application of the complete procedure is illustrated by an example with data from an actual study on eating disorders. In this example, two cut-off scores on the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) scores are obtained in order to classify individuals into three ordinal categories: asymptomatic, symptomatic and eating disorder. Diagnoses were made from the responses to a self-report (Q-EDD) that operationalises DSM-IV criteria for eating disorders. Alternatives to the MLR model to set multiple cut-off scores are discussed.

  5. Screening for Internet Addiction: An Empirical Study on Cut-off Points for the Chen Internet Addiction Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hung Ko

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to establish the optimal cut-off points of the Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS, to screen for and diagnose Internet addiction among adolescents in the community by using the well- established diagnostic criteria of Internet addiction. This survey of 454 adolescents used screening (57/58 and diagnostic (63/64 cut-off points of the CIAS, a self-reported instrument, based on the results of systematic diagnostic interviews by psychiatrists. The area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic curve revealed that CIAS has good diagnostic accuracy (89.6%. The screening cut-off point had high sensitivity (85.6% and the diagnostic cut-off point had the highest diagnostic accuracy, classifying 87.6% of participants correctly. Accordingly, the screening point of the CIAS could provide a screening function in two-stage diagnosis, and the diagnostic point could serve as a diagnostic criterion in one-stage massive epidemiologic research.

  6. Anthropometric parameters’ cut-off points and predictive value for metabolic syndrome in women from Cartagena, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo José Mora-García

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To estimate anthropometric parameters’ (APs cut-off points and association for metabolic syndrome (MetS. Materials and methods. A cross-sectional study was carried out with a total of 434 adult women from Cartagena de Indias, Colombia, in 2012. APs measured were waist circumference (WC, body mass index (BMI, body adiposity index (BAI, waist-hip ratio (WHR and waist-height ratio (WHtR. Cut-off points were estimated by a receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC. Logistic regression was applied to estimate possible associations. Results. Cut-off points for WC, BMI, BAI, WHR and WHtR were 85 cm, 28 kg/m2, 39%, 0.80 and 56, respectively. Only WHtR was associated to MetS (OR=1.11, CI95% [1.07-1.15]. Conclusion. WC cut-off point was higher than those proposed for Latin-American women by the Joint Interim Statement (JIS. WHtR had a low predictive value for MetS.

  7. High harmonic generation at the tunneling ionization of atoms by intense laser radiation near the classical cut-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gets, A. V.; Krainov, V. P.

    2018-01-01

    The yield of spontaneous photons at the tunneling ionization of atoms by intense low-frequency laser radiation near the classical cut-off is estimated analytically by using the three-step model. The Bell-shaped dependence in the universal photon spectrum is explained qualitatively.

  8. The Potential of Established Fitness Cut-off Points for Monitoring Women with Fibromyalgia : The al-Ándalus Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro-Piñero, José; Aparicio, Virginia A; Estévez-López, Fernando; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Borges-Cosic, Milkana; Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determinate whether fitness cut-off points discriminate the severity of major fibromyalgia symptoms and health-related quality of life. Additionally, we investigated which American Colleague of Rheumatology (ACR) fibromyalgia criteria (1990 vs. modified 2010)

  9. Interannual rainfall variability over the Cape south coast of South Africa linked to cut-off low associated rainfall

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Engelbrecht, CJ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The influence of cut-off low (COL) associated rainfall on interannual rainfall variability over the Cape south coast region of South Africa for the period 1979-2011 is investigated. COLs are objectively identified and tracked on daily average 500 h...

  10. The mysterious age invariance of the planetary nebula luminosity function bright cut-off

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesicki, K.; Zijlstra, A. A.; Miller Bertolami, M. M.

    2018-05-01

    Planetary nebulae mark the end of the active life of 90% of all stars. They trace the transition from a red giant to a degenerate white dwarf. Stellar models1,2 predicted that only stars above approximately twice the solar mass could form a bright nebula. But the ubiquitous presence of bright planetary nebulae in old stellar populations, such as elliptical galaxies, contradicts this: such high-mass stars are not present in old systems. The planetary nebula luminosity function, and especially its bright cut-off, is almost invariant between young spiral galaxies, with high-mass stars, and old elliptical galaxies, with only low-mass stars. Here, we show that new evolutionary tracks of low-mass stars are capable of explaining in a simple manner this decades-old mystery. The agreement between the observed luminosity function and computed stellar evolution validates the latest theoretical modelling. With these models, the planetary nebula luminosity function provides a powerful diagnostic to derive star formation histories of intermediate-age stars. The new models predict that the Sun at the end of its life will also form a planetary nebula, but it will be faint.

  11. Detection of cut-off point for rapid automized naming test in good readers and dyslexics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Soleymani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Rapid automized naming test is an appropriate tool to diagnose learning disability even before teaching reading. This study aimed to detect the cut-off point of this test for good readers and dyslexics.Methods: The test has 4 parts including: objects, colors, numbers and letters. 5 items are repeated on cards randomly for 10 times. Children were asked to name items rapidly. We studied 18 dyslexic students and 18 age-matched good readers between 7 and 8 years of age at second and third grades of elementary school; they were recruited by non-randomize sampling into 2 groups: children with developmental dyslexia from learning disabilities centers with mean age of 100 months, and normal children with mean age of 107 months from general schools in Tehran. Good readers selected from the same class of dyslexics.Results: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.849 for letter naming, 0.892 for color naming, 0.971 for number naming, 0.887 for picture naming, and 0.965 totally. The overall sensitivity and specificity was 1 and was 0.79, respectively. The highest sensitivity and specificity were related to number naming (1 and 0.90, respectively.Conclusion: Findings showed that the rapid automized naming test could diagnose good readers from dyslexics appropriately.

  12. Spinal sagittal contour affecting falls: cut-off value of the lumbar spine for falls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Yoshinori; Miyakoshi, Naohisa; Kasukawa, Yuji; Hongo, Michio; Shimada, Yoichi

    2013-06-01

    Spinal deformities reportedly affect postural instability or falls. To prevent falls in clinical settings, the determination of a cut-off angle of spinal sagittal contour associated with increase risk for falls would be useful for screening for high-risk fallers. The purpose of this study was to calculate the spinal sagittal contour angle associated with increased risk for falls during medical checkups in community dwelling elders. The subjects comprised 213 patients (57 men, 156 women) with a mean age of 70.1 years (range, 55-85 years). The upright and flexion/extension thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis angles, and the spinal inclination were evaluated with SpinalMouse(®). Postural instability was evaluated by stabilometry, using the total track length (LNG), enveloped areas (ENV), and track lengths in the lateral and anteroposterior directions (X LNG and Y LNG, respectively). The back extensor strength (BES) was measured using a strain-gauge dynamometer. The relationships among the parameters were analyzed statistically. Age, lumbar lordosis, spinal inclination, LNG, X LNG, Y LNG, and BES were significantly associated with falls (Pfalls about lumbar lordosis angles revealed that angles of 3° and less were significant for falls. The present findings suggest that increased age, spinal inclination, LNG, X LNG, Y LNG, and decreased BES and lumbar lordosis, are associated with falls. An angle of lumbar lordosis of 3° or less was associated with falls in these community-dwelling elders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cut-off scaling and multiplicative reformalization in the theory of critical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forgacs, G.; Solyom, J.; Zawadowski, A.

    1976-03-01

    In the paper a new method to study the critical fluctuations in systems of 4-epsilon dimensions around the phase transition point is developed. This method unifies the Kadanoff scaling hypothesis as formulated by Wilson by help of his renormalization group technique and the simple mathematical structure of the Lie equations of the Gell-Mann-Low multiplicative renormalization. The basic idea of the new method is that a change in the physical cut-off can be compensated by an effective coupling in such a way that the Green's function and vertex in the original and transformed system differ only by a multiplicative factor. The critical indices, the anomalous dimensions and the critical exponent describing the correction to scaling are determined to second order in epsilon. The specific heat exponent is also calculated, in four dimensions the effect of fluctuations appears in the form of logarithmic corrections. In the last sections the new method is compared to other ones and the differences are discussed. (Sz.N.Z.)

  14. Accuracy of Cameriere's cut-off value for third molar in assessing 18 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, S; Biagi, R; Begnoni, G; Farronato, G; Cingolani, M; Merelli, V; Ferrante, L; Cameriere, R

    2014-02-01

    Due to increasingly numerous international migrations, estimating the age of unaccompanied minors is becoming of enormous significance for forensic professionals who are required to deliver expert opinions. The third molar tooth is one of the few anatomical sites available for estimating the age of individuals in late adolescence. This study verifies the accuracy of Cameriere's cut-off value of the third molar index (I3M) in assessing 18 years of age. For this purpose, a sample of orthopantomographs (OPTs) of 397 living subjects aged between 13 and 22 years (192 female and 205 male) was analyzed. Age distribution gradually decreases as I3M increases in both males and females. The results show that the sensitivity of the test was 86.6%, with a 95% confidence interval of (80.8%, 91.1%), and its specificity was 95.7%, with a 95% confidence interval of (92.1%, 98%). The proportion of correctly classified individuals was 91.4%. Estimated post-test probability, p was 95.6%, with a 95% confidence interval of (92%, 98%). Hence, the probability that a subject positive on the test (i.e., I3Mage or older was 95.6%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Verification of a Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT): The Potential Role of the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Jin Ho

    2016-01-01

    The objective of a future verification of a FMCT(Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty) is to deter and detect non-compliance with treaty obligations in a timely and non-discriminatory manner with regard to banning the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons or other nuclear devices. Since the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has already established the IAEA safeguards as a verification system mainly for Non -Nuclear Weapon States (NNWSs), it is expected that the IAEA's experience and expertise in this field will make a significant contribution to setting up a future treaty's verification regime. This paper is designed to explore the potential role of the IAEA in verifying the future treaty by analyzing verification abilities of the Agency in terms of treaty verification and expected challenges. Furthermore, the concept of multilateral verification that could be facilitated by the IAEA will be examined as a measure of providing a credible assurance of compliance with a future treaty. In this circumstance, it is necessary for the IAEA to be prepared for playing a leading role in FMCT verifications as a form of multilateral verification by taking advantage of its existing verification concepts, methods, and tools. Also, several challenges that the Agency faces today need to be overcome, including dealing with sensitive and proliferative information, attribution of fissile materials, lack of verification experience in military fuel cycle facilities, and different attitude and culture towards verification between NWSs and NNWSs

  16. Solute removal capacity of high cut-off membrane plasma separators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkubo, Atsushi; Kurashima, Naoki; Nakamura, Ayako; Miyamoto, Satoko; Iimori, Soichiro; Rai, Tatemitsu

    2013-10-01

    In vitro blood filtration was performed by a closed circuit using high cut-off membrane plasma separators, EVACURE EC-2A10 (EC-2A) and EVACURE EC-4A10 (EC-4A). Samples were obtained from sampling sites before the plasma separator, after each plasma separator, and from the ultrafiltrate of each separator. The sieving coefficient (S.C.) of total protein (TP), albumin (Alb), IgG, interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), fibrinogen (Fib), antithrombin III (AT-III), and coagulation factor XIII (FXIII) were calculated. The S.C. of each solute using EC-2A and EC-A4 were as follows; TP: 0.25 and 0.56, Alb: 0.32 and 0.73, IgG: 0.16 and 0.50, IL-6:0.73 and 0.95, IL-8:0.85 and 0.82, TNF-α: 1.07 and 0.99, Fib: 0 and 0, FXIII: 0.07 and 0.17, respectively. When compared with the conventional type of membrane plasma separators, EVACURE could efficiently remove cytokines while retaining coagulation factors such as fibrinogen. Moreover, EC-2A prevented protein loss, whereas EC-4A could remove approximately 50% of IgG. © 2013 The Authors. Therapeutic Apheresis and Dialysis © 2013 International Society for Apheresis.

  17. Verification of a Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT): The Potential Role of the IAEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Jin Ho [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The objective of a future verification of a FMCT(Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty) is to deter and detect non-compliance with treaty obligations in a timely and non-discriminatory manner with regard to banning the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons or other nuclear devices. Since the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has already established the IAEA safeguards as a verification system mainly for Non -Nuclear Weapon States (NNWSs), it is expected that the IAEA's experience and expertise in this field will make a significant contribution to setting up a future treaty's verification regime. This paper is designed to explore the potential role of the IAEA in verifying the future treaty by analyzing verification abilities of the Agency in terms of treaty verification and expected challenges. Furthermore, the concept of multilateral verification that could be facilitated by the IAEA will be examined as a measure of providing a credible assurance of compliance with a future treaty. In this circumstance, it is necessary for the IAEA to be prepared for playing a leading role in FMCT verifications as a form of multilateral verification by taking advantage of its existing verification concepts, methods, and tools. Also, several challenges that the Agency faces today need to be overcome, including dealing with sensitive and proliferative information, attribution of fissile materials, lack of verification experience in military fuel cycle facilities, and different attitude and culture towards verification between NWSs and NNWSs.

  18. Body mass index and waist-to-height ratio cut-offs as predictors of high blood pressure in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurnia Febriana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity is associated with increased risk for high blood pressure (BP. Although a routine BP measurement is indicated for all children visiting pediatric practice, recognition of children particularly at risk may save times. The aim of this study was to assess the cut-off point for body mass index (BMI and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR to predict high BP in adolescents. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study on 928 children aged 11 to 16 years in Yogyakarta. BP were measured using standard technique described by The Fourth Report on The Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. BMI was adjusted for age and sex using the WHO 2007 growth reference. WHtR was ratio of waist circumference related to height in centimeters. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves were used to estimate the best cut-offs. Results: The best cut-off point for BMI-for-age Z-score (BMIZ to predict high BP was 0.51 with sensitivity and specificity of 82% (95% CI = 78-86 and 76% (95% CI = 67-78 for systolic BP and sensitivity and specificity of 82% (95% CI = 78-86 and 72% (95% CI = 68-76 for diastolic BP. The best cut-off point for WHtR was 0.45, with sensitivity of 76% (95% CI = 67-78 and specificity of 74% (95% CI = 71-79 for systolic BP and sensitivity of 76% (95% CI = 72-80 and specificity of 70% (95% CI = 61-75 for diastolic BP.Conclusion: BMIZ of 0.51 and WHtR of 0.45 are the best cut-off point to predict high BP in adolescents.

  19. The Portuguese version of the Outcome Questionnaire (OQ-45): Normative data, reliability, and clinical significance cut-offs scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Paulo P P; Fassnacht, Daniel B

    2015-12-01

    The Outcome Questionnaire (OQ-45) is one of the most extensively used standardized self-report instruments to monitor psychotherapy outcomes. The questionnaire is designed specifically for the assessment of change during psychotherapy treatments. Therefore, it is crucial to provide norms and clinical cut-off values for clinicians and researchers. The current study aims at providing study provides norms, reliability indices, and clinical cut-off values for the Portuguese version of the scale. Data from two large non-clinical samples (high school/university, N = 1,669; community, N = 879) and one clinical sample (n = 201) were used to investigate psychometric properties and derive normative data for all OQ-45 subscales and the total score. Significant and substantial differences were found for all subscales between the clinical and non-clinical sample. The Portuguese version also showed adequate reliabilities (internal consistency, test-retest), which were comparable to the original version. To assess individual clinical change, clinical cut-off values and reliable change indices were calculated allowing clinicians and researchers to monitor and evaluate clients' individual change. The Portuguese version of the OQ-45 is a reliable instrument with comparable Portuguese norms and cut-off scores to those from the original version. This allows clinicians and researchers to use this instrument for evaluating change and outcome in psychotherapy. This study provides norms for non-clinical and clinical Portuguese samples and investigates the reliability (internal consistency and test-retest) of the OQ-45. Cut-off values and reliable change index are provided allowing clinicians to evaluate clinical change and clients' response to treatment, monitoring the quality of mental health care services. These can be used, in routine clinical practice, as benchmarks for treatment progress and to empirically base clinical decisions such as continuation of treatment or considering

  20. ELISA Cut-off Point for the Diagnosis of Human Brucellosis; a Comparison with Serum Agglutination Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Sanaei Dashti

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis is a world-wide disease, which has a diverse clinical manifestation, and its diagnosis has to be proven by laboratory data. Serum agglutination test (SAT is the most-widely used test for diagnosing brucellosis. The enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA can also determine specific antibody classes against brucella. It is a sensitive, simple and rapid test, which could be an acceptable alternative to SAT with fewer limitations, however, like any other new test it should be further evaluated and standardized for various populations. This study was planned to determine an optimal cut-off point, for ELISA which would offer maximum sensitivity and specificity for the test when compared to SAT.Methods: Four hundred and seven patients with fever and other compatible symptoms of brucellosis were enrolled in the study. Serum agglutination test, 2-Mercaptoethanol test, and ELISA were performed on their sera. Results: The cut-off point of 53 IU/ml of ELISA-IgG yielded the maximal sensitivity and specificity comparing to the other levels of ELISA-IgG, and was considered the best cut off-point of ELISA-IgG to diagnose acute brucellosis. At this cut-off, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio were 84.09%, 85.38%, 62.20, 94.90, 5.75, 0.18, respectively.Conclusion: The best cut-off point of ELISA-IgG is 53 IU/ml, which yields the maximal sensitivity and specificity to diagnose acute brucellosis.

  1. Linezolid extracorporeal removal during haemodialysis with high cut-off membrane in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa, Gianluca; Cassetta, Maria Iris; Tofani, Lorenzo; Valente, Serafina; Chelazzi, Cosimo; Falsini, Silvia; De Gaudio, Angelo Raffaele; Novelli, Andrea; Ronco, Claudio; Adembri, Chiara

    2015-10-01

    Continuous venovenous haemodialysis with high cut-off membrane (HCO-CVVHD) is often used in critically ill septic patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) to sustain renal function and to remove circulating inflammatory mediators. The aim of this study was to analyse the extracorporeal removal of linezolid and related alterations in pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) parameters during HCO-CVVHD. Three critically ill septic patients with AKI, treated with linezolid and HCO-CVVHD, were prospectively observed. To calculate the extracorporeal clearance of linezolid and the PK parameters, effluent, pre-filter and post-filter samples were contemporaneously collected before linezolid infusion, just after 1-h infusion (maximum serum concentration; C(max)), at 3 h and 6 h after dosing, and before the next dose (trough serum concentration; C(min)). Linezolid C(max) and C(min) (pre-filter) ranged from 10.4-23.5 mg/L and from 2.9-10.3 mg/L. The dialysate saturation coefficient was 0.66-0.85 and the extracorporeal clearance with a diffusive dose of 35 m L/kg/h ranged from 2.1-2.5 L/h. Total linezolid clearance was between 1.7 L/h and 6.3 L/h. The total area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-∞) ranged from 95.1 mgh/L to 352.9 mgh/L, in accordance with the different clinical conditions. AUCfree/MIC ratios were always linezolid total clearance, the clinical features of critically ill septic patients appear to be mainly responsible for the high variability of linezolid serum concentrations. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Thirteen treated of acute renal failure secondary to multiple myeloma with high cut off filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berni Wennekers, Ana; Martín Azara, María Pilar; Dourdil Sahun, Victoria; Bergasa Liberal, Beatriz; Ruiz Laiglesia, José Esteban; Vernet Perna, Patricia; Alvarez Lipe, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a haematological tumour that is characterised by uncontrolled proliferation of plasma cells and a significant volume of serum free light chains (sFLCs), which can cause acute renal failure due to intratubular precipitation, resulting in cast nephropathy. Acute renal failure is a complication that can arise in more than 20% of patients with multiple myeloma, half of which will require dialysis. We report our experience with 13 patients who were treated with dialysis using high cut off filters (HCO) between July 2011 and February 2015. A total of 6 consecutive 6-hour sessions were performed using a 2.1 m(2) HCO filter (Theralite® by Gambro®). Afterwards, further 6-hour sessions were continued on alternate days. A total of 151 sessions were conducted, with an average of 11.6 sessions per patient (range 6-27). The treatment proved to be effective in removing both kappa and lambda sFLCs, resulting in a 93.7% fall in sFLCs by the end of treatment. The average reduction was 57.7% per dialysis session. 10 out of the 13 cases recovered sufficient renal function to become independent of dialysis. There were no major changes in albumin levels using an infusion protocol of 2 50-mL vials of 20% albumin at the end of the dialysis session. Combination treatment with chemotherapy and long dialysis with HCO filters was effective in reducing the sFLC levels and recovering sufficient renal function in 77% of cases. With HCO filters, significant cost savings are achieved, contrary to what was previously believed. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. Identifying clinically meaningful symptom response cut-off values on the SANS in predominant negative symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Stephen Z; Leucht, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    The treatment and measurement of negative symptoms are currently at issue in schizophrenia, but the clinical meaning of symptom severity and change is unclear. To offer a clinically meaningful interpretation of severity and change scores on the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS). Patients were intention-to-treat participants (n=383) in two double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trials that compared amisulpride with placebo for the treatment of predominant negative symptoms. Equipercentile linking was used to examine extrapolation from (a) CGI-S to SANS severity ratings, and (b) CGI-I to SANS percentage change (n=383). Linking was conducted at baseline, 8-14 days, 28-30 days, and 56-60 days of the trials. Across visits, CGI-S ratings of 'not ill' linked to SANS scores of 0-13, and ranged to 'extreme' ratings that linked to SANS scores of 102-105. The relationship between the CGI-S and the SANS severity scores assumed a linear trend (1=0-13, 2=15-56, 3=37-61, 4=49-66, 5=63-75, 6=79-89, 7=102-105). Similarly the relationship between CGI-I ratings and SANS percentage change followed a linear trend. For instance, CGI-I ratings of 'very much improved' were linked to SANS percent changes of -90 to -67, 'much improved' to -50 to -42, and 'minimally improved' to -21 to -13. The current results uniquely contribute to the debate surrounding negative symptoms by providing clinical meaning to SANS severity and change scores and so offer direction regarding clinically meaningful response cut-off scores to guide treatment targets of predominant negative symptoms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A modified BCS theory of heavy fermion superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baral, P.C.; Rout, G.C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we derive an expression for the superconducting gap equation for U and Ce based heavy fermion (HF) systems within a modified weak coupling theory of superconductivity. The calculated gap equation presents a mixture of pairing amplitudes of two different quasi-particle bands α and β. These two gap equations are solved numerically and self-consistently within the cut-off energy which arises due to the Kondo energy. It is found that the energy dependence of the enhanced density of states for the HF systems clearly manifests itself in the theory and the Kondo energy naturally takes the role of cut-off energy (ω c ), as long as the effective cut-off energy is large in comparison with the Kondo energy. The numerical analysis confirms this result and shows that superconducting transition temperature is independent of effective cut-off energy employed within this approach. The temperature dependence of gap equations are studied by varying the model parameters like positions of f-level, hybridization and coupling constants of the HF systems. (author)

  5. Determining the optimal system-specific cut-off frequencies for filtering in-vitro upper extremity impact force and acceleration data by residual analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Timothy A; Dunning, Cynthia E; Andrews, David M

    2011-10-13

    The fundamental nature of impact testing requires a cautious approach to signal processing, to minimize noise while preserving important signal information. However, few recommendations exist regarding the most suitable filter frequency cut-offs to achieve these goals. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation is twofold: to illustrate how residual analysis can be utilized to quantify optimal system-specific filter cut-off frequencies for force, moment, and acceleration data resulting from in-vitro upper extremity impacts, and to show how optimal cut-off frequencies can vary based on impact condition intensity. Eight human cadaver radii specimens were impacted with a pneumatic impact testing device at impact energies that increased from 20J, in 10J increments, until fracture occurred. The optimal filter cut-off frequency for pre-fracture and fracture trials was determined with a residual analysis performed on all force and acceleration waveforms. Force and acceleration data were filtered with a dual pass, 4th order Butterworth filter at each of 14 different cut-off values ranging from 60Hz to 1500Hz. Mean (SD) pre-fracture and fracture optimal cut-off frequencies for the force variables were 605.8 (82.7)Hz and 513.9 (79.5)Hz, respectively. Differences in the optimal cut-off frequency were also found between signals (e.g. Fx (medial-lateral), Fy (superior-inferior), Fz (anterior-posterior)) within the same test. These optimal cut-off frequencies do not universally agree with the recommendations of filtering all upper extremity impact data using a cut-off frequency of 600Hz. This highlights the importance of quantifying the filter frequency cut-offs specific to the instrumentation and experimental set-up. Improper digital filtering may lead to erroneous results and a lack of standardized approaches makes it difficult to compare findings of in-vitro dynamic testing between laboratories. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Seismic analysis of the frame structure reformed by cutting off column and jacking based on stiffness ratio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J. K.; Xu, X. S.

    2017-11-01

    The cutting off column and jacking technology is a method for increasing story height, which has been widely used and paid much attention in engineering. The stiffness will be changed after the process of cutting off column and jacking, which directly affects the overall seismic performance. It is usually necessary to take seismic strengthening measures to enhance the stiffness. A five story frame structure jacking project in Jinan High-tech Zone was taken as an example, and three finite element models were established which contains the frame model before lifting, after lifting and after strengthening. Based on the stiffness, the dynamic time-history analysis was carried out to research its seismic performance under the EL-Centro seismic wave, the Taft seismic wave and the Tianjin artificial seismic wave. The research can provide some guidance for the design and construction of the entire jack lifting structure.

  7. Establishing the cut-off score for remission and severity-ranges on the Psychotic Depression Assessment Scale (PDAS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Søren D; Rothschild, Anthony J; Flint, Alastair J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Psychotic Depression Assessment Scale (PDAS) is a rating scale dedicated to the measurement of severity in psychotic depression (PD). The aim of this study was to establish the PDAS cut-off for remission of PD as well as PDAS score-ranges for mild, moderate, and severe PD...... on the PDAS and the severity-ranges for mild, moderate, and severe PD were defined using the Clinical Global Impression - Severity scale (CGI-S) as reference by means of pair-wise receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. Subsequently, it was tested whether remission on the PDAS could separate...... the effects of Olanzapine+Sertraline vs. Olanzapine+Placebo through an intention-to-treat, mixed-effects logistic regression of the data from STOP-PD. RESULTS: According to the ROC analyses, the ideal cut-off for remission of PD was a PDAS total score moderate...

  8. Factors in selecting serum samples for use in determining the positive/negative threshold (cut-off) in ELISA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, R.H.

    1998-01-01

    The threshold (cut-off) that defines whether a test result is seropositive or seronegative is calculated by testing serum samples from a subpopulation of animals that is assumed to represent the target population in all aspects. For this proposition to be true, it is essential to consider the variables in the target population that must be represented in the subpopulation. Without representation of the variables in the subpopulation, it is likely that the cut-off selected for the test will be errant and will misclassify animals as to their infection status. The purpose of this paper is to identify a few of the principal variables that need to be taken into account when selecting a subpopulation of animals for test validation. (author)

  9. Ordinary mode reflectometry. Modification of the scattering and cut-off responses due to the shape of localized density fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanack, C.; Boucher, I.; Heuraux, S.; Leclert, G.; Clairet, F.; Zou, X.L.

    1996-01-01

    Ordinary wave reflectometry in a plasma containing a localized density perturbation is studied with a 1-D model. The phase response is studied as a function of the wavenumber and position of the perturbation. It is shown that it strongly depends upon the perturbation shape and size. For a small perturbation wavenumber, the response is due to the oscillation of the cut-off layer. For larger wavenumbers, two regimes are found: for a broad perturbation, the phase response is an image of the perturbation itself; for a narrow perturbation, it is rather an image of the Fourier transform. For tokamak plasmas it turns out that, for the fluctuation spectra usually observed, the phase response comes primarily from those fluctuations that are localized at the cut-off. Results of a 2-D numerical model show that geometry effects are negligible for the scattering by radial fluctuations. (author)

  10. Current Observational Constraints to Holographic Dark Energy Model with New Infrared cut-off via Markov Chain Monte Carlo Method

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yuting; Xu, Lixin

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the holographic dark energy model with new infrared (IR) cut-off for both the flat case and the non-flat case are confronted with the combined constraints of current cosmological observations: type Ia Supernovae, Baryon Acoustic Oscillations, current Cosmic Microwave Background, and the observational hubble data. By utilizing the Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method, we obtain the best fit values of the parameters with $1\\sigma, 2\\sigma$ errors in the flat model: $\\Omega_{b}h...

  11. Cut-Off Value for Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire in Predicting Surgical Success in Patients with Lumbar Disc Herniation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Azimi

    Full Text Available Various factors related to predict surgical success were studied; however, a standard cut-off point for the Pain Sensitivity Questionnaire (PSQ measure has not yet been established for a favorable surgical outcome for lumbar disc herniation (LDH. This study was to find the optimal cut-off point on the PSQ to distinguish surgical success in patients with LDH. A total of 154 patients with LDH consecutively referred to our clinic were enrolled into this prospective study between February 2011 and January 2014. All participants completed the PSQ. Patients completed the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI score before surgery, and at 2 years after surgery. Surgical success was defined as a 13-point improvement from the baseline ODI scores. The cut-off value for PSQ was determined by the receiver-operating characteristic curve (ROC. The mean age of patients was 49.3±9.6 years, and there were 80 women. The mean time for follow-up assessment was 31±5 months (range 24-35. Post-surgical success was 79.9% (n = 123 at 2 years follow up. The mean score for the total PSQ, PSQ-minor, and PSQ-moderate were 6.0 (SD = 1.6, 5.4 (SD = 1.9 and 6.5 (SD = 1.7, respectively. Total PSQ score was also significantly correlated with the total scores of the ODI. The optimal total PSQ cut-off point was determined as > 5.2 to predict surgical success in LDH patients, with 80.0% sensitivity and 75.6% specificity (AUC-0.814, 95% CI 0.703-0.926. This study showed that the PSQ could be considered a parameter for predicting surgical success in patients with LDH, and can be useful in clinical practice.

  12. Successful use of combined high cut-off haemodialysis and bortezomib for acute kidney injury associated with myeloma cast nephropathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ward, F

    2012-05-01

    We present the case of a 58-year old female with de novo dialysis-dependent acute kidney injury (AKI) secondary to myeloma cast nephropathy. The patient underwent extended high cut-off haemodialysis (HCO-HD), in conjunction with bortezomib-based chemotherapy, and soon became dialysis independent with normal renal function. To our knowledge, this is the first time this treatment strategy has been employed successfully in an Irish centre.

  13. Adiposity cut-off points for cardiovascular disease and diabetes risk in the Portuguese population: The PORMETS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severo, Milton; Santos, Ana Cristina

    2018-01-01

    Objectives The contribution of adiposity to cardiovascular and diabetes risk justifies the inclusion of an adiposity measure, usually waist circumference, in the definition of metabolic syndrome. However, waist circumference thresholds differ across populations. Our aim was to assess which adiposity measure performs the best in identifying the metabolic syndrome in a sample of Portuguese participants and to estimate cut-off values for these measures. Methods Data were obtained from a cross-sectional study (PORMETS study) conducted in Portugal between 2007 and 2009. A representative sample of non-institutionalized adults, comprising 3,956 participants, aged 18 years and older, was evaluated. A structured questionnaire was administered, collecting information on personal medical history, socio-demographics and behavioral characteristics. Anthropometrics, blood pressure and venous blood samples were also obtained. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Joint Interim Statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology recommended criteria. Elevated cardiometabolic risk was considered when two or more of the four criteria of metabolic syndrome were present, excluding the waist circumference component. A receiver operating characteristic curve was used to estimate cut-off points. Results This study found that waist-to-height ratio, waist circumference and body adiposity index performed better than other adiposity measures, such as body mass index. The estimated cut-off points for waist-to-height ratio, waist circumference and body adiposity index in women and men were 0.564 / 89 cm / 27.4 and 0.571 / 93.5 cm / 25.5, respectively. Conclusion As waist circumference is currently used as the adiposity measure in the definition of metabolic syndrome and as no relevant differences were observed between this measure and waist-to-height ratio, it is likely that no modification to the metabolic syndrome definition needs to be proposed. Moreover

  14. Cut-off value of body fat in association with metabolic syndrome in Thai peri- and postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bintvihok, W; Chaikittisilpa, S; Panyakamlerd, K; Jaisamrarn, U; Taechakraichana, N

    2013-06-01

    Pathophysiologic changes during the menopause transition may contribute to the risk of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Body fat composition, particularly visceral fat, is highly associated with increased insulin resistance, abnormal carbohydrate metabolism and high blood pressure. We purposefully wished to determine the optimal cut-off values of body fat composition, including visceral fat, in order to predict MetS and to assess the prevalence of MetS in peri- and postmenopausal women. This cross-sectional study was conducted in a population-based, prospective cohort at the Menopause and Gynecology clinics, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. Body fat percentage and visceral fat rating were measured by a bioelectrical impedance analyzer (Tanita SC 330). MetS was diagnosed using the Harmonizing criteria of A Joint Interim Statement of IDF/NHLBI/AHA/WHF/IAS/IASO 2009. Receiver operating characteristic analyses were performed to determine the optimal cut-off values of body fat, visceral fat, waist circumference and body mass index to identify peri- and postmenopausal women at risk of MetS. Ninety-two perimenopausal and 446 postmenopausal women aged 40-60 years were recruited for the analyses. The optimal cut-off values for body fat percentage, visceral fat rating, waist circumference and body mass index for identifying women at risk of MetS were 34%, 7, 88 cm and 24 kg/m(2), respectively. The prevalence of MetS in this study was 27.9%. The optimal cut-off values to predict MetS of body fat percentage, visceral fat and waist circumference were established. Using the Harmonizing 2009 criteria, we found that approximately one out of four peri- and postmenopausal women in this study had MetS.

  15. Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination and Individual Domain Cut-Off Scores for Discriminating between Different Cognitive Subtypes of Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berankova, Dagmar; Janousova, Eva; Mrackova, Martina; Eliasova, Ilona; Kostalova, Milena; Skutilova, Svetlana; Rektorova, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The main aim of this study was to verify the sensitivity and specificity of Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (ACE-R) in discriminating between Parkinson's disease (PD) with normal cognition (PD-NC) and PD with mild cognitive impairment (PD-MCI) and between PD-MCI and PD with dementia (PD-D). We also evaluated how ACE-R correlates with neuropsychological cognitive tests in PD. Methods. We examined three age-matched groups of PD patients diagnosed according to the Movement Disorder Society Task Force criteria: PD-NC, PD-MCI, and PD-D. ROC analysis was used to establish specific cut-off scores of ACE-R and its domains. Correlation analyses were performed between ACE-R and its subtests with relevant neuropsychological tests. Results. Statistically significant differences between groups were demonstrated in global ACE-R scores and subscores, except in the language domain. ACE-R cut-off score of 88.5 points discriminated best between PD-MCI and PD-NC (sensitivity 0.68, specificity 0.91); ACE-R of 82.5 points distinguished best between PD-MCI and PD-D (sensitivity 0.70, specificity 0.73). The verbal fluency domain of ACE-R demonstrated the best discrimination between PD-NC and PD-MCI (cut-off score 11.5; sensitivity 0.70, specificity 0.73) while the orientation/attention subscore was best between PD-MCI and PD-D (cut-off score 15.5; sensitivity 0.90, specificity 0.97). ACE-R scores except for ACE-R language correlated with specific cognitive tests of interest.

  16. Insulin resistance in obese children and adolescents: HOMA-IR cut-off levels in the prepubertal and pubertal periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtoğlu, Selim; Hatipoğlu, Nihal; Mazıcıoğlu, Mümtaz; Kendirici, Mustafa; Keskin, Mehmet; Kondolot, Meda

    2010-01-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with an increased risk for insulin resistance. The underlying mechanism for the physiological increase in insulin levels in puberty is not clearly understood. The aim of the present study was to determine the cut-off values for homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in obese children and adolescents according to gender and pubertal status. Two hundred and eight obese children and adolescents (141 girls, 127 boys) aged between 5 and 18 years were included in the study. The children were divided into prepubertal and pubertal groups. A standard oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was carried out in all children. A total insulin level exceeding 300 μU/mL in the blood samples, collected during the test period, was taken as the insulin resistance criterion. Cut-off values for HOMA-IR were calculated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. In the prepubertal period, the rate of insulin resistance was found to be 37% in boys and 27.8% in girls,while in the pubertal period, this rate was 61.7% in boys and 66.7% in girls. HOMA-IR cut-off values for insulin resistance in the prepubertal period were calculated to be 2.67 (sensitivity 88.2%, specificity 65.5%) in boys and 2.22 (sensitivity 100%, specificity 42.3%) in girls, and in the pubertal period, they were 5.22 (sensitivity 56%, specificity 93.3%) in boys and 3.82 (sensitivity 77.1%, specificity 71.4%) in girls. Since gender, obesity and pubertal status are factors affecting insulin resistance, cut-off values which depend on gender and pubertal status, should be used in evaluation of insulin resistance.

  17. Appraisal and standardization of curvilinear velocity (VCL) cut-off values for CASA analysis of Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooq, U; Malecki, I A; Mahmood, M; Martin, G B

    2017-06-01

    One of the basic steps in objective analysis of sperm motility is the subdivision of a motile sperm population into slow, medium and rapid categories based on their velocity. However, for CASA analysis of quail sperm, the velocity values for categorization of slow, medium and rapid sperm have not yet been standardized. To identify the cut-off values of "velocity curvilinear" (VCL) for quail sperm categorization, we captured and analysed 22,300 tracks of quail sperm using SCA ® -CASA. The median and mean VCL values were 85 and 97 μm/s. To define the VCL cut-off values, we used two methods. In the first, we identified the upper (rapid sperm) and lower (slow sperm) cut-off values using: (i) median VCL ± 25% or ± 50% or ± 75% of median VCL value; (ii) first and third quartile values of VCL data (i.e. 25% cut-off setting); and (iii) 33% and 66% of VCL data. Among these settings, sperm categories and their corresponding motility characteristics recorded using the "25%" setting (i.e. slow ≤36 ≤ medium ≤154 ≤ rapid) were found the most realistic and coherent with male ranking by fertility. In the second method, we calculated heteroscedasticity in the total VCL data using PCA and the two-step clustering method. With this approach, the mean of the high and low clusters was 165 and 51 μm/s, respectively. Together, the mean from two methods suggested that, for SCA ® -CASA categorization of quail sperm, sperm should be classed as "rapid" at VCL ≥160 μm/s and "slow" at VCL ≤45 μm/s. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. Performance tests of an abrasive cut-off systems for the finishing of high-precision casts

    OpenAIRE

    A. Fedoryszyn; W. T. Meksa; G. Woźnicki

    2008-01-01

    The paper summarizes the performance data of a newly designed and engineered grinding and cut-off system. The machine is used for separation of models manufactured by the investment casting method. The machine comprises the following units:- base supporting other assemblies and elements: abrasive disc holder and drives; this solution enables an easy replacement and access to holding elements while a belt transmission allows the disc rpm to be varied,- mechanism moving the spindle in the horiz...

  19. Fourier phase analysis on equilibrium gated radionuclide ventriculography: range of phase spread and cut-off limits in normal individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramaiah, Vijayaraghavan L.; Harish, B.; Sunil, H.V.; Selvakumar, Job; Ravi Kishore, A.G.; Nair, Gopinathan

    2011-01-01

    To define the range of phase spread on equilibrium gated radionuclide ventriculography (ERNV) in normal individuals and derive the cut-off limit for the parameters to detect cardiac dyssynchrony. ERNV was carried out in 30 individuals (age 53±23 years, 25 males and 5 females) who had no history of cardiovascular disease. They all had normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF 55-70%) as determined by echocardiography, were in sinus rhythm, with normal QRS duration (≤120 msec) and normal coronary angiography. First harmonic phase analysis was performed on scintigraphic data acquired in best septal view. Left and right ventricular standard deviation (LVSD and RVSD, respectively) and interventricular mechanical delay (IVMD), the absolute difference of mean phase angles of right and left ventricle, were computed and expressed in milliseconds. Mean + 3 standard deviation (SD) was used to derive the cut-off limits. Average LVEF and duration of cardiac cycle in the study group were 62.5%±5.44% and 868.9±114.5 msec, respectively. The observations of LVSD, RVSD and right and left ventricular mean phase angles were shown to be normally distributed by Shapiro-Wilk test. Cut-off limits for LVSD, RVSD and IVMD were calculated to be 80 msec, 85 msec and 75 msec, respectively. Fourier phase analysis on ERNV is an effective tool for the evaluation of synchronicity of cardiac contraction. The cut-off limits of parameters of dyssynchrony can be used to separate heart failure patients with cardiac dyssynchrony from those without. ERNV can be used to select patients for cardiac resynchronization therapy. (author)

  20. The Potential of Established Fitness Cut-off Points for Monitoring Women with Fibromyalgia: The al-Ándalus Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Piñero, José; Aparicio, Virginia A; Estévez-López, Fernando; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Borges-Cosic, Milkana; Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor

    2017-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to determinate whether fitness cut-off points discriminate the severity of major fibromyalgia symptoms and health-related quality of life. Additionally, we investigated which American Colleague of Rheumatology (ACR) fibromyalgia criteria (1990 vs. modified 2010) better discriminate fibromyalgia symptomatology. A total of 488 women with fibromyalgia and 200 non-fibromyalgia (control) women participated. All participants underwent both the 1990 and the modified 2010 ACR preliminary criteria (hereinafter 1990c and m-2010c, respectively). We used fitness cut-off points (Senior Fitness Tests Battery plus handgrip strength test) to discriminate between presence and absence of fibromyalgia. Additionally, we employed several instruments to assess fibromyalgia symptoms. Fitness cut-off points discriminated between high and low levels of the main symptoms the disease in all age groups (P from fibromyalgia diagnosis and monitoring. Moreover, the effect size of the differences in symptoms between women with fibromyalgia and controls were overall larger using the m-2010c compared with the 1990c, except for the tender points count, reflecting better the polysymptomatic distress condition of fibromyalgia. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Establishing the cut off values of androgen markers in the assessment of polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadaraja, R N D; Sthaneshwar, P; Razali, N

    2018-04-01

    Hyperandrogenism remains as one of the key features in Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) and can be assessed clinically or determined by biochemical assays. Hirsutism is the most common clinical manifestation of hyperandrogenism. The clinical assessment is subjected to wide variability due to poor interobserver agreement and multiple population factors such as ethnic variation, cosmetic procedures and genetic trait. The difficulty in resolving the androgen excess biochemically is due to a lack of consensus as to which serum androgen should be measured for the diagnosis of PCOS. The aim of the study was to compare and establish the diagnostic cut off value for different androgen biomarker for the diagnosis of PCOS. A total of 312 patients classified to PCOS (n = 164) and non PCOS (n = 148) cohorts were selected from the Laboratory Information System (LIS) based on serum total testosterone (TT) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) from the period of 1st April 2015 to 31st March 2016. PCOS was diagnosed based on Rotterdam criteria. Clinical hyperandrogenism and ultrasound polycystic ovarian morphology were obtained from the clinical records. The other relevant biochemical results such as serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and albumin were also obtained from LIS. Free androgen index (FAI), calculated free testosterone (cFT) and calculated bioavailable testosterone (cBT) were calculated for these patients. Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis were performed for serum TT, SHBG, FAI, cFT, cBT and LH: FSH ratio to determine the best marker to diagnose PCOS. All the androgen parameters (except SHBG) were significantly higher in PCOS patients than in control (pandrogen indices (FAI, cFT and cBT) showed good correlation with each other. Furthermore, cFT, FAI and calculated BT were shown to be more specific with higher positive likelihood ratio than measured androgen markers. Based on our study, the calculated testosterone

  2. Accuracy of unfolded map method for determining the left ventricular border. Evaluation of the cut-off value from autopsy finding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugibayashi, Keiichi; Abe, Yoshiteru; Suga, Yutaka

    1996-01-01

    To improve the quantification of the left ventricular surface area (LVSA) by unfolded map method, we evaluated the cut-off value for determining the left ventricular border. The LVSA measured by unfolded map was compared with those measured using myocardial phantom and autopsy findings. The relative error (RE) was calculated as difference between LVSA in phantom and area of unfolded map. In phantom study, the cut-off value was calculated as 73.3±0.5% when the RE was zero. In autopsy study, the cut-off value was 74.0±7.2%. The area of unfolded map had good correlation with LVSA at autopsy when the cut-off value was 74% (r=0.83, p<0.003). The diameter of left ventricle at autopsy was compared with that of beating heart obtained by two-dimensional echocardiography, because the area of unfolded map was greater than LVSA at autopsy. The ratio of LVSA at autopsy to beating heart was calculated as 1.37. The suitable cut-off value was evaluated as 55.6% when the unfolded map area obtained by autopsy was increased 1.37 magnifications. There was a good correlation between LVSA of unfolded map (cut-off=56%) and the LVSA at autopsy (r=0.90, p<0.001). These results suggest that the cut-off value for determining the left ventricular border in vivo is 56%. (author)

  3. A study of full width at half maximum (FWHM) according to the filter's cut off level in SPECT camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soung Ock [Dongnam Health College, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Soo Il [Kyonggi University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-15

    Filtering is necessary to reduce statistical noise and to increase image quality in SPECT images. Noises controlled by low-pass filter designed to suppress high spatial frequency in SPECT image. Most SPECT filter function control the degree of high frequency suppression by choosing a cut off frequency. The location of cut off frequency determines the affect image noise and spatial resolution. If select the low cut off frequency, its provide good noise suppression but insufficient image quantity and high cut off frequencies increase the image resolution but insufficient noise suppression. The purpose of this study was to determines the optimum cut off level with comparison of FWHM according to cut off level in each filters-Band-limited, Sheep-logan, Sheep-logan Hanning, Generalized Hamming, Low pass cosine, Parazen and Butterworth filter in SPECT camera. We recorded image along the X, Y, Z-axis with {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4} point source and measured FWHM by use profile curve. We find averaged length is 9.16 mm {approx} 18.14 mm of FWHM in X, Y, and Z-axis, and Band-limited and Generalized Hamming filters measures 9.16 mm at 0.7 cycle/pixel cut off frequency.

  4. The first cut-off wall in the Indian Himalayas for the dam of the Dhauliganga hydroelectric project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brunner, W.G. [Bauer Maschinen GmbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    This paper provided details a Bauer cutter used to build a cut-off wall for the Dhaulinganga power plant project in the Himalayan mountains. The dam for the project was built as a 56 m high concrete-faced rockfill dam with a length of 270 m at the crown. A cut-off wall was constructed on the upstream side of the dam extending down from the dam's plinth to the bedrock level. A Bauer cutter was used to key the cut-off wall straight into the bedrock, which omitted the need for a grout curtain. The cut-off wall is 1 m thick and 70 m deep, with a total area of 8000 m{sup 2}. The wall was constructed as a series of primary and secondary panels. Excavation of the panels was carried out in single bites by the Bauer DHG hydraulic diaphragm wall grabs, supported a box chisel, cross chisel and a Bauer BC 40 rock cutter. Trench stability was provided by bentonite slurry. The closing forces were activated by a cylinder which was installed vertically inside the base body. The Bauer cutter continuously removed soil and rock from the bottom of the trench for mixing with the bentonite slurry. The slurry was then pumped through a ring main of hose pipes to a desanding plant where it was cleaned and returned to the trench. Advantages offered by using the cutter included a consistently high output, an extremely high degree of verticality, watertight joints, and the ability to cut through hard boulders. Use of the cutter at the Dhaulinganga site showed that the project could not be carried out successfully without the use of the cutter, which was used whenever grab and chisel methods were unable to achieve satisfactory rates of penetration. Deployment of the cutter was essential to key the cut-off wall into the underlying bedrock. It was concluded that the Dhualinganga project will provide a model for future power generation projects in the Indian Himalayas. 11 figs.

  5. X-ray Spectral Survey of WGACAT Quasars, II: Optical and Radio Properties of Quasars with Low Energy X-ray Cut-offs

    OpenAIRE

    Elvis, Martin; Fiore, Fabrizio; Giommi, Paolo; Padovani, Paolo

    1997-01-01

    We have selected quasars with X-ray colors suggestive of a low energy cut-off, from the ROSAT PSPC pointed archive. We examine the radio and optical properties of these 13 quasars. Five out of the seven quasars with good optical spectra show associated optical absorption lines, with two having high delta-v candidate systems. Two other cut-off quasars show reddening associated with the quasar. We conclude that absorption is highly likely to be the cause of the X-ray cut-offs, and that the abso...

  6. Singlet fermionic dark matter with Veltman conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeong Gyun; Lee, Kang Young; Nam, Soo-hyeon

    2018-07-01

    We reexamine a renormalizable model of a fermionic dark matter with a gauge singlet Dirac fermion and a real singlet scalar which can ameliorate the scalar mass hierarchy problem of the Standard Model (SM). Our model setup is the minimal extension of the SM for which a realistic dark matter (DM) candidate is provided and the cancellation of one-loop quadratic divergence to the scalar masses can be achieved by the Veltman condition (VC) simultaneously. This model extension, although renormalizable, can be considered as an effective low-energy theory valid up to cut-off energies about 10 TeV. We calculate the one-loop quadratic divergence contributions of the new scalar and fermionic DM singlets, and constrain the model parameters using the VC and the perturbative unitarity conditions. Taking into account the invisible Higgs decay measurement, we show the allowed region of new physics parameters satisfying the recent measurement of relic abundance. With the obtained parameter set, we predict the elastic scattering cross section of the new singlet fermion into target nuclei for a direct detection of the dark matter. We also perform the full analysis with arbitrary set of parameters without the VC as a comparison, and discuss the implication of the constraints by the VC in detail.

  7. Diagnostic Cut-Off Levels of Plasma Brain Natriuretic Peptide to Distinguish Left Ventricular Failure in Emergency Setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Afridi, F. I.; Lutfi, I. A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the diagnostic cut-off values of brain natriuretic (BNP) peptide to establish left ventricular failure in patients presenting with dyspnoea in emergency department. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Ziauddin University Hospital, Karachi, from July to December 2011. Methodology: BNP estimation was done on Axysm analyzer with kit provided by Abbott diagnostics, while the Doppler echocardiography was done on Toshiba style (UICW-660A) using 2.5 MHz and 5.0 MHz probes. Log transformation was done to normalize the original BNP values. A receiver operating curve was plotted to determine the diagnostic cut-off value of BNP which can be used to distinguish CHF from other causes of dyspnoea. Statistical analysis was performed by SPSS version 17. Results: A total of 92 patients presenting with dyspnoea in the emergency department were studied. There were 38/92 (41.3%) males and 54/92 (58.7%) females, and the average age of the study population was 64 A +- 14.1 years. These patients had BNP levels and Doppler echocardiography done. The average BNP was found to be 1117.78 A +- 1445.74 pg/ml. In log transformation, the average was found to be 2.72 A +- 0.58. BNP value of 531 pg/ml was found to be the cut off to distinguish between cardiogenic and non-cardiogenic causes of dyspnoea. Conclusion: BNP value of 531 pg/ml can distinguish CHF from other conditions as a cause of dyspnoea in emergency. (author)

  8. ARFI cut-off values and significance of standard deviation for liver fibrosis staging in patients with chronic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertz, Ruediger S; Sturm, Joerg; Pfeifer, Lukas; Wildner, Dane; Wachter, David L; Neurath, Markus F; Strobel, Deike

    2013-01-01

    Acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastometry quantifies hepatic stiffness, and thus degree of fibrosis, non-invasively. Our aim was to analyse the diagnostic accuracy of ARFI cut-off values, and the significance of a defined limit of standard deviation (SD) as a potential quality parameter for liver fibrosis staging in patients with chronic liver diseases (CLD). 153 patients with CLD (various aetiologies) undergoing liver biopsy, and an additional 25 patients with known liver cirrhosis, were investigated. ARFI measurements were performed in the right hepatic lobe, and correlated with the histopathological Ludwig fibrosis score (inclusion criteria: at least 6 portal tracts). The diagnostic accuracy of cut-off values was analysed with respect to an SD limit of 30% of the mean ARFI value. The mean ARFI elastometry showed 1.95 ± 0.87 m/s (range 0.79-4.40) in 178 patients (80 female, 98 male, mean age: 52 years). The cut-offs were 1.25 m/s for F ≥ 2, 1.72 m/s for F ≥ 3 and 1.75 m/s for F = 4, and the corresponding AUROC 80.7%, 86.2% and 88.7%, respectively. Exclusion of 31 patients (17.4%) with an SD higher than 30% of the mean ARFI improved the diagnostic accuracy: The AUROC for F ≥ 2, F ≥ 3 and F = 4 were 86.1%, 91.2% and 91.5%, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of ARFI can be improved by applying a maximum SD of 30% of the mean ARFI as a quality parameter--which however leads to an exclusion of a relevant number of patients. ARFI results with a high SD should be interpreted with caution.

  9. Cut-off scores of a brief neuropsychological battery (NBACE for Spanish individual adults older than 44 years old.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Alegret

    Full Text Available The neuropsychological battery used in Fundació ACE (NBACE is a relatively brief, and easy to administer, test battery that was designed to detect cognitive impairment in the adulthood. The NBACE includes measures of cognitive information processing speed, orientation, attention, verbal learning and memory, language, visuoperception, praxis and executive functions. The aim of the present study was to establish the cut-off scores for impairment for different levels of age and education that could be useful in the cognitive assessment of Spanish subjects who are at risk for cognitive impairment, especially dementia. Data from 1018 patients with a mild dementia syndrome, and 512 cognitively healthy subjects, older than 44 years, from the Memory Clinic of Fundació ACE (Barcelona, Spain were analyzed. In the whole sample, cut-off scores and sensitivity/specificity values were calculated for six conditions after combining 3 age ranges (44 to 64; 65 to 74; and older than 74 years old by 2 educational levels (until Elementary school; and more than Elementary school. Moreover, general cut-offs are reported for Catalan and Spanish speakers. The results showed that most of NBACE tests reached good sensitivity and specificity values, except for Ideomotor praxis, Repetition and Verbal Comprehension tests, which had a ceiling effect. Word List Learning from the Wechsler Memory Scale-III and Semantic Verbal Fluency were the most useful tests to discriminate between cognitively healthy and demented subjects. The NBACE has been shown to be a useful tool able to detect cognitive impairment, especially dementia, in older than 44 years Spanish persons.

  10. Accurate cut-offs for predicting endoscopic activity and mucosal healing in Crohn's disease with fecal calprotectin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan María Vázquez-Morón

    Full Text Available Background: Fecal biomarkers, especially fecal calprotectin, are useful for predicting endoscopic activity in Crohn's disease; however, the cut-off point remains unclear. The aim of this paper was to analyze whether faecal calprotectin and M2 pyruvate kinase are good tools for generating highly accurate scores for the prediction of the state of endoscopic activity and mucosal healing. Methods: The simple endoscopic score for Crohn's disease and the Crohn's disease activity index was calculated for 71 patients diagnosed with Crohn's. Fecal calprotectin and M2-PK were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test. Results: A fecal calprotectin cut-off concentration of ≥ 170 µg/g (sensitivity 77.6%, specificity 95.5% and likelihood ratio +17.06 predicts a high probability of endoscopic activity, and a fecal calprotectin cut-off of ≤ 71 µg/g (sensitivity 95.9%, specificity 52.3% and likelihood ratio -0.08 predicts a high probability of mucosal healing. Three clinical groups were identified according to the data obtained: endoscopic activity (calprotectin ≥ 170, mucosal healing (calprotectin ≤ 71 and uncertainty (71 > calprotectin < 170, with significant differences in endoscopic values (F = 26.407, p < 0.01. Clinical activity or remission modified the probabilities of presenting endoscopic activity (100% vs 89% or mucosal healing (75% vs 87% in the diagnostic scores generated. M2-PK was insufficiently accurate to determine scores. Conclusions: The highly accurate scores for fecal calprotectin provide a useful tool for interpreting the probabilities of presenting endoscopic activity or mucosal healing, and are valuable in the specific clinical context.

  11. Putative Dementia Cases Fluctuate as a Function of Mini-Mental State Examination Cut-Off Points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Ilka M; Henriques, Ana G; Wiltfang, Jens; da Cruz E Silva, Odete A B

    2018-01-01

    As the population ages, there is a growing need to quickly and accurately identify putative dementia cases. Many cognitive tests are available; among those commonly used are the Cognitive Dementia Rating (CDR) and the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE). The aim of this work was to compare the validity and reliability of these cognitive tests in a primary care based cohort (pcb-Cohort). The MMSE and the CDR were applied to 568 volunteers in the pcb-Cohort. Distinct cut-off points for the MMSE were considered, namely MMSE 27, MMSE 24, and MMSE PT (adapted for the Portuguese population). The MMSE 27 identified the greatest number of putative dementia cases, and, as determined by the ROC curve, it was the most sensitive and specific of the MMSE cut-offs considered. Putative predictive or risk factors identified included age, literacy, depression, and diabetes mellitus (DM). DM has previously been indicated as a risk factor for dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Comparatively, the MMSE 27 cut-off has the greatest sensibility (94.9%) and specificity (66.3%) when compared to MMSE PT and MMSE 24. Upon comparing MMSE and CDR scores, the latter identified a further 146 putative dementia cases, thus permitting one to propose that in an ideal situation, both tests should be employed. This increases the likelihood of identifying putative dementia cases for subsequent follow up work, thus these cognitive tests represent important tools in patient care. Further, this is a significant study for Portuguese populations, where few of these studies have been carried out.

  12. An optimal cut-off point for the calving interval may be used as an indicator of bovine abortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronner, Anne; Morignat, Eric; Gay, Emilie; Calavas, Didier

    2015-10-01

    The bovine abortion surveillance system in France aims to detect as early as possible any resurgence of bovine brucellosis, a disease of which the country has been declared free since 2005. It relies on the mandatory notification and testing of each aborting cow, but under-reporting is high. This research uses a new and simple approach which considers the calving interval (CI) as a "diagnostic test" to determine optimal cut-off point c and estimate diagnostic performance of the CI to identify aborting cows, and herds with multiple abortions (i.e. three or more aborting cows per calving season). The period between two artificial inseminations (AI) was considered as a "gold standard". During the 2006-2010 calving seasons, the mean optimal CI cut-off point for identifying aborting cows was 691 days for dairy cows and 703 days for beef cows. Depending on the calving season, production type and scale at which c was computed (individual or herd), the average sensitivity of the CI varied from 42.6% to 64.4%; its average specificity from 96.7% to 99.7%; its average positive predictive value from 27.6% to 65.4%; and its average negative predictive value from 98.7% to 99.8%. When applied to the French bovine population as a whole, this indicator identified 2-3% of cows suspected to have aborted, and 10-15% of herds suspected of multiple abortions. The optimal cut-off point and CI performance were consistent over calving seasons. By applying an optimal CI cut-off point to the cattle demographics database, it becomes possible to identify herds with multiple abortions, carry out retrospective investigations to find the cause of these abortions and monitor a posteriori compliance of farmers with their obligation to report abortions for brucellosis surveillance needs. Therefore, the CI could be used as an indicator of abortions to help improve the current mandatory notification surveillance system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Establishing a sample-to cut-off ratio for lab-diagnosis of hepatitis C virus in Indian context

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari, Aseem K.; Pandey, Prashant K.; Negi, Avinash; Bagga, Ruchika; Shanker, Ajay; Baveja, Usha; Vimarsh, Raina; Bhargava, Richa; Dara, Ravi C.; Rawat, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Lab-diagnosis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is based on detecting specific antibodies by enzyme immuno-assay (EIA) or chemiluminescence immuno-assay (CIA). Center for Disease Control reported that signal-to-cut-off (s/co) ratios in anti-HCV antibody tests like EIA/CIA can be used to predict the probable result of supplemental test; above a certain s/co value it is most likely to be true-HCV positive result and below that certain s/co it is most likely to be false-positive result. A...

  14. The cut-off point of dual energy X-ray and laser of calcaneus osteoporosis diagnosis in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salimzadeh, A.; Forough, B.; Olia, B.; Alishiri, G. H.; Ghasemzadeh, A.

    2005-01-01

    Dual X-Ray Absorptiometry is a method which can extensively be used for bone mineral densitometry . Another more recent method is dual energy X-ray and laser, which associate with dual X ray absorptiometry, assisted by laser measure heel thickness. In this study the cut off points for dual energy X-ray and laser of calcaneus in the diagnosis of osteoporosis in different bone regions in postmenopausal women had been determined. Materials and Methods: In 268 postmenopausal women, BMD of the spinal and femoral regions was measured by DM, and the value for the calcaneous was measured by dual energy X-ray and laser. The agreement of the two methods in the diagnosis of osteoporosis and optimal cut-off point for dual energy X-ray and laser in defining osteoporosis was obtained. What obtained was the agreement of the two methods in the diagnosis of osteoporosis, as well as the optimal cut-off point for dual energy X-ray and laser in defining osteoporosis. Results: Dual X-Ray Absorptiometry showed osteoporosis in 40.7% of cases with 35.2% in L2-L4, 16.2% in the femoral neck, and 11.7% for the femoral total region. The dual energy X-ray and laser found osteoporosis, considering -2.5 SD as a threshold, in 26.1% of cases. Agreement of the two methods in the diagnosis of osteoporosis (Kappa score) was 0.443 for the lumbar region, 0.464 for the neck, and, 0.421 for total femur regions (all P values were significant). Using Receiver Operating Characteristic curves, it was found that a T-score of -2.1, -2.6 and -2.4 as the optimal cut-off point of dual energy X-ray and laser in the diagnosis of osteoporosis in the lumbar spine, the neck and total region of femur, respectively. Conclusion: The results of this study showed a moderate agreement between the two methods in the diagnosis of osteoporosis. It seems that the dual energy X-ray and laser cannot be used as a substitute for the DM method, but it can be used as a screening method to find (to diagnose) osteoporosis

  15. Detecting outliers and/or leverage points: a robust two-stage procedure with bootstrap cut-off points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ettore Marubini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a robust two-stage procedure for identification of outlying observations in regression analysis. The exploratory stage identifies leverage points and vertical outliers through a robust distance estimator based on Minimum Covariance Determinant (MCD. After deletion of these points, the confirmatory stage carries out an Ordinary Least Squares (OLS analysis on the remaining subset of data and investigates the effect of adding back in the previously deleted observations. Cut-off points pertinent to different diagnostics are generated by bootstrapping and the cases are definitely labelled as good-leverage, bad-leverage, vertical outliers and typical cases. The procedure is applied to four examples.

  16. Exploration of the optimal diameter cut-off value in patients with nonfunctional adrenal tumor suitable for surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-dan LIU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To analyze the pathology of the patients with nonfunctional adrenal tumor (NFA, and explore the optimal diameter cut-off value. Methods  The clinical data of 243 patients with NFA, evaluated in the Department of Endocrinology and operated in the Department of Urology of General Hospital of Chinese PLA from Feb. 1996 to Jan. 2016, were collected. The patients were divided into two groups according to pathology: those in real demand of surgery were classified to the surgery-need group (n=57, while the others were categorized as the surgery-unwanted group (n=186. The general situation, pathological type and tumor diameter of the two groups and the factors affecting the surgery were analyzed, and the ROC curve was used to explore the optimal surgery cut-off value, which represents the maximum value of the sum of sensitivity and specificity. Results  Of the 57 patients in surgery-need group (27 males and 30 females, the lesions were on the right in 31 cases, on the left in 25 cases, and on bilateral sides in 1 case; the median of lesion diameter was 4.5cm, and the average age was 41.5±12.1 years old. Of the 186 patients in surgery-unwanted group (87 males and 99 females, the lesions were on the right in 99 cases, on the left in 86 cases, and on bilateral sides in 1 case; the median of lesion diameter was 3.0cm, and the average age was 50.6±10.9 years old. Logistic regression revealed that lesion diameter might be a risk factor (OR=1.340, 95%CI 1.266-1.418, P=0.000 and age be a protective factor (OR=0.942, 95%CI 0.929-0.955, P=0.000 for real demand of surgery. The area under the ROC curve (AUC of lesion diameter was 0.757(95%CI 0.681-0.833. The optimal cut-off value was 4.1cm (sensitivity 60.7% and specificity 83.0%. Conclusions  Younger patients with bigger lesion diameter may have greater possibility for surgery. The optimal surgery cut-off value of the lesion diameter is 4.1cm. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.11.11

  17. Current MUAC Cut-Offs to Screen for Acute Malnutrition Need to Be Adapted to Gender and Age: The Example of Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, Marion; Sophonneary, Prak; Laillou, Arnaud; Whitney, Sophie; de Groot, Richard; Perignon, Marlène; Kuong, Khov; Berger, Jacques; Wieringa, Frank T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Early identification of children malnutrition is a priority. Acute malnutrition is defined by the World Health Organization as a mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC) malnutrition in communities, but MUAC cut-offs currently recommended by WHO do not identify the majority of children with weight-for-height Z-score (5 yrs. Therefore, this study aimed at defining gender and age-specific cut-offs to improve sensitivity of MUAC as an indicator of acute malnutrition. Methods To establish new age and gender-specific MUAC cut-offs, pooled data was obtained for 14,173 children from 5 surveys in Cambodia (2011–2013). Sensitivity, false positive rates, and areas under receiver-operator characteristic curves (AUC) were calculated using wasting for children 80% with the new cut-offs in comparison with the current WHO cut-offs. Conclusion Gender and age specific MUAC cut-offs drastically increased sensitivity to identify children with WHZ-score malnutrition at the community level. PMID:26840899

  18. Fermionic cosmologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chimento, L P; Forte, M; Devecchi, F P; Kremer, G M; Ribas, M O; Samojeden, L L

    2011-01-01

    In this work we review if fermionic sources could be responsible for accelerated periods during the evolution of a FRW universe. In a first attempt, besides the fermionic source, a matter constituent would answer for the decelerated periods. The coupled differential equations that emerge from the field equations are integrated numerically. The self-interaction potential of the fermionic field is considered as a function of the scalar and pseudo-scalar invariants. It is shown that the fermionic field could behave like an inflaton field in the early universe, giving place to a transition to a matter dominated (decelerated) period. In a second formulation we turn our attention to analytical results, specifically using the idea of form-invariance transformations. These transformations can be used for obtaining accelerated cosmologies starting with conventional cosmological models. Here we reconsider the scalar field case and extend the discussion to fermionic fields. Finally we investigate the role of a Dirac field in a Brans-Dicke (BD) context. The results show that this source, in combination with the BD scalar, promote a final eternal accelerated era, after a matter dominated period.

  19. Problems in future negotiations for a treaty on the cut-off of fissile material for nuclear weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaper, A.

    1999-01-01

    A treaty to end the production of fissile material for nuclear weapons, the so-called cutoff, is one of the most important next steps on the disarmament agenda.' But meanwhile, the Conference on Disarmament (CD) is deadlocked, and confidence in negotiations taking place in the near future is replaced by bewilderment at the inaction. The underlying conflict of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) negotiations can be summarized as nuclear disarmament versus nuclear nonproliferation. The same conflict is now blocking progress with negotiations in the CD on the Fissile Material Cut-off Treaty (FMCT). Nevertheless, the cut-off would be the major policy driver to insert transparency and irreversibility into the disarmament process,' and we need to harness all our efforts to overcome the current difficulties. The CTBT can be regarded as a tool to cap the qualitative nuclear arms race, for example to hinder the future development of qualitatively new nuclear explosives, and an FMCT can be seen as its quantitative counterpart, capping the amount of material available for new nuclear weapons. The complex questions involve political, technical, legal, and economic aspects and constitute a challenge for diplomats and decision makers

  20. Preoperative diagnosis of breast diseases by dynamic MR mammography. Cut off point establishment for signal intensity ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Juji; Nagata, Takayasu; Kawagoe, Hajime; Tachibana, Susumu; Kajima, Toshihiko; Hoshino, Mutsuo; Uno, Takashi; Shimokawa, Kuniyasu.

    1997-01-01

    We have revealed that a dynamic study of the breast using MR imaging technique can estimate objectively benign-malignant differentiative diagnosis. Subjects were 41 cases of breast lesion, including 13 cases of breast cancer, 21 cases of mastopathy, six cases of fibroadenoma and one case of intraductal papillomatosis and the results of them were investigated in comparison with histopathological diagnosis. As so the method, we drew up time-signal intensity ratio curve plotting signal intensity ratio at each 30 second of dynamic MR mammography after Gd-DTPA administration. We found a especially high significant difference between cancer and mastopathy, within 90 second after Gd-DTPA administration (p=0.0000). Still more, we established cut off point concerning with establishment of 95% confidence interval, that is, at 30 second after Gd-DTPA administration of point equivalent 1.53 at 60 second equivalent 2.00, at 90 second equivalent 2.47, and about this estimating maneuver using the cut off point we named Dynamic ratio method. We can estimate preoperatively not only benign-malignant differentiative diagnosis with breast tumor, but also neighboring infiltration and lymph node metastasis of breast cancer using this Dynamic ratio method. Over again, Dynamic ratio method provides fine information to preoperative decision of resecting region for breast conserving surgery. The efficiency of this method is sensitivity=92.3%, specificity=89.3% and positive predictive value=80.0%. (author)

  1. Preoperative diagnosis of breast diseases by dynamic MR mammography. Cut off point establishment for signal intensity ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, Juji; Nagata, Takayasu; Kawagoe, Hajime; Tachibana, Susumu; Kajima, Toshihiko; Hoshino, Mutsuo [Ibi General Hospital, Gifu (Japan); Uno, Takashi; Shimokawa, Kuniyasu

    1997-12-01

    We have revealed that a dynamic study of the breast using MR imaging technique can estimate objectively benign-malignant differentiative diagnosis. Subjects were 41 cases of breast lesion, including 13 cases of breast cancer, 21 cases of mastopathy, six cases of fibroadenoma and one case of intraductal papillomatosis and the results of them were investigated in comparison with histopathological diagnosis. As so the method, we drew up time-signal intensity ratio curve plotting signal intensity ratio at each 30 second of dynamic MR mammography after Gd-DTPA administration. We found a especially high significant difference between cancer and mastopathy, within 90 second after Gd-DTPA administration (p=0.0000). Still more, we established cut off point concerning with establishment of 95% confidence interval, that is, at 30 second after Gd-DTPA administration of point equivalent 1.53 at 60 second equivalent 2.00, at 90 second equivalent 2.47, and about this estimating maneuver using the cut off point we named Dynamic ratio method. We can estimate preoperatively not only benign-malignant differentiative diagnosis with breast tumor, but also neighboring infiltration and lymph node metastasis of breast cancer using this Dynamic ratio method. Over again, Dynamic ratio method provides fine information to preoperative decision of resecting region for breast conserving surgery. The efficiency of this method is sensitivity=92.3%, specificity=89.3% and positive predictive value=80.0%. (author)

  2. Evaluation of model for end-stage liver disease score cut off values in patients with hepatic encephalopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khurram, M.; Qayyum, W.; Umar, M.; Abedin, Z.U.; Bushra, H.T.

    2015-01-01

    Model for End Stage Liver Disease (MELD) is scoring system used for prioritization of patients waiting liver transplantation. Patients with decompensated chronic liver disease (DCLD) with higher MELD score and hepatic encephalopathy (HE) have poor outcome. We planned to note association between short term mortality and various cut-off values of at admission MELD score in HCV related DCLD patients presenting with HE. Methods: In this descriptive case series, 208 Hepatitis C (HCV) related chronic liver disease (CLD) patients with HE were included. At admission serum bilirubin, creatinine and INR were sought to calculate MELD score. Patients who improved were discharged and kept under regular follow up. Outcome was categorized into alive or expired in 3 months after admission. Based on MELD score cut off values of >15, >20, >25 and >30, association with outcome was determined using Chi-square test. Results: One hundred and six (51%) patients were female. Mean patient age was 55.3±10.6 years. Outcome wise, 128 (61.5%) were alive and 80 (38.5%) expired. Mean MELD score of expired was 22.17±9.14. 55 (51%) patients with MELD score >15, 44 (65.7%) patients with >20, 30 (73.2%) patients with >25, and 21 (72.5%) patients with >30 expired. MELD score >20 had strongest association with outcome, p value less than o.01. Conclusion: At admission MELD score >20 are most significantly associated with poor outcome in DCLD patients with HE. (author)

  3. Cut-off scaling of high-harmonic generation driven by a femtosecond visible optical parametric amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirmi, Giovanni; Lai, Chien-Jen; Granados, Eduardo; Huang, Shu-Wei; Sell, Alexander; Hong, Kyung-Han; Moses, Jeffrey; Keathley, Phillip; Kärtner, Franz X

    2012-01-01

    We studied high-harmonic generation (HHG) in Ar, Ne and He gas jets using a broadly tunable, high-energy optical parametric amplifier (OPA) in the visible wavelength range. We optimized the noncollinear OPA to deliver tunable, femtosecond pulses with 200-500 µJ energy at the 1 kHz repetition rate with excellent spatiotemporal properties, suitable for HHG experiments. By tuning the central wavelength of the OPA while keeping other parameters (energy, duration and beam size) constant, we experimentally studied the scaling law of cut-off energy with the driver wavelength in helium. Our measurements show a λ 1.7+0.2 dependence of the HHG cut-off photon energy over the full visible range in agreement with previous experiments of near- and mid-IR wavelengths. By tuning the central wavelength of the driver source, the high-order harmonic spectra in the extreme ultraviolet cover the full range of photon energy between ∼25 and ∼100 eV. Due to the high coherence intrinsic in HHG, as well as the broad and continuous tunability in the extreme UV range, a high energy, high repetition rate version of this source might be an ideal seed for free electron lasers.

  4. In Vitro Dialysis of Cytokine-Rich Plasma With High and Medium Cut-Off Membranes Reduces Its Procalcific Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willy, Kevin; Hulko, Michael; Storr, Markus; Speidel, Rose; Gauss, Julia; Schindler, Ralf; Zickler, Daniel

    2017-09-01

    Recently developed high-flux (HF) dialysis membranes with extended permeability provide better clearance of middle-sized molecules such as interleukins (ILs). Whether this modulation of inflammation influences the procalcific effects of septic plasma on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is not known. To assess the effects of high cut-off (HCO) and medium cut-off (MCO) membranes on microinflammation and in vitro vascular calcification we developed a miniature dialysis model. Plasma samples from lipopolysaccharide-spiked blood were dialyzed with HF, HCO, and MCO membranes in an in vitro miniature dialysis model. Afterwards, IL-6 concentrations were determined in dialysate and plasma. Calcifying VSMCs were incubated with dialyzed plasma samples and vascular calcification was assessed. Osteopontin (OPN) and matrix Gla protein (MGP) were measured in VSMC supernatants. IL-6 plasma concentrations were markedly lower with HCO and MCO dialysis. VSMC calcification was significantly lower after incubation with MCO- and HCO-serum compared to HF plasma. MGP and OPN levels in supernatants were significantly lower in the MCO but not in the HCO group compared to HF. In vitro dialysis of cytokine-enriched plasma samples with MCO and HCO membranes reduces IL-6 levels. The induction of vascular calcification by cytokine-enriched plasma is reduced after HCO and MCO dialysis. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Objective assessment of subjective tinnitus through contralateral suppression of otoacoustic emissions by white noise; suggested cut-off points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riga, M; Komis, A; Maragkoudakis, P; Korres, G; Danielides, V

    2016-12-01

    Normative otoacoustic emission (OAE) suppression values are currently lacking and the role of cochlear efferent innervation in tinnitus is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between tinnitus and medial olivocochlear bundle (MOCB) malfunction. Potential suppression amplitude cut-off criteria that could differentiate participants with tinnitus from those without were sought. Mean suppression amplitudes of transient evoked OAEs and distortion product OAEs by contralateral white noise (50 dBSL) were recorded. Six mean suppression amplitudes criteria were validated as possible cut-off points. The population consisted of normal hearing (n = 78) or presbycusic adults (n = 19) with tinnitus or without (n = 28 and 13, respectively) chronic tinnitus (in total, n = 138 78 females/60males, aged 49 ± 14 years). Participants with mean suppression values lower than 0.5-1 dBSPL seem to present a high probability to report tinnitus (specificity 88-97%). On the other hand, participants with mean suppression values larger than 2-2.5dBSPL seem to present a high probability of the absence of tinnitus (sensitivity 87-99%). Correlations were stronger among participants with bilateral presence or absence of tinnitus. This study seem to confirm an association between tinnitus and low suppression amplitudes (<1 dBSPL), which might evolve into an objective examination tool, supplementary to conventional audiological testing.

  6. Revisiting the Phadia/EliA cut-off values for anticardiolipin and anti-β2-glycoprotein I antibodies: a systematic evaluation according to the guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bor, M V; Jacobsen, I-L Søtang; Gram, J B; Sidelmann, J J

    2018-01-01

    Background Phadia/EliA fluorescence enzyme immunoassays are widely used automated assays for anticardiolipin (aCL) and anti-β2-glycoprotein I (aβ2GPI) antibodies. To date, cut-off values for these assays have not been evaluated systematically and the evidence behind manufacturer's recommended cut-off values is not clear. Objective To determine Phadia/EliA cut-off values for antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) according to the procedures suggested by guidelines. Methods A total of 266 blood donors (135 females and 131 males) were included. The pre-handling and analysis of the samples were performed according to the International Society on Thrombosis and Hemostasis (ISTH) guideline for solid phase aPL assays. Cut-off values and corresponding 90% confidence intervals (CI) for each antibody were established and outliers were handled according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guideline for reference intervals. Samples from 377 consecutive patients, referred to our thrombophilia center with evidence of thrombosis or pregnancy morbidity were included for aPL testing. Results The in-house 99th (97.5th) percentile cut-off values were 11 (8.7), 12 (6.9) 8.5 (5.0) AU/mL for aβ2GPI IgG, IgM and IgA, and 21 (13) GPL-U/mL and 41 (25) MPL-U/mL for aCL IgG and IgM, respectively. The prevalence of positive results (%) defined by these cut-off values in patients with evidence of thrombosis or pregnancy morbidity was 9.5 (12.2), 1.6 (2.9), and 7.0 (9.9), and 0.8 (3.8) for aβ2GPI IgG, IgM, and aCL IgG and IgM respectively. The use of in-house 99th percentile cut-off values compared to the manufacturer suggested cut-off values resulted in 1 and 39 fewer samples for aβ2GPI and aCL to be classified as positive for aPL, respectively. Conclusions We present Phadia/EliA cut-off values with 90% CI for aPL determined systematically according to the ISTH and CLSI guidelines. These values are different from values previously determined, suggesting variation of a

  7. Excited fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudjema, F.; Djouadi, A.; Kneur, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    The production of excited fermions with mass above 100 GeV is considered. f→Vf (1) decay widths are calculated where V=γ, Z or W. Excited fermion pair production in e + e - annihilation and in γγ collisions, and single production in e + e - annihilation, eγ and γγ collisions is also discussed. Cross sections are calculated for all these cases. The discovery potential of the NLC at 500 GeV is compared with that of other colliders. (K.A.) 15 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  8. Relationship between the optimum cut off frequency for Butter worth filter and lung-heart ratio in 99mTc myocardial SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salihin Yusoff, M. N.; Zakaria, A.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether the lung-heart ratio parameter can be used to identify the optimum cut off frequency for Butter worth filter in 99m Tc myocardial SPECT imaging. Materials and Methods: This study involved a cardiac phantom system consisting of cardiac insert in which 1.10 cm cold defect was inserted into its myocardium wall and filled with 4.0 μCi/ml (0.148 MBq/ml) 99m Tc concentration. The cardiac insert was then put into a cylindrical tank which filled with six different 99m Tc concentrations as background. Thus, six target background concentrations ratios (T/B) were carried out. The lung-heart ratio was determined for every SPECT raw image obtained corresponding to each T/B. Then, 130 different combinations of filter parameters from Butter worth filter were utilized to reconstruct each SPECT raw image. The determination of count in myocardium, background, and defect regions of interest were performed for every reconstructed image. All the count values were then used to calculate contrast, signal-to-noise ratio, and defect size. Each criterion was graded (1 to 100) and then summed together to obtain total grade. The optimum cut off frequency for each lung-heart ratio was determined from the total grade. The relation between optimum cut off frequency for Butter worth filter and lung-heart ratio was established using linear regression. Results: There were good relationship between the optimum Butter worth cut off frequency and lung-heart ratio (R 2 = 0.864, p<0.01). The optimal cut off frequency correspond to the change in lung-heart ratio can be expressed by the equation: Optimum cut off frequency=0.715*lung-heart ratio + 0.227. Conclusion: This study suggests that the optimum cut off frequency for Butter worth filter should be determined by referring to lung-heart ratio in each patient study.

  9. [Segmental cut-off bridge and local floating technology for the treatment of ossification of ligamentum flavum in thoracic spine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wei-dong; Zhang, Jian; Sheng, Wei-bin

    2013-10-08

    To explore the efficacy and safety of segmental cut-off bridge and local floating technology for the treatment of ossification of ligamentum flavum (OLF) in thoracic spine. Retrospective study was performed in 98 patients with thoracic OLF who under went operation. There was 56 males and 42 females with an average age of 45.8 (35-73) years. The average duration of onset was 17 (3-51) months. The main clinical symptoms were numbness and paraesthesia (n = 90), lower limb weakness and walking trouble (n = 46), positive pyramidal tract signs (n = 33) and sphincter function obstacle (n = 9). OLF was screened and diagnosed by radiology, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT) or CT myelography (CTM). A total of 142 OLF nidus were spotted. The lesions involved single segment (n = 32), double segments (n = 56), three segments (n = 6) and ≥ four segments (n = 4). And the locations were at upper thoracic segment (T1-4) (n = 34), middle thoracic segment (T5-8) (n = 23) and lower thoracic segment (T9-12) (n = 42). The OLF nidus were removed by local floating technology oft windowing at cephalic and caudal ends and a cut-off bridge at both sides of involved segments. Pre- and post-operative Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scores and Epstein grades were recorded to evaluate the outcomes. The mean loss volume of blood was 320 ml and operative duration 155 min. All cases recovered independent activities. The mean follow-up period was 28 (13-48) months. The mean preoperative JOA score was 4.3 (1-8) points and the mean postoperative JOA score 9.7 (5-11) points. The recovery rate was 78.8%. According to Epstein grade, the excellent and good rate was 86.7%. As a common cause of thoracic spinal cord compression, OLF should be operated as early as possible. Based upon clinical and imaging findings, the application of segmental cut-off bridge and local floating technology is both safe and efficacious in the treatment of OLF in thoracic spine.

  10. Practical use of visual medial temporal lobe atrophy cut-off scores in Alzheimer's disease: Validation in a large memory clinic population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claus, Jules J.; Holl, Dana C.; Roorda, Jelmen J.; Staekenborg, Salka S.; Schuur, Jacqueline; Koster, Pieter; Tielkes, Caroline E.M.; Scheltens, Philip

    2017-01-01

    To provide age-specific medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) cut-off scores for routine clinical practice as marker for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Patients with AD (n = 832, mean age 81.8 years) were compared with patients with subjective cognitive impairment (n = 333, mean age 71.8 years) in a large single-centre memory clinic. Mean of right and left MTA scores was determined with visual rating (Scheltens scale) using CT (0, no atrophy to 4, severe atrophy). Relationships between age and MTA scores were analysed with regression analysis. For various MTA cut-off scores, decade-specific sensitivity and specificity and area under the curve (AUC) values, computed with receiver operator characteristic curves, were determined. MTA strongly increased with age in both groups to a similar degree. Optimal MTA cut-off values for the age ranges <65, 65-74, 75-84 and ≥85 were: ≥1.0, ≥1.5, ≥ 2.0 and ≥2.0. Corresponding values of sensitivity and specificity were 83.3% and 86.4%; 73.7% and 84.6%; 73.7% and 76.2%; and 84.0% and 62.5%. From this large unique memory clinic cohort we suggest decade-specific MTA cut-off scores for clinical use. After age 85 years, however, the practical usefulness of the MTA cut-off is limited. (orig.)

  11. The dischargeable cut-off score of Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) in the inpatient care for low back pain with disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Won; Shin, Ye-Sle; Kim, Hye-Jin; Lee, Jin-Ho; Shin, Joon-Shik; Ha, In-Hyuk

    2014-10-01

    The admission due to low back pain (LBP) became prevalent cause of international economic losses. Since LBP patients with disability are often subject to inpatient care, it is important to determine the appropriate time of discharge. The purpose of this study is to set the cut-off value of appropriate Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) at the time of discharge. Of 1,394 LBP patients admitted in hospital specialized in spinal disease, 774 eligible patients with disability were included in this study. And several clinical variables including numerical rating score, ODI, satisfaction level were observed during the hospital stay. We considered satisfaction level as an important factor for discharge, categorized patients into satisfied group and dissatisfied group. Through the statistical analysis, appropriate factor for determining dischargeable patients satisfied with their current condition and its cut-off value of ODI were found. And proper predictors for the cut-off value were extracted statistically and logically from a pool of several clinical indexes. The ODI at the time of discharge was most accurate in determining dischargeable patients. The cut-off value of ODI was 30. Predictors were ODI questions 4 and 6. We set the cut-off value of dischargeable ODI for LBP inpatient with disability and found its predictor.

  12. Suggested cut-off values for vitamin D as a risk marker for total and cardiac death in patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrycja Anna Naesgaard

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Several studies have demonstrated an association between low vitamin D levels and cardiovascular risk. Vitamin D cut off levels are still under debate. Objectives: To assess two cut-off levels, 40 nmol/L and 70 nmol/L, respectively, for vitamin D measured as 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] in chest pain patients with suspected acute coronary syndrome.Methods: We investigated 1853 patients from coastal-Norway and inland Northern-Argentina. A similar database was used for pooling of data. 2-year follow-up data including all-cause mortality, cardiac death and sudden cardiac death in the total patient population were analyzed, applying univariate and multivariable analysis. Results: 255 patients with known vitamin D concentrations died. In the multivariable analysis, there was a decrease in total mortality above a cut-off level of 40 nmol/L and a decrease in cardiac death above a cut-off level of 70 nmol/L, [HRs of 0.66 (95% CI, 0.50 – 0.88, p = 0.004 and 0.46 (95% CI, 0.22 – 0.94, p = 0.034, respectively].Conclusion: Vitamin D cut-off levels of 40 nmol/L and 70 nmol/L, were related to total mortality and cardiac death, respectively.

  13. Practical use of visual medial temporal lobe atrophy cut-off scores in Alzheimer's disease: Validation in a large memory clinic population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claus, Jules J.; Holl, Dana C.; Roorda, Jelmen J. [Tergooi Hospital, Department of Neurology, Blaricum (Netherlands); Staekenborg, Salka S. [Tergooi Hospital, Department of Neurology, Blaricum (Netherlands); VU University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Alzheimer Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Schuur, Jacqueline [Tergooi Hospital, Department of Geriatrics, Blaricum (Netherlands); Koster, Pieter [Tergooi Hospital, Department of Radiology, Blaricum (Netherlands); Tielkes, Caroline E.M. [Tergooi Hospital, Department of Medical Psychology, Blaricum (Netherlands); Scheltens, Philip [VU University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Alzheimer Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2017-08-15

    To provide age-specific medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) cut-off scores for routine clinical practice as marker for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Patients with AD (n = 832, mean age 81.8 years) were compared with patients with subjective cognitive impairment (n = 333, mean age 71.8 years) in a large single-centre memory clinic. Mean of right and left MTA scores was determined with visual rating (Scheltens scale) using CT (0, no atrophy to 4, severe atrophy). Relationships between age and MTA scores were analysed with regression analysis. For various MTA cut-off scores, decade-specific sensitivity and specificity and area under the curve (AUC) values, computed with receiver operator characteristic curves, were determined. MTA strongly increased with age in both groups to a similar degree. Optimal MTA cut-off values for the age ranges <65, 65-74, 75-84 and ≥85 were: ≥1.0, ≥1.5, ≥ 2.0 and ≥2.0. Corresponding values of sensitivity and specificity were 83.3% and 86.4%; 73.7% and 84.6%; 73.7% and 76.2%; and 84.0% and 62.5%. From this large unique memory clinic cohort we suggest decade-specific MTA cut-off scores for clinical use. After age 85 years, however, the practical usefulness of the MTA cut-off is limited. (orig.)

  14. Fish hook injury: removal by ''push through and cut off'' technique: a case report and brief literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Khan, Hayat; Kamal, Younis; Lone, Ansar Ul Haq

    2014-04-01

    Fishing is a leisure activity for some people around the world. Accidently the fish hook can get hooked in the hand. If the hook is barbed, removal becomes difficult. We report a case of such a injury in the hand and discuss the technique for its removal with a brief review of the literature. A thirty-two year old male accidently suffered a fishhook injury to his hand. He came to the orthopaedic ward two hours after the incident with pain; the fish hook was hanging from the hand. Unsuccessful attempts to remove it were made by his relatives. A push-through and cut-off technique was used for removal of barbed hook. Barbed hooks are to be removed atraumatically with controlled incision over properly anaesthetised skin. Proper wound management and prophylactic antibiotics suitable for treatment of Aeromonas species should be initiated to prevent complications.

  15. Re-evaluation of the fludrocortisone test: duration, NaCl supplementation and cut-off limits for aldosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdahl, Christina; Bergenfelz, Anders; Larsson, Johanna; Nerbrand, Christina; Valdemarsson, Stig; Wihl, Anders; Isaksson, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Primary aldosteronism (PA) is the most common form of secondary hypertension. Thus, the aims of this study were: (1) to clarify whether the fludrocortisone suppression test (FST), which confirms autonomous aldosterone secretion, is reliable when carried out during a shorter period of time and (2) to confirm the importance of NaCl supplementation. The cut-off limits already obtained for aldosterone in healthy subjects during the FST were applied in hypertensive patients with a high aldosterone to renin ratio (ARR). The healthy subjects were allocated to three groups. Fludrocortisone was administered 4 times daily over 4 days and sodium chloride was supplemented in 3 different doses. The result was applied in 24 hypertensive patients, in 24 healthy subjects (10 women (23-38 years old) and 14 men (23-58 years old)) and in 24 patients with hypertension and high ARR (16 women (45-74 years old) and 8 men (56-73 years old)). Blood pressure, aldosterone, renin, potassium and sodium were measured. After three days of FST, there was a significant decrease in the serum level of aldosterone in the healthy subjects, regardless of high or low sodium chloride supplementation (p<0.001). The decrease in serum aldosterone was significantly less pronounced in patients with PA than in healthy subjects and hypertensive patients without PA (p<0.001). The 95th percentile of plasma aldosterone at the end of the test was 225 pmol/L. The FST can be shortened to 3 days and a daily 500 mg NaCl supplementation is sufficient. A cut-off value for aldosterone of 225 pmol/L after 4 days with FST is appropriate.

  16. A cut-off in the TeV gamma-ray spectrum of the SNR Cassiopeia A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahnen, M. L.; Ansoldi, S.; Antonelli, L. A.; Arcaro, C.; Babić, A.; Banerjee, B.; Bangale, P.; Barres de Almeida, U.; Barrio, J. A.; Becerra González, J.; Bednarek, W.; Bernardini, E.; Berti, A.; Bhattacharyya, W.; Biasuzzi, B.; Biland, A.; Blanch, O.; Bonnefoy, S.; Bonnoli, G.; Carosi, R.; Carosi, A.; Chatterjee, A.; Colak, M.; Colin, P.; Colombo, E.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Covino, S.; Cumani, P.; Da Vela, P.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; De Lotto, B.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Di Pierro, F.; Doert, M.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Einecke, S.; Eisenacher Glawion, D.; Elsaesser, D.; Engelkemeier, M.; Fallah Ramazani, V.; Fernández-Barral, A.; Fidalgo, D.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Fruck, C.; Galindo, D.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Gaug, M.; Giammaria, P.; Godinović, N.; Gora, D.; Guberman, D.; Hadasch, D.; Hahn, A.; Hassan, T.; Hayashida, M.; Herrera, J.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Inada, T.; Ishio, K.; Konno, Y.; Kubo, H.; Kushida, J.; Kuveždić, D.; Lelas, D.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; Maggio, C.; Majumdar, P.; Makariev, M.; Maneva, G.; Manganaro, M.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Menzel, U.; Minev, M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Moralejo, A.; Moreno, V.; Moretti, E.; Neustroev, V.; Niedzwiecki, A.; Nievas Rosillo, M.; Nilsson, K.; Ninci, D.; Nishijima, K.; Noda, K.; Nogués, L.; Paiano, S.; Palacio, J.; Paneque, D.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Pedaletti, G.; Peresano, M.; Perri, L.; Persic, M.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puljak, I.; Garcia, J. R.; Reichardt, I.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Righi, C.; Saito, T.; Satalecka, K.; Schroeder, S.; Schweizer, T.; Shore, S. N.; Sitarek, J.; Šnidarić, I.; Sobczynska, D.; Stamerra, A.; Strzys, M.; Surić, T.; Takalo, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Terzić, T.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Torres-Albà, N.; Treves, A.; Vanzo, G.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Vovk, I.; Ward, J. E.; Will, M.; Zarić, D.

    2017-12-01

    It is widely believed that the bulk of the Galactic cosmic rays is accelerated in supernova remnants (SNRs). However, no observational evidence of the presence of particles of PeV energies in SNRs has yet been found. The young historical SNR Cassiopeia A (Cas A) appears as one of the best candidates to study acceleration processes. Between 2014 December and 2016 October, we observed Cas A with the MAGIC telescopes, accumulating 158 h of good quality data. We derived the spectrum of the source from 100 GeV to 10 TeV. We also analysed ∼8 yr of Fermi-LAT to obtain the spectral shape between 60 MeV and 500 GeV. The spectra measured by the LAT and MAGIC telescopes are compatible within the errors and show a clear turn-off (4.6σ) at the highest energies, which can be described with an exponential cut-off at E_c = 3.5(^{+1.6}_{-1.0})_{stat} (^{+0.8}_{-0.9})_{sys} TeV. The gamma-ray emission from 60 MeV to 10 TeV can be attributed to a population of high-energy protons with a spectral index of ∼2.2 and an energy cut-off at ∼10 TeV. This result indicates that Cas A is not contributing to the high energy (∼PeV) cosmic ray sea in a significant manner at the present moment. A one-zone leptonic model fails to reproduce by itself the multiwavelength spectral energy distribution. Besides, if a non-negligible fraction of the flux seen by MAGIC is produced by leptons, the radiation should be emitted in a region with a low magnetic field (B⪅180 μG) like in the reverse shock.

  17. To choose the cut-off point of ferritin for differentiation between benign from malignant pleural-peritoneal effusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Liu; Yang Wenjing; Liu Junfeng; Yu Jiuru

    2005-01-01

    To explore the level of ferritin for differentiating the benign from malignant pleural and peritoneal effusion, 218 pleural-peritoneal effusion samples from patients with different kinds of diseases were determined for ferritin (P Ft ) by RIA, in the meanwhile serum ferritin (S Ft ) was also determined. According to clinical diagnosis, these samples were divided into two groups: benign and malignant. P Ft and S Ft were compared between these two groups, and the ratio of P Ft to S Ft was counted. The ROC curve was used to choose the best cut-off point P Ft for differentiating benign from malignant pleural and peritoneal effusion. The results showed that in the benign effusion group the P Ft was 142.4±38.6 μg/L, S Ft was 89.7±43.5 μg/L, and P Ft / S Ft was 1.46±0.55, whereas in the group of malignant effusion the corresponding figures were 576.5±239.l μg/L, 189.±81.7 μg/L, and 3.67±1.48, respectively. The cut-off point for differentiating benign from malignant pleural and peritoneal effusion was 400 μg/L. Our differentiation standards are: P Ft ≥400 μg/L,P Ft /S Ft ≥3 for the malignant pleural and peritoneal ef- fusion, and P Ft Ft /S Ft <3 for the benign effusion. The sensitivity is 84.5%, the specificity is 87.5%, and the accuracy is 92.8%. (authors)

  18. Appropriate neck circumference cut-off points for metabolic syndrome in Turkish patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkaya, Ismail; Yardimci, Bulent; Tunckale, Aydin

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the association between neck circumference (NC), overweight, and metabolic syndrome (MS) in Turkish patients with type 2 diabetes. A total of 264 diabetic patients (mean age: 52.9±8.1 years) were recruited from two centers in Istanbul to perform anthropometric measurements, including waist and hip circumference, NC, and body mass index. Blood pressure, fasting glucose, and lipid profile (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels) were determined. NC correlated with waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, and triglycerides in men, whereas NC only correlated with waist circumference in women. Additionally, NC was shown to negatively correlate with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in both men and women. Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the area under the curve for NC and overweight was 0.95 for both men and women (P<0.001). Moreover, a NC of 38cm for men and 37cm for women was the best cut-off point for determining overweight. The area under the curve for NC and MS was 0.87 for men and 0.83 for women (P<0.001). A NC of 39cm for men and 37cm for women was the best cut-off point to determine participants with MS. Our findings suggest a positive correlation of NC with MetS in Turkish patients with type 2 diabetes, and could be a useful and accurate tool to identify MS. Copyright © 2017 SEEN y SED. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Lattice fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randjbar-Daemi, S.

    1995-12-01

    The so-called doubling problem in the lattice description of fermions led to a proof that under certain circumstances chiral gauge theories cannot be defined on the lattice. This is called the no-go theorem. It implies that if Γ/sub/A is defined on a lattice then its infrared limit, which should correspond to the quantum description of the classical action for the slowly varying fields on lattice scale, is inevitably a vector like theory. In particular, if not circumvented, the no-go theorem implies that there is no lattice formulation of the Standard Weinberg-Salam theory or SU(5) GUT, even though the fermions belong to anomaly-free representations of the gauge group. This talk aims to explain one possible attempt at bypassing the no-go theorem. 20 refs

  20. Lattice fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randjbar-Daemi, S

    1995-12-01

    The so-called doubling problem in the lattice description of fermions led to a proof that under certain circumstances chiral gauge theories cannot be defined on the lattice. This is called the no-go theorem. It implies that if {Gamma}/sub/A is defined on a lattice then its infrared limit, which should correspond to the quantum description of the classical action for the slowly varying fields on lattice scale, is inevitably a vector like theory. In particular, if not circumvented, the no-go theorem implies that there is no lattice formulation of the Standard Weinberg-Salam theory or SU(5) GUT, even though the fermions belong to anomaly-free representations of the gauge group. This talk aims to explain one possible attempt at bypassing the no-go theorem. 20 refs.

  1. The assessment of anorexia in patients with cancer: cut-off values for the FAACT-A/CS and the VAS for appetite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blauwhoff-Buskermolen, S; Ruijgrok, C; Ostelo, R W; de Vet, H C W; Verheul, H M W; de van der Schueren, M A E; Langius, J A E

    2016-02-01

    Anorexia is a frequently observed symptom in patients with cancer and is associated with limited food intake and decreased quality of life. Diagnostic instruments such as the Anorexia/Cachexia Subscale (A/CS) of the Functional Assessment of Anorexia/Cachexia Therapy (FAACT) questionnaire and the visual analog scale (VAS) for appetite have been recommended in the assessment of anorexia, but validated cut-off values are lacking. This study aimed to obtain cut-off values of these instruments for the assessment of anorexia in patients with cancer. The FAACT-A/CS and the VAS for appetite were administered to patients with cancer before start of chemotherapy. As reference standard for anorexia, two external criteria were used: (1) a cut-off value of ≥2 on the anorexia symptom scale of the EORTC QLQ C-30 and (2) the question "Do you experience a decreased appetite?" (yes/no). ROC curves were used to examine the optimal cut-off values for the FAACT-A/CS and VAS. A total of 273 patients (58 % male; 64.0 ± 10.6 years) were included. The median score on the FAACT-A/CS was 38 (IQR 32-42) points and 77 (IQR 47-93) points on the VAS. Considering both external criteria, the optimal cut-off value for the FAACT-A/CS was ≤37 (sensitivity (se) 80 %, specificity (sp) 81 %, positive predictive value (PV(+)) 79 %, negative predictive value (PV(-)) 82 %) and for the VAS was ≤70 (se 76 %, sp 83 %, PV(+) 80 %, PV(-) 79 %). For the assessment of anorexia in patients with cancer, our study suggests cut-off values of ≤37 for the FAACT-A/CS and ≤70 for the VAS. Future studies should confirm our findings in other patient samples.

  2. Cut-Offs and Response Criteria for the Hospital Universitario La Princesa Index (HUPI and Their Comparison to Widely-Used Indices of Disease Activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isidoro González-Álvaro

    Full Text Available To estimate cut-off points and to establish response criteria for the Hospital Universitario La Princesa Index (HUPI in patients with chronic polyarthritis.Two cohorts, one of early arthritis (Princesa Early Arthritis Register Longitudinal [PEARL] study and other of long-term rheumatoid arthritis (Estudio de la Morbilidad y Expresión Clínica de la Artritis Reumatoide [EMECAR] including altogether 1200 patients were used to determine cut-off values for remission, and for low, moderate and high activity through receiver operating curve (ROC analysis. The areas under ROC (AUC were compared to those of validated indexes (SDAI, CDAI, DAS28. ROC analysis was also applied to establish minimal and relevant clinical improvement for HUPI.The best cut-off points for HUPI are 2, 5 and 9, classifying RA activity as remission if ≤2, low disease activity if >2 and ≤5, moderate if >5 and <9 and high if ≥9. HUPI's AUC to discriminate between low-moderate activity was 0.909 and between moderate-high activity 0.887. DAS28's AUCs were 0.887 and 0.846, respectively; both indices had higher accuracy than SDAI (AUCs: 0.832 and 0.756 and CDAI (AUCs: 0.789 and 0.728. HUPI discriminates remission better than DAS28-ESR in early arthritis, but similarly to SDAI. The HUPI cut-off for minimal clinical improvement was established at 2 and for relevant clinical improvement at 4. Response criteria were established based on these cut-off values.The cut-offs proposed for HUPI perform adequately in patients with either early or long term arthritis.

  3. Optimal cut-off levels to define obesity: body mass index and waist circumference, and their relationship to cardiovascular disease, dyslipidaemia, hypertension and diabetes in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaher, Zaki Morad Mohd; Zambari, Robayaah; Pheng, Chan Siew; Muruga, Vadivale; Ng, Bernard; Appannah, Geeta; Onn, Lim Teck

    2009-01-01

    Many studies in Asia have demonstrated that Asian populations may require lower cut-off levels for body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference to define obesity and abdominal obesity respectively, compared to western populations. Optimal cut-off levels for body mass index and waist circumference were determined to assess the relationship between the two anthropometric- and cardiovascular indices. Receiver operating characteristics analysis was used to determine the optimal cut-off levels. The study sample included 1833 subjects (mean age of 44+/-14 years) from 93 primary care clinics in Malaysia. Eight hundred and seventy two of the subjects were men and 960 were women. The optimal body mass index cut-off values predicting dyslipidaemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, or at least one cardiovascular risk factor varied from 23.5 to 25.5 kg/m2 in men and 24.9 to 27.4 kg/m2 in women. As for waist circumference, the optimal cut-off values varied from 83 to 92 cm in men and from 83 to 88 cm in women. The optimal cut-off values from our study showed that body mass index of 23.5 kg/m2 in men and 24.9 kg/m2 in women and waist circumference of 83 cm in men and women may be more suitable for defining the criteria for overweight or obesity among adults in Malaysia. Waist circumference may be a better indicator for the prediction of obesity-related cardiovascular risk factors in men and women compared to BMI. Further investigation using a bigger sample size in Asia needs to be done to confirm our findings.

  4. Age-related differences in recommended anthropometric cut-off point validity to identify cardiovascular risk factors in ostensibly healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramoney, Sreevidya; Björkelund, Cecilia; Guo, Xinxin; Skoog, Ingmar; Bosaeus, Ingvar; Lissner, Lauren

    2014-12-01

    To investigate validity of widely recommended anthropometric and total fat percentage cut-off points in screening for cardiovascular risk factors in women of different ages. A population-based sample of 1002 Swedish women aged 38, 50, 75 (younger, middle-aged and elderly, respectively) underwent anthropometry, health examinations and blood tests. Total fat was estimated (bioimpedance) in 670 women. Sensitivity, specificity of body mass index (BMI; ≥25 and ≥30), waist circumference (WC; ≥80 cm and ≥88 cm) and total fat percentage (TF; ≥35%) cut-off points for cardiovascular risk factors (dyslipidaemias, hypertension and hyperglycaemia) were calculated for each age. Cut-off points yielding high sensitivity together with modest specificity were considered valid. Women reporting hospital admission for cardiovascular disease were excluded. The sensitivity of WC ≥80 cm for one or more risk factors was ~60% in younger and middle-aged women, and 80% in elderly women. The specificity of WC ≥80 cm for one or more risk factors was 69%, 57% and 40% at the three ages (p < .05 for age trends). WC ≥80 cm yielded ~80% sensitivity for two or more risk factors across all ages. However, specificity decreased with increasing age (p < .0001), being 33% in elderly. WC ≥88 cm provided better specificity in elderly women. BMI and TF % cut-off points were not better than WC. Validity of recommended anthropometric cut-off points in screening asymptomatic women varies with age. In younger and middle-age, WC ≥80 cm yielded high sensitivity and modest specificity for two or more risk factors, however, sensitivity for one or more risk factor was less than optimal. WC ≥88 cm showed better validity than WC ≥80 cm in elderly. Our results support age-specific screening cut-off points for women. © 2014 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  5. Cut-Offs and Response Criteria for the Hospital Universitario La Princesa Index (HUPI) and Their Comparison to Widely-Used Indices of Disease Activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Álvaro, Isidoro; Castrejón, Isabel; Ortiz, Ana M; Toledano, Esther; Castañeda, Santos; García-Vadillo, Alberto; Carmona, Loreto

    2016-01-01

    To estimate cut-off points and to establish response criteria for the Hospital Universitario La Princesa Index (HUPI) in patients with chronic polyarthritis. Two cohorts, one of early arthritis (Princesa Early Arthritis Register Longitudinal [PEARL] study) and other of long-term rheumatoid arthritis (Estudio de la Morbilidad y Expresión Clínica de la Artritis Reumatoide [EMECAR]) including altogether 1200 patients were used to determine cut-off values for remission, and for low, moderate and high activity through receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis. The areas under ROC (AUC) were compared to those of validated indexes (SDAI, CDAI, DAS28). ROC analysis was also applied to establish minimal and relevant clinical improvement for HUPI. The best cut-off points for HUPI are 2, 5 and 9, classifying RA activity as remission if ≤2, low disease activity if >2 and ≤5), moderate if >5 and <9 and high if ≥9. HUPI's AUC to discriminate between low-moderate activity was 0.909 and between moderate-high activity 0.887. DAS28's AUCs were 0.887 and 0.846, respectively; both indices had higher accuracy than SDAI (AUCs: 0.832 and 0.756) and CDAI (AUCs: 0.789 and 0.728). HUPI discriminates remission better than DAS28-ESR in early arthritis, but similarly to SDAI. The HUPI cut-off for minimal clinical improvement was established at 2 and for relevant clinical improvement at 4. Response criteria were established based on these cut-off values. The cut-offs proposed for HUPI perform adequately in patients with either early or long term arthritis.

  6. Exploring optimum cut-off scores to screen for probable posttraumatic stress disorder within a sample of UK treatment-seeking veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Dominic; Ross, Jana; Ashwick, Rachel; Armour, Cherie; Busuttil, Walter

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Previous research exploring the psychometric properties of the scores of measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) suggests there is variation in their functioning depending on the target population. To date, there has been little study of these properties within UK veteran populations. Objective: This study aimed to determine optimally efficient cut-off values for the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) and the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) that can be used to assess for differential diagnosis of presumptive PTSD. Methods: Data from a sample of 242 UK veterans assessed for mental health difficulties were analysed. The criterion-related validity of the PCL-5 and IES-R were evaluated against the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5 (CAPS-5). Kappa statistics were used to assess the level of agreement between the DSM-IV and DSM-5 classification systems. Results: The optimal cut-off scores observed within this sample were 34 or above on the PCL-5 and 46 or above on the IES-R. The PCL-5 cut-off is similar to the previously reported values, but the IES-R cut-off identified in this study is higher than has previously been recommended. Overall, a moderate level of agreement was found between participants screened positive using the DSM-IV and DSM-5 classification systems of PTSD. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the PCL-5 and IES-R can be used as brief measures within veteran populations presenting at secondary care to assess for PTSD. The use of a higher cut-off for the IES-R may be helpful for differentiating between veterans who present with PTSD and those who may have some sy`mptoms of PTSD but are sub-threshold for meeting a diagnosis. Further, the use of more accurate optimal cut-offs may aid clinicians to better monitor changes in PTSD symptoms during and after treatment. PMID:29435200

  7. Exploring optimum cut-off scores to screen for probable posttraumatic stress disorder within a sample of UK treatment-seeking veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Dominic; Ross, Jana; Ashwick, Rachel; Armour, Cherie; Busuttil, Walter

    2017-01-01

    Background : Previous research exploring the psychometric properties of the scores of measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) suggests there is variation in their functioning depending on the target population. To date, there has been little study of these properties within UK veteran populations. Objective : This study aimed to determine optimally efficient cut-off values for the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) and the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) that can be used to assess for differential diagnosis of presumptive PTSD. Methods : Data from a sample of 242 UK veterans assessed for mental health difficulties were analysed. The criterion-related validity of the PCL-5 and IES-R were evaluated against the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5 (CAPS-5). Kappa statistics were used to assess the level of agreement between the DSM-IV and DSM-5 classification systems. Results : The optimal cut-off scores observed within this sample were 34 or above on the PCL-5 and 46 or above on the IES-R. The PCL-5 cut-off is similar to the previously reported values, but the IES-R cut-off identified in this study is higher than has previously been recommended. Overall, a moderate level of agreement was found between participants screened positive using the DSM-IV and DSM-5 classification systems of PTSD. Conclusions : Our findings suggest that the PCL-5 and IES-R can be used as brief measures within veteran populations presenting at secondary care to assess for PTSD. The use of a higher cut-off for the IES-R may be helpful for differentiating between veterans who present with PTSD and those who may have some sy`mptoms of PTSD but are sub-threshold for meeting a diagnosis. Further, the use of more accurate optimal cut-offs may aid clinicians to better monitor changes in PTSD symptoms during and after treatment.

  8. Fermion masses through four-fermion condensates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayyar, Venkitesh [Department of Physics, Duke University,Science Drive, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Chandrasekharan, Shailesh [Department of Physics, Duke University,Science Drive, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Center for High Energy Physics, Indian Institute of Science,C.V. Raman Avenue, Bangalore, 560012 (India)

    2016-10-12

    Fermion masses can be generated through four-fermion condensates when symmetries prevent fermion bilinear condensates from forming. This less explored mechanism of fermion mass generation is responsible for making four reduced staggered lattice fermions massive at strong couplings in a lattice model with a local four-fermion coupling. The model has a massless fermion phase at weak couplings and a massive fermion phase at strong couplings. In particular there is no spontaneous symmetry breaking of any lattice symmetries in both these phases. Recently it was discovered that in three space-time dimensions there is a direct second order phase transition between the two phases. Here we study the same model in four space-time dimensions and find results consistent with the existence of a narrow intermediate phase with fermion bilinear condensates, that separates the two asymptotic phases by continuous phase transitions.

  9. Determinants of self-reported smoking and misclassification during pregnancy, and analysis of optimal cut-off points for urinary cotinine: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurrekoetxea, Juan J; Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; López, María José; Castilla, Ane Miren; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Guxens, Mónica; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Espada, Mercedes; Lertxundi, Aitana; Tardón, Adonina; Ballester, Ferran

    2013-01-24

    To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with smoking and misclassification in pregnant women from INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente, Environment and Childhood) project, Spain, and to assess the optimal cut-offs for urinary cotinine (UC) that best distinguish daily and occasional smokers with varying levels of second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure. We used logistic regression models to study the relationship between sociodemographic variables and self-reported smoking and misclassification (self-reported non-smokers with UC >50 ng/ml). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to calculate the optimal cut-off point for discriminating smokers. The cut-offs were also calculated after stratification among non-smokers by the number of sources of SHS exposure. The cut-off points used to discriminate smoking status were the level of UC given by Youden's index and for 50 and 100 ng/ml for daily smokers, or 25 and 50 ng/ml for occasional smokers. At the third trimester of pregnancy, 2263 pregnant women of the INMA Project were interviewed between 2004 and 2008 and a urine sample was collected. Prevalence of self-reported smokers at the third trimester of pregnancy was 18.5%, and another 3.9% misreported their smoking status. Variables associated with self-reported smoking and misreporting were similar, including born in Europe, educational level and exposure to SHS. The optimal cut-off was 82 ng/ml (95% CI 42 to 133), sensitivity 95.2% and specificity 96.6%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.986 (95% CI 0.982 to 0.990). The cut-offs varied according to the SHS exposure level being 42 (95% CI 27 to 57), 82 (95% CI 46 to 136) and 106 ng/ml (95% CI 58 to 227) for not being SHS exposed, exposed to one, and to two or more sources of SHS, respectively. The optimal cut-off for discriminating occasional smokers from non-smokers was 27 ng/ml (95% CI 11 to 43). Prevalence of smoking during pregnancy in Spain remains high. UC is a reliable biomarker for classifying

  10. Determinants of self-reported smoking and misclassification during pregnancy, and analysis of optimal cut-off points for urinary cotinine: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurrekoetxea, Juan J; Murcia, Mario; Rebagliato, Marisa; López, María José; Castilla, Ane Miren; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Guxens, Mónica; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Espada, Mercedes; Lertxundi, Aitana; Tardón, Adonina; Ballester, Ferran

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence and factors associated with smoking and misclassification in pregnant women from INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente, Environment and Childhood) project, Spain, and to assess the optimal cut-offs for urinary cotinine (UC) that best distinguish daily and occasional smokers with varying levels of second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure. Design We used logistic regression models to study the relationship between sociodemographic variables and self-reported smoking and misclassification (self-reported non-smokers with UC >50 ng/ml). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to calculate the optimal cut-off point for discriminating smokers. The cut-offs were also calculated after stratification among non-smokers by the number of sources of SHS exposure. The cut-off points used to discriminate smoking status were the level of UC given by Youden's index and for 50 and 100 ng/ml for daily smokers, or 25 and 50 ng/ml for occasional smokers. Participants At the third trimester of pregnancy, 2263 pregnant women of the INMA Project were interviewed between 2004 and 2008 and a urine sample was collected. Results Prevalence of self-reported smokers at the third trimester of pregnancy was 18.5%, and another 3.9% misreported their smoking status. Variables associated with self-reported smoking and misreporting were similar, including born in Europe, educational level and exposure to SHS. The optimal cut-off was 82 ng/ml (95% CI 42 to 133), sensitivity 95.2% and specificity 96.6%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.986 (95% CI 0.982 to 0.990). The cut-offs varied according to the SHS exposure level being 42 (95% CI 27 to 57), 82 (95% CI 46 to 136) and 106 ng/ml (95% CI 58 to 227) for not being SHS exposed, exposed to one, and to two or more sources of SHS, respectively. The optimal cut-off for discriminating occasional smokers from non-smokers was 27 ng/ml (95% CI 11 to 43). Conclusions Prevalence of smoking during pregnancy in

  11. [Analysis of Cut-off Value in Screening of Thalassemia by Capillary Hemoglobin Electrophoresis for Pregnant Women from Shenzhen Region of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Mei; Wu, Wen-Yuan; Liu, Mei; Gan, Zhi-Biao; Mao, Wei-Yu; Lin, Rong-Yao; Liu, Ai-Qin; He, Gui-Rong

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the cut-off value in screening of thalassemia in pregnant women from Shenzhen region by capillary hemoglobin electrophoresis. The data of capillary hemoglobin electrophoresis and genetic diagnosis of thalassemia from 2122 examined prenatal women were retrospectively analyzed. Capillary hemoglobin electrophoresis and α-, β- genetic diagnosis of thalassemia were carried out for every woman. Hemoglobin electrophoresis was performed using Capillarys 2 full-automated electrophoresis instrument. Gap polymerase chain reaction and reverse dot blot were used for genetic diagnosis of thalassemia genotyping test. The cut-off value in screening of thalassemia was determined by receiver operating characteristic curve and next to analyze the value of HbA2 and HbF in screening of thalassemia using the decided cut-off value. The areas under the curve (AUC(Roc)) of HbA2 for diagnosis of α-, β- thalassemia were 0.75 and 0.981 respectively, and the AUC(Roc) of HbF for diagnosis of β-thalassemia was 0.787. When HbA2 ≤ 2.55 was taken as the cut-off value of HbA2 for diagnosis of α-thalassemia, the sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (LR(+)) and negative likelihood ratio (LR(-)) were 89.5%, 54.8%, 1.98, 0.19 respectively. When HbA2 ≥3.9 was taken as the cut off value of HbA2 for diagnosis of β-thalassemia, the sensitivity, specificity, LR(+) and LR(-) were 96.1%, 99.8% 480.5, 0.04 respectively. When HbF ≥0.75 was taken as the cut off value of HbF for diagnosis of β-thalassemia, the sensitivity, specificity, LR(+) and LR(-) were 83.6%, 61.8% respectively. The cut-off value in screening of thalassemia by capillarys 2 full automated electrophoresis instrument is different from that of the traditional method of hemoglobin electrophoresis, such as cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis and agarose gel electrophoresis. Each laboratory should establish their own respective cut off value.

  12. Comparison of interferon-γ release assay to two cut-off points of tuberculin skin test to detect latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in primary health care workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Mattos de Souza

    Full Text Available An interferon-γ release assay, QuantiFERON-TB (QFT test, has been introduced an alternative test for the diagnosis of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI. Here, we compared the performance of QFT with tuberculin skin test (TST measured at two different cut-off points among primary health care work (HCW in Brazil.A cross-sectional study was carried out among HCWs in four Brazilian cities with a known history of high incidence of TB. Results of the QFT were compared to TST results based on both ≥5 mm and ≥10 mm as cut-off points.We enrolled 632 HCWs. When the cut-off value of ≥10 mm was used, agreement between QFT and TST was 69% (k = 0.31, and when the cut-off of ≥5 mm was chosen, the agreement was 57% (k = 0.22. We investigated possible factors of discordance of TST vs QFT. Compared to the TST-/QFT- group, risk factors for discordance in the TST+/QFT- group with TST cut-off of ≥5 mm included age between 41-45 years [OR = 2.70; CI 95%: 1.32-5.51] and 46-64 years [OR = 2.04; CI 95%: 1.05-3.93], BCG scar [OR = 2.72; CI 95%: 1.40-5.25], and having worked only in primary health care [OR = 2.30; CI 95%: 1.09-4.86]. On the other hand, for the cut-off of ≥10 mm, BCG scar [OR = 2.26; CI 95%: 1.03-4.91], being a household contact of a TB patient [OR = 1.72; CI 95%: 1.01-2.92] and having had a previous TST [OR = 1.66; CI 95%: 1.05-2.62], were significantly associated with the TST+/QFT- group. No statistically significant associations were found among the TST-/QFT+ discordant group with either TST cut-off value.Although we identified BCG vaccination to contribute to the discordance at both TST cut-off measures, the current Brazilian recommendation for the initiation of LTBI treatment, based on information gathered from medical history, TST, chest radiograph and physical examination, should not be changed.

  13. Comparison of interferon-γ release assay to two cut-off points of tuberculin skin test to detect latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in primary health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Fernanda Mattos; do Prado, Thiago Nascimento; Pinheiro, Jair dos Santos; Peres, Renata Lyrio; Lacerda, Thamy Carvalho; Loureiro, Rafaela Borge; Carvalho, Jose Américo; Fregona, Geisa; Dias, Elias Santos; Cosme, Lorrayne Beliqui; Rodrigues, Rodrigo Ribeiro; Riley, Lee Wood; Maciel, Ethel Leonor Noia

    2014-01-01

    An interferon-γ release assay, QuantiFERON-TB (QFT) test, has been introduced an alternative test for the diagnosis of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI). Here, we compared the performance of QFT with tuberculin skin test (TST) measured at two different cut-off points among primary health care work (HCW) in Brazil. A cross-sectional study was carried out among HCWs in four Brazilian cities with a known history of high incidence of TB. Results of the QFT were compared to TST results based on both ≥5 mm and ≥10 mm as cut-off points. We enrolled 632 HCWs. When the cut-off value of ≥10 mm was used, agreement between QFT and TST was 69% (k = 0.31), and when the cut-off of ≥5 mm was chosen, the agreement was 57% (k = 0.22). We investigated possible factors of discordance of TST vs QFT. Compared to the TST-/QFT- group, risk factors for discordance in the TST+/QFT- group with TST cut-off of ≥5 mm included age between 41-45 years [OR = 2.70; CI 95%: 1.32-5.51] and 46-64 years [OR = 2.04; CI 95%: 1.05-3.93], BCG scar [OR = 2.72; CI 95%: 1.40-5.25], and having worked only in primary health care [OR = 2.30; CI 95%: 1.09-4.86]. On the other hand, for the cut-off of ≥10 mm, BCG scar [OR = 2.26; CI 95%: 1.03-4.91], being a household contact of a TB patient [OR = 1.72; CI 95%: 1.01-2.92] and having had a previous TST [OR = 1.66; CI 95%: 1.05-2.62], were significantly associated with the TST+/QFT- group. No statistically significant associations were found among the TST-/QFT+ discordant group with either TST cut-off value. Although we identified BCG vaccination to contribute to the discordance at both TST cut-off measures, the current Brazilian recommendation for the initiation of LTBI treatment, based on information gathered from medical history, TST, chest radiograph and physical examination, should not be changed.

  14. The cut-off values of anthropometric variables for predicting mild cognitive impairment in Malaysian older adults: a large population based cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won H

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Huiloo Won,1 Zahara Abdul Manaf,2 Arimi Fitri Mat Ludin,3 Mohd Azahadi Omar,4 Rosdinom Razali,5 Suzana Shahar2 1Nutrition Program, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 2Dietetics Program, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 3Biomedical Science Program, School of Diagnostic and Applied Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 4Centre for Burden of Disease Research, Institute for Public Health, Ministry of Health Malaysia, 5Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Hospital Canselor Tuanku Muhriz, University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Purpose: Older adults are at risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI, and simple anthropometric measurements can be used to screen for this condition. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore the cut-off values of body mass index (BMI and waist circumference (WC for predicting the risk of MCI in older Malaysian adults.Methods: A total of 2,240 Malaysian older adults aged ≥60 years were recruited using multistage random sampling in a population based cross-sectional study. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to determine the cut-off values of BMI and WC with optimum sensitivity and specificity for the detection of MCI. Age, gender, years of education, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, depression, and medical conditions were used as confounding factors in this analysis.Results: A BMI cut-off value of 26 kg/m2 (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] 0.725; sensitivity 90.5%; specificity 38.8% was appropriate in identifying the risk of getting MCI in both men and women. The optimum WC cut-offs for likelihood of MCI were 90 cm (AUC 0.745; sensitivity 78.0%; specificity 59.8% for men and 82 cm (AUC 0.714; sensitivity 84.3%; specificity 49.7% for women. The optimum calf circumference (CC cut-off values for identifying MCI were 29 cm (AUC 0.731; sensitivity 72.6%; specificity

  15. Definition of new cut-offs of BMI and waist circumference based on body composition and insulin resistance: differences between children, adolescents and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hübers, M; Pourhassan, M; Braun, W; Geisler, C; Müller, M J

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to determine associations between anthropometric traits, regional fat depots and insulin resistance in children, adolescents and adults to define new cut-offs of body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC). Cross-sectional data were assessed in 433 children, adolescents and adults (aged: 6-60 years, BMI: 23.6 [21.0-27.7] kg m -2 ). Total adipose tissue (TAT), regional subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT total , SAT trunk ) and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) were determined by whole-body magnetic resonance imaging, fat mass by air-displacement plethysmography. Insulin resistance was evaluated by homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Bivariate as well as partial correlations and regression analyses were used. Cut-off values of BMI and WC related to regional fat depots and HOMA-IR were analysed by receiver operating characteristics curve. In adults, TAT, SAT total and SAT trunk increased linearly with increasing BMI and WC, whereas they followed a cubic function in children and adolescents with a steep increase at BMI and WC ≥1 standard deviation score and VAT at WC ≥2 standard deviation score. Sex differences were apparent in adults with women having higher masses of TAT and SAT and men having higher VAT. Using established BMI or WC cut-offs, correspondent masses of TAT, SAT total , SAT trunk and VAT increased from childhood to adulthood. In all age groups, there were positive associations between BMI, WC, SAT trunk , VAT and HOMA-IR. When compared with normative cut-offs of BMI or WC, HOMA-IR-derived cut-offs of regional fat depots were lower in all age groups. Associations between BMI, WC and regional fat depots varied between children, adolescents, young and older adults. When compared with BMI-derived and WC-derived values, an insulin resistance-derived cut-off corresponded to lower masses of regional fat depots. Thus, established BMI and WC cut-offs are not appropriate to assess metabolic disturbances associated

  16. Determination of cosmic ray (CR) ionization path and iono/atmospheric cut-off energy from CR intervals III, IV and V in the planetary environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velinov, P.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper are determined the ionization path and cut-off energies of the cosmic ray (CR) nuclei in relation to the general interaction model 'CR - ionosphere-middle atmosphere'. Here the ionization path and the iono/atmospheric cut-off energies of the galactic CR, solar CR and anomalous CR are separately considered in each energetic range, without taking into account the particle transfer from one range in another. This more general approach will be the object of a further paper

  17. Bronchodilator response cut-off points and FEV 0.75 reference values for spirometry in preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burity, Edjane Figueiredo; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Castro; Jones, Marcus Herbert; Sayão, Larissa Bouwman; Andrade, Armèle Dornelas de; Britto, Murilo Carlos Amorim de

    2016-01-01

    To determine the cut-off points for FEV1, FEV0.75, FEV0.5, and FEF25-75% bronchodilator responses in healthy preschool children and to generate reference values for FEV0.75. This was a cross-sectional community-based study involving children 3-5 years of age. Healthy preschool children were selected by a standardized questionnaire. Spirometry was performed before and after bronchodilator use. The cut-off point of the response was defined as the 95th percentile of the change in each parameter. We recruited 266 children, 160 (60%) of whom were able to perform acceptable, reproducible expiratory maneuvers before and after bronchodilator use. The mean age and height were 57.78 ± 7.86 months and 106.56 ± 6.43 cm, respectively. The success rate for FEV0.5 was 35%, 68%, and 70% in the 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds, respectively. The 95th percentile of the change in the percentage of the predicted value in response to bronchodilator use was 11.6%, 16.0%, 8.5%, and 35.5% for FEV1, FEV0.75, FEV0.5, and FEF25-75%, respectively. Our results provide cut-off points for bronchodilator responsiveness for FEV1, FEV0.75, FEV0.5, and FEF25-75% in healthy preschool children. In addition, we proposed gender-specific reference equations for FEV0.75. Our findings could improve the physiological assessment of respiratory function in preschool children. Determinar os pontos de corte de resposta ao broncodilatador do VEF1, VEF0,75, VEF0,5 e FEF25-75% em crianças pré-escolares saudáveis e gerar valores de referência para o VEF0,75. Foi realizado um estudo transversal de base comunitária em crianças de 3-5 anos de idade. Pré-escolares saudáveis foram selecionados por um questionário padronizado. Foi realizada espirometria antes e depois do uso de broncodilatador. Foram definidos os pontos de corte dessa resposta como o percentil 95 de variação em cada parâmetro. Foram recrutadas 266 crianças, e 160 (60,0%) foram capazes de gerar manobras expiratórias aceitáveis e reprodut

  18. Diagnostic assessment without cut-offs: application of serology for the modelling of bovine digital dermatitis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vink, W D; Jones, G; Johnson, W O; Brown, J; Demirkan, I; Carter, S D; French, N P

    2009-11-15

    Bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) is an epidermitis which is a leading cause of infectious lameness. The only recognized diagnostic test is foot inspection, which is a labour-intensive procedure. There is no universally recognized, standardized lesion scoring system. As small lesions are easily missed, foot inspection has limited diagnostic sensitivity. Furthermore, interpretation is subjective, and prone to observer bias. Serology is more convenient to carry out and is potentially a more sensitive indicator of infection. By carrying out 20 serological assays using lesion-associated Treponema spp. isolates, three serogroups were identified. The reliability of the tests was established by assessing the level of agreement and the concordance correlation coefficient. Subsequently, an ELISA suitable for routine use was developed. The benchmark of diagnostic test validation is conventionally the determination of the key test parameters, sensitivity and specificity. This requires the imposition of a cut-off point. For serological assays with outcomes on a continuous scale, the degree by which the test result differs from this cut-off is disregarded. Bayesian statistical methodology has been developed which enables the assay result also to be interpreted on a continuous scale, thereby optimizing the information inherent in the test. Using a cross-sectional study dataset carried out on 8 representative dairy farms in the UK, the probability of infection, P(I), of each individual animal was estimated in the absence of a 'Gold Standard' by modelling I as a latent variable which was determined by lesion status, L as well as serology, S. Covariate data (foot hygiene score and age) were utilized to estimate P(L) when no lesion inspection was performed. Informative prior distributions were elicited where possible. The model was utilized for predictive inference, by computing estimates of P(I) and P(L) independently of the data. A more detailed and informative analysis of the farm

  19. Phase- and size-adjusted CT cut-off for differentiating neoplastic lesions from normal colon in contrast-enhanced CT colonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luboldt, W.; Kroll, M.; Wetter, A.; Vogl, T.J.; Toussaint, T.L.; Hoepffner, N.; Holzer, K.; Kluge, A.

    2004-01-01

    A computed tomography (CT) cut-off for differentiating neoplastic lesions (polyps/carcinoma) from normal colon in contrast-enhanced CT colonography (CTC) relating to the contrast phase and lesion size is determined. CT values of 64 colonic lesions (27 polyps 0 . The slope m was determined by linear regression in the correlation (lesion ∝[xA + (1 - x)V]//H) and the Y-intercept y 0 by the minimal shift of the line needed to maximize the accuracy of separating the colonic wall from the lesions. The CT value of the lesions correlated best with the intermediate phase: 0.4A+ 0.6V(r=0.8 for polyps ≥10 mm, r=0.6 for carcinomas, r=0.4 for polyps <10 mm). The accuracy in the differentiation between lesions and normal colonic wall increased with the height implemented as divisor, reached 91% and was obtained by the dynamic cut-off described by the formula: cut-off(A,V,H) = 1.1[0.4A + 0.6V]/H + 69.8. The CT value of colonic polyps or carcinomas can be increased extrinsically by scanning in the phase in which 0.4A + 0.6V reaches its maximum. Differentiating lesions from normal colon based on CT values is possible in contrast-enhanced CTC and improves when the cut-off is adjusted (normalized) to the contrast phase and lesion size. (orig.)

  20. Optimal cut?off value of alanine aminotransferase level to precisely estimate the presence of fatty liver in patients with poorly controlled type?2 diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Tanabe, Akihito; Tatsumi, Fuminori; Okauchi, Seizo; Yabe, Hiroki; Tsuda, Tomohiro; Okutani, Kazuma; Yamashita, Kazuki; Nakashima, Koji; Kaku, Kohei; Kaneto, Hideaki

    2016-01-01

    Optimal cut?off value of ALT level to precisely estimate the presence of fatty liver was as low as 28.0?U/L. We should consider the possibility of fatty liver even when ALT level is within normal range in subjects with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes.

  1. DMol3/COSMO-RS prediction of aqueous solubility and reactivity of selected Azo dyes: Effect of global orbital cut-off and COSMO segment variation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wahab, OO

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous solubility and reactivity of four azo dyes were investigated by DMol3/COSMO-RS calculation to examine the effects of global orbital cut-off and COSMO segment variation on the accuracies of theoretical solubility and reactivity. The studied...

  2. Using Logistic Regression for Validating or Invalidating Initial Statewide Cut-Off Scores on Basic Skills Placement Tests at the Community College Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secolsky, Charles; Krishnan, Sathasivam; Judd, Thomas P.

    2013-01-01

    The community colleges in the state of New Jersey went through a process of establishing statewide cut-off scores for English and mathematics placement tests. The colleges wanted to communicate to secondary schools a consistent preparation that would be necessary for enrolling in Freshman Composition and College Algebra at the community college…

  3. Use of cut-off values as meaningfulness limits in probabilistic studies and its effect on NPPs risk assessment and safety improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrangeli, G.; Valeri, A.; Zaffiro, C.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of cut-off values in probabilistic risk assessment/probabilistic safety assessment (PRA/PSA) of nuclear power plants (NPPs), in order to explore under which conditions this practice may help improve the meaningfulness of the results of the analyses and safety of plants, and how it may affect the assessment of risk. Reference is made, in particular, to some past practical applications, also taken from the experience of the authors within the frame of the Italian licensing process. The paper describes the Italian probabilistic criteria which use probabilistic targets and cut-off values to assess safety and identify plant safety improvements. The rationale of the approach is also discussed in the paper and results of sample applications are illustrated. The paper concludes that the use of cut-off values, if properly implemented, could be productive to improve the plant safety as it helps the analyst to focus on a restricted field of analysis, ignoring lower probability and less known events. It also points out that cut-off values should be considered as living numbers to be lowered and even eliminated as soon as significant advancements are made, through research and operational experience, in the knowledge of the pertinent events

  4. Wilson Fermions with Four Fermion Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rantaharju, Jarno; Drach, Vincent; Hietanen, Ari

    2015-01-01

    We present a lattice study of a four fermion theory, known as Nambu Jona-Lasinio (NJL) theory, via Wilson fermions. Four fermion interactions naturally occur in several extensions of the Standard Model as a low energy parameterisation of a more fundamental theory. In models of dynamical electroweak...

  5. Insulin Resistance Distribution and Cut-Off Value in Koreans from the 2008-2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Kyung-Jin; Han, Kyungdo; Kim, Mee Kyoung; Park, Yong-Moon; Baek, Ki-Hyun; Song, Ki-Ho; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang

    2016-01-01

    Background We sought to identify the distribution and cut-off value of the ‘homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance’ (HOMA-IR) according to gender and menopausal status for metabolic syndrome in Koreans. Methods Data were from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2008–2010. The subjects included adults aged 20 years or older. We excluded participants who had diabetes or fasting serum glucose ≥ 7 mmol/L. Finally, 11,121 subjects (4,911 men, 3,597 premenopausal women, 2,613 postmenopausal women) were enrolled. The modified Adult Treatment Panel III criteria were used to define metabolic syndrome. Results The mean HOMA-IR was 2.11 (2.07–2.15) for men, 2.0 (1.97–2.04) for premenopausal women, and 2.14 (2.2–2.19) for postmenopausal women. The first cut-off values in men, premenopausal women, and postmenopausal women were 2.23 (sensitivity 70.6%, specificity 66.9%), 2.39 (sensitivity 72.3%, specificity 76.4%), and 2.48 (sensitivity 51.9%, specificity 80.2%), respectively. Based on the first HOMA-IR cut-off value, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 22.9% in men, 13.7% in premenopausal women, and 51.6% in postmenopausal women. The second cut-off value was around 3.2 in all three groups. Based on the second HOMA-IR cut-off value, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 50.8% in men, 42.5% in premenopausal women, and 71.6% in postmenopausal women. Conclusion In conclusion, the first cut-off values for HOMA-IR were 2.2–2.5 and the second cut-off value was 3.2 in Korea. The distribution of HOMA-IR showed differences according to gender and menopausal status. When we apply HOMA-IR, we should consider gender, menopausal status, and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. PMID:27128847

  6. Serum anti-PLA2R antibody as a diagnostic biomarker of idiopathic membranous nephropathy: The optimal cut-off value for Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yipeng; Li, Xuan; Ma, Chaoqun; Wang, Ping; Liu, Ju; Su, Hong; Zhuo, Hao; Kong, Xianglei; Xu, Dayu; Xu, Dongmei

    2018-01-01

    The M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) is a specific target autoantigen identified in idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN). The autoantibody against PLA2R (anti-PLA2R) may be used to diagnose IMN. However, the appropriate diagnosis cut-off value for Chinese patients with IMN has not been established. In total, 119 patients who underwent renal biopsy (57 patients with IMN and 62 patients with non-IMN glomerulonephritis) and 22 healthy individuals were recruited for our observation study from Qianfoshan Hospital between September 2011 and March 2016. The serum concentration of anti-PLA2R was measured using a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of anti-PLA2R in diagnosing IMN were analysed based on the ELISA detection. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of anti-PLA2R in the diagnosis of IMN in the Chinese patients were 82.5, 75, 69.1, and 86.3% for the 2RU/ml cut-off value; 78.9, 91.7, 86.5, and 86.5% for the 2.6RU/ml cut-off value; 59.6, 95.2, 89.5, and 77.7% for the 14RU/ml cut-off value; 50.9, 96.4, 90.6, and 74.3% for the 20RU/ml cut-off value; and 47.4, 97.6, 93.1, and 73.2% for the 40RU/ml cut-off value, respectively. The area under the ROC curve was 0.879. The cut-off value of 2.6RU/ml is recommended for the use of anti-PLA2R for the diagnosis of IMN in Chinese patients based on the ELISA. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Investigation of the performance of cement-bentonite cut-off walls in aggressive ground at a disused gasworks site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tedd, P.; Holton, I.R.; Butcher, A.P.; Wallace, S.

    1997-01-01

    There has been an increased use of cement-bentonite slurry trench cut-off walls to control the lateral migration of pollution in the UK. Concerns inevitably exist about their performance in chemically aggressive ground particularly in the long term. To address some of the uncertainties a programme of field and laboratory research is being undertaken at a disused gasworks in the UK. Elevated levels of sulphate and other contaminants are present on the site and could potentially change the properties of the cement-bentonite. Two boxes, 10m square in plan, by 5m deep have been constructed, one with and one without an HDPE membrane, to isolate parts of the site. Local hydraulic gradients across the walls have been created by pumping from within the boxes. Isolated lengths of wall have been constructed which are being used to assess and develop in-situ testing techniques such as the piezocone for measuring permeability, strength and overall integrity of the wall

  8. Effect sizes and cut-off points: a meta-analytical review of burnout in latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Arroyo, Jose; Osca Segovia, Amparo

    2018-05-02

    Burnout is a highly prevalent globalized health issue that causes significant physical and psychological health problems. In Latin America research on this topic has increased in recent years, however there are no studies comparing results across countries, nor normative reference cut-offs. The present meta-analysis examines the intensity of burnout (emotional exhaustion, cynicism and personal accomplishment) in 58 adult nonclinical samples from 8 countries (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela). We found low intensity of burnout but there are significant differences between countries in emotional exhaustion explained by occupation and language. Social and human service professionals (police officers, social workers, public administration staff) are more exhausted than health professionals (physicians, nurses) or teachers. The samples with Portuguese language score higher in emotional exhaustion than Spanish, supporting the theory of cultural relativism. Demographics (sex, age) and study variables (sample size, instrument), were not found significant to predict burnout. The effect size and confidence intervals found are proposed as a useful baseline for research and medical diagnosis of burnout in Latin American countries.

  9. Performance tests of an abrasive cut-off systems for the finishing of high-precision casts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fedoryszyn

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes the performance data of a newly designed and engineered grinding and cut-off system. The machine is used forseparation of models manufactured by the investment casting method. The machine comprises the following units:- base supporting other assemblies and elements: abrasive disc holder and drives; this solution enables an easy replacement and access toholding elements while a belt transmission allows the disc rpm to be varied,- mechanism moving the spindle in the horizontal, hence the abrasive disc position with respect to the batch can be precisely controlled,depending on the cast position and their shape,- holding and positioning-control of the batch to enable the fore and aft movements and rotations,- guide systems ensuring the travel of the batch in the specified direction and adjusting the travel speed to the required cutting rate,- centering, control, exhaust system, housing.Extensive tests were performed, including the tests of operating parameters of abrasive discs depending on the cast material, cyclograms ofthe applied treatment are obtained accordingly.

  10. Performance tests of an abrasive cut-off systems for the finishing of high-precision casts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Fedoryszyn

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper summarizes the performance data of a newly designed and engineered grinding and cut-off system. The machine is used for separation of models manufactured by the investment casting method. The machine comprises the following units:- base supporting other assemblies and elements: abrasive disc holder and drives; this solution enables an easy replacement and access to holding elements while a belt transmission allows the disc rpm to be varied,- mechanism moving the spindle in the horizontal, hence the abrasive disc position with respect to the batch can be precisely controlled, depending on the cast position and their shape,- holding and positioning-control of the batch to enable the fore and aft movements and rotations,- guide systems ensuring the travel of the batch in the specified direction and adjusting the travel speed to the required cutting rate,- centering, control, exhaust system, housingExtensive tests were performed, including the tests of operating parameters of abrasive discs depending on the cast material, cyclograms of the applied treatment are obtained accordingly.

  11. Experimental determination of the atmospheric gamma photons spectra at 12 GeV cut-off rigidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, I.M.; Dutra, S.L.G.; Palmeira, R.; Vedrenne, G.; Albernhe, F.

    1974-01-01

    The energy spectrum of atmospheric gamma-rays from 0.9 to 18.0 MeV has been measured as a function of altitude in a series of two balloon flights from Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo, Brazil (12 GV cut-off rigidity). The detector used was a 4' x 4' NaI (Tl) crystal with a 1 cm thick plastic scintillator anti-coincidence shield, connected to a 128 channel pulse height analyser. Above 20g/cm 2 , the energy spectrum could be fitted to a power law with exponent 1.0 +- -+ 0.1 independent of the altitude. From 20 to 760 g/cm 2 , the spectrum was found to be somewhat steeper with the exponential index being 1.3 +- -+ 0.1. At 3.5 g/cm 2 , the gamma-ray flux was 0.30 photons/cm 2 -s at 1 MeV. These measurements are discussed and compared with calculated results [pt

  12. Low prevalence of hypopituitarism after subarachnoid haemorrhage using confirmatory testing and with BMI-specific GH cut-off levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Chris J; Javadpour, Mohsen; Stoneley, Catherine; Purthuran, Mani; Biswas, Shubhabrata; Daousi, Christina; MacFarlane, Ian A; Cuthbertson, Daniel J

    2013-04-01

    Hypopituitarism following subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) has been reported to be a frequent occurrence. However, there is considerable heterogeneity between studies with differing patient populations and treatment modalities and most importantly employing differing endocrine protocols and (normal) reference ranges of GH. We aimed to examine prospectively a cohort of SAH survivors for development of hypopituitarism post-SAH using rigorous endocrine testing and compare GH response to glucagon stimulation with a cohort of healthy controls of a similar BMI. Sixty-four patients were investigated for evidence of hypopituitarism 3 months post-SAH with 50 patients tested again at 12 months. Glucagon stimulation testing (GST), with confirmation of deficiencies by GHRH/arginine testing for GH deficiency (GHD) and short synacthen testing for ACTH deficiency, was used. Basal testing of other hormonal axes was undertaken. Mean age of patients was 53±11.7 years and mean BMI was 27.5±5.7 kg/m(2). After confirmatory testing, the prevalence of hypopituitarism was 12% (GHD 10%, asymptomatic hypocortisolaemia 2%). There was no association between hypopituitarism and post-SAH vasospasm, presence of cerebral infarction, Fisher grade, or clinical grading at presentation. There was a significant correlation between BMI and peak GH to glucagon stimulation in both patients and controls. Identification of 'true' GHD after SAH requires confirmatory testing with an alternative stimulation test and application of BMI-specific cut-offs. Using such stringent criteria, we found a prevalence of hypopituitarism of 12% in our population.

  13. Detection of relevant colonic neoplasms with PET/CT: promising accuracy with minimal CT dose and a standardised PET cut-off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luboldt, Wolfgang [Multiorgan Screening Foundation, Frankfurt (Germany); University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Radiology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); University Hospital Dresden, Clinic and Policlinic of Nuclear Medicine, Dresden (Germany); Volker, Teresa; Zoephel, Klaus; Kotzerke, Joerg [University Hospital Dresden, Clinic and Policlinic of Nuclear Medicine, Dresden (Germany); Wiedemann, Baerbel [University Hospital Dresden, Institute of Medical Informatics and Biometrics, Dresden (Germany); Wehrmann, Ursula [University Hospital Dresden, Clinic and Policlinic of Surgery, Dresden (Germany); Koch, Arne; Abolmaali, Nasreddin [University Hospital Dresden, Oncoray, Dresden (Germany); Toussaint, Todd; Luboldt, Hans-Joachim [Multiorgan Screening Foundation, Frankfurt (Germany); Middendorp, Markus; Gruenwald, Frank [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Frankfurt (Germany); Aust, Daniela [University Hospital Dresden, Department of Pathology, Dresden (Germany); Vogl, Thomas J. [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Radiology, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2010-09-15

    To determine the performance of FDG-PET/CT in the detection of relevant colorectal neoplasms (adenomas {>=}10 mm, with high-grade dysplasia, cancer) in relation to CT dose and contrast administration and to find a PET cut-off. 84 patients, who underwent PET/CT and colonoscopy (n=79)/sigmoidoscopy (n=5) for (79 x 6+5 x 2)=484 colonic segments, were included in a retrospective study. The accuracy of low-dose PET/CT in detecting mass-positive segments was evaluated by ROC analysis by two blinded independent reviewers relative to contrast-enhanced PET/CT. On a per-lesion basis characteristic PET values were tested as cut-offs. Low-dose PET/CT and contrast-enhanced PET/CT provide similar accuracies (area under the curve for the average ROC ratings 0.925 vs. 0.929, respectively). PET demonstrated all carcinomas (n=23) and 83% (30/36) of relevant adenomas. In all carcinomas and adenomas with high-grade dysplasia (n=10) the SUV{sub max} was {>=}5. This cut-off resulted in a better per-segment sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) than the average PET/CT reviews (sensitivity: 89% vs. 82%; NPV: 99% vs. 98%). All other tested cut-offs were inferior to the SUV{sub max}. FDG-PET/CT provides promising accuracy for colorectal mass detection. Low dose and lack of iodine contrast in the CT component do not impact the accuracy. The PET cut-off SUV{sub max}{>=} 5 improves the accuracy. (orig.)

  14. Break-apart interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization assay in papillary thyroid carcinoma: on the road to optimizing the cut-off level for RET/PTC rearrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colato, Chiara; Vicentini, Caterina; Cantara, Silvia; Pedron, Serena; Brazzarola, Paolo; Marchetti, Ivo; Di Coscio, Giancarlo; Chilosi, Marco; Brunelli, Matteo; Pacini, Furio; Ferdeghini, Marco

    2015-05-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements of the RET proto-oncogene is one of the most common molecular events in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). However, their pathogenic role and clinical significance are still debated. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of RET/PTC rearrangement in a cohort of BRAF WT PTCs by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and to search a reliable cut-off level in order to distinguish clonal or non-clonal RET changes. Forty BRAF WT PTCs were analyzed by FISH for RET rearrangements. As controls, six BRAFV600E mutated PTCs, 13 follicular adenomas (FA), and ten normal thyroid parenchyma were also analyzed. We performed FISH analysis on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue using a commercially available RET break-apart probe. A cut-off level equivalent to 10.2% of aberrant cells was accepted as significant. To validate FISH results, we analyzed the study cohort by qRT-PCR. Split RET signals above the cut-off level were observed in 25% (10/40) of PTCs, harboring a percentage of positive cells ranging from 12 to 50%, and in one spontaneous FA (1/13, 7.7%). Overall, the data obtained by FISH matched well with qRT-PCR results. Challenging findings were observed in five cases showing a frequency of rearrangement very close to the cut-off. FISH approach represents a powerful tool to estimate the ratio between broken and non-broken RET tumor cells. Establishing a precise FISH cut-off may be useful in the interpretation of the presence of RET rearrangement, primarily when this strategy is used for cytological evaluation or for targeted therapy. © 2015 European Society of Endocrinology.

  15. Detection of relevant colonic neoplasms with PET/CT: promising accuracy with minimal CT dose and a standardised PET cut-off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luboldt, Wolfgang; Volker, Teresa; Zoephel, Klaus; Kotzerke, Joerg; Wiedemann, Baerbel; Wehrmann, Ursula; Koch, Arne; Abolmaali, Nasreddin; Toussaint, Todd; Luboldt, Hans-Joachim; Middendorp, Markus; Gruenwald, Frank; Aust, Daniela; Vogl, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    To determine the performance of FDG-PET/CT in the detection of relevant colorectal neoplasms (adenomas ≥10 mm, with high-grade dysplasia, cancer) in relation to CT dose and contrast administration and to find a PET cut-off. 84 patients, who underwent PET/CT and colonoscopy (n=79)/sigmoidoscopy (n=5) for (79 x 6+5 x 2)=484 colonic segments, were included in a retrospective study. The accuracy of low-dose PET/CT in detecting mass-positive segments was evaluated by ROC analysis by two blinded independent reviewers relative to contrast-enhanced PET/CT. On a per-lesion basis characteristic PET values were tested as cut-offs. Low-dose PET/CT and contrast-enhanced PET/CT provide similar accuracies (area under the curve for the average ROC ratings 0.925 vs. 0.929, respectively). PET demonstrated all carcinomas (n=23) and 83% (30/36) of relevant adenomas. In all carcinomas and adenomas with high-grade dysplasia (n=10) the SUV max was ≥5. This cut-off resulted in a better per-segment sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) than the average PET/CT reviews (sensitivity: 89% vs. 82%; NPV: 99% vs. 98%). All other tested cut-offs were inferior to the SUV max . FDG-PET/CT provides promising accuracy for colorectal mass detection. Low dose and lack of iodine contrast in the CT component do not impact the accuracy. The PET cut-off SUV max ≥ 5 improves the accuracy. (orig.)

  16. Combined Effect of an Atmospheric River and a Cut-off Low in Hiroshima Flooding Event on August 19, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayabu, Y. N.; Hirota, N.; Kato, M.; Arakane, S.

    2015-12-01

    An extraordinary precipitation over 100 mmhr-1in Hiroshima on August 19, 2014, caused a flash flood which resulted in 74 fatalities and collapse of 330 houses. In order to examine the meteorological background of this flooding event, we carried out a detailed analysis utilizing rain gauge data, satellite precipitation dataset, and a meso scale and a global scale objective analyses provided from the Japan Meteorological Agency. Then, we performed numerical experiments using a nonhydrostatic compressible equation model called the Cloud-Resolving Storm Simulator (CReSS). As a result, a combined effect of an atmospheric river (AR) and a cut-off low (COL) in this flooding event was elucidated. During the event, a filamentary transport of moisture extending from the Indochina Peninsula to the Japanese Islands was observed along the southern side of the subtropical jet, forming an AR. This AR had a deep structure with an amount of free tropospheric moisture comparable to that of the boundary layer. Concurrently, there was a COL, detached from the Mid-Pacific Trough, moving northwestward toward the Japanese Archipelago. With various sensitivity experiments, we concluded that a mid-tropospheric instability associated with the cold core of the COL and a dynamical ascent induced in its foreside, collaboratively worked with the anomalous moisture in the free troposphere associated with the AR, to extraordinarily enhance the precipitation over Hiroshima region. An orographic effect to concentrate the precipitation in this region was also confirmed. An implication on a difference in effects of AR in this event with a climatologically moist boundary layer, from those in the US west coast with a very dry environment, was also obtained. Acknowledgment: This study is supported by the Environment Research and Technology Development Fund (2-1503) of the Ministry of the Environment, Japan, and by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan.

  17. Establishing a sample-to cut-off ratio for lab-diagnosis of hepatitis C virus in Indian context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Aseem K; Pandey, Prashant K; Negi, Avinash; Bagga, Ruchika; Shanker, Ajay; Baveja, Usha; Vimarsh, Raina; Bhargava, Richa; Dara, Ravi C; Rawat, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Lab-diagnosis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is based on detecting specific antibodies by enzyme immuno-assay (EIA) or chemiluminescence immuno-assay (CIA). Center for Disease Control reported that signal-to-cut-off (s/co) ratios in anti-HCV antibody tests like EIA/CIA can be used to predict the probable result of supplemental test; above a certain s/co value it is most likely to be true-HCV positive result and below that certain s/co it is most likely to be false-positive result. A prospective study was undertaken in patients in tertiary care setting for establishing this "certain" s/co value. The study was carried out in consecutive patients requiring HCV testing for screening/diagnosis and medical management. These samples were tested for anti-HCV on CIA (VITROS(®) Anti-HCV assay, Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics, New Jersey) for calculating s/co value. The supplemental nucleic acid test used was polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (Abbott). PCR test results were used to define true negatives, false negatives, true positives, and false positives. Performance of different putative s/co ratios versus PCR was measured using sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value and most appropriate s/co was considered on basis of highest specificity at sensitivity of at least 95%. An s/co ratio of ≥6 worked out to be over 95% sensitive and almost 92% specific in 438 consecutive patient samples tested. The s/co ratio of six can be used for lab-diagnosis of HCV infection; those with s/co higher than six can be diagnosed to have HCV infection without any need for supplemental assays.

  18. Establishing a sample-to cut-off ratio for lab-diagnosis of hepatitis C virus in Indian context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aseem K Tiwari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lab-diagnosis of hepatitis C virus (HCV is based on detecting specific antibodies by enzyme immuno-assay (EIA or chemiluminescence immuno-assay (CIA. Center for Disease Control reported that signal-to-cut-off (s/co ratios in anti-HCV antibody tests like EIA/CIA can be used to predict the probable result of supplemental test; above a certain s/co value it is most likely to be true-HCV positive result and below that certain s/co it is most likely to be false-positive result. A prospective study was undertaken in patients in tertiary care setting for establishing this "certain" s/co value. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in consecutive patients requiring HCV testing for screening/diagnosis and medical management. These samples were tested for anti-HCV on CIA (VITROS ® Anti-HCV assay, Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics, New Jersey for calculating s/co value. The supplemental nucleic acid test used was polymerase chain reaction (PCR (Abbott. PCR test results were used to define true negatives, false negatives, true positives, and false positives. Performance of different putative s/co ratios versus PCR was measured using sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value and most appropriate s/co was considered on basis of highest specificity at sensitivity of at least 95%. Results: An s/co ratio of ≥6 worked out to be over 95% sensitive and almost 92% specific in 438 consecutive patient samples tested. Conclusion: The s/co ratio of six can be used for lab-diagnosis of HCV infection; those with s/co higher than six can be diagnosed to have HCV infection without any need for supplemental assays.

  19. Modelling the Turbocharger Cut Off Application Due to Slow Steaming Operation 12RTA96C-B Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Wehner

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Out of the total operational costs of a ship, fuel costs account for by far the highest proportion. In view of the global economic situation and the rising oil prices, shipowners and charterers are looking for solutions to cut costs by reducing fuel consumption. Low load operation, also well-known as “slow steaming”, represents the currently most effective and popular measure to cut fuel costs and, in consequence, the total operational costs for increased competitiveness in the market. Low load operation is possible and there is an increasing trend to operate in these very low engine load ranges. As the engines were not designed for this operational condition, various retrofit modifications to the engine can compensate for this. By using low load operation, the reduction of the RPM gives problems when sailing at low speed.  A turbocharger (TC compresses inlet air to a high pressure and after cooling this compressed air it results in higher mass of air in the cylinder. But when running at a low power load this air reaches temperatures that are too low for an optimal combustion process. One of the solution comes from the company Wärtsilä. They install so called “low steam engine kits”. When this kit is installed it allows the engine operators to cut off one turbocharger of the engine, this result’s in a higher RPM for the operating turbochargers. When the remaining TC’s have a higher RPM their efficiency improves and gives the engine more air for combustion.The goal of this Bachelor thesis is to make a calculation modelling and prove that by switching off one or more turbocharger on the system will improve the efficiency in slow steaming operation. Beside that, this thesis is aims to estimated the performance of the engine in both operation condition.

  20. Cut-Off Levels of Anti-Mullerian Hormone for The Prediction of Ovarian Response, In Vitro Fertilization Outcome and Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Salmassi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evaluation of anti-mullerian hormone (AMH cut-off levels in assisted reproductive technology (ART as predictive factor for individualization of stimulation protocols and to avoid ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective study, 177 infertile patients were assessed for AMH in serum and follicular fluid (FF on the day of follicular puncture (FP, between 2012 and 2013 in Kiel, Germany. AMH levels and pregnancy rates were compared between low, moderate and high responders and cut-off levels of low and high responders. AMH cut-off levels in pathological cases were evaluated in analysis 1 (OHSS and in analysis 2 [polycystic ovarian syndrome, (PCOS] and compared in analysis 3 to normal endocrinological parameters. Results: AMH levels in FF were higher than in serum (P<0.001. AMH levels in serum and FF increased from low through moderate to high responders (P<0.001. Pregnancy rates were 14.7, 23.3 and 44.9% (P=0.009, respectively. AMH cut-off level for poor responders was 0.61 ng/ml in serum with a pregnancy rate of 13.8 and 37.1% for below and above of this level, respectively. For FF, it was 1.43 ng/ml. AMH levels in analysis 1 and 2 were significantly higher than in analysis 3 (P=0.001. AMH cut-off level for OHSS was 1.5 ng/ml in serum with OHSS rates of 80.8 and 19.2 % for above and below of the level, respectively. For FF, it was 2.7 ng/ml. PCOS patients had an AMH cut-off level of 3.9 ng/ml in serum and 6.8 ng/ml in FF, resulting in a PCOS rate of 100% above this level. Conclusion: AMH levels can help to assess ovarian response potential and guide ovarian stimulation while avoiding OHSS.

  1. Evaluation of an Optimal Cut-Off Point for the Ki-67 Index as a Prognostic Factor in Primary Breast Cancer: A Retrospective Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumiko Tashima

    Full Text Available The Ki-67 index is an important biomarker for indicating the proliferation of cancer cells and is considered to be an effective prognostic factor for breast cancer. However, a standard cut-off point for the Ki-67 index has not yet been established. Therefore, the aim of this retrospective study was to determine an optimal cut-off point in order to establish it as a more accurate prognostic factor. Immunohistochemical analysis of the Ki-67 index was performed on 4329 patients with primary breast cancer from August 1987 to March 2012. Out of this sample, there were 3186 consecutive cases from September 1997 with simultaneous evaluations of ER, PgR and HER2 status. Cox's proportional hazard model was used to perform univariate and multivariate analyses of the factors related to OS. The hazard ratios (HR and the p values were then compared to determine the optimal cut-off point for the Ki-67 index. The median Ki-67 index value was 20.5% (mean value 26.2%. The univariate analysis revealed that there was a statistically significant negative correlation with DFS and OS and the multivariate analysis revealed that the Ki-67 index value was a significant factor for DFS and OS. The top seven cut-off points were then carefully chosen based on the results of the univariate analysis using the lowest p-values and the highest HR as the main selection criteria. The multivariate analysis of the factors for OS showed that the cut-off point of 20% had the highest HR in all of the cases. However, the cutoff point of 20% was only a significant factor for OS in the Luminal/HER2- subtype. There was no correlation between the Ki-67 index value and OS in any of the other subtypes. These data indicate that the optimal cut-off point of 20% is the most effective prognostic factor for Luminal/HER2- breast cancer.

  2. Minimally doubled fermions and spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osmanaj (Zeqirllari Rudina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Chiral symmetry breaking in massless QCD is a very important feature in the current understanding of low energy physics. Low - lying Dirac modes are suitable to help us understand the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking, since the formation of a non zero chiral condensate is an effect of their accumulation near zero. The Banks – Casher relation links the spectral density of the Dirac operator to the condensate with an identity that can be read in both directions. In this work we propose a spectral method to achieve a reliable determination of the density of eigenvalues of Dirac operator near zero using the Gauss – Lanczos quadrature. In order to understand better the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and use the method we propose, we have chosen to work with minimally doubled fermions. These kind of fermions have been proposed as a strictly local discretization of the QCD fermions action, which preserves chiral symmetry at finite cut-off. Being chiral fermions, is easier to work with them and their low - lying Dirac modes and to understand the dynamical spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking.

  3. Minimally doubled fermions and spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osmanaj (Zeqirllari), Rudina; Hyka (Xhako), Dafina

    2018-03-01

    Chiral symmetry breaking in massless QCD is a very important feature in the current understanding of low energy physics. Low - lying Dirac modes are suitable to help us understand the spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking, since the formation of a non zero chiral condensate is an effect of their accumulation near zero. The Banks - Casher relation links the spectral density of the Dirac operator to the condensate with an identity that can be read in both directions. In this work we propose a spectral method to achieve a reliable determination of the density of eigenvalues of Dirac operator near zero using the Gauss - Lanczos quadrature. In order to understand better the dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and use the method we propose, we have chosen to work with minimally doubled fermions. These kind of fermions have been proposed as a strictly local discretization of the QCD fermions action, which preserves chiral symmetry at finite cut-off. Being chiral fermions, is easier to work with them and their low - lying Dirac modes and to understand the dynamical spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking.

  4. Cut-off value of FEV1/FEV6 as a surrogate for FEV1/FVC for detecting airway obstruction in a Korean population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung KS

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Kyung Soo Chung,1,2 Ji Ye Jung,1,2 Moo Suk Park,1,2 Young Sam Kim,1,2 Se Kyu Kim,1,2 Joon Chang,1,2 Joo Han Song1,2 1Division of Pulmonology, Department of Internal Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea; 2Institute of Chest Disease, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea Background: Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1/forced expiratory volume in 6 seconds (FEV6 has been proposed as an alternative to FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC for detecting airway obstruction. A fixed cut-off value for FEV1/FEV6 in a Korean population is lacking. We investigated a fixed cut-off for FEV1/FEV6 as a surrogate for FEV1/FVC for detecting airway obstruction.Materials and methods: We used data obtained in the 5 years of the Fifth and Sixth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 14,978 participants aged ≥40 years who underwent spirometry adequately were the study cohort. “Airway obstruction” was a fixed cut-off FEV1/FVC <70% according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines. We also used European Respiratory Society/Global Lung Initiative 2012 equations for the FEV1/FVC lower limit of normal.Results: Among the 14,978 participants (43.5% male, 56.5% female; mean age: 56.9 years for men and 57.0 years for women, 14.0% had obstructive lung function according to a fixed cut-off FEV1/FVC <70%. Optimal FEV1/FEV6 cut-off for predicting FEV1/FVC <70% was 75% using receiver operating characteristic curve analyses (area under receiver operating characteristic curve =0.989, 95% confidence interval 0.987–0.990. This fixed cut-off of FEV1/FEV6 showed 93.8% sensitivity, 94.8% specificity, 74.7% positive predictive value, 98.9% negative predictive value, and 0.8 Cohen’s kappa coefficient. When compared with FEV1/FVC < lower limit of normal, FEV1/FEV6 <75% tended to over-diagnose airflow limitation (just like a fixed cut-off

  5. A cautionary note about the cross-national and clinical validity of cut-off points for the Maslach Burnout Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaufeli, W B; Van Dierendonck, D

    1995-06-01

    In the present study, burnout scores of three samples, as measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory, were compared: (1) the normative American sample from the test-manual (N = 10,067), (2) the normative Dutch sample (N = 3,892), and (3) a Dutch outpatient sample (N = 142). Generally, the highest burnout scores were found for the outpatient sample, followed by the American and Dutch normative samples, respectively. Slightly different patterns were noted for each of the three components. Probably sampling bias, i.e., the healthy worker effect, or cultural value patterns, i.e., femininity versus masculinity, might be responsible for the results. It is concluded that extreme caution is required when cut-off points are used to classify individuals by burnout scores; only nation-specific and clinically derived cut-off points should be employed.

  6. Comparative study of food transfers in the three castes of the honeybee (Apis mellifica ligustica S.) in which four distal sections of both antennae have been cut off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pain, Janine; Roger, Bernard; Douault, Philippe

    1978-01-01

    The study of food transfers between the three castes of Apis mellifica ligustica S., in which four distal sections have been cut off, has been carried out by means of a radioactive tracer 198 Au, which cannot be metabolized. The begging behavior of queens with cut off antennae towards 4-day-old worker Bees and workers of unknown age is not changed. So it is with drones and operated worker Bees which beg food of a worker Bee, that is 4 days old and undamaged. On the other hand the begging behavior of drones and workers of unknown age is reduced towards other worker Bees of unknown age that are undamaged. The two-sided amputation of antennal sections of donor worker Bees of both categories does not change their behavior towards undamaged worker Bees [fr

  7. Human variation and body mass index: a review of the universality of BMI cut-offs, gender and urban-rural differences, and secular changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascie-Taylor, C G Nicholas; Goto, Rie

    2007-03-01

    Use of BMI as a surrogate for body fat percentage is debatable and universal BMI cut-off points do not seem appropriate; lower cut-off points than currently recommended by WHO should be used in some populations, especially in Asia. The adult WHO BMI database indicates that, on average, women are more obese than men, while men are more likely to be pre-obese than women. Urban rates of overweight and obesity are generally higher than rural rates in both sexes. The trend in pre-obesity and obesity over time is generally upward, with very marked increases in the USA and UK in both sexes over the last 10 years.

  8. Waist circumference cut-off values to predict the incidence of hypertension: an estimation from a Brazilian population-based cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gus, M; Cichelero, F Tremea; Moreira, C Medaglia; Escobar, G Fortes; Moreira, L Beltrami; Wiehe, M; Fuchs, S Costa; Fuchs, F Danni

    2009-01-01

    Central obesity is a key component in the definition of the metabolic syndrome, but the cut-off values proposed to define abnormal values vary among different guidelines and are mostly based on cross-sectional studies. In this study, we identify the best cut-off values for waist circumference (WC) associated with the incidence of hypertension. Participants for this prospectively planned cohort study were 589 individuals who were free of hypertension and selected at random from the community of Porto Alegre, Brazil. Hypertension was defined by a blood pressure measurement >or= 140/90 mmHg or the use of blood pressure lowering drugs. A logistic regression model established the association between WC and the incidence of hypertension. A receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was used to select the best WC cut-off point to predict the incidence of hypertension. During a mean follow-up of 5.5+/-0.9 years, 127 subjects developed hypertension. The hazard ratios for the development of hypertension, adjusted for age, baseline systolic blood pressure, alcohol consumption, gender and scholarship were 1.02 (95% CI; 1.00-1.04; P=0.02) for WC. The best cut-off WC values to predict hypertension were 87 cm in men and 80 cm in women, with an area under the curve of 0.56 (95% CI; 0.47-0.64; P=0.17) and 0.70 (95% CI; 0.63-0.77; Phypertension in individuals living in communities in Brazil, and this risk begins at lower values of WC that those recommended by some guidelines.

  9. Cerebrospinal fluid neopterin analysis in neuropediatric patients: establishment of a new cut off-value for the identification of inflammatory-immune mediated processes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Molero-Luis

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: A high level of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF neopterin is a marker of central nervous system inflammatory-immune mediated processes. We aimed to assess data from 606 neuropediatric patients, describing the clinical and biochemical features of those neurological disorders presenting CSF neopterin values above a new cut-off value that was defined in our laboratory. METHODS: To establish the new CSF neopterin cut-off value, we studied two groups of patients: Group 1 comprised 68 patients with meningoencephalitis, and Group 2 comprised 52 children with a confirmed peripheral infection and no central nervous system involvement. We studied 606 CSF samples from neuropediatric patients who were classified into 3 groups: genetic diagnosis (A, acquired/unknown etiologic neurologic diseases (B and inflammatory-immune mediated processes (C. RESULTS: The CSF neopterin cut-off value was 61 nmol/L. Out of 606 cases, 56 presented a CSF neopterin level above this value. Group C had significantly higher CSF neopterin, protein and leukocyte values than the other groups. Sixteen of twenty-three patients in this group had a CSF neopterin level above the cut-off, whereas three and seven patients presented increased leukocyte and protein values, respectively. A significant association was found among CSF neopterin, proteins and leukocytes in the 606 patients. White matter disturbances were associated with high CSF neopterin concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Although children with inflammatory-immune mediated processes presented higher CSF neopterin values, patients with other neurological disorders also showed increased CSF neopterin concentrations. These results stress the importance of CSF neopterin analysis for the identification of inflammatory-immune mediated processes.

  10. The Optimal Cut-Off Value of Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio for Predicting Prognosis in Adult Patients with Henoch–Schönlein Purpura

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan Hyuk; Han, Dong Soo; Jeong, Jae Yoon; Eun, Chang Soo; Yoo, Kyo-Sang; Jeon, Yong Cheol; Sohn, Joo Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background The development of gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) can be a concern in the management of Henoch–Schönlein purpura (HSP). We aimed to evaluate whether the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is associated with the prognosis of adult patients with HSP. Methods Clinical data including the NLR of adult patients with HSP were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were classified into three groups as follows: (a) simple recovery, (b) wax & wane without GI bleeding, and (c) development of GI bleeding. The optimal cut-off value was determined using a receiver operating characteristics curve and the Youden index. Results A total of 66 adult patients were enrolled. The NLR was higher in the GI bleeding group than in the simple recovery or wax & wane group (simple recovery vs. wax & wane vs. GI bleeding; median [IQR], 2.32 [1.61–3.11] vs. 3.18 [2.16–3.71] vs. 7.52 [4.91–10.23], P<0.001). For the purpose of predicting simple recovery, the optimal cut-off value of NLR was 3.18, and the sensitivity and specificity were 74.1% and 75.0%, respectively. For predicting development of GI bleeding, the optimal cut-off value was 3.90 and the sensitivity and specificity were 87.5% and 88.6%, respectively. Conclusions The NLR is useful for predicting development of GI bleeding as well as simple recovery without symptom relapse. Two different cut-off values of NLR, 3.18 for predicting an easy recovery without symptom relapse and 3.90 for predicting GI bleeding can be used in adult patients with HSP. PMID:27073884

  11. A new method for detection of the electron temperature in laser-plasma short wave cut off of stimulated Raman scattering spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiatai

    1994-01-01

    From the theory of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) three wave interaction, a new method of detecting the electron temperature in laser-plasma is obtained. SRS spectrum obtained from Shenguang No. 12 Nd-laser experiments are analysed. Using the wave length of short wave cut off of SRS, the electron temperature in corona plasma region is calculated consistently. These results agree reasonable with X-ray spectrum experiments

  12. Determining the cut-off point of osteoporosis based on the osteoporosis self-assessment tool, body mass index and weight in Taiwanese young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu Fang; Yang, Rong Sen

    2014-09-01

    To examine the cut-off point of the osteoporosis self-assessment tool, age, weight and body mass index for osteoporosis among young adult Taiwanese women, using a large-scale health examination database containing bone mineral density tests. The cut-off points of osteoporosis risk factors identified earlier focus on menopausal or senior Caucasian and Asian women. However, young adult Asian women have seldom been identified. A retrospective historical cohort study. Using the 2009-2011 health examination database of a large-scale medical centre in northern Taiwan, this study investigated young adult Asian women (i.e. range in age from 30-49 years) in Taiwan who had received dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry test. This study also explored the cut-off point, sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of receiver operating characteristics of osteoporosis among young adult females in Taiwan. This study collected 2454 young adult Asian women in Taiwan. Cochran-Armitage analysis results indicated that the prevalence of osteoporosis increased with decreasing weight, body mass index and osteoporosis self-assessment method quartiles. According to the results of receiver operating characteristics, weight, body mass index and osteoporosis self-assessment tool approaches can generally be used as indicators to predict osteoporosis among young adult Asian women. Results of this study demonstrate that Taiwanese women contracting osteoporosis tend to be young and underweight, as well as having a low body mass index and osteoporosis self-assessment scores. Those results further suggest that the assessment indicators for cut-off points are appropriately suitable for young adult women in Taiwan. Early detection is the only available means of preventing osteoporosis. Professional nurses should apply convenient and accurate assessment procedures to help young adult women to adopt preventive strategies against osteoporosis early, thus eliminating the probability of osteoporotic

  13. Development and validation of optimal cut-off value in inter-arm systolic blood pressure difference for prediction of cardiovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirono, Akira; Kusunose, Kenya; Kageyama, Norihito; Sumitomo, Masayuki; Abe, Masahiro; Fujinaga, Hiroyuki; Sata, Masataka

    2018-01-01

    An inter-arm systolic blood pressure difference (IAD) is associated with cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to develop and validate the optimal cut-off value of IAD as a predictor of major adverse cardiac events in patients with arteriosclerosis risk factors. From 2009 to 2014, 1076 patients who had at least one cardiovascular risk factor were included in the analysis. We defined 700 randomly selected patients as a development cohort to confirm that IAD was the predictor of cardiovascular events and to determine optimal cut-off value of IAD. Next, we validated outcomes in the remaining 376 patients as a validation cohort. The blood pressure (BP) of both arms measurements were done simultaneously using the ankle-brachial blood pressure index (ABI) form of automatic device. The primary endpoint was the cardiovascular event and secondary endpoint was the all-cause mortality. During a median period of 2.8 years, 143 patients reached the primary endpoint in the development cohort. In the multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis, IAD was the strong predictor of cardiovascular events (hazard ratio: 1.03, 95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.05, p=0.005). The receiver operating characteristic curve revealed that 5mmHg was the optimal cut-off point of IAD to predict cardiovascular events (p<0.001). In the validation cohort, the presence of a large IAD (IAD ≥5mmHg) was significantly associated with the primary endpoint (p=0.021). IAD is significantly associated with future cardiovascular events in patients with arteriosclerosis risk factors. The optimal cut-off value of IAD is 5mmHg. Copyright © 2017 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A study of insulin resistance by HOMA-IR and its cut-off value to identify metabolic syndrome in urban Indian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yashpal; Garg, M K; Tandon, Nikhil; Marwaha, Raman Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) and associated metabolic abnormalities are increasingly being reported in the adolescent population. Cut-off value of homeostasis model of assessment IR (HOMA-IR) as an indicator of metabolic syndrome (MS) in adolescents has not been established. This study aimed to investigate IR by HOMA-IR in urban Indian adolescents and to establish cut-off values of HOMA-IR for defining MS. A total of 691 apparently healthy adolescents (295 with normal body mass index (BMI), 205 overweight, and 199 obese) were included in this cross-sectional study. MS in adolescents was defined by International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria. IR was calculated using the HOMA model. Mean height, waist circumference (WC), waist/hip ratio (WHR), waist/height ratio (WHtR), and blood pressure were significantly higher in boys as compared to girls. The HOMA-IR values increased progressively from normal weight to obese adolescents in both sexes. Mean HOMA-IR values increased progressively according to sexual maturity rating in both sexes. HOMA-IR value of 2.5 had a sensitivity of >70% and specificity of >60% for MS. This cut-off identified larger number of adolescents with MS in different BMI categories (19.7% in normal weight, 51.7% in overweight, and 77.0% in obese subjects) as compared to the use of IDF or ATP III criteria for diagnosing MS. Odds ratio for having IR (HOMA-IR of >2.5) was highest with WHtR (4.9, p pHOMA-IR increased with sexual maturity and with progression from normal to obese. A HOMA-IR cut-off of 2.5 provided the maximum sensitivity and specificity in diagnosing MS in both genders as per ATP III and IDF criteria.

  15. Prediction of individual patient response to chemotherapy by the fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA) using drug specific cut-off limits and a Bayesian model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, R; Nygren, P

    1993-01-01

    The semiautomated fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA) based on the measurement of fluorescence generated from cellular hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate (FDA) to fluorescein in microtiter plates, has been used for determination of cytotoxic drug resistance of tumor cells from patients with hematological and solid tumors. In the present study we describe a calibration procedure based on statistically derived cut-off limits and assay-predicted response probabilities using Bayes' theorem. Test results at a specified drug concentration were divided into three categories: low, intermediate or extreme drug resistance (LDR, IDR and EDR, respectively) using the median and median +1 standard deviation as the cut-off limits. When correlated with clinical outcome, LDR samples showed a higher response rate than expected, IDR a lower and EDR samples no response at all. The sensitivity and specificity of the test, using the median as cut-off limit, were 0.92 and 0.69 respectively. By fitting these test characteristics to a statistical model based on Bayes' theorem it is possible to calculate response probabilities for each individual patient taking into consideration not only the test characteristics and the particular assay result, but also the clinical and patient specific characteristics influencing the pre-test probability of response. EDR predicts clinical drug resistance with high specificity and is also observed in tumor types with high response rate.

  16. Evidence for a maximum mass cut-off in the neutron star mass distribution and constraints on the equation of state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsing, Justin; Silva, Hector O.; Berti, Emanuele

    2018-04-01

    We infer the mass distribution of neutron stars in binary systems using a flexible Gaussian mixture model and use Bayesian model selection to explore evidence for multi-modality and a sharp cut-off in the mass distribution. We find overwhelming evidence for a bimodal distribution, in agreement with previous literature, and report for the first time positive evidence for a sharp cut-off at a maximum neutron star mass. We measure the maximum mass to be 2.0M⊙ sharp cut-off is interpreted as the maximum stable neutron star mass allowed by the equation of state of dense matter, our measurement puts constraints on the equation of state. For a set of realistic equations of state that support >2M⊙ neutron stars, our inference of mmax is able to distinguish between models at odds ratios of up to 12: 1, whilst under a flexible piecewise polytropic equation of state model our maximum mass measurement improves constraints on the pressure at 3 - 7 × the nuclear saturation density by ˜30 - 50% compared to simply requiring mmax > 2M⊙. We obtain a lower bound on the maximum sound speed attained inside the neutron star of c_s^max > 0.63c (99.8%), ruling out c_s^max c/√{3} at high significance. Our constraints on the maximum neutron star mass strengthen the case for neutron star-neutron star mergers as the primary source of short gamma-ray bursts.

  17. The cut-off values of dietary energy intake for determining metabolic syndrome in hemodialysis patients: A clinical cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Tuyen Van; Wong, Te-Chih; Chen, Hsi-Hsien; Chen, Tzen-Wen; Chen, Tso-Hsiao; Hsu, Yung-Ho; Peng, Sheng-Jeng; Kuo, Ko-Lin; Wang, Chi-Sin; Tseng, I-Hsin; Feng, Yi-Wei; Chang, Tai-Yue; Su, Chien-Tien

    2018-01-01

    Dietary energy intake strongly linked to dialysis outcomes. We aimed to explore the optimal cut-off point of energy intake (EI) for identification of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in hemodialysis patients. The cross-sectional data of 243 hemodialysis patients from multi-dialysis centers in Taiwan was used. The dietary intake was assessed by using the three-day dietary questionnaire, and a 24-hour dietary recall, clinical and biochemical data were also evaluated. The MetS was diagnosed by the Harmonized Metabolic Syndrome criteria. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was to depict the optimal cut-off value of EI for the diagnosis of MetS. The logistic regression was also used to explore the association between inadequate EI and MetS. The optimal cut-off points of EI for identifying the MetS were 26.7 kcal/kg/day for patients aged less than 60 years, or with non-diabetes, and 26.2 kcal/kg/day for patients aged 60 years and above, or with diabetes, respectively. The likelihood of the MetS increased with lower percentiles of energy intake in hemodialysis patients. In the multivariate analysis, the inadequate dietary energy intake strongly determined 3.24 folds of the MetS. The assessment of dietary EI can help healthcare providers detecting patients who are at risk of metabolic syndrome. PMID:29538427

  18. Return to Work: A Cut-Off of FIM Gain with Montebello Rehabilitation Factor Score in Order to Identify Predictive Factors in Subjects with Acquired Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franceschini, Marco; Massimiani, Maria Pia; Paravati, Stefano; Agosti, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Return to work (RTW) for people with acquired brain injury (ABI) represents a main objective of rehabilitation: this work presents a strong correlation between personal well-being and quality of life. The aim of this study is to investigate the prognostic factors that can predict RTW after ABI (traumatic or non- traumatic aetiology) in patients without disorders of consciousness (e.g. coma, vegetative or minimally conscious state) at the beginning of their admission to rehabilitation. At the end of a 6-month follow-up after discharge, data were successfully collected in 69 patients. The rehabilitation effectiveness (functional Recovery) between admission and discharge was assessed by Functional Independent Measure (FIM) gain, through the Montebello Rehabilitation Factor Score (MRFS), which was obtained as follows: (discharge FIM-admission FIM)/(Maximum possible FIM-Admission FIM) x 100. The cut-off value (criterion) deriving from MRFS, which helped identify RTW patients, resulted in .659 (sn 88.9%; sp 52.4%). Considering the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the MRFS data, the multivariable binary logistic regression analysis presented 62.96% of correct RTW classification cases, 80.95% of non-RTW leading to an overall satisfactory predictability of 73.91%. The results of the present study suggest that occupational therapy intervention could modify cut-off in patients with an MFRS close to target at the end of an in-hospital rehabilitative program thus developing their capabilities and consequently surpassing cut-off itself.

  19. Return to Work: A Cut-Off of FIM Gain with Montebello Rehabilitation Factor Score in Order to Identify Predictive Factors in Subjects with Acquired Brain Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Franceschini

    Full Text Available Return to work (RTW for people with acquired brain injury (ABI represents a main objective of rehabilitation: this work presents a strong correlation between personal well-being and quality of life. The aim of this study is to investigate the prognostic factors that can predict RTW after ABI (traumatic or non- traumatic aetiology in patients without disorders of consciousness (e.g. coma, vegetative or minimally conscious state at the beginning of their admission to rehabilitation. At the end of a 6-month follow-up after discharge, data were successfully collected in 69 patients. The rehabilitation effectiveness (functional Recovery between admission and discharge was assessed by Functional Independent Measure (FIM gain, through the Montebello Rehabilitation Factor Score (MRFS, which was obtained as follows: (discharge FIM-admission FIM/(Maximum possible FIM-Admission FIM x 100. The cut-off value (criterion deriving from MRFS, which helped identify RTW patients, resulted in .659 (sn 88.9%; sp 52.4%. Considering the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE and the MRFS data, the multivariable binary logistic regression analysis presented 62.96% of correct RTW classification cases, 80.95% of non-RTW leading to an overall satisfactory predictability of 73.91%. The results of the present study suggest that occupational therapy intervention could modify cut-off in patients with an MFRS close to target at the end of an in-hospital rehabilitative program thus developing their capabilities and consequently surpassing cut-off itself.

  20. Methods for identifying the cost effective case definition cut-off for sequential monitoring tests: an extension of Phelps and Mushlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Roberta; Baxter, Paul; Hall, Peter; Hewison, Jenny; Afshar, Mehran; Hall, Geoff; McCabe, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    The arrival of personalized medicine in the clinic means that treatment decisions will increasingly rely on test results. The challenge of limited health care resources means that the dissemination of these technologies will be dependent on their value in relation to their cost; i.e. their cost effectiveness. Phelps and Mushlin have described how to optimize tests to meet cost effectiveness target. However, when tests are applied repeatedly the case mix of the patients tested changes with each administration, and this impacts upon the value of each subsequent test administration. In this paper we present a modification of Phelps and Mushlin’s framework for diagnostic tests; to identify the cost effective cut-off for monitoring tests. Using the Ca125 test monitoring for relapse in Ovarian Cancer, we show how the repeated use of the initial cut-off can lead to a substantially increased false negative rate compared to the monitoring cut-off – over 20% higher than in this example – with the associated harms for individual and population health. PMID:24488576

  1. Mirror fermions and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senjanovic, G.; Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg

    1984-07-01

    Extended supersymmetry, Kaluza-Klein theory and family unification all suggest the existence of mirror fermions, with same quantum numbers but opposite helicities from ordinary fermions. The laboratory and especially cosmological implications of such particles are reviewed and summarized. (author)

  2. Prognostic impact of proliferation for resected early stage 'pure' invasive lobular breast cancer: Cut-off analysis of Ki67 according to histology and clinical validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbognin, Luisa; Sperduti, Isabella; Fabi, Alessandra; Dieci, Maria Vittoria; Kadrija, Dzenete; Griguolo, Gaia; Pilotto, Sara; Guarneri, Valentina; Zampiva, Ilaria; Brunelli, Matteo; Orvieto, Enrico; Nortilli, Rolando; Fiorio, Elena; Parolin, Veronica; Manfrin, Erminia; Caliò, Anna; Nisticò, Cecilia; Pellini, Francesca; Scarpa, Aldo; Pollini, Giovanni Paolo; Conte, Pierfranco; Tortora, Giampaolo; Bria, Emilio

    2017-10-01

    The intent of this analysis was to investigate and validate the prognostic potential of Ki67 in a multi-center series of patients affected by early stage 'pure' invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC). Clinical-pathological data of patients affected by ILC were correlated with overall survival and disease-free survival (OS/DFS); data from a parallel invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) patients' cohort were gathered as well. The maximally selected Log-Rank statistics analysis was applied to Ki67 continuous variable to estimate the appropriate cut-off. The Subpopulation Treatment Effect Pattern Plot (STEPP) analysis was performed as well. Data from overall 1097 (457/222 ILC: training/validation set; 418 IDC) patients were gathered. The identified optimal Ki67 cut-offs were 4% and 14% for DFS in ILC and IDC cohort, respectively. In ILC patients, the Ki67 cut-off was an independent OS predictor. Ten-years OS and DFS were 89.9% and 77.2% (p = 0.007) and 79.4% and 69.2% (p = 0.03) for patients with Ki67 ≤ 4% and >4%, respectively. In IDC patients, 10-years OS was 93.8% and 71.7%, p = 0.02, DFS was 84.0% and 52.6%, p = 0.0003, for patients with Ki67 ≤ 14% and >14%, respectively. In the validation set, the optimal Ki67 OS cut-off was 5%. The STEPP analysis showed that in the presence of low Ki67 values, IDC patients have a better DFS than ILC patients, while with the increase of values the prognosis tends to overlap. Despite the retrospective design of the study, the prognostic relevance of Ki67 (as well as its optimal cut-off) seems to significantly differ according to breast cancer histology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Partially quenched study of strange baryon with Nf=2 twisted mass fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drach, Vincent; Brinet, Mariane; Carbonell, Jaume

    2009-06-01

    We present results on the mass of the baryon octet and decuplet using two flavors of light dynamical twisted mass fermions. The strange quark mass is fixed to its physical value from the kaon sector in a partially quenched set up. Calculations are performed for light quark masses corresponding to a pion mass in the range 270-500 MeV and lattice sizes of 2.1 fm and 2.7 fm. We check for cut-off effects and isospin breaking by evaluating the baryon masses at two different lattice spacings. We carry out a chiral extrapolation for the octet baryons and discuss results for the Ω. (orig.)

  4. Fermion production despite fermion number conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, W.; Hetrick, J.E.; Smit, J.

    1995-01-01

    Lattice proposals for a nonperturbative formulation of the Standard Model easily lead to a global U(1) symmetry corresponding to exactly conserved fermion number. The absence of an anomaly in the fermion current would then appear to inhibit anomalous processes, such as electroweak baryogenesis in the early universe. One way to circumvent this problem is to formulate the theory such that this U(1) symmetry is explicitly broken. However we argue that in the framework of spectral flow, fermion creation and annihilation still in fact occurs, despite the exact fermion number conservation. The crucial observation is that fermions are excitations relative to the vacuum, at the surface of the Dirac sea. The exact global U(1) symmetry prohibits a state from changing its fermion number during time evolution, however nothing prevents the fermionic ground state from doing so. We illustrate our reasoning with a model in two dimensions which has axial-vector couplings, first using a sharp momentum cutoff, then using the lattice regulator with staggered fermions. The difference in fermion number between the time evolved state and the ground state is indeed in agreement with the anomaly. Both the sharp momentum cutoff and the lattice regulator break gauge invariance. In the case of the lattice model a mass counterterm for the gauge field is sufficient to restore gauge invariance in the perturbative regime. A study of the vacuum energy shows however that the perturbative counterterm is insufficient in a nonperturbative setting and that further quartic counterterms are needed. For reference we also study a closely related model with vector couplings, the Schwinger model, and we examine the emergence of the θ-vacuum structure of both theories. ((orig.))

  5. Discussion about different cut-off values of conventional hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio used in hamstring injury prediction among professional male football players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Grygorowicz

    Full Text Available To measure the sensitivity and specificity of differences cut-off values for isokinetic Hcon/Qcon ratio in order to improve the capacity to evaluate (retrospectively the injury of hamstring muscles in professional soccer screened with knee isokinetic tests.Retrospective study.Medical and biomechanical data of professional football players playing for the same team for at least one season between 2010 and 2016 were analysed. Hamstring strain injury cases and the reports generated via isokinetic testing were investigated. Isokinetic concentric(con hamstring(H and quadriceps(Q absolute strength in addition with Hcon/Qcon ratio were examined for the injured versus uninjured limbs among injured players, and for the injured and non-injured players. 2 x 2 contingency table was used for comparing variables: predicted injured or predicted uninjured with actual injured or actual uninjured. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative likelihood ratio were calculated for three different cut-off values (0.47 vs. 0.6 vs. 0.658 to compare the discriminative power of an isokinetic test, whilst examining the key value of Hcon/Qcon ratio which may indicate the highest level of ability to predispose a player to injury. McNemar's chi2 test with Yates's correction was used to determine agreement between the tests. PQStat software was used for all statistical analysis, and an alpha level of p <0.05 was used for all statistical comparisons.340 isokinetic test reports on both limbs of 66 professional soccer players were analysed. Eleven players suffered hamstring injuries during the analysed period. None of these players sustained recurrence of hamstring injury. One player sustained hamstring strain injury on both legs, thus the total number of injuries was 12. Application of different cut-off values for Hcon/Qcon significantly affected the sensitivity and specificity of isokinetic test used as a tool for

  6. Therapeutic significance of a D-dimer cut-off level of >3 μg/ml in colorectal cancer patients treated with standard chemotherapy plus bevacizumab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Satoshi; Yoshino, Takayuki; Kojima, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    The risk of venous thromboembolism has been reported to increase when receiving bevacizumab. Many cancer patients are reported to have elevated D-dimer levels. It is not clear what D-dimer level might indicate an increased risk of venous thromboembolism in the colorectal cancer patients treated with bevacizumab-containing chemotherapy. The D-dimer levels and any event concurrent with an elevated D-dimer level were evaluated in patients receiving bevacizumab. The D-dimer cut-off level was determined using the receiver-operating characteristic analysis. The selection criteria were as follows: histologically proven metastatic and unresectable colorectal adenocarcinoma; no prior chemotherapy containing bevacizumab; D-dimer test performed repetitively on the baseline and during bevacizumab administration; no venous thromboembolism identified at the baseline; and enhanced computed tomographic scan performed every 2 months. Sixty-nine patients were included. The chemotherapy regimens with bevacizumab included the regimen of 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin and oxaliplatin (FOLFOX), the regimen of 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin and irinotecan (FOLFIRI), and leucovorin-modulated 5-fluorouracil. The median baseline D-dimer level was 1.2 μg/ml. The appropriate D-dimer cut-off level was 3 μg/ml with the negative predictive value of 98% and relative risk of 6.9. Twenty-one of 69 patients showed elevated D-dimer levels of >3 μg/ml, with 11 patients for unknown reasons, 6 with tumor progression, 3 with venous thromboembolism and 1 with sepsis. In the remaining 48 patients whose D-dimer levels were ≤3 μg/ml, only one patient developed a venous thromboembolism. A D-dimer cut-off level of 3 μg/ml might be a useful indicator level to exclude venous thromboembolism or show an increased risk for venous thromboembolism in colorectal cancer patients treated with bevacizumab-containing chemotherapy. (author)

  7. Evaluation of serum galactomannan enzyme immunoassay at two different cut-offs for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis in patients with febrile neutropenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritin Mohindra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Invasive aspergillosis (IA is an increasingly common and fatal opportunistic fungal infection in patients with haematological diseases. Early diagnosis is difficult as mycological culture techniques have low sensitivity and the radiological tools have low specificity. Galactomannan enzyme immunoassay (GEI detects galactomannan in the human serum with a reported sensitivity and specificity between 30% and 100%. Aims: The aim of this study was to analyse the role of GEI in diagnosis of IA in patients with febrile neutropenia and to evaluate the role of GEI in the diagnosis of IA as per the revised (2008 European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer–Mycoses Study Group (EORTC–MSG criteria at two different optical density (OD cut-offs of 0.5 and 1.0. Setting: This prospective study was conducted in Safdarjung Hospital, New Delhi, India. Methods: GEI testing was performed in adult patients of febrile neutropenia with evidence of IA. Results at two different OD indices (ODIs of 0.5 and 1.0 were analysed. The evaluation of the diagnostic parameter, that is, GEI was measured in terms of sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive value and was validated with the revised (2008 EORTC–MSG diagnostic criteria of IA. Results: One hundred and eleven patients had evidence of IA, of which 79 patients were GEI positive when cut-off ODI was 0.5, whereas with cut-off ODI 1.0, 55 patients were GEI positive. Conclusion: ODI of 1.0 should be considered as positive while in patients with OD between 0.5 and 1.0, repeat sampling from the patient is recommended.

  8. Night-time heart rate cut-off point definition by resting office tachycardia in untreated hypertensive patients: data of the Spanish ABPM registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinyoles, Ernest; de la Sierra, Alejandro; Roso, Albert; de la Cruz, Juan J; Gorostidi, Manuel; Segura, Julián; Banegas, José R; Martell-Claros, Nieves; Ruilope, Luís M

    2014-05-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that an elevated resting heart rate (HR) is a risk factor for both total and cardiovascular mortality. Our aim was to estimate the night-time HR cut-off point that best predicts cardiovascular risk office tachycardia in hypertensive patients. Untreated hypertensive patients without concomitant cardiovascular diseases were included. Office and ambulatory HRs were measured. Cardiovascular risk office tachycardia was defined by office HR at least 85 beats per minute (bpm). Different night-time HR cut-offs were estimated by receiver operating characteristic curve analyses to predict cardiovascular risk office tachycardia. The best cut-off was selected on the basis of its combined sensitivity and specificity. A total of 32 569 hypertensive patients were included: 46.5% women, mean age (SD) 52 (14) years, office blood pressure 146 (16)/89 (11) mmHg, diabetes 10.3%, smoking 19.2%, BMI 29 (6.8) kg/m, office HR 77 (11.2) bpm, and night-time HR 64.9 (9.3) bpm. A total of 7070 (21.7%) patients were found to have cardiovascular risk office tachycardia. The night-time HR value that better predicted cardiovascular risk office tachycardia was more than 66 bpm. In comparison with patients with night HR below this value, those with night-time tachycardia were predominantly women, younger, with higher ambulatory blood pressure, greater BMI, and higher prevalence of diabetes and smoking. All comparisons were statistically significant (P less than 0.001). A mean night-time HR more than 66 bpm is a good predictor of cardiovascular risk office tachycardia in untreated hypertensive patients and could be considered a variable associated with an increased cardiovascular risk.

  9. Power of resting echocardiographic measurements to classify pulmonary hypertension patients according to European society of cardiology exercise testing risk stratification cut-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Michaela B; Garcia, Rodrigue; Christiaens, Luc; Larrieu-Ardilouze, Elisa; Howard, Luke S; Nihoyannopoulos, Petros

    2018-04-15

    Right ventricular function is the major determinant of morbidity and mortality in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The ESC risk assessment strategy for PAH is based on clinical status, exercise testing, NTproBNP, imaging and haemodynamics but does not include right ventricular function. Our aims were to test the power of resting echocardiographic measurements to classify PAH patients according to ESC exercise testing risk stratification cut-offs and to determine if the classification power of echocardiographic parameters varied in chronic thrombo-embolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). We prospectively and consecutively recruited 46 PAH patients and 42 CTEPH patients referred for cardio-pulmonary exercise testing and comprehensive transthoracic echocardiography. Exercise testing parameters analyzed were peak oxygen consumption, percentage of predicted maximal oxygen consumption and the slope of ventilation against carbon dioxide production. Receiver operator characteristic curves were used to determine the optimal diagnostic cut-off values of echocardiographic parameters for classifying the patients in intermediate or high risk category according to exercise testing. Measurements of right ventricular systolic function were the best for classifying in PAH (area under the curve 0.815 to 0.935). Measurements of right ventricular pressure overload (0.810 to 0.909) were optimal for classifying according to exercise testing in CTEPH. Measurements of left ventricular function were of no use in either group. Measurements of right ventricular systolic function can classify according to exercise testing risk stratification cut-offs in PAH. However, this is not the case in CTEPH where pressure overload, rather than right ventricular function seems to be linked to exercise performance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Bovine Tuberculosis in Cattle in the Highlands of Cameroon: Seroprevalence Estimates and Rates of Tuberculin Skin Test Reactors at Modified Cut-Offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Awah-Ndukum

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to obtain epidemiological estimates of bovine tuberculosis (TB prevalence in cattle in the highlands of Cameroon using two population-based tuberculin skin test (TST surveys in the years 2009 and 2010. However, prior to the TST survey in 2010, blood was collected from already chosen cattle for serological assay. Anti-bovine TB antibodies was detected in 37.17% of tested animals and bovine TB prevalence estimates were 3.59%–7.48%, 8.92%–13.25%, 11.77%–17.26% and 13.14%–18.35% for comparative TST at ≥4 mm, ≥3 mm and ≥2 mm cut-off points and single TST, respectively. The agreement between TST and lateral flow was generally higher in TST positive than in TST negative subjects. The K coefficients were 0.119, 0.234, 0.251 and 0.254 for comparative TST at ≥4 mm, ≥3 mm and ≥2 mm cut-off points and the single TST groups, respectively. Chi square statistics revealed that strong (P48 associations existed between seroprevalence rates and TST reactors. The study suggested that using lateral flow assay and TST at severe interpretations could improve the perception of bovine TB in Cameroon. The importance of defining TST at modified cut-offs and disease status by post-mortem detection and mycobacterial culture of TB lesions in local environments cannot be overemphasised.

  11. Proposed cut-off value of CA19-9 for detecting pancreatic cancer in patients with diabetes: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Mariko; Nagai, Yoshio; Tenjin, Ayumi; Tanaka, Yasushi

    2018-04-11

    Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal malignancy. CA19-9 is a well-known marker for diagnosis of pancreatic cancer, but the serum CA19-9 level is reported to be elevated in patients with poorly controlled diabetes. This study evaluated the sensitivity, specificity, and cut-off value of serum CA19-9 for detection of pancreatic cancer in patients with diabetes. A case-control study of 236 patients was performed. The case group was selected from diabetic patients with pancreatic cancer, while one control was selected for each case from among diabetic patients without pancreatic cancer during the same period. The case group (n = 118) and the control group (n = 118) were matched for age, sex, and pancreatic cancer risk factors. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted to determine the serum CA19-9 level that predicted pancreatic cancer. Then the sensitivity and specificity of CA19-9 were calculated for the threshold value. There were no significant differences of age, sex, BMI, smoking, alcohol intake, and HbA1c between the case and control groups. According to ROC analysis, a serum CA19-9 level of 75 U/mL had the maximum sensitivity and specificity for separating diabetic patients with or without pancreatic cancer. Using this cut-off value, the sensitivity and specificity of CA19-9 for pancreatic cancer was 69.5% and 98.2%, respectively, while the area under the ROC curve was 0.875 [95%CI: 0.826-0.924]. We propose that a serum CA19-9 level of 75 U/mL should be used as the cut-off value when screening patients with diabetes for pancreatic cancer.

  12. Dental fear and caries in 6-12 year old children in Greece. Determination of dental fear cut-off points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boka, V; Arapostathis, K; Karagiannis, V; Kotsanos, N; van Loveren, C; Veerkamp, J

    2017-03-01

    To present: the normative data on dental fear and caries status; the dental fear cut-off points of young children in the city of Thessaloniki, Greece. Study Design: This is a cross-sectional study with two independent study groups. A first representative sample consisted of 1484 children from 15 primary public schools of Thessaloniki. A second sample consisted of 195 randomly selected age-matched children, all patients of the Postgraduate Paediatric Dental Clinic of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. First sample: In order to select data on dental fear and caries, dental examination took place in the classroom with disposable mirrors and a penlight. All the children completed the Dental Subscale of the Children's Fear Survey Schedule (CFSS-DS). Second sample: In order to define the cut-off points of the CFSS-DS, dental treatment of the 195 children was performed at the University Clinic. Children⁁s dental fear was assessed using the CFSS-DS and their behaviour during dental treatment was observed by one calibrated examiner using the Venham scale. Statistical analysis of the data was performed with IBM SPSS Statistics 20 at a statistical significance level of fear. Mean differences between boys and girls were not significant. Caries was not correlated with dental fear. Second sample: CFSS-DSfear', scores 33-37 as 'borderline' and scores > 37 as 'dental fear'. In the first sample, 84.6% of the children did not suffer from dental fear (CFSS-DSfear was correlated to age and not to caries and gender. The dental fear cut-off point for the CFSS-DS was estimated at 37 for 6-12 year old children (33-37 borderlines).

  13. Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) cut-off values and the metabolic syndrome in a general adult population: effect of gender and age: EPIRCE cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayoso-Diz, Pilar; Otero-González, Alfonso; Rodriguez-Alvarez, María Xosé; Gude, Francisco; García, Fernando; De Francisco, Angel; Quintela, Arturo González

    2013-10-16

    Insulin resistance has been associated with metabolic and hemodynamic alterations and higher cardio metabolic risk. There is great variability in the threshold homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) levels to define insulin resistance. The purpose of this study was to describe the influence of age and gender in the estimation of HOMA-IR optimal cut-off values to identify subjects with higher cardio metabolic risk in a general adult population. It included 2459 adults (range 20-92 years, 58.4% women) in a random Spanish population sample. As an accurate indicator of cardio metabolic risk, Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), both by International Diabetes Federation criteria and by Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, were used. The effect of age was analyzed in individuals with and without diabetes mellitus separately. ROC regression methodology was used to evaluate the effect of age on HOMA-IR performance in classifying cardio metabolic risk. In Spanish population the threshold value of HOMA-IR drops from 3.46 using 90th percentile criteria to 2.05 taking into account of MetS components. In non-diabetic women, but no in men, we found a significant non-linear effect of age on the accuracy of HOMA-IR. In non-diabetic men, the cut-off values were 1.85. All values are between 70th-75th percentiles of HOMA-IR levels in adult Spanish population. The consideration of the cardio metabolic risk to establish the cut-off points of HOMA-IR, to define insulin resistance instead of using a percentile of the population distribution, would increase its clinical utility in identifying those patients in whom the presence of multiple metabolic risk factors imparts an increased metabolic and cardiovascular risk. The threshold levels must be modified by age in non-diabetic women.

  14. Understanding capacity fade in silicon based electrodes for lithium ion batteries using three electrode cells and upper cut-off voltage studies

    OpenAIRE

    Beattie, Shane D.; Loveridge, Melanie; Lain, Michael J.; Ferraria, Stefania; Polzin, Bryant; Bhagat, Rohit; Dashwood, R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Commercial Li-ion batteries are typically cycled between 3.0 and 4.2 V. These voltages limits are chosen based on the characteristics of the cathode (e.g. lithium cobalt oxide) and anode (e.g. graphite). When alternative anode/cathode chemistries are studied the same cut-off voltages are often, mistakenly, used. Silicon (Si) based anodes are widely studied as a high capacity alternative to graphite for Lithium-ion batteries. When silicon-based anodes are paired with high capacity cathodes (e....

  15. Retrospective analysis of insulin responses to standard dosed oral glucose tests (OGTs) via naso-gastric tubing towards definition of an objective cut-off value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnken, Tobias; Delarocque, Julien; Schumacher, Svenja; Huber, Korinna; Feige, Karsten

    2018-01-19

    Insulin dysregulation (ID) with basal or postprandial hyperinsulinemia is one of the key findings in horses and ponies suffering from the equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). Assessment of ID can easily be performed in clinical settings by the use of oral glucose challenge tests. Oral glucose test (OGT) performed with 1 g/kg bodyweight (BW) glucose administered via naso-gastric tube allows the exact administration of a defined glucose dosage in a short time. However, reliable cut-off values have not been available so far. Therefore, the aim of the study was to describe variations in insulin response to OGT via naso-gastric tubing and to provide a clinical useful cut-off value for ID when using the insulin quantification performed with an equine-optimized insulin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data visualization revealed no clear separation in the serum insulin concentration of insulin sensitive and insulin dysregulated horses during OGT. Therefore, a model based clustering method was used to circumvent the use of an arbitrary limit for categorization. This method considered all data-points for the classification, taking into account the individual insulin trajectory during the OGT. With this method two clusters were differentiated, one with low and one with high insulin responses during OGT. The cluster of individuals with low insulin response was consistently detected, independently of the initialization parameters of the algorithm. In this cluster the 97.5% quantile of insulin is 110 µLU/mL at 120 min. We suggest using this insulin concentration of 110 µLU/mL as a cut-off value for samples obtained at 120 min in OGT. OGT performed with 1 g/kg BW glucose and administration via naso-gastric tubing can easily be performed under clinical settings. Application of the cut-off value of 110 µLU/mL at 120 min allows assessment of ID in horses.

  16. Cut-off values for classifying active children and adolescents using the Physical Activity Questionnaire: PAQ-C and PAQ-A

    OpenAIRE

    Benítez-Porres, Javier; Alvero-Cruz, José Ramón; Sardinha, Luis B.; López-Fernández, Iván; Carnero, Elvis A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The Physical Activity Questionnaire for children and adolescents (PAQ-C & PAQ-A) has been widely used in research and field settings. However, there is a lack of information about its final score meaning. Objective: To determine PAQ-C and PAQ-A score cut-off values using physical activity (PA) thresholds objectively measured as reference criteria. Methods: 146 children (n = 83 boys, n = 63 girls) and 234 adolescents (n = 115 boys, n = 119 girls) participated in this study. Accel...

  17. Determination of sensitivity, specificity and cut off point of visual- Motor Bender Gestalt Test in the diagnosis of traumatic brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    tayebeh Rezaie nasab

    2013-02-01

    Results: In this study, cut-off point was calculated as 6.5%, sensitivity as 55.8%, characteristic as 81.2%, and the area under the Roc curve as 0.69. Moreover, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and efficiency were 95.08%, 22.03%, and 59.17%, respectively. Conclusion: Results of this study revealed that Bender Gestalt Test is relatively weak in diagnosis of mild TBI. Hence, its characteristic is high and it was successful in diagnosing healthy individuals.

  18. Majorana fermion codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravyi, Sergey; Terhal, Barbara M; Leemhuis, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    We initiate the study of Majorana fermion codes (MFCs). These codes can be viewed as extensions of Kitaev's one-dimensional (1D) model of unpaired Majorana fermions in quantum wires to higher spatial dimensions and interacting fermions. The purpose of MFCs is to protect quantum information against low-weight fermionic errors, that is, operators acting on sufficiently small subsets of fermionic modes. We examine to what extent MFCs can surpass qubit stabilizer codes in terms of their stability properties. A general construction of 2D MFCs is proposed that combines topological protection based on a macroscopic code distance with protection based on fermionic parity conservation. Finally, we use MFCs to show how to transform any qubit stabilizer code to a weakly self-dual CSS code.

  19. Fermion cluster algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekharan, Shailesh

    2000-01-01

    Cluster algorithms have been recently used to eliminate sign problems that plague Monte-Carlo methods in a variety of systems. In particular such algorithms can also be used to solve sign problems associated with the permutation of fermion world lines. This solution leads to the possibility of designing fermion cluster algorithms in certain cases. Using the example of free non-relativistic fermions we discuss the ideas underlying the algorithm

  20. Muscle function-dependent sarcopenia and cut-off values of possible predictors in community-dwelling Turkish elderly: calf circumference, midarm muscle circumference and walking speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akın, S; Mucuk, S; Öztürk, A; Mazıcıoğlu, M; Göçer, Ş; Arguvanlı, S; Şafak, E D

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of muscle strength-based sarcopenia and to determine possible predictors. This is a cross-sectional population-based study in the community-dwelling Turkish elderly. Anthropometric measurements, namely body height, weight, triceps skin fold (TSF), mid upper arm circumference (MUAC), waist circumference (WC) and calf circumference (CC), were noted. The midarm muscle circumference (MAMC) was calculated by using MUAC and TSF measurement. Sarcopenia was assessed, adjusted for body mass index (BMI) and gender, according to muscle strength. Physical performance was determined by 4 m walking speed (WS; m/s). The receiver operating curve analysis was performed to determine cut-offs of CC, MAMC and 4 m WS. A total of 879 elderly subjects, 50.1% of whom were female, were recruited. The mean handgrip strength (HGS) and s.d. was 24.2 (8.8) kg [17.9 (4.8) female, 30.6 (7.1) male]. The muscle function-dependent sarcopenia was 63.4% (female 73.5%, male 53.2%). The muscle mass-dependent sarcopenia for CC (sarcopenia. An adequate muscle mass may not mean a reliable muscle function. Muscle function may describe sarcopenia better compared with muscle mass. The CC, MAMC and 4 m WS cut-offs may be used to assess sarcopenia in certain age groups.

  1. Nicotine cut-off value in human hair as a tool to distinguish active from passive smokers: A cross-sectional study in Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Masayoshi; Kanda, Hideyuki; Hayakawa, Takehito; Mori, Yayoi; Ito, Teruna; Hidaka, Tomoo; Kakamu, Takeyasu; Kumagai, Tomohiro; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Kawazoe, Miki; Sato, Sei; Fukushima, Tetsuhito

    2017-07-19

    Nicotine concentration in hair is a useful marker of tobacco exposure. Detection of nicotine in the hair of non-smokers indicates passive smoking. Accurate measurement of nicotine among active and passive smokers can help in smoking cessation programs or programs designed to prevent secondhand smoke exposure. To establish, using high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC/UV), a hair nicotine cut-off value to distinguish active from passive smokers. Hair samples were collected from randomly chosen Japanese men (n= 192) between 2009 and 2011. Nicotine and cotinine levels in hair were measured using HPLC/UV with column-switching. T-tests and chi-square tests were performed to compare active and passive smokers, while receiver operating characteristic curves were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the cut-off value. There were 69 active smokers and 123 passive smokers. The nicotine and cotinine concentrations in hair were significantly higher in active than in passive smokers (psmokers. Nicotine and cotinine concentrations in hair clearly distinguished active from passive smokers.

  2. Japanese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment cut-off score to clarify improvement of mild cognitive impairment after exercise training in community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nara, Marina; Sugie, Masamitsu; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Koyama, Teruyuki; Sengoku, Renpei; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Obuchi, Shuichi; Harada, Kazumasa; Kyo, Shunei; Ito, Hideki

    2018-02-02

    Physical exercise improves cognitive function in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). However, information about whether the degree of MCI before exercise training affects improvement in cognitive function is lacking. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the cut-off value in a MCI screening tool that predicts reversal to normal cognitive function after exercise training in older adults with MCI. Participants included 112 Japanese community-dwelling older adult outpatients (37 men, 75 women; mean age 76.3 years). We administered the Japanese version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA-J) before and after exercise training. MCI was defined as a MoCA-J score cognitive function. The MoCA-J cut-off score to predict cognitive function potentially reversible to normal was 23, with receiver operating characteristic analysis showing an area under the curve of 0.80, sensitivity of 79.4% and specificity of 69.2%. Multiple logistic regression analysis to predict non-MCI after exercise training showed that MoCA-J score ≥23 (OR 6.9, P cognitive function that is potentially reversible to normal among community-dwelling Japanese older adults with MCI. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; ••: ••-••. © 2018 The Authors Geriatrics & Gerontology International published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japan Geriatrics Society.

  3. Clinical significance of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) with respect to optimal cut-off value and tumor markers in advanced/metastatic breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiomi-Mouri, Yukako; Kousaka, Junko; Ando, Takahito; Tetsuka, Rie; Nakano, Shogo; Yoshida, Miwa; Fujii, Kimihito; Akizuki, Miwa; Imai, Tsuneo; Fukutomi, Takashi; Kobayashi, Katsumasa

    2016-01-01

    Although carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cancer antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) are useful tumor markers (TMs) in metastatic breast cancer (MBC), circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are also detected in patients with advanced or metastatic breast cancer. We analyzed CTCs in MBC patients in order to establish the optimal cut-off value, to evaluate the prognostic utility of CTC count, and to clarify whether CTC count could provide information in addition to CEA and CA15-3. We studied 98 MBC patients enrolled between June 2007 and March 2013. To quantify CTCs, 7.5 ml of blood was collected and CEA and CA15-3 were measured simultaneously. CTCs were counted using the CellSearch™ System. The CTC count was dichotomized as 0 (CTC-negative) or ≥1 (CTC-positive). The clinical significance of CTCs was evaluated in terms of its relationship with levels of CEA and CA15-3. Associations between qualitative variables were evaluated using the chi-square test. In order to evaluate the predictive value of CTCs for advanced or metastatic breast cancer, multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to calculate hazard ratios. With a CTC cut-off value of 1, there were 53 (54.1 %) CTC-negative patients and 45 (45.9 %) CTC-positive patients. Patients in the CTC-positive group had worse survival than those in the CTC-negative group (p CEA and CA15-3.

  4. Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid endogenous production and post-mortem behaviour - the importance of different biological matrices, cut-off reference values, sample collection and storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, André L; Dias, Mário; Reis, Flávio; Teixeira, Helena M

    2014-10-01

    Gamma-Hydroxybutyric Acid (GHB) is an endogenous compound with a story of clinical use, since the 1960's. However, due to its secondary effects, it has become a controlled substance, entering the illicit market for recreational and "dance club scene" use, muscle enhancement purposes and drug-facilitated sexual assaults. Its endogenous context can bring some difficulties when interpreting, in a forensic context, the analytical values achieved in biological samples. This manuscript reviewed several crucial aspects related to GHB forensic toxicology evaluation, such as its post-mortem behaviour in biological samples; endogenous production values, whether in in vivo and in post-mortem samples; sampling and storage conditions (including stability tests); and cut-off reference values evaluation for different biological samples, such as whole blood, plasma, serum, urine, saliva, bile, vitreous humour and hair. This revision highlights the need of specific sampling care, storage conditions, and cut-off reference values interpretation in different biological samples, essential for proper practical application in forensic toxicology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  5. Optimal Cut-Off Points for the Short-Negative Act Questionnaire and Their Association with Depressive Symptoms and Diagnosis of Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conway, Paul Maurice; Høgh (Hogh), Annie; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten

    2018-01-01

    to depressive symptoms and diagnosis of depression. Methods The study was based on a sample of 4882 participants from the Danish MODENA cohort study (year 2011), which included both the S-NAQ (score range 9–45) and a one-item measure applying the self-labelling method with a definition to assess occasional...... its criterion validity in relation to depressive symptoms (N = 4071) and diagnosis of depression (N = 4844). Results The S-NAQ cut-off points obtained were ≥12 and ≥16 when using occasional and frequent bullying as reference standards, respectively. Both cut-off points showed high classification.......44–1.86) were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. In the adjusted logistic regression analyses, both the first (odds ratio [OR] = 3.55, 95% CI = 1.98–6.38) and the second threshold of exposure (OR = 5.90, 95% CI = 2.93–11.88) were significantly associated with diagnosis of depression. Conclusions...

  6. Understanding capacity fade in silicon based electrodes for lithium-ion batteries using three electrode cells and upper cut-off voltage studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Shane D.; Loveridge, M. J.; Lain, Michael J.; Ferrari, Stefania; Polzin, Bryant J.; Bhagat, Rohit; Dashwood, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Commercial Li-ion batteries are typically cycled between 3.0 and 4.2 V. These voltages limits are chosen based on the characteristics of the cathode (e.g. lithium cobalt oxide) and anode (e.g. graphite). When alternative anode/cathode chemistries are studied the same cut-off voltages are often, mistakenly, used. Silicon (Si) based anodes are widely studied as a high capacity alternative to graphite for Lithium-ion batteries. When silicon-based anodes are paired with high capacity cathodes (e.g. Lithium Nickel Cobalt Aluminium Oxide; NCA) the cell typically suffers from rapid capacity fade. The purpose of this communication is to understand how the choice of upper cut-off voltage affects cell performance in Si/NCA cells. A careful study of three-electrode cell data will show that capacity fade in Si/NCA cells is due to an ever-evolving silicon voltage profile that pushes the upper voltage at the cathode to >4.4 V (vs. Li/Li+). This behaviour initially improves cycle efficiency, due to liberation of new lithium, but ultimately reduces cycling efficiency, resulting in rapid capacity fade.

  7. A clinically based prognostic index for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with a cut-off at 70 years of age significantly improves prognostic stratification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gang, Anne O.; Pedersen, Michael; d'Amore, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The introduction of rituximab and generally improved health among elderly patients have increased the survival of patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). The International Prognostic Index (IPI) from 1992 is based on pre-rituximab data from clinical trials including several lymphoma ...... dehydrogenase (LDH), stage and albumin level, and (2) a separate age-adjusted DLBCL-PI for patients 1 extranodal lesion, however excluding stage....... subtypes. We applied IPI factors to a population-based rituximab-treated cohort of 1990 patients diagnosed 2000-2010 and explored new factors and the optimal prognostic age cut-off for DLBCL. Multivariate-analyses (MVA) confirmed the prognostic value of all IPI factors except the presence of > 1 extranodal...... lesion. The optimal age cut-off was 70 years. In a MVA of albumin, lymphocyte count, sex, immunoglobulin G, bulky disease, hemoglobin and B-symptoms, only albumin was prognostic. We propose: (1) a modified DLBCL prognostic index (DLBCL-PI) including: age (70 years), performance status (PS), lactate...

  8. Triceps and Subscapular Skinfold Thickness Percentiles and Cut-Offs for Overweight and Obesity in a Population-Based Sample of Schoolchildren and Adolescents in Bogota, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; López-Cifuentes, Mario Ferney; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; González-Ruíz, Katherine; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Córdoba-Rodríguez, Diana Paola; Vivas, Andrés; Triana-Reina, Hector Reynaldo; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of skinfold thickness is an objective measure of adiposity. The aims of this study were to establish Colombian smoothed centile charts and LMS L (Box–Cox transformation), M (median), and S (coefficient of variation) tables for triceps, subscapular, and triceps + subscapular skinfolds; appropriate cut-offs were selected using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis based on a population-based sample of children and adolescents in Bogotá, Colombia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 9618 children and adolescents (55.7% girls; age range of 9–17.9 years). Triceps and subscapular skinfold measurements were obtained using standardized methods. We calculated the triceps + subscapular skinfold (T + SS) sum. Smoothed percentile curves for triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness were derived using the LMS method. ROC curve analyses were used to evaluate the optimal cut-off point of skinfold thickness for overweight and obesity, based on the International Obesity Task Force definitions. Subscapular and triceps skinfolds and T + SS were significantly higher in girls than in boys (p < 0.001). The ROC analysis showed that subscapular and triceps skinfolds and T + SS have a high discriminatory power in the identification of overweight and obesity in the sample population in this study. Our results provide sex- and age-specific normative reference standards for skinfold thickness values from a population from Bogotá, Colombia. PMID:27669294

  9. Rocking at 81 and Rolling at 34: ROC Cut-Off Scores for the Negative Acts Questionnaire–Revised in Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Ivana B.; Vukelić, Milica; Čizmić, Svetlana

    2017-01-01

    Researchers are still searching for the ways to identify different categories of employees according to their exposure to negative acts and psychological experience of workplace bullying. We followed Notelaers and Einarsen’s application of the ROC analysis to determine the NAQ-R cut-off scores applying a “lower” and “higher” threshold. The main goal of this research was to develop and test different gold standards of personal and organizational relevance in determining the NAQ-R cut-off scores in a specific cultural and economic context of Serbia. Apart from combining self-labeling as a victim with self-perceived health, the objectives were to test the gold standards developed as a combination of self-labeling with life satisfaction, self-labeling with intention to leave and a complex gold standard based on self-labeling, self-perceived health, life satisfaction and intention to leave taken together. The ROC analysis on Serbian workforce data supports applying of different gold standards. For identifying employees in a preliminary stage of bullying, the most applicable was the gold standard based on self-labeling and intention to leave (score 34 and higher). The most accurate identification of victims could be based on the most complex gold standard (score 81 and higher). This research encourages further investigation of gold standards in different cultures. PMID:28119652

  10. Triceps and Subscapular Skinfold Thickness Percentiles and Cut-Offs for Overweight and Obesity in a Population-Based Sample of Schoolchildren and Adolescents in Bogota, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of skinfold thickness is an objective measure of adiposity. The aims of this study were to establish Colombian smoothed centile charts and LMS L (Box–Cox transformation, M (median, and S (coefficient of variation tables for triceps, subscapular, and triceps + subscapular skinfolds; appropriate cut-offs were selected using receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis based on a population-based sample of children and adolescents in Bogotá, Colombia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 9618 children and adolescents (55.7% girls; age range of 9–17.9 years. Triceps and subscapular skinfold measurements were obtained using standardized methods. We calculated the triceps + subscapular skinfold (T + SS sum. Smoothed percentile curves for triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness were derived using the LMS method. ROC curve analyses were used to evaluate the optimal cut-off point of skinfold thickness for overweight and obesity, based on the International Obesity Task Force definitions. Subscapular and triceps skinfolds and T + SS were significantly higher in girls than in boys (p < 0.001. The ROC analysis showed that subscapular and triceps skinfolds and T + SS have a high discriminatory power in the identification of overweight and obesity in the sample population in this study. Our results provide sex- and age-specific normative reference standards for skinfold thickness values from a population from Bogotá, Colombia.

  11. Serum cortisol concentration with exploratory cut-off values do not predict the effects of hydrocortisone administration in children with low cardiac output after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, E J; Hogenbirk, Karin; Roest, Arno A W; van Brempt, Ronald; Hazekamp, Mark G; de Jonge, Evert

    2012-10-01

    Low cardiac output syndrome is common after paediatric cardiac surgery. Previous studies suggested that hydrocortisone administration may improve haemodynamic stability in case of resistant low cardiac output syndrome in critically ill children. This study was set up to test the hypothesis that the effects of hydrocortisone on haemodynamics in children with low cardiac output syndrome depend on the presence of (relative) adrenal insufficiency. A retrospective study was done on paediatric patients who received hydrocortisone when diagnosed with resistant low cardiac output syndrome after paediatric cardiac surgery in the period from 1 November 2005 to 31 December 2008. We studied the difference in effects of treatment with hydrocortisone administration between patients with adrenal insufficiency defined as an exploratory cut-off value of total cortisol of cortisol of ≥ 100 nmol/l. A total of 62 of patients were enrolled, meeting the inclusion criteria for low cardiac output syndrome. Thirty-two patients were assigned to Group 1 (cortisol concentration and those with normal baseline cortisol levels. A cortisol value using an exploratory cut-off value of 100 nmol/l for adrenal insufficiency should not be used as a criterion to treat these patients with hydrocortisone.

  12. Lattice degeneracies of fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raszillier, H.

    1983-10-01

    We present a detailed description of the minimal degeneracies of geometric (Kaehler) fermions on all the lattices of maximal symmetries in n = 1, ..., 4 dimensions. We also determine the isolated orbits of the maximal symmetry groups, which are related to the minimal numbers of ''naive'' fermions on the reciprocals of these lattices. It turns out that on the self-reciprocal lattices the minimal numbers of naive fermions are equal to the minimal numbers of degrees of freedom of geometric fermions. The description we give relies on the close connection of the maximal lattice symmetry groups with (affine) Weyl groups of root systems of (semi-) simple Lie algebras. (orig.)

  13. Discussion about different cut-off values of conventional hamstring-to-quadriceps ratio used in hamstring injury prediction among professional male football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygorowicz, Monika; Michałowska, Martyna; Walczak, Tomasz; Owen, Adam; Grabski, Jakub Krzysztof; Pyda, Andrzej; Piontek, Tomasz; Kotwicki, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    To measure the sensitivity and specificity of differences cut-off values for isokinetic Hcon/Qcon ratio in order to improve the capacity to evaluate (retrospectively) the injury of hamstring muscles in professional soccer screened with knee isokinetic tests. Retrospective study. Medical and biomechanical data of professional football players playing for the same team for at least one season between 2010 and 2016 were analysed. Hamstring strain injury cases and the reports generated via isokinetic testing were investigated. Isokinetic concentric(con) hamstring(H) and quadriceps(Q) absolute strength in addition with Hcon/Qcon ratio were examined for the injured versus uninjured limbs among injured players, and for the injured and non-injured players. 2 x 2 contingency table was used for comparing variables: predicted injured or predicted uninjured with actual injured or actual uninjured. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative likelihood ratio were calculated for three different cut-off values (0.47 vs. 0.6 vs. 0.658) to compare the discriminative power of an isokinetic test, whilst examining the key value of Hcon/Qcon ratio which may indicate the highest level of ability to predispose a player to injury. McNemar's chi2 test with Yates's correction was used to determine agreement between the tests. PQStat software was used for all statistical analysis, and an alpha level of p hamstring injuries during the analysed period. None of these players sustained recurrence of hamstring injury. One player sustained hamstring strain injury on both legs, thus the total number of injuries was 12. Application of different cut-off values for Hcon/Qcon significantly affected the sensitivity and specificity of isokinetic test used as a tool for muscle injury detection. The use of 0.47 of Hcon/Qcon as a discriminate value resulted in significantly lower sensitivity when compared to 0.658 threshold (sensitivity of 16.7% vs

  14. Phantom cosmologies and fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chimento, Luis P; Forte, Monica; Devecchi, Fernando P; Kremer, Gilberto M

    2008-01-01

    Form invariance transformations can be used for constructing phantom cosmologies starting with conventional cosmological models. In this work we reconsider the scalar field case and extend the discussion to fermionic fields, where the 'phantomization' process exhibits a new class of possible accelerated regimes. As an application we analyze the cosmological constant group for a fermionic seed fluid

  15. Dynamical triangulated fermionic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambjoern, J.; Varsted, S.

    1990-12-01

    We perform Monte Carlo simulations of randomly triangulated random surfaces which have fermionic world-sheet scalars θ i associated with each vertex i in addition to the usual bosonic world-sheet scalar χ i μ . The fermionic degrees of freedom force the internal metrics of the string to be less singular than the internal metric of the pure bosonic string. (orig.)

  16. The Best Cut-Off Value for HbA1c as a Screening Tool in Iranian Women With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Neda Mousavi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is a prevalent disorder which increases maternal and fetal complications. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT is a traditional, time -consuming and intensive test which is poorly tolerated by pregnant women. To date, increasing evidence considered HbA1c as a screening tool and reported various cut-off values in different populations. In alignment with existing literature, we determined for the first time, the optimal cut-off value for HbA1c in Iranian women with GDM.Materials and methods: This case-control study was conducted in Valie-Asr hospital between June 2015 and March 2016. A total of 200 pregnant women who were diagnosed with GDM were selected as study cases. For the control group, 200 healthy women were randomly selected. Fasting blood samples were taken for biochemical analysis, and OGTT was done in all participants. Demographic and anthropometric indexes were measured. Performance of the HbA1c test was analyzed by the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve, and the sensitivity and specificity for different HbA1c cut-off points were calculated subsequently.Results: Analysis showed that the mean age (p < 0.001 and BMI (p < 0.001 were significantly higher in the GDM group compared to those in non-GDM pregnant women. GDM participants reported positive family- and previous history of GDM more than healthy pregnant women (p = 0.04 and p < 0.001, respectively. All the markers for Lipid profile were significantly different between the two groups (p = <0.001 except for total cholesterol. The rate of Caesarean section and neonate’s Apgar score were not significantly different between the two groups. The best equilibrium between sensitivity (80% and specificity (76% for HbA1c was 5.05%.Conclusion: Our results suggest that pregnant women with HbA1c of ≥ 5.05% should proceed with an OGTT. Further investigations with larger sample size are needed to provide more robust evidence for the

  17. Highly scalable 3-D NAND-NOR hybrid-type dual bit per cell flash memory devices with an additional cut-off gate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Seongjae; Shim, Wonbo; Park, Ilhan; Kim, Yoon; Park, Byunggook

    2010-01-01

    In this work, a nonvolatile memory (NVM) device of novel structure in 3 dimensions is introduced, and its operation physics is validated. It is based on a pillar structure in which two identical storage nodes are located for dual-bit operation. The two storage nodes on neighboring pillars are controlled by using one common control gate so that the space between silicon pillars can be further reduced. For compatibility with conventional memory operations, an additional cut-off gate is constructed under the common control gate. This is considered as the ultimate form for a 3-D nonvolatile memory device based on a double-gate structure. The underlying physics is explained, and the operational schemes are validated in various aspects by using a numerical device simulation. Also, critical issues in device design for higher reliability are discussed.

  18. BMI and waist circumference cut-offs for corresponding levels of insulin sensitivity in a Middle Eastern immigrant versus a native Swedish population - the MEDIM population based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennet, Louise; Stenkula, Karin; Cushman, Samuel W; Brismar, Kerstin

    2016-12-09

    The aim of this study was to identify corresponding body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference cut-offs for equivalent levels of insulin sensitivity in a Middle Eastern immigrant population compared with native Swedes. Citizens of Malmö, Sweden aged 30 to 75 years, who were born in Iraq or Sweden, were in 2010-2012 invited to participate in a health examination including anthropometrics, oral glucose tolerance test, fasting samples and interviews concerning sociodemographic factors and lifestyle behaviours. In total, 1176 individuals born in Iraq and 688 born in Sweden, without previously diagnosed type 2 diabetes, participated in the study. In normal weight participants (BMI Middle Eastern populations.

  19. The optimum cut-off value to differentiate Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto from other species of E. granulosus sensu lato using larval rostellar hook morphometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, S V; Pierangeli, N B; Pianciola, L A; Mazzeo, M; Lazzarini, L E; Debiaggi, M F; Bergagna, H F J; Basualdo, J A

    2015-01-01

    Cystic echinococcosis caused by Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato is one of the most important helminth zoonoses in the world; it affects both humans and livestock. The disease is endemic in Argentina and highly endemic in the province of Neuquén. Considerable genetic and phenotypic variation has been demonstrated in E. granulosus, and ten different genotypes (G1-G10) have been identified using molecular tools. Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato may be considered a species complex, comprised of E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1-G3), E. equinus (G4), E. ortleppi (G5) and E. canadensis (G6-G10). In endemic areas, the characterization of cystic echinococcosis molecular epidemiology is important in order to apply adequate control strategies. A cut-off value for larval large hook total length to distinguish E. granulosus sensu stricto isolates from those produced by other species of the complex was defined for the first time. Overall, 1780 larval hooks of 36 isolates obtained from sheep (n= 11, G1), goats (n= 10, G6), cattle (n= 5, G6) and pigs (n= 10, G7) were analysed. Validation against molecular genotyping as gold standard was carried out using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. The optimum cut-off value was defined as 26.5 μm. The proposed method showed high sensitivity (97.8%) and specificity (91.1%). Since in most endemic regions the molecular epidemiology of echinococcosis includes the coexistence of the widely distributed E. granulosus sensu stricto G1 strain and other species of the complex, this technique could be useful as a quick and economical tool for epidemiological and surveillance field studies, when fertile cysts are present.

  20. EARLY APPLICATION OF HIGH CUT-OFF HAEMODYALISIS FOR DE-NOVO MYELOMA NEPHROPATHY IS ASSOCIATED WITH LONG-TERM DIALYSIS-INDEPENDENCY AND RENAL RECOVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhossain A. Khalafallah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Multiple myeloma (MM is a haematological malignancy associated with kidney injury resulting from cast nephropathy, which can be caused by monoclonal free light chains (FLC. It has been demonstrated that reduction of FLC can lead to a higher proportion of patients recovering renal function with a better outcome, especially if extended high cut-off haemodialysis (HCO-HD combined with chemotherapy is used. Patients and Methods In this study, four cases of MM nephropathy were treated with HCO-HD and chemotherapy at a single institution during the period from August 2009 to August 2011. All of the patients presented with acute renal failure and high serum FLC. All patients underwent a bone marrow biopsy to confirm the diagnosis of MM, according to the WHO criteria. Three patients had de-novo MM and one patient had relapsed light chain myeloma disease. All patients underwent HCO-HD concomitantly with specific myeloma therapy once the diagnosis or relapse of MM was established. Results After a median follow up of 26 months, (range, 13-36 our data showed that all patients had a significant decrease in serum FLC through HCO-HD, proving the effectiveness of HCO-HD in managing MM. De-novo MM patients restored their renal function and achieved low-level FLC early on the treatment and become dialysis-independent. One patient with relapsed myeloma remained dialysis dependant. Conclusion Our study suggests that if myeloma nephropathy associated with light-chain disease, HCO-HD should be initiated as early as possible. At the same time a specific MM treatment should be initiated to gain control of the disease and salvage the kidneys in order to achieve dialysis-independency. Further trials to confirm our results are warranted. Key Words: Multiple myeloma, renal failure, High cut-off haemodialysis, chemotherapy, outcome.

  1. Determination of moderate-to-severe postoperative pain on the numeric rating scale: a cut-off point analysis applying four different methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbershagen, H J; Rothaug, J; Kalkman, C J; Meissner, W

    2011-10-01

    Cut-off points (CPs) of the numeric rating scale (NRS 0-10) are regularly used in postoperative pain treatment. However, there is insufficient evidence to identify the optimal CP between mild and moderate pain. A total of 435 patients undergoing general, trauma, or oral and maxillofacial surgery were studied. To determine the optimal CP for pain treatment, four approaches were used: first, patients estimated their tolerable postoperative pain intensity before operation; secondly, 24 h after surgery, they indicated if they would have preferred to receive more analgesics; thirdly, satisfaction with pain treatment was analysed, and fourthly, multivariate analysis was used to calculate the optimal CP for pain intensities in relation to pain-related interference with movement, breathing, sleep, and mood. The estimated tolerable postoperative pain before operation was median (range) NRS 4.0 (0-10). Patients who would have liked more analgesics reported significantly higher average pain since surgery [median NRS 5.0 (0-9)] compared with those without this request [NRS 3.0 (0-8)]. Patients satisfied with pain treatment reported an average pain intensity of median NRS 3.0 (0-8) compared with less satisfied patients with NRS 5.0 (2-9). Analysis of average postoperative pain in relation to pain-related interference with mood and activity indicated pain categories of NRS 0-2, mild; 3-4, moderate; and 5-10, severe pain. Three of the four methods identified a treatment threshold of average pain of NRS≥4. This was considered to identify patients with pain of moderate-to-severe intensity. This cut-off was indentified as the tolerable pain threshold.

  2. Adult or not? Accuracy of Cameriere's cut-off value for third molar in assessing 18 years of age for legal purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameriere, R; Pacifici, A; Viva, S; Carbone, D; Pacifici, L; Polimeni, A

    2014-09-01

    The discovery of reliable means to determine the age of an individual is a fundamental objective in forensic medicine, in consideration of the constant increase of illegal immigration into the European community. In 2008 Cameriere et al. developed a method based on the relationship between age and the third molar index (I3m), which assesses the degree of maturation of the third molar through measurements made on orthopantomography. The purpose of this work was to test the accuracy of Cameriere's cut-off for I3m as a tool to assess full age (18) on a new sample of living subjects. Orthopantomographs of 287 Italian living subjects aged between 13 and 22 years have been randomly selected and included in the study. Identification number, gender, date of birth and date of execution of the radiograph were recorded for each patient on a Microsoft Excel® spreadsheet. Radiographs were digitalized and analyzed using a computerized image-processing program (Adobe® Photoshop® CS4). The results show that the sensitivity of the test was 84.1% and the specificity was 92.5%. The estimated post-test probability was 90.1%, with a confidence interval of 95% (83.6%, 95.2%). Thus, the probability that a person being positive to the test has 18 or more years of age was 90.1%. The results highlight the contribution of Cameriere's cut-off value for the I3m in the assessment of full age, always remembering that the simultaneous employment of previously introduced complementary methods is essential for the purpose.

  3. Fermion masses and multiplicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramond, P.

    1986-01-01

    A general survey and analysis of fermion masses is presented in terms of both the known low energy gauge structure and of the simplest GUT structure. The replication of fermion families is discussed in the context of possible family group structures. Sample family gauge groups are presented in the cases of three and four chiral families, using ABJ and Witten anomalies to restrict the maximal gauged family group. The possible relevance of the family group to the fermion mass hierarchy is discussed in the context of various models. (author)

  4. Bootstrapping 3D fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iliesiu, Luca [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Kos, Filip; Poland, David [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Pufu, Silviu S. [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Simmons-Duffin, David [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Yacoby, Ran [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2016-03-17

    We study the conformal bootstrap for a 4-point function of fermions 〈ψψψψ〉 in 3D. We first introduce an embedding formalism for 3D spinors and compute the conformal blocks appearing in fermion 4-point functions. Using these results, we find general bounds on the dimensions of operators appearing in the ψ×ψ OPE, and also on the central charge C{sub T}. We observe features in our bounds that coincide with scaling dimensions in the Gross-Neveu models at large N. We also speculate that other features could coincide with a fermionic CFT containing no relevant scalar operators.

  5. Fermion number in supersymmetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainland, G.B.; Tanaka, K.

    1975-01-01

    The two known methods for introducing a conserved fermion number into supersymmetric models are discussed. While the introduction of a conserved fermion number often requires that the Lagrangian be massless or that bosons carry fermion number, a model is discussed in which masses can be introduced via spontaneous symmetry breaking and fermion number is conserved at all stages without assigning fermion number to bosons. (U.S.)

  6. Cut-Off Points for Mild, Moderate, and Severe Pain on the Numeric Rating Scale for Pain in Patients with Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain: Variability and Influence of Sex and Catastrophizing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonstra, Anne M; Stewart, Roy E; Köke, Albère J A; Oosterwijk, René F A; Swaan, Jeannette L; Schreurs, Karlein M G; Schiphorst Preuper, Henrica R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The 0-10 Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) is often used in pain management. The aims of our study were to determine the cut-off points for mild, moderate, and severe pain in terms of pain-related interference with functioning in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain, to measure the variability of the optimal cut-off points, and to determine the influence of patients' catastrophizing and their sex on these cut-off points. Methods: 2854 patients were included. Pain was assessed by the NRS, functioning by the Pain Disability Index (PDI) and catastrophizing by the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS). Cut-off point schemes were tested using ANOVAs with and without using the PSC scores or sex as co-variates and with the interaction between CP scheme and PCS score and sex, respectively. The variability of the optimal cut-off point schemes was quantified using bootstrapping procedure. Results and conclusion: The study showed that NRS scores ≤ 5 correspond to mild, scores of 6-7 to moderate and scores ≥8 to severe pain in terms of pain-related interference with functioning. Bootstrapping analysis identified this optimal NRS cut-off point scheme in 90% of the bootstrapping samples. The interpretation of the NRS is independent of sex, but seems to depend on catastrophizing. In patients with high catastrophizing tendency, the optimal cut-off point scheme equals that for the total study sample, but in patients with a low catastrophizing tendency, NRS scores ≤ 3 correspond to mild, scores of 4-6 to moderate and scores ≥7 to severe pain in terms of interference with functioning. In these optimal cut-off schemes, NRS scores of 4 and 5 correspond to moderate interference with functioning for patients with low catastrophizing tendency and to mild interference for patients with high catastrophizing tendency. Theoretically one would therefore expect that among the patients with NRS scores 4 and 5 there would be a higher average PDI score for those with low

  7. Fermions from classical statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetterich, C.

    2010-01-01

    We describe fermions in terms of a classical statistical ensemble. The states τ of this ensemble are characterized by a sequence of values one or zero or a corresponding set of two-level observables. Every classical probability distribution can be associated to a quantum state for fermions. If the time evolution of the classical probabilities p τ amounts to a rotation of the wave function q τ (t)=±√(p τ (t)), we infer the unitary time evolution of a quantum system of fermions according to a Schroedinger equation. We establish how such classical statistical ensembles can be mapped to Grassmann functional integrals. Quantum field theories for fermions arise for a suitable time evolution of classical probabilities for generalized Ising models.

  8. Superstrings fermionic solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rausch de Traubenberg, M.

    1990-06-01

    The solutions proposed by the superstring theory are classified and compared. In order to obtain some of the equivalences, the demonstration is based on the coincidence of the excitation spectrum and the quantum numbers from different states. The fermionic representation of the heterotical strings is discussed. The conformal invariance and the supersymmetric results extended to two dimensions are investigated. Concerning the fermionic strings, the formalism and a phenomenological solution involving three families of quarks, chiral leptons and leptons from the E 6 gauge group are presented. The equivalence between real and complex fermions is discussed. The similarity between some of the solutions of the Wess-Zumino-Witten model and the orbifolds is considered. The formal calculation program developed for reproducing the theory's low energy spectra, in the fermionic string formalism is given [fr

  9. Dynamical FLIC fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamleh, W.; Leinweber, D.B.; Williams, A.G.

    2004-01-01

    The use of APE smearing or other blocking techniques in fermion actions can provide many advantages. There are many variants of these fat link actions in lattice QCD currently, such as FLIC fermions. The FLIC fermion formalism makes use of the APE blocking technique in combination with a projection of the blocked links back into the special unitary group. This reunitarisation is often performed using an iterative maximisation of a gauge invariant measure. This technique is not differentiable with respect to the gauge field and thus prevents the use of standard. Hybrid Monte Carlo simulation algorithms. The use of an alternative projection technique circumvents this difficulty and allows the simulation of dynamical fat link fermions with standard HMC and its variants

  10. Fermionic Markov Chains

    OpenAIRE

    Fannes, Mark; Wouters, Jeroen

    2012-01-01

    We study a quantum process that can be considered as a quantum analogue for the classical Markov process. We specifically construct a version of these processes for free Fermions. For such free Fermionic processes we calculate the entropy density. This can be done either directly using Szeg\\"o's theorem for asymptotic densities of functions of Toeplitz matrices, or through an extension of said theorem to rates of functions, which we present in this article.

  11. Can the couplings in the fermion-Higgs sector of the standard model be strong?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bock, W.; Frick, C.; Smit, J.; Vink, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    We present results for the renormalized quartic self-coupling λ R and the Yukawa coupling y R in a lattice fermion-Higgs model with two SU(2) L doublets, mostly for large values of the bare couplings. One-component ('reduced') staggered fermions are used in a numerical simulation with the Hybrid Monte Carlo algorithm. The fermion and Higgs masses and the renormalized scalar field expectation value are computed on L 3 24 lattices where L ranges from 6 to 16. In the scaling region these quantities are found to have a 1/L 2 dependence, which is used to determine their values in the infinite-volume limit. We then calculate the y R and λ R from their tree-level definitions in terms of the masses and renormalized scalar field expectation value, extrapolated to infinite volume. The scalar field propagators can be described momenta up to the cut-off by one-fermion-loop renormalized perturbation theory and the results for λ R and y R come out to be close to the tree-level unitarity bounds. There are no signs that are in contradiction with the triviality of the Yukawa and quartic self-coupling. (orig.)

  12. Total motile sperm count has a superior predictive value over the WHO 2010 cut-off values for the outcomes of intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, E; Setti, A S; Braga, D P A F; Figueira, R C S; Iaconelli, A

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to compare (i) the intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes among groups with different total motile sperm count ranges, (ii) the intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes between groups with normal and abnormal total motile sperm count, and (iii) the predictive values of WHO 2010 cut-off values and pre-wash total motile sperm count for the intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes, in couples with male infertility. This study included data from 518 patients undergoing their first intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycle as a result of male infertility. Couples were divided into five groups according to their total motile sperm count: Group I, total motile sperm count sperm count 1-5 × 10(6) ; group III, total motile sperm count 5-10 × 10(6) ; group IV, total motile sperm count 10-20 × 10(6) ; and group V, total motile sperm count >20 × 10(6) (which was considered a normal total motile sperm count value). Then, couples were grouped into an abnormal and normal total motile sperm count group. The groups were compared regarding intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes. The predictive values of WHO 2010 cut-off values and total motile sperm count for the intracytoplasmic sperm injection outcomes were also investigated. The fertilization rate was lower in total motile sperm count group I compared to total motile sperm count group V (72.5 ± 17.6 vs. 84.9 ± 14.4, p = 0.011). The normal total motile sperm count group had a higher fertilization rate (84.9 ± 14.4 vs. 81.1 ± 15.8, p = 0.016) and lower miscarriage rate (17.9% vs. 29.5%, p = 0.041) compared to the abnormal total motile sperm count group. The total motile sperm count was the only parameter that demonstrated a predictive value for the formation of high-quality embryos on D2 (OR: 1.18, p = 0.013), formation of high-quality embryos on D3 (OR: 1.12, p = 0.037), formation of blastocysts on D5 (OR: 1.16, p = 0.011), blastocyst expansion grade on D5

  13. Phase structure of thermal lattice QCD with N{sub f} = 2 twisted mass Wilson fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilgenfritz, E.M. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Heidelberg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Jansen, K. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Lombardo, M. P. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati (Italy); Mueller-Preussker, M.; Petschlies, M. [Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Philipsen, O.; Zeidlewicz, L. [Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik, Wilhelms-Univ. Muenster (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    We present numerical results for the phase diagram of lattice QCD at finite temperature in the formulation with twisted mass Wilson fermions and a tree-level Symanzik-improved gauge action. Our simulations are performed on lattices with temporal extent N{sub {tau}}=8, and lattice coupling {beta} ranging from strong coupling to the scaling domain. Covering a wide range in the space spanned by the lattice coupling {beta} and the hopping and twisted mass parameters {kappa} and {mu}, respectively, we obtain a comprehensive picture of the rich phase structure of the lattice theory. In particular, we verify the existence of an Aoki phase in the strong coupling region and the realisation of the Sharpe-Singleton scenario at intermediate couplings. In the weak coupling region we identify the phase boundary for the physical finite temperature phase transition/crossover. Its shape in the three-dimensional parameter space is consistent with Creutz's conjecture of a cone-shaped thermal transition surface. (orig.)

  14. Cut-Off Points for Mild, Moderate, and Severe Pain on the Numeric Rating Scale for Pain in Patients with Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain: Variability and Influence of Sex and Catastrophizing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, A.M.; Stewart, R.; Koke, A.J.A.; Oosterwijk, R.F.A.; Swaan, J.L.; Schreurs, Karlein Maria Gertrudis; Schiphorst Preuper, H.R.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The 0–10 Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) is often used in pain management. The aims of our study were to determine the cut-off points for mild, moderate, and severe pain in terms of pain-related interference with functioning in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain, to measure the

  15. Cut-Off Points for Mild, Moderate, and Severe Pain on the Numeric Rating Scale for Pain in Patients with Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain : Variability and Influence of Sex and Catastrophizing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonstra, Anne M; Stewart, Roy E; Köke, Albère J A; Oosterwijk, René F A; Swaan, Jeannette L; Schreurs, Karlein M G; Schiphorst Preuper, Henrica R

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The 0-10 Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) is often used in pain management. The aims of our study were to determine the cut-off points for mild, moderate, and severe pain in terms of pain-related interference with functioning in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain, to measure the

  16. Removal of methadone by extended dialysis using a high cut-off dialyzer: implications for the treatment of overdose and for pain management in patients undergoing light chain removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arelin, Viktor; Schmidt, Julius J; Kayser, Nathalie; Kühn-Velten, W Nikolaus; Suhling, Hendrik; Eden, Gabriele; Kielstein, Jan T

    2016-06-01

    The synthetic opioid methadone hydrochloride has a low molecular weight of 346 D, a high volume of distribution (4 - 7 L/kg), and is lipophilic. It is used as an analgesic and for the maintenance treatment of opiate dependence. In drug addicts, methadone is frequently involved in mixed intoxications that can lead to death. Here we present the case of a drug addict in whom a high cut-off dialysis membrane together with extended dialysis was used in the setting of suspected overdose and acute kidney injury. Although the observed dialyzer plasma clearance (31.5 mL/min) and reduction ratio (38%) were higher than previously reported for standard hemodialysis, the total amount of methadone in the spent dialysate after 1 extended dialysis session was quite low. Hence, even extended dialysis with a high cut-off membrane does not seem to offer a clinically relevant benefit in the setting of overdose for enhanced methadone removal. On the other hand, in patients undergoing high cut-off dialysis for the removal of light chains, methadone could still be used as an analgesic without an additional dose after high cut-off hemodialysis.

  17. Optimal cut-off of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome: third national surveillance of risk factors of non-communicable diseases in Iran (SuRFNCD-2007).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteghamati, Alireza; Ashraf, Haleh; Khalilzadeh, Omid; Zandieh, Ali; Nakhjavani, Manouchehr; Rashidi, Armin; Haghazali, Mehrdad; Asgari, Fereshteh

    2010-04-07

    We have recently determined the optimal cut-off of the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance for the diagnosis of insulin resistance (IR) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in non-diabetic residents of Tehran, the capital of Iran. The aim of the present study is to establish the optimal cut-off at the national level in the Iranian population with and without diabetes. Data of the third National Surveillance of Risk Factors of Non-Communicable Diseases, available for 3,071 adult Iranian individuals aging 25-64 years were analyzed. MetS was defined according to the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATPIII) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. HOMA-IR cut-offs from the 50th to the 95th percentile were calculated and sensitivity, specificity, and positive likelihood ratio for MetS diagnosis were determined. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of HOMA-IR for MetS diagnosis were depicted, and the optimal cut-offs were determined by two different methods: Youden index, and the shortest distance from the top left corner of the curve. The area under the curve (AUC) (95%CI) was 0.650 (0.631-0.670) for IDF-defined MetS and 0.683 (0.664-0.703) with the ATPIII definition. The optimal HOMA-IR cut-off for the diagnosis of IDF- and ATPIII-defined MetS in non-diabetic individuals was 1.775 (sensitivity: 57.3%, specificity: 65.3%, with ATPIII; sensitivity: 55.9%, specificity: 64.7%, with IDF). The optimal cut-offs in diabetic individuals were 3.875 (sensitivity: 49.7%, specificity: 69.6%) and 4.325 (sensitivity: 45.4%, specificity: 69.0%) for ATPIII- and IDF-defined MetS, respectively. We determined the optimal HOMA-IR cut-off points for the diagnosis of MetS in the Iranian population with and without diabetes.

  18. Suppressed oxygen extraction and degradation of LiNixMnyCozO2 cathodes at high charge cut-off voltages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jianming; Yan, Pengfei; Zhang, Jiandong; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhu, Zihua; Polzin, Bryant J.; Trask, Steve; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Chongmin; Zhang, Jiguang

    2017-09-01

    The capacity degradation mechanism in lithium nickel-manganese-cobalt oxide (NMC) cathodes (LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC333) and LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2 (NMC442)) during high-voltage (cut-off of 4.8 V) operation has been investigated. In contrast to NMC442, NMC333 exhibits rapid structural changes including severe micro-crack formation and phase transformation from a layered to a disordered rock-salt structure, as well as interfacial degradation during high-voltage cycling, leading to a rapid increase of the electrode resistance and fast capacity decline. The fundamental reason behind the poor structural and interfacial stability of NMC333 was found to be correlated to its high Co content and the significant overlap between the Co3+/4+ t(2g) and O2- 2p bands, resulting in oxygen removal and consequent structural changes at high voltages. In addition, oxidation of the electrolyte solvents by the extracted oxygen species generates acidic species, which then attack the electrode surface and form highly resistive LiF. These findings highlight that both the structural and interfacial stability should be taken into account when tailoring cathode materials for high voltage battery systems

  19. Evaluation of epidemiological cut-off values indicates that biocide resistant subpopulations are uncommon in natural isolates of clinically-relevant microorganisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Morrissey

    Full Text Available To date there are no clear criteria to determine whether a microbe is susceptible to biocides or not. As a starting point for distinguishing between wild-type and resistant organisms, we set out to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC distributions for four common biocides; triclosan, benzalkonium chloride, chlorhexidine and sodium hypochlorite for 3319 clinical isolates, with a particular focus on Staphylococcus aureus (N = 1635 and Salmonella spp. (N = 901 but also including Escherichia coli (N = 368, Candida albicans (N = 200, Klebsiella pneumoniae (N = 60, Enterobacter spp. (N = 54, Enterococcus faecium (N = 53, and Enterococcus faecalis (N = 56. From these data epidemiological cut-off values (ECOFFs are proposed. As would be expected, MBCs were higher than MICs for all biocides. In most cases both values followed a normal distribution. Bimodal distributions, indicating the existence of biocide resistant subpopulations were observed for Enterobacter chlorhexidine susceptibility (both MICs and MBCs and the susceptibility to triclosan of Enterobacter (MBC, E. coli (MBC and MIC and S. aureus (MBC and MIC. There is a concern on the potential selection of antibiotic resistance by biocides. Our results indicate however that resistance to biocides and, hence any potential association with antibiotic resistance, is uncommon in natural populations of clinically relevant microorganisms.

  20. A cut-off in ocular chemesthesis from vapors of homologous alkylbenzenes and 2-ketones as revealed by concentration-detection functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cometto-Muniz, J. Enrique; Abraham, Michael H.

    2008-01-01

    Studies of homologous series of environmental vapors have shown that their chemesthetic (i.e., sensory irritation) potency increases with carbon chain length (that is, their detection thresholds decrease) until they reach a homolog that fails to be detected, even at vapor saturation. All ensuing homologs cannot be detected either. In this investigation, we measured concentration-detection (i.e., psychometric) functions for ocular chemesthesis from homologous alkylbenzenes (pentyl, hexyl, and heptyl benzene) and 2-ketones (undecanone, dodecanone, and tridecanone). Using a three-alternative forced-choice procedure against air blanks, we tested a total of 18 to 24 subjects, about half of them females, average age 31 years, ranging from 18 to 56 years. Stimuli were generated and presented by a computer-controlled, vapor delivery device whose output was quantified by gas chromatography. Exposure time was 6 s and delivery flow 2.5 L/min. Within the context of present and previous findings, the outcome indicated that the functions for heptylbenzene and 2-tridecanone reached a plateau where further increases in concentration did not enhance detection. We conclude that: a) a cut-off point in ocular chemesthetic detection is reached along homologous alkylbenzenes and 2-ketones at the level of heptylbenzene and 2-tridecanone, respectively, and b) the observed effect rests on the homologs exceeding a critical molecular size (or dimension) rather than on them failing to achieve a high enough vapor concentration

  1. The Effect of Irrigation Cut-off in Flowering Stage and Foliar Application of Spermidine on Essential Oil Quantity and Quality of Three Ecotypes of Cumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Bakhtari

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. is an annual plant that commonly cultivated in arid and semiarid regions of Iran. The crop has a wide range of uses including medicinal, cosmetic and food industry. Cumin occupies about 26% of total area devoted to medicinal plants in Iran. However, cumin is seriously affected by the Fusarium wilt and blight diseases. The diseases usually increase under warm and wet conditions. Control of the diseases incidence is a crucial factor for cumin production. Limited control of the diseases is provided by seed pre-sowing with certain fungicides such as benlate. Soil fumigation with methyle bromide can provide a control measure against the disease but may be limited application value for large scale production systems in the open field. In addition, methyle bromide is considered an ozone-depleting compound and has potential risk on the living environment and human health. Considering the environmental limitations of chemical fungicides, it seems appropriate to search for a supplemental control strategy .It was demonstrated that peak of the diseases incidence is occurred at flowering stage and irrigation cut-off in this time may be reduced the diseases density. Materials and methods This experiment was conducted in a split-split-plot arrangement in randomized complete block design with three replications in research farm of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman at 2014. The experimental treatments were irrigation (complete irrigation and cut-off the irrigation in flowering stage assigned to main plots, foliar application of spermidine (0, 1 and 2 Mm as subplot and cumin ecotypes (Kerman, Khorasan and Esfahan that was randomized in sub-subplot. The seedbed preparation was made based on common practices at the location. Plots size under the trial was 4 m×3 m so as to get 50 cm inter row spacing in six rows. The ideal density of the crops was considered as 120 plant.m-2. As soon as the seeds were sown, irrigation

  2. The Einsteinian T(3)-gauge approach and the stress tensor of the screw dislocation in the second order: avoiding the cut-off at the core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malyshev, C

    2007-01-01

    A translational gauge approach of the Einstein type is proposed for obtaining the stresses that are due to non-singular screw dislocation. The stress distribution of the second order around the screw dislocation is classically known for the hollow circular cylinder with traction-free external and internal boundaries. The inner boundary surrounds the dislocation's core, which is not captured by the conventional solution. The present gauge approach enables us to continue the classically known quadratic stresses inside the core. The gauge equation is chosen in the Hilbert-Einstein form, and it plays the role of non-conventional incompatibility law. The stress function method is used, and it leads to the modified stress potential given by two constituents: the conventional one, say, the 'background' and a short-ranged gauge contribution. The latter just causes additional stresses, which are localized. The asymptotic properties of the resulting stresses are studied. Since the gauge contributions are short-ranged, the background stress field dominates sufficiently far from the core. The outer cylinder's boundary is traction-free. At sufficiently moderate distances, the second-order stresses acquire regular continuation within the core region, and the cut-off at the core does not occur. Expressions for the asymptotically far stresses provide self-consistently new length scales dependent on the elastic parameters. These lengths could characterize an exteriority of the dislocation core region

  3. An algorithm developed in Matlab for the automatic selection of cut-off frequencies, in the correction of strong motion data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakkas, Georgios; Sakellariou, Nikolaos

    2018-05-01

    Strong motion recordings are the key in many earthquake engineering applications and are also fundamental for seismic design. The present study focuses on the automated correction of accelerograms, analog and digital. The main feature of the proposed algorithm is the automatic selection for the cut-off frequencies based on a minimum spectral value in a predefined frequency bandwidth, instead of the typical signal-to-noise approach. The algorithm follows the basic steps of the correction procedure (instrument correction, baseline correction and appropriate filtering). Besides the corrected time histories, Peak Ground Acceleration, Peak Ground Velocity, Peak Ground Displacement values and the corrected Fourier Spectra are also calculated as well as the response spectra. The algorithm is written in Matlab environment, is fast enough and can be used for batch processing or in real-time applications. In addition, the possibility to also perform a signal-to-noise ratio is added as well as to perform causal or acausal filtering. The algorithm has been tested in six significant earthquakes (Kozani-Grevena 1995, Aigio 1995, Athens 1999, Lefkada 2003 and Kefalonia 2014) of the Greek territory with analog and digital accelerograms.

  4. Calculation of cut-off values based on the Autoimmune Bullous Skin Disorder Intensity Score (ABSIS) and Pemphigus Disease Area Index (PDAI) pemphigus scoring systems for defining moderate, significant and extensive types of pemphigus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulard, C; Duvert Lehembre, S; Picard-Dahan, C; Kern, J S; Zambruno, G; Feliciani, C; Marinovic, B; Vabres, P; Borradori, L; Prost-Squarcioni, C; Labeille, B; Richard, M A; Ingen-Housz-Oro, S; Houivet, E; Werth, V P; Murrell, D F; Hertl, M; Benichou, J; Joly, P

    2016-07-01

    Two pemphigus severity scores, Autoimmune Bullous Skin Disorder Intensity Score (ABSIS) and Pemphigus Disease Area Index (PDAI), have been proposed to provide an objective measure of disease activity. However, the use of these scores in clinical practice is limited by the absence of cut-off values that allow differentiation between moderate, significant and extensive types of pemphigus. To calculate cut-off values defining moderate, significant and extensive pemphigus based on the ABSIS and PDAI scores. In 31 dermatology departments in six countries, consecutive patients with newly diagnosed pemphigus were assessed for pemphigus severity, using ABSIS, PDAI, Physician's Global Assessment (PGA) and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) scores. Cut-off values defining moderate, significant and extensive subgroups were calculated based on the 25th and 75th percentiles of the ABSIS and PDAI scores. The median ABSIS, PDAI, PGA and DLQI scores of the three severity subgroups were compared in order to validate these subgroups. Ninety-six patients with pemphigus vulgaris (n = 77) or pemphigus foliaceus (n = 19) were included. The median PDAI activity and ABSIS total scores were 27·5 (range 3-84) and 34·8 points (range 0·5-90·5), respectively. The respective cut-off values corresponding to the first and third quartiles of the scores were 15 and 45 for the PDAI, and 17 and 53 for ABSIS. The moderate, significant and extensive subgroups were thus defined, and had distinguishing median ABSIS (P cut-off values of 15 and 45 for PDAI and 17 and 53 for ABSIS, to distinguish moderate, significant and extensive pemphigus forms. Identifying these pemphigus activity subgroups should help physicians to classify and manage patients with pemphigus. © 2016 British Association of Dermatologists.

  5. Validity of the rheumatoid arthritis impact of disease (RAID) score and definition of cut-off points for disease activity states in a population-based European cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaffi, Fausto; Di Carlo, Marco; Vojinovic, Jelena; Tincani, Angela; Sulli, Alberto; Soldano, Stefano; Andreoli, Laura; Dall'Ara, Francesca; Ionescu, Ruxandra; Simić Pašalić, Katarina; Balčune, Ineta; Ferraz-Amaro, Iván; Tlustochowicz, Malgorzata; Butrimienė, Irena; Punceviciene, Egle; Toroptsova, Natalia; Grazio, Simeon; Morović-Vergles, Jadranka; Masaryk, Pavol; Otsa, Kati; Bernardes, Miguel; Boyadzhieva, Vladimira; Cutolo, Maurizio

    2017-05-24

    To assess the validity of the rheumatoid arthritis impact of disease (RAID) for measuring disease activity of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to determine cut-off values for defining the disease activity states. A total of 622 RA patients from an European database have been included. Cross-validation was based on assessment of convergent and discriminant validity. Optimal cut-offs were determined against external criteria by calculating the respective 25th and 75th percentiles mean values of RAID. External criteria included definitions for remission (REM), low disease activity (LDA), moderate disease activity (MDA) and high disease activity (HDA), cut-offs of the 28-joint disease activity score-C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) score. The RAID showed a moderate degree of correlation with respect to DAS28-CRP (rho=0.417; Pdisease was very good with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.847 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.816 to 0.878; Pdisease activity groups, we propose the following cut-off values for REM: RAID ≤3; for LDA: RAID >3 and ≤4; for MDA: RAID >4 and ≤6; for HDA: RAID >6. Mean RAID differed significantly between patients classified as REM, LDA, MDA or HDA (P=0.001). The cut-offs revealed good measurement characteristics in cross-validation analysis, had great discriminatory performance in distinguishing patients with different levels of disease activity and are suited for widespread use in everyday practice application and research. Copyright © 2017 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Fermion masses from dimensional reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapetanakis, D.; Zoupanos, G.

    1990-01-01

    We consider the fermion masses in gauge theories obtained from ten dimensions through dimensional reduction on coset spaces. We calculate the general fermion mass matrix and we apply the mass formula in illustrative examples. (orig.)

  7. Fermion masses from dimensional reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapetanakis, D. (National Research Centre for the Physical Sciences Democritos, Athens (Greece)); Zoupanos, G. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland))

    1990-10-11

    We consider the fermion masses in gauge theories obtained from ten dimensions through dimensional reduction on coset spaces. We calculate the general fermion mass matrix and we apply the mass formula in illustrative examples. (orig.).

  8. Stochastic methods for the fermion determinant in lattice quantum chromodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkenrath, Jacob Friedrich

    2015-02-17

    in the Schur complement an effective cut-off parameter is introduced and sampling of smaller quark masses is possible. By using mass reweighting the weight can be corrected towards 1+1 ensembles. In summary it is shown how stochastic estimation of fermion determinant ratios can be used to improve lattice results in an efficient way with limited numerical effort.

  9. Grid cut-off-effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, U.; Vosshenrich, R.; Grabbe, E.

    1992-01-01

    Tilting of a grid during portable radiography leads to uneven exposures, and errors greater than 3 0 can lead to errors in interpretation. Differentiation from abnormal findings can be made by recognising exposure difference of extrathoracic comparable areas. The difficulties caused by tilting of the grid can be reduced by increasing the film focus distance and by using suitable grids. A new cassette holder with an integrated balance makes it possible to correct tilting of the grid rapidly and effectively. This results in improved image quality which can be applied not only to conventional exposure systems but is also of advantage when using digital methods. (orig.) [de

  10. Heavy fermion materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.L.; Cooke, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    The heavy-fermion ground state occurs in a few select metallic compounds as a result of interactions between f-electron and conduction-electron spins. A characteristically large electronic heat capacity at low temperature indicates that the effective electron mass of these materials is more than two orders of magnitude greater than that expected for a free-electron metal. This heavy-fermion ground state can become superconducting or antiferromagnetic, exhibiting very unusual properties. These materials and the role of muon spin rotation in their study are briefly discussed

  11. Magnetic Majorana Fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moessner, Roderich

    Condensed matter systems provide emergent mini-universes in which quasiparticles may exist which do not correspond to any experimentally detected elementary particle. Topological quantum materials have been particularly productive in this regard, with the present search focussing on Majorana fermions, known theoretically already for decades. Here, we discuss manifestations of magnetic Majorana fermions in the Kitaev model. We place particular emphasis on their fate when perturbations, such as Heisenberg terms, are added to the ideal model system, and address experimental signatures of their vestiges in phases adjacent to the spin liquid.

  12. Derivation of mean-field dynamics for fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrat, Soeren

    2014-01-01

    the form vertical stroke x vertical stroke -s , with 0cut off singularity). We prove our main results by using a new method for deriving mean-field dynamics developed by Pickl in [Lett. Math. Phys., 97(2):151-164, 2011]. This method has been applied successfully in quantum mechanics for deriving the bosonic Hartree and Gross-Pitaevskii equations. Its application to fermions in this work is new. The method is based on a functional that ''counts the number of particles outside the condensate'', i.e., in the case of fermions, it measures those parts of the Schroedinger wave function that are not in the antisymmetric product of the Hartree states. We show that convergence of the functional to zero (which means that the mean-field equations approximate the dynamics well) is equivalent to convergence of the corresponding reduced one-particle density matrices in trace norm and in Hilbert-Schmidt norm. Finally, we show how also the recently treated semiclassical mean-field limits can be derived with this method.

  13. Molecular dynamics for fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmeier, H.; Schnack, J.

    2000-02-01

    The time-dependent variational principle for many-body trial states is used to discuss the relation between the approaches of different molecular dynamics models to describe indistinguishable fermions. Early attempts to include effects of the Pauli principle by means of nonlocal potentials as well as more recent models which work with antisymmetrized many-body states are reviewed under these premises. (orig.)

  14. Effect of Irrigation CutOff on Flowering Stage and Foliar Application of Spermidine on Some Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Various Ecotypes of Cumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Bakhtari

    2017-02-01

    plants and proline contents were assessed. The results showed that irrigation treatment had a significant effect on all the studied traits except number of branches and umbels per plant. The irrigation cutoff at flowering stage caused a significant increase in seeds per umbel, infected plants and seed yield per plant and hectare Whereas harvest index, essential oil percentage and yield and proline contents were higher in irrigation cutoff treatment compared to completely irrigated treatment. The value of decrease in seed yield per hectare as affected by irrigation cutoff was so lower than that per plant; because more infected plants were observed in completely irrigatedtreatment in comparison with cutoff irrigated treatment. Decreasing the value of the seed yield per plant and hectare affected by irrigation cut-off were 58 and 15%, respectively. Proline contents in irrigation cut-off treatment were about two times more than completely irrigatedtreatment. Khorasan and Kerman ecotypes had higher value in comparison with Esfahan in all studied traits.. Seed yield per hectare for Kerman, Khorasan and Esfahan ecotypes were 525, 306 and 525 kg, respectively. The highest essential oil yield (14.92 kg ha-1 was gained in 1 Mm spermidine for Khorasan ecotype and the lowest (6.87 kg ha-1 was observed in 0 Mm spermidine for Esfahan ecotype. There was no significant difference between foliar application levels in terms of the studied traits such as…. Conclusion: Irrigation cutoff at flowering stage caused a significant increase in seeds per umbel, infected plants and seed yield per plant and hectare Whereas harvest index, essential oil percentage and yield and proline contents were higher in irrigation cutoff treatment compared to completely irrigated treatment. Khorasan and Kerman ecotypes achieved higher potential for cultivation in Kerman climate condition compared to Esfahan ecotype.

  15. Renormalization of fermion mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiopu, R.

    2007-01-01

    Precision measurements of phenomena related to fermion mixing require the inclusion of higher order corrections in the calculation of corresponding theoretical predictions. For this, a complete renormalization scheme for models that allow for fermion mixing is highly required. The correct treatment of unstable particles makes this task difficult and yet, no satisfactory and general solution can be found in the literature. In the present work, we study the renormalization of the fermion Lagrange density with Dirac and Majorana particles in models that involve mixing. The first part of the thesis provides a general renormalization prescription for the Lagrangian, while the second one is an application to specific models. In a general framework, using the on-shell renormalization scheme, we identify the physical mass and the decay width of a fermion from its full propagator. The so-called wave function renormalization constants are determined such that the subtracted propagator is diagonal on-shell. As a consequence of absorptive parts in the self-energy, the constants that are supposed to renormalize the incoming fermion and the outgoing antifermion are different from the ones that should renormalize the outgoing fermion and the incoming antifermion and not related by hermiticity, as desired. Instead of defining field renormalization constants identical to the wave function renormalization ones, we differentiate the two by a set of finite constants. Using the additional freedom offered by this finite difference, we investigate the possibility of defining field renormalization constants related by hermiticity. We show that for Dirac fermions, unless the model has very special features, the hermiticity condition leads to ill-defined matrix elements due to self-energy corrections of external legs. In the case of Majorana fermions, the constraints for the model are less restrictive. Here one might have a better chance to define field renormalization constants related by

  16. Renormalization of fermion mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiopu, R.

    2007-05-11

    Precision measurements of phenomena related to fermion mixing require the inclusion of higher order corrections in the calculation of corresponding theoretical predictions. For this, a complete renormalization scheme for models that allow for fermion mixing is highly required. The correct treatment of unstable particles makes this task difficult and yet, no satisfactory and general solution can be found in the literature. In the present work, we study the renormalization of the fermion Lagrange density with Dirac and Majorana particles in models that involve mixing. The first part of the thesis provides a general renormalization prescription for the Lagrangian, while the second one is an application to specific models. In a general framework, using the on-shell renormalization scheme, we identify the physical mass and the decay width of a fermion from its full propagator. The so-called wave function renormalization constants are determined such that the subtracted propagator is diagonal on-shell. As a consequence of absorptive parts in the self-energy, the constants that are supposed to renormalize the incoming fermion and the outgoing antifermion are different from the ones that should renormalize the outgoing fermion and the incoming antifermion and not related by hermiticity, as desired. Instead of defining field renormalization constants identical to the wave function renormalization ones, we differentiate the two by a set of finite constants. Using the additional freedom offered by this finite difference, we investigate the possibility of defining field renormalization constants related by hermiticity. We show that for Dirac fermions, unless the model has very special features, the hermiticity condition leads to ill-defined matrix elements due to self-energy corrections of external legs. In the case of Majorana fermions, the constraints for the model are less restrictive. Here one might have a better chance to define field renormalization constants related by

  17. Impact of High-Cut-Off Dialysis on Renal Recovery in Dialysis-Dependent Multiple Myeloma Patients: Results from a Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans U Gerth

    Full Text Available High-cut-off hemodialysis (HCO-HD can effectively reduce high concentrations of circulating serum free light chains (sFLC in patients with dialysis-dependent acute kidney injury (AKI due to multiple myeloma (MM. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze renal recovery in a retrospective single-center cohort of dialysis-dependent MM patients treated with either conventional HD (conv. HD or HCO-HD.The final cohort consisted of 59 patients treated with HCO-HD (n = 42 or conv. HD (n = 17. A sustained sFLC response was detected in a significantly higher proportion of HCO-HD patients (83.3% compared with conv. HD patients (29.4%; p = 0.007. The median duration of sFLC required to reach values <1000 mg/l was 14.5 days in the HCO-HD group and 36 days in the conv. HD group. The corresponding rates of renal recovery were 64.3% and 29.4%, respectively (chi-squared test, p = 0.014. Multivariate regression and decision tree analysis (recursive partitioning revealed HCO-HD (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 6.1 [95% confidence interval (CI 1.5-24.5], p = 0.011 and low initial uric acid values (adjusted OR 1.3 [95%CI 1.0-1.7], p = 0.045 as independent and paramount variables associated with a favorable renal outcome.In summary, the results from this retrospective case-control study suggest in addition to novel agent-based chemotherapy a benefit of HCO-HD in sFLC removal and renal outcome in dialysis-dependent AKI secondary to MM. This finding was especially pertinent in patients with low initial uric acid values, resulting in a promising renal recovery rate of 71.9%. Further prospective studies are warranted.

  18. Specific cut-off points for waist circumference and waist-to-height ratio as predictors of cardiometabolic risk in Black subjects: a cross-sectional study in Benin and Haiti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EL Mabchour A

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Asma EL Mabchour,1 Hélène Delisle,1 Colette Vilgrain,2 Philippe Larco,2 Roger Sodjinou,3 Malek Batal1 1Transition Nutritionnelle (TRANSNUT, WHO Collaborating Centre on Nutrition Changes and Development, Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine, University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada; 2Haitian Foundation for Diabetes and Cardiovascular Diseases (FHADIMAC, Port-au-Prince, Haiti; 3West Africa Health Organization (WAHO, Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso Purpose: Waist circumference (WC and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR are widely used as indicators of abdominal adiposity and the cut-off values have been validated primarily in Caucasians. In this study we identified the WC and WHtR cut-off points that best predicted cardiometabolic risk (CMR in groups of African (Benin and African ancestry (Haiti Black subjects. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 452 apparently healthy subjects from Cotonou (Benin and Port-au-Prince (Haiti, 217 women and 235 men from 25 to 60 years. CMR biomarkers were the metabolic syndrome components. Additional CMR biomarkers were a high atherogenicity index (total serum cholesterol/high density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥4 in women and ≥5 in men; insulin resistance set at the 75th percentile of the calculated Homeostasis Model Assessment index (HOMA-IR; and inflammation defined as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP concentrations between 3 and 10 mg/L. WC and WHtR were tested as predictors of two out of the three most prevalent CMR biomarkers. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves, Youden's index, and likelihood ratios were used to assess the performance of specific WC and WHtR cut-offs. Results: High atherogenicity index (59.5%, high blood pressure (23.2%, and insulin resistance (25% by definition were the most prevalent CMR biomarkers in the study groups. WC and WHtR were equally valid as predictors of CMR. Optimal WC cut-offs were 80 cm and 94 cm in men and women, respectively, which is exactly

  19. Accuracy of the WHO’s body mass index cut-off points to measure gender- and age-specific obesity in middle-aged adults living in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wollner Materko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Obesity is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO as a disease characterized by the excessive accumulation of body fat. Obesity is considered a public health problem, leading to serious social, psychological and physical problems. However, the appropriate cut-off point of body mass index (BMI based on body fat percentage (BF% for classifying an individual as obese in middle-aged adults living in Rio de Janeiro remains unclear. Materials and methods. This was a prospective cross-sectional study comprising of 856 adults (413 men and 443 women living in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil ranging from 30-59 years of age. The data were collected over a two year period (2010-2011, and all participants were underwent anthropometric evaluation. The gold standard was the percentage of body fat estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis. The optimal sensitivity and specificity were attained by adjusting BMI cut-off values to predict obesity based on the WHO criteria: BF% >25% in men and >35% in women, according to the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC analysis adjusted for age and for the whole group.Results. The BMI cut-offs for predicting BF% were 29.9 kg/m2 in men and 24.9 kg/m2 in women. Conclusions. The BMI that corresponded to a BF% previously defining obesity was similar to that of other Western populations for men but not for women. Furthermore, gender and age specific cut-off values are recommended in this population.

  20. Modified Cut-Off Value of the Urine Protein-To-Creatinine Ratio Is Helpful for Identifying Patients at High Risk for Chronic Kidney Disease: Validation of the Revised Japanese Guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yoshida, Katsumi; Shindoh, Chiyohiko; Takeda, Kyoko; Monden, Masami; Izumo, Hiroko; Niinuma, Hiroyuki; Nishi, Yutaro; Niwa, Koichiro; Komatsu, Yasuhiro

    2015-11-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global public health issue, and strategies for its early detection and intervention are imperative. The latest Japanese CKD guideline recommends that patients without diabetes should be classified using the urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (PCR) instead of the urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR); however, no validation studies are available. This study aimed to validate the PCR-based CKD risk classification compared with the ACR-based classification and to explore more accurate classification methods. We analyzed two previously reported datasets that included diabetic and/or cardiovascular patients who were classified into early CKD stages. In total, 860 patients (131 diabetic patients and 729 cardiovascular patients, including 193 diabetic patients) were enrolled. We assessed the CKD risk classification of each patient according to the estimated glomerular filtration rate and the ACR-based or PCR-based classification. The use of the cut-off value recommended in the current guideline (PCR 0.15 g/g creatinine) resulted in risk misclassification rates of 26.0% and 16.6% for the two datasets. The misclassification was primarily caused by underestimation. Moderate to substantial agreement between each classification was achieved: Cohen's kappa, 0.56 (95% confidence interval, 0.45-0.69) and 0.72 (0.67-0.76) in each dataset, respectively. To improve the accuracy, we tested various candidate PCR cut-off values, showing that a PCR cut-off value of 0.08-0.10 g/g creatinine resulted in improvement in the misclassification rates and kappa values. Modification of the PCR cut-off value would improve its efficacy to identify high-risk populations who will benefit from early intervention.

  1. Optimal Cut-Offs of Homeostasis Model Assessment of Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) to Identify Dysglycemia and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A 15-Year Prospective Study in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C H; Shih, A Z L; Woo, Y C; Fong, C H Y; Leung, O Y; Janus, E; Cheung, B M Y; Lam, K S L

    The optimal reference range of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in normal Chinese population has not been clearly defined. Here we address this issue using the Hong Kong Cardiovascular Risk Factor Prevalence Study (CRISPS), a prospective population-based cohort study with long-term follow-up. In this study, normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were defined according to the 1998 World Health Organization criteria. Dysglycemia referred to IFG, IGT or T2DM. This study comprised two parts. Part one was a cross-sectional study involving 2,649 Hong Kong Chinese subjects, aged 25-74 years, at baseline CRISPS-1 (1995-1996). The optimal HOMA-IR cut-offs for dysglycemia and T2DM were determined by the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Part two was a prospective study involving 872 subjects who had persistent NGT at CRISPS-4 (2010-2012) after 15 years of follow-up. At baseline, the optimal HOMA-IR cut-offs to identify dysglyceia and T2DM were 1.37 (AUC = 0.735; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.713-0.758; Sensitivity [Se] = 65.6%, Specificity [Sp] = 71.3%] and 1.97 (AUC = 0.807; 95% CI = 0.777-0.886; Se = 65.5%, Sp = 82.9%) respectively. These cut-offs, derived from the cross-sectional study at baseline, corresponded closely to the 75th (1.44) and 90th (2.03) percentiles, respectively, of the HOMA-IR reference range derived from the prospective study of subjects with persistent NGT. HOMA-IR cut-offs, of 1.4 and 2.0, which discriminated dysglycemia and T2DM respectively from NGT in Southern Chinese, can be usefully employed as references in clinical research involving the assessment of insulin resistance.

  2. Fermions and link invariants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffman, L.; Saleur, H.

    1991-01-01

    Various aspects of knot theory are discussed when fermionic degrees of freedom are taken into account in the braid group representations and in the state models. It is discussed how the R matrix for the Alexander polynomial arises from the Fox differential calculus, and how it is related to the quantum group U q gl(1,1). New families of solutions of the Yang Baxter equation obtained from ''linear'' representations of the braid group and exterior algebra are investigated. State models associated with U q sl(n,m), and in the case n=m=1 a state model for the multivariable Alexander polynomial are studied. Invariants of links in solid handlebodies are considered and it is shown how the non trivial topology lifts the boson fermion degeneracy is present in S 3 . (author) 36 refs

  3. On ghost fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grensing, G.

    2002-01-01

    The path integral for ghost fermions, which is heuristically made use of in the Batalin-Fradkin-Vilkovisky approach to quantization of constrained systems, is derived from first principles. The derivation turns out to be rather different from that of physical fermions since the definition of Dirac states for ghost fermions is subtle. With these results at hand, it is then shown that the nonminimal extension of the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin operator must be chosen differently from the notorious choice made in the literature in order to avoid the boundary terms that have always plagued earlier treatments. Furthermore it is pointed out that the elimination of states with nonzero ghost number requires the introduction of a thermodynamic potential for ghosts; the reason is that Schwarz's Lefschetz formula for the partition function of the time-evolution operator is not capable, despite claims to the contrary, to get rid of nonzero ghost number states on its own. Finally, we comment on the problems of global topological nature that one faces in the attempt to obtain the solutions of the Dirac condition for physical states in a configuration space of nontrivial geometry; such complications give rise to anomalies that do not obey the Wess-Zumino consistency conditions. (orig.)

  4. Interacting composite fermions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    nrc762, nrc762

    2016-01-01

    Numerical studies by Wójs, Yi, and Quinn have suggested that an unconventional fractional quantum Hall effect is plausible at filling factors ν=1/3 and 1/5, provided the interparticle interaction has an unusual form for which the energy of two fermions in the relative angular momentum three channel...... as fractional quantum Hall effect of electrons at ν=4/11, 4/13, 5/13, and 5/17. I investigate in this article the nature of the fractional quantum Hall states at ν=4/5, 5/7, 6/17, and 6/7, which correspond to composite fermions at ν∗=4/3, 5/3, and 6/5, and find that all these fractional quantum Hall states...... are conventional. The underlying reason is that the interaction between composite fermions depends substantially on both the number and the direction of the vortices attached to the electrons. I also study in detail the states with different spin polarizations at 6/17 and 6/7 and predict the critical Zeeman...

  5. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Flavobacterium psychrophilum from Chilean Salmon Farms and Their Epidemiological Cut-Off Values Using Agar Dilution and Disk Diffusion Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Claudio D; Smith, Peter; Rojas, Rodrigo; Contreras-Lynch, Sergio; Vega, J M Alonso

    2016-01-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the most important bacterial pathogen for freshwater farmed salmonids in Chile. The aims of this study were to determine the susceptibility to antimicrobials used in fish farming of Chilean isolates and to calculate their epidemiological cut-off (CO WT ) values. A number of 125 Chilean isolates of F. psychrophilum were isolated from reared salmonids presenting clinical symptoms indicative of flavobacteriosis and their identities were confirmed by 16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction. Susceptibility to antibacterials was tested on diluted Mueller-Hinton by using an agar dilution MIC method and a disk diffusion method. The CO WT values calculated by Normalized Resistance Interpretation (NRI) analysis allow isolates to be categorized either as wild-type fully susceptible (WT) or as manifesting reduced susceptibility (NWT). When MIC data was used, NRI analysis calculated a CO WT of ≤0.125, ≤2, and ≤0.5 μg mL -1 for amoxicillin, florfenicol, and oxytetracycline, respectively. For the quinolones, the CO WT were ≤1, ≤0.5, and ≤0.125 μg mL -1 for oxolinic acid, flumequine, and enrofloxacin, respectively. The disk diffusion data sets obtained in this work were extremely diverse and were spread over a wide range. For the quinolones there was a close agreement between the frequencies of NWT isolates calculated using MIC and disk data. For oxolinic acid, flumequine, and enrofloxacin the frequencies were 45, 39, and 38% using MIC data, and 42, 41, and 44%, when disk data were used. There was less agreement with the other antimicrobials, because NWT frequencies obtained using MIC and disk data, respectively, were 24 and 10% for amoxicillin, 8 and 2% for florfenicol, and 70 and 64% for oxytetracycline. Considering that the MIC data was more precise than the disk diffusion data, MIC determination would be the preferred method for susceptibility testing for this species and the NWT frequencies derived from the MIC data sets should be

  6. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Flavobacterium psychrophilum from Chilean Salmon Farms and their Epidemiological Cut-off Values using Agar Dilution and Disk Diffusion Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio D Miranda

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the most important bacterial pathogen for freshwater farmed salmonids in Chile. The aims of this study were to determine the susceptibility to antimicrobials used in fish farming of Chilean isolates and to calculate their epidemiological cut-off (COWT values. A number of 125 Chilean isolates of F. psychrophilum were isolated from reared salmonids presenting clinical symptoms indicative of flavobacteriosis and their identities were confirmed by 16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction. Susceptibility to antibacterials was tested on diluted Mueller-Hinton by using an agar dilution MIC method and a disk diffusion method. The COWT values calculated by Normalised Resistance Interpretation (NRI analysis allow isolates to be categorized either as wild-type fully susceptible (WT or as manifesting reduced susceptibility (NWT. When MIC data was used, NRI analysis calculated a COWT of ≤ 0.125 μg mL-1, ≤ 2 μg mL-1 and ≤ 0.5 μg mL-1 for amoxicillin, florfenicol and oxytetracycline, respectively. For the quinolones, the COWT were ≤1 μg mL-1, ≤ 0.5 μg mL-1 and ≤ 0.125 μg mL-1 for oxolinic acid, flumequine and enrofloxacin respectively. The disc diffusion data sets obtained in this work were extremely diverse and were spread over a wide range. For the quinolones there was a close agreement between the frequencies of NWT isolates calculated using MIC and disc data. For oxolinic acid, flumequine and enrofloxacin the frequencies were 45, 39 and 38% using MIC data, and 42, 41 and 44%, when disc data were used. There was less agreement with the other antimicrobials, because NWT frequencies obtained using MIC and disc data respectively, were 24% and 10% for amoxicillin, 8% and 2% for florfenicol and 70% and 64% for oxytetracycline. Considering that the MIC data was more precise than the disc diffusion data, MIC determination would be the preferred method for susceptibility testing for this species and the NWT frequencies

  7. Optimal waist circumference cut-off points and ability of different metabolic syndrome criteria for predicting diabetes in Japanese men and women: Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanhuan Hu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We sought to establish the optimal waist circumference (WC cut-off point for predicting diabetes mellitus (DM and to compare the predictive ability of the metabolic syndrome (MetS criteria of the Joint Interim Statement (JIS and the Japanese Committee of the Criteria for MetS (JCCMS for DM in Japanese. Methods Participants of the Japan Epidemiology Collaboration on Occupational Health Study, who were aged 20–69 years and free of DM at baseline (n = 54,980, were followed-up for a maximum of 6 years. Time-dependent receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to determine the optimal cut-off points of WC for predicting DM. Time-dependent sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for the prediction of DM were compared between the JIS and JCCMS MetS criteria. Results During 234,926 person-years of follow-up, 3180 individuals developed DM. Receiver operating characteristic analysis suggested that the most suitable cut-off point of WC for predicting incident DM was 85 cm for men and 80 cm for women. MetS was associated with 3–4 times increased hazard for developing DM in men and 7–9 times in women. Of the MetS criteria tested, the JIS criteria using our proposed WC cut-off points (85 cm for men and 80 cm for women had the highest sensitivity (54.5 % for men and 43.5 % for women for predicting DM. The sensitivity and specificity of the JCCMS MetS criteria were ~37.7 and 98.9 %, respectively. Conclusion Data from the present large cohort of workers suggest that WC cut-offs of 85 cm for men and 80 cm for women may be appropriate for predicting DM for Japanese. The JIS criteria can detect more people who later develop DM than does the JCCMS criteria.

  8. Optimal body fat percentage cut-off values for identifying cardiovascular risk factors in Mongolian and Han adults: a population-based cross-sectional study in Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanlong; Wang, Hailing; Wang, Ke; Wang, Wenrui; Dong, Fen; Qian, Yonggang; Gong, Haiying; Xu, Guodong; Li, Guoju; Pan, Li; Zhu, Guangjin; Shan, Guangliang

    2017-04-17

    The present study was designed to determine the optimal cut-off values of body fat percentage (BF%) for the detection of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Mongolian and Han adults. This cross-sectional study involving 3221 Chinese adults (2308 Han and 913 Mongolian) aged 20-80 years was conducted in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China, in 2014. Data from a standardised questionnaire, physical examination and blood sample were obtained. The BF% was estimated using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Optimal BF% cut-offs were analysed by receiver operating characteristic curves to predict the risk of diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the OR of each CVD risk factor according to obesity defined by BF%. Mean BF% levels were lower in men than in women (22.54±5.77 vs 32.95±6.18 in Han, 23.86±5.72 vs 33.98±6.40 in Mongolian population, respectively; ppopulation, the area under curve (AUC) values for BF% ranged from 0.589 to 0.699 for men and from 0.711 to 0.763 for women. Compared with men, AUCs for diabetes and clustering of ≥2 risk factors in women were significantly higher (ppopulation. In Han adults, the optimal BF% cut-off values to detect CVD risk factors varied from 18.7% to 24.2% in men and 32.7% to 35.4% in women. In Mongolian population, the optimal cut-off values of BF% for men and women ranged from 21.0% to 24.6% and from 35.7% to 40.0%, respectively. Subjects with high BF% (≥24% in men, ≥34% in women) had higher risk of CVD risk factors in Han (age-adjusted ORs from 1.479 to 3.680, 2.660 to 4.016, respectively). In Mongolia, adults with high BF% (≥25% in men, ≥35% in women) had higher risk of CVD risk factors (age-adjusted ORs from 2.587 to 3.772, 2.061 to 4.882, respectively). The optimal BF% cut-offs for obesity for the prediction of CVD risk factors in Chinese men and women were approximately 24% and 34% for Han adults and 25% and 35% for Mongolian

  9. Fermion masses from superstrings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.

    1986-01-01

    It is assumed that the E 8 gauge group of the E 8 x E 8 heterotic superstring can be broken into SO(10) x SU(4). The mass relations among fermions m/sub u//m/sub d/ = m/sub c//m/sub s/ = m/sub t//m/sub b/ and m/sub ν e//m/sub e/ = m/sub ν mu//m/sub μ/ = m/sub ν tau//m/sub tau/ are discussed. 18 refs

  10. Heavy fermion and actinide materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    During this period, 1/N expansions have been systematically applied to the calculation of the properties of highly correlated electron systems. These studies include examinations of (a) the class of materials known as heavy fermion semi-conductors, (b) the high energy spectra of heavy fermion systems, and (c) the doped oxide superconductors

  11. Fermion fractionization and index theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, Minoru; Torii, Tatsuo

    1982-01-01

    The relation between the fermion fractionization and the Callias-Bott-Seeley index theorem for the Dirac operator in the open space of odd dimension is clarified. Only the case of one spatial dimension is discussed in detail. Sum rules for the expectation values of various quantities in fermion-fractionized configurations are derived. (author)

  12. Phenomenology of colour exotic fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luest, D.

    1986-01-01

    The authors discuss the phenomenological consequences of a dynamical scenario according to which the electroweak symmetry breaking and generation of fermion masses is due to fermions that transform under high colour representations. Particular emphasis is given to the predictions for rare processes and to the spectrum of high colour boundstates. (Auth.)

  13. {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for detection of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours in neurofibromatosis type 1: tumour-to-liver ratio is superior to an SUV{sub max} cut-off

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salamon, Johannes [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Veldhoen, Simon [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); University Medical Centre Wuerzburg, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Wuerzburg (Germany); Apostolova, Ivayla [Otto-von-Guericke University, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Magdeburg (Germany); Bannas, Peter; Yamamura, Jin; Herrmann, Jochen; Adam, Gerhard; Derlin, Thorsten [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Friedrich, Reinhard E. [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Hamburg (Germany); Mautner, Victor F. [University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Neurology, Hamburg (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of normalising intra-tumour tracer accumulation on {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) to reference tissue uptake for characterisation of peripheral nerve sheath tumours (PNSTs) in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) compared with the established maximum standardised uptake value (SUVmax) cut-off of >3.5. Forty-nine patients underwent FDG PET/CT. Intra-tumour tracer uptake (SUVmax) was normalised to three different reference tissues (tumour-to-liver, tumour-to-muscle and tumour-to-fat ratios). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses were used out to assess the diagnostic performance. Histopathology and follow-up served as the reference standard. Intra-tumour tracer uptake correlated significantly with liver uptake (r{sub s} = 0.58, P = 0.016). On ROC analysis, the optimum threshold for tumour-to-liver ratio was >2.6 (AUC = 0.9735). Both the SUVmax cut-off value of >3.5 and a tumour-to-liver ratio >2.6 provided a sensitivity of 100 %, but specificity was significantly higher for the latter (90.3 % vs 79.8 %; P = 0.013). In patients with NF1, quantitative {sup 18}F-FDG PET imaging may identify malignant change in neurofibromas with high accuracy. Specificity could be significantly increased by using the tumour-to-liver ratio. The authors recommend further evaluation of a tumour-to-liver ratio cut-off value of >2.6 for diagnostic intervention planning. (orig.)

  14. [Selective cervical dorsal root cutting off part of the vertebral lateral mass fixation combined with exercise therapy for treating spastic cerebral paralysis of the upper limbs caused by cerebral palsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Hu, Wei; Cao, Xu; Xu, Shi-gang; Li, De-kui; Xu, Lin

    2009-10-01

    To explore the feasibility and the result for the surgical treatment of spastic cerebral paralysis of the upper limbs in patients who underwent the selective cervical dorsal root cutting off part of the vertebral lateral mass fixation combined with exercise therapy. From March 2004 to April 2008, 27 patients included 19 boys and 8 girls, aging 13-21 years with an average of 15 years underwent selective cervical dorsal root cutting off part of the vertebral lateral mass fixation with exercise therapy. The AXIS 8 holes titanium plate was inserted into the lateral mass of spinous process through guidance of the nerve stimulator, choosed fasciculus of low-threshold nerve dorsal root and cut off its 1.5 cm. After two weeks, training exercise therapy was done in patients. Training will include lying position, turning body, sitting position, crawling, kneeling and standing position, walking and so on. Spastic Bobath inhibiting abnormal pattern was done in the whole process of training. The muscular tension, motor function (GMFM), functional independence (WeeFIM) were observed after treatment. All patients were followed up from 4 to 16 months with an average of 6 months. Muscular tension score were respectively 3.30 +/- 0.47 and 1.25 +/- 0.44 before and after treatment;GMFM score were respectively 107.82 +/- 55.17 and 131.28 +/- 46.45; WeeFIM score were respectively 57.61 +/- 25.51 and 87.91 +/- 22.39. There was significant improvement before and after treatment (P cerebral paralysis of the upper limbs is safe and effective method, which can decrease muscular tension and improve motor function, which deserves more wide use.

  15. Which are the cut-off values of 2D-Shear Wave Elastography (2D-SWE) liver stiffness measurements predicting different stages of liver fibrosis, considering Transient Elastography (TE) as the reference method?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sporea, Ioan, E-mail: isporea@umft.ro; Bota, Simona, E-mail: bota_simona1982@yahoo.com; Gradinaru-Taşcău, Oana, E-mail: bluonmyown@yahoo.com; Şirli, Roxana, E-mail: roxanasirli@gmail.com; Popescu, Alina, E-mail: alinamircea.popescu@gmail.com; Jurchiş, Ana, E-mail: ana.jurchis@yahoo.com

    2014-03-15

    Introduction: To identify liver stiffness (LS) cut-off values assessed by means of 2D-Shear Wave Elastography (2D-SWE) for predicting different stages of liver fibrosis, considering Transient Elastography (TE) as the reference method. Methods: Our prospective study included 383 consecutive subjects, with or without hepatopathies, in which LS was evaluated by means of TE and 2D-SWE. To discriminate between various stages of fibrosis by TE we used the following LS cut-offs (kPa): F1-6, F2-7.2, F3-9.6 and F4-14.5. Results: The rate of reliable LS measurements was similar for TE and 2D-SWE: 73.9% vs. 79.9%, p = 0.06. Older age and higher BMI were associated for both TE and 2D-SWE with the impossibility to obtain reliable LS measurements. Reliable LS measurements by both elastographic methods were obtained in 65.2% of patients. A significant correlation was found between TE and 2D-SWE measurements (r = 0.68). The best LS cut-off values assessed by 2D-SWE for predicting different stages of liver fibrosis were: F ≥ 1: >7.1 kPa (AUROC = 0.825); F ≥ 2: >7.8 kPa (AUROC = 0.859); F ≥ 3: >8 kPa (AUROC = 0.897) and for F = 4: >11.5 kPa (AUROC = 0.914). Conclusions: 2D-SWE is a reliable method for the non-invasive evaluation of liver fibrosis, considering TE as the reference method. The accuracy of 2D-SWE measurements increased with the severity of liver fibrosis.

  16. Alcohol and illicit drugs in drivers involved in road traffic crashes in the Milan area. A comparison with normal traffic reveals the possible inadequacy of current cut-off limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Davide; Manca, Monica; Banfi, Giuseppe; Locatelli, Massimo

    2018-01-01

    Driving under the influence of alcohol and/or illicit drugs in Italy is regulated by the articles 186 and 187 of the National Street Code. Epidemiological studies on drivers involved in road traffic crashes (RTC) provide useful information about the use/abuse of these substances in the general population. Comparison with case control studies may reveal important information like the cut-off limits adequacy. Data from 1587 blood tests for alcohol and 1258 blood tests for illicit drugs on drivers involved in RTC around Milan between 2012 and 2016, were analyzed and compared with a published random survey (DRUID) from the European Community. Our data from RTC-involved drivers show that alcohol abuse is not age-related whereas illicit drugs are more common in young people. Cannabinoids are frequent among younger drivers (median age 27) whereas cocaine is more often detected in adults (median age 34). The calculated odds ratio after comparison with the DRUID survey shows that a blood alcohol concentration below the legal limit does not represent a risk factor in having a car accident whereas concentrations of cocaine and cannabinoids within the legal limits are associated with being involved in a car accident. Despite authority efforts, the abuse of alcohol and illicit drugs is still common in young drivers. We suspect that the cut-off limits for cannabinoids and cocaine and/or the pre-analytical procedures for these substances are inadequate. We suggest a better standardization of the procedure by shortening the time interval between the request for investigation and blood collection and propose the adoption of more stringent cut-off limits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The prevalence rate of internet addiction among Japanese college students: two cross-sectional studies and reconsideration of cut-off points of Young's internet addiction test in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateno, Masaru; Teo, Alan R; Shiraishi, Masaki; Tayama, Masaya; Kawanishi, Chiaki; Kato, Takahiro A

    2018-05-30

    Due to variation in estimates of the prevalence of internet addiction (IA) in prior research, we conducted two cross-sectional studies over two years and investigated the prevalence rate of IA in college students in Japan, and reconsidered appropriate cut-off points of self-rating scale to screen possible IA. This study is composed of two parts: survey I in 2014 and survey II in 2016, which were conducted in the same schools with an interval of two years. The study questionnaire included questions about demographics and internet use, and the Young's Internet Addiction Test (IAT). Additionally, the subjects in survey II were asked about self-reported IA. There were 1,005 respondents in total with a mean age of 18.9±1.3. The mean IAT scores remained stable between 2014 and 2016: 45.2±12.6 in survey I and 45.5±13.1 in survey II (overall mean IAT score of 45.4±13.0). With respect to self-reported IA in survey II, a total of 21.6% agreed (score of 5 or 6 on a 6-point Likert scale). We categorized these subjects as IA, and the remainder as non-IA. The mean IAT score showed significant difference between these two groups (57.8±14.3 vs 42.1±10.7, p<0.001). The severity of symptoms of IA among Japanese college students appears stable in recent years, with a mean IAT scores of over 40. Our results suggest that a screening score cut-off of 40 on the IAT could be reconsidered and that of 50 might be proposed for the cut-off. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  18. Optimal cut-off values for the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and pre-diabetes screening: Developments in research and prospects for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qi; Li, Xueqin; Song, Peipei; Xu, Lingzhong

    2015-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) appears to be increasing rapidly, threatening to reduce life expectancy for humans around the globe. The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) has estimated that there will be 642 million people living with the disease by 2040 and half as many again who will be not diagnosed. This means that pre-DM screening is a critical issue. Insulin resistance (IR) has emerged as a major pathophysiological factor in the development and progression of DM since it is evident in susceptible individuals at the early stages of DM, and particularly type 2 DM (T2DM). Therefore, assessment of IR via the homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) is a key index for the primary prevention of DM and is thus found in guidelines for screening of high-risk groups. However, the cut-off values of HOMA-IR differ for different races, ages, genders, diseases, complications, etc. due to the complexity of IR. This hampers the determination of specific cut-off values of HOMA-IR in different places and in different situations. China has not published an official index to gauge IR for primary prevention of T2DM in the diabetic and non-diabetic population except for children and adolescents ages 6-12 years. Hence, this article summarizes developments in research on IR, HOMA-IR, and pre-DM screening in order to provide a reference for optimal cut-off values of HOMA-IR for the diagnosis of DM in the Chinese population.

  19. Ultracold fermion race is on

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulet, R.

    1999-01-01

    At the quantum level, particles behave very differently depending on whether their spin angular momentum is an integer or a half-integer. Half-integer spin particles are known as fermions, and include all the constituents of atoms: electrons, protons and neutrons. Bosons, on the other hand, are particles with integer spin, such as photons. Atoms are fermions if they are composed of an odd number of particles, like helium-3 or lithium-6. If they have an even number of constituents, like hydrogen, helium-4 or lithium-7, they are known as bosons. Fermions and bosons behave in profoundly different ways under certain conditions, especially at low temperatures. Four years ago, physicists created a Bose condensate, a quantum degenerate gas of bosons. Now the race is on to do the same with fermions. Deborah Jin's group at the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Colorado has cooled a fermion gas to the lowest temperature yet (B DeMarco 1999 Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 4208). And John Thomas and co-workers at Duke University have set a new record for the length of time that fermions can be trapped using lasers (K O'Hara 1999 Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 4204). In this article the author describes the latest advances in the race to create a quantum degenerate gas of fermions. (UK)

  20. Dynamical symmetries for fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guidry, M.

    1989-01-01

    An introduction is given to the Fermion Dynamical Symmetry Model (FDSM). The analytical symmetry limits of the model are then applied to the calculation of physical quantities such as ground-state masses and B(E 2 ) values in heavy nuclei. These comparisons with data provide strong support for a new principle of collective motion, the Dynamical Pauli Effect, and suggest that dynamical symmetries which properly account for the pauli principle are much more persistent in nuclear structure than the corresponding boson symmetries. Finally, we present an assessment of criticisms which have been voiced concerning the FDSM, and a discussion of new phenomena and ''exotic spectroscopy'' which may be suggested by the model. 14 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Fermions and non-Abelian vortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, E.R.B. de.

    1986-01-01

    Some aspectos of the fermion-non-Abelian vortex system are discussed. It is shown that this system presents properties analogous to the fermion-non-Abelian magnetic monopole one. But, differrently from the fermion-monopole case, this system does not present fermion condensate V = 0. (Author) [pt

  2. Low energy fermion number violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peccei, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    After a brief aside on charge quantization in the standard electroweak theory, I concentrate on various aspects of anomaly induced fermion number violation in the standard model. A critical analysis of the role of sphalerons for the universe's baryon asymmetry is presented and the importance of calculating directly fermion number violating Green's functions is stressed. A physical interpretation of the recent observation of Ringwald, that coherent effects in the electroweak theory lead to catastrophic fermion number violation at 100 TeV, is discussed. Possible quantum effects which might spoil this semi-classical picture are examined

  3. Lattice degeneracies of geometric fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raszillier, H.

    1983-05-01

    We give the minimal numbers of degrees of freedom carried by geometric fermions on all lattices of maximal symmetries in d = 2, 3, and 4 dimensions. These numbers are lattice dependent, but in the (free) continuum limit, part of the degrees of freedom have to escape to infinity by a Wilson mechanism built in, and 2sup(d) survive for any lattice. On self-reciprocal lattices we compare the minimal numbers of degrees of freedom of geometric fermions with the minimal numbers of naive fermions on these lattices and argue that these numbers are equal. (orig.)

  4. Direct Extraction of InP/GaAsSb/InP DHBT Equivalent-Circuit Elements From S-Parameters Measured at Cut-Off and Normal Bias Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Tom Keinicke; Leblanc, Rémy; Poulain, Julien

    2016-01-01

    A unique direct parameter extraction method for the small-signal equivalent-circuit model of InP/GaAsSb/InP double heterojunction bipolar transistors (DHBTs) is presented. $S$-parameters measured at cut-off bias are used, at first, to extract the distribution factor $X_{0}$ for the base-collector......A unique direct parameter extraction method for the small-signal equivalent-circuit model of InP/GaAsSb/InP double heterojunction bipolar transistors (DHBTs) is presented. $S$-parameters measured at cut-off bias are used, at first, to extract the distribution factor $X_{0}$ for the base......-collector capacitance at zero collector current and the collector-to-emitter overlap capacitance $C_{ceo}$ present in InP DHBT devices. Low-frequency $S$-parameters measured at normal bias conditions then allows the extraction of the external access resistances $R_{bx}$, $R_{e}$, and $R_{cx}$ as well as the intrinsic...

  5. Thickness-Independent Ultrasonic Imaging Applied to Abrasive Cut-Off Wheels: An Advanced Aerospace Materials Characterization Method for the Abrasives Industry. A NASA Lewis Research Center Technology Transfer Case History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Don J.; Farmer, Donald A.

    1998-01-01

    Abrasive cut-off wheels are at times unintentionally manufactured with nonuniformity that is difficult to identify and sufficiently characterize without time-consuming, destructive examination. One particular nonuniformity is a density variation condition occurring around the wheel circumference or along the radius, or both. This density variation, depending on its severity, can cause wheel warpage and wheel vibration resulting in unacceptable performance and perhaps premature failure of the wheel. Conventional nondestructive evaluation methods such as ultrasonic c-scan imaging and film radiography are inaccurate in their attempts at characterizing the density variation because a superimposing thickness variation exists as well in the wheel. In this article, the single transducer thickness-independent ultrasonic imaging method, developed specifically to allow more accurate characterization of aerospace components, is shown to precisely characterize the extent of the density variation in a cut-off wheel having a superimposing thickness variation. The method thereby has potential as an effective quality control tool in the abrasives industry for the wheel manufacturer.

  6. Probabilistic simulation of fermion paths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhirov, O.V.

    1989-01-01

    Permutation symmetry of fermion path integral allows (while spin degrees of freedom are ignored) to use in its simulation any probabilistic algorithm, like Metropolis one, heat bath, etc. 6 refs., 2 tabs

  7. Super boson-fermion correspondence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kac, V.G.; Leur van de, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Since the pioneering work of Skyrme, the boson-fermion correspondence has been playing an increasingly important role in 2-dimensional quantum field theory. More recently, it has become an important ingredient in the work of the Kyoto school on the KP hierarchy of soliton equations. In the present paper we establish a super boson-fermion correspondence, having in mind its applications to super KP hierarchies

  8. Fermion-scalar conformal blocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iliesiu, Luca [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University,Washington Road, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Kos, Filip [Department of Physics, Yale University,217 Prospect Street, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Poland, David [Department of Physics, Yale University,217 Prospect Street, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,1 Einstein Dr, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Pufu, Silviu S. [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University,Washington Road, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Simmons-Duffin, David [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study,1 Einstein Dr, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Yacoby, Ran [Joseph Henry Laboratories, Princeton University,Washington Road, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2016-04-13

    We compute the conformal blocks associated with scalar-scalar-fermion-fermion 4-point functions in 3D CFTs. Together with the known scalar conformal blocks, our result completes the task of determining the so-called ‘seed blocks’ in three dimensions. Conformal blocks associated with 4-point functions of operators with arbitrary spins can now be determined from these seed blocks by using known differential operators.

  9. Highly imbalanced fermion-fermion mixtures in one dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recher, Christian

    2013-01-01

    In the framework of exactly solvable quantum many-body systems we study models of interacting spin one-half Fermions in one dimension. The first part deals with systems of spin one-half Fermions which interact via repulsive contact interaction. A reformulation of the Bethe-Ansatz solvable many-body wave function is presented. This simplifies considerably the calculations for the highly imbalanced case, where very few particles of one species (minority Fermions) are present. For the other particle species (majority Fermions) the thermodynamic limit is taken. We assume the majority Fermions to be in the ground state such that their non-interacting momentum distribution is a Fermi-sea. Upon this we consider excitations where the particles of the minority species may occupy an arbitrary state within the Fermi-sea. In the case of only a single minority Fermion, the many-body wave function can be expressed as a determinant. This allows us to derive exact thermodynamic expressions for several expectation values as well as for the density-density correlation function. Moreover it is possible to find closed expressions for the single particle Green's function. All of the above mentioned quantities show a non-trivial dependence on the minority particle's momentum. In particular the Green's function in the Tonks-Girardeau regime of hardcore interaction is shown to undergo a transition from the one of impenetrable Bosons to that of free Fermions as the extra particle's momentum varies from the core to the edge of the Fermi-sea. This transition becomes manifest in an algebraic asymptotic decay of the Green's function. If two minority Fermions are present, the many-body wave function turns out to be more complicated. Nevertheless it is possible to derive exact expressions for the two and the three particle density-density correlation functions. Furthermore we calculate the system's total energy and based on that, identify terms which have a natural

  10. Fermion bag approach to the sign problem in strongly coupled lattice QED with Wilson fermions

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrasekharan, Shailesh; Li, Anyi

    2010-01-01

    We explore the sign problem in strongly coupled lattice QED with one flavor of Wilson fermions in four dimensions using the fermion bag formulation. We construct rules to compute the weight of a fermion bag and show that even though the fermions are confined into bosons, fermion bags with negative weights do exist. By classifying fermion bags as either simple or complex, we find numerical evidence that complex bags with positive and negative weights come with almost equal probabilities and th...

  11. Actinides and heavy fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.L.; Fisk, Z.; Ott, H.R.

    1987-01-01

    The actinide series of elements begins with f-shell electrons forming energy bands, contributing to the bonding, and possessing no magnetic moments. At americium the series switches over to localized f electrons with magnetic moments. In metallic compounds this crossover of behavior can be modified and studied. In this continuum of behavior a few compounds on the very edge of localized f-electron behavior exhibit enormous electronic heat capacities at low temperatures. This is associated with an enhanced thermal mass of the conduction electrons, which is well over a hundred times the free electron mass, and is what led to the label heavy fermion for such compounds. A few of these become superconducting at even lower temperatures. The excitement in this field comes from attempting to understand how this heaviness arises and from the likelihood that the superconductivity is different from that of previously known superconductors. The effects of thorium impurities in UBe 13 were studied as a representative system for studying the nature of the superconductivity

  12. Fermions in curved spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lippoldt, Stefan

    2016-01-21

    In this thesis we study a formulation of Dirac fermions in curved spacetime that respects general coordinate invariance as well as invariance under local spin base transformations. We emphasize the advantages of the spin base invariant formalism both from a conceptual as well as from a practical viewpoint. This suggests that local spin base invariance should be added to the list of (effective) properties of (quantum) gravity theories. We find support for this viewpoint by the explicit construction of a global realization of the Clifford algebra on a 2-sphere which is impossible in the spin-base non-invariant vielbein formalism. The natural variables for this formulation are spacetime-dependent Dirac matrices subject to the Clifford-algebra constraint. In particular, a coframe, i.e. vielbein field is not required. We disclose the hidden spin base invariance of the vielbein formalism. Explicit formulas for the spin connection as a function of the Dirac matrices are found. This connection consists of a canonical part that is completely fixed in terms of the Dirac matrices and a free part that can be interpreted as spin torsion. The common Lorentz symmetric gauge for the vielbein is constructed for the Dirac matrices, even for metrics which are not linearly connected. Under certain criteria, it constitutes the simplest possible gauge, demonstrating why this gauge is so useful. Using the spin base formulation for building a field theory of quantized gravity and matter fields, we show that it suffices to quantize the metric and the matter fields. This observation is of particular relevance for field theory approaches to quantum gravity, as it can serve for a purely metric-based quantization scheme for gravity even in the presence of fermions. Hence, in the second part of this thesis we critically examine the gauge, and the field-parametrization dependence of renormalization group flows in the vicinity of non-Gaussian fixed points in quantum gravity. While physical

  13. MSW-resonant fermion mixing during reheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanai, Tsuneto; Tsujikawa, Shinji

    2003-10-01

    We study the dynamics of reheating in which an inflaton field couples two flavor fermions through Yukawa-couplings. When two fermions have a mixing term with a constant coupling, we show that the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW)-type resonance emerges due to a time-dependent background in addition to the standard fermion creation via parametric resonance. This MSW resonance not only alters the number densities of fermions generated by a preheating process but also can lead to the larger energy transfer from the inflaton to fermions. Our mechanism can provide additional source terms for the creation of superheavy fermions which may be relevant for the leptogenesis scenario.

  14. MSW-resonant fermion mixing during reheating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai, Tsuneto; Tsujikawa, Shinji

    2003-01-01

    We study the dynamics of reheating in which an inflaton field couples two flavor fermions through Yukawa-couplings. When two fermions have a mixing term with a constant coupling, we show that the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW)-type resonance emerges due to a time-dependent background in addition to the standard fermion creation via parametric resonance. This MSW resonance not only alters the number densities of fermions generated by a preheating process but also can lead to the larger energy transfer from the inflaton to fermions. Our mechanism can provide additional source terms for the creation of superheavy fermions which may be relevant for the leptogenesis scenario

  15. [Case-control study on needle-knife to cut off the medial branch of the lumbar posterior ramus under C-arm guiding for the treatment of low back pain caused by lumbar facet osteoarthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Di; Xu, Wei-xing; Ding, Wei-Guo; Guo, Qiao-Feng; Ma, Gou-ping; Zhu, Wei-min

    2013-03-01

    To study the clinical efficacy of needle-knife to cut off the medial branch of the lumbar posterior ramus under C-arm guiding to treat low back pain caused by lumbar facet osteoarthritis. From July 2009 to June 2011, 60 patients with low back pain caused by lumbar facet osteoarthritis were reviewed,including 34 males and 26 females, ranging in age from 39 to 73 years old,averaged 61.9 years old; the duration of the disease ranged from 6 to 120 months, with a mean of 18.9 months. All the patients were divided into two groups, 30 patients (18 males and 12 females, ranging in age from 39 to 71 years old, needle-knife group) were treated with needle-knife to cut off medial branch of the lumbar posterior ramus under C -arm guiding and the other 30 patients(16 males and 14 females, ranging in age from 41 to 73 years old, hormone injection group) were treated with hormone injection in lumbar facet joint under C-arm guiding. The preoperative JOA scores and the scores at the 1st, 12th and 26th weeks after treatment were analyzed. Before treatment,the JOA scores between the two groups had no significant difference (P= 0.479); after 1 week of treatment, the JOA scores between the two groups had significant difference (P= 0.040), the improvement rate of hormone injection group was superior than that of the needle-knife group,which were (58.73+/-18.20)% in needle-knife group and (71.10+/-22.19)% in hormone injection group; after 12 weeks of treatment, the JOA scores between the two groups had no significant difference(P=0.569), and the improvement rate between the two groups had no significant difference,which were (50.09+/-19.33)% in the needle-knife group and (48.70+/-18.36)%) in the hormone injection group; after 26 weeks of treatment,the JOA scores between the two groups had significant difference (P=0.000), the improvement rate of hormone injection group was superior than that of the needle-knife group,which were (48.56+/-28.24)% in needle-knife group and (15

  16. Fermions on the electroweak string

    CERN Document Server

    Moreno, J M; Quirós, Mariano; Moreno, J M; Oaknin, D H; Quiros, M

    1995-01-01

    We construct a simple class of exact solutions of the electroweak theory including the naked Z--string and fermion fields. It consists in the Z--string configuration (\\phi,Z_\\theta), the {\\it time} and z components of the neutral gauge bosons (Z_{0,3},A_{0,3}) and a fermion condensate (lepton or quark) zero mode. The Z--string is not altered (no feed back from the rest of fields on the Z--string) while fermion condensates are zero modes of the Dirac equation in the presence of the Z--string background (no feed back from the {\\it time} and z components of the neutral gauge bosons on the fermion fields). For the case of the n--vortex Z--string the number of zero modes found for charged leptons and quarks is (according to previous results by Jackiw and Rossi) equal to |n|, while for (massless) neutrinos is |n|-1. The presence of fermion fields in its core make the obtained configuration a superconducting string, but their presence (as well as that of Z_{0,3},A_{0,3}) does not enhance the stability of the Z--stri...

  17. How real are composite fermions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, W.; Stormer, H.L.; Pfeiffer, L.N.; Baldwin, K.W.; West, K.W.

    1995-01-01

    A new picture of fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) in terms of a novel particle called composite fermion has emerged recently. A composite fermion is a composite of two flux quanta which are effectively bound to an electron as a result of electron-electron interaction. A system of electrons at half-filled Landau level can be transformed to an equivalent system of composite fermions at zero effective magnetic field with a distinct Fermi surface. The FQHE is then viewed as the integral quantum Hall effect of composite fermions away from half-filling. In order to test for these new particles, we have studied transport of anti-dot superlattices in a two-dimensional electron gas. At low magnetic fields electron transport exhibits well-known resonances at fields where the classical cyclotron orbit becomes commensurate with the anti-dot lattice. At half-filling we observe the same dimensional resonances. This establishes the ''semi-classical'' behavior of composite fermions. (orig.)

  18. Determination of the stresses and displacements in the cut off curtain body executed by the << Wall-in-the ground >> method.; Opredelenie napryazhenij i peremeshchenij v tele protivofil`tratsionnoj zavesy, vypolnennoj metodom << stena v grunte >>.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snisarenko, V I; Mel` nikov, A I [Myinyisterstvo Budyivel` noyi Arkhyitekturi, Kyiv (Ukraine); [Myizhgaluzevij Naukovo-Tekhnyichnij Tsentr ` ` Ukrittya ` ` , Natsyional` na Akademyiya Nauk Ukrayini, Chornobil` (Ukraine)

    1994-12-31

    Construction of the cut-off-curtain (COC) is analyzed as a possible variant to reduce the rate of radioactive horizontal migration. Such constructions can be executed by the << wall-in-the ground >> method. The theoretical analysis of the stress-strained state of the carried out using the methods of the theory of elasticity and of the limit equilibrium of the strewing medium. Theoretical dependences are obtained and formulas for practical calculations of the COC-body stress-strained state in the depth intervals which are of practical interest are suggested. The dependences obtained may be used to calculate the consolidation parameters and filtration coefficients, to choose materials for the COC body, geometrical size and film elements included.

  19. Prevalence of swallowing and speech problems in daily life after chemoradiation for head and neck cancer based on cut-off scores of the patient-reported outcome measures SWAL-QOL and SHI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinkel, Rico N; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M; Doornaert, Patricia; Buter, Jan; de Bree, Remco; Langendijk, Johannes A; Aaronson, Neil K; Leemans, C René

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study is to assess swallowing and speech outcome after chemoradiation therapy for head and neck cancer, based on the patient-reported outcome measures Swallowing Quality of Life Questionnaire (SWAL-QOL) and Speech Handicap Index (SHI), both provided with cut-off scores. This is a cross-sectional study. Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery of a University Medical Center. Sixty patients, 6 months to 5 years after chemoradiation for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Swallowing Quality of Life Questionnaire (SWAL-QOL) and SHI, both validated in Dutch and provided with cut-off scores. Associations were tested between the outcome measures and independent variables (age, gender, tumor stage and site, and radiotherapy technique, time since treatment, comorbidity and food intake). Fifty-two patients returned the SWAL-QOL and 47 the SHI (response rate 87 and 78 %, respectively). Swallowing and speech problems were present in 79 and 55 %, respectively. Normal food intake was noticed in 45, 35 % had a soft diet and 20 % tube feeding. Patients with soft diet and tube feeding reported more swallowing problems compared to patients with normal oral intake. Tumor subsite was significantly associated with swallowing outcome (less problems in larynx/hypopharynx compared to oral/oropharynx). Radiation technique was significantly associated with psychosocial speech problems (less problems in patients treated with IMRT). Swallowing and (to a lesser extent) speech problems in daily life are frequently present after chemoradiation therapy for head and neck cancer. Future prospective studies will give more insight into the course of speech and swallowing problems after chemoradiation and into efficacy of new radiation techniques and swallowing and speech rehabilitation programs.

  20. Finite boson mappings of fermion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.W.; Ginocchio, J.N.

    1994-01-01

    We discuss a general mapping of fermion pairs to bosons that preserves Hermitian conjugation, with an eye towards producing finite and usable boson Hamiltonians that approximate well the low-energy dynamics of a fermion Hamiltonian

  1. Fermionic One-Way Quantum Computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Xin; Shang Yun

    2014-01-01

    Fermions, as another major class of quantum particles, could be taken as carriers for quantum information processing beyond spins or bosons. In this work, we consider the fermionic generalization of the one-way quantum computation model and find that one-way quantum computation can also be simulated with fermions. In detail, using the n → 2n encoding scheme from a spin system to a fermion system, we introduce the fermionic cluster state, then the universal computing power with a fermionic cluster state is demonstrated explicitly. Furthermore, we show that the fermionic cluster state can be created only by measurements on at most four modes with |+〉 f (fermionic Bell state) being free

  2. Null-plane quantization of fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustaki, D.

    1990-01-01

    Massive Dirac fermions are canonically quantized on the null plane using the Dirac-Bergmann algorithm. The procedure is carried out in the framework of quantum electrodynamics as an illustration of a rigorous treatment of interacting fermion fields

  3. Three mirror pairs of fermion families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montvay, I.

    1988-01-01

    A simple model with three mirror pairs of fermion families is considered which allows for a substantial mixing between the mirror fermion partners without conflicting with known phenomenology. (orig.)

  4. Bosonic behavior of entangled fermions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    C. Tichy, Malte; Alexander Bouvrie, Peter; Mølmer, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Two bound, entangled fermions form a composite boson, which can be treated as an elementary boson as long as the Pauli principle does not affect the behavior of many such composite bosons. The departure of ideal bosonic behavior is quantified by the normalization ratio of multi-composite-boson st......Two bound, entangled fermions form a composite boson, which can be treated as an elementary boson as long as the Pauli principle does not affect the behavior of many such composite bosons. The departure of ideal bosonic behavior is quantified by the normalization ratio of multi...

  5. On the disordered fermion couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernaschi, M.; Cabasino, S.; Marinari, E.; Rome-2 Univ.; Sarno, R.; Rome-1 Univ.

    1989-01-01

    We study the possibility of avoiding the fermion doubling problem by using a random coupling. We use numerical simulations in order to study the theory in the strong disorder region. We find a sharp crossover as a function of the strength of the disorder. For weak quenched disorder we find that the species doubling survives, while for strong quenched disorder only with a particular choice of the random term (antihermitian) it is possible to get a theory that seems to avoid fermion doubling. (orig.)

  6. Fermions as generalized Ising models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wetterich

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We establish a general map between Grassmann functionals for fermions and probability or weight distributions for Ising spins. The equivalence between the two formulations is based on identical transfer matrices and expectation values of products of observables. The map preserves locality properties and can be realized for arbitrary dimensions. We present a simple example where a quantum field theory for free massless Dirac fermions in two-dimensional Minkowski space is represented by an asymmetric Ising model on a euclidean square lattice.

  7. Improved lattice fermion action for heavy quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yong-Gwi; Hashimoto, Shoji; Jüttner, Andreas; Kaneko, Takashi; Marinkovic, Marina; Noaki, Jun-Ichi; Tsang, Justus Tobias

    2015-01-01

    We develop an improved lattice action for heavy quarks based on Brillouin-type fermions, that have excellent energy-momentum dispersion relation. The leading discretization errors of O(a) and O(a"2) are eliminated at tree-level. We carry out a scaling study of this improved Brillouin fermion action on quenched lattices by calculating the charmonium energy-momentum dispersion relation and hyperfine splitting. We present a comparison to standard Wilson fermions and domain-wall fermions.

  8. 2-fermion and 4-fermion production at LEP2

    CERN Document Server

    van Vulpen, Ivo B

    2000-01-01

    We present the measurements on 2-fermion and 4-fermion production in e + e - collisions at centre-of-mass energies ranging from 192 to 202 Ge V as collected by the 4 LEP experiments in 1999. For processes with 2-fermions in the final state we present both production cross sections and asymmetries for event samples at low and high effective centre-of-mass energies, where the latter process is sensitive to possible contributions from various non-SM physics, like contact interactions or Z' exchange, and can therefore be used to set limits on parameters in those models. We also report on the measured cross sections for a subset of processes leading to 4 fermions in the final state: pair production of heavy vector bosons w+w- (NC03) and ZZ (NC02) followed by single-W production. A measurement of the leptonic branching ratio of the W-boson is used to extract information on IV c• I

  9. Dynamical fermions in lattice quantum chromodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabo, Kalman

    2007-07-01

    The thesis presentS results in Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD) with dynamical lattice fermions. The topological susceptibilty in QCD is determined, the calculations are carried out with dynamical overlap fermions. The most important properties of the quark-gluon plasma phase of QCD are studied, for which dynamical staggered fermions are used. (orig.)

  10. Dynamical fermions in lattice quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, Kalman

    2007-01-01

    The thesis presentS results in Quantum Chromo Dynamics (QCD) with dynamical lattice fermions. The topological susceptibilty in QCD is determined, the calculations are carried out with dynamical overlap fermions. The most important properties of the quark-gluon plasma phase of QCD are studied, for which dynamical staggered fermions are used. (orig.)

  11. Gauge invariance and fermion mass dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elias, V.

    1979-05-01

    Renormalization-group equation fermion mass dimensions are shown to be gauge dependent in gauge theories possessing non-vector couplings of gauge bosons to fermions. However, the ratios of running fermion masses are explicitly shown to be gauge invariant in the SU(5) and SU(2) x U(1) examples of such theories. (author)

  12. Theoretical studies of strongly correlated fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, D [Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin (ILL), 38 - Grenoble (France)

    1997-04-01

    Strongly correlated fermions are investigated. An understanding of strongly correlated fermions underpins a diverse range of phenomena such as metal-insulator transitions, high-temperature superconductivity, magnetic impurity problems and the properties of heavy-fermion systems, in all of which local moments play an important role. (author).

  13. Fermions and bosons : a 'spinless' approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, P.M.C. de; Ribeiro, S.C.

    1980-07-01

    The fundamental difference between fermions and bosons is presented. The treatment used is based only on indistinguishability and its related implications on interference, with no mention to spin. Comparison between indistinguishable (fermions or bosons) and distinguishable identical particles are also made, yielding the enhancement (bosons) or inhibition (fermions) factors which determine the quantum distribution equations. (Author) [pt

  14. Look-ahead fermion algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grady, M.

    1986-01-01

    I describe a fast fermion algorithm which utilizes pseudofermion fields but appears to have little or no systematic error. Test simulations on two-dimensional gauge theories are described. A possible justification for the algorithm being exact is discussed. 8 refs

  15. The fermion stochastic calculus I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Streater, R.F.

    1984-01-01

    The author describes the stochastic calculus of quantum processes with fermions. After a description of the Clifford algebra as the csup(*)-algebra generated by spinor fields the damped harmonic oscillator with quantum noise is considered as example. Then the Clifford process is described. Finally the Ito-Clifford integral and the Ito-Clifford isometry are presented. (HSI)

  16. Lattices, supersymmetry and Kaehler fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, D.M.

    1984-01-01

    It is shown that a graded extension of the space group of a (generalised) simple cubic lattice exists in any space dimension, D. The fermionic variables which arise admit a Kaehlerian interpretation. Each graded space group is a subgroup of a graded extension of the appropriate Euclidean group, E(D). The relevance of this to the construction of lattice theories is discussed. (author)

  17. Sextet Model with Wilson Fermions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin; Pica, Claudio

    2017-01-01

    We present new results from our ongoing study of the SU(3) sextet model with two flavors in the two-index symmetric representation of the gauge group. In the simulations use unimproved Wilson fermions to investigate the infrared properties of the model. We have previously presented results...

  18. Singlets of fermionic gauge symmetries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, E.A.; Kallosh, R.E.; Rahmanov, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    We investigate under which conditions singlets of fermionic gauge symmetries which are "square roots of gravity" can exist. Their existence is non-trivial because there are no fields neutral in gravity. We tabulate several examples of singlets of global and local supersymmetry and κ-symmetry and

  19. Alternative to domain wall fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuberger, H.

    2002-01-01

    An alternative to commonly used domain wall fermions is presented. Some rigorous bounds on the condition number of the associated linear problem are derived. On the basis of these bounds and some experimentation it is argued that domain wall fermions will in general be associated with a condition number that is of the same order of magnitude as the product of the condition number of the linear problem in the physical dimensions by the inverse bare quark mass. Thus, the computational cost of implementing true domain wall fermions using a single conjugate gradient algorithm is of the same order of magnitude as that of implementing the overlap Dirac operator directly using two nested conjugate gradient algorithms. At a cost of about a factor of two in operation count it is possible to make the memory usage of direct implementations of the overlap Dirac operator independent of the accuracy of the approximation to the sign function and of the same order as that of standard Wilson fermions

  20. Wilson fermions at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creutz, M.

    1996-01-01

    The author conjectures on the phase structure expected for lattice gauge theory with two flavors of Wilson fermions, concentrating on large values of the hopping parameter. Numerous phases are expected, including the conventional confinement and deconfinement phases, as well as an Aoki phase with spontaneous breaking of flavor and parity and a large hopping phase corresponding to negative quark masses

  1. Simulating lattice fermions by microcanonically averaging out the nonlocal dependence of the fermionic action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azcoiti, V.; Cruz, A.; Di Carlo, G.; Grillo, A.F.; Vladikas, A.

    1991-01-01

    We attempt to increase the efficiency of simulations of dynamical fermions on the lattice by calculating the fermionic determinant just once for all the values of the theory's gauge coupling and flavor number. Our proposal is based on the determination of an effective fermionic action by the calculation of the fermionic determinant averaged over configurations at fixed gauge energy. The feasibility of our method is justified by the observed volume dependence of the fluctuations of the logarithm of the determinant. The algorithm we have used in order to calculate the fermionic determinant, based on the determination of all the eigenvalues of the fermionic matrix at zero mass, also enables us to obtain results at any fermion mass, with a single fermionic simulation. We test the method by simulating compact lattice QED, finding good agreement with other standard calculations. New results on the phase transition of compact QED with massless fermions on 6 4 and 8 4 lattices are also presented

  2. Transport properties of chiral fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puhr, Matthias

    2017-04-26

    Anomalous transport phenomena have their origin in the chiral anomaly, the anomalous non-conservation of the axial charge, and can arise in systems with chiral fermions. The anomalous transport properties of free fermions are well understood, but little is known about possible corrections to the anomalous transport coefficients that can occur if the fermions are strongly interacting. The main goal of this thesis is to study anomalous transport effects in media with strongly interacting fermions. In particular, we investigate the Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME) in a Weyl Semimetal (WSM) and the Chiral Separation Effect (CSE) in finite-density Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). The recently discovered WSMs are solid state crystals with low-energy excitations that behave like Weyl fermions. The inter-electron interaction in WSMs is typically very strong and non-perturbative calculations are needed to connect theory and experiment. To realistically model an interacting, parity-breaking WSM we use a tight-binding lattice Hamiltonian with Wilson-Dirac fermions. This model features a non-trivial phase diagram and has a phase (Aoki phase/axionic insulator phase) with spontaneously broken CP symmetry, corresponding to the phase with spontaneously broken chiral symmetry for interacting continuum Dirac fermions. We use a mean-field ansatz to study the CME in spatially modulated magnetic fields and find that it vanishes in the Aoki phase. Moreover, our calculations show that outside of the Aoki phase the electron interaction has only a minor influence on the CME. We observe no enhancement of the magnitude of the CME current. For our non-perturbative study of the CSE in QCD we use the framework of lattice QCD with overlap fermions. We work in the quenched approximation to avoid the sign problem that comes with introducing a finite chemical potential on the lattice. The overlap operator calls for the evaluation of the sign function of a matrix with a dimension proportional to the volume

  3. Searches for Fourth Generation Fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, A.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    We present the results from searches for fourth generation fermions performed using data samples collected by the CDF II and D0 Detectors at the Fermilab Tevatron p{bar p} collider. Many of these results represent the most stringent 95% C. L. limits on masses of new fermions to-date. A fourth chiral generation of massive fermions with the same quantum numbers as the known fermions is one of the simplest extensions of the SM with three generations. The fourth generation is predicted in a number of theories, and although historically have been considered disfavored, stands in agreement with electroweak precision data. To avoid Z {yields} {nu}{bar {nu}} constraint from LEP I a fourth generation neutrino {nu}{sub 4} must be heavy: m({nu}{sub 4}) > m{sub Z}/2, where m{sub Z} is the mass of Z boson, and to avoid LEP II bounds a fourth generation charged lepton {ell}{sub 4} must have m({ell}{sub 4}) > 101 GeV/c{sup 2}. At the same time due to sizeable radiative corrections masses of fourth generation fermions cannot be much higher the current lower bounds and masses of new heavy quarks t' and b' should be in the range of a few hundred GeV/c{sup 2}. In the four-generation model the present bounds on the Higgs are relaxed: the Higgs mass could be as large as 1 TeV/c{sup 2}. Furthermore, the CP violation is significantly enhanced to the magnitude that might account for the baryon asymmetry in the Universe. Additional chiral fermion families can also be accommodated in supersymmetric two-Higgs-doublet extensions of the SM with equivalent effect on the precision fit to the Higgs mass. Another possibility is heavy exotic quarks with vector couplings to the W boson Contributions to radiative corrections from such quarks with mass M decouple as 1/M{sup 2} and easily evade all experimental constraints. At the Tevatron p{bar p} collider 4-th generation chiral or vector-like quarks can be either produced strongly in pairs or singly via electroweak production, where the

  4. Health related quality of life and psychopathological distress in risk taking and self-harming adolescents with full-syndrome, subthreshold and without borderline personality disorder: rethinking the clinical cut-off?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaess, Michael; Fischer-Waldschmidt, Gloria; Resch, Franz; Koenig, Julian

    2017-01-01

    -syndrome BPD. Findings raise awareness on the importance of early detection and question the diagnostic validity and clinical utility of existing cut-offs. Findings support a lower diagnostic cut-off for adolescent BPD, to identify those at-risk at an early stage.

  5. Real-Time Monitoring of Results During First Year of Dutch Colorectal Cancer Screening Program and Optimization by Altering Fecal Immunochemical Test Cut-Off Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toes-Zoutendijk, Esther; van Leerdam, Monique E; Dekker, Evelien; van Hees, Frank; Penning, Corine; Nagtegaal, Iris; van der Meulen, Miriam P; van Vuuren, Anneke J; Kuipers, Ernst J; Bonfrer, Johannes M G; Biermann, Katharina; Thomeer, Maarten G J; van Veldhuizen, Harriët; Kroep, Sonja; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Meijer, Gerrit A; de Koning, Harry J; Spaander, Manon C W; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris

    2017-03-01

    After careful pilot studies and planning, the national screening program for colorectal cancer (CRC), with biennial fecal immunochemical tests (FITs), was initiated in The Netherlands in 2014. A national information system for real-time monitoring was developed to allow for timely evaluation. Data were collected from the first year of this screening program to determine the importance of planning and monitoring for optimal screening program performance. The national information system of the CRC screening program kept track of the number of invitations sent in 2014, FIT kits returned, and colonoscopies performed. Age-adjusted rates of participation, the number of positive test results, and positive predictive values (PPVs) for advanced neoplasia were determined weekly, quarterly, and yearly. In 2014, there were 741,914 persons invited for FIT; of these, 529,056 (71.3%; 95% CI, 71.2%-71.4%) participated. A few months into the program, real-time monitoring showed that rates of participation and positive test results (10.6%; 95% CI, 10.5%-10.8%) were higher than predicted and the PPV was lower (42.1%; 95% CI, 41.3%-42.9%) than predicted based on pilot studies. To reduce the burden of unnecessary colonoscopies and alleviate colonoscopy capacity, the cut-off level for a positive FIT result was increased from 15 to 47 μg Hb/g feces halfway through 2014. This adjustment decreased the percentage of positive test results to 6.7% (95% CI, 6.6%-6.8%) and increased the PPV to 49.1% (95% CI, 48.3%-49.9%). In total, the first year of the Dutch screening program resulted in the detection of 2483 cancers and 12,030 advanced adenomas. Close monitoring of the implementation of the Dutch national CRC screening program allowed for instant adjustment of the FIT cut-off levels to optimize program performance. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Chiral fermions on the lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randjbar Daemi, S.; Strathdee, J.

    1995-01-01

    The overlap approach to chiral gauge theories on arbitrary D-dimensional lattices is studied. The doubling problem and its relation to chiral anomalies for D = 2 and 4 is examined. In each case it is shown that the doublers can be eliminated and the well known perturbative results for chiral anomalies can be recovered. We also consider the multi-flavour case and give the general criteria for the construction of anomaly free chiral gauge theories on arbitrary lattices. We calculate the second order terms in a continuum approximation to the overlap formula in D dimensions and show that they coincide with the bilinear part of the effective action of D-dimensional Weyl fermions coupled to a background gauge field. Finally, using the same formalism we reproduce the correct Lorentz, diffeomorphism and gauge anomalies in the coupling of a Weyl fermion to 2-dimensional gravitation and Maxwell fields. (author). 15 refs

  7. Fermion to boson mappings revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginocchio, J.N.; Johnson, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    We briefly review various mappings of fermion pairs to bosons, including those based on mapping operators, such as Belyaev-Zelevinskii, and those on mapping states, such as Marumori; in particular we consider the work of Otsuka-Arima-Iachello, aimed at deriving the Interacting Boson Model. We then give a rigorous and unified description of state-mapping procedures which allows one to systematically go beyond Otsuka-Arima-Iachello and related approaches, along with several exact results. (orig.)

  8. Fermion determinants in lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Christopher Andrew

    2001-01-01

    The main topic of this thesis concerns efficient algorithms for the calculation of determinants of the kind of matrix typically encountered in lattice QCD. In particular an efficient method for calculating the fermion determinant is described. Such a calculation is useful to illustrate the effects of light dynamical (virtual) quarks. The methods employed in this thesis are stochastic methods, based on the Lanczos algorithm, which is used for the solution of large, sparse matrix problems via a partial tridiagonalisation of the matrix. Here an implementation is explored which requires less exhaustive treatment of the matrix than previous Lanczos methods. This technique exploits the analogy between the Lanczos tridiagonalisation algorithm and Gaussian quadrature in order to calculate the fermion determinant. A technique for determining a number of the eigenvalues of the matrix is also presented. A demonstration is then given of how one can improve upon this estimate considerably using variance reduction techniques, reducing the variance by a factor of order 100 with a further, equal amount of work. The variance reduction method is a two-stage process, involving a Chebyshev approximation to the quantity in question and then the subtraction of traceless operators. The method is applied to the fermion determinant for non-perturbatively improved Wilson fermions on a 16 3 x 32 lattice. It is also applicable to a wider class of matrix operators. Finally we discuss how dynamical quark effects may be simulated in a Monte Carlo process with an effective partitioning of low and high eigenmodes. This may be done via selective updating of a trial configuration which highlights the physically relevant effects of light quark modes. (author)

  9. Superdeformations and fermion dynamical symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Cheng-Li

    1990-01-01

    In this talk, I will present a link between nuclear collective motions and their underlying fermion dynamical symmetries. In particular, I will focus on the microscopic understanding of deformations. It is shown that the SU 3 of the one major shell fermion dynamical symmetry model (FDSM) is responsible for the physics of low and high spins in normal deformation. For the recently observed phenomena of superdeformation, the physics of the problem dictates a generalization to a supershell structure (SFDSM), which also has an SU 3 fermion dynamical symmetry. Many recently discovered feature of superdeformation are found to be inherent in such an SU 3 symmetry. In both cases the dynamical Pauli effect plays a vital role. A particularly noteworthy discovery from this model is that the superdeformed ground band is not the usual unaligned band but the D-pair aligned (DPA) band, which sharply crosses the excited bands. The existence of such DPA band is a key point to understand many properties of superdeformation. Our studies also poses new experimental challenge. This is particularly interesting since there are now plans to build new and exciting γ-ray detecting systems, like the GAMMASPHERE, which could provide answers to some of these challenges. 34 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs

  10. Light fermions in quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichhorn, Astrid; Gies, Holger

    2011-01-01

    We study the impact of quantum gravity, formulated as a quantum field theory of the metric, on chiral symmetry in a fermionic matter sector. Specifically we address the question of whether metric fluctuations can induce chiral symmetry breaking and bound state formation. Our results based on the functional renormalization group indicate that chiral symmetry is left intact even at strong gravitational coupling. In particular, we found that asymptotically safe quantum gravity where the gravitational couplings approach a non-Gaußian fixed point generically admits universes with light fermions. Our results thus further support quantum gravity theories built on fluctuations of the metric field such as the asymptotic-safety scenario. A study of chiral symmetry breaking through gravitational quantum effects may also serve as a significant benchmark test for other quantum gravity scenarios, since a completely broken chiral symmetry at the Planck scale would not be in accordance with the observation of light fermions in our universe. We demonstrate that this elementary observation already imposes constraints on a generic UV completion of gravity. (paper)

  11. Axial anomalies of Lifshitz fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Bakas, Ioannis

    2011-01-01

    We compute the axial anomaly of a Lifshitz fermion theory with anisotropic scaling z=3 which is minimally coupled to geometry in 3+1 space-time dimensions. We find that the result is identical to the relativistic case using path integral methods. An independent verification is provided by showing with spectral methods that the eta-invariant of the Dirac and Lifshitz fermion operators in three dimensions are equal. Thus, by the integrated form of the anomaly, the index of the Dirac operator still accounts for the possible breakdown of chiral symmetry in non-relativistic theories of gravity. We apply this framework to the recently constructed gravitational instanton backgrounds of Horava-Lifshitz theory and find that the index is non-zero provided that the space-time foliation admits leaves with harmonic spinors. Using Hitchin's construction of harmonic spinors on Berger spheres, we obtain explicit results for the index of the fermion operator on all such gravitational instanton backgrounds with SU(2)xU(1) isom...

  12. Symmetry between bosons and fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuki, Y.; Kamefuchi, S.

    1986-01-01

    By definition Bosons and Fermions behave quite differently as regards statistics. It is equally true, however, that in some other respects they do behave similarly or even symmetrically. In the present paper they would like to show that such similarity or symmetry can be exhibited most fully when the theory is formulated in a specific manner, i.e. in terms of annihilation and creation operators a/sub j/ and a/sub j//sup dagger/ or what they term g-numbers. The difference between Bosons and Fermions can, of course, be traced back to the difference in the signatures (jj) = +,- attached to the brackets in the basic commutation relations: [a/sub j/,a/sub j//sup dagger/]-(jj) = 1, [a/sub j/,a/sub j/]-(jj) = 0. However, the substantial part of the theory can in fact be formulated without specifying the individual signatures (jj). This is why it is possible to treat Bosons and Fermions in a unified manner, and to thereby consider, among the two, super- or more general, g-symmetry transformations. 6 references, 1 table

  13. FLIC-overlap fermions and topology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamleh, W.; Kusterer, D.J.; Leinweber, D.B.; Williams, A.G.

    2003-01-01

    APE smearing the links in the irrelevant operators of clover fermions (Fat-Link Irrelevant Clover (FLIC) fermions) provides significant improvement in the condition number of the Hermitian-Dirac operator and gives rise to a factor of two savings in computing the overlap operator. This report investigates the effects of using a highly-improved definition of the lattice field-strength tensor F μν in the fermion action, made possible through the use of APE-smeared fat links in the construction of the irrelevant operators. Spurious double-zero crossings in the spectral flow of the Hermitian-Wilson Dirac operator associated with lattice artifacts at the scale of the lattice spacing are removed with FLIC fermions composed with an O(α 4 )-improved lattice field strength tensor. Hence, FLIC-Overlap fermions provide an additional benefit to the overlap formalism: a correct realization of topology in the fermion sector on the lattice

  14. Fermions in noncommutative emergent gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klammer, D.

    2010-01-01

    Noncommutative emergent gravity is a novel framework disclosing how gravity is contained naturally in noncommutative gauge theory formulated as a matrix model. It describes a dynamical space-time which itself is a four-dimensional brane embedded in a higher-dimensional space. In noncommutative emergent gravity, the metric is not a fundamental object of the model; rather it is determined by the Poisson structure and by the induced metric of the embedding. In this work the coupling of fermions to these matrix models is studied from the point of view of noncommutative emergent gravity. The matrix Dirac operator as given by the IKKT matrix model defines an appropriate coupling for fermions to an effective gravitational metric of noncommutative four-dimensional spaces that are embedded into a ten-dimensional ambient space. As it turns out this coupling is non-standard due to a spin connection that vanishes in the preferred but unobservable coordinates defined by the model. The purpose of this work is to study the one-loop effective action of this approach. Standard results of the literature cannot be applied due to this special coupling of the fermions. However, integrating out these fields in a nontrivial geometrical background induces indeed the Einstein-Hilbert action of the effective metric, as well as additional terms which couple the noncommutative structure to the Riemann tensor, and a dilaton-like term. It remains to be understood what the effects of these terms are and whether they can be avoided. In a second step, the existence of a duality between noncommutative gauge theory and gravity which explains the phenomenon of UV/IR mixing as a gravitational effect is discussed. We show how the gravitational coupling of fermions can be interpreted as a coupling of fermions to gauge fields, which suffers then from UV/IR mixing. This explanation does not render the model finite but it reveals why some UV/IR mixing remains even in supersymmetric models, except in the N

  15. Finite size effects in lattice QCD with dynamical Wilson fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orth, B.

    2004-06-01

    from the PCAC relation. We examine to what extent the volume dependence of the masses can be parameterized by simple functions based on M. Luescher's analytic formula and previous numerical findings by other groups. The applicability of results for the pion and the nucleon from chiral effective theory in the parameter regime covered by our simulations is discussed. Cut-off effects in the PCAC quark mass are found to be under control. (orig.)

  16. Superconductivity in mixed boson-fermion systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioffe, L.; Larkin, A.I.; Ovchinnikov, Yu.N.; Yu, L.

    1989-12-01

    The superconductivity of mixed boson-fermion systems is studied using a simple boson-fermion transformation model. The critical temperature of the superconducting transition is calculated over a wide range of the narrow boson band position relative to the Fermi level. The BCS scenario and boson condensation picture are recovered in two limiting cases of high and low positions of boson band, respectively, with modifications due to boson-fermion interaction. (author). 11 refs

  17. Lattice quantum chromodynamics with approximately chiral fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hierl, Dieter

    2008-05-15

    In this work we present Lattice QCD results obtained by approximately chiral fermions. We use the CI fermions in the quenched approximation to investigate the excited baryon spectrum and to search for the {theta}{sup +} pentaquark on the lattice. Furthermore we developed an algorithm for dynamical simulations using the FP action. Using FP fermions we calculate some LECs of chiral perturbation theory applying the epsilon expansion. (orig.)

  18. Lattice quantum chromodynamics with approximately chiral fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hierl, Dieter

    2008-05-01

    In this work we present Lattice QCD results obtained by approximately chiral fermions. We use the CI fermions in the quenched approximation to investigate the excited baryon spectrum and to search for the Θ + pentaquark on the lattice. Furthermore we developed an algorithm for dynamical simulations using the FP action. Using FP fermions we calculate some LECs of chiral perturbation theory applying the epsilon expansion. (orig.)

  19. Fermion systems in discrete space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finster, Felix

    2007-01-01

    Fermion systems in discrete space-time are introduced as a model for physics on the Planck scale. We set up a variational principle which describes a non-local interaction of all fermions. This variational principle is symmetric under permutations of the discrete space-time points. We explain how for minimizers of the variational principle, the fermions spontaneously break this permutation symmetry and induce on space-time a discrete causal structure

  20. Fermion systems in discrete space-time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finster, Felix [NWF I - Mathematik, Universitaet Regensburg, 93040 Regensburg (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    Fermion systems in discrete space-time are introduced as a model for physics on the Planck scale. We set up a variational principle which describes a non-local interaction of all fermions. This variational principle is symmetric under permutations of the discrete space-time points. We explain how for minimizers of the variational principle, the fermions spontaneously break this permutation symmetry and induce on space-time a discrete causal structure.

  1. Fermion Systems in Discrete Space-Time

    OpenAIRE

    Finster, Felix

    2006-01-01

    Fermion systems in discrete space-time are introduced as a model for physics on the Planck scale. We set up a variational principle which describes a non-local interaction of all fermions. This variational principle is symmetric under permutations of the discrete space-time points. We explain how for minimizers of the variational principle, the fermions spontaneously break this permutation symmetry and induce on space-time a discrete causal structure.

  2. Fermion systems in discrete space-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finster, Felix

    2007-05-01

    Fermion systems in discrete space-time are introduced as a model for physics on the Planck scale. We set up a variational principle which describes a non-local interaction of all fermions. This variational principle is symmetric under permutations of the discrete space-time points. We explain how for minimizers of the variational principle, the fermions spontaneously break this permutation symmetry and induce on space-time a discrete causal structure.

  3. Cutting off Mediation. Agamben as Master Thinker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Deuber-Mankowsky

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Agamben’s Homo Sacer turns centrally upon “bare life”. However, the following subjects are not thematized: natality, gender, sexuality, the relation of the sexes, the heterosexual character of the symbolic order and political culture, the interest of women in the reproduction of life. The entire question of sexual difference —like that of the difference between victim and perpetrator, between witnesses and those born afterwards— is banned from Agamben’s horizon. Thus a deep unease remains, which this paper is intended to explore. It will first present the methodological and theoretical inspirations, which Homo Sacer owes to the thought of Carl Schmitt. Secondly it will show that Schmitt’s concepts of nomos and the state of exception cannot provide a suitable basis for rewriting Foucault’s concept of biopolitics.

  4. More on random-lattice fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kieu, T.D.; Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ; Markham, J.F.; Paranavitane, C.B.

    1995-01-01

    The lattice fermion determinants, in a given background gauge field, are evaluated for two different kinds of random lattices and compared to those of naive and wilson fermions in the continuum limit. While the fermion doubling is confirmed on one kind of lattices, there is positive evidence that it may be absent for the other, at least for vector interactions in two dimensions. Combined with previous studies, arbitrary randomness by itself is shown to be not a sufficient condition to remove the fermion doublers. 8 refs., 3 figs

  5. Feynman rules for fermion-number-violating interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denner, A.; Eck, H.; Hahn, O.; Kueblbeck, J.

    1992-01-01

    We present simple algorithmic Feynman rules for fermion-number-violating interactions. They do not involve explicit charge-conjugation matrices and resemble closely the familiar rules for Dirac fermions. We insist on a fermion flow through the graphs along fermion lines and get the correct relative signs between different interfering Feynman graphs as in the case of Dirac fermions. We only need the familiar Dirac propagator and fewer vertices than in the usual treatment of fermion-number-violating interactions. (orig.)

  6. Fermionic models with superconducting circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Las Heras, Urtzi; Garcia-Alvarez, Laura; Mezzacapo, Antonio; Lamata, Lucas [University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Department of Physical Chemistry, Bilbao (Spain); Solano, Enrique [University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Department of Physical Chemistry, Bilbao (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, Bilbao (Spain)

    2015-12-01

    We propose a method for the efficient quantum simulation of fermionic systems with superconducting circuits. It consists in the suitable use of Jordan-Wigner mapping, Trotter decomposition, and multiqubit gates, be with the use of a quantum bus or direct capacitive couplings. We apply our method to the paradigmatic cases of 1D and 2D Fermi-Hubbard models, involving couplings with nearest and next-nearest neighbours. Furthermore, we propose an optimal architecture for this model and discuss the benchmarking of the simulations in realistic circuit quantum electrodynamics setups. (orig.)

  7. Muon studies of heavy fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heffner, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    Recent muon spin relaxation (μSR) studies have been particularly effective in revealing important properties of the unusual magnetism and superconductivity found in heavy fermion (HF) systems. In this paper μSR experiments elucidating the symmetry of superconducting order parameter in UPt 3 and UBe 13 doped with thorium and reviewed. Also discussed is the correlation between the enhanced superconducting specific heat jump and the reduced Kondo temperature in B-doped UBe 13 , indicating possible direct experimental evidence for a magnetic pairing mechanism in HF superconductors. 23 refs., 3 figs

  8. Probing kink interactions with fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlitz, R.; Chakrabarti, R.

    1985-01-01

    A dilute gas of kinks exhibits strong but short-ranged intrinsic interactions. When these intrinsic interactions are supplemented by other ''extrinsic'' interactions, a phase transition can occur in which kinks and antikinks bind to form a gas of bounces. The extrinsic interactions arise from the coupling of kinks to an additional degree of freedom, which we take to be a fermion field. The class of quantum-mechanical models which we study includes examples of supersymmetry. The way in which kinks and antikinks bind depends in detail on aspects of the intrinsic interactions. This structure is probably shared by field-theoretic models

  9. Fermionic quantum mechanics and superfields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marnelius, R.

    1990-01-01

    The explicit forms of consistent eigenstate representations for finite dimensional fermionic quantum theories are considered in detail. In particular are the possible Grassmann characters of the eigenstates determined. A straightforward Schrodinger representation is shown to exist if they are even or odd. For an odd number of real eigenvalues, the eigenstates cannot be even or odd. Still a consistent Schrodinger picture is shown to exist provided the basic canonical operators are antilinearly represented. Since the wave functions within the Schrodinger picture are super-fields, the class of superfields which also are first quantized wave functions is determined

  10. Suppressed oxygen extraction and degradation of LiNixMnyCozO2 cathodes at high charge cut-off voltages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Jianming; Yan, Pengfei; Zhang, Jiandong; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhu, Zihua; Polzin, Bryant J.; Trask, Steve; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Chongmin; Zhang, Jiguang

    2017-09-01

    The capacity degradation mechanism in lithium nickel–manganese–cobalt oxide (NMC) cathodes (LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC333) and LiNi0.4Mn0.4Co0.2O2 (NMC442)) during high-voltage (cut-off of 4.8 V) operation has been investigated. In contrast to NMC442, NMC333 exhibits rapid structural changes including severe micro-crack formation and phase transformation from a layered to a disordered rock-salt structure, as well as interfacial degradation during high-voltage cycling, leading to a rapid increase of the electrode resistance and fast capacity decline. The fundamental reason behind the poor structural and interfacial stability of NMC333 was found to be correlated to its high Co content and the significant overlap between the Co3+/4+ t2g and O2- 2p bands, resulting in oxygen removal and consequent structural changes at high voltages. In addition, oxidation of the electrolyte solvents by the extracted oxygen species generates acidic species, which then attack the electrode surface and form highly resistive LiF. These findings highlight that both the structural and interfacial stability should be taken into account when tailoring cathode materials for high voltage battery systems.

  11. Comparison of VerifyNow-P2Y12 test and Flow Cytometry for monitoring individual platelet response to clopidogrel. What is the cut-off value for identifying patients who are low responders to clopidogrel therapy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castelli Alfredo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dual anti-platelet therapy with aspirin and a thienopyridine (DAT is used to prevent stent thrombosis after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. Low response to clopidogrel therapy (LR occurs, but laboratory tests have a controversial role in the identification of this condition. Methods We studied LR in patients with stable angina undergoing elective PCI, all on DAT for at least 7 days, by comparing: 1 Flow cytometry (FC to measure platelet membrane expression of P-selectin (CD62P and PAC-1 binding following double stimulation with ADP and collagen type I either in the presence of prostaglandin (PG E1; 2 VerifyNow-P2Y12 test, in which results are reported as absolute P2Y12-Reaction-Units (PRU or % of inhibition (% inhibition. Results Thirty controls and 52 patients were analyzed. The median percentage of platelets exhibiting CD62P expression and PAC-1 binding by FC evaluation after stimulation in the presence of PG E1 was 25.4% (IQR: 21.4–33.1% and 3.5% (1.7–9.4%, respectively. Only 6 patients receiving DAT (11.5% had both values above the 1st quartile of controls, and were defined as LR. Evaluation of the same patients with the VerifyNow-P2Y12 test revealed that the area under the receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC curve was 0.94 (95% CI: 0.84–0.98, p 213 PRU gave the maximum accuracy for the detection of patients defined as having LR by FC. Conclusion In conclusion our findings show that a cut-off value of ≤ 15% inhibition or > 213 PRU in the VerifyNow-P2Y12 test may provide the best accuracy for the identification of patients with LR.

  12. Establishing diagnostic cut-off criteria for the COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 Qualitative test through validation against the Amplicor DNA test v1.5 for infant diagnosis using dried blood spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maritz, Jean; Preiser, Wolfgang; van Zyl, Gert U

    2012-02-01

    As antibody testing cannot confirm HIV-1 infection in children less than 18 months of age, diagnosis in these children depends on nucleic acid testing. The COBAS(®) AmpliPrep/COBAS(®) TaqMan(®) (CAP/CTM, Roche(®) Molecular Systems, Inc., Branchburg, NJ) HIV-1 Qualitative test is a total nucleic acid real-time PCR assay utilising whole EDTA blood or dried blood spots (DBS), which recently replaced the Roche(®) AMPLICOR(®) DNA test v1.5 (Amplicor) as the diagnostic HIV PCR assay in many South African laboratories. For the Amplicor assay, stringent diagnostic criteria were previously formulated for the local population, and a comparison reported the CAP/CTM's sensitivity at 99.7% and specificity at 100% for both sample types compared to these Amplicor criteria. To validate the assay prior to introduction in our laboratory and to define stringent diagnostic cut-off criteria. Whole EDTA blood samples from patients younger than 18 months sent for routine HIV-1 diagnosis were tested by Amplicor, and positive results were confirmed from DBS. CAP/CTM assays were subsequently performed from DBS. The CAP/CTM had a sensitivity of 98.8% and a specificity of 97.1%, but a positive predictive value (PPV) of only 78.7% compared to the Amplicor assay. Samples positive by CAP/CTM but negative by Amplicor displayed poor amplification curves compared to concordant positive samples. Upon re-testing those with sufficient material available by CAP/CTM, all showed negative results. The decreased PPV may either be due to false positive CAP/CTM results, or increased sensitivity compared to the Amplicor assay. Criteria were formulated for defining presumed false-positive results. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. S-wave scattering of fermion revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahaman, Anisur

    2011-01-01

    A model where a Dirac fermion is coupled to background dilaton field is considered to study s-wave scattering of fermion by a back ground dilaton black hole. It is found that an uncomfortable situation towards information loss scenario arises when one loop correction gets involved during bosonization.

  14. Spectral intensity distribution of trapped fermions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Trapped fermions; local density approximation; spectral intensity distribution function. ... Thus, cold atomic systems allow us to study interesting ... In fermions, synthetic non-Abelian gauge ... energy eigenstates of the isotropic harmonic oscillator [26–28]. ... d i=1. (ni + 1. 2. )ω0. In calculating the SIDF exactly these eigenfunc-.

  15. Coherent states in the fermionic Fock space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oeckl, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We construct the coherent states in the sense of Gilmore and Perelomov for the fermionic Fock space. Our treatment is from the outset adapted to the infinite-dimensional case. The fermionic Fock space becomes in this way a reproducing kernel Hilbert space of continuous holomorphic functions. (paper)

  16. Dynamic origins of fermionic D -terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Jonathan; Schweitzer, Peter

    2018-03-01

    The D -term is defined through matrix elements of the energy-momentum tensor, similarly to mass and spin, yet this important particle property is experimentally not known any fermion. In this work we show that the D -term of a spin 1/2 fermion is of dynamical origin: it vanishes for a free fermion. This is in pronounced contrast to the bosonic case where already a free spin-0 boson has a non-zero intrinsic D -term. We illustrate in two simple models how interactions generate the D -term of a fermion with an internal structure, the nucleon. All known matter is composed of elementary fermions. This indicates the importance to study this interesting particle property in more detail, which will provide novel insights especially on the structure of the nucleon.

  17. Flavor symmetries and fermion masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasin, A.

    1994-04-01

    We introduce several ways in which approximate flavor symmetries act on fermions and which are consistent with observed fermion masses and mixings. Flavor changing interactions mediated by new scalars appear as a consequence of approximate flavor symmetries. We discuss the experimental limits on masses of the new scalars, and show that the masses can easily be of the order of weak scale. Some implications for neutrino physics are also discussed. Such flavor changing interactions would easily erase any primordial baryon asymmetry. We show that this situation can be saved by simply adding a new charged particle with its own asymmetry. The neutrality of the Universe, together with sphaleron processes, then ensures a survival of baryon asymmetry. Several topics on flavor structure of the supersymmetric grand unified theories are discussed. First, we show that the successful predictions for the Kobayashi-Maskawa mixing matrix elements, V ub /V cb = √m u /m c and V td /V ts = √m d /m s , are a consequence of a large class of models, rather than specific properties of a few models. Second, we discuss how the recent observation of the decay β → sγ constrains the parameter space when the ratio of the vacuum expectation values of the two Higgs doublets, tanΒ, is large. Finally, we discuss the flavor structure of proton decay. We observe a surprising enhancement of the branching ratio for the muon mode in SO(10) models compared to the same mode in the SU(5) model

  18. Fermion hierarchy from sfermion anarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altmannshofer, Wolfgang; Frugiuele, Claudia; Harnik, Roni

    2014-01-01

    We present a framework to generate the hierarchical flavor structure of Standard Model quarks and leptons from loops of superpartners. The simplest model consists of the minimal supersymmetric standard model with tree level Yukawa couplings for the third generation only and anarchic squark and slepton mass matrices. Agreement with constraints from low energy flavor observables, in particular Kaon mixing, is obtained for supersymmetric particles with masses at the PeV scale or above. In our framework both the second and the first generation fermion masses are generated at 1-loop. Despite this, a novel mechanism generates a hierarchy among the first and second generations without imposing a symmetry or small parameters. A second-to-first generation mass ratio of order 100 is typical. The minimal supersymmetric standard model thus includes all the necessary ingredients to realize a fermion spectrum that is qualitatively similar to observation, with hierarchical masses and mixing. The minimal framework produces only a few quantitative discrepancies with observation, most notably the muon mass is too low. Furthermore, we discuss simple modifications which resolve this and also investigate the compatibility of our model with gauge and Yukawa coupling Unification

  19. Bosonization of free Weyl fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, E. C.

    2017-03-01

    We generalize the method of bosonization, in its complete form, to a spacetime with 3  +  1 dimensions, and apply it to free Weyl fermion fields, which thereby, can be expressed in terms of a boson field, namely the Kalb-Ramond anti-symmetric tensor gauge field. The result may have interesting consequences both in condensed matter and in particle physics. In the former, the bosonized form of the Weyl chiral currents provides a simple explanation for the angle-dependent magneto-conductance recently observed in materials known as Weyl semimetals. In the latter, conversely, since electrons can be thought of as a combination of left and right Weyl fermions, our result suggests the possibility of a unified description of the elementary particles, which undergo the fundamental interactions, with the mediators of such interactions, namely, the gauge fields. This would fulfill the pioneering attempt of Skyrme, to unify the particles with their interaction mediators (Skyrme 1962 Nucl. Phys. 31 556).

  20. Fermion condensation and gapped domain walls in topological orders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Yidun [Department of Physics and Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics, Fudan University,Shanghai 200433 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University,Nanjing 210093 (China); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo N2L 2Y5, Ontario (Canada); Wang, Chenjie [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo N2L 2Y5, Ontario (Canada)

    2017-03-31

    We study fermion condensation in bosonic topological orders in two spatial dimensions. Fermion condensation may be realized as gapped domain walls between bosonic and fermionic topological orders, which may be thought of as real-space phase transitions from bosonic to fermionic topological orders. This picture generalizes the previous idea of understanding boson condensation as gapped domain walls between bosonic topological orders. While simple-current fermion condensation was considered before, we systematically study general fermion condensation and show that it obeys a Hierarchy Principle: a general fermion condensation can always be decomposed into a boson condensation followed by a minimal fermion condensation. The latter involves only a single self-fermion that is its own anti-particle and that has unit quantum dimension. We develop the rules of minimal fermion condensation, which together with the known rules of boson condensation, provides a full set of rules for general fermion condensation.

  1. Cut-off values for classifying active children and adolescentes using the Physical Activity Questionnaire: PAQ-C and PAQ-ACut-off values for classifying active children and adolescents using the Physical Activity Questionnaire: PAQ-C and PAQ-A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez-Porres, Javier; Alvero-Cruz, José Ramón; Sardinha, Luis B; López-Fernández, Iván; Carnero, Elvis A

    2016-09-20

    The Physical Activity Questionnaire for children and adolescents (PAQ-C & PAQ-A) has been widely used in research and field settings. However, there is a lack of information about its final score meaning. To determine PAQ-C and PAQ-A score cut-off values using physical activity (PA) thresholds objectively measured as reference criteria. 146 children (n = 83 boys, n = 63 girls) and 234 adolescents (n = 115 boys, n = 119 girls) participated in this study. Accelerometers (Actigraph GT3X) were used to assess objectively PA during one-week, afterwards PAQ was filled by the participants. As participants met or not the international PA recommendations for total, moderate-vigorous (MVPA) or light PA, three categorical variables of two levels were created. ROC curves procedure were carried out to obtain score cut-off points for identifying the positive category recommendation. ROC curves analysis estimated 2.75 and 2.73 score cut-off points to discriminate > 60 minutes of MVPA for PAQ-A and PAQ-C respectively (PAQ-A AUC = 0.68, p 0.05). Also 60 minutes of MVPA was achieved with a total volume of 10,664 steps/day in children and 9,701 steps/day in adolescents. Our results suggest that PAQ-A can be a useful tool to classify adolescents as active or inactive following international recommendations as criteria. However, we could not find a significant cut-off for PAQ-C score.

  2. Composite fermions in the quantum Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, B.L.; Kirczenow, G.

    1997-01-01

    The quantum Hall effect and associated quantum transport phenomena in low-dimensional systems have been the focus of much attention for more than a decade. Recent theoretical development of interesting quasiparticles - 'composite fermions' - has led to significant advances in understanding and predicting the behaviour of two-dimensional electron systems under high transverse magnetic fields. Composite fermions may be viewed as fermions carrying attached (fictitious) magnetic flux. Here we review models of the integer and fractional quantum Hall effects, including the development of a unified picture of the integer and fractional effects based upon composite fermions. The composite fermion picture predicts remarkable new physics: the formation of a Fermi surface at high magnetic fields, and anomalous ballistic transport, thermopower, and surface acoustic wave behaviour. The specific theoretical predictions of the model, as well as the body of experimental evidence for these phenomena are reviewed. We also review recent edge-state models for magnetotransport in low-dimensional devices based on the composite fermion picture. These models explain the fractional quantum Hall effect and transport phenomena in nanoscale devices in a unified framework that also includes edge state models of the integer quantum Hall effect. The features of the composite fermion edge-state model are compared and contrasted with those of other recent edge-state models of the fractional quantum Hall effect. (author)

  3. Phase space methods for Majorana fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushin Joseph, Ria; Rosales-Zárate, Laura E. C.; Drummond, Peter D.

    2018-06-01

    Fermionic phase space representations are a promising method for studying correlated fermion systems. The fermionic Q-function and P-function have been defined using Gaussian operators of fermion annihilation and creation operators. The resulting phase-space of covariance matrices belongs to the symmetry class D, one of the non-standard symmetry classes. This was originally proposed to study mesoscopic normal-metal-superconducting hybrid structures, which is the type of structure that has led to recent experimental observations of Majorana fermions. Under a unitary transformation, it is possible to express these Gaussian operators using real anti-symmetric matrices and Majorana operators, which are much simpler mathematical objects. We derive differential identities involving Majorana fermion operators and an antisymmetric matrix which are relevant to the derivation of the corresponding Fokker–Planck equations on symmetric space. These enable stochastic simulations either in real or imaginary time. This formalism has direct relevance to the study of fermionic systems in which there are Majorana type excitations, and is an alternative to using expansions involving conventional Fermi operators. The approach is illustrated by showing how a linear coupled Hamiltonian as used to study topological excitations can be transformed to Fokker–Planck and stochastic equation form, including dissipation through particle losses.

  4. Tool kit for staggered fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilcup, G.W.; Sharpe, S.R.

    1986-01-01

    The symmetries of staggered fermions are analyzed both discrete and continuous. Tools are presented that allow a simple decomposition of representations of the continuum symmetries into representations of the discrete lattice symmetries, both at zero and non-zero spatial momenta. These tools are used to find the lattice transcriptions of the operators that appear in the weak interaction Hamiltonian. The lattice Ward Identities are derived that follow from the single partially conserved axial symmetry. Using these identities, the lattice equivalents of the continuum PCAC relations are found. Combining all these tools, Ward Identities are obtained, for the matrix elements of the weak interaction Hamiltonian, from which the behavior of the matrix elements as the pion and kaon masses vanish are derived. The same behavior as in the continuum is found

  5. GUT Scale Fermion Mass Ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinrath, Martin

    2014-01-01

    We present a series of recent works related to group theoretical factors from GUT symmetry breaking which lead to predictions for the ratios of quark and lepton Yukawa couplings at the unification scale. New predictions for the GUT scale ratios y μ /y s , y τ /y b and y t /y b in particular are shown and compared to experimental data. For this comparison it is important to include possibly large supersymmetric threshold corrections. Due to this reason the structure of the fermion masses at the GUT scale depends on TeV scale physics and makes GUT scale physics testable at the LHC. We also discuss how this new predictions might lead to predictions for mixing angles by discussing the example of the recently measured last missing leptonic mixing angle θ 13 making this new class of GUT models also testable in neutrino experiments

  6. Thermalization of fermionic quantum fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berges, Juergen; Borsanyi, Szabolcs; Serreau, Julien

    2003-01-01

    We solve the nonequilibrium dynamics of a (3+1)-dimensional theory with Dirac fermions coupled to scalars via a chirally invariant Yukawa interaction. The results are obtained from a systematic coupling expansion of the 2PI effective action to lowest nontrivial order, which includes scattering as well as memory and off-shell effects. The dynamics is solved numerically without further approximation, for different far-from-equilibrium initial conditions. The late-time behavior is demonstrated to be insensitive to the details of the initial conditions and to be uniquely determined by the initial energy density. Moreover, we show that at late time the system is very well characterized by a thermal ensemble. In particular, we are able to observe the emergence of Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein distributions from the nonequilibrium dynamics

  7. Multigrid for Staggered Lattice Fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brower, Richard C. [Boston U.; Clark, M. A. [Unlisted, US; Strelchenko, Alexei [Fermilab; Weinberg, Evan [Boston U.

    2018-01-23

    Critical slowing down in Krylov methods for the Dirac operator presents a major obstacle to further advances in lattice field theory as it approaches the continuum solution. Here we formulate a multi-grid algorithm for the Kogut-Susskind (or staggered) fermion discretization which has proven difficult relative to Wilson multigrid due to its first-order anti-Hermitian structure. The solution is to introduce a novel spectral transformation by the K\\"ahler-Dirac spin structure prior to the Galerkin projection. We present numerical results for the two-dimensional, two-flavor Schwinger model, however, the general formalism is agnostic to dimension and is directly applicable to four-dimensional lattice QCD.

  8. Chiral composite fermions without U(1)'s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, A.E.

    1986-01-01

    Some models are discussed which seem likely to produce composite fermions with masses protected only by nonabelian global symmetries. A subgroup of the original global symmetries can be weakly gauged to produce small masses for the fermions. A new feature of these models is that the original global symmetries contain no abelian factors and below the confinement scale there are neither exactly massless fermions nor Goldstone bosons. A candidate is given for a potentially realistic model with up to six families of quarks and leptons. (orig.)

  9. Instantons and Massless Fermions in Two Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, C. G. Jr.; Dashen, R.; Gross, D. J.

    1977-05-01

    The role of instantons in the breakdown of chiral U(N) symmetry is studied in a two dimensional model. Chiral U(1) is always destroyed by the axial vector anomaly. For N = 2 chiral SU(N) is also spontaneously broken yielding massive fermions and three (decoupled) Goldstone bosons. For N greater than or equal to 3 the fermions remain massless. Realistic four dimensional theories are believed to behave in a similar way but the critical N above which the fermions cease to be massive is not known in four dimensions.

  10. Baby Skyrme model and fermionic zero modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiruga, J. M.

    2016-09-01

    In this work we investigate some features of the fermionic sector of the supersymmetric version of the baby Skyrme model. We find that, in the background of Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield compact baby Skyrmions, fermionic zero modes are confined to the defect core. Further, we show that, while three Supersymmetry (SUSY) generators are broken in the defect core, SUSY is completely restored outside. We study also the effect of a D-term deformation of the model. Such a deformation allows for the existence of fermionic zero modes and broken SUSY outside the compact defect.

  11. Ladder physics in the spin fermion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsvelik, A. M.

    2017-05-01

    A link is established between the spin fermion (SF) model of the cuprates and the approach based on the analogy between the physics of doped Mott insulators in two dimensions and the physics of fermionic ladders. This enables one to use nonperturbative results derived for fermionic ladders to move beyond the large-N approximation in the SF model. It is shown that the paramagnon exchange postulated in the SF model has exactly the right form to facilitate the emergence of the fully gapped d -Mott state in the region of the Brillouin zone at the hot spots of the Fermi surface. Hence, the SF model provides an adequate description of the pseudogap.

  12. Fermionic bound states in distinct kinklike backgrounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil); Mohammadi, A. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Departamento de Fisica, Caixa Postal 10071, Campina Grande, Paraiba (Brazil)

    2017-04-15

    This work deals with fermions in the background of distinct localized structures in the two-dimensional spacetime. Although the structures have a similar topological character, which is responsible for the appearance of fractionally charged excitations, we want to investigate how the geometric deformations that appear in the localized structures contribute to the change in the physical properties of the fermionic bound states. We investigate the two-kink and compact kinklike backgrounds, and we consider two distinct boson-fermion interactions, one motivated by supersymmetry and the other described by the standard Yukawa coupling. (orig.)

  13. Quantum geometry of the Dirac fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korchemskij, G.P.

    1989-01-01

    The bosonic path integral formalism is developed for Dirac fermions interacting with a nonabelian gauge field in the D-dimensional Euclidean space-time. The representation for the effective action and correlation functions of interacting fermions as sums over all bosonic paths on the complex projective space CP 2d-1 , (2d=2 [ D 2] is derived where all the spinor structure is absorbed by the one-dimensional Wess-Zumino term. It is the Wess-Zumino term that ensures all necessary properties of Dirac fermions under quantization. i.e., quantized values of the spin, Dirac equation, Fermi statistics. 19 refs

  14. Fermionic NNLO contributions to Bhabha scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Actis, S.; Riemann, T.; Czakon, M.; Uniwersytet Slaski, Katowice; Gluza, J.

    2007-10-01

    We derive the two-loop corrections to Bhabha scattering from heavy fermions using dispersion relations. The double-box contributions are expressed by three kernel functions. Convoluting the perturbative kernels with fermionic threshold functions or with hadronic data allows to determine numerical results for small electron mass m e , combined with arbitrary values of the fermion mass m f in the loop, m 2 e 2 f , or with hadronic insertions. We present numerical results for m f =m μ , m τ ,m top at typical small- and large-angle kinematics ranging from 1 GeV to 500 GeV. (orig.)

  15. Grassmann phase space theory for fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalton, Bryan J. [Centre for Quantum and Optical Science, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, Victoria, 3122 (Australia); Jeffers, John [Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, G4 ONG (United Kingdom); Barnett, Stephen M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-15

    A phase space theory for fermions has been developed using Grassmann phase space variables which can be used in numerical calculations for cold Fermi gases and for large fermion numbers. Numerical calculations are feasible because Grassmann stochastic variables at later times are related linearly to such variables at earlier times via c-number stochastic quantities. A Grassmann field version has been developed making large fermion number applications possible. Applications are shown for few mode and field theory cases. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Role of signal-to-cut-off ratios of anti-hepatitis C virus antibody by enzyme immunoassays along with ID-NAT for screening of whole blood donors in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyam Arora

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The use of elevated signal-to-cut off ratios (S/CO as an alternate to further supplemental testing (i.e., RIBA has been included in the guidelines provided by the Centres for Disease Control and Prevention for HCV diagnostic purposes since 2003. With availability of screening by NAT and non availability of RIBA, further confirmation of HCV infection has been possible at the molecular level (RNA. Aims: To study the role of S/CO ratios of anti hepatitis C virus antibody detection by enzyme immunoassays (EIA along with ID-NAT for screening of whole blood donors. Methods: In this study we reviewed the donor screening status for anti HCV from January 2013 to May 2014. All the donations were screened for anti HCV with fourth generation ELISA (BioRad Monolisa Ag-Ab Ultra as well as with ID NAT (Procleix Ultrio. The S/CO ratio of all the anti-HCV reactive samples were analysed for their presence of HCV RNA. Results: On screening 21,115 donors for HCV, 83 donors (0.39% were found reactive on pilot tube and repeat plasma bag testing (S/Co ratio ≥1 by ELISA. 41 donors were HCV RNA reactive with ID-NAT. 4 samples out of 41 were NAT yields and 37 were concordant reactive with ELISA. The S/Co ratio of anti-HCV reactive samples ranged from 0.9-11.1 [mean = 5.1; SD ΁ 2.9] whereas S/Co ratio of anti HCV and NAT reactive samples (concordant positives ranged from 4.1-11.1 [mean 7.3]. In our analysis we found that S/CO ratio of 4 showed positive predictive value (PPV and sensitivity of 100%. Summary/Conclusions: Our study showed that S/CO of 4 for anti HCV on ELISA would have maximum positive predictive value of having donor with HCV RNA. S/CO ratio of 4 is very close to 3.8 which was the CDC guideline. The presence of anti-HCV does not distinguish between current or past infections but a confirmed anti-HCV-positive result indicates the need for counseling and medical evaluation for HCV infection.

  17. Fermionic quantum critical point of spinless fermions on a honeycomb lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lei; Corboz, Philippe; Troyer, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Spinless fermions on a honeycomb lattice provide a minimal realization of lattice Dirac fermions. Repulsive interactions between nearest neighbors drive a quantum phase transition from a Dirac semimetal to a charge-density-wave state through a fermionic quantum critical point, where the coupling of the Ising order parameter to the Dirac fermions at low energy drastically affects the quantum critical behavior. Encouraged by a recent discovery (Huffman and Chandrasekharan 2014 Phys. Rev. B 89 111101) of the absence of the fermion sign problem in this model, we study the fermionic quantum critical point using the continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo method with a worm-sampling technique. We estimate the transition point V/t=1.356(1) with the critical exponents ν=0.80(3) and η=0.302(7). Compatible results for the transition point are also obtained with infinite projected entangled-pair states. (paper)

  18. An SU(2) x SU(2) symmetric Higgs-Fermion model with staggered fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlin, J.; Heller, U.M.

    1991-01-01

    We have simulated on SU(2)xSU(2) symmetric Higgs-Fermion model with a four component scalar field coupled with a Yukawa type coupling to two flavours of staggered fermions. The results show two qualitatively different behaviours in the broken phase. One for weak coupling where the fermion masses obey the perturbative tree level relation M F =y , and one for strong coupling where the behaviour agrees with a 1/d expansion. (orig.)

  19. Fermion bag solutions to some sign problems in four-fermion field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Anyi

    2013-01-01

    Lattice four-fermion models containing N flavors of staggered fermions, that are invariant under Z 2 and U(1) chiral symmetries, are known to suffer from sign problems when formulated using the auxiliary field approach. Although these problems have been ignored in previous studies, they can be severe. In this talk, we show that the sign problems disappear when the models are formulated in the fermion bag approach, allowing us to solve them rigorously for the first time.

  20. Fermion bag solutions to some sign problems in four-fermion field theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Anyi

    2013-04-01

    Lattice four-fermion models containing N flavors of staggered fermions, that are invariant under Z2 and U(1) chiral symmetries, are known to suffer from sign problems when formulated using the auxiliary field approach. Although these problems have been ignored in previous studies, they can be severe. In this talk, we show that the sign problems disappear when the models are formulated in the fermion bag approach, allowing us to solve them rigorously for the first time.

  1. Fermion number non-conservation and cold neutral fermionic matter in (V-A) gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveev, V.A.; Rubakov, V.A.; Tavkhelidze, A.N.; Tokarev, V.F.

    1987-01-01

    It is shown that in four-dimensional abelian (V-A) theories, the ground state of cold neutral fermionic matter is an anomalous state containing domains of abnormal phase surrounded by the normal vacuum. Inside these domains, there exists a gauge field condensate which makes real fermions disappear both inside and outside the domains. In non-abelian theories, the abnormal matter is unstable in its turn, and the system rolls back down into the normal state with a small number of fermions above the topologically non-trivial vacuum. Thus, in several non-abelian gauge theories, the fermion number density of cold neutral matter cannot exceed some critical value. (orig.)

  2. Two-dimensional confinement of heavy fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishido, Hiroaki; Shibauchi, Takasada; Matsuda, Yuji; Terashima, Takahito

    2010-01-01

    Metallic systems with the strongest electron correlations are realized in certain rare-earth and actinide compounds whose physics are dominated by f-electrons. These materials are known as heavy fermions, so called because the effective mass of the conduction electrons is enhanced via correlation effects up to as much as several hundreds times the free electron mass. To date the electronic structure of all heavy-fermion compounds is essentially three-dimensional. Here we report on the first realization of a two-dimensional heavy-fermion system, where the dimensionality is adjusted in a controllable fashion by fabricating heterostructures using molecular beam epitaxy. The two-dimensional heavy fermion system displays striking deviations from the standard Fermi liquid low-temperature electronic properties. (author)

  3. Chiral fermions in asymptotically safe quantum gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meibohm, J; Pawlowski, J M

    2016-01-01

    We study the consistency of dynamical fermionic matter with the asymptotic safety scenario of quantum gravity using the functional renormalisation group. Since this scenario suggests strongly coupled quantum gravity in the UV, one expects gravity-induced fermion self-interactions at energies of the Planck scale. These could lead to chiral symmetry breaking at very high energies and thus to large fermion masses in the IR. The present analysis which is based on the previous works (Christiansen et al., Phys Rev D 92:121501, 2015; Meibohm et al., Phys Rev D 93:084035, 2016), concludes that gravity-induced chiral symmetry breaking at the Planck scale is avoided for a general class of NJL-type models. We find strong evidence that this feature is independent of the number of fermion fields. This finding suggests that the phase diagram for these models is topologically stable under the influence of gravitational interactions.

  4. The principle of the Fermionic projector

    CERN Document Server

    Finster, Felix

    2006-01-01

    The "principle of the fermionic projector" provides a new mathematical framework for the formulation of physical theories and is a promising approach for physics beyond the standard model. This book begins with a brief review of relativity, relativistic quantum mechanics, and classical gauge theories, emphasizing the basic physical concepts and mathematical foundations. The external field problem and Klein's paradox are discussed and then resolved by introducing the fermionic projector, a global object in space-time that generalizes the notion of the Dirac sea. At the mathematical core of the book is a precise definition of the fermionic projector and the use of methods of hyperbolic differential equations for detailed analysis. The fermionic projector makes it possible to formulate a new type of variational principle in space-time. The mathematical tools are developed for the analysis of the corresponding Euler-Lagrange equations. A particular variational principle is proposed that gives rise to an effective...

  5. Pseudoclassical fermionic model and classical solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smailagic, A.

    1981-08-01

    We study classical limit of fermionic fields seen as Grassmann variables and deduce the proper quantization prescription using Dirac's method for constrained systems and investigate quantum meaning of classical solutions for the Thirring model. (author)

  6. Nonequilibrium fermion production in quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruschke, Jens

    2010-01-01

    The creation of matter in the early universe or in relativistic heavy-ion collisions is inevitable connected to nonequilibrium physics. One of the key challenges is the explanation of the corresponding thermalization process following nonequilibrium instabilities. The role of fermionic quantum fields in such scenarios is discussed in the literature by using approximations of field theories which neglect important quantum corrections. This thesis goes beyond such approximations. A quantum field theory where scalar bosons interact with Dirac fermions via a Yukawa coupling is analyzed in the 2PI effective action formalism. The chosen approximation allows for a correct description of the dynamics including nonequilibrium instabilities. In particular, fermion-boson loop corrections allow to study the interaction of fermions with large boson fluctuations. The applied initial conditions generate nonequilibrium instabilities like parametric resonance or spinodal instabilities. The equations of motion for correlation functions are solved numerically and major characteristics of the fermion dynamics are described by analytical solutions. New mechanisms for the production of fermions are found. Simulations in the case of spinodal instability show that unstable boson fluctuations induce exponentially growing fermion modes with approximately the same growth rate. If the unstable regime lasts long enough a thermalization of the infrared part of the fermion occupation number occurs on time scales much shorter than the time scale on which bosonic quantum fields thermalize. Fermions acquire an excess of occupation in the ultraviolet regime compared to a Fermi-Dirac statistic characterized by a power-law with exponent two. The fermion production mechanism via parametric resonance is found to be most efficient after the instability ends. Quantum corrections then provide a very efficient particle creation mechanism which is interpreted as an amplification of decay processes. The ratio

  7. Nonequilibrium fermion production in quantum field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pruschke, Jens

    2010-06-16

    The creation of matter in the early universe or in relativistic heavy-ion collisions is inevitable connected to nonequilibrium physics. One of the key challenges is the explanation of the corresponding thermalization process following nonequilibrium instabilities. The role of fermionic quantum fields in such scenarios is discussed in the literature by using approximations of field theories which neglect important quantum corrections. This thesis goes beyond such approximations. A quantum field theory where scalar bosons interact with Dirac fermions via a Yukawa coupling is analyzed in the 2PI effective action formalism. The chosen approximation allows for a correct description of the dynamics including nonequilibrium instabilities. In particular, fermion-boson loop corrections allow to study the interaction of fermions with large boson fluctuations. The applied initial conditions generate nonequilibrium instabilities like parametric resonance or spinodal instabilities. The equations of motion for correlation functions are solved numerically and major characteristics of the fermion dynamics are described by analytical solutions. New mechanisms for the production of fermions are found. Simulations in the case of spinodal instability show that unstable boson fluctuations induce exponentially growing fermion modes with approximately the same growth rate. If the unstable regime lasts long enough a thermalization of the infrared part of the fermion occupation number occurs on time scales much shorter than the time scale on which bosonic quantum fields thermalize. Fermions acquire an excess of occupation in the ultraviolet regime compared to a Fermi-Dirac statistic characterized by a power-law with exponent two. The fermion production mechanism via parametric resonance is found to be most efficient after the instability ends. Quantum corrections then provide a very efficient particle creation mechanism which is interpreted as an amplification of decay processes. The ratio

  8. Fermions in Brans-Dicke cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samojeden, L. L.; Devecchi, F. P.; Kremer, G. M.

    2010-01-01

    Using the Brans-Dicke theory of gravitation we put under investigation a hypothetical universe filled with a fermionic field (with a self-interaction potential) and a matter constituent ruled by a barotropic equation of state. It is shown that the fermionic field [in combination with the Brans-Dicke scalar field φ(t)] could be responsible for a final accelerated era, after an initial matter dominated period.

  9. Superfluid response in heavy fermion superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yin; Zhang, Lan; Shao, Can; Luo, Hong-Gang

    2017-10-01

    Motivated by a recent London penetration depth measurement [H. Kim, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 027003 (2015)] and novel composite pairing scenario [O. Erten, R. Flint, and P. Coleman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 027002 (2015)] of the Yb-doped heavy fermion superconductor CeCoIn5, we revisit the issue of superfluid response in the microscopic heavy fermion lattice model. However, from the literature, an explicit expression for the superfluid response function in heavy fermion superconductors is rare. In this paper, we investigate the superfluid density response function in the celebrated Kondo-Heisenberg model. To be specific, we derive the corresponding formalism from an effective fermionic large- N mean-field pairing Hamiltonian whose pairing interaction is assumed to originate from the effective local antiferromagnetic exchange interaction. Interestingly, we find that the physically correct, temperature-dependent superfluid density formula can only be obtained if the external electromagnetic field is directly coupled to the heavy fermion quasi-particle rather than the bare conduction electron or local moment. Such a unique feature emphasizes the key role of the Kondo-screening-renormalized heavy quasi-particle for low-temperature/energy thermodynamics and transport behaviors. As an important application, the theoretical result is compared to an experimental measurement in heavy fermion superconductors CeCoIn5 and Yb-doped Ce1- x Yb x CoIn5 with fairly good agreement and the transition of the pairing symmetry in the latter material is explained as a simple doping effect. In addition, the requisite formalism for the commonly encountered nonmagnetic impurity and non-local electrodynamic effect are developed. Inspired by the success in explaining classic 115-series heavy fermion superconductors, we expect the present theory will be applied to understand other heavy fermion superconductors such as CeCu2Si2 and more generic multi-band superconductors.

  10. Fermion mass hierarchies in theories of technicolor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1981-01-01

    Models in which light fermion masses result from dynamical symmetry breaking often produce these masses in a hierarchial pattern. The author exhibits two scenarios for obtaining such hierarchies and illustrates each with a simple model of mass generation. In the first scenario, the light fermion masses are separated by powers of a weak coupling constant; in the second scenario, they are separated by a ratio of large mass scales

  11. Anomalous diffusion of fermions in superlattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdz, S.; Okolowicz, J.; Srokowski, T.; Ploszajczak, M.

    1996-03-01

    Diffusion of fermions in the periodic two-dimensional lattice of fermions is studied. It is shown that effects connected with antisymmetrization of the wave function increase chaoticness of motion. Various types of anomalous diffusion, characterized by a power spectral analysis are found. The nonlocality of the Pauli potential destroys cantori in the phase space. Consequently, the diffusion process is dominated by long free paths and the power spectrum is logarithmic at small frequency limit. (author)

  12. The physics and chemistry of heavy Fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisk, Z.; Sarrao, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    The heavy Fermions are a subset of the f-element intermetallics straddling the magnetic/non-magnetic boundary. Their low temperature properties are characterized by an electronic energy scale of order 1--10 K. Among the low temperature ground states observed in heavy Fermion compounds are exotic superconductors and magnets, as well as unusual semiconductors. We review here the current experimental and theoretical understanding of these systems

  13. Singlet fermionic dark matter with Veltman conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yeong Gyun; Lee, Kang Young; Nam, Soo-hyeon

    2018-01-01

    We reexamine a renormalizable model of a fermionic dark matter with a gauge singlet Dirac fermion and a real singlet scalar which can ameliorate the scalar mass hierarchy problem of the Standard Model (SM). Our model setup is the minimal extension of the SM for which a realistic dark matter (DM) candidate is provided and the cancellation of one-loop quadratic divergence to the scalar masses can be achieved by the Veltman condition (VC) simultaneously. This model extension, although renormaliz...

  14. The Continuum Limit of Causal Fermion Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Finster, Felix

    2016-01-01

    This monograph introduces the basic concepts of the theory of causal fermion systems, a recent approach to the description of fundamental physics. The theory yields quantum mechanics, general relativity and quantum field theory as limiting cases and is therefore a candidate for a unified physical theory. From the mathematical perspective, causal fermion systems provide a general framework for describing and analyzing non-smooth geometries and "quantum geometries." The dynamics is described by...

  15. The effective action for chiral fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez-Gaume, L.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reports on recent work which given an exact characterization of the imaginary part of the effective action for chiral fermions in 2n dimensions in terms of the spectral asymmetry of a suitable (2n+1)-dimensional operator. In order to keep the discussion as simple as possible, the author concentrates on four dimensional fermions with arbitrary external gauge fields. This approach can be extended without difficulty to higher dimensions and also to include external gravitational fields

  16. Fermionic topological quantum states as tensor networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wille, C.; Buerschaper, O.; Eisert, J.

    2017-06-01

    Tensor network states, and in particular projected entangled pair states, play an important role in the description of strongly correlated quantum lattice systems. They do not only serve as variational states in numerical simulation methods, but also provide a framework for classifying phases of quantum matter and capture notions of topological order in a stringent and rigorous language. The rapid development in this field for spin models and bosonic systems has not yet been mirrored by an analogous development for fermionic models. In this work, we introduce a tensor network formalism capable of capturing notions of topological order for quantum systems with fermionic components. At the heart of the formalism are axioms of fermionic matrix-product operator injectivity, stable under concatenation. Building upon that, we formulate a Grassmann number tensor network ansatz for the ground state of fermionic twisted quantum double models. A specific focus is put on the paradigmatic example of the fermionic toric code. This work shows that the program of describing topologically ordered systems using tensor networks carries over to fermionic models.

  17. Fermion-induced quantum critical points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zi-Xiang; Jiang, Yi-Fan; Jian, Shao-Kai; Yao, Hong

    2017-08-22

    A unified theory of quantum critical points beyond the conventional Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson paradigm remains unknown. According to Landau cubic criterion, phase transitions should be first-order when cubic terms of order parameters are allowed by symmetry in the Landau-Ginzburg free energy. Here, from renormalization group analysis, we show that second-order quantum phase transitions can occur at such putatively first-order transitions in interacting two-dimensional Dirac semimetals. As such type of Landau-forbidden quantum critical points are induced by gapless fermions, we call them fermion-induced quantum critical points. We further introduce a microscopic model of SU(N) fermions on the honeycomb lattice featuring a transition between Dirac semimetals and Kekule valence bond solids. Remarkably, our large-scale sign-problem-free Majorana quantum Monte Carlo simulations show convincing evidences of a fermion-induced quantum critical points for N = 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6, consistent with the renormalization group analysis. We finally discuss possible experimental realizations of the fermion-induced quantum critical points in graphene and graphene-like materials.Quantum phase transitions are governed by Landau-Ginzburg theory and the exceptions are rare. Here, Li et al. propose a type of Landau-forbidden quantum critical points induced by gapless fermions in two-dimensional Dirac semimetals.

  18. Iterants, Fermions and Majorana Operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Louis H.

    Beginning with an elementary, oscillatory discrete dynamical system associated with the square root of minus one, we study both the foundations of mathematics and physics. Position and momentum do not commute in our discrete physics. Their commutator is related to the diffusion constant for a Brownian process and to the Heisenberg commutator in quantum mechanics. We take John Wheeler's idea of It from Bit as an essential clue and we rework the structure of that bit to a logical particle that is its own anti-particle, a logical Marjorana particle. This is our key example of the amphibian nature of mathematics and the external world. We show how the dynamical system for the square root of minus one is essentially the dynamics of a distinction whose self-reference leads to both the fusion algebra and the operator algebra for the Majorana Fermion. In the course of this, we develop an iterant algebra that supports all of matrix algebra and we end the essay with a discussion of the Dirac equation based on these principles.

  19. Fermionic pentagons and NMHV hexagon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Belitsky

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We analyze the near-collinear limit of the null polygonal hexagon super Wilson loop in the planar N=4 super-Yang–Mills theory. We focus on its Grassmann components which are dual to next-to-maximal helicity-violating (NMHV scattering amplitudes. The kinematics in question is studied within a framework of the operator product expansion that encodes propagation of excitations on the background of the color flux tube stretched between the sides of Wilson loop contour. While their dispersion relation is known to all orders in 't Hooft coupling from previous studies, we find their form factor couplings to the Wilson loop. This is done making use of a particular tessellation of the loop where pentagon transitions play a fundamental role. Being interested in NMHV amplitudes, the corresponding building blocks carry a nontrivial charge under the SU(4 R-symmetry group. Restricting the current consideration to twist-two accuracy, we analyze two-particle contributions with a fermion as one of the constituents in the pair. We demonstrate that these nonsinglet pentagons obey bootstrap equations that possess consistent solutions for any value of the coupling constant. To confirm the correctness of these predictions, we calculate their contribution to the super Wilson loop demonstrating agreement with recent results to four-loop order in 't Hooft coupling.

  20. Fermion bag solutions to some unsolved sign problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Anyi; Chandrasekharan, Shailesh

    2012-03-01

    Some interesting lattice four-fermion models containing N flavors of staggered fermions with Z2 and U(1) chiral symmetries suffer from sign problems in the auxiliary field approach. Earlier calculations have either ignored these sign problems or have circumvented them by adding conjugate fermion fields which changes the model. In this talk we show that the recently proposed fermion bag approach solves these sign problems. The basic idea of the new approach is to collect unpaired fermionic degrees of freedom inside a fermion bag. A resummation of all fermion world lines inside the bag is then sufficient to solve the sign problems. The fermion bag approach provides new opportunities to solve in these ``unsolved'' four-fermion models in the chiral limit efficiently.

  1. The Brazilian hazard-based cut-off criteria for pesticide registration: a critical appraisal / Critérios de exclusão baseados em perigo adotados no Brasil para registro de pesticidas: Uma avalição crítica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Roma Paumgartten

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Brazil, the world’s top consumer of agricultural pesticides, adopts a unique hazard-based cut-off approach to pesticide registration. Cut-off criteria for mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, hormonal disturbances and damage to reproductive organs were introduced by the Pesticide Law enacted in 1989. As far as health is concerned, law enforcement is additionally regulated by rules issued by the federal health authority (National Agency for Health Surveillance – ANVISA. Contrasting to the European Union’s hazard-based cut-off criteria for pesticides, Brazilian rules do not make an exception for “negligible” exposures. Moreover, Brazilian regulations have shortcomings (e.g. no reference to relevance of Mode of Action to humans that make cut-off criteria difficult to be put into effect. The deficiencies of regulations and difficulties to consistently apply the hazard-based cut-off criteria are appraised in this article. Adoption of a risk assessment approach or cut-off criteria based on classification into the Globally Harmonized System’s hazard categories 1A and 1B is suggested. Resumo O Brasil, líder mundial do consumo de agro-químicos, adota uma singular abordagem para registro de agrotóxicos que é baseada em critérios de exclusão quanto à periculosidade. Critérios de exclusão para mutagenicidade, carcinogenicidade, teratogenicidade, distúrbios hormonais e dano a órgãos reprodutivos foram introduzidos pela Lei de Agrotóxicos promulgada em 1989. Em relação à saúde, a aplicação da lei é também regulada por portarias publicadas pela autoridade sanitária federal (Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária – ANVISA. Em contraste com os critérios de exclusão baseados na periculosidade que a União Européia usa para agrotóxicos, a regulamentação brasileira não faz exceção para exposições insignificantes. Além disso, a regulamentação brasileira apresenta deficiências (e.g., não faz men

  2. Liouville equation of relativistic charged fermion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Renchuan; Zhu Dongpei; Huang Zhuoran; Ko Che-ming

    1991-01-01

    As a form of density martrix, the Wigner function is the distribution in quantum phase space. It is a 2 X 2 matrix function when one uses it to describe the non-relativistic fermion. While describing the relativistic fermion, it is usually represented by 4 x 4 matrix function. In this paper authors obtain a Wigner function for the relativistic fermion in the form of 2 x 2 matrix, and the Liouville equation satisfied by the Wigner function. this equivalent to the Dirac equation of changed fermion in QED. The equation is also equivalent to the Dirac equation in the Walecka model applied to the intermediate energy nuclear collision while the nucleon is coupled to the vector meson only (or taking mean field approximation for the scalar meson). Authors prove that the 2 x 2 Wigner function completely describes the quantum system just the same as the relativistic fermion wave function. All the information about the observables can be obtained with above Wigner function

  3. The hidden fermions in Z(2) theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srednicki, M.

    1983-01-01

    Low dimensional Z(2) gauge theories have been rewritten in terms of locally coupled fermionic degrees of freedom by means of the Jordan-Wigner transformation. In this paper it is shown that higher dimensional Z(2) gauge theories are also fermionic theories in disguise. The SML solution to the 1+1 dimension Ising model is reviewed. Psi operators are represented pictorially as arrows, psi 1 points to the left, psi 2 to the right, each site of H a multiple of two operators. The 2+1 dimension Ising model is then considered. A fermion plaquette operator is introduced as the generator of a gauge symmetry for the fermionic H. Findings in 1+1 and 2+1 are then applied to 3+1 dimensional Z(2) gauge theory. A construction of this lattice is undertaken. Psi formalism replaces sigma formalism, as it permits extremely simple duality transformations to be made on any Z(2) Hamiltonian. It is shown that the fermionic formalism will lead to new ideas in Z(2) theories

  4. Adding gauge fields to Kaplan's fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, T.; Kaerkkaeinen, L.

    1994-01-01

    We experiment with adding dynamical gauge field to Kaplan (defect) fermions. In the case of U(1) gauge theory we use an inhomogeneous Higgs mechanism to restrict the 3d gauge dynamics to a planar 2d defect. In our simulations the 3d theory produce the correct 2d gauge dynamics. We measure fermion propagators with dynamical gauge fields. They posses the correct chiral structure. The fermions at the boundary of the support of the gauge field (waveguide) are non-chiral, and have a mass two times heavier than the chiral modes. Moreover, these modes cannot be excited by a source at the defect; implying that they are dynamically decoupled. We have also checked that the anomaly relation is fullfilled for the case of a smooth external gauge field. (orig.)

  5. Ladder physics in the spin fermion model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsvelik, A. M.

    2017-01-01

    A link is established between the spin fermion (SF) model of the cuprates and the approach based on the analogy between the physics of doped Mott insulators in two dimensions and the physics of fermionic ladders. This enables one to use nonperturbative results derived for fermionic ladders to move beyond the large-N approximation in the SF model. Here, it is shown that the paramagnon exchange postulated in the SF model has exactly the right form to facilitate the emergence of the fully gapped d-Mott state in the region of the Brillouin zone at the hot spots of the Fermi surface. Hence, the SF model provides an adequate description of the pseudogap.

  6. Entanglement negativity bounds for fermionic Gaussian states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisert, Jens; Eisler, Viktor; Zimborás, Zoltán

    2018-04-01

    The entanglement negativity is a versatile measure of entanglement that has numerous applications in quantum information and in condensed matter theory. It can not only efficiently be computed in the Hilbert space dimension, but for noninteracting bosonic systems, one can compute the negativity efficiently in the number of modes. However, such an efficient computation does not carry over to the fermionic realm, the ultimate reason for this being that the partial transpose of a fermionic Gaussian state is no longer Gaussian. To provide a remedy for this state of affairs, in this work, we introduce efficiently computable and rigorous upper and lower bounds to the negativity, making use of techniques of semidefinite programming, building upon the Lagrangian formulation of fermionic linear optics, and exploiting suitable products of Gaussian operators. We discuss examples in quantum many-body theory and hint at applications in the study of topological properties at finite temperature.

  7. Exotic fermions and electric dipole moments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshipura, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    The contributions of mirror fermions to the electric dipole moments (EDM's) of leptons and neutrons are studied using the available limits on the mixing of the relevant fermions to their mirror partners. These limits imply EDM's several orders of magnitude larger than the current experimental bounds in the case of the electron and the neutron if the relevant CP-violating phases are not unnaturally small. If these phases are large, then the bounds on the EDM's can be used to improve upon the limits on mixing between the ordinary (f) and the mirror (F) fermions. In the specific case of the latter mixing angle being given by (m f /M F ) 1/2 , one can obtain the electron and the neutron EDM's close to experimental bounds

  8. Improved formulation of GNO fermionization theorem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fre, P.; Gliozzi, F.; Piras, A.

    1989-01-01

    It is pointed out that in the Kac-Moody algebras fulfilling the fermionization criterion of Goddard, Nahm and Olive and having a non-minimal value of the central charge κ, only a proper subset of the allowed unitary highest weight representations can actually be encoded in a free fermion theory. These truly fermionizable representations are selected by a very specific non-regular embedding of the fermionizable Kac-Moody algebra into the lowest level SO(N F ) Kac-Moody algebra, N F being both the number of fermions and the dimension of the GNO symmetric space. This embedding is a particular case of the embeddings considered by Bais and Bouwknegt and by Schellekens and Warner, for which the Virasoro central charge of the subgroup is equal to that of the group. Furthermore, these fermionizable representations span an orbit of the modular group always leading to a non-trivial modular invariant partition function

  9. Vacuum polarization and chiral lattice fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randjbar Daemi, S.; Strathdee, J.

    1995-09-01

    The vacuum polarization due to chiral fermions on a 4-dimensional Euclidean lattice is calculated according to the overlap prescription. The fermions are coupled to weak and slowly varying background gauge and Higgs fields, and the polarization tensor is given by second order perturbation theory. In this order the overlap constitutes a gauge invariant regularization of the fermion vacuum amplitude. Its low energy - long wavelength behaviour can be computed explicitly and we verify that it coincides with the Feynman graph result obtainable, for example, by dimensional regularization of continuum gauge theory. In particular, the Standard Model Callan-Symanzik, RG functions are recovered. Moreover, there are no residual lattice artefacts such as a dependence on Wilson-type mass parameters. (author). 16 refs

  10. Thermofield dynamics and Casimir effect for fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queiroz, H.; Silva, J.C. da; Khanna, F.C.; Malbouisson, J.M.C.; Revzen, M.; Santana, A.E.

    2005-01-01

    A generalization of the Bogoliubov transformation is developed to describe a space compactified fermionic field. The method is the fermionic counterpart of the formalism introduced earlier for bosons [Phys. Rev. A 66 (2002) 052101], and is based on the thermofield dynamics approach. We analyze the energy-momentum tensor for the Casimir effect of a free massless fermion field in a d-dimensional box at finite temperature. As a particular case the Casimir energy and pressure for the field confined in a three-dimensional parallelepiped box are calculated. It is found that the attractive or repulsive nature of the Casimir pressure on opposite faces changes depending on the relative magnitude of the edges. We also determine the temperature at which the Casimir pressure in a cubic box changes sign and estimate its value when the edge of the cube is of the order of the confining lengths for baryons

  11. Thermal radiation of fermions by an accelerated wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horibe, Minoru

    1979-01-01

    The theory of particle production by an accelerated wall is extended to the massless Dirac particle. It is shown that the mean occupation number of fermions (anti-fermions) is given by the Fermi distribution function. (author)

  12. Fermion boson metamorphosis in field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Y.K.

    1982-01-01

    In two-dimensional field theories many features are especially transparent if the Fermi fields are represented by non-local expressions of the Bose fields. Such a procedure is known as boson representation. Bilinear quantities appear in the Lagrangian of a fermion theory transform, however, as simple local expressions of the bosons so that the resulting theory may be written as a theory of bosons. Conversely, a theory of bosons may be transformed into an equivalent theory of fermions. Together they provide a basis for generating many interesting equivalences between theories of different types. In the present work a consistent scheme for constructing a canonical Fermi field in terms of a real scalar field is developed and such a procedure is valid and consistent with the tenets of quantum field theory is verified. A boson formulation offers a unifying theme in understanding the structure of many theories. This is illustrated by the boson formulation of a multifermion theory with chiral and internal symmetries. The nature of dynamical generation of mass when the theory undergoes boson transmutation and the preservation of continuous chiral symmetry in the massive case are examined. The dynamics of the system depends to a great extent on the specific number of fermions and different models of the same system can have very different properties. Many unusual symmetries of the fermion theory, such as hidden symmetry, duality and triality symmetries, are only manifest in the boson formulation. The underlying connections between some models with U(N) internal symmetry and another class of fermion models built with Majorana fermions which have O(2N) internal symmetry are uncovered

  13. Fermion-fermion scattering in quantum field theory with superconducting circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Álvarez, L; Casanova, J; Mezzacapo, A; Egusquiza, I L; Lamata, L; Romero, G; Solano, E

    2015-02-20

    We propose an analog-digital quantum simulation of fermion-fermion scattering mediated by a continuum of bosonic modes within a circuit quantum electrodynamics scenario. This quantum technology naturally provides strong coupling of superconducting qubits with a continuum of electromagnetic modes in an open transmission line. In this way, we propose qubits to efficiently simulate fermionic modes via digital techniques, while we consider the continuum complexity of an open transmission line to simulate the continuum complexity of bosonic modes in quantum field theories. Therefore, we believe that the complexity-simulating-complexity concept should become a leading paradigm in any effort towards scalable quantum simulations.

  14. Cosmic expansion from boson and fermion fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Souza, Rudinei C; Kremer, Gilberto M

    2011-01-01

    This paper consists in analyzing an action that describes boson and fermion fields minimally coupled to the gravity and a common matter field. The self-interaction potentials of the fields are not chosen a priori but from the Noether symmetry approach. The Noether forms of the potentials allow the boson field to play the role of dark energy and matter and the fermion field to behave as standard matter. The constant of motion and the cyclic variable associated with the Noether symmetry allow the complete integration of the field equations, whose solution produces a universe with alternated periods of accelerated and decelerated expansion.

  15. On the magnetoresistance of heavy fermion compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Chengchung; Chen Chung

    1992-09-01

    Starting from two-conduction-band Anderson lattice model, the magneto-transport properties of heavy fermion systems are studied in the slave boson mean field theory. The residual magnetoresistivity induced by different kinds of impurities is calculated, and the experimentally detected positive maximum structure in the residual magnetoresistance of heavy fermion systems is reproduced. The transition of field-dependent resistivity from nonmonotonic to monotonic behaviour with increasing temperature can be explained naturally by including the charge fluctuation effect. The influence of applied pressure is also investigated. (author). 22 refs, 5 figs

  16. Parametrization relating the fermionic mass spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleppe, A.

    1993-01-01

    When parametrizing the fermionic mass spectra in terms of the unit matrix and a recursive matrix scrR 0 , which corresponds to an underlying scaling pattern in the mass spectra, each fermionic sector is characterized by three parameters: k, α, and R. Using the set of relations displayed by the parameters of the different sectors, it is possible to formulate a ''family Lagrangian'' which for each sector encompasses all the families. Relations between quark masses are furthermore deduced from these ''family Lagrangians.'' Using the relations between the parameters of the different charge sectors, it is also possible to ''derive'' the quark mass spectra from the (charged) leptonic mass spectrum

  17. A Search for Excited Fermions at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Adloff, C.; Andrieu, B.; Arkadov, V.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Ayyaz, I.; Babaev, A.; Bahr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Bassler, U.; Bate, P.; Beglarian, A.; Behnke, O.; Beier, C.; Belousov, A.; Benisch, T.; Berger, Christoph; Bernardi, G.; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J.C.; Borras, K.; Boudry, V.; Braunschweig, W.; Brisson, V.; Broker, H.B.; Brown, D.P.; Bruckner, W.; Bruel, P.; Bruncko, D.; Burger, J.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Burkhardt, H.; Burrage, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Campbell, A.J.; Cao, Jun; Carli, T.; Caron, S.; Chabert, E.; Clarke, D.; Clerbaux, B.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cousinou, M.C.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; Davidsson, M.; Delcourt, B.; Delerue, N.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dixon, P.; Dodonov, V.; Dowell, J.D.; Droutskoi, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Eckstein, D.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Ferron, S.; Fleischer, M.; Flugge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Foster, J.M.; Franke, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garvey, J.; Gassner, J.; Gayler, Joerg; Gerhards, R.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Goldberg, M.; Goodwin, C.; Grab, C.; Grassler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Hadig, T.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haynes, W.J.; Heinemann, B.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hengstmann, S.; Henschel, H.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Hilgers, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hladky, J.; Hoting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Hoprich, W.; Horisberger, R.; Hurling, S.; Ibbotson, M.; Issever, C .; Jacquet, M.; Jaffre, M.; Janauschek, L.; Jansen, D.M.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jones, M.A.S.; Jung, H.; Kastli, H.K.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Karschnick, O.; Kaufmann, O.; Kausch, M.; Keil, F.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kermiche, S.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Knies, G.; Koblitz, B.; Kolya, S.D.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kotelnikov, S.K.; Krasny, M.W.; Krehbiel, H.; Kroseberg, J.; Kruger, K.; Kupper, A.; Kuhr, T.; Kurca, T.; Kutuev, R.; Lachnit, W.; Lahmann, R.; Lamb, D.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Lebailly, E.; Lebedev, A.; Leissner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindstroem, M.; Lobodzinska, E.; Lobodzinski, B.; Loktionova, N.; Lubimov, V.; Luders, S.; Luke, D.; Lytkin, L.; Magnussen, N.; Mahlke-Kruger, H.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Malinovski, I.; Maracek, R.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martyn, H.U.; Martyniak, J.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Merkel, P.; Metlica, F.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, P.O.; Mikocki, S.; Milstead, D.; Mkrtchyan, T.; Mohr, R.; Mohrdieck, S.; Mondragon, M.N.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, Th.; Negri, I.; Nellen, G.; Newman, Paul R.; Nicholls, T.C.; Niebergall, F.; Niebuhr, C.; Nix, O.; Nowak, G.; Nunnemann, T.; Olsson, J.E.; Ozerov, D.; Panassik, V.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Perez, E.; Phillips, J.P.; Pitzl, D.; Poschl, R.; Potachnikova, I.; Povh, B.; Rabbertz, K.; Radel, G.; Rauschenberger, J.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Reyna, D.; Riess, S.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Royon, C.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, D.; Schmitt, S.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schorner, T.; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Chekelian, V.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Siegmon, G.; Sievers, P.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Solochenko, V.; Solovev, Y.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Steinhart, J.; Stella, B.; Stellberger, A.; Stiewe, J.; Straumann, U.; Struczinski, W.; Swart, M.; Tasevsky, M.; Tchernyshov, V.; Tchetchelnitski, S.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tobien, N.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsipolitis, G.; Turnau, J.; Turney, J.E.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Udluft, S.; Usik, A.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vazdik, Y.; von Dombrowski, S.; Wacker, K.; Wallny, R.; Walter, T.; Waugh, B.; Weber, G.; Weber, M.; Wegener, D.; Wegner, A.; Wengler, T.; Werner, M.; White, G.; Wiesand, S.; Wilksen, T.; Winde, M.; Winter, G.G.; Wissing, C.; Wobisch, M.; Wollatz, H.; Wunsch, E.; Wyatt, A.C.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zomer, F.; Zsembery, J.; zur Nedden, M.

    2000-01-01

    A search for excited fermions f^* of the first generation in e^+p scattering at the collider HERA is presented using H1 data with an integrated luminosity of 37 pb^(-1). All electroweak decays of excited fermions, f^* -> f gamma, f W, f Z are considered and all possible final states resulting from the Z or W hadronic decays or decays into leptons of the first two generations are taken into account. No evidence for f^* production is found. Mass dependent exclusion limits on cross-sections and on the ratio of coupling constants to the compositeness scale are derived.

  18. On the origin of fermion masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrock, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    We review some recent work on nonperturbative properties of fermions and connections with chiral gauge theories. In particular, we consider one of the ultimate goals of this program: The understanding of the actual fermion mass spectrum. It is pointed out that if quarks and leptons are composite, their masses may be set by the physics of the preons and their interactions in such a manner as to differ considerably from the Yukawa form m f ∝v (where v is the electroweak symmetry breaking scale) or analogous forms involving v. Some ideas of how this might work are given, and some implications are discussed. (orig.)

  19. Fermionic formula for double Kostka polynomials

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shiyuan

    2016-01-01

    The $X=M$ conjecture asserts that the $1D$ sum and the fermionic formula coincide up to some constant power. In the case of type $A,$ both the $1D$ sum and the fermionic formula are closely related to Kostka polynomials. Double Kostka polynomials $K_{\\Bla,\\Bmu}(t),$ indexed by two double partitions $\\Bla,\\Bmu,$ are polynomials in $t$ introduced as a generalization of Kostka polynomials. In the present paper, we consider $K_{\\Bla,\\Bmu}(t)$ in the special case where $\\Bmu=(-,\\mu'').$ We formula...

  20. Fermionic determinant in two and four dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mignaco, J.A.; Rego Monteiro, M.A. do.

    1985-01-01

    The fermionic determinant of the two-dimensional Schwinger model and QCD and a four-dimensional model with a pseudo-vectorial coupling are discussed. It is observed that in both cases the Dirac operator can be expressed as a path-ordered product of the gauge field and the fermionic determinant is computed exactly without reference to a particular gauge. The two point Green's function is obtained in all cases as a free particle two point function times a model dependent term. (Author) [pt